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Sample records for wasp nasonia vitripennis

  1. Genetics of sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; van de Zande, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis reproduces by haplodiploidy; males are haploid and females are diploid. Sex determination in Nasonia is not governed by complementary alleles at one or more sex loci. As in most other insects, the sex-determining pathway consists of the basal switch doublesex

  2. DNA methylation and sex allocation in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, N.; Pannebakker, B.A.; Tauber, E.; Shuker, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of epigenetics in the control and evolution of behavior is being increasingly recognized. Here we test whether DNA methylation influences patterns of adaptive sex allocation in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Female N. vitripennis allocate offspring sex broadly in line with local m

  3. Demonstration of long-term memory in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurmann, D.; Sommer, C.; Schinko, A.P.B.; Greschista, M.; Smid, H.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the formation of protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of fly pupae. Female wasps were trained in one of five different training procedures in the presence of hosts and the odour cinnam

  4. Sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea) : A critical consideration of models and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Kamping, Albert; van de Zande, Louis

    2007-01-01

    Sex determining mechanisms are highly diverse. Like all Hymenoptera, the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis reproduces by haplodiploidy: males are haploid and females are diploid. Sex in Nasonia is not determined by complementary alleles at sex loci. Evidence for several alternative models is consid

  5. Genetics of sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leo W. Beukeboom; Louis Van De Zande

    2010-09-01

    The parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis reproduces by haplodiploidy; males are haploid and females are diploid. Sex determination in Nasonia is not governed by complementary alleles at one or more sex loci. As in most other insects, the sex-determining pathway consists of the basal switch doublesex that is sex-specifically regulated by transformer. Analysis of a polyploid and a mutant gynandromorphic strain, suggested a parent-specific effect (imprinting) on sex determination in Nasonia. Zygotic activity of transformer is autoregulated and depends on a combination of maternal provision of tra mRNA and a paternal genome set. This constitutes a novel way of transformer control in insect sex determination implying maternal imprinting. The nature of the maternal imprint is not yet known and it remains to be determined how broadly the Nasonia sex-determining mechanism applies to other haplodiploids.

  6. Oviposition but not sex allocation is associated with transcriptomic changes in females of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, Nicola; Trivedi, Urmi; Pannebakker, B.A.; Blaxter, Mark; Ritchie, Michael G.; Tauber, Eran; Sneddon, Tanya; Shuker, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Linking the evolution of the phenotype to the underlying genotype is a key aim of evolutionary genetics and is crucial to our understanding of how natural selection shapes a trait. Here, we consider the genetic basis of sex allocation behavior in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis using a tr

  7. The quantitative genetic basis of polyandry in the parasitoid wasp, Nasonia vitripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuker, D M; Phillimore, A J; Burton-Chellew, M N; Hodge, S E; West, S A

    2007-02-01

    Understanding the evolution of female multiple mating (polyandry) is crucial for understanding sexual selection and sexual conflict. Despite this interest, little is known about its genetic basis or whether genetics influences the evolutionary origin or maintenance of polyandry. Here, we explore the quantitative genetic basis of polyandry in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis, a species in which female re-mating has been observed to evolve in the laboratory. We performed a quantitative genetic experiment on a recently collected population of wasps. We found low heritabilities of female polyandry (re-mating frequency after 18 h), low heritability of courtship duration and a slightly higher heritability of copulation duration. However, the coefficients of additive genetic variance for these traits were all reasonably large (CV(A)>7.0). We also found considerable dam effects for all traits after controlling for common environment, suggesting either dominance or maternal effects. Our work adds to the evidence that nonadditive genetic effects may influence the evolution of mating behaviour in Nasonia vitripennis, and the evolution of polyandry more generally.

  8. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae.Methods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. Results: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism.Conclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  9. An insect with a delta-12 desaturase, the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis, benefits from nutritional supply with linoleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Birgit; Ruther, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    The availability of linoleic acid (LA; C18:2∆9,12) is pivotal for animals. While vertebrates depend on a nutritional supply, some invertebrates, including the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis, are able to synthesize LA from oleic acid (OA; C18:1∆9). This raises the question as to whether these animals nevertheless benefit from the additional uptake of LA with the diet. LA plays an important role in the sexual communication of N. vitripennis because males use it as a precursor for the synthesis of an abdominal sex pheromone attracting virgin females. We reared hosts of N. vitripennis that were fed diets enriched in the availability of stearic acid (SA: C18:0), OA or LA. N. vitripennis males developing on the different host types clearly differed in both the fatty acid composition of their body fat and sex pheromone titres. Males from LA-enriched hosts had an almost fourfold higher proportion of LA and produced significantly more sex pheromone than males from SA (2.2-fold) and OA (1.4-fold) enriched hosts, respectively. Our study demonstrates that animals being able to synthesize important nutrients de novo may still benefit from an additional supply with their diet.

  10. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae."nMethods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. "nResults: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism."nConclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  11. Octopamine-like immunoreactive neurons in the brain and subesophageal ganglion of the parasitic wasps Nasonia vitripennis and N. giraulti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Alexander; Smid, Hans M

    2014-11-01

    Octopamine is an important neuromodulator in the insect nervous system, influencing memory formation, sensory perception and motor control. In this study, we compare the distribution of octopamine-like immunoreactive neurons in two parasitic wasp species of the Nasonia genus, N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. These two species were previously described as differing in their learning and memory formation, which raised the question as to whether morphological differences in octopaminergic neurons underpinned these variations. Immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to reveal and compare the somata and major projections of the octopaminergic neurons in these wasps. The brains of both species showed similar staining patterns, with six different neuron clusters being identified in the brain and five different clusters in the subesophageal ganglion. Of those clusters found in the subesophageal ganglion, three contained unpaired neurons, whereas the other three consisted in paired neurons. The overall pattern of octopaminergic neurons in both species was similar, with no differences in the numbers or projections of the ventral unpaired median (VUM) neurons, which are known to be involved in memory formation in insects. In one other cluster in the brain, located in-between the optic lobe and the antennal lobe, we detected more neurons in N. vitripennis compared with N. giraulti. Combining our results with findings made previously in other Hymenopteran species, we discuss possible functions and some of the ultimate factors influencing the evolution of the octopaminergic system in the insect brain.

  12. Oviposition but Not Sex Allocation Is Associated with Transcriptomic Changes in Females of the Parasitoid Wasp Nasonia vitripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nicola; Trivedi, Urmi; Pannebakker, Bart A; Blaxter, Mark; Ritchie, Michael G; Tauber, Eran; Sneddon, Tanya; Shuker, David M

    2015-10-28

    Linking the evolution of the phenotype to the underlying genotype is a key aim of evolutionary genetics and is crucial to our understanding of how natural selection shapes a trait. Here, we consider the genetic basis of sex allocation behavior in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis using a transcriptomics approach. Females allocate offspring sex in line with the local mate competition (LMC) theory. Female-biased sex ratios are produced when one or a few females lay eggs on a patch. As the number of females contributing offspring to a patch increases, less female-biased sex ratios are favored. We contrasted the transcriptomic responses of females as they oviposit under conditions known to influence sex allocation: foundress number (a social cue) and the state of the host (parasitized or not). We found that when females encounter other females on a patch or assess host quality with their ovipositors, the resulting changes in sex allocation is not associated with significant changes in whole-body gene expression. We also found that the gene expression changes produced by females as they facultatively allocate sex in response to a host cue and a social cue are very closely correlated. We expanded the list of candidate genes associated with oviposition behavior in Nasonia, some of which may be involved in fundamental processes underlying the ability to facultatively allocate sex, including sperm storage and utilization.

  13. Effects of host(Boettcherisca peregrina)copper exposure on development, reproduction and vitellogenesis of the ectoparastic wasp,Nasonia vitripennis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong-Yin Ye; Sheng-Zhang Dong; Hui Dong; Cui Hu; Zhi-Cheng Shen; Jia-An Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Effects of copper(Cu)accumulation by the flesh fly Boettcherisca peregrina(R-D.)(Diptera:Sarcophagidae)on the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis(Walker)(Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae)were investigated experimentally by exposing host larvae to contaminated diets with fmal Cu concentrations of 400 μg/g and 800 μg/g diet flesh weight (DFW),respectively.Results showed that Cu can be transferred along food chains to secondary consumers(parasitoids)in small amounts,resulting in negative effects on parasitoid growth and development(body weight and developmental durationl as well as fecundity(number of offspring per female).Copper exposure also inhibited vitellogenesis of parasitoids from Cu-contaminated host pupae.It is suggested that the decreased fecundity and inhibition of Vitellogenesis of N.vitripennis resulted from poor host nutritional state rather than from direct effects of Cu stress.

  14. Genomics and peptidomics of neuropeptides and protein hormones present in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Neupert, Susanne; Williamson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    neuropeptide gene in Nasonia, coding for peptides containing the C-terminal sequence RYamide. This gene has orthologs in nearly all arthropods with a sequenced genome, and its expression in mosquitoes was confirmed by mass spectrometry. No precursor could be identified for N-terminally extended FMRFamides...

  15. How the venom from the ectoparasitoid Wasp nasonia vitripennis exhibits anti-inflammatory properties on mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneels, Ellen L; Gerlo, Sarah; Heyninck, Karen; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; De Bosscher, Karolien; Haegeman, Guy; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2014-01-01

    With more than 150,000 species, parasitoids are a large group of hymenopteran insects that inject venom into and then lay their eggs in or on other insects, eventually killing the hosts. Their venoms have evolved into different mechanisms for manipulating host immunity, physiology and behavior in such a way that enhance development of the parasitoid young. The venom from the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis inhibits the immune system in its host organism in order to protect their offspring from elimination. Since the major innate immune pathways in insects, the Toll and Imd pathways, are homologous to the NF-κB pathway in mammals, we were interested in whether a similar immune suppression seen in insects could be elicited in a mammalian cell system. A well characterized NF-κB reporter gene assay in fibrosarcoma cells showed a dose-dependent inhibition of NF-κB signaling caused by the venom. In line with this NF-κB inhibitory action, N. vitripennis venom dampened the expression of IL-6, a prototypical proinflammatory cytokine, from LPS-treated macrophages. The venom also inhibited the expression of two NF-κB target genes, IκBα and A20, that act in a negative feedback loop to prevent excessive NF-κB activity. Surprisingly, we did not detect any effect of the venom on the early events in the canonical NF-κB activation pathway, leading to NF-κB nuclear translocation, which was unaltered in venom-treated cells. The MAP kinases ERK, p38 and JNK are other crucial regulators of immune responses. We observed that venom treatment did not affect p38 and ERK activation, but induced a prolonged JNK activation. In summary, our data indicate that venom from N. vitripennis inhibits NF-κB signaling in mammalian cells. We identify venom-induced up regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor-regulated GILZ as a most likely molecular mediator for this inhibition.

  16. Effects on microhymenopteran progeny of different host exposure periods (Chrysomya megacephala, Calliphoridae to the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Mello

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To test the assumption that exposure of the host to parasitoid for long periods could provoke superparasitism, the aim of this work was to test the consequences on the immature development time, productivity of parasitoids per pupa, sex ratio and rate of parasitism of Nasonia vitripennis bred in Chrysomya megacephala pupae. Each individual pupa was placed in a glass tube with one parasitoid female for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h period of exposure, under controlled laboratory conditions. Twenty replicates of each period were performed. ANOVA with a 5% significance level was applied. The 72 h exposure caused the immature development time to increase. The mean parasitoids emergence per pupa did not vary significantly with the time of exposure. There were a significantly higher number of females than males and a trend in sex ratio deviation towards the females in all of the treatments. An increase in the number of unviable pupae rates were observed with increased exposure time.Para testar a hipótese que longos períodos de exposição do hospedeiro ao parasitóide podem ocasionar o superparasitismo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo testar as conseqüências sobre o tempo de desenvolvimento do imaturo, a produtividade de parasitóides, razão sexual e taxa de parasitismo de Nasonia vitripennis criadas em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala. Cada pupa foi individualizada e alocada em um tudo de ensaio com uma fêmea de N. vitripennis por 24, 48, 72 ou 96 h, sob condições laboratoriais controladas. Foram realizadas 20 réplicas para cada período de exposição. ANOVA com significância de 5 % foi aplicada. A exposição de 72 h causou um aumento no tempo desenvolvimento. A média de emergência de parasitóides não variou significativamente entre os tempos de exposição. Houve um número significativamente maior de fêmeas e uma tendência ao desvio da razão sexual para fêmeas em todos os tratamentos. Foi verificado um aumento no número de pupas invi

  17. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Brain Tissue and Fat Body from the Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga bullata Parker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, Envenomated by the Ectoparasitic Wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Rivers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis targets brain tissue and fat body from its flesh fly host, Sarcophaga bullata. By 1 h postenvenomation, some brain neurons began to show irregularities in nuclear shape, and though they were predominately euchromatic, there was evidence of heterochromatin formation. Irregularity in the nuclear envelope became more prominent by 3 h after envenomation, as did the condensation of heterochromatin. The severity of ultrastructural changes continued to increase until at least 24 h after parasitoid attack. At this point, cellular swelling and extensive heterochromatic inclusions were evident, multivesicular bodies occurred in the cytoplasm of some cells, and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was dilated in many of the cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed significant apoptosis in neurons located in brain tissues. By contrast, there was no evidence of any morphological or ultrastructural disturbances in fat body tissues up to 24 h after envenomation, nor did any of the cells display signs of cell death.

  18. Natural variation in long-term memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.; Smid, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Closely related species of parasitic wasps can differ substantially in memory dynamics. In this study we demonstrate differences in the number of conditioning trials required to form long-term memory between the closely related parasitic wasp species Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti

  19. Natural variation in long-term memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasp species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedjes, Katja M; Smid, Hans M

    2014-06-01

    Closely related species of parasitic wasps can differ substantially in memory dynamics. In this study we demonstrate differences in the number of conditioning trials required to form long-term memory between the closely related parasitic wasp species Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). A single conditioning trial, in which a female wasp associates an odour with the reward of finding a host, results in the formation of transcription-dependent long-term memory in N. vitripennis, whereas N. giraulti requires spaced training to do so. Memory formation does not depend on the type of reward: oviposition, which was hypothesized to be a 'larger' reward results in similar memory retention as host feeding in both Nasonia species. There are several genetic and genomic tools available for Nasonia species to identify genetic mechanisms that underlie the observed variation in the number of trials required to form long-term memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel approach to eliminate Wolbachia infections in Nasonia vitripennis revealed different antibiotic resistance between two bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Yang; Wang, Yan-Kun; Zhi, Cong-Cong; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Huang, Da-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Wolbachia are widespread in insects and can manipulate host reproduction. Nasonia vitripennis is a widely studied organism with a very high prevalence of Wolbachia infection. To study the effect of Wolbachia infection in Nasonia spp., it is important to obtain noninfected individuals by artificial methods. Current methods that employ sugar water-containing antibiotics can successfully eliminate Wolbachia from the parasitic wasps; however, treatment of at least three generations is required. Here, we describe a novel, feasible, and effective approach to eliminate Wolbachia from N. vitripennis by feeding fly pupae continuously offering antibiotics to Nasonia populations, which shortened the time to eliminate the pathogens to two generations. Additionally, the Wolbachia Uni and CauB strains have obviously different rifampicin-resistance abilities, which is a previously unknown phenomenon.

  1. The spatio-temporal partitioning of sperm by males of the prospermatogenic parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis is in line with its gregarious lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirault, Marlène; Van de Zande, Louis; Hidalgo, Kevin; Chevrier, Claude; Bressac, Christophe; Lécureuil, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Male fitness depends on the number of lifetime progeny of their mates and could be constrained by the chance of finding a mate, lifespan and temporal patterns of sperm production and allocation. Here, we used the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis with a two-week lifespan and a gregarious lifestyle,

  2. Antimicrobial peptide-like genes in Nasonia vitripennis: a genomic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an essential component of innate immunity which can rapidly respond to diverse microbial pathogens. Insects, as a rich source of AMPs, attract great attention of scientists in both understanding of the basic biology of the immune system and searching molecular templates for anti-infective drug design. Despite a large number of AMPs have been identified from different insect species, little information in terms of these peptides is available from parasitic insects. Results By using integrated computational approaches to systemically mining the Hymenopteran parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis genome, we establish the first AMP repertoire whose members exhibit extensive sequence and structural diversity and can be distinguished into multiple molecular types, including insect and fungal defensin-like peptides (DLPs) with the cysteine-stabilized α-helical and β-sheet (CSαβ) fold; Pro- or Gly-rich abaecins and hymenoptaecins; horseshoe crab tachystatin-type AMPs with the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) fold; and a linear α-helical peptide. Inducible expression pattern of seven N. vitripennis AMP genes were verified, and two representative peptides were synthesized and functionally identified to be antibacterial. In comparison with Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera) and several non-Hymenopteran model insects, N. vitripennis has evolved a complex antimicrobial immune system with more genes and larger protein precursors. Three classical strategies that are likely responsible for the complexity increase have been recognized: 1) Gene duplication; 2) Exon duplication; and 3) Exon-shuffling. Conclusion The present study established the N. vitripennis peptidome associated with antimicrobial immunity by using a combined computational and experimental strategy. As the first AMP repertoire of a parasitic wasp, our results offer a basic platform for further studying the immunological and evolutionary significances of these newly discovered AMP

  3. Effects of starvation on the vitellogenesis, ovarian development and fecundity in the ectoparasitoid, Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Zhang Dong; Gong-Yin Ye; Peng-Cheng Yao; Yao-Liang Huang; Xue-Xin Chen; Zhi-Cheng Shen; Cui Hu

    2008-01-01

    A female-specific protein, vitellogenin (Vg), and its corresponding egg vitellin (Vt) are identified in the ectoparasific wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Both native Vt and Vg have a molecular mass of about 350 kDa, which is composed of two subunits of approximately 190 kDa and 165 kDa under reducing and denaturing conditions (sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). An indirect sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed with both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against N. vitripennis Vt.Vg was first detected in the hemolymph on the 10th day after parasitism, and was first observed in oocytes on the 12th day. In adults deprived of food, the highest hemolymph Vg level occurred at the time of adult eclosion and the highest level of Vt in ovaries was found at 30 h after eclosion. In contrast, feeding adults with 20% sucrose resulted in the reduction of Vt uptake by ovaries and the extension of life span, but had little effect on Vg production.Deprived of hosts, starvation of female wasps had no significant effects on ovariole growth and oocyte maturation before the wasps died. However, starvation of female wasps supplied with hosts accelerated the wasps laying progeny into hosts, but resulted in a decrease of total progeny production by comparison with wasps fed with 20% sucrose.

  4. Venom of the ectoparasitoid, Nasonia vitripennis, influences gene expression in Musca domestica hemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cen; Liu, Yang; Fang, Qi; Min-Li, Yan; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Li, Yan-Min

    2013-08-01

    Insect hosts have evolved potent innate immunity against invasion by parasitoid wasps. Host/parasitoids live in co-evolutionary relationships. Nasonia vitripennis females inject venom into their dipteran hosts just prior to laying eggs on the host's outer integument. The parasitoid larvae are ectoparasitoids because they feed on their hosts within the puparium, but do not enter the host body. We investigated the influence of N. vitripennis venom on the gene expression profile of hemocytes of their hosts, pupae of the housefly, Musca domestica. We prepared venom by isolating venom glands and treated experimental host pupae with venom. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to determine the influence of venom on hemocyte gene expression. At 1 h post treatment, we recorded decreases in transcript levels of 133 EST clones derived from forward a subtractive library of host hemocytes and upregulation in transcript levels of 111 EST clones from the reverse library. These genes are related to immune and stress response, cytoskeleton, cell cycle and apoptosis, metabolism, transport, and transcription/translation regulation. We verified the reliability of our data with reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis of randomly selected genes, and with assays of enzyme activities. These analyses showed that the expression level of all selected genes were downregulated after venom treatment. Outcomes of our experiments support the hypothesis that N. vitripennis venom influences the gene expression in host hemocytes. We conclude that the actions of venom on host gene expression influence host biology in ways that benefit the development and emergence of the next generation of parasitoids.

  5. Functional and evolutionary insights from the genomes of three parasitoid Nasonia species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Richards, Stephen; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Niehuis, Oliver; Gadau, Juergen; Colbourne, John K.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Desplan, Claude; Elsik, Christine G.; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; Kitts, Paul; Lynch, Jeremy A.; Murphy, Terence; Oliveira, Deodoro C. S. G.; Smith, Christopher D.; van de Zande, Louis; Worley, Kim C.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Aerts, Maarten; Albert, Stefan; Anaya, Victor H.; Anzola, Juan M.; Barchuk, Angel R.; Behura, Susanta K.; Bera, Agata N.; Berenbaum, May R.; Bertossa, Rinaldo C.; Bitondi, Marcia M. G.; Bordenstein, Seth R.; Bork, Peer; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Brunain, Marleen; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Chaboub, Lesley; Chacko, Joseph; Chavez, Dean; Childers, Christopher P.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Clark, Michael E.; Claudianos, Charles; Clinton, Rochelle A.; Cree, Andrew G.; Cristino, Alexandre S.; Dang, Phat M.; Darby, Alistair C.; de Graaf, Dirk C.; Devreese, Bart; Dinh, Huyen H.; Edwards, Rachel; Elango, Navin; Elhaik, Eran; Ermolaeva, Olga; Evans, Jay D.; Foret, Sylvain; Fowler, Gerald R.; Gerlach, Daniel; Gibson, Joshua D.; Gilbert, Donald G.; Graur, Dan; Grunder, Stefan; Hagen, Darren E.; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Hultmark, Dan; Hunter, Henry C.; Jhangian, Shalini N.; Jiang, Huaiyang; Johnson, Reed M.; Jones, Andrew K.; Junier, Thomas; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Kamping, Albert; Kapustin, Yuri; Kechavarzi, Bobak; Kim, Jaebum; Kim, Jay; Kiryutin, Boris; Koevoets, Tosca; Kovar, Christie L.; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.; Kucharski, Robert; Lee, Heewook; Lee, Sandra L.; Lees, Kristin; Lewis, Lora R.; Loehlin, David W.; Logsdon, John M.; Lopez, Jacqueline A.; Lozado, Ryan J.; Maglott, Donna; Maleszka, Ryszard; Mayampurath, Anoop; Mazur, Danielle J.; McClure, Marcella A.; Moore, Andrew D.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Muller, Jean; Munoz-Torres, Monica C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Nazareth, Lynne V.; Neupert, Susanne; Nguyen, Ngoc B.; Nunes, Francis M. F.; Oakeshott, John G.; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O.; Pannebakker, Bart A.; Pejaver, Vikas R.; Peng, Zuogang; Pratt, Stephen C.; Predel, Reinhard; Pu, Ling-Ling; Ranson, Hilary; Raychoudhury, Rhitoban; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Reese, Justin T.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Riddle, Megan; Robertson, Il High M.; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Rosenberg, Miriam; Sackton, Timothy B.; Sattelle, David B.; Schluens, Helge; Schmitt, Thomas; Schneider, Martina; Schueler, Andreas; Schurko, Andrew M.; Shuker, David M.; Simoes, Zila L. P.; Sinha, Saurabh; Smith, Zachary; Solovyev, Victor; Souvorov, Alexandre; Springauf, Andreas; Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Stage, Deborah E.; Stanke, Mario; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Telschow, Arndt; Trent, Carol; Vattathil, Selina; Verhulst, Eveline C.; Viljakainen, Lumi; Wanner, Kevin W.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Whitfield, James B.; Wilkes, Timothy E.; Williamson, Michael; Willis, Judith H.; Wolschin, Florian; Wyder, Stefan; Yamada, Takuji; Yi, Soojin V.; Zecher, Courtney N.; Zhang, Lan; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    We report here genome sequences and comparative analyses of three closely related parasitoid wasps: Nasonia vitripennis, N. giraulti, and N. longicornis. Parasitoids are important regulators of arthropod populations, including major agricultural pests and disease vectors, and Nasonia is an emerging

  6. Functional and evolutionary insights from the genomes of three parasitoid Nasonia species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Richards, Stephen; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Niehuis, Oliver; Gadau, Juergen; Colbourne, John K.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Desplan, Claude; Elsik, Christine G.; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; Kitts, Paul; Lynch, Jeremy A.; Murphy, Terence; Oliveira, Deodoro C. S. G.; Smith, Christopher D.; van de Zande, Louis; Worley, Kim C.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Aerts, Maarten; Albert, Stefan; Anaya, Victor H.; Anzola, Juan M.; Barchuk, Angel R.; Behura, Susanta K.; Bera, Agata N.; Berenbaum, May R.; Bertossa, Rinaldo C.; Bitondi, Marcia M. G.; Bordenstein, Seth R.; Bork, Peer; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Brunain, Marleen; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Chaboub, Lesley; Chacko, Joseph; Chavez, Dean; Childers, Christopher P.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Clark, Michael E.; Claudianos, Charles; Clinton, Rochelle A.; Cree, Andrew G.; Cristino, Alexandre S.; Dang, Phat M.; Darby, Alistair C.; de Graaf, Dirk C.; Devreese, Bart; Dinh, Huyen H.; Edwards, Rachel; Elango, Navin; Elhaik, Eran; Ermolaeva, Olga; Evans, Jay D.; Foret, Sylvain; Fowler, Gerald R.; Gerlach, Daniel; Gibson, Joshua D.; Gilbert, Donald G.; Graur, Dan; Grunder, Stefan; Hagen, Darren E.; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Hultmark, Dan; Hunter, Henry C.; Jhangian, Shalini N.; Jiang, Huaiyang; Johnson, Reed M.; Jones, Andrew K.; Junier, Thomas; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Kamping, Albert; Kapustin, Yuri; Kechavarzi, Bobak; Kim, Jaebum; Kim, Jay; Kiryutin, Boris; Koevoets, Tosca; Kovar, Christie L.; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.; Kucharski, Robert; Lee, Heewook; Lee, Sandra L.; Lees, Kristin; Lewis, Lora R.; Loehlin, David W.; Logsdon, John M.; Lopez, Jacqueline A.; Lozado, Ryan J.; Maglott, Donna; Maleszka, Ryszard; Mayampurath, Anoop; Mazur, Danielle J.; McClure, Marcella A.; Moore, Andrew D.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Muller, Jean; Munoz-Torres, Monica C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Nazareth, Lynne V.; Neupert, Susanne; Nguyen, Ngoc B.; Nunes, Francis M. F.; Oakeshott, John G.; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O.; Pannebakker, Bart A.; Pejaver, Vikas R.; Peng, Zuogang; Pratt, Stephen C.; Predel, Reinhard; Pu, Ling-Ling; Ranson, Hilary; Raychoudhury, Rhitoban; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Reese, Justin T.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Riddle, Megan; Robertson, Il High M.; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Rosenberg, Miriam; Sackton, Timothy B.; Sattelle, David B.; Schluens, Helge; Schmitt, Thomas; Schneider, Martina; Schueler, Andreas; Schurko, Andrew M.; Shuker, David M.; Simoes, Zila L. P.; Sinha, Saurabh; Smith, Zachary; Solovyev, Victor; Souvorov, Alexandre; Springauf, Andreas; Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Stage, Deborah E.; Stanke, Mario; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Telschow, Arndt; Trent, Carol; Vattathil, Selina; Verhulst, Eveline C.; Viljakainen, Lumi; Wanner, Kevin W.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Whitfield, James B.; Wilkes, Timothy E.; Williamson, Michael; Willis, Judith H.; Wolschin, Florian; Wyder, Stefan; Yamada, Takuji; Yi, Soojin V.; Zecher, Courtney N.; Zhang, Lan; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    We report here genome sequences and comparative analyses of three closely related parasitoid wasps: Nasonia vitripennis, N. giraulti, and N. longicornis. Parasitoids are important regulators of arthropod populations, including major agricultural pests and disease vectors, and Nasonia is an emerging

  7. Rapidly Evolving Mitochondrial Genome and Directional Selection in Mitochondrial Genes in the Parasitic Wasp Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychoudhury, Rhitoban; Lavrov, Dennis V.; Werren, John H.

    2008-01-01

    We sequenced the nearly complete mtDNA of 3 species of parasitic wasps, Nasonia vitripennis (2 strains), Nasonia giraulti, and Nasonia longicornis, including all 13 protein-coding genes and the 2 rRNAs, and found unusual patterns of mitochondrial evolution. The Nasonia mtDNA has a unique gene order compared with other insect mtDNAs due to multiple rearrangements. The mtDNAs of these wasps also show nucleotide substitution rates over 30 times faster than nuclear protein-coding genes, indicating among the highest substitution rates found in animal mitochondria (normally <10 times faster). A McDonald and Kreitman test shows that the between-species frequency of fixed replacement sites relative to silent sites is significantly higher compared with within-species polymorphisms in 2 mitochondrial genes of Nasonia, atp6 and atp8, indicating directional selection. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ka/Ks (nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rates) ratios are higher between species than within species. In contrast, cox1 shows a signature of purifying selection for amino acid sequence conservation, although rates of amino acid substitutions are still higher than for comparable insects. The mitochondrial-encoded polypeptides atp6 and atp8 both occur in F0F1ATP synthase of the electron transport chain. Because malfunction in this fundamental protein severely affects fitness, we suggest that the accelerated accumulation of replacements is due to beneficial mutations necessary to compensate mild-deleterious mutations fixed by random genetic drift or Wolbachia sweeps in the fast evolving mitochondria of Nasonia. We further propose that relatively high rates of amino acid substitution in some mitochondrial genes can be driven by a “Compensation-Draft Feedback”; increased fixation of mildly deleterious mutations results in selection for compensatory mutations, which lead to fixation of additional deleterious mutations in nonrecombining mitochondrial genomes, thus

  8. Rapidly evolving mitochondrial genome and directional selection in mitochondrial genes in the parasitic wasp nasonia (hymenoptera: pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Deodoro C S G; Raychoudhury, Rhitoban; Lavrov, Dennis V; Werren, John H

    2008-10-01

    We sequenced the nearly complete mtDNA of 3 species of parasitic wasps, Nasonia vitripennis (2 strains), Nasonia giraulti, and Nasonia longicornis, including all 13 protein-coding genes and the 2 rRNAs, and found unusual patterns of mitochondrial evolution. The Nasonia mtDNA has a unique gene order compared with other insect mtDNAs due to multiple rearrangements. The mtDNAs of these wasps also show nucleotide substitution rates over 30 times faster than nuclear protein-coding genes, indicating among the highest substitution rates found in animal mitochondria (normally mitochondrial genes of Nasonia, atp6 and atp8, indicating directional selection. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ka/Ks (nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rates) ratios are higher between species than within species. In contrast, cox1 shows a signature of purifying selection for amino acid sequence conservation, although rates of amino acid substitutions are still higher than for comparable insects. The mitochondrial-encoded polypeptides atp6 and atp8 both occur in F0F1ATP synthase of the electron transport chain. Because malfunction in this fundamental protein severely affects fitness, we suggest that the accelerated accumulation of replacements is due to beneficial mutations necessary to compensate mild-deleterious mutations fixed by random genetic drift or Wolbachia sweeps in the fast evolving mitochondria of Nasonia. We further propose that relatively high rates of amino acid substitution in some mitochondrial genes can be driven by a "Compensation-Draft Feedback"; increased fixation of mildly deleterious mutations results in selection for compensatory mutations, which lead to fixation of additional deleterious mutations in nonrecombining mitochondrial genomes, thus accelerating the process of amino acid substitutions.

  9. Recombination and its impact on the genome of the haplodiploid parasitoid wasp Nasonia.

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    Oliver Niehuis

    Full Text Available Homologous meiotic recombination occurs in most sexually reproducing organisms, yet its evolutionary advantages are elusive. Previous research explored recombination in the honeybee, a eusocial hymenopteran with an exceptionally high genome-wide recombination rate. A comparable study in a non-social member of the Hymenoptera that would disentangle the impact of sociality from Hymenoptera-specific features such as haplodiploidy on the evolution of the high genome-wide recombination rate in social Hymenoptera is missing. Utilizing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between two Nasonia parasitoid wasp genomes, we developed a SNP genotyping microarray to infer a high-density linkage map for Nasonia. The map comprises 1,255 markers with an average distance of 0.3 cM. The mapped markers enabled us to arrange 265 scaffolds of the Nasonia genome assembly 1.0 on the linkage map, representing 63.6% of the assembled N. vitripennis genome. We estimated a genome-wide recombination rate of 1.4-1.5 cM/Mb for Nasonia, which is less than one tenth of the rate reported for the honeybee. The local recombination rate in Nasonia is positively correlated with the distance to the center of the linkage groups, GC content, and the proportion of simple repeats. In contrast to the honeybee genome, gene density in the parasitoid wasp genome is positively associated with the recombination rate; regions of low recombination are characterized by fewer genes with larger introns and by a greater distance between genes. Finally, we found that genes in regions of the genome with a low recombination frequency tend to have a higher ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, likely due to the accumulation of slightly deleterious non-synonymous substitutions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that recombination reduces interference between linked sites and thereby facilitates adaptive evolution and the purging of deleterious mutations. Our results imply

  10. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

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    Monika Bohacsova

    Full Text Available Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  11. Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitóide de dípteros muscóides coletado em Itumbiara, Goiás Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitoid of muscoids dipterous collected in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Marchiori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the occurrence of parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing pupae of flies (Diptera in different substrata in Itumbiara, Goiás. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. From May 1998 through April 2002, 737 parasitoids were collected in human feces, cattle liver, chicken, fish and cattle kidney. The prevalence of parasitism was 67.8%.

  12. Laboratory evolution of polyandry in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; West, Stu A.; Shuker, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution and maintenance of multiple mating in females (polyandry) is an adaptive puzzle since females typically obtain all the resources they need from males in only one or a few matings. Females should therefore limit superfluous copulations to avoid the well-documented costs of mating. Previ

  13. Laboratory evolution of polyandry in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; West, Stu A.; Shuker, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution and maintenance of multiple mating in females (polyandry) is an adaptive puzzle since females typically obtain all the resources they need from males in only one or a few matings. Females should therefore limit superfluous copulations to avoid the well-documented costs of mating.

  14. Hybrid incompatibilities in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia: negative effects of hemizygosity and the identification of transmission ratio distortion loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koevoets, T; Niehuis, O; van de Zande, L; Beukeboom, L W

    2012-03-01

    The occurrence of hybrid incompatibilities forms an important stage during the evolution of reproductive isolation. In early stages of speciation, males and females often respond differently to hybridization. Haldane's rule states that the heterogametic sex suffers more from hybridization than the homogametic sex. Although haplodiploid reproduction (haploid males, diploid females) does not involve sex chromosomes, sex-specific incompatibilities are predicted to be prevalent in haplodiploid species. Here, we evaluate the effect of sex/ploidy level on hybrid incompatibilities and locate genomic regions that cause increased mortality rates in hybrid males of the haplodiploid wasps Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia longicornis. Our data show that diploid F(1) hybrid females suffer less from hybridization than haploid F(2) hybrid males. The latter not only suffer from an increased mortality rate, but also from behavioural and spermatogenic sterility. Genetic mapping in recombinant F(2) male hybrids revealed that the observed hybrid mortality is most likely due to a disruption of cytonuclear interactions. As these sex-specific hybrid incompatibilities follow predictions based on Haldane's rule, our data accentuate the need to broaden the view of Haldane's rule to include species with haplodiploid sex determination, consistent with Haldane's original definition.

  15. Circadian rhythms differ between sexes and closely related species of Nasonia wasps.

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    Rinaldo C Bertossa

    Full Text Available Activity rhythms in 24 h light-dark cycles, constant darkness, and constant light conditions were analyzed in four different Nasonia species for each sex separately. Besides similarities, clear differences are evident among and within Nasonia species as well as between sexes. In all species, activity in a light-dark cycle is concentrated in the photophase, typical for diurnal organisms. Contrary to most diurnal insect species so far studied, Nasonia follows Aschoff's rule by displaying long (>24 h internal rhythms in constant darkness but short (<24 h in constant light. In constant light, N. vitripennis males display robust circadian activity rhythms, whereas females are usually arrhythmic. In contrast to other Nasonia species, N. longicornis males display anticipatory activity, i.e. activity shortly before light-on in a light-dark cycle. As expected, N. oneida shows activity patterns similar to those of N. giraulti but with important differences in key circadian parameters. Differences in circadian activity patterns and parameters between species may reflect synchronization of specific life-history traits to environmental conditions. Scheduling mating or dispersion to a specific time of the day could be a strategy to avoid interspecific hybridization in Nasonia species that live in sympatry.

  16. Durations of immature stage development period of Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) under laboratory conditions: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Renata da Silva; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M

    2009-01-01

    Some microhymenopterans are parasitoids of flies of forensic importance. Their parasitic habit can alter the duration of post-embryonic development of these flies, altering the postmortem interval. In order to analyze possible alterations occurring during the immature development period of Nasonia vitripennis, this study tested different quantitative associations between female parasitoids and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala, which were defined by: (a) one pupa was exposed to different numbers of female parasitoids (1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9, 1:11) and (b) different numbers of pupae were exposed to one female parasitoid (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1). Analysis of variance (5% significance level) and Tukey's honestly significant difference tests were used for statistical analysis. There was a tendency of prolongation of the duration of parasitoid development, both by increasing the number of female parasitoids and by increasing the number of hosts in the associations. By increasing the number of female parasitoids per host, there is a possibility of increasing the occurrence of superparasitism, leading to competition for food source, then prolonging the duration of the immature development period. Increasing the number of hosts in the associations, females may distribute their postures among the available pupae and can cause reduction of the number of eggs per host. Since these insects are gregarious, the reduction of the number of eggs may delay the offspring development.

  17. A combined approach to heat stress effect on male fertility in Nasonia vitripennis: from the physiological consequences on spermatogenesis to the reproductive adjustment of females mated with stressed males.

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    Marlène Chirault

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have shown a decline in reproductive success in males in both humans and wildlife. Research on male fertility has largely focused on vertebrates, although invertebrates constitute the vast majority of terrestrial biodiversity. The reduction of their reproductive capacities due to environmental stresses can have strong negative ecological impacts, and also dramatic consequences on world food production if it affects the reproductive success of biological control agents, such as parasitic wasps used to control crop pests. Here Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp of various fly species, was studied to test the effects of 24h-heat stress applied during the first pupal stage on male fertility. Results showed that only primary spermatocytes were present at the first pupal stage in all cysts of the testes. Heat stress caused a delay in spermatogenesis during development and a significant decrease in sperm stock at emergence. Females mated with these heat-stressed males showed a reduce sperm count stored in their spermatheca. Females did not appear to distinguish heat-stressed from control males and did not remate more frequently to compensate for the lack of sperm transferred. As a result, females mated with heat-stressed males produced a suboptimal lifetime offspring sex ratio compared to those mated with control males. This could further impact the population dynamics of this species. N. vitripennis appears to be an interesting biological model to study the mechanisms of subfertility and its consequence on female reproductive strategies and provides new research perspectives in both invertebrates and vertebrates.

  18. A combined approach to heat stress effect on male fertility in Nasonia vitripennis: from the physiological consequences on spermatogenesis to the reproductive adjustment of females mated with stressed males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirault, Marlène; Lucas, Christophe; Goubault, Marlène; Chevrier, Claude; Bressac, Christophe; Lécureuil, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown a decline in reproductive success in males in both humans and wildlife. Research on male fertility has largely focused on vertebrates, although invertebrates constitute the vast majority of terrestrial biodiversity. The reduction of their reproductive capacities due to environmental stresses can have strong negative ecological impacts, and also dramatic consequences on world food production if it affects the reproductive success of biological control agents, such as parasitic wasps used to control crop pests. Here Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp of various fly species, was studied to test the effects of 24h-heat stress applied during the first pupal stage on male fertility. Results showed that only primary spermatocytes were present at the first pupal stage in all cysts of the testes. Heat stress caused a delay in spermatogenesis during development and a significant decrease in sperm stock at emergence. Females mated with these heat-stressed males showed a reduce sperm count stored in their spermatheca. Females did not appear to distinguish heat-stressed from control males and did not remate more frequently to compensate for the lack of sperm transferred. As a result, females mated with heat-stressed males produced a suboptimal lifetime offspring sex ratio compared to those mated with control males. This could further impact the population dynamics of this species. N. vitripennis appears to be an interesting biological model to study the mechanisms of subfertility and its consequence on female reproductive strategies and provides new research perspectives in both invertebrates and vertebrates.

  19. The role of serine- and metalloproteases in Nasonia vitripennis venom in cell death related processes towards a Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formesyn, Ellen M; Heyninck, Karen; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2013-08-01

    Proteases are predominant venom components of the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis. Two protease families, serine proteases and metalloproteases were examined for their possible cytotoxic functions in the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) cell line using protease inhibitors that inactivate one or both protease families. Viability assays on adherent cells indicated that both protease families are among the main cytotoxic compounds of N. vitripennis venom. However, viability assays and flow cytometry performed on suspension cells 24h after envenomation revealed that inactivation of metalloproteases did not improve cell survival. These results indicate that both protease families may have tissue specific functions. Time course experiments indicate that serine proteases of N. vitripennis venom are responsible for inducing apoptosis in the Sf21 cell line. However, other venom compounds could also be involved in this process and different cell death pathways may take over when a specific type of cell death is inhibited. During parasitation of their natural hosts, both protease families may possibly function in immune related processes and tissue destruction, enabling venom distribution. Overall, this study provides important insights into the functions of serine and metalloproteases in the venom of N. vitripennis.

  20. Molecular Cloning and Functional Studies of Two Kazal-Type Serine Protease Inhibitors Specifically Expressed by Nasonia vitripennis Venom Apparatus

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    Cen Qian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two cDNA sequences of Kazal-type serine protease inhibitors (KSPIs in Nasonia vitripennis, NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2, were characterized and their open reading frames (ORFs were 198 and 264 bp, respectively. Both NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 contained a typical Kazal-type domain. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR results revealed that NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 mRNAs were mostly detected specifically in the venom apparatus, while they were expressed at lower levels in the ovary and much lower levels in other tissues tested. In the venom apparatus, both NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 transcripts were highly expressed on the fourth day post eclosion and then declined gradually. The NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 genes were recombinantly expressed utilizing a pGEX-4T-2 vector, and the recombinant products fused with glutathione S-transferase were purified. Inhibition of recombinant GST-NvKSPI-1 and GST-NvKSPI-2 to three serine protease inhibitors (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and proteinase K were tested and results showed that only NvKSPI-1 could inhibit the activity of trypsin. Meanwhile, we evaluated the influence of the recombinant GST-NvKSPI-1 and GST-NvKSPI-2 on the phenoloxidase (PO activity and prophenoloxidase (PPO activation of hemolymph from a host pupa, Musca domestica. Results showed PPO activation in host hemolymph was inhibited by both recombinant proteins; however, there was no significant inhibition on the PO activity. Our results suggested that NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 could inhibit PPO activation in host hemolymph and trypsin activity in vitro.

  1. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Mating Behavior and Male Sex Pheromones in Nasonia Wasps

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    Wenwen Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation. Behavioral analysis showed that N. oneida females had consistently higher latency times, and broke off the mating sequence more often in the mounting stage when confronted with N. giraulti males compared with males of their own species. N. oneida males produce a lower quantity of the long-range male sex pheromone (4R,5S-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS-HDL. Crosses between the two species yielded hybrid males with various pheromone quantities, and these males were used in mating trials with females of either species to measure female mate discrimination rates. A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis involving 475 recombinant hybrid males (F2, 2148 reciprocally backcrossed females (F3, and a linkage map of 52 equally spaced neutral single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers plus SNPs in 40 candidate mating behavior genes revealed four QTL for male pheromone amount, depending on partner species. Our results demonstrate that the RS-HDL pheromone plays a role in the mating system of N. giraulti and N. oneida, but also that additional communication cues are involved in mate choice. No QTL were found for female mate discrimination, which points at a polygenic architecture of female choice with strong environmental influences.

  2. Male influence on sex allocation in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shuker, DM; Sykes, EM; Browning, LE; Beukeboom, LW; West, SA; Keller, L.

    2006-01-01

    Sex allocation is an important reproductive decision for parents. However, it is often assumed that females have substantial control over sex allocation decisions, and this is particularly true in haplodiploid insects, in which females apparently determine sex by deciding whether to fertilise an egg

  3. Asymmetric larval competition in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis : A role in sex allocation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sykes, Edward M.; Innocent, Tabitha M.; Pen, Ido; Shuker, David M.; West, Stuart A.

    2007-01-01

    Sex allocation theory offers excellent opportunities for testing how animals adjust their behaviour in response to environmental conditions. A major focus has been on instances of local mate competition (LMC), where female-biased broods are produced to maximise mating opportunities for sons. However

  4. Desempenho reprodutivo de Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas crioconservadas de Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae: avaliação preliminar Reproductive performance of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae on Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae cryopreserved pupae: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Vieira Milward-de-Azevedo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho reprodutivo de Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae previamente armazenadas a - 20ºC de temperatura, durante 77 dias, com e sem passagem prévia em nitrogênio líquido (NL por um, três e 15 minutos. O grupo controle foi caracterizado por pupas hospedeiras frescas. Os muscóides foram expostos aos parasitóides durante 72 horas. Utilizou-se a relação de uma pupa muscóide por fêmea parasitóide. A amostra de pupas frescas permitiu a emergência de 15 parasitóides/ pupa, em média, enquanto 10 parasitóides / pupa emergiram dos espécimens prévia e diretamente armazenados em freezer (-20ºC. Observou-se um acentuado decréscimo do desempenho reprodutivo dos microhimenópteros que exploraram os substratos previamente submetidos ao NL durante um, três e 15 minutos (: 6,1; 5,5 e 5,7, respectivamente. A dissecação das pupas hospedeiras revelou um expressivo número de pteromalídeos imaturos, nas amostras que foram expostas ao NL, e de adultos faratos, em todos os tratamentosThe reproductive performance of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae was evaluated on pupae of Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae kept at -20ºC, during 77 days, with and no previous passage for liquid nitrogen (NL by one, three and 15 minutes. Control groups were characterized for fresh pupae hosts. There was one pupa for each parasitoid. The sample of fresh pupae exhibited average of 15 emergent parasitoids / pupa while pupae stored directly at freezer (-20ºC presented an average of 10 emergent parasitoids / pupa. In the samples exposed at one, three and 15 minutes in NL, accentuated decrease was observed on emergent hymenopterans reproductive performance (: 6.1; 5.5 and 5.7 respectively. The dissection of pupae revealed a large number of immature pteromalid in the groups with liquid nitrogen passage and farate adults in

  5. An optimized approach to germ-free rearing in the jewel wasp Nasonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dylan Shropshire

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of a Nasonia in vitrogerm-free rearing system in 2012 enabled investigation of Nasonia-microbiota interactions and real-time visualization of parasitoid metamorphosis. However, the use of antibiotics, bleach, and fetal bovine serum introduced artifacts relative to conventional rearing of Nasonia. Here, we optimize the germ-free rearing procedure by using filter sterilization in lieu of antibiotics and by removing residual bleach and fetal bovine serum. Comparison of these methods reveals no influence on larval survival or growth, and a 52% improvement in adult production. Additionally, adult males produced in the new germ-free system are similar in size to conventionally reared males. Experimental implications of these changes are discussed.

  6. Pheromone diversification and age-dependent behavioural plasticity decrease interspecific mating costs in Nasonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruther, Joachim; McCaw, Jennifer; Böcher, Lisa; Pothmann, Daniela; Putz, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific mating can cause severe fitness costs due to the fact that hybrids are often non-viable or less fit. Thus, theory predicts the selection of traits that lessen reproductive interactions between closely related sympatric species. Males of the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis differ from all other Nasonia species by an additional sex pheromone component, but the ecological selective forces underlying this pheromone diversification are unknown. Here we present data from lab experiments suggesting that costly interspecific sexual interactions with the sympatric species N. giraulti might have been responsible for the pheromone evolution and some courtship-related behavioural adaptations in N. vitripennis. Most N. giraulti females are inseminated already within the host, but N. giraulti males still invest in costly sex pheromones after emergence. Furthermore, they do not discriminate between N. vitripennis females and conspecifics during courtship. Therefore, N. vitripennis females, most of which emerge as virgins, face the risk of mating with N. giraulti resulting in costly all-male broods due to Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility. As a counter adaptation, young N. vitripennis females discriminate against N. giraulti males using the more complex conspecific sex pheromone and reject most of them during courtship. With increasing age, however, N. vitripennis females become less choosy, but often compensate mating errors by re-mating with a conspecific. By doing so, they can principally avoid suboptimal offspring sex ratios, but a microcosm experiment suggests that under more natural conditions N. vitripennis females cannot completely avoid fitness costs due to heterospecific mating. Our study provides support for the hypothesis that communication interference of closely related sympatric species using similar sexual signals can generate selective pressures that lead to their divergence.

  7. A comparison of recombination frequencies in intraspecific versus interspecific mapping populations of Nasonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, L. W.; Niehuis, O.; Pannebakker, B. A.; Koevoets, T.; Gibson, J. D.; Shuker, D. M.; van de Zande, L.; Gadau, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first intraspecific linkage map for Nasonia vitripennis based on molecular markers. The map consists of 36 new microsatellite markers, extracted from the Nasonia genome sequence, and spans 515 cM. The five inferred linkage groups correspond to the five chromosomes of Nasonia. Comparis

  8. Kin discrimination and sex ratios in a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, S E; Shuker, D M; Pen, I; Duncan, A B; Choudhary, A; Batchelor, C M; West, S A

    2004-01-01

    Sex ratio theory provides a clear and simple way to test if nonsocial haplodiploid wasps can discriminate between kin and nonkin. Specifically, if females can discriminate siblings from nonrelatives, then they are expected to produce a higher proportion of daughters if they mate with a sibling. This prediction arises because in haplodiploids, inbreeding (sib-mating) causes a mother to be relatively more related to her daughters than her sons. Here we formally model this prediction for when multiple females lay eggs in a patch, and test it with the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Our results show that females do not adjust their sex ratio behaviour dependent upon whether they mate with a sibling or nonrelative, in response to either direct genetic or a range of indirect environmental cues. This suggests that females of N. vitripennis cannot discriminate between kin and nonkin. The implications of our results for the understanding of sex ratio and social evolution are discussed.

  9. The Fruitless gene in Nasonia displays complex sex-specific splicing and contains new zinc finger domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C; van de Zande, Louis; Beukeboom, Leo W

    2009-07-01

    The transcription factor Fruitless exerts a broad range of functions during Drosophila development, the most apparent of which is the determination of sexual behavior in males. Although fruitless sequences are found in other insect orders, little is known about fruitless structure and function outside Diptera. We have performed a thorough analysis of fruitless transcripts in the haplo-diploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis and found both sex-specific and non-sex-specific transcripts similar to those found in Drosophila. In Nasonia, however, a novel, large fruitless transcript is present in females only. Putative binding sites for sex-specific splicing factors found in Nasonia fruitless and doublesex as well as Apis mellifera doublesex transcripts were sufficient to identify a corresponding female-specific fruitless exon in A. mellifera, suggesting that similar factors in both hymenopteran species could be responsible for sex-specific splicing of both genes. Furthermore, new C(2)H(2) zinc finger domains found in Nasonia fruitless transcripts were also identified in the fruitless locus of major holometabolous insect species but not in drosophilids. Conservation of important domains and sex-specific splicing in Diptera and Hymenoptera support the hypothesis that fruitless is an ancient gene and has conserved functions in insects. Considerable divergences in other parts of the gene are expected to underlie species-specific differences and may help to explain diversity observed in insect sexual behaviors.

  10. Sublethal doses of imidacloprid disrupt sexual communication and host finding in a parasitoid wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappert, Lars; Pokorny, Tamara; Hofferberth, John; Ruther, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Neonicotinoids are widely used insecticides, but their use is subject of debate because of their detrimental effects on pollinators. Little is known about the effect of neonicotinoids on other beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps, which serve as natural enemies and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. Here we show that sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid impair sexual communication and host finding in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Depending on the dose, treated females were less responsive to the male sex pheromone or unable to use it as a cue at all. Courtship behaviour of treated couples was also impeded resulting in a reduction of mating rates by up to 80%. Moreover, treated females were no longer able to locate hosts by using olfactory cues. Olfaction is crucial for the reproductive success of parasitoid wasps. Hence, sublethal doses of neonicotinoids might compromise the function of parasitoid wasps as natural enemies with potentially dire consequences for ecosystem services.

  11. Superparasitism Drives Heritable Symbiont Epidemiology and Host Sex Ratio in a Wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Parratt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heritable microbial symbionts have profound impacts upon the biology of their arthropod hosts. Whilst our current understanding of the dynamics of these symbionts is typically cast within a framework of vertical transmission only, horizontal transmission has been observed in a number of cases. For instance, several symbionts can transmit horizontally when their parasitoid hosts share oviposition patches with uninfected conspecifics, a phenomenon called superparasitism. Despite this, horizontal transmission, and the host contact structures that facilitates it, have not been considered in heritable symbiont epidemiology. Here, we tested for the importance of host contact, and resulting horizontal transmission, for the epidemiology of a male-killing heritable symbiont (Arsenophonus nasoniae in parasitoid wasp hosts. We observed that host contact through superparasitism is necessary for this symbiont's spread in populations of its primary host Nasonia vitripennis, such that when superparasitism rates are high, A. nasoniae almost reaches fixation, causes highly female biased population sex ratios and consequently causes local host extinction. We further tested if natural interspecific variation in superparasitism behaviours predicted symbiont dynamics among parasitoid species. We found that A. nasoniae was maintained in laboratory populations of a closely related set of Nasonia species, but declined in other, more distantly related pteromalid hosts. The natural proclivity of a species to superparasitise was the primary factor determining symbiont persistence. Our results thus indicate that host contact behaviour is a key factor for heritable microbe dynamics when horizontal transmission is possible, and that 'reproductive parasite' phenotypes, such as male-killing, may be of secondary importance in the dynamics of such symbiont infections.

  12. Superparasitism Drives Heritable Symbiont Epidemiology and Host Sex Ratio in a Wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Parratt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heritable microbial symbionts have profound impacts upon the biology of their arthropod hosts. Whilst our current understanding of the dynamics of these symbionts is typically cast within a framework of vertical transmission only, horizontal transmission has been observed in a number of cases. For instance, several symbionts can transmit horizontally when their parasitoid hosts share oviposition patches with uninfected conspecifics, a phenomenon called superparasitism. Despite this, horizontal transmission, and the host contact structures that facilitates it, have not been considered in heritable symbiont epidemiology. Here, we tested for the importance of host contact, and resulting horizontal transmission, for the epidemiology of a male-killing heritable symbiont (Arsenophonus nasoniae in parasitoid wasp hosts. We observed that host contact through superparasitism is necessary for this symbiont's spread in populations of its primary host Nasonia vitripennis, such that when superparasitism rates are high, A. nasoniae almost reaches fixation, causes highly female biased population sex ratios and consequently causes local host extinction. We further tested if natural interspecific variation in superparasitism behaviours predicted symbiont dynamics among parasitoid species. We found that A. nasoniae was maintained in laboratory populations of a closely related set of Nasonia species, but declined in other, more distantly related pteromalid hosts. The natural proclivity of a species to superparasitise was the primary factor determining symbiont persistence. Our results thus indicate that host contact behaviour is a key factor for heritable microbe dynamics when horizontal transmission is possible, and that 'reproductive parasite' phenotypes, such as male-killing, may be of secondary importance in the dynamics of such symbiont infections.

  13. Courtship and mating behaviour of interspecific Nasonia hybrids (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) : A grandfather effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, L.W.; Assem, J. van den

    2001-01-01

    Nasonia courtship behaviour includes easily quantifiable, stereotyped components. We analysed displays of N. vitripennis × N. longicornis hybrid males. Most of them performed well-organised displays that were intermediate between the parental species. However, in both reciprocal crosses, a significa

  14. Behavioral and spermatogenic hybrid male breakdown in Nasonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M E; O'Hara, F P; Chawla, A; Werren, J H

    2010-03-01

    Several reproductive barriers exist within the Nasonia species complex, including allopatry, premating behavioral isolation, postzygotic inviability and Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility. Here we show that hybrid males suffer two additional reproductive disadvantages, an inability to properly court females and decreased sperm production. Hybrid behavioral sterility, characterized by a reduced ability of hybrids to perform necessary courtship behaviors, occurs in hybrids between two species of Nasonia. Hybrid males produced in crosses between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti courted females at a reduced frequency (23-69%), compared with wild-type N. vitripennis and N. giraulti males (>93%). Reduced courtship frequency was not a simple function of inactivity among hybrids. A strong effect of cytoplasmic (mitochondrial) background was also found in N. vitripennis and N. giraulti crosses; F2 hybrids with giraulti cytoplasm showing reduced ability at most stages of courtship. Hybrids produced between a younger species pair, N. giraulti and N. longicornis, were behaviorally fertile. All males possessed motile sperm, but sperm production is greatly reduced in hybrids between the older species pair, N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. This effect on hybrid males, lowered sperm counts rather than nonfunctional sperm, is different from most described cases of hybrid male sterility, and may represent an earlier stage of hybrid sperm breakdown. The results add to previous studies of F2 hybrid inviability and behavioral sterility, and indicate that Wolbachia-induced hybrid incompatibility has arisen early in species divergence, relative to behavioral sterility and spermatogenic infertility.

  15. Influence of removing Wolbachia on the reproductive fitness and adult longevity of Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)%去除Wolbachia对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂繁殖适合度和成蜂寿命的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培光; 邱仕祺; 叶保华; 王宁新; 黄大卫

    2015-01-01

    [目的]明确内共生菌Wolbachia对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂Nasonia vitripennis繁殖适合度和成蜂寿命的影响.[方法]通过给自然感染Wolbachia的丽蝇蛹集金小蜂成蜂喂食不同浓度的利福平来消除其体内的Wolbachia,然后进行10个世代的连续饲养,探究不同浓度利福平对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂体内Wolbachia的去除效果和去除Wolbachia后对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂繁殖力、性比(雌蜂占子代数量的比值)和成蜂寿命的影响.[结果]低浓度利福平(0.1 ~0.5 mg/mL)对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂的毒害作用较小,而高浓度利福平(0.7~ 10.0 mg/mL)对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂的毒害作用较大,但二者均能去除丽蝇蛹集金小蜂体内的Wolbachia;去除Wolbachia后丽蝇蛹集金小蜂的出蜂量显著下降(P<0.01),子代中性比显著下降(P<0.01),但寿命无明显差异.[结论]不同浓度利福平均能去除丽蝇蛹集金小蜂体内Wolbachia,但效果不一致;Wolbachia对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂的出蜂量和子代性比均有显著影响,对成蜂寿命无显著影响.

  16. Insights into the venom composition and evolution of an endoparasitoid wasp by combining proteomic and transcriptomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhichao; Fang, Qi; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jinding; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Fei; Li, Fei; Werren, John H; Ye, Gongyin

    2016-01-25

    Parasitoid wasps are abundant and diverse hymenopteran insects that lay their eggs into the internal body (endoparasitoid) or on the external surface (ectoparasitoid) of their hosts. To make a more conducive environment for the wasps' young, both ecto- and endoparasitoids inject venoms into the host to modulate host immunity, metabolism and development. Endoparasitoids have evolved from ectoparasitoids independently in different hymenopteran lineages. Pteromalus puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid of various butterflies, represents a relatively recent evolution of endoparasitism within pteromalids. Using a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we have identified 70 putative venom proteins in P. puparum. Most of them show higher similarity to venom proteins from the related ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis than from other more distantly related endoparasitoids. In addition, 13 venom proteins are similar to venoms of distantly related endoparasitoids but have no detectable venom matches in Nasonia. These venom proteins may have a role in adaptation to endoparasitism. Overall, these results lay the groundwork for more detailed studies of venom function and adaptation to the endoparasitic lifestyle.

  17. The roles of host evolutionary relationships (genus: Nasonia) and development in structuring microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Robert M; Bordenstein, Seth R

    2012-02-01

    The comparative structure of bacterial communities among closely related host species remains relatively unexplored. For instance, as speciation events progress from incipient to complete stages, does divergence in the composition of the species' microbial communities parallel the divergence of host nuclear genes? To address this question, we used the recently diverged species of the parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia to test whether the evolutionary relationships of their bacterial microbiotas recapitulate the Nasonia phylogenetic history. We also assessed microbial diversity in Nasonia at different stages of development to determine the role that host age plays in microbiota structure. The results indicate that all three species of Nasonia share simple larval microbiotas dominated by the γ-proteobacteria class; however, bacterial species diversity increases as Nasonia develop into pupae and adults. Finally, under identical environmental conditions, the relationships of the microbial communities reflect the phylogeny of the Nasonia host species at multiple developmental stages, which suggests that the structure of an animal's microbial community is closely allied with divergence of host genes. These findings highlight the importance of host evolutionary relationships on microbiota composition and have broad implications for future studies of microbial symbiosis and animal speciation. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. The costs and benefits of multiple mating in a mostly monandrous wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Rebecca A.; Shuker, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomically widespread nature of polyandry remains a puzzle. Much of the empirical work regarding the costs and benefits of multiple mating to females has, for obvious reasons, relied on species that are already highly polyandrous. However, this makes it difficult to separate the processes that maintain the current level of polyandry from the processes that facilitate its expression and initiated its evolution. Here we consider the costs and benefits of polyandry in Nasonia vitripennis, a species of parasitoid wasp that is “mostly monandrous” in the wild, but which evolves polyandry under laboratory culture conditions. In a series of six experiments, we show that females gain a direct fecundity and longevity benefit from mating multiply with virgin males. Conversely, mating multiply with previously mated males actually results in a fecundity cost. Sexual harassment may also represent a significant cost of reproduction. Harassment was, however, only costly during oviposition, resulting in reduced fecundity, longevity, and disrupted sex allocation. Our results show that ecological changes, in our case associated with differences in the local mating structure in the laboratory can alter the costs and benefits of mating and harassment and potentially lead to shifts in mating patterns. PMID:25756346

  19. 两种金小蜂体内Wolbachia的wsp基因分子检测及序列分析%Molecular detection and sequence analysis of wsp gene from Wolbachia in two species of pteromalids, Pteromalus puparum and Nasonia vitripennis ( Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 李凯; 刘怀; 胡萃; 叶恭银

    2006-01-01

    采用Wolbachia的通用引物及A和B大组特异性引物对蝶蛹金小蜂Pteromalus puparum和丽蝇蛹集金小蜂Nasonia vitripennis体内Wolbachia的wsp基因进行PCR扩增及序列测定,并对测定的序列进行了同源性比较和基因特征分析.结果表明:蝶蛹金小蜂和丽蝇蛹集金小蜂均被A和B两个大组的Wolbachia复合感染;同种寄生蜂的雌蜂和雄蜂的wsp基因片段序列完全一致.采用通用引物从蝶蛹金小蜂中扩增出Wolbachia的wsp基因片段序列的长度为540bp,属于B大组中Pip组,而从丽蝇蛹集金小蜂中扩增出Wolbachia的wsp基因片段序列的长度为558 bp,属于A大组中Uni组.用A-Wolbachia引物从蝶蛹金小蜂和丽蝇蛹集金小蜂中扩增出的wsp基因片段序列长度为548 bp,同源性达99.8%;而用B-Wolbachia引物从两者中扩增的两条wsp基因片段序列长度分别为424bp和439bp,同源性达87.5%.

  20. 金小蜂基因组学研究前沿%Advances in genomics research on Nasonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶恭银; 齐易香; 朱家颖; 方琦; 王磊

    2011-01-01

    金小蜂不仅是重要的昆虫天敌资源,还是理想的模式生物.2010年1月15日,3种金小蜂(丽蝇蛹集金小蜂Nasonia vitripennis、吉氏金小蜂N.giraulti和长角金小蜂N.longicornis)的基因组在《科学》上发表.这一事件标志着金小蜂研究“后基冈组时代”的开始.金小蜂基因组测序完成后,科学家们就利用生物信息学、比较基因组学、功能基因组学等方法,基于基因组平台,在进化遗传学、发育生物学、神经生物学、行为学等领域开展了系列研究,取得了重要进展,国际著名杂志《昆虫分子生物学》和《遗传》还以特刊的形式进行刊载.本文就金小蜂基因组学相关研究取得的进展予以扼要概述,并探讨其研究方向和发展前景.%Nasonia is not only an important insect natural enemy but also an ideal model organism. On Jan. 15, 2010, the genomes of Nasonia vitripennis, N. Giraulti, and N. Longicomis were published in the journal Science. For Nasonia, the " post-genomic era" started with this event. The sequencing of these Nasonia genomes opens new doors to study many aspects of Nasonia, including genetics, evolution, developmental biology, neurobiology and behavior using the tools of bioinformatics, comparative genomics, and functional genomics. Many articles have been prompted by the publication of the Nasonia genome sequence. Special issues of Insect Molecular Biology and Heredity contain most of the recent findings of the Nasonia Genome Project. Here, recent publications related to Nasonia genomics are reviewed briefly, and opportunities for research and future perspectives discussed.

  1. A sex allocation cost to polyandry in a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Rebecca A; Shuker, David M

    2015-06-01

    The costs and benefits of polyandry are central to understanding the near-ubiquity of female multiple mating. Here, we present evidence of a novel cost of polyandry: disrupted sex allocation. In Nasonia vitripennis, a species that is monandrous in the wild but engages in polyandry under laboratory culture conditions, sexual harassment during oviposition results in increased production of sons under conditions that favour female-biased sex ratios. In addition, females more likely to re-mate under harassment produce the least female-biased sex ratios, and these females are unable to mitigate this cost by increasing offspring production. Our results therefore argue that polyandry does not serve to mitigate the costs of harassment (convenience polyandry) in Nasonia. Furthermore, because males benefit from female-biased offspring sex ratios, harassment of ovipositing females also creates a novel cost of that harassment for males.

  2. Maternal control of haplodiploid sex determination in the wasp Nasonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, Eveline C.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; van de Zande, Louis

    2010-01-01

    All insects in the order Hymenoptera have haplodiploid sex determination, in which males emerge from haploid unfertilized eggs and females are diploid. Sex determination in the honeybee Apis mellifera is controlled by the complementary sex determination (csd) locus, but the mechanisms controlling

  3. Parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera from puparia of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana OLIVA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registró la emergencia de parasitoides (Hymenoptera de crías experimentales de Diptera sarcosaprófagas (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, atraídas a cebos de carne bovina, en Buenos Aires (Argentina durante 1998-2003. Se determinaron cuatro taxones: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae, Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius (Chalcididae, Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Pteromaliidae y Alysia sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae. Sólo las dos primeras especies resultaron abundantes en todos los años. Se ha graficado el número total de emergencias de cada especie para cada mes, junto con las temperaturas promedio máxima y mínima.

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06617-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hia ricini cDNA, clone: S06A01NCLL0013_... 64 1e-23 5 ( ES626582 ) NGPR004TR NGPP Nasonia giraulti cDNA, mRN...0003_... 64 1e-23 5 ( ES616317 ) NGPBA47TR NGPA Nasonia giraulti cDNA, mRNA sequence. 107 1e-23 2 ( ES645468...nis (wasp) pre-pupal E... 107 1e-23 2 ( ES623305 ) NGPP735TR NGPP Nasonia girault...23 2 ( EB079608 ) EST1230230 Nasonia vitripennis (wasp) pre-pupal E... 107 1e-23 2 ( ES621144 ) NGPE008TR NGPA Nasonia giraul...dult... 107 2e-23 2 ( ES630760 ) NGPT140TR NGPP Nasonia giraulti cDNA, mRNA sequence. 107 2e-23 2 ( ES624436

  5. Biology of Pseudoligosita plebeia (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Homalodisca spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) collected from northwestern Mexico as a potential biocontrol agent of H. Vitripennis in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, J M; Bernal, J S; Morse, J G

    2012-10-01

    Pseudoligosita plebeia (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is a candidate biological control agent targeting the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California. Little is known about the biology of P. plebeia. Here we report the results of laboratory studies describing the longevity of P. plebeia adults provided alternative food resources, their ability to parasitize H. vitripennis eggs of different ages, lifetime offspring production when provided steady access to excess host eggs, and levels of mature ovarian eggs present when wasps were held without access to hosts. P. plebeia is a gregarious parasitoid, with up to six adults emerging from a single H. vitripennis egg. When provided with honey and water, water alone, or no food or water, P. plebeia adult females lived an average of 64.1, 2.3, and 2.0 d, respectively. P. plebeia were able to successfully parasitize all ages of H. vitripennis eggs (1-8 d old), with higher parasitism in younger host eggs (1-3 d old) than in older host eggs (5-7 d old). An increasing trend in offspring production was seen for P. plebeia from adult age 2-26 d followed by a decreasing trend with offspring produced up to age 75 d. P. plebeia females are at least partially synovigenic, as they contained fewer mature eggs at younger ages (1 and 3 d old) than at older ages (5, 11, 15, and 31 d old). Our results provide foundational information regarding the biology of P. plebeia useful for its further evaluation as a potential biological control agent in California.

  6. Population Genetics of a Parasitic Chromosome : Theoretical Analysis of PSR in Subdivided Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Wu, Chung-I

    1993-01-01

    An assemblage of non-Mendelian sex ratio elements occurs in natural populations of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. These include Maternal Sex Ratio (MSR), a cytoplasmic element that causes nearly all-female families, and Paternal Sex Ratio (PSR), a B chromosome that causes all-male families

  7. Population Genetics of a Parasitic Chromosome : Experimental Analysis of PSR in Subdivided Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Werren, John H.; Charlesworth, B.

    1992-01-01

    Nasonia vitripennis is a parasitoid wasp that harbors several non-Mendelian sex-ratio distorters. These include MSR (Maternal Sex Ratio), a cytoplasmic element that causes nearly all-female families, and PSR (Paternal Sex Ratio), a supernumerary chromosome that causes all-male families. As in other

  8. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - VI. WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Hinse, T. C.; Burgdorf, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present time series photometric observations of 13 transits in the planetary systems WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26. All three systems have orbital obliquity measurements, WASP-24 and WASP-26 have been observed with Spitzer, and WASP-25 was previously comparatively neglected. Our light curves we...

  9. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - VI. WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Hinse, T. C.; Burgdorf, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present time series photometric observations of 13 transits in the planetary systems WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26. All three systems have orbital obliquity measurements, WASP-24 and WASP-26 have been observed with Spitzer, and WASP-25 was previously comparatively neglected. Our light curves we...

  10. WASP-South transiting exoplanets: WASP-130b, WASP-131b, WASP-132b, WASP-139b, WASP-140b, WASP-141b & WASP-142b

    CERN Document Server

    Hellier, Coel; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Gillon, M; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; Wagg, T; West, R G

    2016-01-01

    We describe seven new exoplanets transiting stars of V = 10.1 to 12.4. WASP-130b is a "warm Jupiter" having an orbital period of 11.6 d, the longest yet found by WASP. It transits a V = 11.1, G6 star with [Fe/H] = +0.26. Warm Jupiters tend to have smaller radii than hot Jupiters, and WASP-130b is in line with this trend (1.23 Mjup; 0.89 Rjup). WASP-131b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.27 Mjup; 1.22 Rjup). Its large scale height coupled with the V = 10.1 brightness of its host star make the planet a good target for atmospheric characterisation. WASP-132b is among the least irradiated and coolest of WASP planets, being in a 7.1-d orbit around a K4 star. It has a low mass and a modest radius (0.41 Mjup; 0.87 Rjup). The V = 12.4, [Fe/H] = +0.22 star shows a possible rotational modulation at 33 d. WASP-139b is the lowest-mass planet yet found by WASP, at 0.12 Mjup and 0.80 Rjup. It is a "super-Neptune" akin to HATS-7b and HATS-8b. It orbits a V = 12.4, [Fe/H] = +0.20, K0 star. The star appears to be anomalously...

  11. Natural variation in memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasps : from genes to behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.

    2014-01-01

      The ability to learn and form memory has been demonstrated in various animal species, ranging from relatively simple invertebrates, such as snails and insects, to more complex vertebrate species, including birds and mammals. The opportunity to acquire new skills or to adapt behaviour through

  12. Cuticular hydrocarbon divergence in the jewel wasp Nasonia : evolutionary shifts in chemical communication channels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buellesbach, J.; Gadau, J.; Beukeboom, L. W.; Echinger, F.; Raychoudhury, R.; Werren, J. H.; Schmitt, T.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution and maintenance of intraspecific communication channels constitute a key feature of chemical signalling and sexual communication. However, how divergent chemical communication channels evolve while maintaining their integrity for both sender and receiver is poorly understood. In this s

  13. Natural variation in memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasps : from genes to behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.

    2014-01-01

      The ability to learn and form memory has been demonstrated in various animal species, ranging from relatively simple invertebrates, such as snails and insects, to more complex vertebrate species, including birds and mammals. The opportunity to acquire new skills or to adapt behaviour through

  14. Recombination and its impact on the genome of the haplodiploid parasitoid wasp Nasonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehuis, Oliver; Gibson, Joshua D.; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Pannebakker, Bart A.; Koevoets, Tosca; Judson, Andrea K.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Kennedy, Kathleen; Duggan, David; Beukeboom, Leo W.; van de Zande, Louis; Shuker, David M.; Werren, John H.; Gadau, Juergen; Gadau, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Homologous meiotic recombination occurs in most sexually reproducing organisms, yet its evolutionary advantages are elusive. Previous research explored recombination in the honeybee, a eusocial hymenopteran with an exceptionally high genome-wide recombination rate. A comparable study in a non-social

  15. Parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera from puparia of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae in Buenos Aires, Argentina Avispas parasitoides (Hymenoptera a partir de puparios de moscas sarcosaprófagas (Diptera: Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of parasitoid Hymenoptera from experimental rearings of sarcosaprophagous Diptera (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae attracted to beef baits were recorded in Buenos Aires (Argentina from 1998 to 2003. Four taxa were identified: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae, Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius (Chalcididae, Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Pteromaliidae and Alysia sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae. Only the first two species were abundant in all years. The number of added monthly emergences of each species is presented and correlated with monthly mean maximum-minimum temperatures.Se registró la emergencia de parasitoides (Hymenoptera de crías experimentales de Diptera sarcosaprófagas (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, atraídas a cebos de carne bovina, en Buenos Aires (Argentina durante 1998-2003. Se determinaron cuatro taxones: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae, Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius (Chalcididae, Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Pteromaliidae y Alysia sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae. Sólo las dos primeras especies resultaron abundantes en todos los años. Se ha graficado el número total de emergencias de cada especie para cada mes, junto con las temperaturas promedio máxima y mínima.

  16. Sequencing and de novo assembly of the transcriptome of the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Sekhar Nandety

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is a xylem-feeding leafhopper and important vector of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa; the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines. The functional complexity of the transcriptome of H. vitripennis has not been elucidated thus far. It is a necessary blueprint for an understanding of the development of H. vitripennis and for designing efficient biorational control strategies including those based on RNA interference. RESULTS: Here we elucidate and explore the transcriptome of adult H. vitripennis using high-throughput paired end deep sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 32,803,656 paired-end reads were obtained with an average transcript length of 624 nucleotides. We assembled 32.9 Mb of the transcriptome of H. vitripennis that spanned across 47,265 loci and 52,708 transcripts. Comparison of our non-redundant database showed that 45% of the deduced proteins of H. vitripennis exhibit identity (e-value ≤1(-5 with known proteins. We assigned Gene Ontology (GO terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG annotations, and potential Pfam domains to each transcript isoform. In order to gain insight into the molecular basis of key regulatory genes of H. vitripennis, we characterized predicted proteins involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, and biogenesis of small RNAs (Dicer and Piwi sequences from the transcriptomic sequences. Analysis of transposable element sequences of H. vitripennis indicated that the genome is less expanded in comparison to many other insects with approximately 1% of the transcriptome carrying transposable elements. CONCLUSIONS: Our data significantly enhance the molecular resources available for future study and control of this economically important hemipteran. This transcriptional information not only provides a more nuanced understanding of the underlying biological and physiological mechanisms that

  17. WASP-South transiting exoplanets: WASP-130b, WASP-131b, WASP-132b, WASP-139b, WASP-140b, WASP-141b and WASP-142b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, C.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Wagg, T.; West, R. G.

    2017-03-01

    We describe seven exoplanets transiting stars of brightness V = 10.1-12.4. WASP-130b is a 'warm Jupiter' having an orbital period of 11.6 d around a metal-rich G6 star. Its mass and radius (1.23 ± 0.04 MJup and 0.89 ± 0.03 RJup) support the trend that warm Jupiters have smaller radii than hot Jupiters. WASP-131b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.27 MJup and 1.22 RJup). Its large scaleheight and bright (V = 10.1) host star make it a good target for atmospheric characterization. WASP-132b (0.41 MJup and 0.87 RJup) is among the least irradiated and coolest of WASP planets, having a 7.1-d orbit around a K4 star. WASP-139b is a 'super-Neptune' akin to HATS-7b and HATS-8b, being the lowest mass planet yet found by WASP (0.12 MJup and 0.80 RJup). The metal-rich K0 host star appears to be anomalously dense, akin to HAT-P-11. WASP-140b is a 2.4-MJup planet in an eccentric (e = 0.047 ± 0.004) 2.2-d orbit. The planet's radius is large (1.4 RJup), but uncertain owing to the grazing transit (b = 0.93). The 10.4-d rotation period of the K0 host star suggests a young age, and the time-scale for tidal circularization is likely to be the lowest of all known eccentric hot Jupiters. WASP-141b (2.7 MJup, 1.2 RJup and P = 3.3 d) and WASP-142b (0.84 MJup, 1.53 RJup and P = 2.1 d) are typical hot Jupiters orbiting metal-rich F stars. We show that the period distribution within the hot-Jupiter bulge does not depend on the metallicity of the host star.

  18. Three WASP-South Transiting Exoplanets: WASP-74b, WASP-83b, and WASP-89b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2015-07-01

    We report the discovery of three new transiting hot Jupiters by WASP-South together with the TRAPPIST photometer and the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. WASP-74b orbits a star of V = 9.7, making it one of the brighter systems accessible to southern telescopes. It is a 0.95MJup planet with a moderately bloated radius of 1.5 {R}{Jup} in a 2 day orbit around a slightly evolved F9 star. WASP-83b is a Saturn-mass planet at 0.3 {M}{Jup} with a radius of 1.0 {R}{Jup}. It is in a 5 day orbit around a fainter (V = 12.9) G8 star. WASP-89b is a 6 MJup planet in a 3 day orbit with an eccentricity of e = 0.2. It is thus similar to massive, eccentric planets such as XO-3b and HAT-P-2b, except that those planets orbit F stars whereas WASP-89 is a K star. The V = 13.1 host star is magnetically active, showing a rotation period of 20.2 days, while star spots are visible in the transits. There are indications that the planet’s orbit is aligned with the stellar spin. WASP-89 is a good target for an extensive study of transits of star spots.

  19. Three WASP-South transiting exoplanets: WASP-74b, WASP-83b & WASP-89b

    CERN Document Server

    Hellier, Coel; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Gillon, M; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Turner, O D; Udry, S; West, R G

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of three new transiting hot Jupiters by WASP-South together with the TRAPPIST photometer and the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. WASP-74b orbits a star of V = 9.7, making it one of the brighter systems accessible to Southern telescopes. It is a 0.95 M_Jup planet with a moderately bloated radius of 1.5 R_Jup in a 2-d orbit around a slightly evolved F9 star. WASP-83b is a Saturn-mass planet at 0.3 M_Jup with a radius of 1.0 R_Jup. It is in a 5-d orbit around a fainter (V = 12.9) G8 star. WASP-89b is a 6 M_Jup planet in a 3-d orbit with an eccentricity of e = 0.2. It is thus similar to massive, eccentric planets such as XO-3b and HAT-P-2b, except that those planets orbit F stars whereas WASP-89 is a K star. The V = 13.1 host star is magnetically active, showing a rotation period of 20.2 d, while star spots are visible in the transits. There are indications that the planet's orbit is aligned with the stellar spin. WASP-89 is a good target for an extensive study of transits of star spots.

  20. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing. VI. WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John; Burgdorf, M; Novati, S Calchi; Dominik, M; Galianni, P; Gerner, T; Giannini, E; Gu, S -H; Hundertmark, M; Jorgensen, U G; Juncher, D; Kerins, E; Mancini, L; Rabus, M; Ricci, D; Schaefer, S; Skottfelt, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Wang, X -B; Wertz, O; Alsubai, K A; Andersen, J M; Bozza, V; Bramich, D M; Browne, P; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Damerdji, Y; Diehl, C; Dodds, P; Elyiv, A; Fang, X -S; Finet, F; Jaimes, R Figuera; Hardis, S; Harpsoe, K; Jessen-Hansen, J; Kains, N; Kjeldsen, H; Korhonen, H; Liebig, C; Lund, M N; Lundkvist, M; Mathiasen, M; Penny, M T; Popovas, A; Proft, S; Rahvar, S; Sahu, K; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R W; Schoenebeck, F; Snodgrass, C; Street, R A; Surdej, J; Tsapras, Y; Vilela, C

    2014-01-01

    We present time-series photometric observations of thirteen transits in the planetary systems WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26. All three systems have orbital obliquity measurements, WASP-24 and WASP-26 have been observed with Spitzer, and WASP-25 was previously comparatively neglected. Our light curves were obtained using the telescope-defocussing method and have scatters of 0.5 to 1.2 mmag relative to their best-fitting geometric models. We used these data to measure the physical properties and orbital ephemerides of the systems to high precision, finding that our improved measurements are in good agreement with previous studies. High-resolution Lucky Imaging observations of all three targets show no evidence for faint stars close enough to contaminate our photometry. We confirm the eclipsing nature of the star closest to WASP-24 and present the detection of a detached eclipsing binary within 4.25 arcmin of WASP-26.

  1. Functional and evolutionary insights from the genomes of three parasitoid Nasonia species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werren, John H; Richards, Stephen; Desjardins, Christopher A

    2010-01-01

    genetic model, particularly for evolutionary and developmental genetics. Key findings include the identification of a functional DNA methylation tool kit; hymenopteran-specific genes including diverse venoms; lateral gene transfers among Pox viruses, Wolbachia, and Nasonia; and the rapid evolution...... of parasitoids as pest insect-control agents....

  2. Comparison of sampling methods for determining relative densities of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Four sampling methods that included A-Vac, D-Vac, pole-bucket, and beat-net devices were evaluated for estimating relative densities of glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)) nymphs and adults on citrus trees. All four methods produced similar temporal and spatial distribut...

  3. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  4. Suitability of non-fertilized eggs of Homalodisca vitripennis for the egg parasitoid Gonatocerus morrili

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonatocerus morrili (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a natural enemy used in California, USA to control glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Virgin GWSS females deposit non-fertilized eggs and mated females can exhaust sperm reserves for ...

  5. Propagation of Homalodisca Coagulata Virus-01 via Homalodisca Vitripennis cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) is a highly vagile and polyphagous insect found throughout the southwestern United States. These insects are the predominant vectors of Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-limited bacterium that is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevin...

  6. Starspots on WASP-85

    CERN Document Server

    Močnik, T; Anderson, D R; Hellier, C; Brown, D J A

    2015-01-01

    By analysing K2 short-cadence observations we detect starspots on WASP-85A, the host star of the hot Jupiter WASP-85Ab. The star shows a rotational modulation with a period of 13.6 $\\pm$ 0.1 d. The absence of repeated occultations of the same spots suggests that the planet's orbit is not aligned with the star's rotational axis ($\\lambda>10^{\\circ}$). There are no significant transit-timing variations and thus no evidence of any additional planet in the system. Given the pronounced rotational modulation we are only able to place an upper limit of 100 parts per million for any phase-curve modulations and the secondary eclipse.

  7. Meeting in Turkey: WASP Transport Modeling and WASP Ecological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A combination of lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on excercises will be used to introduce pollutant transport modeling with the U.S. EPA's general water quality model, WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program). WASP features include a user-friendly Windows-based interfa...

  8. Grapevines respond to glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) oviposition by increasing local and systemic terpenoid levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera) have been observed to respond to oviposition by glassy-winged sharpshooters [Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)] by producing volatile compounds that attract egg parasitoids such as Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Recent work ...

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-42 and WASP-49 photometry and velocities (Lendl+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Segransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2012-07-01

    We present photometric time-series obtained by the Euler-Swiss, TRAPPIST and FTS telescopes obtained during transits of WASP-42 b and WASP-49 b. We also present radial-velocity measurements of WASP-42 obtained with HARPS and CORALIE radial-velocity measurements of WASP-42 and WASP-49. (2 data files).

  10. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing. VIII. WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42 and WASP-55

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John; Andersen, M I; Novati, S Calchi; Ciceri, S; Colque, J P; D'Ago, G; Dominik, M; Evans, D; Gu, S -H; Herrera-Cruces, A; Hinse, T C; Jorgensen, U G; Juncher, D; Kuffmeier, M; Mancini, L; Peixinho, N; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Skottfelt, J; Tronsgaard, R; Unda-Sanzana, E; Wang, X -B; Wertz, O; Alsubai, K A; Andersen, J M; Bozza, V; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M; Damerdji, Y; Diehl, C; Elyiv, A; Jaimes, R Figuera; Haugbolle, T; Hundertmark, M; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Liebig, C; Mathiasen, M; Penny, M T; Rahvar, S; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R W; Snodgrass, C; Starkey, D; Surdej, J; Vilela, C; von Essen, C; Wang, Y

    2015-01-01

    We present 13 high-precision and four additional light curves of four bright southern-hemisphere transiting planetary systems: WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42 and WASP-55. In the cases of WASP-42 and WASP-55, these are the first follow-up observations since their discovery papers. We present refined measurements of the physical properties and orbital ephemerides of all four systems. No indications of transit timing variations were seen. All four planets have radii inflated above those expected from theoretical models of gas-giant planets; WASP-55b is the most discrepant with a mass of 0.63 Mjup and a radius of 1.34 Rjup. WASP-41 shows brightness anomalies during transit due to the planet occulting spots on the stellar surface. Two anomalies observed 3.1 d apart are very likely due to the same spot. We measure its change in position and determine a rotation period for the host star of 18.6 +/- 1.5 d, in good agreement with a published measurement from spot-induced brightness modulation, and a sky-projected orbital o...

  11. Hybrid incompatibilities in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia : Negative effects of hemizygosity and the identification of transmission ratio distortion loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koevoets, T.; Niehuis, O.; van de Zande, L.; Beukeboom, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of hybrid incompatibilities forms an important stage during the evolution of reproductive isolation. In early stages of speciation, males and females often respond differently to hybridization. Haldane's rule states that the heterogametic sex suffers more from hybridization than the h

  12. Hybrid incompatibilities in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia : Negative effects of hemizygosity and the identification of transmission ratio distortion loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koevoets, T.; Niehuis, O.; van de Zande, L.; Beukeboom, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of hybrid incompatibilities forms an important stage during the evolution of reproductive isolation. In early stages of speciation, males and females often respond differently to hybridization. Haldane's rule states that the heterogametic sex suffers more from hybridization than the h

  13. WASp identity theft by a bacterial effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty-Clarke, Karen; Goode, Bruce L

    2008-09-01

    EspF(U), a protein secreted by pathogenic enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), activates N-WASp/WASp to induce actin pedestal formation in host cells. Two recent papers in Nature show that EspF(U) exploits a WASp activation strategy so extreme that it may effectively sequester WASp, blinding it to both autoinhibition and cellular regulation.

  14. Behavioural flexibility of the chemical defence in the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, Johannes; Machacek, Zora; Ruther, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Many insects use chemical defence mechanisms to defend themselves against predators. However, defensive secretions are costly to produce and should thus only be used in cases of real danger. This would require that insects are able to discriminate between predators to adjust their chemical defence. Here, we show that females of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma adjust the intensity of their chemical defence to differently sized predators. If attacked by Myrmica ants, the females always released their defensive secretion, which consists mainly of (-)-iridomyrmecin. However, if attacked by smaller Cardiocondyla ants, most females did not release any defensive spray, irrespective of the duration of the ant's aggression. When in contact with non-aggressive Nasonia wasps, the females of L. heterotoma did not release any defensive secretion. Our data show that females of L. heterotoma are able to discriminate between two predators and suggest that a predator of a certain size or strength is necessary to trigger the chemical defence mechanism of L. heterotoma.

  15. Rossiter-McLaughlin Effect Measurements for WASP-16, WASP-25 and WASP-31

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, D J A; Anderson, D R; Enoch, B; Hellier, C; Maxted, P F L; Miller, G R M; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Simpson, E; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; Boisse, I; Bouchy, F; Gillon, M; Hebrard, G

    2012-01-01

    We present new measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect for three WASP planetary systems, WASP-16, WASP-25 and WASP-31, from a combined analysis of their complete sets of photometric and spectroscopic data. We find a low amplitude RM effect for WASP-16 (Teff = 5700 \\pm 150K), suggesting that the star is a slow rotator and thus of an advanced age, and obtain a projected alignment angle of lambda = -4.2 degrees +11.0 -13.9. For WASP-25 (Teff = 5750\\pm100K) we detect a projected spin-orbit angle of lambda = 14.6 degrees \\pm6.7. WASP-31 (Teff = 6300\\pm100K) is found to be well-aligned, with a projected spin-orbit angle of lambda = 2.8degrees \\pm3.1. A circular orbit is consistent with the data for all three systems, in agreement with their respective discovery papers. We consider the results for these systems in the context of the ensemble of RM measurements made to date. We find that whilst WASP-16 fits the hypothesis of Winn et al. (2010) that 'cool' stars (Teff < 6250K) are preferentially aligned...

  16. A Venom Gland Extracellular Chitin-Binding-Like Protein from Pupal Endoparasitoid Wasps, Pteromalus Puparum, Selectively Binds Chitin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitin-binding proteins (CBPs are present in many species and they act in a variety of biological processes. We analyzed a Pteromalus puparum venom apparatus proteome and transcriptome and identified a partial gene encoding a possible CBP. Here, we report cloning a full-length cDNA of a sequence encoding a chitin-binding-like protein (PpCBP from P. puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid of Pieris rapae. The cDNA encoded a 96-amino-acid protein, including a secretory signal peptide and a chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain. Phylogenetic analysis of chitin binding domains (CBDs of cuticle proteins and peritrophic matrix proteins in selected insects revealed that the CBD of PpCBP clustered with the CBD of Nasonia vitripennis. The PpCBP is specifically expressed in the venom apparatus of P. puparum, mostly in the venom gland. PpCBP expression was highest at day one after adult eclosion and much lower for the following five days. We produced a recombinant PpCBP and binding assays showed the recombinant protein selectively binds chitin but not cellulose in vitro. We infer that PpCBP serves a structural role in the venom reservoir, or may be injected into the host to help wound healing of the host exoskeleton.

  17. WAsP engineering DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Astrup, Poul; Kristensen, Leif;

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 1.0 DK - Vindforhold for vindmølledesign. WAsP Engineering is a series of experimental and theoretical activities concerning properties of the winds in moderately complexterrain with relevance for loads on wind turbines...... and other large structures. These properties include extreme winds, wind shear and turbulence. Most of the models have been integrated in a windows program prototype, also called WAsP Engineering. Thebasic mean flow model LINCOM has been changed in several respects to accommodate the demands from load...

  18. WAsP engineering 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Jørgensen, B.H.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulencein complex terrain. At the web page http......://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complexterrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison...... with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, ispointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological "reanalysis" data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate...

  19. Small RNA populations for two unrelated viruses exhibit different biases in strand polarity and proximity to terminal sequences in the insect host Homalodisca vitripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next generation sequencing was used to analyze virus-derived small RNA (vsRNA) profiles for two taxonomically unrelated viruses infecting Homalodisca vitripennis, the glassy winged sharpshooter. Homalodisca coagulata virus-1 (HoCV-1), family Dicistroviridae, and Homalodisca vitripennis virus (HoVRV)...

  20. Plant water stress effects on stylet probing behaviors of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with acquisition and inoculation of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, is a xylem fluid-ingesting leafhopper that transmits Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of several plant diseases in the Americas. While the role of plant water stress on the population density and dispersal of H. vitripennis has been studie...

  1. Identification of Novel and Conserved microRNAs in Homalodisca vitripennis, the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter by Expression Profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Sekhar Nandety

    Full Text Available The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is a xylem-feeding leafhopper and an important vector of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa; the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines. MicroRNAs are a class of small RNAs that play an important role in the functional development of various organisms including insects. In H. vitripennis, we identified microRNAs using high-throughput deep sequencing of adults followed by computational and manual annotation. A total of 14 novel microRNAs that are not found in the miRBase were identified from adult H. vitripennis. Conserved microRNAs were also found in our datasets. By comparison to our previously determined transcriptome sequence of H. vitripennis, we identified the potential targets of the microRNAs in the transcriptome. This microRNA profile information not only provides a more nuanced understanding of the biological and physiological mechanisms that govern gene expression in H. vitripennis, but may also lead to the identification of novel mechanisms for biorationally designed management strategies through the use of microRNAs.

  2. Five transiting hot Jupiters discovered using WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-119 b, WASP-124 b, WASP-126 b, WASP-129 b and WASP-133 b

    CERN Document Server

    Maxted, P F L; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; Wagg, T; West, R G

    2016-01-01

    We have used photometry from the WASP-South instrument to identify 5 stars showing planet-like transits in their light curves. The planetary nature of the companions to these stars has been confirmed using photometry from the EulerCam instrument on the Swiss Euler 1.2-m telescope and the TRAPPIST telescope, and spectroscopy obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph. The planets discovered are hot Jupiter systems with orbital periods in the range 2.17 to 5.75 days, masses from 0.3M$_{\\rm Jup}$ to 1.2M$_{\\rm Jup}$ and with radii from 1R$_{\\rm Jup}$ to 1.5R$_{\\rm Jup}$. These planets orbit bright stars (V = 11-13) with spectral types in the range F9 to G4. WASP-126 is the brightest planetary system in this sample and hosts a low-mass planet with a large radius (0.3 M$_{\\rm Jup}$ , 0.95R$_{\\rm Jup}$), making it a good target for transmission spectroscopy. The high density of WASP-129 A suggests that it is a helium-rich star similar to HAT-P-11 A. WASP-133 has an enhanced surface lithium abundance compared to other o...

  3. Multi-band characterization of the hot Jupiters: WASP-5b, WASP-44b and WASP-46b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, M.; Almeida, L. A.; von Essen, C.; Jablonski, F.; Pereira, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We have carried out a campaign to characterize the hot Jupiters WASP-5b, WASP-44b and WASP-46b using multiband photometry collected at the Observatório do Pico Dos Dias in Brazil. We have determined the planetary physical properties and new transit ephemerides for these systems. The new orbital parameters and physical properties of WASP-5b and WASP-44b are consistent with previous estimates. In the case of WASP-46b, there is some quota of disagreement between previous results. We provide a new determination of the radius of this planet and help clarify the previous differences. We also studied the transit time variations including our new measurements. No clear variation from a linear trend was found for the systems WASP-5b and WASP-44b. In the case of WASP-46b, we found evidence of deviations indicating the presence of a companion but statistical analysis of the existing times points to a signal due to the sampling rather than a new planet. Finally, we studied the fractional radius variation as a function of wavelength for these systems. The broad-band spectrums of WASP-5b and WASP-44b are mostly flat. In the case of WASP-46b we found a trend, but further measurements are necessary to confirm this finding.

  4. Transiting hot Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-95b to WASP-101b

    CERN Document Server

    Hellier, Coel; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Gillon, M; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; West, R G

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-95b, WASP-96b, WASP-97b, WASP-98b, WASP-99b, WASP-100b and WASP-101b. All are hot Jupiters with orbital periods in the range 2.1 to 5.7 d, masses of 0.5 to 2.8 Mjup, and radii of 1.1 to 1.4 Rjup. The orbits of all the planets are compatible with zero eccentricity. WASP-99b shows the shallowest transit yet found by WASP-South, at 0.4%. The host stars are of spectral type F2 to G8. Five have metallicities of [Fe/H] from -0.03 to +0.23, while WASP-98 has a metallicity of -0.60, exceptionally low for a star with a transiting exoplanet. Five of the host stars are brighter than V = 10.8, which significantly extends the number of bright transiting systems available for follow-up studies. WASP-95 shows a possible rotational modulation at a period of 20.7 d. We discuss the completeness of WASP survey techniques by comparing to the HAT project.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-68b, WASP-73b, WASP-88b transits (Delrez+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrez, L.; Van Grootel, V.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Photometric and RV time-series obtained for the three hot Jupiters WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b. The photometric time-series were obtained using the TRAPPIST and Euler-Swiss telescopes. The RVs were obtained using the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. (9 data files).

  6. Transiting hot Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-95b to WASP-101b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2014-05-01

    We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-95b, WASP-96b, WASP-97b, WASP-98b, WASP-99b, WASP-100b and WASP-101b. All are hot Jupiters with orbital periods in the range 2.1-5.7 d, masses of 0.5-2.8 MJup and radii of 1.1-1.4 RJup. The orbits of all the planets are compatible with zero eccentricity. WASP-99b produces the shallowest transit yet found by WASP-South, at 0.4 per cent. The host stars are of spectral type F2-G8. Five have metallicities of [Fe/H] from -0.03 to +0.23, while WASP-98 has a metallicity of -0.60, exceptionally low for a star with a transiting exoplanet. Five of the host stars are brighter than V = 10.8, which significantly extends the number of bright transiting systems available for follow-up studies. WASP-95 shows a possible rotational modulation at a period of 20.7 d. We discuss the completeness of WASP survey techniques by comparing to the HATnet project.

  7. A New Component of the Nasonia Sex Determining Cascade Is Maternally Silenced and Regulates Transformer Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Daniel; Beukeboom, Leo W.; van de Zande, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Although sex determination is a universal process in sexually reproducing organisms, sex determination pathways are among the most highly variable genetic systems found in nature. Nevertheless, general principles can be identified among the diversity, like the central role of transformer (tra) in insects. When a functional TRA protein is produced in early embryogenesis, the female sex determining route is activated, while prevention of TRA production leads to male development. In dipterans, male development is achieved by prevention of female-specific splicing of tra mRNA, either mediated by X-chromosome dose or masculinizing factors. In Hymenoptera, which have haplodiploid sex determination, complementary sex determination and maternal imprinting have been identified to regulate timely TRA production. In the parasitoid Nasonia, zygotic transformer (Nvtra) expression and splicing is regulated by a combination of maternal provision of Nvtra mRNA and silencing of Nvtra expression in unfertilized eggs. It is unclear, however, if this silencing is directly on the tra locus or whether it is mediated through maternal silencing of a trans-acting factor. Here we show that in Nasonia, female sex determination is dependent on zygotic activation of Nvtra expression by an as yet unknown factor. This factor, which we propose to term womanizer (wom), is maternally silenced during oogenesis to ensure male development in unfertilized eggs. This finding implicates the upstream recruitment of a novel gene in the Nasonia sex determining cascade and supports the notion that sex determining cascades can rapidly change by adding new components on top of existing regulators. PMID:23717455

  8. Data mining cDNAs reveals three new single stranded RNA viruses in Nasonia (Hymenopetera:Pteromalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymenopteran viruses may provide insights into colony collapse disorder in honey bees and other insect species. Three novel small RNA viruses were discovered during the genomics effort for the beneficial parasitoid of flies in the genus Nasonia (Hymenoptera). Genomics provides a great deal of inform...

  9. Five transiting hot Jupiters discovered using WASP-South, Euler, and TRAPPIST: WASP-119 b, WASP-124 b, WASP-126 b, WASP-129 b, and WASP-133 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Wagg, T.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    We have used photometry from the WASP-South instrument to identify 5 stars showing planet-like transits in their light curves. The planetary nature of the companions to these stars has been confirmed using photometry from the EulerCam instrument on the Swiss Euler 1.2-m telescope and the TRAPPIST telescope, and spectroscopy obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph. The planets discovered are hot Jupiter systems with orbital periods in the range 2.17 to 5.75 days, masses from 0.3 MJup to 1.2 MJup and with radii from 1 RJup to 1.5 RJup. These planets orbit bright stars (V = 11-13) with spectral types in the range F9 to G4. WASP-126 is the brightest planetary system in this sample and hosts a low-mass planet with a large radius (0.3 MJup,0.95 RJup), making it a good target for transmission spectroscopy. The high density of WASP-129 A suggests that it is a helium-rich star similar to HAT-P-11 A. WASP-133 A has an enhanced surface lithium abundance compared to other old G-type stars, particularly other planet host stars. These planetary systems are good targets for follow-up observations with ground-based and space-based facilities to study their atmospheric and dynamical properties. Full Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A55

  10. WASP-113b and WASP-114b, two inflated hot Jupiters with contrasting densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, S. C. C.; Brown, D. J. A.; Hébrard, G.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Anderson, D. R.; Boumis, P.; Delrez, L.; Hay, K. L.; Lam, K. W. F.; Llama, J.; Lendl, M.; McCormac, J.; Skiff, B.; Smalley, B.; Turner, O.; Vanhuysse, M.; Armstrong, D. J.; Boisse, I.; Bouchy, F.; Collier Cameron, A.; Faedi, F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Liakos, A.; Meaburn, J.; Osborn, H. P.; Pepe, F.; Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Rey, J.; Spake, J.; Ségransan, D.; Triaud, A. H. M.; Udry, S.; Walker, S. R.; Watson, C. A.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We present the discovery and characterisation of the exoplanets WASP-113b and WASP-114b by the WASP surveys, SOPHIE and CORALIE. Methods: The planetary nature of the systems was established by performing follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations. The follow-up data were combined with the WASP-photometry and analysed with an MCMC code to obtain system parameters. Results: The host stars WASP-113 and WASP-114 are very similar. They are both early G-type stars with an effective temperature of ~5900 K, [Fe/H] ~ 0.12, and log g~ 4.1 dex. However, WASP-113 is older than WASP-114. Although the planetary companions have similar radii, WASP-114b is almost four times heavier than WASP-113b. WASP-113b has a mass of 0.48 MJup and an orbital period of ~4.5 days; WASP-114b has a mass of 1.77 MJup and an orbital period of ~1.5 days. Both planets have inflated radii, in particular WASP-113 with a radius anomaly of ℜ = 0.35. The high scale height of WASP-113b (~950 km) makes it a good target for follow-up atmospheric observations.

  11. Modifications to the current WAsP engine for Online WAsP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Troen, Ib; Bechmann, Andreas

    This report documents the work performed in work package 3 of the Online WAsP EUDP project (Online WAsP for Small Wind Turbines). Specifically it is deliverable D3.1 "Report on modifications required to update current WAsP calculation engine".......This report documents the work performed in work package 3 of the Online WAsP EUDP project (Online WAsP for Small Wind Turbines). Specifically it is deliverable D3.1 "Report on modifications required to update current WAsP calculation engine"....

  12. Ichneumon wasp back in favour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, A.; Ramakers, P.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Aphidius matricariae wasp of the Ichneumon family was widely used to get rid of plant lice in greenhouse agriculture up to fifteen years ago. Since then, it has given way to its American cousin, Aphidius colemani. A comparative study by the Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture group has led to

  13. WASP-52b, WASP-58b, WASP-59b, and WASP-60b: four new transiting close-in giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Hebrard, G; Brown, D J A; Diaz, R F; Faedi, F; Smalley, B; Anderson, D R; Armstrong, D; Barros, S C C; Bento, J; Bouchy, F; Doyle, A P; Enoch, B; Chew, Y Gomez Maqueo; Hebrard, E M; Hellier, C; Lendl, M; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; McCormac, J; Moutou, C; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Santerne, A; Skillen, I; Southworth, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; Vanhuysse, M; Watson, C A; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of four new transiting hot jupiters, detected mainly from SuperWASP-North and SOPHIE observations. These new planets, WASP-52b, WASP-58b, WASP-59b, and WASP-60b, have orbital periods ranging from 1.7 to 7.9 days, masses between 0.46 and 0.94 M_Jup, and radii between 0.73 and 1.49 R_Jup. Their G1 to K5 dwarf host stars have V magnitudes in the range 11.7-13.0. The depths of the transits are between 0.6 and 2.7%, depending on the target. With their large radii, WASP-52b and 58b are new cases of low-density, inflated planets, whereas WASP-59b is likely to have a large, dense core. WASP-60 shows shallow transits. In the case of WASP-52 we also detected the Rossiter-McLaughlin anomaly via time-resolved spectroscopy of a transit. We measured the sky-projected obliquity lambda = 24 (+17/-9) degrees, indicating that WASP-52b orbits in the same direction as its host star is rotating and that this prograde orbit is slightly misaligned with the stellar equator. These four new planetary systems i...

  14. WAsP engineering 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Ott, S.; Hoffmann Joergensen, B.; Frank, H.P.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulence in complex terrain. At the web page http://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complex terrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, is pointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological 'reanalysis' data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate the extreme wind climate around Denmark. Among various alternative physical parameters in the database, such as surface winds, wind at various pressure levels or geostrophic winds at various heights, the surface geostrophic wind seems to give the most realistic results. Because of spatial filtering and intermittent temporal sampling the 50 year winds are underestimated by approximately 12%. Whether the method applies to larger areas of the world remains to be seen. The 50 year winds in Denmark is estimated from data using the flow model inWAsP Engineering and the values are approximately 1 m/s larger than previous analysis (Kristensen et al. 2000). A tool is developed to estimate crudely an extreme wind climate from a WAsP lib file. (au)

  15. Three irradiated and bloated hot Jupiters:. WASP-76b, WASP-82b, and WASP-90b

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. G.; Hellier, C.; Almenara, J.-M.; Anderson, D. R.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Deleuil, M.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Faedi, F.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hébrard, G.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report on three new transiting hot Jupiter planets, discovered from the WASP surveys, which we combine with radial velocities from OHP/SOPHIE and Euler/CORALIE and photometry from Euler and TRAPPIST. The planets WASP-76b, WASP-82b, and WASP-90b are all inflated, with radii of 1.7-1.8 RJup. All three orbit hot stars, of type F5-F7, with orbits of 1.8-3.9 d, and all three stars have evolved, post-main-sequence radii (1.7-2.2 R⊙). Thus the three planets fit a known trend of hot Jupiters that receive high levels of irradiation being highly inflated. We caution, though, about the presence of a selection effect, in that non-inflated planets around ~2 R⊙ post-MS stars can often produce transits too shallow to be detected by the ground-based surveys that have found the majority of transiting hot Jupiters. Tables of the photometry and radial velocity are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/585/A126

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-104b and WASP-106b photometry (Smith+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier, Cameron A.; Delrez, L.; Faedi, F.; Gillon, M.; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hebrard, G.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Louden, T. M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Montagnier, G.; Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Osborn, H. P.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Rostron, J. W.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; Walker, S. R.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2014-09-01

    The stars WASP-104 and WASP-106 were observed by SuperWASP-N from 2008 to 2011, and by WASP-South from 2009 to 2010. This differential survey photometry has been de-reddened and normalised. Further photometry was obtained using the TRAPPIST, Euler, Liverpool and Isaac Newton telescopes in 2013 and 2014. All these data are plotted in Figures 1 and 2. (1 data file).

  17. Spin-orbit alignments for Three Transiting Hot Jupiters: WASP-103b, WASP-87b, & WASP-66b

    CERN Document Server

    Addison, B C; Wright, D J; Bayliss, D

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the sky-projected spin-orbit alignments for three transiting Hot Jupiters, WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, using spectroscopic measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, with the CYCLOPS2 optical-fiber bundle system feeding the UCLES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The resulting sky projected spin-orbit angles of $\\lambda = 3^{\\circ}\\pm33^{\\circ}$, $\\lambda = -8^{\\circ}\\pm11^{\\circ}$, and $\\lambda = -4^{\\circ}\\pm22^{\\circ}$ for WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, respectively, suggest that these three planets are likely on nearly aligned orbits with respect to their host star's spin axis. WASP-103 is a particularly interesting system as its orbital distance is only 20% larger than its host star's Roche radius and the planet likely experiences strong tidal effects. WASP-87 and WASP-66 are hot ($T_{eff}=6450\\pm120$ K and $T_{eff}=6600\\pm150$ K, respectively) mid-F stars making them similar to the majority of stars hosting planets on high obliquity orbits. Moderate spin-or...

  18. Physical properties of the planetary systems WASP-45 and WASP-46 from simultaneous multiband photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciceri, S.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.

    2016-01-01

    -46 b was observed with the NTT obtaining a precision of 0.30 mmag with a cadence of roughly 3 min. We also obtained five new spectra of WASP-45 with the FEROS spectrograph. We improved by a factor of 4 the measurement of the radius of the planet WASP-45 b, and found that WASP-46 b is slightly less...

  19. Interference Competition and High Temperatures Reduce the Virulence of Fig Wasps and Stabilize a Fig-Wasp Mutualism

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Ridley, Jo; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi; Dunn, Derek W.; Cook, James; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Ya-ping; Yu, Douglas W.

    2009-01-01

    Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia (‘figs’) that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps) are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few...

  20. WASP-54b, WASP-56b and WASP-57b: Three new sub-Jupiter mass planets from SuperWASP

    CERN Document Server

    Faedi, F; Barros, S C C; Brown, D; Cameron, A Collier; Doyle, A P; Gillon, M; Chew, Y Gomez Maqueo; Hebrard, G; Lendl, M; Liebig, C; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Wheatley, P J; Alsubai, K A; Anderson, D R; Armstrong, D J; Bento, J; Bochinski, J; Bouchy, F; Busuttil, R; Fossati, L; Fumel, A; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Jehin, E; Kolb, U; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Moutou, C; Norton, A J; Parley, N; Queloz, D; Skillen, I; Smith, A M S; Udry, S; Watson, C

    2012-01-01

    We present three newly discovered sub-Jupiter mass planets from the SuperWASP survey: WASP-54b is a heavily bloated planet of mass 0.636$^{+0.025}_{-0.024}$ \\mj and radius 1.653$^{+0.090}_{-0.083}$ \\rj. It orbits a F9 star, evolving off the main sequence, every 3.69 days. Our MCMC fit of the system yields a slightly eccentric orbit ($e=0.067^{+0.033}_{-0.025}$) for WASP-54b. We investigated further the veracity of our detection of the eccentric orbit for WASP-54b, and we find that it could be real. However, given the brightness of WASP-54 V=10.42 magnitudes, we encourage observations of a secondary eclipse to draw robust conclusions on both the orbital eccentricity and the thermal structure of the planet. WASP-56b and WASP-57b have masses of 0.571$^{+0.034}_{-0.035}$ \\mj and $0.672^{+0.049}_{-0.046}$ \\mj, respectively; and radii of $1.092^{+0.035}_{-0.033}$ \\rj for WASP-56b and $0.916^{+0.017}_{-0.014}$ \\rj for WASP-57b. They orbit main sequence stars of spectral type G6 every 4.67 and 2.84 days, respectively...

  1. Seed and Wasp Production in the Mutualism of Figs and Fig Wasps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jin-yan; Zhao Nan-xian; Chen Yi-zhu; Jia Xiao-cheng; Deng Yuan; Yu Hui

    2005-01-01

    Figs (Moracea: Ficus) and fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chlocloids: Agaonideae) depend on each other to complete their reproduction. Monoecious fig species and their pollinating wasps are in conflict over the use of fig ovaries which can either produce one seed or one wasp. From observation on Ficus virens Ait., we showed that female flowers with outer layer of ovaries (near to the wall of syconium) had no significant difference from that with inner and interval layer of ovaries (near to the syconium cavity), in which most seeds and wasps were produced. This meant that fig tree provided the same potential resource for seed and wasps production. Observation indicated that there was usually only one foundress in syconium at female flower phase and no competition pollinators. Measurement of the style length of female flowers and the ovipositor of pollinators indicated that most ovaries could be reached by pollinator's ovipositor. However, at the male flower phase, production of seeds was significantly more than that of wasps including non-pollinating wasps but there was no significant difference between seed and pollinating wasp production when without non-pollinating wasps produced. This result indicated that non-pollinating wasps competed ovaries not with seeds but with pollinating wasps for ovipositing. Bagged experiment showed that the sampling fig species was not self-sterile which was important for figs and wasps to survive bad season. Seed production in self-pollinated figs was not significantly different from total wasps including non-pollinating ones. This might be related with the weaker competition among wasps since bagged figs were not easy to reach by wasps from outside.

  2. Pyrazines Attract Catocheilus Thynnine Wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn Bohman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five previously identified semiochemicals from the sexually deceptive Western Australian hammer orchid Drakaea livida, all showing electrophysiological activity in gas chromatography–electroantennogram detection (EAD studies, were tested in field bioassays as attractants for a Catocheilus thynnine wasp. Two of these compounds, (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-ylmethyl 3-methylbutanoate and 2-(3-methylbutyl-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, were attractive to male wasps. Additionally, the semiochemical 3-(3-methylbutyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, a close analogue to 2-(3-methylbutyl-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, identified in five other species of thynnine wasps, was equally active. The three remaining compounds from D. livida, which were EAD-active against Catocheilus, did not attract the insects in field trials. It is interesting that two structurally similar compounds induce similar behaviours in field experiments, yet only one of these compounds is present in the orchid flower. Our findings suggest the possibility that despite the high specificity normally characterising sex pheromone systems, the evolution of sexual deception may not be entirely constrained by the need to precisely match the sex pheromone constituents and blends. Such evolutionary flexibility may be particularly important during the early stages of speciation.

  3. WASP-52b, WASP-58b, WASP-59b, and WASP-60b: Four new transiting close-in giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébrard, G.; Collier Cameron, A.; Brown, D. J. A.; Díaz, R. F.; Faedi, F.; Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Armstrong, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bento, J.; Bouchy, F.; Doyle, A. P.; Enoch, B.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hébrard, É. M.; Hellier, C.; Lendl, M.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; McCormac, J.; Moutou, C.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Santerne, A.; Skillen, I.; Southworth, J.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Vanhuysse, M.; Watson, C. A.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of four new transiting hot Jupiters, detected mainly from SuperWASP-North and SOPHIE observations. These new planets, WASP-52b, WASP-58b, WASP-59b, and WASP-60b, have orbital periods ranging from 1.7 to 7.9 days, masses between 0.46 and 0.94 MJup, and radii between 0.73 and 1.49 RJup. Their G1 to K5 dwarf host stars have V magnitudes in the range 11.7-13.0. The depths of the transits are between 0.6 and 2.7%, depending on the target. With their large radii, WASP-52b and WASP-58b are new cases of low-density, inflated planets, whereas WASP-59b is likely to have a large, dense core. WASP-60 shows shallow transits. In the case of WASP-52 we also detected the Rossiter-McLaughlin anomaly via time-resolved spectroscopy of a transit. We measured the sky-projected obliquity λ = 24° +17-9, indicating that WASP-52b orbits in the same direction as its host star isrotating and that this prograde orbit is slightly misaligned with the stellar equator. These four new planetary systems increase our statistics on hot Jupiters and provide new targets for follow-up studies. Radial velocities (Table 4) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/549/A134

  4. Addendum: Qian, C.; Fang, Q.; Wang, L.; Ye, G.Y. Molecular Cloning and Functional Studies of Two Kazal-Type Serine Protease Inhibitors Specifically Expressed by Nasonia vitripennis Venom Apparatus. Toxins 2015, 7, 2888–2905

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen Qian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was supported by grants from the National Program on Key Basic Research Projects (973 Program, 2013CB127600, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31272098, 31472038, 31402018, the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Number 2012010113004, the National Science Fund for Innovative Research Groups of Biological Control (Grant No. 31321063, the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Number Y14C140006 and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Number 2014FZA6014. [...

  5. Effects of fly pupae cold storage on the parasitization and reproduction of Nasonia vitripennis%蝇蛹冷藏对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂寄生和繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠; 史卫峰; 叶恭银; 胡萃; 于爱莲

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究蝇蛹冷藏对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂寄生和繁殖的影响.方法 观察丽蝇蛹集金小蜂对4℃冷藏三种蝇蛹的寄生率、出蜂率、平均出蜂数和丽蝇蛹集金小蜂后代的雌蜂比.结果 冷藏后,三种蝇蛹的寄生率、出蜂率、平均出蜂数和丽蝇蛹集金小蜂后代的雌蜂比均显著低于对照蛹,考查指标与冷藏时间均呈负相关关系.结论 蝇蛹冷藏可对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂的寄生和繁殖产生负面影响.

  6. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Avram Max; Haynes, Korey N.; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 nano meter most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  7. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Avram Max; Haynes, Korey N.; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 nano meter most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  8. WAsP in the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Landberg, Lars; Jensen, Niels Otto

    2005-01-01

    This article compares mean wind estimates from a WAsP analysis for three forest sites and one site near a forest with measurements taken at the sites. By standard WAsP settings for forest, the mean wind speed at the sites was overestimated. Agreement between the estimates and the measurements...

  9. Peptide Toxins in Solitary Wasp Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Katsuhiro; Kazuma, Kohei; Nihei, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Solitary wasps paralyze insects or spiders with stinging venom and feed the paralyzed preys to their larva. Accordingly, the venoms should contain a variety of constituents acting on nervous systems. However, only a few solitary wasp venoms have been chemically studied despite thousands of species inhabiting the planet. We have surveyed bioactive substances in solitary wasp venoms found in Japan and discovered a variety of novel bioactive peptides. Pompilidotoxins (PMTXs), in the venoms of the pompilid wasps Anoplius samariensis and Batozonellus maculifrons, are small peptides consisting of 13 amino acids without a disulfide bond. PMTXs slowed Na+ channel inactivation, in particular against neuronal type Na+ channels, and were rather selective to the Nav1.6 channel. Mastoparan-like cytolytic and antimicrobial peptides are the major components of eumenine wasp venoms. They are rich in hydrophobic and basic amino acids, adopting a α-helical secondary structure, and showing mast cell degranulating, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. The venom of the spider wasp Cyphononyx fulvognathus contained four bradykinin-related peptides. They are hyperalgesic and, dependent on the structure, differently associated with B1 or B2 receptors. Further survey led to the isolation of leucomyosuppressin-like FMRFamide peptides from the venoms of the digger wasps Sphex argentatus and Isodontia harmandi. These results of peptide toxins in solitary wasp venoms from our studies are summarized. PMID:27096870

  10. Peptide Toxins in Solitary Wasp Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Konno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solitary wasps paralyze insects or spiders with stinging venom and feed the paralyzed preys to their larva. Accordingly, the venoms should contain a variety of constituents acting on nervous systems. However, only a few solitary wasp venoms have been chemically studied despite thousands of species inhabiting the planet. We have surveyed bioactive substances in solitary wasp venoms found in Japan and discovered a variety of novel bioactive peptides. Pompilidotoxins (PMTXs, in the venoms of the pompilid wasps Anoplius samariensis and Batozonellus maculifrons, are small peptides consisting of 13 amino acids without a disulfide bond. PMTXs slowed Na+ channel inactivation, in particular against neuronal type Na+ channels, and were rather selective to the Nav1.6 channel. Mastoparan-like cytolytic and antimicrobial peptides are the major components of eumenine wasp venoms. They are rich in hydrophobic and basic amino acids, adopting a α-helical secondary structure, and showing mast cell degranulating, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. The venom of the spider wasp Cyphononyx fulvognathus contained four bradykinin-related peptides. They are hyperalgesic and, dependent on the structure, differently associated with B1 or B2 receptors. Further survey led to the isolation of leucomyosuppressin-like FMRFamide peptides from the venoms of the digger wasps Sphex argentatus and Isodontia harmandi. These results of peptide toxins in solitary wasp venoms from our studies are summarized.

  11. New exoplanets from the SuperWASP-North survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the current status of the WASP search for transiting exoplanets, focusing on recent planet discoveries from SuperWASP-North and the joint equatorial region (-20≤Dec≤+20 observed by both WASP telescopes. We report the results of monitoring of WASP planets, and discuss how these contribute to our understanding of planet properties and their diversity.

  12. Transiting planets from WASP-South, Euler, and TRAPPIST. WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b, and WASP-88 b, three hot Jupiters transiting evolved solar-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrez, L.; Van Grootel, V.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2014-03-01

    Using the WASP transit survey, we report the discovery of three new hot Jupiters, WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b. The planet WASP-68 bhas a mass of 0.95 ± 0.03 MJup, a radius of 1.24-0.06+0.10 RJup, and orbits a V = 10.7 G0-type star (1.24 ± 0.03 M⊙ 1.69-0.06+0.11 R⊙, Teff = 5911 ± 60 K) with a period of 5.084298 ± 0.000015 days. Its size is typical of hot Jupiters with similar masses. The planet WASP-73 bis significantly more massive (1.88-0.06+0.07 MJup) and slightly larger (1.16-0.08+0.12 RJup) than Jupiter. It orbits a V = 10.5 F9-type star (1.34-0.04+0.05 M⊙, 2.07-0.08+0.19 R⊙, Teff = 6036 ± 120 K) every 4.08722 ± 0.00022 days. Despite its high irradiation (~2.3 × 109 erg s-1 cm-2), WASP-73 b has a high mean density (1.20-0.30+0.26 ρJup) that suggests an enrichment of the planet in heavy elements. The planet WASP-88 bis a 0.56 ± 0.08 MJuphot Jupiter orbiting a V = 11.4 F6-type star (1.45 ± 0.05 M⊙, 2.08-0.06+0.12 R⊙, Teff = 6431 ± 130 K) with a period of 4.954000 ± 0.000019 days. With a radius of 1.70-0.07+0.13 RJup, it joins the handful of planets with super-inflated radii. The ranges of ages we determine through stellar evolution modeling are 4.5-7.0 Gyr for WASP-68, 2.8-5.7 Gyr for WASP-73 and 1.8-4.3 Gyr for WASP-88. The star WASP-73 appears to be significantly evolved, close to or already in the subgiant phase. The stars WASP-68 and WASP-88 are less evolved, although in an advanced stage of core H-burning. Tables 1-3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe photometric time-series used in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A143

  13. WAsP engineering DK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Astrup, P.; Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hauge Madsen, P.; Heathfield, D.

    2000-05-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 1.0 DK - Vindforhold for vindmoelledesign. WAsP Engineering is a series of experimental and theoretical activities concerning properties of the winds in moderately complex terrain with relevance for loads on wind turbines and other large structures. These properties include extreme winds, wind shear and turbulence. Most of the models have been integrated in a windows program prototype, also called WAsP Engineering. The basic mean flow model LINCOM has been changed in several respects to accommodate the demands from load calculations. The most important change is the inclusion of a complex model for the roughness length on water bodies. This is particularly important for the estimation of extreme winds in the vicinity of sea shores. A second addition is the calculation of spatial derivatives of the mean flow to be used for the modeling of turbulence. The turbulence structure on hills is modeled by perturbing the flat, homogeneous terrain turbulence using Rapid Distortion Theory. A simple model for the adjustment of turbulence to roughness changes is also applied. Second order turbulence statistics such as turbulence intensities, spectra and cross-spectra can be estimated at user-chosen positions in the terrain. A program for simulation of turbulence with the calculated statistics has been developed. However, it has not yet been integrated into the windows interface. Climatological series of wind speed have been analyzed to establish the extreme wind climate over Denmark. The extreme wind climate contains directional information and is used for estimating the extreme winds at an arbitrary position in complex terrain. A net of high precision pressure sensors covering Denmark has been established in order to obtain a climatology of the geostrophic wind. A tentative conclusion from only one year of data is that, statistically , the geostrophic wind decreases when going from west toward east

  14. High Precision Photometry from EulerCam and TRAPPIST: The Case of WASP-42, WASP-49 and WASP-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, Monika; Gillon, Michaël; Queloz, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Transiting extrasolar planets provide unmatched insights into the structure and composition of close-in planets. When a planet transits its host star, its radius is known, which together with radial velocity measurements, allows accessing the planetary density. We present results obtained using the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes that aim at reaching very high accuracy on the parameters derived from transit lightcurves. Here, we show the case of the recently discovered WASP-42b and WASP-49b and new observations of WASP-50b.

  15. Exoplanet transit spectroscopy using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sinukoff, Evan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: Avi.Mandell@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 μm most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  16. Three irradiated and bloated hot Jupiters: WASP-76b, WASP-82b & WASP-90b

    CERN Document Server

    West, R G; Anderson, D R; Bouchy, F; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Deleuil, M; Delrez, L; Doyle, A P; Faedi, F; Fumel, A; Gillon, M; Hebrard, G; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S

    2016-01-01

    We report three new transiting hot-Jupiter planets discovered from the WASP surveys combined with radial velocities from OHP/SOPHIE and Euler/CORALIE and photometry from Euler and TRAPPIST. All three planets are inflated, with radii 1.7-1.8 Rjup. All orbit hot stars, F5-F7, and all three stars have evolved, post-MS radii (1.7-2.2 Rsun). Thus the three planets, with orbits of 1.8-3.9 d, are among the most irradiated planets known. This reinforces the correlation between inflated planets and stellar irradiation.

  17. WASP-92b, WASP-93b and WASP-118b: three new transiting close-in giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K. L.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Hébrard, G.; Skillen, I.; Anderson, D. R.; Barros, S. C. C.; Brown, D. J. A.; Bouchy, F.; Busuttil, R.; Delorme, P.; Delrez, L.; Demangeon, O.; Díaz, R. F.; Gillon, M.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Gonzàlez, E.; Hellier, C.; Holmes, S.; Jarvis, J. F.; Jehin, E.; Joshi, Y. C.; Kolb, U.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; McCormac, J.; Miller, G. R. M.; Mortier, A.; Pallé, E.; Pollacco, D.; Prieto-Arranz, J.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Simpson, E. K.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; Vanhuysse, M.; West, R. G.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric light curves. WASP-92 is an F7 star, with a moderately inflated planet orbiting with a period of 2.17 d, which has Rp = 1.461 ± 0.077RJ and Mp = 0.805 ± 0.068MJ. WASP-93b orbits its F4 host star every 2.73 d and has Rp = 1.597 ± 0.077RJ and Mp = 1.47 ± 0.029MJ. WASP-118b also has a hot host star (F6) and is moderately inflated, where Rp = 1.440 ± 0.036RJ and Mp = 0.514 ± 0.020MJ and the planet has an orbital period of 4.05 d. They are bright targets (V = 13.18, 10.97 and 11.07, respectively) ideal for further characterization work, particularly WASP-118b, which is being observed by K2 as part of campaign 8. The WASP-93 system has sufficient angular momentum to be tidally migrating outwards if the system is near spin-orbit alignment, which is divergent from the tidal behaviour of the majority of hot Jupiters discovered.

  18. WASP-92b, WASP-93b and WASP-118b: Three new transiting close-in giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, K L; Doyle, A P; Hébrard, G; Skillen, I; Anderson, D R; Barros, S C C; Brown, D J A; Bouchy, F; Busuttil, R; Delorme, P; Delrez, L; Demangeon, O; Díaz, R F; Gillon, M; Gonzàlez, E; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Jarvis, J F; Jehin, E; Joshi, Y C; Kolb, U; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Mortier, A; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Simpson, E K; Smalley, B; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Turner, O D; Udry, S; Vanhuysse, M; West, R G; Wilson, P A

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric lightcurves. WASP-92 is an F7 star, with a moderately inflated planet orbiting with a period of 2.17 days, which has $R_p = 1.461 \\pm 0.077 R_{\\rm J}$ and $M_p = 0.805 \\pm 0.068 M_{\\rm J}$. WASP-93b orbits its F4 host star every 2.73 days and has $R_p = 1.597 \\pm 0.077 R_{\\rm J}$ and $M_p = 1.47 \\pm 0.029 M_{\\rm J}$. WASP-118b also has a hot host star (F6) and is moderately inflated, where $R_p = 1.440 \\pm 0.036 R_{\\rm J}$ and $M_p = 0.513 \\pm 0.041 M_{\\rm J}$ and the planet has an orbital period of 4.05 days. They are bright targets (V = 13.18, 10.97 and 11.07 respectively) ideal for further characterisation work, particularly WASP-118b, which is being observed by K2 as part of campaign 8. WASP-93b is expected to be tidally migrating outwards, which is divergent from the tidal behaviour of the majority of hot Jup...

  19. Seven transiting hot Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-47b, WASP-55b, WASP-61b, WASP-62b, WASP-63b, WASP-66b and WASP-67b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2012-10-01

    We present seven new transiting hot Jupiters from the WASP-South survey. The planets are all typical hot Jupiters orbiting stars from F4 to K0 with magnitudes of V = 10.3-12.5. The orbital periods are all in the range of 3.9-4.6 d, the planetary masses range from 0.4 to 2.3 MJup and the radii from 1.1 to 1.4 RJup. In line with known hot Jupiters, the planetary densities range from Jupiter-like to inflated (ρ = 0.13-1.07ρJup). We use the increasing numbers of known hot Jupiters to investigate the distribution of their orbital periods and the 3-4 d 'pile-up'.

  20. Seven transiting hot-Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-47b, WASP-55b, WASP-61b, WASP-62b, WASP-63b, WASP-66b & WASP-67b

    CERN Document Server

    Hellier, Coel; Cameron, A Collier; Doyle, A P; Gillon, M; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; West, R G

    2012-01-01

    We present seven new transiting hot Jupiters from the WASP-South survey. The planets are all typical hot Jupiters orbiting stars from F4 to K0 with magnitudes of V = 10.3 to 12.5. The orbital periods are all in the range 3.9--4.6 d, the planetary masses range from 0.4--2.3 Mjup and the radii from 1.1--1.4 Mjup. In line with known hot Jupiters, the planetary densities range from Jupiter-like to inflated (rho = 0.13--1.07 rho_jup). We use the increasing numbers of known hot Jupiters to investigate the distribution of their orbital periods and the 3--4-d "pile-up".

  1. Transiting planets from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b, three hot Jupiters transiting evolved solar-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Delrez, L; Anderson, D R; Collier-Cameron, A; Doyle, A P; Fumel, A; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; West, R G

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery by the WASP transit survey of three new hot Jupiters, WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b. WASP-68 b has a mass of 0.95+-0.03 M_Jup, a radius of 1.24-0.06+0.10 R_Jup, and orbits a V=10.7 G0-type star (1.24+-0.03 M_sun, 1.69-0.06+0.11 R_sun, T_eff=5911+-60 K) with a period of 5.084298+-0.000015 days. Its size is typical of hot Jupiters with similar masses. WASP-73 b is significantly more massive (1.88-0.06+0.07 M_Jup) and slightly larger (1.16-0.08+0.12 R_Jup) than Jupiter. It orbits a V=10.5 F9-type star (1.34-0.04+0.05 M_sun, 2.07-0.08+0.19 R_sun, T_eff=6036+-120 K) every 4.08722+-0.00022 days. Despite its high irradiation (2.3 10^9 erg s^-1 cm^-2), WASP-73 b has a high mean density (1.20-0.30+0.26 \\rho_Jup) that suggests an enrichment of the planet in heavy elements. WASP-88 b is a 0.56+-0.08 M_Jup planet orbiting a V=11.4 F6-type star (1.45+-0.05 M_sun, 2.08-0.06+0.12 R_sun, T_eff=6431+-130 K) with a period of 4.954000+-0.000019 days. With a radius of 1.70-0.07+0.13 R_Jup, it joins t...

  2. Evolutionary Ecology: Wasp Mother's Little Helpers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    The medical application of antibiotics dramatically reduced human infant mortality in the previous century. A new study indicates that ground nesting wasps exploit Streptomyces strains that they rear in their antennae for the same purpose.......The medical application of antibiotics dramatically reduced human infant mortality in the previous century. A new study indicates that ground nesting wasps exploit Streptomyces strains that they rear in their antennae for the same purpose....

  3. Discovery of WASP-113b and WASP-114b, two inflated hot-Jupiters with contrasting densities

    CERN Document Server

    Barros, S C C; Hébrard, G; Chew, Y Gómez Maqueo; Anderson, D R; Boumis, P; Delrez, L; Hay, K L; Lam, K W F; Llama, J; Lendl, M; McCormac, J; Skiff, B; Smalley, B; Turner, O; Vanhuysse, M; Armstrong, D J; Boisse, I; Bouchy, F; Cameron, A Collier; Faedi, F; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Liakos, A; Meaburn, J; Osborn, H P; Pepe, F; Plauchu-Frayn, I; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Rey, J; Spake, J; Ségransan, D; Triaud, A H M; Udry, S; Walker, S R; Watson, C A; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery and characterisation of the exoplanets WASP-113b and WASP-114b by the WASP survey, {\\it SOPHIE} and {\\it CORALIE}. The planetary nature of the systems was established by performing follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations. The follow-up data were combined with the WASP-photometry and analysed with an MCMC code to obtain system parameters. The host stars WASP-113 and WASP-114 are very similar. They are both early G-type stars with an effective temperature of $\\sim 5900\\,$K, [Fe/H]$\\sim 0.12$ and $T_{\\rm eff}$ $\\sim 4.1$dex. However, WASP-113 is older than WASP-114. Although the planetary companions have similar radii, WASP-114b is almost 4 times heavier than WASP-113b. WASP-113b has a mass of $0.48\\,$ $\\mathrm{M}_{\\rm Jup}$ and an orbital period of $\\sim 4.5\\,$days; WASP-114b has a mass of $1.77\\,$ $\\mathrm{M}_{\\rm Jup}$ and an orbital period of $\\sim 1.5\\,$days. Both planets have inflated radii, in particular WASP-113 with a radius anomaly of $\\Re=0.35$. The high scale hei...

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11662-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B547TR NVPA Nasonia vitripennis cDNA, mRNA seq... 46 3.2 1 ( ES615316 ) NGPAR52TR NGPA Nasonia giraulti cDNA...210773916 NVP Nasonia vitripennis cDNA clone 224M... 46 3.2 1 ( EV418766 ) 210774852 NGP Nasonia giraulti cD...NA clone 128E1 3... 46 3.2 1 ( EV417913 ) 210768463 NGP Nasonia giraulti cDNA clone 128E1 5... 46 3.2 1 ( AL

  5. Shortage of Bee, Wasp Venom Stings Those with Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167081.html Shortage of Bee, Wasp Venom Stings Those With Allergies Facing expected season-long ... News) -- A shortage of honeybee, wasp and hornet venom extract has allergists concerned. The extract treats people ...

  6. WASP-44b, WASP-45b and WASP-46b: three short-period, transiting extrasolar planets

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, D R; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Ségransan, D; Todd, I; Udry, S

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of three extrasolar planets that transit their moderately bright (Vmag = 12-13) host stars. WASP-44b is a 0.89-MJup planet in a 2.42-day orbit around a G8V star. WASP-45b is a 1.03-MJup planet which passes in front of the limb of its K2V host star every 3.13 days. Weak Ca H+K emission seen in the spectra of WASP-45 suggests the star is chromospherically active. WASP-46b is a 2.10-MJup planet in a 1.43-day orbit around a G6V star. Rotational modulation of the light curves of WASP-46 and weak Ca H+K emission in its spectra show the star to be photospherically and chromospherically active. We imposed circular orbits in our analyses as the radial velocity data are consistent with (near-)circular orbits, as could be expected from both empirical and tidal-theory perspectives for such short-period, Jupiter-mass planets. We discuss the impact of fitting for eccentric orbits for these type of planets when not supported by the data. The derived planetary and stellar radii depend on the fitted ec...

  7. Phylogeny, evolution, and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total...

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP78 and WASP79 RV and photometric data (Smalley+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2012-10-01

    File rv.dat contains the Radial velocity and line bisector span measurements of WASP-78 and WASP-79 obtained using the CORALIE spectrograph. Files phot.dat contains the transit photometry of WASP-78 obtained using the Trappist Telescope through a blue-blocking filter on 2011 November 8, 2011 December 15 and 2012 January 8, respectively, and the z' band transit photometry of WASP-79 obtained using the Trappist Telescope on 2011 September 26. (2 data files).

  9. Hot Jupiters with relatives: discovery of additional planets in orbit around WASP-41 and WASP-47

    CERN Document Server

    Neveu-VanMalle, M; Anderson, D R; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Díaz, R F; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lister, T; Pepe, F; Rojo, P; Ségransan, D; Triaud, A H M J; Turner, O D; Udry, S

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of two additional planetary companions to WASP-41 and WASP-47. WASP-41 c is a planet of minimum mass 3.18 $\\pm$ 0.20 M$_{\\rm Jup}$, eccentricity 0.29 $\\pm$ 0.02 and orbiting in 421 $\\pm$ 2 days. WASP-47 c is a planet of minimum mass 1.24 $\\pm$ 0.22 M$_{\\rm Jup}$, eccentricity 0.13 $\\pm$ 0.10 and orbiting in 572 $\\pm$ 7 days. Unlike most of the planetary systems including a hot Jupiter, these two systems with a hot Jupiter have a long period planet located at only $\\sim$1 AU from their host star. WASP-41 is a rather young star known to be chromospherically active. To differentiate its magnetic cycle from the radial velocity effect due the second planet, we use the emission in the H$\\alpha$ line and find this indicator well suited to detect the stellar activity pattern and the magnetic cycle. The analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect induced by WASP-41 b suggests that the planet could be misaligned, though an aligned orbit cannot be excluded. WASP-47 has recently been found to host ...

  10. Spitzer Secondary Eclipses of WASP-18b

    CERN Document Server

    Nymeyer, Sarah; Hardy, Ryan A; Stevenson, Kevin B; Campo, Christopher J; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, William C; Britt, Christopher B T; Cubillos, Patricio; Hellier, Coel; Gillon, Michael; Maxted, Pierre F L; Hebb, Leslie; Wheatley, Peter J; Pollacco, Don; Anderson, David

    2010-01-01

    The transiting exoplanet WASP-18b was discovered in 2008 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) project. The \\textit{Spitzer}\\ Exoplanet Target of Opportunity Program observed secondary eclipses of WASP-18b using \\textit{Spitzer}'s Infrared Array Camera (IR\\ AC) in the 3.6-{\\micron} and 5.8-{\\micron} bands on 2008 December 20, and in the 4.5-{\\micron} and 8.0-{\\micron} bands on 2008 Dece\\ mber 24. We report eclipse depths of \\math{0.31\\pm{0.02}, 0.38\\pm{0.03}, 0.41\\pm{0.02}, 0.43\\pm{0.03}\\%}, and brightness temperatu\\ res of 2920 \\pm {90}, 3150 \\pm {130}, 3040 \\pm {130} and 2960 \\pm {130} K, respectively. WASP-18b is one of the hottest planets ye\\ t discovered - as hot as an M-class star. The planet's pressure-temperature profile features a thermal inversion. The observation\\ s also require WASP-18b to have near-zero albedo and almost no redistribution of energy from the day-side to the night side of the \\ planet.

  11. Plant water stress effects on stylet probing behaviors of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with acquisition and inoculation of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugner, Rodrigo; Backus, Elaine A

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylem fluid-ingesting leafhopper that transmits Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., a plant-infecting bacterium that causes several plant diseases in the Americas. Although the role of plant water stress on the population density and dispersal ofH. vitripennis has been studied, nothing is known about the effects of plant water stress on the transmission of X. fastidiosa by H. vitripennis. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the influence of plant water stress on the sharpshooter stylet probing behaviors associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa. Electrical penetration graph was used to monitor H. vitripennis feeding behaviors for 20-h periods on citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and almond [Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb] plants subjected to levels of water stress. Adult H. vitripennis successfully located xylem vessels, then performed behaviors related to the evaluation of the xylem cell and fluid, and finally ingested xylem fluid from citrus and almond plants under the tested fluid tensions ranging from -5.5 to -33.0 bars and -6.0 to -24.5 bars, respectively. In general, long and frequent feeding events associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa were observed only in fully irrigated plants (i.e., >-10 bars), which suggests that even low levels of plant water stress may reduce the spread of X. fastidiosa. Results provided insights to disease epidemiology and support the hypothesis that application of regulated deficit irrigation has the potential to reduce the incidence of diseases caused by X.fastidiosa by reducing the number of vectors and by decreasing pathogen transmission efficiency.

  12. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holdsworth Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  13. The first WASP public data release

    CERN Document Server

    Butters, O W; Anderson, D R; Cameron, A Collier; Clarkson, W I; Enoch, B; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Horne, K; Joshi, Y; Kane, S R; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Parley, N; Pollacco, D; Smalley, B; Street, R A; Todd, I; Wheatley, P J; Wilson, D M; 10.1051/0004-6361/201015655

    2010-01-01

    The WASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) project is an exoplanet transit survey that has been automatically taking wide field images since 2004. Two instruments, one in La Palma and the other in South Africa, continually monitor the night sky, building up light curves of millions of unique objects. These light curves are used to search for the characteristics of exoplanetary transits. This first public data release (DR1) of the WASP archive makes available all the light curve data and images from 2004 up to 2008 in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. A web interface (www.wasp.le.ac.uk/public/) to the data allows easy access over the Internet. The data set contains 3 631 972 raw images and 17 970 937 light curves. In total the light curves have 119 930 299 362 data points available between them.

  14. Getting Started with WAsP 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Heathfield, D.N.; Myllerup, Lisbeth;

    The Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) is a PC-program for horizontal and vertical extrapolation of wind data. The program contains a complete set of models to calculate the effects on the wind of sheltering obstacles, surface roughness changes and terrain height variations....... The analysis part consists of a transformation of an observed wind climate (speed and direction distributions) to a wind atlas data set. The wind atlas data set can subsequently be applied for estimation of the wind climate and wind power potential, as well as for siting of specific wind turbines. The WAsP 9...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-69b, WASP-70Ab and WASP-84b (Anderson+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. R.; Collier, Cameron A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Faedi, F.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Skillen, I.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2015-04-01

    Three tables of data on the three planet host stars are provided: table2.dat is the WASP survey photometry; table3.dat is the radial velocities from CORALIE and HARPS; and table4.dat is the high-SNR photometry taken with EulerCam, TRAPPIST and RISE. (3 data files).

  16. Discovery of WASP-65b and WASP-75b: Two Hot Jupiters Without Highly Inflated Radii

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, Y Gómez Maqueo; Pollacco, D; Brown, D J A; Doyle, A P; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Lendl, M; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Wheatley, P J; Busuttil, R; Liebig, C; Anderson, D R; Armstrong, D J; Barros, S C C; Bento, J; Bochinski, J; Burwitz, V; Delrez, L; Enoch, B; Fumel, A; Haswell, C A; Hébrard, G; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Jehin, E; Kolb, U; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Norton, A J; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Rodríguez, J; Ségransan, D; Skillen, I; Stassun, K G; Udry, S; Watson, C A

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of two transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-65b (M_pl = 1.55 +/- 0.16 M_J; R_pl = 1.11 +/- 0.06 R_J), and WASP-75b (M_pl = 1.07 +/- 0.05 M_J; R_pl = 1.27 +/- 0.05 R_J). They orbit their host star every 2.311, and 2.484 days, respectively. The planet host WASP-65 is a G6 star (T_eff = 5600 K, [Fe/H] = -0.07 +/- 0.07, age > 8 Gyr); WASP-75 is an F9 star (T_eff = 6100 K, [Fe/H] = 0.07 +/- 0.09, age of 3 Gyr). The mean density of WASP-65b is similar to that of Jupiter (rho_pl = 1.13 +/- 0.08 rho_J), and in fact, WASP-65b is one of the densest planets with a mass between 0.1 and 2.0 M_J, a mass range in which a large fraction of the known planets have been found to be inflated with respect to theoretical planet models. WASP-65b is one of only a handful of planets with masses of around 1.5 M_J, a mass regime surprisingly underrepresented among the currently known hot Jupiters. The radius of Jupiter-mass WASP-75b is slightly inflated (< 10%) as compared to theoretical planet models with no core, ...

  17. Hot Jupiters with relatives: discovery of additional planets in orbit around WASP-41 and WASP-47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Díaz, R. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T.; Pepe, F.; Rojo, P.; Ségransan, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of two additional planetary companions to WASP-41 and WASP-47. WASP-41 c is a planet of minimum mass 3.18 ± 0.20 MJup and eccentricity 0.29 ± 0.02, and it orbits in 421 ± 2 days. WASP-47 c is a planet of minimum mass 1.24 ± 0.22 MJup and eccentricity 0.13 ± 0.10, and it orbits in 572 ± 7 days. Unlike most of the planetary systems that include a hot Jupiter, these two systems with a hot Jupiter have a long-period planet located at only ~1 au from their host star. WASP-41 is a rather young star known to be chromospherically active. To differentiate its magnetic cycle from the radial velocity effect induced by the second planet, we used the emission in the Hα line and find this indicator well suited to detecting the stellar activity pattern and the magnetic cycle. The analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect induced by WASP-41 b suggests that the planet could be misaligned, though an aligned orbit cannot be excluded. WASP-47 has recently been found to host two additional transiting super Earths. With such an unprecedented architecture, the WASP-47 system will be very important for understanding planetary migration. Using data collected at ESO's La Silla Observatory, Chile: HARPS on the ESO 3.6 m (Prog ID 087.C-0649 & 089.C-0151), the Swiss Euler Telescope, TRAPPIST, the 1.54-m Danish telescope (Prog CN2013A-159), and at the LCOGT's Faulkes Telescope South.Photometric lightcurve and RV tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A93

  18. From Dense Hot Jupiter to Low Density Neptune: The Discovery of WASP-127b, WASP-136b and WASP-138b

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, K W F; Brown, D J A; Anderson, D R; Delrez, L; Gillon, M; Hébrard, G; Lendl, M; Mancini, L; Southworth, J; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M; Turner, O D; Hay, K L; Armstrong, D J; Barros, S C C; Bonomo, A S; Bouchy, F; Boumis, P; Cameron, A Collier; Doyle, A P; Hellier, C; Henning, T; Jehin, E; King, G; Kirk, J; Louden, T; Maxted, P F L; McCormac, J J; Osborn, H P; Palle, E; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Prieto-Arranz, J; Queloz, D; Rey, J; Ségransan, D; Udry, S; Walker, S; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2016-01-01

    We report three newly discovered exoplanets from the SuperWASP survey. WASP-127b is a heavily inflated super-Neptune of mass 0.18Mj and radius 1.35Rj. This is one of the least massive planets discovered by the WASP project. It orbits a bright host star (V = 10.16) of spectral type G5 with a period of 4.17 days.WASP-127b is a low density planet which has an extended atmosphere with a scale height of 2500+/-400 km, making it an ideal candidate for transmission spectroscopy. WASP-136b and WASP-138b are both hot Jupiters with mass and radii of 1.51 Mj and 1.38 Rj, and 1.22 Mj and 1.09 Rj, respectively. WASP-136b is in a 5.22-day orbit around an F9 subgiant star with a mass of 1.41 Msun and a radius of 2.21 Rsun. The discovery of WASP-136b could help constraint the characteristics of the giant planet population around evolved stars. WASP-138b orbits an F7 star with a period of 3.63 days. Its radius agrees with theoretical values from standard models, suggesting the presence of a heavy element core with a mass of 1...

  19. WASP-86b and WASP-102b: super-dense versus bloated planets

    CERN Document Server

    Faedi, F; Pollacco, D; Brown, D J A; Hébrard, G; Smalley, B; Lam, K W F; Veras, D; Anderson, D; Doyle, A P; Gillon, M; Goad, M R; Lendl, M; Mancini, L; McCormac, J; Plauchu-Frayn, I; Prieto-Arranz, J; Scholz, A; Street, R; Triaud, A H M; West, R; Wheatley, P J; Armstrong, D J; Barros, S C C; Boisse, I; Bouchy, F; Boumis, P; Cameron, A Collier; Haswell, C A; Hay, K L; Hellier, C; Kolb, U; Maxted, P F L; Norton, A J; Osborn, H P; Palle, E; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Udry, S; Wilson, P A

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of two transiting planetary systems: a super dense, sub-Jupiter mass planet WASP-86b (\\mpl\\ = 0.82 $\\pm$ 0.06 \\mj, \\rpl\\ = 0.63 $\\pm$ 0.01 \\rj), and a bloated, Saturn-like planet WASP-102b (\\mpl\\ = 0.62 $\\pm$ 0.04 \\mj, \\rpl\\=1.27 $\\pm$ 0.03 \\rj). They orbit their host star every $\\sim$5.03, and $\\sim$2.71 days, respectively. The planet hosting WASP-86 is a F7 star (\\teff\\ = 6330$\\pm$110 K, \\feh\\ = $+$0.23 $\\pm$ 0.14 dex, and age $\\sim$0.8--1~Gyr), WASP-102 is a G0 star (\\teff\\ = 5940$\\pm$140 K, \\feh\\ = $-$0.09$\\pm$ 0.19 dex, and age $\\sim$1~Gyr). These two systems highlight the diversity of planetary radii over similar masses for giant planets with masses between Saturn and Jupiter. WASP-102b shows a larger than model-predicted radius, indicating that the planet is receiving a strong incident flux which contributes to the inflation of its radius. On the other hand, with a density of $\\rho_{pl}$ = 3.24$\\pm$~0.3~$\\rho_{jup}$, WASP-86b is the densest gas giant planet among planets with ma...

  20. WASP-42 b and WASP-49 b: two new transiting Saturns

    CERN Document Server

    Lendl, M; Collier-Cameron, A; Doyle, A P; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new transiting planets from the WASP survey. WASP-42 b is a 0.500 +- 0.035 M_J planet orbiting a K1 star at a separation of 0.0548 +- 0.0017 AU with a period of 4.9816872 +- 0.0000073 days. The radius of WASP-42 is 1.080 +- 0.057 R_J while its equilibrium temperature is T_eq = 995 +- 34 K. We detect some evidence of a small but non-zero eccentricity of e = 0.060 +- 0.013. WASP-49 b is a 0.378 +- 0.027 M_J planet around an old G6 star. It has a period of 2.7817387 +- 5.6 x 10-6 days and a separation of 0.0379 +- 0.0011 AU. This planet is slightly bloated, having a radius of 1.115 +- 0.056 R_J and an equilibrium temperature of T_eq = 1369 +- 42 K. Both planets have been followed up intensively in photometry, in total we have obtained 5 full and one partial transit light curves of WASP-42 and 4 full and one partial light curves of WASP-49 using the Euler-Swiss, TRAPPIST and Faulkes South telescopes.

  1. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations. A Cous...

  2. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.;

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations. A Cous...

  3. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9-42.4°C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst-burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta31°C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7°C to 74 mHz at 39.7°C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g(-1)cycle(-1). A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements.

  4. Biomechanics of substrate boring by fig wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundanati, Lakshminath; Gundiah, Namrata

    2014-06-01

    Female insects of diverse orders bore into substrates to deposit their eggs. Such insects must overcome several biomechanical challenges to successfully oviposit, which include the selection of suitable substrates through which the ovipositor can penetrate without itself fracturing. In many cases, the insect may also need to steer and manipulate the ovipositor within the substrate to deliver eggs at desired locations before rapidly retracting her ovipositor to avoid predation. In the case of female parasitoid ichneumonid wasps, this process is repeated multiple times during her lifetime, thus testing the ability of the ovipositioning apparatus to endure fracture and fatigue. What specific adaptations does the ovipositioning apparatus of a female ichneumonoid wasp possess to withstand these challenges? We addressed this question using a model system composed of parasitoid and pollinator fig wasps. First, we show that parasitoid ovipositor tips have teeth-like structures, preferentially enriched with zinc, unlike the smooth morphology of pollinator ovipositors. We describe sensillae present on the parasitoid ovipositor tip that are likely to aid in the detection of chemical species and mechanical deformations and sample microenvironments within the substrate. Second, using atomic force microscopy, we show that parasitoid tip regions have a higher modulus compared with regions proximal to the abdomen in parasitoid and pollinator ovipositors. Finally, we use videography to film wasps during substrate boring and analyse buckling of the ovipositor to estimate the forces required for substrate boring. Together, these results allow us to describe the biomechanical principles underlying substrate boring in parasitoid ichneumonid wasps. Such studies may be useful for the biomimetic design of surgical tools and in the use of novel mechanisms to bore through hard substrates.

  5. WASP-42 b and WASP-49 b: two new transiting sub-Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Ségransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2012-08-01

    We report the discovery of two new transiting planets from the WASP survey. WASP-42 b is a 0.500 ± 0.035 MJ planet orbiting a K1 star at a separation of 0.0548 ± 0.0017 AU with a period of 4.9816872 ± 7.3 × 10-6 days. The radius of WASP-42 b is 1.080 ± 0.057 RJ while its equilibrium temperature is Teq = 995 ± 34 K. We detect some evidence for a small but non-zero eccentricity of e = 0.060 ± 0.013. WASP-49 b is a 0.378 ± 0.027 MJ planet around an old G6 star. It has a period of 2.7817387 ± 5.6 × 10-6 days and a separation of 0.0379 ± 0.0011 AU. This planet is slightly bloated, having a radius of 1.115 ± 0.047 RJ and an equilibrium temperature of Teq = 1369 ± 39 K. Both planets have been followed up photometrically, and in total we have obtained 5 full and one partial transit light curves of WASP-42 and 4 full and one partial light curves of WASP-49 using the Euler-Swiss, TRAPPIST and Faulkes South telescopes. Based on photometric observations made with WASP-South, EulerCam on the Euler-Swiss telescope, the Belgian TRAPPIST telescope, the Faulkes South Telescope and spectroscopic observations obtained with CORALIE on the Euler-Swiss telescope and HARPS on the ESO 3.6 m telescope (Prog. ID: 087.C-0649).The photometric time series and radial velocity data in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/544/A72

  6. [Risk of bee or wasp stings in various vacation destinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, V

    2014-09-01

    The risk for tourists who are allergic to bee or wasp venom to be stung in various holiday destinations is mainly influenced by the structure of the regional bee or wasp community affected by zoogeographical and ecological factors. Information is presented for important destinations of German holiday-makers concerning distribution of honey bees (Apinae, Apis) and social wasps (Polistinae, Vespinae) as well as places and season of danger.

  7. Deletion of WASp and N-WASp in B cells cripples the germinal center response and results in production of IgM autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Carin I M; Torres, Magda-Liz; Petersen, Sven H; Baptista, Marisa A P; Keszei, Marton; Volpi, Stefano; Grasset, Emilie K; Karlsson, Mikael C I; Walter, Jolan E; Snapper, Scott B; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Westerberg, Lisa S

    2015-08-01

    Humoral immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is associated with failure to respond to common pathogens and high frequency of autoimmunity. Here we addressed the question how deficiency in WASp and the homologous protein N-WASp skews the immune response towards autoreactivity. Mice devoid of WASp or both WASp and N-WASp in B cells formed germinal center to increased load of apoptotic cells as a source of autoantigens. However, the germinal centers showed abolished polarity and B cells retained longer and proliferated less in the germinal centers. While WASp-deficient mice had high titers of autoreactive IgG, B cells devoid of both WASp and N-WASp produced mainly IgM autoantibodies with broad reactivity to autoantigens. Moreover, B cells lacking both WASp and N-WASp induced somatic hypermutation at reduced frequency. Despite this, IgG1-expressing B cells devoid of WASp and N-WASp acquired a specific high affinity mutation, implying an increased BCR signaling threshold for selection in germinal centers. Our data provides evidence for that N-WASp expression alone drives WASp-deficient B cells towards autoimmunity.

  8. Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Ridley, Jo; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi; Dunn, Derek W; Cook, James; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yu, Douglas W

    2009-11-12

    Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs') that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps) are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules) and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules). Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination) in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can 'set the rules of the game' to ensure

  9. Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Wu Wang

    Full Text Available Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs' that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules. Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can 'set the rules of the

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP41 and WASP47 photometric and RV data (Neveu-VanMalle+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Diaz, R. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T.; Pepe, F.; Rojo, P.; Segransan, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.

    2015-10-01

    Photometric time-series obtained during transits of the hot Jupiter WASP-47b, and RV time-series obtained on WASP-41 and WASP-47. The photometric time-series were obtained using the LCOGT's Faulkes Telescope South, the TRAPPIST telescope and the 1.54-m Danish telescope. The RVs were obtained using the Euler/CORALIE and the ESO/HARPS spectrographs. (7 data files).

  11. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and N-WASP are critical for peripheral B-cell development and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Carin; Baptista, Marisa; Moran, Christopher J.; Detre, Cynthia; Keszei, Marton; Eston, Michelle A.; Alt, Frederick W.; Terhorst, Cox; Notarangelo, Luigi D.

    2012-01-01

    The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is a key cytoskeletal regulator of hematopoietic cells. Although WASP-knockout (WKO) mice have aberrant B-cell cytoskeletal responses, B-cell development is relatively normal. We hypothesized that N-WASP, a ubiquitously expressed homolog of WASP, may serve some redundant functions with WASP in B cells. In the present study, we generated mice lacking WASP and N-WASP in B cells (conditional double knockout [cDKO] B cells) and show that cDKO mice had decreased numbers of follicular and marginal zone B cells in the spleen. Receptor-induced activation of cDKO B cells led to normal proliferation but a marked reduction of spreading compared with wild-type and WKO B cells. Whereas WKO B cells showed decreased migration in vitro and homing in vivo compared with wild-type cells, cDKO B cells showed an even more pronounced decrease in the migratory response in vivo. After injection of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP)–Ficoll, cDKO B cells had reduced antigen uptake in the splenic marginal zone. Despite high basal serum IgM, cDKO mice mounted a reduced immune response to the T cell–independent antigen TNP-Ficoll and to the T cell–dependent antigen TNP–keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Our results reveal that the combined activity of WASP and N-WASP is required for peripheral B-cell development and function. PMID:22411869

  12. Fragmentation Effects on Diversity of Wasp Community and Its Impact on Fig/Fig Wasp Interaction in Ficus racemosa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Wu WANG; Cheng-Yun YANG; Gui-Fang ZHAO; Jun-Xing YANG

    2005-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation usually results in alteration of species composition or biological communities. However, little is known about the effect of habitat fragmentation on the fig/fig wasp system.In this study, we compared the structure of a fig wasp community and the interaction between figs and fig wasps of Ficus racemosa L. in a primary forest, a locally fragmented forest and a highly fragmented forest.Our results show that, in the highly fragmented forest, the proportion of pollinator wasps is lower and the proportion of non-pollinator wasps is higher compared with the primary forest and locally fragmented forest. The proportion of fruits without pollinator wasps in mature fruits is also greatly increased in the highly fragmented forest. The proportion of galls in all female flowers increases in the highly fragmented forest, whereas the proportion of viable seeds does not change considerably. The disruption of groups of fig trees results in a decrease in pollinator wasps and even might result in the extinction of pollinator wasps in some extreme cases, which may transform the reciprocal interaction between figs and fig wasps into a parasite/host system. Such an effect may lead to the local extinction of this keystone plant resource of rain forests in the process of evolution, and thereby, may change the structure and function of the tropical rain forest.

  13. WASP-35b, WASP-48b and WASP-51b: Two new planets and an independent discovery of HAT-P-30b

    CERN Document Server

    Enoch, B; Barros, S C C; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Faedi, F; Gillon, M; Hébrard, G; Lister, T A; Queloz, D; Santerne, A; Smalley, B; Street, R A; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Bouchy, F; Bento, J; Butters, O; Fossati, L; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Jehen, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Moulds, V; Moutou, C; Norton, A J; Parley, N; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Segransan, D; Simpson, E; Skillen, I; Smith, A M S; Udry, S; Wheatley, P J

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of WASP-35b, a planet transiting a metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -0.15) star in the Southern hemisphere, WASP-48b, an inflated planet which may have spun-up its slightly evolved host star of 1.75 R_sun in the Northern hemisphere, and the independent discovery of HAT-P-30b / WASP-51b, a new planet in the Northern hemisphere. Using WASP, RISE, FTS and TRAPPIST photometry, with CORALIE, SOPHIE and NOT spectroscopy, we determine that WASP-35b has a mass of 0.72 +/- 0.06 M_J and radius of 1.32 +/- 0.03 R_J, and orbits with a period of 3.16 days, WASP-48b has a mass of 0.98 +/- 0.09 M_J, radius of 1.67 +/- 0.08 R_J and orbits in 2.14 days, while WASP-51b, with an orbital period of 2.81 days, is found to have a mass of 0.76 +/- 0.05 M_J and radius of 1.42 +/- 0.04 R_J, agreeing with values of 0.71 +/- 0.03 M_J and 1.34 +/- 0.07 R_J reported for HAT-P-30b.

  14. Five new associations of parasitoids in potter wasps (Vespidae, Eumeninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago H. Auko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new associations of parasitoids in potter wasps (Vespidae, Eumeninae. New associations of host and parasitoids involving potter wasps: Toxophora leucon and Pleurochrysis sp. were found parasitizing Cyphomenes anisitsii, Chrysis sp. (gr. intricans was found parasitizing Minixi suffusum, Plega beardi was found parasitizing Montezumia pelagica sepulchralis and Macrosiagon sp. was found parasitizing Pachodynerus nasidens.

  15. Editorial: Butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Huigens, M.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.

    2005-01-01

    To locate their hosts, parasitic wasps can 'eavesdrop' on the intraspecific chemical communications of their insect hosts1, 2, 3. Here we describe an example in which the information exploited by the parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae is a butterfly anti-aphrodisiac that is passed from male to fe

  16. Palp-faction: an African milkweed dismembers its wasp pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Adam; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-06-01

    Interactions between pollinators and nectar-producing flowers are usually assumed to be mutualistic, but the exploitative basis of these relationships can lead to antagonistic interactions. Flowers of the African milkweed, Pachycarpus appendiculatus E. Mey, produce concentrated nectar that is consumed primarily by the large spider-hunting wasp Hemipepsis dedjas Guerin (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Pollinaria of this milkweed become attached to the palps of these wasps during nectar feeding. Broken wasp palps were found between guide rails, attached to corpuscula that were trapped behind the guide rails, and attached to pollinia that were inserted into the stigmatic chambers of the flowers. Approximately 85% of wasps captured on flowers of P. appendiculatus were missing one or more palps, whereas only 9% of wasps captured on flowers of another asclepiad species were missing any palps. It thus seems that wasps face a high risk of losing their palps when foraging on these flowers. The interaction may thus be antagonistic for the wasps if the cost of losing their sensory palps (not yet established) is greater than the benefits of the nectar reward. The plants, however, gain clear benefit from the interaction, as verified by the removal and insertion of pollinia in flowers exposed solely to visits by pompilid wasps.

  17. Physical properties of the planetary systems WASP-45 and WASP-46 from simultaneous multi-band photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ciceri, S; Southworth, J; Lendl, M; Tregloan-Reed, J; Brahm, R; Chen, G; D'Ago, G; Dominik, M; Jaimes, R Figuera; Galianni, P; Harpsøe, K; Hinse, T C; Jørgensen, U G; Juncher, D; Korhonen, H; Liebig, C; Rabus, M; Bonomo, A S; Bott, K; Henning, Th; Jordan, A; Sozzetti, A; Alsubai, K A; Andersen, J M; Bajek, D; Bozza, V; Bramich, D M; Browne, P; Novati, S Calchi; Damerdji, Y; Diehl, C; Elyiv, A; Giannini, E; Gu, S-H; Hundertmark, M; Kains, N; Penny, M; Popovas, A; Rahvar, S; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R W; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Surdej, J; Vilela, C; Wang, X-B; Wertz, O

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the physical characteristics of a large number of exoplanets are useful to strongly constrain theoretical models of planet formation and evolution, which lead to the large variety of exoplanets and planetary-system configurations that have been observed. We present a study of the planetary systems WASP-45 and WASP-46, both composed of a main-sequence star and a close-in hot Jupiter, based on 29 new high-quality light curves of transits events. In particular, one transit of WASP-45 b and four of WASP-46 b were simultaneously observed in four optical filters, while one transit of WASP-46 b was observed with the NTT obtaining precision of 0.30 mmag with a cadence of roughly three minutes. We also obtained five new spectra of WASP-45 with the FEROS spectrograph. We improved by a factor of four the measurement of the radius of the planet WASP-45 b, and found that WASP-46 b is slightly less massive and smaller than previously reported. Both planets now have a more accurate measurement of th...

  18. A Window on Exoplanet Dynamical Histories: Rossiter-McLaughlin Observations of WASP-13b and WASP-32b

    CERN Document Server

    Brothwell, R D; Hebrard, G; Triaud, A H M J; Cegla, H M; Santerne, A; Hebrard, E; Anderson, D R; Pollacco, D; Simpson, E K; Bouchy, F; Brown, D J A; Chew, Y Gomez Maqueo; Cameron, A Collier; Armstrong, D J; Barros, S C C; Bento, J; Bochinski, J; Burwitz, V; Busuttil, R; Delrez, L; Doyle, A P; Faedi, F; Fumel, A; Gillon, M; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Kolb, U; Lendl, M; Liebig, C; Maxted, P F L; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Norton, A J; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Rodriguez, J; Segransan, D; Skillen, I; Smalley, B; Stassun, K G; Udry, S; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2014-01-01

    We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of WASP-13b and WASP-32b and determine the sky-projected angle between the normal of the planetary orbit and the stellar rotation axis ($\\lambda$). WASP-13b and WASP-32b both have prograde orbits and are consistent with alignment with measured sky-projected angles of $\\lambda={8^{\\circ}}^{+13}_{-12}$ and $\\lambda={-2^{\\circ}}^{+17}_{-19}$, respectively. Both WASP-13 and WASP-32 have $T_{\\mathrm{eff}}<6250$K and therefore these systems support the general trend that aligned planetary systems are preferentially found orbiting cool host stars. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis was carried out on archival SuperWASP data for both systems. A statistically significant stellar rotation period detection (above 99.9\\% confidence) was identified for the WASP-32 system with $P_{\\mathrm{rot}}=11.6 \\pm 1.0 $ days. This rotation period is in agreement with the predicted stellar rotation period calculated from the stellar radius, $R_{\\star}$, and $v \\sin i$ if a stellar inclin...

  19. ABSORBING GAS AROUND THE WASP-12 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossati, L.; Floeer, L. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); Ayres, T. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Haswell, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bohlender, D. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Kochukhov, O., E-mail: lfossati@astro.uni-bonn.de, E-mail: lfloeer@astro.uni-bonn.de, E-mail: Thomas.Ayres@colorado.edu, E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: david.bohlender@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: oleg.kochukhov@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index ( log R{sup '}{sub HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets.

  20. NO TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, R.; Schwartz, M.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jofré, E.; Cúneo, V.; Gómez, M. [CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Martínez, C. [Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2013-12-20

    We present six new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform a homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transits' central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in i or R{sub P} /R {sub *}. The O-C mid-transit times do not show signs of transit timing variations greater than 54 s.

  1. EST Table: FS748350 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PREDICTED: similar to fetal alzheimer antigen, falz [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/09/08 37 %/193 aa FBpp0290563|E...811424.1| PREDICTED: similar to fetal alzheimer antigen, falz [Tribolium castaneum] FS748350 caL- ...

  2. Phylogeny, evolution and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Ronquist

    Full Text Available Gall wasps (Cynipidae represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini, which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2 markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will

  3. About WASP and its Impact on American Culture and Politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜

    2015-01-01

    The acronym WASP in the United States refers to a descendent of the Caucasian Protestant Christians from England who began immigrating to the Americas in the seventeenth century. This was one the first foreign-born ethnic groups to gain a secure foothold in U.S. territory, displacing the Native American populations. In the late-eighteenth century WASPs became the dominant ethnicity in the United States, with their values shaping the institutions of the new and rapidly growing nation. Whether WASP cultural values are still the most dominant values in the United States is a subject of debate for a lot of scholars who are doing research on American history.

  4. Finding Planets Orbiting Bright Stars with SuperWASP-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O.; Anderson, D. R.; Maxted, P. L. F.; Hellier, C.

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decade the Wide Angle Search for Planets(WASP) project has been at the forefront of the ground-based hunt for transiting planets. In that time, WASP has found many systems that push the boundaries of our understanding of planet formation and evolution. In recent years both the North and South installations have changed their observing strategies with the aim of discovering rarer objects to further fill gaps in our knowledge and test current theory. Here we look at the performance and potential of the new WASP-South instrument, which we modified to target brighter stars. We also present some new discoveries from this brighter, southern campaign.

  5. Planets Transiting Bright Stars with WASP-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decade the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) project has been at the forefront of the ground-based hunt for transiting planets. In that time, WASP has found many systems that push the boundaries of our understanding of planet formation and evolution. In recent years both the North and South installations have changed their observing strategies with the aim of discovering rarer objects to further fill gaps in our knowledge and test current theory. Here we look at the performance and potential of the new WASP-South instrument, which we modified to target brighter stars. We also present some new discoveries from this brighter, southern campaign.

  6. Chemical communication: butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, Nina E; Huigens, Martinus E; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika

    2005-02-17

    To locate their hosts, parasitic wasps can 'eavesdrop' on the intraspecific chemical communications of their insect hosts. Here we describe an example in which the information exploited by the parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae is a butterfly anti-aphrodisiac that is passed from male to female Pieris brassicae butterflies during mating, to render them less attractive to conspecific males. When the tiny wasp detects the odour of a mated female butterfly, it rides on her (Fig. 1) to her egg-laying sites and then parasitizes the freshly laid eggs. If this fascinating strategy is widespread in nature, it could severely constrain the evolution of sexual communication between hosts.

  7. Unsuccessful attacks dominate a drone-preying wasp's hunting performance near stingless bee nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedam, D; Slaa, E J; Biesmeijer, J C; Nogueira-Neto, P

    2009-01-01

    Bee males (drones) of stingless bees tend to congregate near entrances of conspecific nests, where they wait for virgin queens that initiate their nuptial flight. We observed that the Neotropical solitary wasp Trachypus boharti (Hymenoptera, Cabronidae) specifically preys on males of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae); these wasps captured up to 50 males per day near the entrance of a single hive. Over 90% of the wasp attacks were unsuccessful; such erroneous attacks often involved conspecific wasps and worker bees. After the capture of non-male prey, wasps almost immediately released these individuals unharmed and continued hunting. A simple behavioral experiment showed that at short distances wasps were not specifically attracted to S. postica males nor were they repelled by workers of the same species. Likely, short-range prey detection near the bees' nest is achieved mainly by vision whereas close-range prey recognition is based principally on chemical and/or mechanical cues. We argue that the dependence on the wasp's visual perception during attack and the crowded and dynamic hunting conditions caused wasps to make many preying attempts that failed. Two wasp-density-related factors, wasp-prey distance and wasp-wasp encounters, may account for the fact that the highest male capture and unsuccessful wasp bee encounter rates occurred at intermediate wasp numbers.

  8. Hubble/WFC3 Spectroscopy of the Transiting Exoplanets WASP-19b and WASP-17b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, A.; Haynes, K.; Sinukoff, E.; Deming, D.; Wlikins, A.; Madhusudhan, N.; Agol, E.; Burrows, A.; Charbonneau, D.; Gilliland, R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of transiting exoplanets that target extremes in parameter space offer the best chance to disentangle the structure and composition of the atmospheres of hot Jupiters. WASP-19b is one of the hottest exoplanets discovered to date, while WASP-17b has a much lower equilibrium temperature but has one of the largest atmospheric radii of known transiting planets. We discuss results from HST/WFC3 grism 1.1-1.7 micron spectroscopy of these planets during transit. We compare our integrated-light transit depths to previous IR transit photometry, and derive the 1.4-micron water absorption spectrum. We discuss implications for the atmospheric composition and structure of these hot Jupiters, and outline future observations that will further expand on these results.

  9. Seasonal population dynamics of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in sweet orange trees maintained under continuous deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugner, Rodrigo; Groves, Russell L; Johnson, Marshall W; Flores, Arnel P; Hagler, James R; Morse, Joseph G

    2009-06-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted in a citrus orchard (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cultivar Valencia) to determine the influence of plant water stress on the population dynamics of glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar). Experimental treatments included irrigation at 100% of the crop evapotranspiration rate (ET(c)) and continuous deficit-irrigation regimens at 80 and 60% ET(c). Microclimate and plant conditions monitored included temperature and humidity in the tree canopy, leaf surface temperature, water potential, and fruit quality and yield. Glassy-winged sharpshooter population densities and activity were monitored weekly by a combination of visual inspections, beat net sampling, and trapping. Glassy-winged sharpshooter populations were negatively affected by severe plant water stress; however, population densities were not linearly related to decreasing water availability in plants. Citrus trees irrigated at 60% ET(c) had significantly warmer leaves, lower xylem water potential, and consequently hosted fewer glassy-winged sharpshooter eggs, nymphs, and adults than trees irrigated at 80% ET(c). Citrus trees irrigated at 100% ET(c) hosted similar numbers of glassy-winged sharpshooter stages as trees irrigated at 60% ET(c) and a lower number of glassy-winged sharpshooter nymphs than the 80% ET(c) treatment, specifically during the nymphal density peak in mid-April to early July. Irrigation treatments did not affect populations of monitored natural enemies. Although the adult glassy-winged sharpshooter population was reduced, on average, by 50% in trees under severe water stress, the total number of fruit and number of fruit across several fruit grade categories were significantly lower in the 60% ET(c) than in the 80 and 100% ET(c) irrigation treatments.

  10. Improving WAsP predictions in (too) complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Bowen, A.J.; Antoniou, I.

    2006-01-01

    (ΔRIX) are confirmed and the consequences of applying WAsP outside its operating envelope are quantified. A loglinear relation between WAsP prediction errors and the performance indicator ΔRIX is found to describe the field measurements and modelling results well. The largest coefficient...... of determination is obtained with a calculation radius of about 3.5 km and a critical slope of about 0.40-0.45 used in the RIX calculations. A simple procedure is further proposed to improve wind speed and power production predictions in terrain outside the operational envelope of the WAsP flow model. Results from...... the case study in northern Portugal, employing five meteorological stations with ruggedness indices between 10 and 33%, indicate an average improvement of WAsP power production predictions of 69%. Cross-predictions between sites with ΔRIX values larger than 5% are improved by more than 90% on average...

  11. Neurobiology: venom of wasps and initiation of movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Keller, Bridget R

    2008-06-24

    The ability to initiate movements can be impaired in some brain injuries even though motor actions proceed normally once they are begun. The effects of venom that wasps use in preying upon cockroaches could provide insights into this problem.

  12. From dense hot Jupiter to low-density Neptune: The discovery of WASP-127b, WASP-136b, and WASP-138b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K. W. F.; Faedi, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Anderson, D. R.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hébrard, G.; Lendl, M.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M.; Turner, O. D.; Hay, K. L.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Boumis, P.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Hellier, C.; Henning, T.; Jehin, E.; King, G.; Kirk, J.; Louden, T.; Maxted, P. F. L.; McCormac, J. J.; Osborn, H. P.; Palle, E.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Prieto-Arranz, J.; Queloz, D.; Rey, J.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Walker, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2017-03-01

    We report three newly discovered exoplanets from the SuperWASP survey. WASP-127b is a heavily inflated super-Neptune of mass 0.18±0.02 MJ and radius 1.37±0.04 RJ. This is one of the least massive planets discovered by the WASP project. It orbits a bright host star (Vmag = 10.16) of spectral type G5 with a period of 4.17 days. WASP-127b is a low-density planet that has an extended atmosphere with a scale height of 2500 ± 400 km, making it an ideal candidate for transmission spectroscopy. WASP-136b and WASP-138b are both hot Jupiters with mass and radii of 1.51 ± 0.08 MJ and 1.38 ± 0.16 RJ, and 1.22 ± 0.08 MJ and 1.09 ± 0.05 RJ, respectively. WASP-136b is in a 5.22-day orbit around an F9 subgiant star with a mass of 1.41 ± 0.07 M⊙ and a radius of 2.21 ± 0.22 R⊙. The discovery of WASP-136b could help constrain the characteristics of the giant planet population around evolved stars. WASP-138b orbits an F7 star with a period of 3.63 days. Its radius agrees with theoretical values from standard models, suggesting the presence of a heavy element core with a mass of 10 M⊕. The discovery of these new planets helps in exploring the diverse compositional range of short-period planets, and will aid our understanding of the physical characteristics of both gas giants and low-density planets. Radial velocity and photometry tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A3

  13. Component-resolved diagnosis of wasp (yellow jacket) venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebo, D G; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Leysen, J; Bridts, C H; De Clerck, L S

    2013-02-01

    Wasp venom allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with serious consequences of diagnostic error. To assess whether component-resolved diagnosis, using non-glycosylated recombinant allergen components from yellow jacket can add to the diagnosis of wasp venom allergy. In total, 148 patients with a wasp (yellow jacket) allergy were included, 91 with unequivocal tests, 26 with double positivity of serum-specific IgE (sIgE) to both venoms, 21 with discrepant sIgE and skin test results and finally 10 having their diagnosis only confirmed by basophil activation test (negative sIgE and skin test results). Specific IgE to recombinant species-specific allergen components Ves v 1 and Ves v 5 from yellow jacket, Api m 1 from honeybee and Ves v 5 complemented wasp venom were tested by ImmunoCAP. Overall, combined use of sIgE to rVes v 1 and rVes v 5 allowed correct diagnosis in 139 of the 148 patients (94%) and rApi m 1 was demonstrable in only one patient. Supplementing the traditional yellow jacket allergosorbent with rVes v 5 allowed to correctly diagnose wasp allergy in patients sensitized to Ves v 5 but demonstrating a negative sIgE to wasp venom. Component-resolved diagnoses with the wasp-specific recombinant allergen components Ves v 1 and Ves v 5 is a reliable method to diagnose yellow jacket allergy and can help to take out the sting of difficult cases. However, as the number of patients with doubt after conventional tests is small, larger collaborative studies are needed to draw more definitive conclusions. Whether the rVes v 5 supplemented yellow jacket allergosorbent constitutes an asset in the diagnostic management of wasp venom allergy remains to be further established. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  15. The Role of WASp in Podosome Formation and Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevrey, Jean-Claude; Dovas, Athanassios; Abou-Kheir, Wassim;

    Abstract Podosomes are ventral adhesion structures found mainly in cells of the monocytic lineage. Even though their function remains obscure, it has been proposed that they play roles in cell migration and, through their ability to degrade matrix, ECM remodelling and invasion. Monocyte-derived c......Abstract Podosomes are ventral adhesion structures found mainly in cells of the monocytic lineage. Even though their function remains obscure, it has been proposed that they play roles in cell migration and, through their ability to degrade matrix, ECM remodelling and invasion. Monocyte...... in decreased podosome formation and matrix degradation that could be rescued by re-expression of WT WASp. To assess the signal pathways required for WASp activation during podosome formation the ability of mutated versions of WASp to rescue WASp deficiency was also determined. Similar to re-introduction...... of wild-type WASp, mutation of Y291, a major phosphorylation site on WASp, to either inhibit (Y291F) or mimic (Y291E) phosphorylation, resulted in functional podosomes. By contrast, the H246D mutation, which inhibits Cdc42 binding could not rescue the shRNA effect. Taken altogether, these data demonstrate...

  16. Conservation of Queen Pheromones Across Two Species of Vespine Wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Cintia A; Millar, Jocelyn G; van Zweden, Jelle S; Wenseleers, Tom

    2016-11-01

    Social insects are known for their reproductive division of labor between queens and workers, whereby queens lay the majority of the colony's eggs, and workers engage mostly in non-reproductive tasks. Queens produce pheromones that signal their presence and fertility to workers, which in turn generally remain sterile. Recently, it has been discovered that specific queen-characteristic cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) function as queen pheromones across multiple lineages of social insects. In the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, several long-chain linear alkanes and 3-methylalkanes were shown to act as queen signals. Here, we describe similar bioassays with a related species of highly eusocial vespine wasp, the Saxon wasp, Dolichovespula saxonica. We show that a blend of queen-characteristic hydrocarbons that are structurally related to those of the common wasp inhibit worker reproduction, suggesting conservation of queen pheromones across social wasps. Overall, our results highlight the central importance of CHCs in chemical communication among social insects in general, and as conserved queen pheromones in these social wasps in particular.

  17. Role of social wasps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Calabretta, Antonio; Di Paola, Monica; De Filippo, Carlotta; Viola, Roberto; Capretti, Paolo; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2012-08-14

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important model organisms and has been a valuable asset to human civilization. However, despite its extensive use in the last 9,000 y, the existence of a seasonal cycle outside human-made environments has not yet been described. We demonstrate the role of social wasps as vector and natural reservoir of S. cerevisiae during all seasons. We provide experimental evidence that queens of social wasps overwintering as adults (Vespa crabro and Polistes spp.) can harbor yeast cells from autumn to spring and transmit them to their progeny. This result is mirrored by field surveys of the genetic variability of natural strains of yeast. Microsatellites and sequences of a selected set of loci able to recapitulate the yeast strain's evolutionary history were used to compare 17 environmental wasp isolates with a collection of strains from grapes from the same region and more than 230 strains representing worldwide yeast variation. The wasp isolates fall into subclusters representing the overall ecological and industrial yeast diversity of their geographic origin. Our findings indicate that wasps are a key environmental niche for the evolution of natural S. cerevisiae populations, the dispersion of yeast cells in the environment, and the maintenance of their diversity. The close relatedness of several wasp isolates with grape and wine isolates reflects the crucial role of human activities on yeast population structure, through clonal expansion and selection of specific strains during the biotransformation of fermented foods, followed by dispersal mediated by insects and other animals.

  18. Cells derived from the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, support infection and replication of viral RNA from a clone of Homalodisca coagulata virus 1 (HoCV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce’s disease is a common and devastating disease of grapevines caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. The bacterium is often transmitted to plants by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) which has become a high profile pest insect targete...

  19. Plant water stress effects on the net dispersal rate of the insect vector Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and movement of its egg parasitoid, Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homalodisca vitripennis, one of the main vectors of Xylella fastidiosa, is associated with citrus plantings in California, USA. Infested citrus orchards act as a source of vectors to adjacent vineyards where X. fastidiosa causes Pierce’s disease (PD). An analysis of the pattern and rate of movement ...

  20. Ks band secondary eclipses of WASP-19b and WASP-43b with the Anglo-Australian Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, G; Kedziora-Chudczer, L; Salter, G; Tinney, C G; Bailey, J

    2014-01-01

    We report new Ks band secondary eclipse observations for the hot-Jupiters WASP-19b and WASP-43b. Using the IRIS2 infrared camera on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), we measured significant secondary eclipses for both planets, with depths of 0.287 -0.020/+0.020% and 0.181 -0.027/+0.027% for WASP-19b and WASP-43b respectively. We compare the observations to atmosphere models from the VSTAR line-by-line radiative transfer code, and examine the effect of C/O abundance, top layer haze, and metallicities on the observed spectra. We performed a series of signal injection and recovery exercises on the observed light curves to explore the detection thresholds of the AAT+IRIS2 facility. We find that the optimal photometric precision is achieved for targets brighter than Kmag = 9, for which eclipses as shallow as 0.05% are detectable at >5 sigma significance.

  1. Follow-up Observations of WASP-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutra, Taylor; Boley, Aaron; Hughes, Anna; Hickson, Paul

    2017-06-01

    This ongoing work aims to provide follow-up observations of known transiting extrasolar planets using the 35-cm robotic telescope at The University of British Columbia's Southern Observatory (USO), located at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The observations are part of a long-term effort to search for changes in transit signatures, such as transit timing variations (TTVs) and transit duration variations (TDVs), which could indicate, for example, the presence of additional planets. To help characterize the USO for transit searches, we acquired I-band observations of WASP-36 spanning from 17 January 2017 to 27 February 2017. Three complete transits and one partial transit are included in the data. We present the analysis of these new observations and discuss potential future targets.

  2. Natural thermoelectric heat pump in social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S; Pertsis, Vitaly; Rave, Eran; Goren, Alon; Bergman, David J

    2003-05-30

    Photographs of wasps or hornets, taken with different temperature sensitive infrared cameras, reveal body temperatures that are sometimes significantly lower than the ambient temperature. This suggests that the hornets possess an intrinsic biological heat pump mechanism which can be used to achieve such cooling. Evidence is presented to substantiate this novel suggestion and to argue that the heat pump is most likely implemented by exploiting a thermoelectric effect in the hornet cuticle. Such a natural heat pump can conceivably also serve to cool the active hornet, engaged in daytime activities outside the nest at ambient temperatures exceeding 40 degrees C, to a body temperature that is low enough to allow its survival in extreme thermal conditions. It might also function as a means of raising the body temperature up to a level that enables the hornet to remain active even when the ambient temperature is as low as 10 degrees C.

  3. Accidental Genetic Engineers: Horizontal Sequence Transfer from Parasitoid Wasps to Their Lepidopteran Hosts: e109446

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sean E Schneider; James H Thomas

    2014-01-01

    .... Because these virus-like particles deliver wasp DNA to the cells of the host, there has been much interest in whether genetic information can be permanently transferred from the wasp to the host...

  4. Accidental genetic engineers: horizontal sequence transfer from parasitoid wasps to their Lepidopteran hosts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Sean E; Thomas, James H

    2014-01-01

    .... Because these virus-like particles deliver wasp DNA to the cells of the host, there has been much interest in whether genetic information can be permanently transferred from the wasp to the host...

  5. Transfer of a chromosomal Maverick to endogenous bracovirus in a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, C; Periquet, G; Serbielle, C; Bézier, A; Louis, F; Drezen, J-M

    2011-04-01

    Bracoviruses are used by parasitoid wasps to allow development of their progeny within the body of lepidopteran hosts. In parasitoid wasps, the bracovirus exists as a provirus, integrated in a wasp chromosome. Viral replication occurs in wasp ovaries and leads to formation of particles containing dsDNA circles (segments) that are injected into the host body during wasp oviposition. We identified a large DNA transposon Maverick in a parasitoid wasp bracovirus. Closely related elements are present in parasitoid wasp genomes indicating that the element in CcBV corresponds to the insertion of an endogenous wasp Maverick in CcBV provirus. The presence of the Maverick in a bracovirus genome suggests the possibility of transposon transfers from parasitoids to lepidoptera via bracoviruses.

  6. Asymmetric or diffusive co-evolution generates meta-populations in fig-fig wasp mutualisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    WANG RuiWu YANG Yan WIGGINS Natasha L

    2014-01-01

    ..." that provide greater benefit to the fig,and fig wasps appear to have diversified their evolutionary strategies in response to discriminative enforcement by figs and competition among different fig wasp species...

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U07007-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 42 0.67 5 ( ES639942 ) NVPE716TR NVPA Nasonia vitripennis cDNA, mRNA seq... 42 0.74 2 ( ES628177 ) NGPRR96TR NGPP Nasonia giraul...s clone CH230-132B9, *** SEQUENCI... 38 1.0 6 ( ES627576 ) NGPRH45TR NGPP Nasonia giraulti cDNA, mRNA sequen

  8. Lower limb ischemia and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following wasp Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyakanth T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wasp stings are commonly encountered in tropical countries. Various manifestations after wasp sting have been described. We report 66-years old healthy female developed lower limb ischemia, myocardial infarction, renal, liver and hematological involvement following multiple wasp stings. She was fully recovered after two weeks of treatment

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-71b light curve (Smith+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Bouchy, F.; Collier, Cameron A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hebrard, G.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Moutou, C.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Santerne, A.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. J. M.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2013-03-01

    The host star WASP-71 was observed by WASP-North from 2008 to 2010, and by WASP-South from 2008 to 2009. This differential survey photometry has been de-reddened and normalised. Further photometry was obtained using TRAPPIST in 2011. All these data are plotted in Figure 1. (1 data file).

  10. The Exo-Atmosphere of WASP-103b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star Cartier, Kimberly Michelle; Wright, Jason; Beatty, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of exo-atmospheres are essential for full characterization of an exoplanet's composition, temperature, and habitability. Given the state of our current technology, transiting hot Jupiters are the best candidates for both transmission and emission spectroscopy due to their large radii, extended atmospheres, and hot equilibrium temperatures. WASP-103b is a 1.5 Jupiter-radius gas giant at the edge of tidal disruption orbiting an F-star 470 pc away. Its very-hot temperature (2890 K), ultra-short period (0.92 day), and UV-quiet host star make WASP-103b a compelling target for exo-atmosphere observations. The presence of a nearby companion star complicates analyses of the WASP-103 system, and is likely physically associated with the host star and planet. We apply state-of-the-art Gaussian process regression to provide precise solutions to faint signals, with models that are flexible enough to accommodate extreme detector systematics and unknown noise sources. Through a combination of spaced-based emission spectra and multi-telescope ground-based transmission spectra and photometry, we show that WASP-103b has no obvious molecular absorption in the near-infrared, anomalously strong Rayleigh scattering, and the potential for a stratospheric thermal inversion. WASP-103b, along with other highly-irradiated hot Jupiters, will be a key planet for validating hypotheses about the existence and origin of thermal inversions, and developing analysis methods viable for exo-atmospheric studies of the future.

  11. Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program: WAsP 11 Help Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) is a PC-program for horizontal and vertical extrapolation of wind climates. The program contains a complete set of models to calculate the effects on the wind of sheltering obstacles, surface roughness changes and terrain height variations...... of specific wind turbines and wind farms. The WAsP Help Facility includes a Quick Start Tutorial, a User's Guide and a Technical Reference. It further includes descriptions of the Observed Wind Climate Wizard, the WAsP Climate Analyst, the WAsP Map Editor tool, the WAsP Turbine Editor tool, the Air Density...

  12. Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Jandér, K. Charlotte; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Huan-Huan; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Herre, Edward Allen

    2014-05-01

    Fig pollinating wasps and most non-pollinator wasps apply secretions from their poison sacs into oviposited flowers that appear necessary to the formation of the galls that their developing offspring consume. Thus, both eggs and poison sac secretions appear to be essential for wasp reproduction, but the relative investment in each is unknown. We measured relative investment in poison sac and egg production in pollinating and non-pollinating wasps associated with seven species of monoecious Panamanian figs representing both active and passive pollination syndromes. We then collected similar data for four fig hosts in China, where some wasp species in the genus Eupristina have lost the ability to pollinate ("cheaters"). All wasps examined possessed large poison sacs, and we found a strong positive correlation between poison sac size and absolute egg production. In the Panamanian species, the relative poison sac to egg investment was highest in the externally ovipositing non-pollinator wasps, followed by active pollinators, then by passive pollinators. Further, pollinator wasps of fig species with demonstrated host sanctions against "cheating" wasps showed higher investment in the poison sac than wasps of species without sanctions. In the Chinese samples, relative investment in the poison sac was indistinguishable between pollinators and "cheaters" associated with the same fig species. We suggest that higher relative investment in poison sac across fig wasp species reflects higher relative difficulty in initiating formation of galls and subsequently obtaining resources from the fig. We discuss the implications for the stability of the fig-wasp mutualism, and for the ability of non-pollinators to exploit this mutualism.

  13. Differential Properties of Venom Peptides and Proteins in Solitary vs. Social Hunting Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Baek, Ji Hyeong; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The primary functions of venoms from solitary and social wasps are different. Whereas most solitary wasps sting their prey to paralyze and preserve it, without killing, as the provisions for their progeny, social wasps usually sting to defend their colonies from vertebrate predators. Such distinctive venom properties of solitary and social wasps suggest that the main venom components are likely to be different depending on the wasps’ sociality. The present paper reviews venom components and properties of the Aculeata hunting wasps, with a particular emphasis on the comparative aspects of venom compositions and properties between solitary and social wasps. Common components in both solitary and social wasp venoms include hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2, metalloendopeptidase, etc. Although it has been expected that more diverse bioactive components with the functions of prey inactivation and physiology manipulation are present in solitary wasps, available studies on venom compositions of solitary wasps are simply too scarce to generalize this notion. Nevertheless, some neurotoxic peptides (e.g., pompilidotoxin and dendrotoxin-like peptide) and proteins (e.g., insulin-like peptide binding protein) appear to be specific to solitary wasp venom. In contrast, several proteins, such as venom allergen 5 protein, venom acid phosphatase, and various phospholipases, appear to be relatively more specific to social wasp venom. Finally, putative functions of main venom components and their application are also discussed. PMID:26805885

  14. Online training in WAsP for wind energy professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Badger, Jake; Berg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    are: 1. To teach participants to use the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) 2. To provide participants with enough theory about wind power meteorology to avoid the major pitfalls related to wind resource assessment. WAsP is the wind power industry-standard PC-software for wind resource......An online course in wind energy resource assessment has been developed by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The course builds upon a successful physical course, which the Department of Wind Energy at DTU has offered to the wind energy industry for more than 20 years. The course objectives...

  15. WASP-104b and WASP-106b: two transiting hot Jupiters in 1.75-day and 9.3-day orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A M S; Armstrong, D J; Barros, S C C; Bonomo, A S; Bouchy, F; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Faedi, F; Gillon, M; Chew, Y Gómez Maqueo; Hébrard, G; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Louden, T M; Maxted, P F L; Montagnier, G; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Osborn, H; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Rostron, J W; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; Turner, O D; Udry, S; Walker, S R; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery from the WASP survey of two exoplanetary systems, each consisting of a Jupiter-sized planet transiting an 11th magnitude (V) main-sequence star. WASP-104b orbits its star in 1.75 d, whereas WASP-106b has the fourth-longest orbital period of any planet discovered by means of transits observed from the ground, orbiting every 9.29 d. Each planet is more massive than Jupiter (WASP-104b has a mass of $1.27 \\pm 0.05~\\mathrm{M_{Jup}}$, while WASP-106b has a mass of $1.93 \\pm 0.08~\\mathrm{M_{Jup}}$). Both planets are just slightly larger than Jupiter, with radii of $1.14 \\pm 0.04$ and $1.09 \\pm 0.04~\\mathrm{R_{Jup}}$ for WASP-104 and WASP-106 respectively. No significant orbital eccentricity is detected in either system, and while this is not surprising in the case of the short-period WASP-104b, it is interesting in the case of WASP-106b, because many otherwise similar planets are known to have eccentric orbits.

  16. WASP-78b and WASP-79b: Two highly-bloated hot Jupiter-mass exoplanets orbiting F-type stars in Eridanus

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, B; Collier-Cameron, A; Doyle, A P; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; West, R G

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-78b and WASP-79b, two highly-bloated Jupiter-mass exoplanets orbiting F-type host stars. WASP-78b orbits its V=12.0 host star (TYC 5889-271-1) every 2.175 days and WASP-79b orbits its V=10.1 host star (CD-30 1812) every 3.662 days. A simultaneous fit to WASP and TRAPPIST transit photometry and CORALIE radial-velocity measurements yields planetary masses of 0.89 +/- 0.08 M_Jup and 0.90 +/- 0.08 M_Jup, and radii of 1.70 +/- 0.11 R_Jup and 2.09 +/- 0.14 R_Jup, for WASP-78b and WASP-79b, respectively. The planetary equilibrium temperature of T_P = 2350 +/- 80 K for WASP-78b makes it one of the hottest of the currently known exoplanets. The radius of WASP-79b suggests that it is potentially the largest known exoplanet.

  17. Social wasps promote social behavior in Saccharomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This commentary provides background and an evaluation of a paper to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in which social wasps were found to harbor significant populations of two species of the yeast genus Saccharomyces. Apparently, the yeasts were acquired during feed...

  18. Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Depths with Multiple Intrapixel Sensitivity Correction Methods: Observations of WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b

    CERN Document Server

    Kilpatrick, Brian M; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Ingalls, James G; Krick, Jessica E; Tucker, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 $\\mu$m thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the {\\sl Spitzer Space Telescope}. Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. Fo...

  19. Use of a parasitic wasp as a biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening cargo for illicit substances is still in need of high-throughput inspection systems that can rapidly screen and accurately identify suspicious cargo. Here we investigate the ability of a parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes to detect and respond to methyl benzoate, the volatile component ...

  20. The WASP-South search for transiting exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queloz D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006 WASP-South has been scanning the Southern sky for transiting exoplanets. Combined with Geneva Observatory radial velocities we have so far found over 30 transiting exoplanets around relatively bright stars of magnitude 9–13. We present a status report for this ongoing survey.

  1. Venom gland components of the ectoparasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae is a small ectoparasitoid that attacks stored product pest beetle larvae that develop inside grain kernels, and is thus a potential insect control tool. The components of the venom have not been studied, but venom peptides from other organisms have been identified ...

  2. Multi-organ dysfunction secondary to severe wasp envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittyachen, Abraham M; Abdulla, Shanavas; Anwarsha, Rifzana Fathima; Kumar, Bhavya S

    2015-01-01

    Wasp sting is not an uncommon incident. Around 56% to 94% of the population is stung at least once in their lifetime by a member of the order Hymenoptera which includes wasps, bees, and ants. The response to a wasp sting may vary from mild local reaction to severe systemic and anaphylactic reactions. The clinical picture and mortality rate tend to be more severe in adults compared to children. We present a 32-year-old agricultural worker who was bitten by multiple wasps while on a coconut tree. In spite of the heavy load of venom due to the multiple bites, the patient did not develop anaphylaxis. However, a delayed reaction did occur within 48 h in the form of severe multi-organ dysfunction. There was significant improvement by around 2 weeks; but it took another 6 months for the serum creatinine to normalize. This case highlights the occupational risk of Hymenoptera envenomation, the life-threatening complications that may follow and which may even be delayed as was the case with this patient, and the value of emergency care and intensive management which can result in a favorable clinical outcome.

  3. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  4. Kin discrimination and sex ratios in a parasitoid wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reece, S.E.; Shuker, D.M.; Pen, I.R.; Duncan, A.B.; Choudhary, A.; Batchelor, C.M.; West, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sex ratio theory provides a clear and simple way to test if nonsocial haplodiploid wasps can discriminate between kin and nonkin. Specifically, if females can discriminate siblings from nonrelatives, then they are expected to produce a higher proportion of daughters if they mate with a sibling. This

  5. The WASP-South search for transiting exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Hellier, Coel; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Lendl, M; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006 WASP-South has been scanning the Southern sky for transiting exoplanets. Combined with Geneva Observatory radial velocities we have so far found over 30 transiting exoplanets around relatively bright stars of magnitude 9--13. We present a status report for this ongoing survey.

  6. Bacteria Endosymbiont, Wolbachia, Promotes Parasitism of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Shunsuke; Hirata, Makiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium that manipulates reproduction of its arthropod hosts to enhance its own spread throughout host populations. Infection with Wolbachia causes complete parthenogenetic reproduction in many Hymenoptera, producing only female offspring. The mechanism of such reproductive manipulation by Wolbachia has been extensively studied. However, the effects of Wolbachia symbiosis on behavioral traits of the hosts are scarcely investigated. The parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica is an ideal insect to investigate this because symbiotic and aposymbiotic strains are available: Wolbachia-infected Tokyo (TK) and noninfected Iriomote (IR) strains originally collected on the main island and southwest islands of Japan, respectively. We compared the oviposition behaviors of the two strains and found that TK strain females parasitized Drosophila melanogaster larvae more actively than the IR strain, especially during the first two days after eclosion. Removing Wolbachia from the TK strain wasps by treatment with tetracycline or rifampicin decreased their parasitism activity to the level of the IR strain. Morphological and behavioral analyses of both strain wasps showed that Wolbachia endosymbionts do not affect development of the host female reproductive tract and eggs, but do enhance host-searching ability of female wasps. These results suggest the possibility that Wolbachia endosymbionts may promote their diffusion and persistence in the host A. japonica population not only at least partly by parthenogenesis but also by enhancement of oviposition frequency of the host females.

  7. Occurrence of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus caria and F. microcarpa in Hatay, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanlar, Mikdat

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), considering that only 2 fig wasp species, Blastophaga psenes (L.) and Philotrypesis caricae (L.) (new record) are associated with Ficus carica in Turkey. Five fig wasps species, namely Eupristina verticillata Waterston, Walkerella microcarpae Boucek, Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes, Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen, and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi were found on Ficus microcarpa (L.), which is an Asian fig tree, and has been ornamentally ...

  8. Occurrence of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus caria and F. microcarpa in Hatay, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanlar, Mikdat

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), considering that only 2 fig wasp species, Blastophaga psenes (L.) and Philotrypesis caricae (L.) (new record) are associated with Ficus carica in Turkey. Five fig wasps species, namely Eupristina verticillata Waterston, Walkerella microcarpae Boucek, Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes, Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen, and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi were found on Ficus microcarpa (L.), which is an Asian fig tree, and has been ornamentally ...

  9. Bird predation on nest of a social wasp in Brazilian cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Henriques, Raimundo Paulo; Torre Palma, Alexandre Ramlo

    2015-01-01

    Birds are rarely observed preying upon wasps' nests (Bertoni 1911, Rau 1941, AIvarez del Toro 1950, Skutch 1959, Windsor 1976). Many of the observations are recorded in tropical forest on nests of Polybia and Metapolybia. In this note we present the first observations on the predation by the curIcrestedjay (Cyanocorax cristatellus) upon the nest of a social wasp (Apoica pallens) in cerrados of Central Brazil. Birds are rarely observed preying upon wasps' nests (Bertoni 1911, Rau 1941, AIva...

  10. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome due to massive wasp stings:an autopsy case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling; TANG Yi; LIU Fang; SHI Yu-ying; CAO Yu; XU Huan; FU Ping

    2012-01-01

    We reported a case of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) following about 300 wasp stings.The diagnosis was based on autopsy findings of acute pulmonary edema,acute kidney injury,hepatic and cardiac dysfunction,and cerebral edema.MODS is a life-threatening complication,and should be considered a possibility after multiple wasp stings.Our autopsy helped to establish the cause of unexpected death due to wasp stings and to elucidate a possible mechanism of MODS.

  11. Deep mtDNA divergences indicate cryptic species in a fig-pollinating wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Joanne

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figs and fig-pollinating wasps are obligate mutualists that have coevolved for ca 90 million years. They have radiated together, but do not show strict cospeciation. In particular, it is now clear that many fig species host two wasp species, so there is more wasp speciation than fig speciation. However, little is known about how fig wasps speciate. Results We studied variation in 71 fig-pollinating wasps from across the large geographic range of Ficus rubiginosa in Australia. All wasps sampled belong to one morphological species (Pleistodontes imperialis, but we found four deep mtDNA clades that differed from each other by 9–17% nucleotides. As these genetic distances exceed those normally found within species and overlap those (10–26% found between morphologically distinct Pleistodontes species, they strongly suggest cryptic fig wasp species. mtDNA clade diversity declines from all four present in Northern Queensland to just one in Sydney, near the southern range limit. However, at most sites multiple clades coexist and can be found in the same tree or even the same fig fruit and there is no evidence for parallel sub-division of the host fig species. Both mtDNA data and sequences from two nuclear genes support the monophyly of the "P. imperialis complex" relative to other Pleistodontes species, suggesting that fig wasp divergence has occurred without any host plant shift. Wasps in clade 3 were infected by a single strain (W1 of Wolbachia bacteria, while those in other clades carried a double infection (W2+W3 of two other strains. Conclusion Our study indicates that cryptic fig-pollinating wasp species have developed on a single host plant species, without the involvement of host plant shifts, or parallel host plant divergence. Despite extensive evidence for coevolution between figs and fig wasps, wasp speciation may not always be linked strongly with fig speciation.

  12. Strike fast, strike hard: the red-throated caracara exploits absconding behavior of social wasps during nest predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean McCann

    Full Text Available Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1 video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2 analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3 inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The "hit-and-run" predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests. Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps.

  13. Genomic imprinting and maternal effect genes in haplodiploid sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Zande, L; Verhulst, E C

    2014-01-01

    The research into the Drosophila melanogaster sex-determining system has been at the basis of all further research on insect sex determination. This further research has made it clear that, for most insect species, the presence of sufficient functional Transformer (TRA) protein in the early embryonic stage is essential for female sexual development. In Hymenoptera, functional analysis of sex determination by knockdown studies of sex-determining genes has only been performed for 2 species. The first is the social insect species Apis mellifera, the honeybee, which has single-locus complementary sex determination (CSD). The other species is the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, the jewel wasp. Nasonia has a non-CSD sex-determining system, described as the maternal effect genomic imprinting sex determination system (MEGISD). Here, we describe the arguments that eventually led to the formulation of MEGISD and the experimental data that supported and refined this model. We evaluate the possibility that DNA methylation lies at the basis of MEGISD and briefly address the role of genomic imprinting in non-CSD sex determination in other Hymenoptera.

  14. Chemical Strategies of the Beetle Metoecus Paradoxus, Social Parasite of the Wasp Vespula Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; van Zweden, Jelle S; Huyghe, Hilde; Drijfhout, Falko; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The parasitoid beetle Metoecus paradoxus frequently parasitizes colonies of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. It penetrates a host colony as a larva that attaches itself onto a foraging wasp's body and, once inside the nest, it feeds on a wasp larva inside a brood cell and then pupates. Avoiding detection by the wasp host is crucial when the beetle emerges. Here, we tested whether adult M. paradoxus beetles avoid detection by mimicking the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of their host. The beetles appear to be chemically adapted to their main host species, the common wasp, because they share more hydrocarbon compounds with it than they do with the related German wasp, V. germanica. In addition, aggression tests showed that adult beetles were attacked less by common wasp workers than by German wasp workers. Our results further indicated that the host-specific compounds were, at least partially, produced through recycling of the prey's hydrocarbons, and were not acquired through contact with the adult host. Moreover, the chemical profile of the beetles shows overproduction of the wasp queen pheromone, nonacosane (n-C29), suggesting that beetles might mimic the queen's pheromonal bouquet.

  15. TTVs analysis in Southern Stars: the case of WASP-28

    CERN Document Server

    Petrucci, Romina; Melita, Mario; Gómez, Mercedes; Mauas, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We present 4 new transit observations of the exoplanet WASP-28b observed between August 2011 and October 2013. Employing another 11 transits available in the literature we compute new ephemeris and redetermine the physical parameters of the star and the exoplanet. Considering 3 yrs of observations, we find no periodic TTVs or long-term variations of the inclination of the orbit, i, or the depth of the transit, k, that could be attributable to the presence of another planetary mass-body in the system. We also study the relations between i and k with different factors that characterize the light-curves. The fits suggest a possible weak correlation between k with the red noise factor, \\b{eta}, and the photometric noise rate, PNR, and a weak anticorrelation between i and PNR, although more points are needed to confirm these trends. Finally, the kinematic study suggests that WASP-28 is a thin disk star.

  16. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  17. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  18. SuperWASP Wide Angle Search for Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Street, R A; Fitzsimmons, A; Keenan, F P; Horne, K; Kane, S; Cameron, A C; Lister, T A; Haswell, C; Norton, A J; Jones, B W; Skillen, I; Hodgkin, S T; Wheatley, P; West, R; Brett, D; Horne, Keith

    2002-01-01

    SuperWASP is a fully robotic, ultra-wide angle survey for planetary transits. Currently under construction, it will consist of 5 cameras, each monitoring a 9.5 x 9.5 deg field of view. The Torus mount and enclosure will be fully automated and linked to a built-in weather station. We aim to begin observations at the beginning of 2003.

  19. WASP light curve of the eclipsing binary VZ CVn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latković O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The WASP light curve of the eclipsing binary VZ CVn, consisting of more than 14000 individual observations, is analyzed for photometric elements using the modeling code of Đurašević (1992. The spectroscopic parameters are adopted from the recent radial velocity work by Pribulla et al. (2009. The results of the study include new times of minimum light, an improved ephemeris, and the updated physical and orbital parameters of the system.

  20. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert;

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  1. Studying the Atmospheres of the Most Intriguing WASP Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Queloz, D.

    2013-09-01

    Among the over 300 transiting planets confirmed to date, approximately 130 have been found by groundbased wide angle transit surveys such asWASP. While these surveys are not sensitive enough to detect lowmass planets, they excel at picking out rare hot- Jupiters orbiting reasonably bright stars (V mag = 9 - 11) across the sky. These planets occupy a favorable region in parameter space, as they show frequent and deep transits. Due to the proximity to their host stars these gas giants possess hot extended atmospheres making them ideal targets for the study of their atmospheres via transmission and occultation spectrophotometry. During occultation, the flux emerging from the planetary dayside is eliminated. By comparing the flux in- and out-of occultation, the planet-to-star brightness ratio can be measured. Observations in different passbands yield a measure of the planetary spectral energy distribution and thereby allow to determine the atmospheric temperature structure, heat redistribution efficiency, albedo, and to place constraints on the atmospheric composition. From the spectro-photometric observation of transits, we can measure wavelength dependencies in the effective planetary radius that are sensitive to signatures of chemical elements in the planetary atmosphere. We present results of ongoing observing campaigns employing these methods to study the atmospheres of hot Jupiters discovered by the WASP survey. In particular we show results for the very short-period planet WASP-19b based on data from the 1m-class Euler-Swiss and TRAPPIST telescopes, as well as a transmission spectrum of the low-density hot Saturn WASP-49b obtained from FORS2 at the VLT/UT1.

  2. Two Upper Limits on the Rossiter-McLaughlin Effect, with Differing Implications: WASP-1 has a High Obliquity and WASP-2 is Indeterminate

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Simon; Johnson, John Asher; Butler, R Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D; Shectman, Stephen A; Thompson, Ian B; Narita, Norio; Sato, Bun'ei; Hirano, Teruyuki; Enya, Keigo; Fischer, Debra

    2011-01-01

    We present precise radial-velocity measurements of WASP-1 and WASP-2 throughout transits of their giant planets. Our goal was to detect the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect, the anomalous radial velocity observed during eclipses of rotating stars, which can be used to study the obliquities of planet-hosting stars. For WASP-1 a weak signal of a prograde orbit was detected with ~2sigma confidence, and for WASP-2 no signal was detected. The resulting upper bounds on the RM amplitude have different implications for these two systems, because of the contrasting transit geometries and the stellar types. Because WASP-1 is an F7V star, and such stars are typically rapid rotators, the most probable reason for the suppression of the RM effect is that the star is viewed nearly pole-on. This implies the WASP-1 star has a high obliquity with respect to the edge-on planetary orbit. Because WASP-2 is a K1V star, and is expected to be a slow rotator, no firm conclusion can be drawn about the stellar obliquity. Our data and ou...

  3. Doppler Monitoring of the WASP-47 Multiplanet System

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Fei; Arriagada, Pamela; Butler, R Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D; Johnson, John Asher; Shectman, Stephen A; Teske, Johanna K; Thompson, Ian B; Vanderburg, Andrew; Wittenmyer, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    We present precise Doppler observations of WASP-47, a transiting planetary system featuring a hot Jupiter with both inner and outer planetary companions. This system has an unusual architecture and also provides a rare opportunity to measure planet masses in two different ways: the Doppler method, and the analysis of transit-timing variations (TTV). Based on the new Doppler data, obtained with the Planet Finder Spectrograph on the Magellan/Clay 6.5m telescope, the mass of the hot Jupiter is $370 \\pm 29~M_{\\oplus}$. This is consistent with the previous Doppler determination as well as the TTV determination. For the inner planet WASP-47e, the Doppler data lead to a mass of $12.2\\pm 3.7~ M_{\\oplus}$, in agreement with the TTV-based upper limit of $<$22~$M_{\\oplus}$ ($95\\%$ confidence). For the outer planet WASP-47d, the Doppler mass constraint of $10.4\\pm 8.4~M_{\\oplus}$ is consistent with the TTV-based measurement of $15.2^{+6.7}_{-7.6}~ M_{\\oplus}$.

  4. Searching for Rapid Orbital Decay of WASP-18b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Delrez, Laetitia; Barker, Adrian J.; Deming, Drake; Hamilton, Douglas; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    The WASP-18 system, with its massive and extremely close-in planet, WASP-18b (M p = 10.3M J , a = 0.02 au, P = 22.6 hr), is one of the best-known exoplanet laboratories to directly measure Q‧, the modified tidal quality factor and proxy for efficiency of tidal dissipation, of the host star. Previous analysis predicted a rapid orbital decay of the planet toward its host star that should be measurable on the timescale of a few years, if the star is as dissipative as is inferred from the circularization of close-in solar-type binary stars. We have compiled published transit and secondary eclipse timing (as observed by WASP, TRAPPIST, and Spitzer) with more recent unpublished light curves (as observed by TRAPPIST and Hubble Space Telescope) with coverage spanning nine years. We find no signature of a rapid decay. We conclude that the absence of rapid orbital decay most likely derives from Q‧ being larger than was inferred from solar-type stars and find that Q‧ ≥ 1 × 106, at 95% confidence; this supports previous work suggesting that F stars, with their convective cores and thin convective envelopes, are significantly less tidally dissipative than solar-type stars, with radiative cores and large convective envelopes.

  5. Mechanisms of ovipositor insertion and steering of a parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerkvenik, Uroš; van de Straat, Bram; Gussekloo, Sander W S; van Leeuwen, Johan L

    2017-09-12

    Drilling into solid substrates with slender beam-like structures is a mechanical challenge, but is regularly done by female parasitic wasps. The wasp inserts her ovipositor into solid substrates to deposit eggs in hosts, and even seems capable of steering the ovipositor while drilling. The ovipositor generally consists of three longitudinally connected valves that can slide along each other. Alternative valve movements have been hypothesized to be involved in ovipositor damage avoidance and steering during drilling. However, none of the hypotheses have been tested in vivo. We used 3D and 2D motion analysis to quantify the probing behavior of the fruit-fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Braconidae) at the levels of the ovipositor and its individual valves. We show that the wasps can steer and curve their ovipositors in any direction relative to their body axis. In a soft substrate, the ovipositors can be inserted without reciprocal motion of the valves. In a stiff substrate, such motions were always observed. This is in agreement with the damage avoidance hypothesis of insertion, as they presumably limit the overall net pushing force. Steering can be achieved by varying the asymmetry of the distal part of the ovipositor by protracting one valve set with respect to the other. Tip asymmetry is enhanced by curving of ventral elements in the absence of an opposing force, possibly due to pretension. Our findings deepen the knowledge of the functioning and evolution of the ovipositor in hymenopterans and may help to improve man-made steerable probes.

  6. WASP-78b and WASP-79b: two highly-bloated hot Jupiter-mass exoplanets orbiting F-type stars in Eridanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, , C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2012-11-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-78b and WASP-79b, two highly-bloated Jupiter-mass exoplanets orbiting F-type host stars. WASP-78b orbits its V = 12.0 host star (TYC 5889-271-1) every 2.175 days and WASP-79b orbits its V = 10.1 host star (CD-30 1812) every 3.662 days. Planetary parameters have been determined using a simultaneous fit to WASP and TRAPPIST transit photometry and CORALIE radial-velocity measurements. For WASP-78b a planetary mass of 0.89 ± 0.08 MJup and a radius of 1.70 ± 0.11 RJup is found. The planetary equilibrium temperature of TP = 2350 ± 80 K for WASP-78b makes it one of the hottest of the currently known exoplanets. WASP-79b its found to have a planetary mass of 0.90 ± 0.08 MJup, but with a somewhat uncertain radius due to lack of sufficient TRAPPIST photometry. The planetary radius is at least 1.70 ± 0.11 RJup, but could be as large as 2.09 ± 0.14 RJup, which would make WASP-79b the largest known exoplanet. Photometric data is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/547/A61Table 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Foraging behavior related to habitat characteristics in the invasive wasp Vespula germanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAOLA D'ADAMO; MARIANA LOZADA

    2007-01-01

    the feeding site until depleting the resource. In the present study we analyzed how environmental cues affect wasps' behavior when re-locating a protein food source. We studied this behavior in two different natural habitats: closed and open habitats.As closed habitats have more references to orient wasps to the feeding site than open habitats,we hypothesized that they would return to the foraging site more frequently in closed habitats than in open ones. We tested this hypothesis by studying wasp behavior in three different natural habitat conditions: (i) closed habitats, (ii) open habitats, and (iii) open habitats artificially modified by adding five sticks with flagging. Experiments consisted of training individual wasps to feed from a certain array, and at the testing phase we removed food and displaced the array by 60 cm. Therefore, we recorded wasps' choices when returning to the training area, by counting both the wasps' first approaches and the number of visits to the original feeding site and the displaced array. Wasps' behavior while re-locating a protein food source was different if foraging at open or closed habitats. Wasps more frequently revisited a previous feeding location when foraging in closed habitats than when foraging in open ones. Furthermore, wasps more frequently visited the displaced array than the original feeding site in all three treatments. Nevertheless, when wasps were trained in closed habitats,they returned to the original feeding site more frequently than if trained in open ones.Interestingly, when five sticks with flagging were added in open habitats, wasps responded similarly as in closed habitats without these references. The results show that foraging behavior in V. germanica seems to be different in closed and open habitats, probably associated with the existence of references that guide foragers when re-locating undepleted resources.

  8. Critical roles of the WASP N-terminal domain and Btk in LPS-induced inflammatory response in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisato Sakuma

    Full Text Available While Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP plays critical roles in TCR signaling as an adaptor molecule, how it transduces innate immune signals remains to be elucidated. To investigate the roles of WASP in innate immune cells, we established bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM cell lines from WASP15 transgenic (Tg mice overexpressing the WASP N-terminal region (exons 1-5. Upon LPS stimulation, WASP15 Tg BMDM cell lines produce lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p40 than the wild-type BMDM cell line. In addition, the production of nitric oxide by WASP15 Tg BMDM cells in response to LPS and IFN-γ was significantly impaired. Furthermore, we uncovered that the WASP N-terminal domain associates with the Src homology (SH 3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk. Overexpression of the WASP N-terminal domain diminishes the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous WASP in WASP15 Tg BMDM cells, possibly by interfering with the specific binding between endogenous WASP and Btk during LPS signaling. These observations strongly suggest that the interaction between WASP N-terminal domain and Btk plays important roles in the LPS signaling cascade in innate immunity.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-94AB photometry and radial velocities (Neveu-VanMalle+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R.; Charbonnel, C.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    Photometric time-series obtained for the hot Jupiter WASP-94A b, and RV time-series obtained for the two hot Jupiters WASP-94A b and WASP-94B b. The photometric time-series were obtained using the TRAPPIST and Euler-Swiss telescopes. The RVs were obtained using the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. (5 data files).

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP 127, 136 and 138 RV and light curves (Lam+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K. W. F.; Faedi, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Anderson, D. R.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hebrard, G.; Lendl, M.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M.; Turner, O. D.; Hay, K. L.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Boumis, P.; Collier, Cameron A.; Doyle, A. P.; Hellier, C.; Henning, T.; Jehin, E.; King, G.; Kirk, J.; Louden, T.; Maxted, P. F. L.; McCormac, J. J.; Osborn, H. P.; Palle, E.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Prieto-Arranz, J.; Queloz, D.; Rey, J.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.; Walker, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2016-11-01

    Photometric time-series obtained for the WASP-127, WASP-136, and WASP-138, and RV time-series obtained for the three systems. The photometric time-series were obtained using the TRAPPIST and Euler-Swiss telescopes. The RVs were obtained using the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. (6 data files).

  11. WASP-12b and Its Possible Fiery Demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Jupiter-like planets on orbits close to their hosts are predicted to spiral ever closer to their hosts until they meet their eventual demise and yet weve never observed orbital decay. Could WASP-12b provide the first evidence?Undetected PredictionsSince the discovery of the first hot Jupiter more than 20 years ago, weve studied a number of these peculiar exoplanets. Despite our many observations, two phenomena predicted of hot Jupiters have not yet been detected, due to the long timescales needed to identify them:Tidal orbital decayTidal forces should cause a hot Jupiters orbit to shrink over time, causing the planet to eventually spiral into its host star. This phenomenon would explain a number of statistical properties of observed star-planet systems (for instance, the scarcity of gas giants with periods less than a day).An illustration of apsidal precession. [Mpfiz]Apsidal precessionThe orbits of hot Jupiters should be apsidally precessing on timescales of decades, as long as they are at least slightly eccentric. Since the precession rate depends on the planets tidally deformed mass distribution, measuring this would allow us to probe the interior of the planet.A team of scientists led by Kishore Patra (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) think that the hot Jupiter WASP-12b may be our first chance to study one of these two phenomena. The question is, which one?WASP-12bWASP-12b has orbital period of 1.09 days one of the shortest periods observed for a giant planet and weve monitored it for a decade, making it a great target to test for both of these long-term effects.Timing residuals for WASP-12b. Squares show the new data points, circles show previous data from the past decade. The data are better fit by the decay model than the precession model, but both are still consistent. [Patra et al. 2017]Patra and collaborators made transit observations with the 1.2-m telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona and occultation observations with the

  12. Three sub-Jupiter-mass planets: WASP-69b & WASP-84b transit active K dwarfs and WASP-70Ab transits the evolved primary of a G4+K3 binary

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, D R; Delrez, L; Doyle, A P; Faedi, F; Fumel, A; Gillon, M; Chew, Y Gómez Maqueo; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Skillen, I; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Turner, O D; Udry, S; West, R G

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-69b, WASP-70Ab and WASP-84b, each of which orbits a bright star (V~10). WASP-69b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.26 M$_{\\rm Jup}$, 1.06 R$_{\\rm Jup}$) in a 3.868-d period around an active mid-K dwarf. We estimate a stellar age of 1 Gyr from both gyrochronological and age-activity relations, though an alternative gyrochronological relation suggests an age of 3 Gyr. ROSAT detected X-rays at a distance of 60$\\pm$27 arcsec from WASP-69. If the star is the source then the planet could be undergoing mass-loss at a rate of ~10$^{12}$ g s$^{-1}$. This is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the evaporation rate estimated for HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which have exhibited anomalously-large Lyman-{\\alpha} absorption during transit. WASP-70Ab is a sub-Jupiter-mass planet (0.59 M$_{\\rm Jup}$, 1.16R$_{\\rm Jup}$) in a 3.713-d orbit around the primary of a spatially-resolved G4+K3 binary, with a separation of 3.3 arcsec ($\\geq$800 AU). We exploit the binar...

  13. Philippine Fig wasps 1. Records and descriptions of Otitesellini (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Torymidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1974-01-01

    In 1964, by awarding to me that year's proceeds of the "Pieter Langerhuizen Fonds", the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen enabled me to study figs and fig wasps in the Philippines. While several Philippine fig wasps are already known from the papers by Ashmead (1904, 1905), Brown (1906), Ba

  14. WAsP E-learning - Developing and running an interactive online course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Prag, Sidsel-Marie Winther; Jowitt, William Richard

    This report describes the development and testing of an E-learning course in WAsP – the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program. WAsP is the industry standard tool for wind energy resource assessment. The software is developed and distributed by the Department of Wind Energy at the Technical...

  15. Bee-hawking by the wasp, Vespa velutina, on the honeybees Apis cerana and A. mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K; Radloff, S E; Li, J J; Hepburn, H R; Yang, M X; Zhang, L J; Neumann, P

    2007-06-01

    The vespine wasps, Vespa velutina, specialise in hawking honeybee foragers returning to their nests. We studied their behaviour in China using native Apis cerana and introduced A. mellifera colonies. When the wasps are hawking, A. cerana recruits threefold more guard bees to stave off predation than A. mellifera. The former also utilises wing shimmering as a visual pattern disruption mechanism, which is not shown by A. mellifera. A. cerana foragers halve the time of normal flight needed to dart into the nest entrance, while A. mellifera actually slows down in sashaying flight manoeuvres. V. velutina preferentially hawks A. mellifera foragers when both A. mellifera and A. cerana occur in the same apiary. The pace of wasp-hawking was highest in mid-summer but the frequency of hawking wasps was three times higher at A. mellifera colonies than at the A. cerana colonies. The wasps were taking A. mellifera foragers at a frequency eightfold greater than A. cerana foragers. The final hawking success rates of the wasps were about three times higher for A. mellifera foragers than for A. cerana. The relative success of native A. cerana over European A. mellifera in thwarting predation by the wasp V. velutina is interpreted as the result of co-evolution between the Asian wasp and honeybee, respectively.

  16. Asymmetric or diffusive co-evolution generates meta-populations in fig-fig wasp mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, RuiWu; Yang, Yan; Wiggins, Natasha L

    2014-06-01

    Co-evolutionary theory assumes co-adapted characteristics are a positive response to counter those of another species, whereby co-evolved species reach an evolutionarily stable interaction through bilateral adaptation. However, evidence from the fig-fig wasp mutualistic system implies very different co-evolutionary selection mechanisms, due to the inherent conflict among interacted partners. Fig plants appear to have discriminatively enforced fig wasps to evolve "adaptation characteristics" that provide greater benefit to the fig, and fig wasps appear to have diversified their evolutionary strategies in response to discriminative enforcement by figs and competition among different fig wasp species. In what appears to be an asymmetric interaction, the prosperity of cooperative pollinating wasps should inevitably lead to population increases of parasitic individuals, thus resulting in localized extinctions of pollinating wasps. In response, the sanctioning of parasitic wasps by the fig should lead to a reduction in the parasitic wasp population. The meta-populations created by such asymmetric interactions may result in each population of coevolved species chaotically oscillated, temporally or evolutionarily.

  17. Host sanctions and pollinator cheating in the fig tree–fig wasp mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandér, K. Charlotte; Herre, Edward Allen

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that mutualisms should be vulnerable to invasion by cheaters, yet mutualistic interactions are both ancient and diverse. What prevents one partner from reaping the benefits of the interaction without paying the costs? Using field experiments and observations, we examined factors affecting mutualism stability in six fig tree–fig wasp species pairs. We experimentally compared the fitness of wasps that did or did not perform their most basic mutualistic service, pollination. We found host sanctions that reduced the fitness of non-pollinating wasps in all derived, actively pollinated fig species (where wasps expend time and energy pollinating), but not in the basal, passively pollinated fig species (where wasps do not). We further screened natural populations of pollinators for wasp individuals that did not carry pollen (‘cheaters’). Pollen-free wasps occurred only in actively pollinating wasp species, and their prevalence was negatively correlated with the sanction strength of their host species. Combined with previous studies, our findings suggest that (i) mutualisms can show coevolutionary dynamics analogous to those of ‘arms races’ in overtly antagonistic interactions; (ii) sanctions are critical for long-term mutualism stability when providing benefits to a host is costly, and (iii) there are general principles that help maintain cooperation both within and among species. PMID:20071379

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: newly discovered planets from WASP-South (Turner+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-02-01

    Lightcurves and radial velocity data of three newly discovered planets from the WASP-South survey. Discovery data come from the WASP-South telescope (SAAO, South Africa) with follow-up lightcurves from the TRAPPIST telescope and EulerCam on the Swiss telescope (La Silla, Chile). Radial velocity data are from the CORALIE spectrograph on the Swiss telescope. (6 data files).

  19. Bee-hawking by the wasp, Vespa velutina, on the honeybees Apis cerana and A. mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K.; Radloff, S. E.; Li, J. J.; Hepburn, H. R.; Yang, M. X.; Zhang, L. J.; Neumann, P.

    2007-06-01

    The vespine wasps, Vespa velutina, specialise in hawking honeybee foragers returning to their nests. We studied their behaviour in China using native Apis cerana and introduced A. mellifera colonies. When the wasps are hawking, A. cerana recruits threefold more guard bees to stave off predation than A. mellifera. The former also utilises wing shimmering as a visual pattern disruption mechanism, which is not shown by A. mellifera. A. cerana foragers halve the time of normal flight needed to dart into the nest entrance, while A. mellifera actually slows down in sashaying flight manoeuvres. V. velutina preferentially hawks A. mellifera foragers when both A. mellifera and A. cerana occur in the same apiary. The pace of wasp-hawking was highest in mid-summer but the frequency of hawking wasps was three times higher at A. mellifera colonies than at the A. cerana colonies. The wasps were taking A. mellifera foragers at a frequency eightfold greater than A. cerana foragers. The final hawking success rates of the wasps were about three times higher for A. mellifera foragers than for A. cerana. The relative success of native A. cerana over European A. mellifera in thwarting predation by the wasp V. velutina is interpreted as the result of co-evolution between the Asian wasp and honeybee, respectively.

  20. A novel interference behaviour: invasive wasps remove ants from resources and drop them from a height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangier, Julien; Lester, Philip J

    2011-10-23

    This study reports a novel form of interference behaviour between the invasive wasp Vespula vulgaris and the New Zealand native ant Prolasius advenus. By videotaping interactions at bait stations, we found that wasps commonly remove ant competitors from food resources by picking up the workers in their mandibles, flying backward and dropping them unharmed some distance from the food. Both the frequency and the efficiency of the wasp behaviour significantly increased with the abundance of ant competitors. Ant removals were the most common interference events initiated by wasps when ants were numerous, while intraspecific conflicts among wasps were prominent when few ants were present. The 'ant-dropping' behaviour emphasizes how asymmetry in body sizes between competitors can lead to a pronounced form of interference, related to asymmetric locomotion modes.

  1. Unusual fatal multiple-organ dysfunction and pancreatitis induced by a single wasp sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Azad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS is a well-known complication following multiple wasp stings. However, MODS after a single wasp sting has been rarely reported in children and acute pancreatitis have probably never been observed before. Herein we describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who had urticaria and abdominal pain after a single wasp sting. The child gradually developed MODS while his abdominal complaints were worsening. Despite aggressive supportive management, the child did not survive. Afterward, the cause of the acute abdomen was finally diagnosed as acute pancreatitis. Both MODS and pancreatitis following a single wasp sting are very unusual. Thus, although pancreatitis is rarely manifested, it should be suspected after a wasp sting if there are predominant abdominal symptoms.

  2. Volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus are semiochemicals for eusocial wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Landolt, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Microbes are ubiquitous on plant surfaces. However, interactions between epiphytic microbes and arthropods are rarely considered as a factor that affects arthropod behaviors. Here, volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus were investigated as semiochemical attractants for two eusocial wasps. The fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated from apples, and the volatile compounds emitted by fungal colonies were quantified. The attractiveness of fungal colonies and fungal volatiles to social wasps (Vespula spp.) were experimentally tested in the field. Three important findings emerged: (1) traps baited with A. pullulans caught 2750 % more wasps on average than unbaited control traps; (2) the major headspace volatiles emitted by A. pullulans were 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol; and (3) a synthetic blend of fungal volatiles attracted 4,933 % more wasps on average than unbaited controls. Wasps were most attracted to 2-methyl-1-butanol. The primary wasp species attracted to fungal volatiles were the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica) and the German yellowjacket (V. germanica), and both species externally vectored A. pullulans. This is the first study to link microbial volatile emissions with eusocial wasp behaviors, and these experiments indicate that volatile compounds emitted by an epiphytic fungus can be responsible for wasp attraction. This work implicates epiphytic microbes as important components in the community ecology of some eusocial hymenopterans, and fungal emissions may signal suitable nutrient sources to foraging wasps. Our experiments are suggestive of a potential symbiosis, but additional studies are needed to determine if eusocial wasp-fungal associations are widespread, and whether these associations are incidental, facultative, or obligate.

  3. N-WASP promotes invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells through regulating p38 MAPKs signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinxuan; Yang, Hui; Huang, Xin; Leng, Xiaohua; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Yunfeng; Xu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) is an important member of the WASP family involved in the actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Recent evidence suggests that N-WASP may play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the contribution of N-WASP to cervical cancer is still unknown. The present study focused on elucidating the role of N-WASP in the malignant behavior of cervical cancer cells. We found that N-WASP overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues compared with paired paracancerous tissues and normal tissues, and similar results were observed in several cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of N-WASP facilitated migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, while downregulation of N-WASP resulted in decreased cell migration and invasion. In addition, the data showed that N-WASP might promote invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells via regulating the activity of p38 MAPKs pathway. Altogether, the study suggested that N-WASP might serve as an oncogene in cervical cancer, and provided novel insights into the mechanism that how N-WASP promoted invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells.

  4. Selective resource allocation may promote a sex ratio in pollinator fig wasps more beneficial for the host tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Tian; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Wen, Xiao-Lan; Jandér, K Charlotte

    2016-10-12

    Mutualisms play a key role in most ecosystems, yet the mechanisms that prevent overexploitation of the mutualistic relationship are still poorly understood. In the mutualism between fig trees and their pollinating wasps both partners depend on each other. Fig trees benefit from female wasps that disperse their pollen, whereas wasps frequently benefit from a higher ratio of male offspring. Here we use manipulative field experiments to address whether host trees (Ficus racemosa) can influence the offspring sex ratio of the pollinator wasp. We controlled wasp matings; virgin wasps can lay only male eggs. We found that virgin foundress wasps had fewer offspring than mated foundresses. This was not caused by virgin wasps having a shorter lifespan, or laying fewer eggs. Instead, male wasp larvae were more likely to die during development. Additionally, male eggs were deposited in flowers of equal style length to those of female eggs, yet emerged from galls with shorter pedicels than those of female wasps. We suggest that male larvae are either allocated less resources by the tree, or are less able to attract resources, during development. If the tree orchestrates this difference it would promote a more female-biased wasp brood, thus increasing the tree's fitness.

  5. TTVs analysis of Southern Stars: the case of WASP-4

    CERN Document Server

    Petrucci, R; Schwartz, M; Cúneo, V; Martínez, C; Gómez, M; Buccino, A P; Mauas, P J D

    2013-01-01

    We present 6 new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform an homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transit's central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in $i$ or $R_{P}/R_{\\star}$. The $O-C$ mid-transit times do not show signs of TTVs greater than 54 seconds.

  6. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Foussekis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model LiDAR...... measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met. mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with Riso/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement...

  7. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Chisato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Sato, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru.sato@affrc.go.jp [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Oshima, Takuma [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Takenouchi, Takato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Chiba, Joe [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Kitani, Hiroshi [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies.

  8. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeish Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution.

  9. When parasitic wasps hijacked viruses: genomic and functional evolution of polydnaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herniou, Elisabeth A; Huguet, Elisabeth; Thézé, Julien; Bézier, Annie; Periquet, Georges; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2013-09-19

    The Polydnaviridae (PDV), including the Bracovirus (BV) and Ichnovirus genera, originated from the integration of unrelated viruses in the genomes of two parasitoid wasp lineages, in a remarkable example of convergent evolution. Functionally active PDVs represent the most compelling evolutionary success among endogenous viral elements (EVEs). BV evolved from the domestication by braconid wasps of a nudivirus 100 Ma. The nudivirus genome has become an EVE involved in BV particle production but is not encapsidated. Instead, BV genomes have co-opted virulence genes, used by the wasps to control the immunity and development of their hosts. Gene transfers and duplications have shaped BV genomes, now encoding hundreds of genes. Phylogenomic studies suggest that BVs contribute largely to wasp diversification and adaptation to their hosts. A genome evolution model explains how multidirectional wasp adaptation to different host species could have fostered PDV genome extension. Integrative studies linking ecological data on the wasp to genomic analyses should provide new insights into the adaptive role of particular BV genes. Forthcoming genomic advances should also indicate if the associations between endoparasitoid wasps and symbiotic viruses evolved because of their particularly intimate interactions with their hosts, or if similar domesticated EVEs could be uncovered in other parasites.

  10. Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) mob wasps away from the nest by directed visual patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Zierler, Martina; Hötzl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The open nesting behaviour of giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) accounts for the evolution of a series of defence strategies to protect the colonies from predation. In particular, the concerted action of shimmering behaviour is known to effectively confuse and repel predators. In shimmering, bees on the nest surface flip their abdomens in a highly coordinated manner to generate Mexican wave-like patterns. The paper documents a further-going capacity of this kind of collective defence: the visual patterns of shimmering waves align regarding their directional characteristics with the projected flight manoeuvres of the wasps when preying in front of the bees' nest. The honeybees take here advantage of a threefold asymmetry intrinsic to the prey-predator interaction: (a) the visual patterns of shimmering turn faster than the wasps on their flight path, (b) they "follow" the wasps more persistently (up to 100 ms) than the wasps "follow" the shimmering patterns (up to 40 ms) and (c) the shimmering patterns align with the wasps' flight in all directions at the same strength, whereas the wasps have some preference for horizontal correspondence. The findings give evidence that shimmering honeybees utilize directional alignment to enforce their repelling power against preying wasps. This phenomenon can be identified as predator driving which is generally associated with mobbing behaviour (particularly known in selfish herds of vertebrate species), which is, until now, not reported in insects.

  11. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain.

  12. The discoveries of WASP-91b, WASP-105b and WASP-107b: Two warm Jupiters and a planet in the transition region between ice giants and gas giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Madhusudhan, N.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-08-01

    We report the discoveries of three transiting exoplanets. WASP-91b is a warm Jupiter (1.34 MJup, 1.03 RJup) in a 2.8-day orbit around a metal-rich K3 star. WASP-105b is a warm Jupiter (1.8 MJup, 0.96 RJup) in a 7.9-day orbit around a metal-rich K2 star. WASP-107b is a warm super-Neptune/sub-Saturn (0.12 MJup, 0.94 RJup) in a 5.7-day orbit around a solar-metallicity K6 star. Considering that giant planets seem to be more common around stars of higher metallicity and stars of higher mass, it is notable that the hosts are all metal-rich, late-type stars. With orbital separations that place both WASP-105b and WASP-107b in the weak-tide regime, measurements of the alignment between the planets' orbital axes and their stars' spin axes may help us to understand the inward migration of short-period, giant planets. The mass of WASP-107b (2.2 MNep, 0.40 MSat) places it in the transition region between the ice giants and gas giants of the Solar System. Its radius of 0.94 RJup suggests that it is a low-mass gas giant with a H/He-dominated composition. The planet thus sets a lower limit of 2.2 MNep on the planetary mass above which large gaseous envelopes can be accreted and retained by proto-planets on their way to becoming gas giants. We may discover whether WASP-107b more closely resembles an ice giant or a gas giant by measuring its atmospheric metallicity via transmission spectroscopy, for which WASP-107b is a very good target. Based on observations made with: the WASP-South photometric survey instrument, the 0.6-m TRAPPIST robotic imager, and the EulerCam camera and the CORALIE spectrograph mounted on the 1.2-m Euler-Swiss telescope.The photometric time-series and radial-velocity data used in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A110

  13. Efficacy of fipronil for control of yellowjacket wasps in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Hanna, Cause; King, Cynthia; Spurr, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The western yellowjacket wasp (Vespula pensylvanica) invaded Hawai`i’s national parks and refuges following its spread throughout the islands in the late 1970s. The endemic arthropod fauna of Hawai`i is thought to be especially vulnerable to these predacious social Hymenoptera, and methods of wasp control have been a priority for conservation biology in Hawai`i. The efficacy of the insecticide fipronil mixed with minced canned chicken meat for suppression of yellowjacket populations was evaluated in five experimental field trials in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park between 1999 and 2005. Populations of Vespula were monitored in replicate twoto four- hectare study areas in mesic montane and seasonal submontane forests, before and after application of chicken bait, with and without 0.1% fipronil, and in treatment and nontreatment areas. The bait was applied in hanging bait stations for two to three days. The response of yellowjacket wasp populations was measured using at least three different metrics of abundance including instantaneous counts of wasps at bait stations, wasp traffic rates at Vespula nests, as well as heptyl butyrate trap and/or malaise trap catches in the study areas. All indices of wasp abundance exhibited significant reductions in sites treated with fipronil compared with non-treatment sites with the exception of malaise trapping, where only a limited number of traps were available to be deployed. Wasp traffic ceased at all Vespula nests in sites treated with fipronil within a month after baiting in four of the five trials. The only trial where fipronil failed to terminate yellowjacket nest activity occurred late in the fall when wasps switch from feeding on protein to carbohydrate foods. Based on these data, 0.1% fipronil in chicken bait appears to be an effective tool for suppressing local Vespula yellowjacket populations in the park and other natural areas during the period of peak wasp activity in the summer and early fall months.

  14. N-wasp is essential for the negative regulation of B cell receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohong Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using genetically manipulated mouse models and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP, which is coexpressed with WASP in all immune cells, is a critical negative regulator of B-cell signaling. B-cell-specific N-WASP gene deletion causes enhanced and prolonged BCR signaling and elevated levels of autoantibodies in the mouse serum. The increased signaling in N-WASP knockout B cells is concurrent with increased accumulation of F-actin at the B-cell surface, enhanced B-cell spreading on the antigen-presenting membrane, delayed B-cell contraction, inhibition in the merger of signaling active BCR microclusters into signaling inactive central clusters, and a blockage of BCR internalization. Upon BCR activation, WASP is activated first, followed by N-WASP in mouse and human primary B cells. The activation of N-WASP is suppressed by Bruton's tyrosine kinase-induced WASP activation, and is restored by the activation of SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase that inhibits WASP activation. Our results reveal a new mechanism for the negative regulation of BCR signaling and broadly suggest an actin-mediated mechanism for signaling down-regulation.

  15. The occurrence of fig wasps in the fruits of female gynodioecious fig trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Dunn, Derek W.; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Niu, Li-Ming; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Pan, Xian-Li; Feng, Gui; Fu, Yue-Guan; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fig trees are pollinated by wasp mutualists, whose larvae consume some of the plant's ovaries. Many fig species (350+) are gynodioecious, whereby pollinators generally develop in the figs of 'male' trees and seeds generally in the 'females.' Pollinators usually cannot reproduce in 'female' figs at all because their ovipositors cannot penetrate the long flower styles to gall the ovaries. Many non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) species also only reproduce in figs. These wasps can be either phytophagous gallers or parasites of other wasps. The lack of pollinators in female figs may thus constrain or benefit different NPFWs through host absence or relaxed competition. To determine the rates of wasp occurrence and abundance we surveyed 11 dioecious fig species on Hainan Island, China, and performed subsequent experiments with Ficus tinctoria subsp. gibbosa to identify the trophic relationships between NPFWs that enable development in female syconia. We found NPFWs naturally occurring in the females of Ficus auriculata, Ficus hainanensis and F. tinctoria subsp. gibbosa. Because pollinators occurred only in male syconia, when NPFWs also occurred in female syconia, overall there were more wasps in male than in female figs. Species occurrence concurred with experimental data, which showed that at least one phytophagous galler NPFW is essential to enable multiple wasp species to coexist within a female fig. Individuals of galler NPFW species present in both male and female figs of the same fig species were more abundant in females than in males, consistent with relaxed competition due to the absence of pollinator. However, these wasps replaced pollinators on a fewer than one-to-one basis, inferring that other unknown mechanisms prevent the widespread exploitation by wasps of female figs. Because some NPFW species may use the holes chewed by pollinator males to escape from their natal fig, we suggest that dispersal factors could be involved.

  16. The Apparently Decaying Orbit of WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kishore C.; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Yu, Liang; Deming, Drake; Dai, Fei

    2017-07-01

    We present new transit and occultation times for the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. The data are compatible with a constant period derivative: \\dot{P}=-29+/- 3 ms yr-1 and P/\\dot{P}=3.2 {Myr}. However, it is difficult to tell whether we have observed orbital decay or a portion of a 14-year apsidal precession cycle. If interpreted as decay, the star’s tidal quality parameter {Q}\\star is about 2× {10}5. If interpreted as precession, the planet’s Love number is 0.44 ± 0.10. Orbital decay appears to be the more parsimonious model: it is favored by {{Δ }}{χ }2=5.5 despite having two fewer free parameters than the precession model. The decay model implies that WASP-12 was discovered within the final ˜0.2% of its existence, which is an unlikely coincidence but harmonizes with independent evidence that the planet is nearing disruption. Precession does not invoke any temporal coincidence, but it does require some mechanism to maintain an eccentricity of ≈ 0.002 in the face of rapid tidal circularization. To distinguish unequivocally between decay and precession will probably require a few more years of monitoring. Particularly helpful will be occultation timing in 2019 and thereafter.

  17. A lower mass for the exoplanet WASP-21b

    CERN Document Server

    Barros, S C C; Gibson, N P; Howarth, I D; Keenan, F P; Simpson, E K; Skillen, I; Steele, I A; .,

    2011-01-01

    We present high precision transit observations of the exoplanet WASP-21b, obtained with the RISE instrument mounted on 2.0m Liverpool Telescope. A transit model is fitted, coupled with an MCMC routine to derive accurate system parameters. The two new high precision transits allow to estimate the stellar density directly from the light curve. Our analysis suggests that WASP-21 is evolving off the main sequence which led to a previous overestimation of the stellar density. Using isochrone interpolation, we find a stellar mass of 0.86 \\pm 0.04 Msun which is significantly lower than previously reported (1.01 \\pm 0.03 Msun). Consequently, we find a lower planetary mass of $0.27 \\pm 0.01 Mjup$. A lower inclination (87.4 \\pm 0.3 degrees) is also found for the system than previously reported, resulting in a slightly larger stellar (R_* =1.10 \\pm 0.03 Rsun) and planetary radius (R_p = 1.14 \\pm 0.04 Rjup). The planet radius suggests a hydrogen/helium composition with no core which strengthens the correlation between pl...

  18. Secondary Eclipse Observations and Orbital Analysis of WASP-32b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Oliver; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2016-01-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered by Maxted et al. (2010), this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 ± 0.07 MJ a radius of 1.18 ± 0.07 RJ and an orbital period of 2.71865 ± 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse depth estimates of 0.0013 ± 0.00023 in the 4.5 μm band and inconclusive results in the 3.6 μm band. We also report an infrared brightness temperature of 1538 ± 110 in the 4.5 μm channel and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurement as well as amatuer and professional data that closely match previous results. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  19. Observation and Analysis of Secondary Eclipses of WASP-32b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Oliver; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2015-11-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered in 2010 by Maxted et al, this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 ± 0.07 Mj, a radius of 1.18 ± 0.07 Rj, an equilibrium temperature of 1560 ± 50 K, and an orbital period of 2.71865 ± 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 µm and 4.5 µm channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse depth estimates of 0.0013 ± 0.00023 in the 4.5 µm band and inconclusive results in the 3.6 µm band. We also report an infrared brightness temperature of 1538 ± 110 in the 4.5 µm channel and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurement as well as amatuer and professional data that closely match previous results. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  20. Complementary sex determination in the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonela Carabajal Paladino

    Full Text Available We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD. Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general.

  1. Complementary sex determination in the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela; Muntaabski, Irina; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Viscarret, Mariana; Juri, Marianela; Fueyo-Sánchez, Luciana; Papeschi, Alba; Cladera, Jorge; Bressa, María José

    2015-01-01

    We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD) known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD) or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD). Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general.

  2. WASP-14 b: Transit Timing analysis of 19 light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Raetz, St; Seeliger, M; Marka, C; Fernandez, M; Güver, T; Gögüs, E; Nowak, G; Vanko, M; Berndt, A; Eisenbeiss, T; Mugrauer, M; Trepl, L; Gelszinnis, J

    2015-01-01

    Although WASP-14 b is one of the most massive and densest exoplanets on a tight and eccentric orbit, it has never been a target of photometric follow-up monitoring or dedicated observing campaigns. We report on new photometric transit observations of WASP-14 b obtained within the framework of "Transit Timing Variations @ Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative" (TTV@YETI). We collected 19 light-curves of 13 individual transit events using six telescopes located in five observatories distributed in Europe and Asia. From light curve modelling, we determined the planetary, stellar, and geometrical properties of the system and found them in agreement with the values from the discovery paper. A test of the robustness of the transit times revealed that in case of a non-reproducible transit shape the uncertainties may be underestimated even with a wavelet-based error estimation methods. For the timing analysis we included two publicly available transit times from 2007 and 2009. The long observation period of seven years ...

  3. Observations of the WASP-2 System by the APOSTLE Program

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Andrew C; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Williams, Benjamin F; Rose, Amy E

    2013-01-01

    We present transit observations of the WASP-2 exoplanet system by the Apache Point Survey of Transit Lightcurves of Exoplanets (APOSTLE) program. Model fitting to these data allows us to improve measurements of the hot-Jupiter exoplanet WASP-2b and its orbital parameters by a factor of ~2 over prior studies; we do not find evidence for transit depth variations. We do find reduced chi^2 values greater than 1.0 in the observed minus computed transit times. A sinusoidal fit to the residuals yields a timing semi-amplitude of 32 seconds and a period of 389 days. However, random rearrangements of the data provide similar quality fits, and we cannot with certainty ascribe the timing variations to mutual exoplanet interactions. This inconclusive result is consistent with the lack of incontrovertible transit timing variations (TTVs) observed in other hot-Jupiter systems. This outcome emphasizes that unique recognition of TTVs requires dense sampling of the libration cycle (e.g. continuous observations from space-based...

  4. Ruling out the orbital decay of the WASP-43b

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, Sergio; Dragomir, Diana; Murgas, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    We present 15 new transit observations of the exoplanet WASP-43b in the $i'$,$g'$, and $R$ filters with the 1.0-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network and the IAC80 telescope. We combine our 15 new light curves with 52 others from literature, to analyze homogeneously all the available transit light curves of this exoplanet. By extending the time span of the monitoring of the transits to more than $5~yr$, and by analyzing the individual mid-times of 72 transits, we study the proposed shortening of the orbital period of WASP-43b. We estimate that the times of transit are well-matched by our updated ephemeris equation, using a constant orbital period. We estimate an orbital period change rate no larger than $\\dot{P}=-0.02 \\pm 6.6~ms~yr^{-1}$, which is fully consistent with a constant period. Based on the timing analysis, we discard stellar tidal dissipation factors $Q_{*}<10^{5}$. In addition, with the modelling of the transits we update the system parameters: $a/Rs=4.867(23)...

  5. Matricide and queen sex allocation in a yellowjacket wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Kevin J.

    2016-08-01

    In many colonies of social insects, the workers compete with each other and with the queen over the production of the colony's males. In some species of social bees and wasps with annual societies, this intra-colony conflict even results in matricide—the killing of the colony's irreplaceable queen by a daughter worker. In colonies with low effective paternity and high worker-worker relatedness, workers value worker-laid males more than queen-laid males, and thus may benefit from queen killing. Workers gain by eliminating the queen because she is a competing source of male eggs and actively inhibits worker reproduction through policing. However, matricide may be costly to workers if it reduces the production of valuable new queens and workers. Here, I test a theoretical prediction regarding the timing of matricide in a wasp, Dolichovespula arenaria, recently shown to have facultative matricide based on intra-colony relatedness. Using analyses of collected, mature colonies and a surgical manipulation preventing queens from laying female eggs, I show that workers do not preferentially kill queens who are only producing male eggs. Instead, workers sometimes kill queens laying valuable females, suggesting a high cost of matricide. Although matricide is common and typically occurs only in low-paternity colonies, it seems that workers sometimes pay substantial costs in this expression of conflict over male parentage.

  6. Long-term variability of T Tauri stars using WASP

    CERN Document Server

    Rigon, Laura; Anderson, David; West, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We present a reference study of the long-term optical variability of young stars using data from the WASP project. Our primary sample is a group of well-studied classical T Tauri stars (CTTS), mostly in Taurus-Auriga. WASP lightcurves cover timescales up to 7 years and typically contain 10000-30000 datapoints. We quantify the variability as function of timescale using the time-dependent standard deviation 'pooled sigma'. We find that the overwhelming majority of CTTS has low-level variability with sigma0.3mag) is 21% in our sample and 21% in an unbiased control sample. An even smaller fraction (13% in our sample, 6% in the control) show evidence for an increase in variability amplitude as a function of timescale from weeks to months or years. The presence of long-term variability correlates with the spectral slope at 3-5mu, which is an indicator of inner disk geometry, and with the U-B band slope, which is an accretion diagnostics. This shows that the long-term variations in CTTS are predominantly driven by p...

  7. Probing the extreme planetary atmosphere of WASP-12b

    CERN Document Server

    Swain, Mark; Tinetti, Giovanna; Hollis, Morgan; Tessenyi, Marcell; Line, Michael; Kawahara, Hajime; Fujii, Yuka; Showman, Adam; Yurchenko, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    We report near-infrared measurements of the terminator region transmission spectrum and dayside emission spectrum of the exoplanet WASP-12b obtained using the HST WFC3 instrument. The disk-average dayside brightness temperature averages about 2900 K, peaking to 3200 K around 1.46 {\\mu}m. Both the dayside and terminator region spectra can be explained in terms of opacity due to the metal hydrides CrH and TiH together with a dayside temperature inversion with a deep tropopause. Although our measurements do not constrain the C/O ratio, the combination of TiH and high temperatures could imply the atmosphere of WASP-12b may be significantly metal poor. The dayside flux distribution reconstructed from the ingress light-curve shape shows indications of a hotspot. If located along the equatorial plane, the possible hot spot is near the sub-stellar point, indicating the radiative time scale may be shorter than the advection time scale. We also find the near-infrared primary eclipse light curve is consistent with small...

  8. Wolbachia Infection in a Natural Parasitoid Wasp Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplouy, Anne; Couchoux, Christelle; Hanski, Ilkka; van Nouhuys, Saskya

    2015-01-01

    The maternally transmitted bacterium Wolbachia pipientis is well known for spreading and persisting in insect populations through manipulation of the fitness of its host. Here, we identify three new Wolbachia pipientis strains, wHho, wHho2 and wHho3, infecting Hyposoter horticola, a specialist wasp parasitoid of the Glanville fritillary butterfly. The wHho strain (ST435) infects about 50% of the individuals in the Åland islands in Finland, with a different infection rate in the two mitochondrial (COI) haplotypes of the wasp. The vertical transmission rate of Wolbachia is imperfect, and lower in the haplotype with lower infection rate, suggesting a fitness trade-off. We found no association of the wHho infection with fecundity, longevity or dispersal ability of the parasitoid host. However, preliminary results convey spatial associations between Wolbachia infection, host mitochondrial haplotype and parasitism of H. horticola by its hyperparasitoid, Mesochorus cf. stigmaticus. We discuss the possibility that Wolbachia infection protects H. horticola against hyperparasitism.

  9. An unusual case of sustained ventricular tachycardia following a wasp bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT is a life-threatening condition which requires immediate intervention. We report a case of unusual etiology of sustained VT in a 42-year-old male after a wasp bite in the absence of anaphylaxis. The patient was treated with amiodarone and improved within 48 h. Thus, wasp stings can lead to serious tachyarrhythmias which can be life-threatening. Emergency care physicians should be aware of such arrhythmias in the setting of wasp bites which can be fatal.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-103b radial velocities and light curves (Gillon+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, M.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Van Grootel, V.; West, R. G.

    2014-01-01

    The host star WASP-103 (1SWASPJ163715.59+071100.0 = 2MASS16371556+0711000; V=12.1, K=10.8) was observed by the southern station of the WASP survey during the 2010, 2011, and 2012 observing seasons, covering the intervals 2010 May 15 to Aug. 16, 2011 Mar. 26 to Aug. 20, and 2012 Mar. 25 to Jun. 28. Files wasp.dat, trappist.dat, euler.dat contain the photometric time-series presented in the paper. File rv.dat contains the radial velocity time-series presented in the paper. (4 data files).

  11. Polydnaviruses of Parasitic Wasps: Domestication of Viruses To Act as Gene Delivery Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Strand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis is a common phenomenon in which associated organisms can cooperate in ways that increase their ability to survive, reproduce, or utilize hostile environments. Here, we discuss polydnavirus symbionts of parasitic wasps. These viruses are novel in two ways: (1 they have become non-autonomous domesticated entities that cannot replicate outside of wasps; and (2 they function as a delivery vector of genes that ensure successful parasitism of host insects that wasps parasitize. In this review we discuss how these novelties may have arisen, which genes are potentially involved, and what the consequences have been for genome evolution.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SuperWASP short period eclipsing binaries (Norton+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, A. J.; Payne, S. G.; Evans, T.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Barros, S. C. C.; Butters, O. W.; Collier, Cameron A.; Christian, D. J.; Enoch, B.; Faedi, F.; Haswell, C. A.; Hellier, C.; Holmes, S.; Horne, K. D.; Kane, S. R.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Parley, N.; Pollacco, D.; Simpson, E. K.; Skillen, I.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Street, R. A.

    2011-10-01

    The catalog contains the list of 53 candidate short period eclipsing binaries. The SuperWASP ID encodes the J2000 position of the star as 1SWASP Jhhmmss.ss+/-ddmmss.s. In the table we list the RA and Dec of each object extracted from the SuperWASP ID. We also list the orbital period in days, the peak magnitude of the object in the SuperWASP V-band, along with the depths (in magnitudes) of the primary and secondary minima. (1 data file).

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04800-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available asonia ... 48 0.45 1 ( GE365792 ) 292292280 Nasonia vitripennis Male Pupae Nasonia ... 48 0.45 1 ( FG297046 ) 1108793273723 New World... Screwworm Larvae 9387 EST... 48 0.45 1 ( FG283564 ) 1108770626148 New World...OGR... 36 6.2 9 ( FG288720 ) 1108793274846 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 34 6.2 3 ( BX640537 ) Zebr

  14. WASP-20b and WASP-28b: a hot Saturn and a hot Jupiter in near-aligned orbits around solar-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hellier, C.; Lendl, M.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Brown, D. J. A.; Gillon, M.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2015-03-01

    We report the discovery of the planets WASP-20b and WASP-28b along with measurements of their sky-projected orbital obliquities. WASP-20b is an inflated, Saturn-mass planet (0.31 MJup; 1.46 RJup) in a 4.9-day, near-aligned (λ = 12.7 ± 4.2°) orbit around CD-24 102 (V = 10.7; F9). Due to the low density of the planet and the apparent brightness of the host star, WASP-20 is a good target for atmospheric characterisation via transmission spectroscopy. WASP-28b is an inflated, Jupiter-mass planet (0.91 MJup; 1.21 RJup) in a 3.4-day, near-aligned (λ = 8 ± 18°) orbit around a V = 12, F8 star. As intermediate-mass planets in short orbits around aged, cool stars (7+ 2-1 Gyr and 6000 ± 100 K for WASP-20; 5+ 3-2 Gyr and 6100 ± 150 K for WASP-28), their orbital alignment is consistent with the hypothesis that close-in giant planets are scattered into eccentric orbits with random alignments, which are then circularised and aligned with their stars' spins via tidal dissipation. Based on observations made with: the WASP-South (South Africa) and SuperWASP-North (La Palma) photometric survey instruments; the C2 and EulerCam cameras and the CORALIE spectrograph, all mounted on the 1.2-m Euler-Swiss telescope (La Silla); the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO 3.6-m telescope (La Silla) under programs 072.C-0488, 082.C-0608, 084.C-0185, and 085.C-0393; and LCOGT's Faulkes Telescope North (Maui) and Faulkes Telescope South (Siding Spring).Full Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A61

  15. Disturbance effects on community structure of Ficus tinctoria fig wasps in Xishuangbanna,China:Implications for the fig/fig wasp mutualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Juan Ma; Da-Rong Yang; Yan-Qiong Peng

    2009-01-01

    Fig trees are important components of tropical forests,because their fruits are eaten by so many vertebrates,but they depend on pollinating fig wasps to produce mature fruits.Disturbance to habitat structure can have a major impact on insect diversity and composition,potentially reducing fruit yields.We investigated the impact of habitat disturbance on the fig wasp community associated with male figs of Ficus tinctoria in Xishuangbanna,China.The community comprised one pollinator species Liporrhopalum gibbosae and six non-pollinating wasp species:Sycoscapter sp.1,Philotrypesis ravii,Philotrypesis sp.1,Neosycophila omeomorpha,Sycophila sp.1,and Walkerella sp.1.More disturbed areas were characterized by higher temperatures,less shade,and more vehicle noise.The response of the fig wasp community was complex,with no simple relationship between intensity of disturbance and pollinator abundance.However,the sex ratios (proportion of male progeny) of pollinators increased significantly in more disturbed areas.We conclude that potential changes in fig wasp community composition brought about by disturbance,are unpredictable,with unclear consequences for tropical rainforest biodiversity.

  16. A unique nest-protection strategy in a new species of spider wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Staab

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera show a great variation in reproductive potential and nesting behavior, from thousands of eggs in sawflies to just a dozen in nest-provisioning wasps. Reduction in reproductive potential in evolutionary derived Hymenoptera is often facilitated by advanced behavioral mechanisms and nesting strategies. Here we describe a surprising nesting behavior that was previously unknown in the entire animal kingdom: the use of a vestibular cell filled with dead ants in a new spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae species collected with trap nests in South-East China. We scientifically describe the 'Bone-house Wasp' as Deuteragenia ossarium sp. nov., named after graveyard bone-houses or ossuaries. We show that D. ossarium nests are less vulnerable to natural enemies than nests of other sympatric trap-nesting wasps, suggesting an effective nest protection strategy, most likely by utilizing chemical cues emanating from the dead ants.

  17. 2009 Progress Report on Surveys of Bees and Some Wasps of Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes an updated list of bee and wasp species collected as part of study at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Report includes map of survey...

  18. Preliminary report on the segregation of resistance in chestnuts to infestation by oriental chestnut gall wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Anagnostakis; Stacy Clark; Henry Mcnab

    2009-01-01

    In 1995, hybrid chestnuts were planted in North Carolina, (southern U.S.A.),where the introduced insect Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) ispresent. Of the 93 trees planted, 53 survived 12 years and were evaluated for the

  19. Development of hyperparasitoid wasp Lysibia nana (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in a multitrophic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Witjes, L.M.A.; Wagenaar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Lysibia nana Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a solitary hyperparasitoid that attacks newly cocooned prepupae and pupae of braconid wasps in the subfamily Microgastrinae. One of its preferred hosts is Cotesia glomerata L. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a gregarious endoparasitoid of white but

  20. The emerging contribution of social wasps to grape rot disease ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne A. Madden

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape sour (bunch rot is a polymicrobial disease of vineyards that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue per year due to decreased quality of grapes and resultant wine. The disease is associated with damaged berries infected with a community of acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi that results in rotting berries with high amounts of undesirable volatile acidity. Many insect species cause the initial grape berry damage that can lead to this disease, but most studies have focused on the role of fruit flies in facilitating symptoms and vectoring the microorganisms of this disease complex. Like fruit flies, social wasps are abundant in vineyards where they feed on ripe berries and cause significant damage, while also dispersing yeasts involved in wine fermentation. Despite this, their possible role in disease facilitation and dispersal of grape rots has not been explored. We tested the hypothesis that the paper wasp Polistes dominulus could facilitate grape sour rot in the absence of other insect vectors. Using marker gene sequencing we characterized the bacterial and fungal community of wild-caught adults. We used a sterilized foraging arena to determine if these wasps transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. We then tested if wasps harboring their native microbial community, or those inoculated with sour rot, had an effect on grape sour rot incidence and severity using a laboratory foraging arena. We found that all wasps harbor some portion of the sour rot microbial community and that they have the ability to transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. Foraging by inoculated and uninoculated wasps led to an increase in berry rot disease symptom severity and incidence. Our results indicate that paper wasps can facilitate sour rot diseases in the absence of other vectors and that the mechanism of this facilitation may include both increasing host susceptibility and transmitting these microbial communities to the grapes

  1. The emerging contribution of social wasps to grape rot disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Anne A; Boyden, Sean D; Soriano, Jonathan-Andrew N; Corey, Tyler B; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah; Starks, Philip T

    2017-01-01

    Grape sour (bunch) rot is a polymicrobial disease of vineyards that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue per year due to decreased quality of grapes and resultant wine. The disease is associated with damaged berries infected with a community of acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi that results in rotting berries with high amounts of undesirable volatile acidity. Many insect species cause the initial grape berry damage that can lead to this disease, but most studies have focused on the role of fruit flies in facilitating symptoms and vectoring the microorganisms of this disease complex. Like fruit flies, social wasps are abundant in vineyards where they feed on ripe berries and cause significant damage, while also dispersing yeasts involved in wine fermentation. Despite this, their possible role in disease facilitation and dispersal of grape rots has not been explored. We tested the hypothesis that the paper wasp Polistes dominulus could facilitate grape sour rot in the absence of other insect vectors. Using marker gene sequencing we characterized the bacterial and fungal community of wild-caught adults. We used a sterilized foraging arena to determine if these wasps transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. We then tested if wasps harboring their native microbial community, or those inoculated with sour rot, had an effect on grape sour rot incidence and severity using a laboratory foraging arena. We found that all wasps harbor some portion of the sour rot microbial community and that they have the ability to transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. Foraging by inoculated and uninoculated wasps led to an increase in berry rot disease symptom severity and incidence. Our results indicate that paper wasps can facilitate sour rot diseases in the absence of other vectors and that the mechanism of this facilitation may include both increasing host susceptibility and transmitting these microbial communities to the grapes. Social wasps are

  2. Native and introduced parasitoids attacking the invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The globally invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was recently reported in Italy and threatens European chestnut orchards and native forests. Of Chinese origin, this species has invaded Japan, Korea, the USA, Nepal and Europe and in each region it has been attacked by parasitoids exploiting oak gall wasps. Classical biological control using the parasitoid Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) successfully reduced infestation in Japan. Subsequent work in Japan and Korea showed...

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-80 photometric and radial velocity data (Triaud+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier, Cameron A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Lovis, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    The data is composed of one WASP photometric timeseries in a band similar to V+R, of two TRAPPIST photometric timeseries in the z band, and of one series from the EulerCam, in the Gunn r' filter. There is also one set of CORALIE radial velocities and one set of HARPS radial velocities. They give evidence of a planet orbiting and transiting WASP-80. (6 data files).

  4. Multiple horizontal transfers of bacteriophage WO and host Wolbachia in fig wasps in a closed community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningxin eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia-bacteriophage WO is a good model system for studying interactions between bacteria and viruses. Previous surveys of insect hosts have been conducted via sampling from open or semi-open communities; however, no studies have reported the infection patterns of phage WO of insects living in a closed community. Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium habitat for a variety of fig wasps. Therefore, in this study, we performed a thorough survey of Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO infection patterns in a total of 1406 individuals from 23 fig wasps species living on three different fig tree species. The infection rates of Wolbachia and phage WO were 82.6% (19/23 and 39.1% (9/23, respectively. Additionally, phage WO from fig wasps showed strong insect host specificity based on orf7 sequences from fig wasps and 21 other insect species. Probably due to the physical barrier of fig syconium, most phage WO from fig wasps form a special clade. Phylogenetic analysis showed the absence of congruence between WO and host Wolbachia, WO and insect host, as well as Wolbachia and fig wasps, suggesting that both Wolbachia and phage WO exchanged frequently and independently within the closed syconium. Thus, the infection pattern of bacteriophage WO from fig wasps appeared quite different from that in other insects living outside, although the effect and the transfer routes of phage WO are unclear, which need to be investigated in the future.

  5. Diversity and nest site selection of social wasps along Guianese forest edges: assessing the influence of arboreal ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbara, Bruno; Carpenter, J M; Céréghino, R; Leponce, M; Gibernau, M; Dejean, Alain

    2009-05-01

    We examined 424 nests belonging to 61 wasp species along 5 km of rainforest edges in French Guiana (ca. 15,235 plants monitored), and estimate that we recorded up to 73% of the local social wasp fauna. This baseline study was complemented by a long-term survey of the same area and the examination of isolated trees (permitting us to record two additional species, resulting in a total of 63 wasp species). Our results form a continuum from species avoiding nesting on any plant (6.5% of the wasp species) to species nesting on plants but avoiding those sheltering ant nests (82%), to, finally, wasps nesting in association with arboreal ants known to divert army ant raids (11.5%). Consequently, this study documents that most wasp species select plants possibly repulsive to arboreal ants, while associations with arboreal ants, although confirmed here, have been overrepresented in the literature.

  6. Negative fitness consequences and transmission dynamics of a heritable fungal symbiont of a parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Cara M; Hunter, Martha S

    2009-05-01

    Heritable bacterial symbionts are widespread in insects and can have many important effects on host ecology and fitness. Fungal symbionts are also important in shaping their hosts' behavior, interactions, and evolution, but they have been largely overlooked. Experimental tests to determine the relevance of fungal symbionts to their insect hosts are currently extremely rare, and to our knowledge, there have been no such tests for strictly predacious insects. We investigated the fitness consequences for a parasitic wasp (Comperia merceti) of an inherited fungal symbiont in the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) that was long presumed to be a mutualist. In comparisons of wasp lines with and without this symbiont, we found no evidence of mutualism. Instead, there were significant fitness costs to the wasps in the presence of the yeast; infected wasps attacked fewer hosts and had longer development times. We also examined the relative competitive abilities of the larval progeny of infected and uninfected mothers, as well as horizontal transmission of the fungal symbiont among larval wasps that shared a single host cockroach egg case. We found no difference in larval competitive ability when larvae whose infection status differed shared a single host. We did find high rates of horizontal transmission of the fungus, and we suggest that this transmission is likely responsible for the maintenance of this infection in wasp populations.

  7. Social wasp intestines host the local phenotypic variability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapporto, Leonardo; Stefanini, Irene; Rivero, Damariz; Polsinelli, Mario; Capretti, Paolo; De Marchi, Paolo; Viola, Roberto; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been assessed in both wild and human-related environments. Social wasps have been shown to maintain and vector S. cerevisiae among different environments. The availability of strains isolated from wasp intestines represents a striking opportunity to assess whether the strains found in wasp intestines are characterized by peculiar traits. We analysed strains isolated from the intestines of social wasps and compared them with strains isolated from other sources, all collected in a restricted geographic area. We evaluated the production of volatile metabolites during grape must fermentation, the resistance to different stresses and the ability to exploit various carbon sources. Wasp strains, in addition to representing a wide range of S. cerevisiae genotypes, also represent large part of the phenotypes characterizing the sympatric set of yeast strains; their higher production of acetic acid and ethyl acetate could reflect improved ability to attract insects. Our findings suggest that the relationship between yeasts and wasps should be preserved, to safeguard not only the natural variance of this microorganism but also the interests of wine-makers, who could take advantage from the exploitation of their phenotypic variability. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Functional Coordination of WAVE and WASP in C. elegans Neuroblast Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwen; Chai, Yongping; Jiang, Yuxiang; Li, Wenjing; Hu, Huifang; Li, Wei; Wu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Huang, Shanjin; Ou, Guangshuo

    2016-10-24

    Directional cell migration is critical for metazoan development. We define two molecular pathways that activate the Arp2/3 complex during neuroblast migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. The transmembrane protein MIG-13/Lrp12 is linked to the Arp2/3 nucleation-promoting factors WAVE or WASP through direct interactions with ABL-1 or SEM-5/Grb2, respectively. WAVE mutations partially impaired F-actin organization and decelerated cell migration, and WASP mutations did not inhibit cell migration but enhanced migration defects in WAVE-deficient cells. Purified SEM-5 and MIG-2 synergistically stimulated the F-actin branching activity of WASP-Arp2/3 in vitro. In GFP knockin animals, WAVE and WASP were largely organized into separate clusters at the leading edge, and the amount of WASP was less than WAVE but could be elevated by WAVE mutations. Our results indicate that the MIG-13-WAVE pathway provides the major force for directional cell motility, whereas MIG-13-WASP partially compensates for its loss, underscoring their coordinated activities in facilitating robust cell migration.

  9. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castro Huertas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox; Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron; Ageniella fallax (Arlé; Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron; Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; Aporus (Aporus cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus diverticulus (Fox; Aporus (Notoplaniceps canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks; Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox; Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans.

  10. Constraints on a second planet in the WASP-3 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciejewski, G.; Niedzielski, A.; Nowak, G.; Deka, B.; Adamów, M.; Górecka, M. [Centre for Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Wolszczan, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Neuhäuser, R.; Errmann, R.; Seeliger, M. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte, Schillergässchen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Winn, J. N.; McKnight, L. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fernández, M.; Aceituno, F. J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía 3, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Ohlert, J. [Michael Adrian Observatorium, Astronomie Stiftung Trebur, D-65468 Trebur (Germany); Dimitrov, D. [Institute of Astronomy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Latham, D. W.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Holman, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    There have been previous hints that the transiting planet WASP-3b is accompanied by a second planet in a nearby orbit, based on small deviations from strict periodicity of the observed transits. Here we present 17 precise radial velocity (RV) measurements and 32 transit light curves that were acquired between 2009 and 2011. These data were used to refine the parameters of the host star and transiting planet. This has resulted in reduced uncertainties for the radii and masses of the star and planet. The RV data and the transit times show no evidence for an additional planet in the system. Therefore, we have determined the upper limit on the mass of any hypothetical second planet, as a function of its orbital period.

  11. Constraints on a second planet in the WASP-3 system

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, G; Wolszczan, A; Nowak, G; Neuhaeuser, R; Winn, J N; Deka, B; Adamów, M; Górecka, M; Fernandez, M; Aceituno, F J; Ohlert, J; Errmann, R; Seeliger, M; Dimitrov, D; Latham, D W; Esquerdo, G A; McKnight, L; Holman, M J; Jensen, E L N; Kramm, U; Pribulla, T; Raetz, St; Schmidt, T O B; Ginski, Ch; Mottola, S; Hellmich, S; Adam, Ch; Gilbert, H; Mugrauer, M; Saral, G; Popov, V; Raetz, M

    2013-01-01

    There have been previous hints that the transiting planet WASP-3 b is accompanied by a second planet in a nearby orbit, based on small deviations from strict periodicity of the observed transits. Here we present 17 precise radial velocity measurements and 32 transit light curves that were acquired between 2009 and 2011. These data were used to refine the parameters of the host star and transiting planet. This has resulted in reduced uncertainties for the radii and masses of the star and planet. The radial-velocity data and the transit times show no evidence for an additional planet in the system. Therefore, we have determined the upper limit on the mass of any hypothetical second planet, as a function of its orbital period.

  12. A checklist to the wasps of Peru (Hymenoptera, Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Rasmussen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The first checklist to the 225 genera and 1169 reported species-group taxa of aculeate wasps of Peru is presented. The list is based on a literature survey and examination of Peruvian entomological collections and include locality references for each taxon. Bibliographic references for the identification of families, genera, and species are provided when available. The occurrence data are published in addition as a downloadable file (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.2.ds, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.3.ds, and 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.4.ds and were uploaded onto GBIF infrastructure simultaneously with the publication process. The following new combinations are proposed: Ancistroceroides cirrifer (Zavattari, 1912, Ancistrocerus epicus (Zavattari, 1912, and Stenodynerus corallineipes (Zavattari, 1912.

  13. WASP-80b: a gas giant transiting a cool dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Cameron, A Collier; Doyle, A P; Fumel, A; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Lovis, C; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Udry, S; West, R G; Wheatley, P J; 10.1051/0004-6361/201220900

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a planet transiting the star WASP-80 (1SWASP J201240.26-020838.2; 2MASS J20124017-0208391; TYC 5165-481-1; BPM 80815; V=11.9, K=8.4). Our analysis shows this is a 0.55 +/- 0.04 Mjup, 0.95 +/- 0.03 Rjup gas giant on a circular 3.07 day orbit around a star with a spectral type between K7V and M0V. This system produces one of the largest transit depths so far reported, making it a worthwhile target for transmission spectroscopy. We find a large discrepancy between the v sin i inferred from stellar line broadening and the observed amplitude of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. This can be understood either by an orbital plane nearly perpendicular to the stellar spin or by an additional, unaccounted for source of broadening.

  14. Lambda Bootis stars in the SuperWASP survey

    CERN Document Server

    Paunzen, E; Walczak, P; Holdsworth, D L; Smalley, B; West, R G; Janik, J

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed around 170 000 individual photometric WASP measurements of 15 well established lambda Bootis stars to search for variability. The lambda Bootis stars are a small group of late-B to early-F, Pop. I, stars that show moderate to extreme (surface) underabundances (up to a factor 100) of most Fe-peak elements, but solar abundances of lighter elements (C, N, O and S). They are excellent laboratories for the study of fundamental astrophysical processes such as diffusion, meridional circulation, stellar winds, and accretion in the presence of pulsation. From the 15 targets, eight are variable and seven are apparently constant with upper limits between 0.8 and 3.0 mmag. We present a detailed time series analysis and a comparison with previously published results. From an asteroseismologic study we conclude that the found chemical peculiarities are most probably restricted to the surface.

  15. Market forces influence helping behaviour in cooperatively breeding paper wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsted, Lena; Field, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Biological market theory is potentially useful for understanding helping behaviour in animal societies. It predicts that competition for trading partners will affect the value of commodities exchanged. It has gained empirical support in cooperative breeders, where subordinates help dominant breeders in exchange for group membership, but so far without considering one crucial aspect: outside options. We find support for a biological market in paper wasps, Polistes dominula. We first show that females have a choice of cooperative partners. Second, by manipulating entire subpopulations in the field, we increase the supply of outside options for subordinates, freeing up suitable nesting spots and providing additional nesting partners. We predicted that by intensifying competition for help, our manipulation would force dominants to accept a lower price for group membership. As expected, subordinates reduce their foraging effort following our treatments. We conclude that to accurately predict the amount of help provided, social units cannot be viewed in isolation: the surrounding market must also be considered. PMID:28117836

  16. Short period eclipsing binary candidates identified using SuperWASP

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, A J; Evans, T; West, R G; Wheatley, P J; Anderson, D R; Barros, S C C; Butters, O W; Cameron, A Collier; Christian, D J; Enoch, B; Faedi, F; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Horne, K D; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Parley, N; Pollacco, D; Simpson, E K; Skillen, I; Smalley, B; Southworth, J; Street, R A

    2011-01-01

    We present light curves and periods of 53 candidates for short period eclipsing binary stars identified by SuperWASP. These include 48 newly identified objects with periods <2x10^4 seconds (~0.23d), as well as the shortest period binary known with main sequence components (GSC2314-0530 = 1SWASP J022050.85+332047.6) and four other previously known W UMa stars (although the previously reported periods for two of these four are shown to be incorrect). The period distribution of main sequence contact binaries shows a sharp cut-off at a lower limit of around 0.22d, but until now, very few systems were known close to this limit. These new candidates will therefore be important for understanding the evolution of low mass stars and to allow investigation of the cause of the period cut-off.

  17. SuperWASP observations of pulsating Am stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Fossati, L; Anderson, D R; Barros, S C C; Butters, O W; Cameron, A Collier; Christian, D J; Enoch, B; Faedi, F; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Horne, K; Kane, S R; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Norton, A J; Parley, N; Pollacco, D; Simpson, E K; Skillen, I; Southworth, J; Street, R A; West, R G; Wheatley, P J; Wood, P L

    2011-01-01

    We have studied over 1600 Am stars at a photometric precision of 1 mmag with SuperWASP photometric data. Contrary to previous belief, we find that around 200 Am stars are pulsating delta Sct and gamma Dor stars, with low amplitudes that have been missed in previous, less extensive studies. While the amplitudes are generally low, the presence of pulsation in Am stars places a strong constraint on atmospheric convection, and may require the pulsation to be laminar. While some pulsating Am stars have been previously found to be delta Sct stars, the vast majority of Am stars known to pulsate are presented in this paper. They will form the basis of future statistical studies of pulsation in the presence of atomic diffusion.

  18. WASP-80b: a gas giant transiting a cool dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Lovis, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2013-03-01

    We report the discovery of a planet transiting the star WASP-80 (1SWASP J201240.26-020838.2; 2MASS J20124017-0208391; TYC 5165-481-1; BPM 80815; V = 11.9, K = 8.4). Our analysis shows this is a 0.55 ± 0.04 Mjup, 0.95 ± 0.03 Rjup gas giant on a circular 3.07 day orbit around a star with a spectral type between K7V and M0V. This system produces one of the largest transit depths so far reported, making it a worthwhile target for transmission spectroscopy. We find a large discrepancy between the vsini⋆ inferred from stellar line broadening and the observed amplitude of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. This can be understood either by an orbital plane nearly perpendicular to the stellar spin or by an additional, unaccounted for source of broadening. Using WASP-South photometric observations, from Sutherland (South Africa), confirmed with the 60 cm TRAPPIST robotic telescope, EulerCam, and the CORALIE spectrograph on the Swiss 1.2 m Euler Telescope, and HARPS on the ESO 3.6 m (Prog ID 089.C-0151), all three located at La Silla Observatory, Chile.Radial velocity and photometric data are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A80

  19. WASP-ASSOCIATED FACTORS ACT IN INTERSPECIES COMPETITION DURING MULTIPARASITISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaraog, Peter M; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence or displacement of parasitoids in hosts during intrinsic competitive interactions between different parasitoid species (multiparasitism) may depend on their life history traits and behavior. Intense competition for possession of hosts may lead to the elimination of the inferior competitor through physical attack and/or physiological suppression. However, the mechanisms of physiological suppression during multiparasitism remain unclear. Previous work has shown that first instar larvae of the solitary endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis possess well-developed mandibles that are used to kill competitors. Two gregarious endoparasitoids, Cotesia kariyai and C. rufricus, share host resources especially when the time gap of oviposition is short. Here, we investigated the physiological influence of wasp-regulatory factors of the three endoparasitoids, M. pulchricornis, C. kariyai, and C. ruficrus, in their common host Mythimna separata. We found that MpVLP alone (or with venom) deleteriously affected the development of the two gregarious species. Similarly, CkPDV plus venom had toxic effect on M. pulchricornis eggs and immature larvae, although they were not harmful to immature stages of C. ruficrus. Cotesia kariyai and C. ruficrus were able to coexist mainly through the expression of regulatory factors and both could successfully emerge from a multiparasitized host. The injection of CkPDV plus venom after oviposition in L5 host larvae facilitated C. ruficrus development and increased the rate of successful parasitism from 9% to 62%. This suggests that the two gregarious parasitoid wasps exhibit strong phylogenetic affinity, favoring their coexistence and success in multiparasitized hosts. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  1. Flee or fight: ontogenetic changes in the behavior of cobweb spiders in encounters with spider-hunting wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, Divya B; Weiss, Martha R

    2012-12-01

    An animal's body size plays a predominant role in shaping its interspecific interactions, and, in encounters between two predators, often determines which shall be predator and which shall be prey. Spiders are top predators of insects, yet can fall prey to mud-dauber wasps that provision their larval nests with paralyzed spiders. Here we examined predator-prey interactions between Chalybion californicum (Saussure) (Sphecidae), a mud-dauber wasp, and Parasteatoda tepidariorum C. L. Koch (Theridiidae), a cobweb spider. We examined whether a spider's size influences its response to an attacking wasp, and report a size-dependent change in spider behavior: small-sized spiders fled, whereas medium- and large-sized spiders fought in response to wasp attacks. From the wasps' perspective, we examined whether spider size influences a wasp's hunting behavior and capture success. We found that wasps commonly approached small spiders, but were much less likely to approach medium and large spiders. However, wasp capture success did not vary with spider size. We also report a strategy used by Chalybion wasps toward cobweb spiders that is consistent with an interpretation of aggressive mimicry.

  2. Oligonucleotide primers for targeted amplification of single-copy nuclear genes in apocritan Hymenoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Hartig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published nucleotide sequence data from the mega-diverse insect order Hymenoptera (sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants are taxonomically scattered and still inadequate for reconstructing a well-supported phylogenetic tree for the order. The analysis of comprehensive multiple gene data sets obtained via targeted PCR could provide a cost-effective solution to this problem. However, oligonucleotide primers for PCR amplification of nuclear genes across a wide range of hymenopteran species are still scarce. FINDINGS: Here we present a suite of degenerate oligonucleotide primer pairs for PCR amplification of 154 single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes from Hymenoptera. These primers were inferred from genome sequence data from nine Hymenoptera (seven species of ants, the honeybee, and the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. We empirically tested a randomly chosen subset of these primer pairs for amplifying target genes from six Hymenoptera, representing the families Chrysididae, Crabronidae, Gasteruptiidae, Leucospidae, Pompilidae, and Stephanidae. Based on our results, we estimate that these primers are suitable for studying a large number of nuclear genes across a wide range of apocritan Hymenoptera (i.e., all hymenopterans with a wasp-waist and of aculeate Hymenoptera in particular (i.e., apocritan wasps with stingers. CONCLUSIONS: The amplified nucleotide sequences are (a with high probability from single-copy genes, (b easily generated at low financial costs, especially when compared to phylogenomic approaches, (c easily sequenced by means of an additionally provided set of sequencing primers, and (d suitable to address a wide range of phylogenetic questions and to aid rapid species identification via barcoding, as many amplicons contain both exonic and fast-evolving intronic nucleotides.

  3. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Borodina

    Full Text Available Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect on growth of the yeast cells. To overcome the problem we introduced three different point mutations at the critical points of the active site, where serine137, aspartate165 or histidine229 were replaced by alanine (S137A, D165A and H229A. All the three mutated forms could be expressed in P. pastoris. The H229A mutant did not have any detectable phospholipase A1 activity and was secreted at the level of several mg/L in shake flask culture. The protein was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protein could bind IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patients and could inhibit the binding of wasp venom to IgE antibodies specific for phospholipase A1 as shown by Enzyme Allergo-Sorbent Test (EAST. Moreover, the recombinant protein was allergenic in a biological assay as demonstrated by its capability to induce histamine release of wasp venom-sensitive basophils.The recombinant phospholipase A1 presents a good candidate for wasp venom immunotherapy.

  4. Acanthopria and Mimopriella parasitoid wasps (Diapriidae) attack Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, Attini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Wcislo, William T.

    2006-01-01

    New World diapriine wasps are abundant and diverse, but the biology of most species is unknown. We provide the first description of the biology of diapriine wasps, Acanthopria spp. and Mimopriella sp., which attack the larvae of Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants. In Puerto Rico, the koinobiont parasitoids Acanthopria attack Cyphomyrmex minutus, while in Panama at least four morphospecies of Acanthopria and one of Mimopriella attack Cyphomyrmex rimosus. Of the total larvae per colony, 0 100% were parasitized, and 27 70% of the colonies per population were parasitized. Parasitism rate and colony size were negatively correlated for C. rimosus but not for C. minutus. Worker ants grasped at, bit, and in some cases, killed adult wasps that emerged in artificial nests or tried to enter natural nests. Parasitoid secondary sex ratios were female-biased for eclosing wasps, while field collections showed a male-biased sex ratio. Based on their abundance and success in attacking host ants, these minute wasps present excellent opportunities to explore how natural enemies impact ant colony demography and population biology.

  5. Initiation of absconding-swarm emigration in the social wasp Polybia occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Peter J; Jeanne, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    When a colony of the swarm-founding social wasp Polybia occidentals loses its nest to severe weather or predation, the adult population evacuates and temporarily clusters on nearby foliage. Most of the adults remain inactive in the cluster, while foragers bring in nectar and scout wasps search the surrounding area for a new nesting site. After several hours, the scouts stimulate the rest of the swarm to leave the cluster and follow their pheromone trail to the chosen site. How scouts communicate to their swarm-mates that a site has been chosen and how they induce the swarm to depart are unknown. Video records of six Costa Rican swarms were used to quantitatively document changes in the frequencies of social behaviors leading to swarm departure. This was accomplished by going backward through the video record and following the behavior of individuals prior to their departure. Analysis of the behavior of scouts and inactive wasps indicated an increase in the frequency with which scouts bump into inactive wasps prior to swarm departure, as well as a shift in the behavior of inactive wasps from primarily receiving bumps to bumping others before departure. Thus, bumping is propagated by recently activated individuals before they take off. These observations suggest that not only is bumping an activation stimulus that causes swarm members to depart for the new nest site, but it is contagious, leading to its amplification throughout the swarm.

  6. Near-uv and optical observations of the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-1b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, K. A.; Zellem, R.; Biddle, L. I.; Amaya, H.; Watson, Z.; Griffith, C.; Small, L.; Hume, J.

    2014-03-01

    We present simultaneous near-UV (U-band) and optical (B-band) photometric observations of the primary transit of the highly irradiated, hot-Jupiter WASP-1b on the Kuiper 61" telescope. We use our results to search for timing transit variations, which would indicate additional planets, and provide new constraints on WASP-1b's physical parameters. Assuming the opacity at these two photometric bands is dominated by Rayleigh scattering by molecular hydrogen, we can place strong upper limits on its radius. Such constraints can limit the degeneracy between an exoplanet's physical radius and atmospheric composition in radiative transfer retrievals. Additionally its host star is chromospherically active and WASP-1b orbits within in the co-rotation radius of the star making it likely that WASP-1b has a bowshock. Therefore, we will search for a planetary magnetic field as indicated by an early ingress in the near-UV light curve compared to the optical due to the bowshock itself. Such measurements would confirm the observational methodology of detecting magnetic fields around transiting exoplanets, place an upper limit on WASP-1b's magnetic field strength, and confirm previous theoretical estimations of hot Jupiter magnetic fields.

  7. WASP family members and formin proteins coordinate regulation of cell protrusions in carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Corina; Wang, Weigang; Dovas, Athanassios; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Sidani, Mazen; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Desmarais, Vera; Holman, Holly A; Kitchen, Susan; Backer, Jonathan M; Alberts, Art; Condeelis, John

    2008-03-24

    We examined the role of the actin nucleation promoters neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and WAVE2 in cell protrusion in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), a key regulator in carcinoma cell invasion. We found that WAVE2 knockdown (KD) suppresses lamellipod formation and increases filopod formation, whereas N-WASP KD has no effect. However, simultaneous KD of both proteins results in the formation of large jagged protrusions with lamellar properties and increased filopod formation. This suggests that another actin nucleation activity is at work in carcinoma cells in response to EGF. A mammalian Diaphanous-related formin, mDia1, localizes at the jagged protrusions in double KD cells. Constitutively active mDia1 recapitulated the phenotype, whereas inhibition of mDia1 blocked the formation of these protrusions. Increased RhoA activity, which stimulates mDia1 nucleation, was observed in the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD cells and was shown to be required for the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD phenotype. These data show that coordinate regulation between the WASP family and mDia proteins controls the balance between lamellar and lamellipodial protrusion activity.

  8. Nested Houses: Domestication dynamics of human-wasp relations in contemporary rural Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Evans, Joshua D

    2017-02-08

    Domestication is an important and contested concept. Insects are used as food worldwide, and while some have been described as domesticated and even 'semi-domesticated', the assumptions and implications of this designation are not clear. The purpose of this paper is to explore these aspects of insect domestication, and broader debates in domestication studies, through the case of edible wasps in central rural Japan. Both authors conducted ethnographic fieldwork with communities in central rural Japan. Fieldwork comprised participant observation, semi-structured interviews, quantitative surveys and a review of resources including the personal and public records of wasp collectors. The practice of keeping wasps in hive boxes has historical roots and has changed significantly within living memory. Current attempts to further develop the practice involve collectors' great efforts to keep new queens during their hibernation. Collectors have also tried, still without success, to keep wasps living within a human-made enclosure for their entire life cycle. These and other practices are costly in both time and money for collectors, who emphasise enjoyment as their primary motivation. At the same time, they also engage in practices such as pesticide use that they recognise as damaging to wasp ecology. These practices can be understood to some extent in domesticatory terms, and in terms of care. We develop a framework for understanding domesticatory practices of insect care, discuss how this case contributes to ongoing debates within domestication studies, and recommend further research to be pursued.

  9. Facial patterns in a tropical social wasp correlate with colony membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracchi, David; Turillazzi, Stefano; Chittka, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Social insects excel in discriminating nestmates from intruders, typically relying on colony odours. Remarkably, some wasp species achieve such discrimination using visual information. However, while it is universally accepted that odours mediate a group level recognition, the ability to recognise colony members visually has been considered possible only via individual recognition by which wasps discriminate `friends' and `foes'. Using geometric morphometric analysis, which is a technique based on a rigorous statistical theory of shape allowing quantitative multivariate analyses on structure shapes, we first quantified facial marking variation of Liostenogaster flavolineata wasps. We then compared this facial variation with that of chemical profiles (generated by cuticular hydrocarbons) within and between colonies. Principal component analysis and discriminant analysis applied to sets of variables containing pure shape information showed that despite appreciable intra-colony variation, the faces of females belonging to the same colony resemble one another more than those of outsiders. This colony-specific variation in facial patterns was on a par with that observed for odours. While the occurrence of face discrimination at the colony level remains to be tested by behavioural experiments, overall our results suggest that, in this species, wasp faces display adequate information that might be potentially perceived and used by wasps for colony level recognition.

  10. The secondary eclipses of WASP-19b as seen by the ASTEP 400 telescope from Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, L; Agabi, A; Alapini, A; Guillot, T; Mékarnia, D; Rivet, J -P; Schmider, F -X; Crouzet, N; Fortney, J; Pont, F; Barbieri, M; Daban, J -B; Fanteï-Caujolle, Y; Gouvret, C; Bresson, Y; Roussel, A; Bonhomme, S; Robini, A; Dugué, M; Bondoux, E; Péron, S; Petit, P -Y; Szulágyi, J; Fruth, T; Erikson, A; Rauer, H; Fressin, F; Valbousquet, F; Blanc, P -E; van Suu, A Le; Aigrain, S

    2013-01-01

    The ASTEP (Antarctica Search for Transiting ExoPlanets) program was originally aimed at probing the quality of the Dome C, Antarctica for the discovery and characterization of exoplanets by photometry. In the first year of operation of the 40 cm ASTEP 400 telescope (austral winter 2010), we targeted the known transiting planet WASP-19b in order to try to detect its secondary transits in the visible. This is made possible by the excellent sub-millimagnitude precision of the binned data. The WASP-19 system was observed during 24 nights in May 2010. The photometric variability level due to starspots is about 1.8% (peak-to-peak), in line with the SuperWASP data from 2007 (1.4%) and larger than in 2008 (0.07%). We find a rotation period of WASP-19 of 10.7 +/- 0.5 days, in agreement with the SuperWASP determination of 10.5 +/- 0.2 days. Theoretical models show that this can only be explained if tidal dissipation in the star is weak, i.e. the tidal dissipation factor Q'star > 3.10^7. Separately, we find evidence for...

  11. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulsen

    Full Text Available Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest.

  12. Transcriptome and target DNA enrichment sequence data provide new insights into the phylogeny of vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata: Vespidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Sarah; Sann, Manuela; Mayer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The wasp family Vespidae comprises more than 5000 described species which represent life history strategies ranging from solitary and presocial to eusocial and socially parasitic. The phylogenetic relationships of the major vespid wasp lineages (i.e., subfamilies and tribes) have been investigate...

  13. Measurements of Transit Timing Variations for WASP-5b

    CERN Document Server

    Fukui, Akihiko; Tristram, Paul J; Sumi, Takahiro; Abe, Fumio; Itow, Yoshitaka; Sullivan, Denis J; Bond, Ian A; Hirano, Teruyuki; Tamura, Motohide; Bennett, David P; Furusawa, Kei; Hayashi, Fumiya; Hearnshaw, John B; Hosaka, Shun; Kamiya, Koki; Kobara, Shuhei; Korpela, Aarno; Kilmartin, Pam M; Lin, Wei; Ling, Cho Hong; Makita, Shota; Masuda, Kimiaki; Matsubara, Yutaka; Miyake, Noriyuki; Muraki, Yasushi; Nagaya, Maiko; Nishimoto, Kenta; Ohnishi, Kouji; Omori, Kengo; Perrott, Yvette; Rattenbury, Nicholas; Saito, Toshiharu; Skuljan, Ljiljana; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sweatman, Winston L; Wada, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    We have observed 7 new transits of the 'hot Jupiter' WASP-5b using a 61 cm telescope located in New Zealand, in order to search for transit timing variations (TTVs) which can be induced by additional bodies existing in the system. When combined with other available photometric and radial velocity (RV) data, we find that its transit timings do not match a linear ephemeris; the best fit \\chi^2 values of 32.2 with 9 degrees of freedom indicates that a marginal TTV signal has been observed at a confidence level of 99.982 %, or 3.7 \\sigma. The standard deviation of the TTVs is as large as 70 s, and if this is real, it cannot be explained by other effects than that due to an additional body or bodies. We put the upper limit on the RV amplitude due to the possible secondary body as 21 m s^{-1}, which corresponds to its mass of 22-70 M_{Earth} over the period ratio from 0.2 to 5.0. From the TTVs data, using the numerical simulations, we place more stringent limits down to 2 M_{Earth} near 1:2 and 2:1 MMRs at the 3 \\s...

  14. Absolute parameters for AI Phoenicis using WASP photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby-Kent, J A; Serenelli, A M; Turner, O D; Evans, D F; Anderson, D R; Hellier, C; West, R G

    2016-01-01

    AI Phe is a double-lined, detached binary, in which a K-type sub-giant star totally eclipses its main-sequence companion every 24.6 days. This configuration makes AI Phe ideal for testing stellar evolutionary models. Difficulties in obtaining a complete lightcurve mean the precision of existing radii measurements could be improved. Our aim is to improve the precision of the radius measurements for the stars in AI Phe using high-precision photometry from WASP, and use these improved radius measurements together with estimates of the masses, temperatures and composition of the stars to place constraints on the mixing length, helium abundance and age of the system. A best-fit ebop model is used to obtain lightcurve parameters, with their standard errors calculated using a prayer-bead algorithm. These were combined with previously published spectroscopic orbit results, to obtain masses and radii. A Bayesian method is used to estimate the age of the system for model grids with different mixing lengths and helium a...

  15. New and revised maimetshid wasps from Cretaceous ambers (Hymenoptera, Maimetshidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Perrichot

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available New material of the wasp family Maimetshidae (Apocrita is presented from four Cretaceous amber deposits – the Neocomian of Lebanon, the Early Albian of Spain, the latest Albian/earliest Cenomanian of France, and the Campanian of Canada. The new record from Canadian Cretaceous amber extends the temporal and paleogeographical range of the family. New material from France is assignable to Guyotemaimetsha enigmatica Perrichot et al. including the first females for the species, while a series of males and females from Spain are described and figured as Iberomaimetsha Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel gen. n., with the two new species Iberomaimetsha rasnitsyni Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel sp. n. and I. nihtmara Ortega-Blanco, Delclòs, and Engel sp. n.; a single female from Lebanon is described and figured as Ahiromaimetsha najlae Perrichot, Azar, Nel, and Engel gen. et sp. n., and a single male from Canada is described and figured as Ahstemiam cellula McKellar and Engel gen. et sp. n. The taxa are compared with other maimetshids, a key to genera and species is given, and brief comments made on the family.

  16. Transits and starspots in the WASP-6 planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Tregloan-Reed, Jeremy; Burgdorf, M; Novati, S Calchi; Dominik, M; Finet, F; Jørgensen, U G; Maier, G; Mancini, L; Proft, S; Ricci, D; Snodgrass, C; Bozza, V; Browne, P; Dodds, P; Gerner, T; Harpsøe, K; Hinse, T C; Hundertmark, M; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Liebig, C; Penny, M T; Rahvar, S; Sahu, K; Scarpetta, G; Schäfer\\, S; Schönebeck, F; Skottfelt, J; Surdej, J

    2015-01-01

    We present updates to \\textsc{prism}, a photometric transit-starspot model, and \\textsc{gemc}, a hybrid optimisation code combining MCMC and a genetic algorithm. We then present high-precision photometry of four transits in the WASP-6 planetary system, two of which contain a starspot anomaly. All four transits were modelled using \\textsc{prism} and \\textsc{gemc}, and the physical properties of the system calculated. We find the mass and radius of the host star to be $0.836\\pm 0.063\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$ and $0.864\\pm0.024\\,{\\rm R}_\\odot$, respectively. For the planet we find a mass of $0.485\\pm 0.027\\,{\\rm M}_{\\rm Jup}$, a radius of $1.230\\pm0.035\\,{\\rm R}_{\\rm Jup}$ and a density of $0.244\\pm0.014\\,\\rho_{\\rm Jup}$. These values are consistent with those found in the literature. In the likely hypothesis that the two spot anomalies are caused by the same starspot or starspot complex, we measure the stars rotation period and velocity to be $23.80 \\pm 0.15$\\,d and $1.78 \\pm 0.20$\\,km\\,s$^{-1}$, respectively, at a co-l...

  17. Dual effect of wasp queen pheromone in regulating insect sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Cintia A; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Caliari Oliveira, Ricardo; Millar, Jocelyn G; Verstrepen, Kevin J; van Zweden, Jelle S; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Eusocial insects exhibit a remarkable reproductive division of labor between queens and largely sterile workers [1, 2]. Recently, it was shown that queens of diverse groups of social insects employ specific, evolutionarily conserved cuticular hydrocarbons to signal their presence and inhibit worker reproduction [3]. Workers also recognize and discriminate between eggs laid by the queen and those laid by workers, with the latter being destroyed by workers in a process known as "policing" [4, 5]. Worker policing represents a classic example of a conflict-reducing mechanism, in which the reproductive monopoly of the queen is maintained through the selective destruction of worker-laid eggs [5, 6]. However, the exact signals used in worker policing have thus far remained elusive [5, 7]. Here, we show that in the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, the pheromone that signals egg maternity and enables the workers to selectively destroy worker-laid eggs is in fact the same as one of the sterility-inducing queen signals that we identified earlier [3]. These results imply that queen pheromones regulate insect sociality in two distinct and complementary ways, i.e., by signaling the queen's presence and inhibiting worker reproduction, and by facilitating the recognition and policing of worker-laid eggs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A parasitoid wasp induces overwintering behaviour in its spider host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Korenko

    Full Text Available Parasites and parasitoids control behaviors of their hosts. However, the origin of the behavior evoked by the parasitic organism has been rarely identified. It is also not known whether the manipulation is universal or host-specific. Polysphinctine wasps, koinobiont ectoparasitoids of several spider species that manipulate host web-spinning activity for their own protection during pupation, provide an ideal system to reveal the origin of the evoked behavior. Larva of Zatypota percontatoria performed species-specific manipulation of theridiid spiders, Neottiura bimaculata and Theridion varians, shortly before pupation. Parasitized N. bimaculata produced a dense web, whereas parasitized T. varians built a cupola-like structure. The larva pupated inside of either the dense web or the cupola-like structure. We discovered that unparasitized N. bimaculata produce an analogous dense web around their eggsacs and for themselves during winter, while T. varians construct an analogous 'cupola' only for overwintering. We induced analogous manipulation in unparasitized hosts by altering ambient conditions. We discovered that the behavior evoked by larvae in two hosts was functionally similar. The larva evoked protective behaviors that occur in unparasitized hosts only during specific life-history periods.

  19. A Photometric Study of the Hot Exoplanet WASP-19b

    CERN Document Server

    Lendl, M; Queloz, D; Alonso, R; Fumel, A; Jehin, E; Naef, D

    2012-01-01

    Context: When the planet transits its host star, it is possible to measure the planetary radius and (with radial velocity data) the planet mass. For the study of planetary atmospheres, it is essential to obtain transit and occultation measurements at multiple wavelengths. Aims: We aim to characterize the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-19b by deriving accurate and precise planetary parameters from a dedicated observing campaign of transits and occultations. Methods: We have obtained a total of 14 transit lightcurves in the r'-Gunn, IC, z'-Gunn and I+z' filters and 10 occultation lightcurves in z'-Gunn using EulerCam on the Euler-Swiss telescope and TRAPPIST. We have also obtained one lightcurve through the narrow-band NB1190 filter of HAWK-I on the VLT measuring an occultation at 1.19 micron. We have performed a global MCMC analysis of all new data together with some archive data in order to refine the planetary parameters and measure the occultation depths in z'-band and at 1.19 micron. Results: We measure a pla...

  20. Spitzer observations of the thermal emission from WASP-43b

    CERN Document Server

    Blecic, Jasmina; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Stevenson, Kevin B; Hardy, Ryan A; Cubillos, Patricio E; Hardin, Matthew; Nymeyer, Sarah; Anderson, David R; Hellier, Coel; Smith, Alexis M S; Cameron, Andrew Collier

    2013-01-01

    WASP-43b (Hellier et al.; Gillon et al.) is one of the closest-orbiting hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis a = 0.01526 +/- 0.00018 AU and a period of only 0.81 days. However, it orbits one of the coolest stars with a hot Jupiter (K7V, Tstar = 4520 +/- 120 K), giving the planet a modest equilibrium temperature of Teq = 1440 +/- 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and uniform planetary energy redistribution. This has resulted in strong signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N) observations and deep eclipses in both Warm Spitzer channels (3.6 and 4.5 microns). The eclipse depths and brightness temperatures from our jointly fit model are 0.346 +/- 0.013% and 1684 +/- 24 K at 3.6 microns and 0.382 +/- 0.015% and 1485 +/- 24 K at 4.5 microns. The eclipse timings improved the estimate of the orbital period, P, by a factor of three (P = 0.81347459 +/- 2.1x10-7 days) compared to Gillon et al. and put an upper limit on the eccentricity (e = 0.007+0.013-0.004). We use our Spitzer eclipse depths with two previously reported ground-based ...

  1. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, N B; Croll, B; Shekhtman, L M; Burrows, A; Deming, D; Greene, T; Hora, J L

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 micron. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously-measured day-side spectral energy distribution, is indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 micron, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 micron, but our parameter uncertainties -estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo- keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 micron, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's...

  2. WASP-135b: a highly irradiated, inflated hot Jupiter orbiting a G5V star

    CERN Document Server

    Spake, Jessica J; Doyle, Amanda P; Hébrard, Guillaume; McCormac, James; Armstrong, David J; Pollacco, Don; Chew, Yilen Gómez Maqueo; Anderson, David R; Barros, Susana C C; Bouchy, François; Boumis, Panayotis; Bruno, Giovanni; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Courcol, Bastien; Davies, Guy R; Faedi, Francesca; Hellier, Coel; Kirk, James; Lam, Kristine W F; Liakos, Alexios; Louden, Tom; Maxted, Pierre F L; Osborn, Hugh P; Palle, Enric; Arranz, Jorge Prieto; Udry, Stéphane; Walker, Simon R; West, Richard G; Wheatley, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new transiting planet from the WASP survey. WASP-135b is a hot Jupiter with a radius of 1.30 pm 0.09 Rjup, a mass of 1.90 pm 0.08 Mjup and an orbital period of 1.401 days. Its host is a Sun-like star, with a G5 spectral type and a mass and radius of 0.98 pm 0.06 Msun and 0.96 pm 0.05 Rsun respectively. The proximity of the planet to its host means that WASP-135b receives high levels of insolation, which may be the cause of its inflated radius. Additionally, we find weak evidence of a transfer of angular momentum from the planet to its star.

  3. First record of parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko, 1968 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja BOHINC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the parasitic wasp, which occurrence in Slovenia was first confirmed in August 2014 on egg layers of cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae from cabbage. The wasp Trichogrammma brassicae belongs among egg parasitoids and it is especially known as biological control agent of lepidopteran pests. In the beginning the wasp was used for controlling European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, later it becomes an important biological control agent of some other economically important lepidopteran pests. With the first confirmation of occurrence of T. brassicae in Slovenia first condition for its placing on the List of indegenous biological control agents - it contains the organisms which practical use in Slovenia is allowed - is fulfilled.

  4. A NEARLY POLAR ORBIT FOR THE EXTRASOLAR HOT JUPITER WASP-79b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addison, B. C.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J. [Exoplanetary Science Group, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Bayliss, D.; Zhou, G.; Schmidt, B. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A., E-mail: b.addison@unsw.edu.au [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We report the measurement of a spin-orbit misalignment for WASP-79b, a recently discovered, bloated hot Jupiter from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) survey. Data were obtained using the CYCLOPS2 optical-fiber bundle and its simultaneous calibration system feeding the UCLES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We have used the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect to determine the sky-projected spin-orbit angle to be {lambda}= -106{sup +19}{sub -13} {sup o}. This result indicates a significant misalignment between the spin axis of the host star and the orbital plane of the planet-the planet being in a nearly polar orbit. WASP-79 is consistent with other stars that have T{sub eff} > 6250 K and host hot Jupiters in spin-orbit misalignment.

  5. Populations of trap-nesting wasps near a major source of fluoride emissions in western Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.W.; Fleming, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Trap-nesting wasps were collected from eight sites at distances of from 1.2-33.0 km from an aluminum reduction plant in western Tennessee. The sites had similar topographies, soils, and vegetation, but differed in their exposure to fluoride, which was emitted in large quantities from the plant. It was postulated that if fluoride emissions had greatly changed the insect community then relative densities of their predators would have varied accordingly. However, the degree of fluoride pollution was unrelated to the relative densities of the wasps and to the number of cells provisioned with prey. Monobia quadridens, Trypargilum clavatum, and T. lactitarse were found to have two complete generations in western Tennessee. Trypargilum collinum rubrocinctum has at least two generations, and Euodynerus megaera probably has three generations. Six other wasp species and a megachilid bee were also collected.

  6. Increasing parasitism by the German yellow jacket wasp, Paravespula germanica, on dairy cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Y

    1998-04-01

    During the past two decades, parasitism by the German yellow jacket wasp, Paravespula germanica, on lactating dairy cattle has occurred in Israel during August to October annually, affecting up to 65% of cows in certain herds. The nibbled and exposed tissues of teats and sometimes udders become infested by bacteria, especially Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Actinomyces pyogenes, causing clinical and subclinical mastitis. Normally, German wasps are primarily insect predators, but the urbanization around many dairy farms has reduced open space and associated standard food sources, i.e. insects, plants and carcasses. This has resulted in P. germanica nesting more often on dairy farms. In some instances, when high densities of P. germanica correspond with scarcity of prey, a segment of the wasp population preys primarily on the older and heavier cows with weak defensive behaviour. The teat feeding colonies of P. germanica may have an advantage, in that they are less dependent on fluctuations in the number of prey insects.

  7. Climate warming and the potential extinction of fig wasps, the obligate pollinators of figs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevanandam, Nanthinee; Goh, Alexander G R; Corlett, Richard T

    2013-06-23

    Figs (Ficus) have a reciprocally obligate mutualism with tiny, short-lived (1-2 days) fig wasps (Agaonidae). The small size and short life of these pollinators is expected to make them more vulnerable to climate change than their larger and longer-lived hosts. We experimentally tested the thermal tolerances of four species of adult female fig wasp from equatorial Singapore. The results suggest that an increase of 3°C or more above the current temperatures experienced across much of the equatorial tropics would markedly decrease the active adult lifespan of all four species. Fig plants are the centre of an intricate web of specialist and generalist animals. Unless fig wasps can acclimate or adapt to warmer temperatures in time, these responses may disrupt the mutualism, potentially affecting multiple trophic levels.

  8. Molecular approaches to identify cryptic species and polymorphic species within a complex community of fig wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hua Xiao

    Full Text Available Cryptic and polymorphic species can complicate traditional taxonomic research and both of these concerns are common in fig wasp communities. Species identification is very difficult, despite great effort and the ecological importance of fig wasps. Herein, we try to identify all chalcidoid wasp species hosted by one species of fig, using both morphological and molecular methods. We compare the efficiency of four different DNA regions and find that ITS2 is highly effective for species identification, while mitochondrial COI and Cytb regions appear less reliable, possibly due to the interference signals from either nuclear copies of mtDNA, i.e. NUMTs, or the effects of Wolbachia infections. The analyses suggest that combining multiple markers is the best choice for inferring species identifications as any one marker may be unsuitable in a given case.

  9. EST Table: DC563260 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DC563260 E_FL_wd--_32N10_F_0 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 61 %/165 aa ref|XP_001604957.1| PREDICTED: similar to Nic...alin [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/09/02 42 %/161 aa FBpp0146921|DgriGH13015-PA 10/08/28

  10. EST Table: BP117463 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available globulin and EF hand domains#status:Partially_confirmed#UniProt:Q22157#protei n_id:...2264A [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/08/28 47 %/210 aa FBpp0251102|DwilGK21959-PA 10/08/28 30 %/196 aa T04F3.2#CE06357#WBGene00011437#thyro

  11. EST Table: FS903732 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ivity)|GO:0006508(proteolysis)|GO:0008270(zinc ion binding) 10/09/28 42 %/207 aa ref|XP_001602586.1| PREDICT...ED: similar to molting fluid carboxypeptidase A [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/09/12 40 %/206 aa FBpp0155924|DgriG

  12. EST Table: AV403894 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ref|XP_001605691.1| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase app(e.coli) [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/08/28 52...%/206 aa gi|189241712|ref|XP_968082.2| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase app(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] AV403894 pg-- ...

  13. EST Table: FS805970 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available milar to xaa-pro dipeptidase app(e.coli) [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/09/09 47 %/178 aa FBpp0123641|DanaGF20449-...PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase app(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] FS727105 fmgV ...

  14. EST Table: AV400820 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/08/28 52 %/152 aa FBpp0120238|DanaGF17046-PA 10... to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] FS768084 br-- ...

  15. EST Table: FY746662 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY746662 E_FL_famL_31C05_F_0 11/12/09 n.h 11/11/04 64 %/148 aa ref|XP_001603360.1| PREDICTED: similar to tur...tle protein [Nasonia vitripennis] 11/11/04 61 %/138 aa FBpp0118210|DanaGF15018-PA 1

  16. EST Table: BB982222 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BB982222 ovS3003F07r 10/09/28 52 %/140 aa ref|XP_001606351.1| PREDICTED: similar to... MGC64464 protein [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 41 %/136 aa F33H2.6#CE30528#WBGene00009369#sta

  17. EST Table: CK488990 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available %/161 aa ref|XP_001605087.1| PREDICTED: similar to fetal alzheimer antigen, falz [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/08...47 %/163 aa gi|189240808|ref|XP_001811424.1| PREDICTED: similar to fetal alzheimer antigen, falz [Tribolium castaneum] CK488990 swa ...

  18. EST Table: FS870427 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available milar to ribosome biogenesis protein brix [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/09/11 63 %/215 aa FBpp0127933|DanaGF24741...5365 10/09/10 62 %/216 aa gnl|Amel|GB12626-PA 10/09/10 58 %/268 aa gi|91090402|ref|XP_970542.1| PREDICTED: similar to brix

  19. EST Table: FS861595 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available milar to ribosome biogenesis protein brix [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/09/11 66 %/160 aa FBpp0127933|DanaGF24741...5365 10/09/10 62 %/163 aa gnl|Amel|GB12626-PA 10/09/10 58 %/215 aa gi|91090402|ref|XP_970542.1| PREDICTED: similar to brix

  20. EST Table: FS832179 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available milar to ribosome biogenesis protein brix [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/09/10 60 %/223 aa FBpp0127933|DanaGF24741...5365 10/09/10 59 %/224 aa gnl|Amel|GB12626-PA 10/09/10 55 %/276 aa gi|91090402|ref|XP_970542.1| PREDICTED: similar to brix

  1. HST Hot-Jupiter Transmission Spectral Survey: Clear Skies for Cool Saturn WASP-39b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Patrick D.; Knutson, Heather A.; Sing, David K.; Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael W.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Burrows, Adam S.; Kataria, Tiffany; Nikolov, Nikolay; Showman, Adam P.; Ballester, Gilda E.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Aigrain, Suzanne; Deming, Drake; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

    2016-08-01

    We present the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) optical transmission spectroscopy of the cool Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b from 0.29-1.025 μm, along with complementary transit observations from Spitzer IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The low density and large atmospheric pressure scale height of WASP-39b make it particularly amenable to atmospheric characterization using this technique. We detect a Rayleigh scattering slope as well as sodium and potassium absorption features; this is the first exoplanet in which both alkali features are clearly detected with the extended wings predicted by cloud-free atmosphere models. The full transmission spectrum is well matched by a clear H2-dominated atmosphere, or one containing a weak contribution from haze, in good agreement with the preliminary reduction of these data presented in Sing et al. WASP-39b is predicted to have a pressure-temperature profile comparable to that of HD 189733b and WASP-6b, making it one of the coolest transiting gas giants observed in our HST STIS survey. Despite this similarity, WASP-39b appears to be largely cloud-free, while the transmission spectra of HD 189733b and WASP-6b both indicate the presence of high altitude clouds or hazes. These observations further emphasize the surprising diversity of cloudy and cloud-free gas giant planets in short-period orbits and the corresponding challenges associated with developing predictive cloud models for these atmospheres.

  2. Geographic variation in the status signals of Polistes dominulus paper wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Tibbetts

    Full Text Available Understanding intraspecific geographic variation in animal signals poses a challenging evolutionary problem. Studies addressing geographic variation typically focus on signals used in mate-choice, however, geographic variation in intrasexual signals involved in competition is also known to occur. In Polistes dominulus paper wasps, females have black facial spots that signal dominance: individuals wasps with more complex 'broken' facial patterns are better fighters and are avoided by rivals. Recent work suggests there is dramatic geographic variation in these visual signals of quality, though this variation has not been explicitly described or quantified. Here, we analyze variation in P. dominulus signals across six populations and explore how environmental conditions may account for this variation. Overall, we found substantial variation in facial pattern brokenness across populations and castes. Workers have less broken facial patterns than gynes and queens, which have similar facial patterns. Strepsipteran parasitism, body size and temperature are all correlated with the facial pattern variation, suggesting that developmental plasticity likely plays a key role in this variation. First, the extent of parasitism varies across populations and parasitized individuals have lower facial pattern brokenness than unparasitized individuals. Second, there is substantial variation in body size across populations and a weak but significant relationship between facial pattern brokenness and body size. Wasps from populations with smaller body size (e.g. Italy tend to have less broken facial patterns than wasps from populations with larger body size (e.g. New York, USA. Third, there is an apparent association between facial patterns and climate, with wasp from cooler locations tending to have higher facial pattern brokenness than wasps from warmer locations. Additional experimental work testing the causes and consequences of facial pattern variation will be

  3. Adaptive selection on bracovirus genomes drives the specialization of Cotesia parasitoid wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancek, Séverine; Bézier, Annie; Gayral, Philippe; Paillusson, Corentin; Kaiser, Laure; Dupas, Stéphane; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Barbe, Valérie; Periquet, Georges; Drezen, Jean-Michel; Herniou, Elisabeth A

    2013-01-01

    The geographic mosaic of coevolution predicts parasite virulence should be locally adapted to the host community. Cotesia parasitoid wasps adapt to local lepidopteran species possibly through their symbiotic bracovirus. The virus, essential for the parasitism success, is at the heart of the complex coevolutionary relationship linking the wasps and their hosts. The large segmented genome contained in the virus particles encodes virulence genes involved in host immune and developmental suppression. Coevolutionary arms race should result in the positive selection of particular beneficial alleles. To understand the global role of bracoviruses in the local adaptation or specialization of parasitoid wasps to their hosts, we studied the molecular evolution of four bracoviruses associated with wasps of the genus Cotesia, including C congregata, C vestalis and new data and annotation on two ecologically differentiated populations of C sesamie, Kitale and Mombasa. Paired orthologs analyses revealed more genes under positive selection when comparing the two C sesamiae bracoviruses belonging to the same species, and more genes under strong evolutionary constraint between species. Furthermore branch-site evolutionary models showed that 17 genes, out of the 54 currently available shared by the four bracoviruses, harboured sites under positive selection including: the histone H4-like, a C-type lectin, two ep1-like, ep2, a viral ankyrin, CrV1, a ben-domain, a Serine-rich, and eight unknown genes. Lastly the phylogenetic analyses of the histone, ep2 and CrV1 genes in different African C sesamiae populations showed that each gene described differently the individual relationships. In particular we found recombination had happened between the ep2 and CrV1 genes, which are localized 37.5 kb apart on the wasp chromosomes. Involved in multidirectional coevolutionary interactions, C sesamiae wasps rely on different bracovirus mediated molecular pathways to overcome local host resistance.

  4. Adaptive selection on bracovirus genomes drives the specialization of Cotesia parasitoid wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Jancek

    Full Text Available The geographic mosaic of coevolution predicts parasite virulence should be locally adapted to the host community. Cotesia parasitoid wasps adapt to local lepidopteran species possibly through their symbiotic bracovirus. The virus, essential for the parasitism success, is at the heart of the complex coevolutionary relationship linking the wasps and their hosts. The large segmented genome contained in the virus particles encodes virulence genes involved in host immune and developmental suppression. Coevolutionary arms race should result in the positive selection of particular beneficial alleles. To understand the global role of bracoviruses in the local adaptation or specialization of parasitoid wasps to their hosts, we studied the molecular evolution of four bracoviruses associated with wasps of the genus Cotesia, including C congregata, C vestalis and new data and annotation on two ecologically differentiated populations of C sesamie, Kitale and Mombasa. Paired orthologs analyses revealed more genes under positive selection when comparing the two C sesamiae bracoviruses belonging to the same species, and more genes under strong evolutionary constraint between species. Furthermore branch-site evolutionary models showed that 17 genes, out of the 54 currently available shared by the four bracoviruses, harboured sites under positive selection including: the histone H4-like, a C-type lectin, two ep1-like, ep2, a viral ankyrin, CrV1, a ben-domain, a Serine-rich, and eight unknown genes. Lastly the phylogenetic analyses of the histone, ep2 and CrV1 genes in different African C sesamiae populations showed that each gene described differently the individual relationships. In particular we found recombination had happened between the ep2 and CrV1 genes, which are localized 37.5 kb apart on the wasp chromosomes. Involved in multidirectional coevolutionary interactions, C sesamiae wasps rely on different bracovirus mediated molecular pathways to overcome

  5. New occurrence of non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus microcarpa in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farache, Fernando H A; O, Vanessa T do; Pereira, Rodrigo A S

    2009-01-01

    Ficus microcarpa is an Asian fig tree that is ornamentally cultivated. The specific pollinator, Eupristina verticillata Waterston, and the non-pollinators Walkerella microcarpae Boucek and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi, have been reported associated to F. microcarpa in Brazil. In here we report for the first time the occurrence of Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes and Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen et al in F. microcarpa in Brazil. Our results suggest that P. taiwanensis and O. ishii represent a recent influx of these wasps into Brazil. Considering that approximately 20 fig wasp species are associated with F. microcarpa in its native area, novel occurrences can be reported in the future in Brazil.

  6. WAsP prediction errors due to site orography[Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, A.J.; Mortensen, N.G.

    2004-12-01

    The influence of rugged terrain on the prediction accuracy of the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) is investigated using a case study of field measurements taken in rugged terrain. The parameters that could cause substantial errors in a prediction are identified and discussed. In particular, the effects from extreme orography are investigated. A suitable performance indicator is developed which predicts the sign and approximate magnitude of such errors due to orography. This procedure allows the user to assess the consequences of using WAsP outside its operating envelope and could provide a means of correction for rugged terrain effects. (au)

  7. A photometric study of the hot exoplanet WASP-19b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Gillon, M.; Queloz, D.; Alonso, R.; Fumel, A.; Jehin, E.; Naef, D.

    2013-04-01

    Context. The sample of hot Jupiters that have been studied in great detail is still growing. In particular, when the planet transits its host star, it is possible to measure the planetary radius and the planet mass (with radial velocity data). For the study of planetary atmospheres, it is essential to obtain transit and occultation measurements at multiple wavelengths. Aims: We aim to characterize the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-19b by deriving accurate and precise planetary parameters from a dedicated observing campaign of transits and occultations. Methods: We have obtained a total of 14 transit lightcurves in the r'-Gunn, I-Cousins, z'-Gunn, and I + z' filters and 10 occultation lightcurves in z'-Gunn using EulerCam on the Euler-Swiss telescope and TRAPPIST. We also obtained one lightcurve through the narrow-band NB1190 filter of HAWK-I on the VLT measuring an occultation at 1.19 μm. We performed a global MCMC analysis of all new data, together with some archive data in order to refine the planetary parameters and to measure the occultation depths in z'-band and at 1.19 μm. Results: We measure a planetary radius of Rp = 1.376 ± 0.046 RJ, a planetary mass of Mp = 1.165 ± 0.068 MJ, and find a very low eccentricity of e = 0.0077-0.0032+0.0068, compatible with a circular orbit. We have detected the z'-band occultation at 3σ significance and measure it to be δFocc,z' = 352 ± 116 ppm, more than a factor of 2 smaller than previously published. The occultation at 1.19 μm is only marginally constrained at δFocc,NB1190 = 1711-726+745 ppm. Conclusions: We show that the detection of occultations in the visible range is within reach, even for 1 m class telescopes if a considerable number of individual events are observed. Our results suggest an oxygen-dominated atmosphere of WASP-19b, making the planet an interesting test case for oxygen-rich planets without temperature inversion. Based on photometric observations made with HAWK-I on the ESO VLT/UT4 (Prog. ID 084.C

  8. Regulation of N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex by Abp1 controls neuronal morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser Pinyol

    Full Text Available Polymerization and organization of actin filaments into complex superstructures is indispensable for structure and function of neuronal networks. We here report that knock down of the F-actin-binding protein Abp1, which is important for endocytosis and synaptic organization, results in changes in axon development virtually identical to Arp2/3 complex inhibition, i.e., a selective increase of axon length. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that Abp1 interacts directly with N-WASP, an activator of the Arp2/3 complex, and releases the autoinhibition of N-WASP in cooperation with Cdc42 and thereby promotes N-WASP-triggered Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization. In line with our mechanistical studies and the colocalization of Abp1, N-WASP and Arp2/3 at sites of actin polymerization in neurons, we reveal an essential role of Abp1 and its cooperativity with Cdc42 in N-WASP-induced rearrangements of the neuronal cytoskeleton. We furthermore show that introduction of N-WASP mutants lacking the ability to bind Abp1 or Cdc42, Arp2/3 complex inhibition, Abp1 knock down, N-WASP knock down and Arp3 knock down, all cause identical neuromorphological phenotypes. Our data thus strongly suggest that these proteins and their complex formation are important for cytoskeletal processes underlying neuronal network formation.

  9. BaitFisher: A Software Package for Multispecies Target DNA Enrichment Probe Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christoph; Sann, Manuela; Donath, Alexander; Meixner, Martin; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Peters, Ralph S; Petersen, Malte; Meusemann, Karen; Liere, Karsten; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Misof, Bernhard; Bleidorn, Christoph; Ohl, Michael; Niehuis, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Target DNA enrichment combined with high-throughput sequencing technologies is a powerful approach to probing a large number of loci in genomes of interest. However, software algorithms that explicitly consider nucleotide sequence information of target loci in multiple reference species for optimizing design of target enrichment baits to be applicable across a wide range of species have not been developed. Here we present an algorithm that infers target DNA enrichment baits from multiple nucleotide sequence alignments. By applying clustering methods and the combinatorial 1-center sequence optimization to bait design, we are able to minimize the total number of baits required to efficiently probe target loci in multiple species. Consequently, more loci can be probed across species with a given number of baits. Using transcript sequences of 24 apoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae, Sphecidae) from the 1KITE project and the gene models of Nasonia vitripennis, we inferred 57,650, 120-bp-long baits for capturing 378 coding sequence sections of 282 genes in apoid wasps. Illumina reduced-representation library sequencing confirmed successful enrichment of the target DNA when applying these baits to DNA of various apoid wasps. The designed baits furthermore enriched a major fraction of the target DNA in distantly related Hymenoptera, such as Formicidae and Chalcidoidea, highlighting the baits' broad taxonomic applicability. The availability of baits with broad taxonomic applicability is of major interest in numerous disciplines, ranging from phylogenetics to biodiversity monitoring. We implemented our new approach in a software package, called BaitFisher, which is open source and freely available at https://github.com/cmayer/BaitFisher-package.git. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Rossiter-McLaughlin models and their effect on estimates of stellar rotation, illustrated using six WASP systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. J. A.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Lendl, M.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Hébrard, G.; Hellier, C.; Lovis, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.

    2016-09-01

    We present new measurements of the projected spin-orbit angle λ for six WASP hot Jupiters, four of which are new to the literature (WASP-61, -62, -76, and -78), and two of which are new analyses of previously measured systems using new data (WASP-71, and -79). We use three different models based on two different techniques: radial velocity measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, and Doppler tomography. Our comparison of the different models reveals that they produce projected stellar rotation velocities (vsin Is) measurements often in disagreement with each other and with estimates obtained from spectral line broadening. The Boué model for the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect consistently underestimates the value of vsin Is compared to the Hirano model. Although vsin Is differed, the effect on λ was small for our sample, with all three methods producing values in agreement with each other. Using Doppler tomography, we find that WASP-61 b (λ =4.0°+17.1-18.4), WASP-71 b (λ =-1.9°+7.1-7.5), and WASP-78 b (λ = -6.4° ± 5.9) are aligned. WASP-62 b (λ =19.4°+5.1-4.9) is found to be slightly misaligned, while WASP-79 b (λ =-95.2°+0.9-1.0) is confirmed to be strongly misaligned and has a retrograde orbit. We explore a range of possibilities for the orbit of WASP-76 b, finding that the orbit is likely to be strongly misaligned in the positive λ direction.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-30 and J1219-39 light & velocity curves (Triaud+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Hebb, L.; Anderson, D. R.; Cargile, P.; Collier, Cameron A.; Doyle, A. P.; Faedi, F.; Gillon, M.; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Maxted, P.; Naef, D.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Stassun, K.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2012-10-01

    For WASP-30: the data is composed of two TRAPPIST photometric timeseries, one set of CORALIE radial velocities and one set of HARPS radial velocities (remaining photometry in Anderson et al. 2011, Cat. J/ApJ/726/L19). For J1219-39, the data consist of one set of CORALIE radial velocities and four photometric timeseries originating from the WASP-South instrument. They give evidence of an eclipsing brown dwarf orbiting WASP-30, and of a low mass star eclipsing J1219-39. (9 data files).

  12. WASP-17b - possibly the first moving away from parent star exoplanet. International campaign on its observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokov, E. N.

    2016-11-01

    We present detected moving away from the parent star WASP-17b exoplanet and organized international campaign on its observations. The difference between the predicted moment of a mid of transit and the observed (O-C) reached ∼55 minutes. In the period from 2011 to 2015 yy. there was a non-linear increasing of the (O-C) data, which may point on an increasing of the orbital period of WASP-17b. Difference between duration of the transit obtained at 2011 year and 2015 year is ∼15 minutes. This fact also point on moving away from the star WASP- 17b exoplanet.

  13. Phenotypically plastic traits regulate caste formation and soldier function in polyembryonic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M S; Milton, I; Strand, M R

    2010-12-01

    Polyembryonic encyrtid wasps are parasitoids that have evolved a clonal form of embryogenesis and a caste system where some progeny become reproducing wasps whereas others develop into a sterile soldier caste. Theory based on the biology of Copidosoma floridanum predicts that the primary role of soldier larvae is to mediate conflict over sex ratio, which also favours female-biased soldier production. Other data, however, suggest that female-biased soldier production reflects a developmental constraint. Here, we assessed whether female-biased soldier function by polyembryonic wasps reflects sex-specific adaptation or constraint by conducting comparative studies with Copidosoma bakeri, a species that produces clutch sizes similar to C. floridanum yet rarely produces broods associated with sex ratio conflict. Our results indicate that the oviposition behaviour of adults, development of progeny and function of soldier larvae differ greatly between C. bakeri and C. floridanum. These findings indicate that caste formation and soldier function in polyembryonic encyrtid wasps are regulated by phenotypically plastic traits. Our results further suggest that the primary function of the soldier caste in some species is defence of host resources from competitors whereas in others it is the resolution of sex ratio conflict.

  14. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - VII. The ultrashort period planet WASP-103

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Mancini, L.; Ciceri, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present 17 transit light curves of the ultra-short period planetary system WASP-103, a strong candidate for the detection of tidally-induced orbital decay. We use these to establish a high-precision reference epoch for transit timing studies. The time of the reference transit midpoint is now m...

  15. Invadopodia proteins, cortactin, N-WASP and WIP differentially promote local invasiveness in ameloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siar, Chong Huat; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Bin Abdul; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Mohamed Om Alblazi, Kamila; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Ng, Kok Han

    2016-09-01

    Cell migration and invasion through interstitial tissues are dependent upon several specialized characteristics of the migratory cell notably generation of proteolytic membranous protrusions or invadopodia. Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a locally infiltrative behaviour. Cortactin and MMT1-MMP are two invadopodia proteins implicated in its local invasiveness. Other invadopodia regulators, namely N-WASP, WIP and Src kinase remain unclarified. This study addresses their roles in ameloblastoma. Eighty-seven paraffin-embedded ameloblastoma cases (20 unicystic, 47 solid/multicystic, 3 desmoplastic and 17 recurrent) were subjected to immunohistochemistry for expression of cortactin, N-WASP, WIP, Src kinase and F-actin, and findings correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Invadopodia proteins (except Src kinase) and F-actin were widely detected in ameloblastoma (cortactin: n = 73/87, 83.9%; N-WASP: n = 59/87; 67.8%; WIP: n = 77/87; 88.5%; and F-actin: n = 87/87, 100%). Protein localization was mainly cytoplasmic and/or membranous, and occasionally nuclear for F-actin. Cortactin, which functions as an actin-scaffolding protein, demonstrated significantly higher expression levels within ameloblastoma tumoral epithelium than in stroma (P ameloblastoma is dependent upon the migratory potential of its tumour cells as defined by their distribution of cortactin, N-WASP and WIP in correlation with F-actin cytoskeletal dynamics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Differential arrestment of Trichogramma wasps to extreme sex pheromone types of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Huigens, M.E.; Orr, D.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    1. Chemical espionage in nature may occur when predators or parasitoids home in on animal or plant communication signals. Parasitoid wasps are known to use pheromones emitted by adults hosts to locate host eggs, larvae or pupae. The response of Trichogramma egg parasitoids to a synthetic sex pheromo

  17. Associative learning in two closely related parasitoid wasps: a neuroecological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Insects are useful model organisms to study learning and memory. Their brains are less complex than vertebrate brains, but the basic mechanisms of learning and memory are similar in both taxa. In this thesis I study learning and subsequent memory formation in two parasitoid wasp species that differ

  18. A ground-based optical transmission spectrum of WASP-6b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Rabus, Markus [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Eyheramendy, Susana [Departmento de Estadística, Facultad de Matemáticas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Sing, David K. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Désert, Jean-Michel [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Bakos, Gáspár Á. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); López-Morales, Mercedes; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Maxted, Pierre F. L. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We present a ground-based optical transmission spectrum of the inflated sub-Jupiter-mass planet WASP-6b. The spectrum was measured in 20 spectral channels from 480 nm to 860 nm using a series of 91 spectra over a complete transit event. The observations were carried out using multi-object differential spectrophotometry with the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We model systematic effects on the observed light curves using principal component analysis on the comparison stars and allow for the presence of short and long memory correlation structure in our Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis of the transit light curves for WASP-6. The measured transmission spectrum presents a general trend of decreasing apparent planetary size with wavelength and lacks evidence for broad spectral features of Na and K predicted by clear atmosphere models. The spectrum is consistent with that expected for scattering that is more efficient in the blue, as could be caused by hazes or condensates in the atmosphere of WASP-6b. WASP-6b therefore appears to be yet another massive exoplanet with evidence for a mostly featureless transmission spectrum, underscoring the importance that hazes and condensates can have in determining the transmission spectra of exoplanets.

  19. Wolbachia in guilds of Anastrepha fruit flies (Tephritidae) and parasitoid wasps (Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Rodrigo O; Prezotto, Leandro F; Perondini, André Luiz P; Marino, Celso Luiz; Selivon, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The endosymbiont Wolbachia is efficiently transmitted from females to their progenies, but horizontal transmission between different taxa is also known to occur. Aiming to determine if horizontal transmission might have occurred between Anastrepha fruit flies and associated braconid wasps, infection by Wolbachia was screened by amplification of a fragment of the wsp gene. Eight species of the genus Anastrepha were analyzed, from which six species of associated parasitoid wasps were recovered. The endosymbiont was found in seven Anastrepha species and in five species of braconids. The WSP Typing methodology detected eight wsp alleles belonging to Wolbachia supergroup A. Three were already known and five were new ones, among which four were found to be putative recombinant haplotypes. Two samples of Anastrepha obliqua and one sample of Doryctobracon brasiliensis showed multiple infection. Single infection by Wolbachia was found in the majority of samples. The distribution of Wolbachia harboring distinct alleles differed significantly between fruit flies and wasps. However, in nine samples of fruit flies and associated wasps, Wolbachia harbored the same wsp allele. These congruences suggest that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia might have occurred in the communities of fruit flies and their braconid parasitoids.

  20. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - I. The transiting planetary system WASP-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G.;

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of two transit events of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-5, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at European Southern Obseratory La Silla. In order to minimize both random and flat-fielding errors, we defocused the telescope so its point spread...

  1. Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program: Evaluation of Transiting Exoplanet WASP-63b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Brian; Cubillos, Patricio; Bruno, Giovanni; Lewis, Nikole K.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wakeford, Hannah; Blecic, Jasmina; Burrows, Adam Seth; Deming, Drake; Heng, Kevin; Line, Michael R.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Transiting Exoplanet Early Release Science Community (Stevenson et al. 2016)

    2017-06-01

    We present observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ``A Preparatory Program to Identify the Single Best Transiting Exoplanet for JWST Early Release Science" for WASP-63b, one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Science (ERS) program. A large collaboration of transiting exoplanet scientists identified a set of ``community targets" which meet a certain set of criteria for ecliptic latitude, period, host star brightness, well constrained orbital parameters, and strength of spectroscopic features. WASP-63b was one of the targets identified as a potential candidate for the ERS program. It is presented as an inflated planet with a large signal. It will be accessible to JWST approximately six months after the planned start of Cycle 1/ERS in April 2019 making it an ideal candidate should there be any delays in the JWST timetable. Here, we observe WASP-63b to evaluate its suitability as the best target to test the capabilities of JWST. Ideally, a clear atmosphere will be best suited for bench marking the instruments ability to detect spectroscopic features. We can use the strength of the water absorption feature at 1.4 μm as a way to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes. The results of atmospheric retrieval are presented along with a discussion on the suitability of WASP-63b as the best target to be observed during the ERS Program.

  2. WAsP for offshore sites in confined coastal waters - the influence of the sea fetch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, B. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Hoejstrup, J. [NEG Micon, Randers (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The increasing interest in harvesting wind energy offshore requires reliable tools for the wind resource estimation at these sites. Most commonly used for wind resource predictions on land as well as offshore is the WAsP program. This program has been validated extensively for sites on land and at the coast. However, due to the lack of suitable measurements there is still a need for further validation for offshore sites. New data from ongoing measurements in the Danish Baltic Sea region are available now. The wind resources estimated from these measurements are compared to WAsP-predictions. They are found to agree well. The only deviation found is for two sites with comparable distance to the coast but with a different distribution of land. Here the measurements show slightly different wind resources which are not predicted by WAsP. Wind speed ratios of several pairs of stations are modelled with WAsP for 12 directional sectors and compared with the measurements. Deviations in the directional wind speed predictions were found to be dependent on the corresponding sea fetches: For smaller sea fetches WAsP seems to slightly overpredict the wind speed, while for long fetches of more than 30 km an underprediction is found. (au)

  3. Comparative AFLP reveals paternal sex ratio chromosome specific DNA sequences in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Pruijssers, A.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de H.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai with a haplo-diploid sex determination has a B chromosome called the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome that confers paternal genome loss during early embryogenesis, resulting in male offspring. So far, it is not well known whether the PSR chromosome has uniq

  4. WASP-3b: a strongly-irradiated transiting gas-giant planet

    CERN Document Server

    Pollacco, D; Cameron, A Collier; Loeillet, B; Stempels, H C; Bouchy, F; Gibson, N P; Hebb, L; Hébrard, G; Joshi, Y C; McDonald, I; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Street, R A; Udry, S; West, R G; Wilson, D M; Wheatley, P J; Aigrain, S; Benn, C R; Bruce, V A; Christian, D J; Clarkson, W I; Enoch, B; Evans, A; Fitzsimmons, A; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Hickey, S; Hodgkin, S T; Horne, K; Hrudkova, M; Irwin, J; Kane, S R; Keenan, F P; Lister, T A; Maxted, P; Mayor, M; Moutou, C; Norton, A J; Osborne, J P; Parley, N; Pont, F; Queloz, D; Ryans, R; Simpson, E

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-3b, the third transiting exoplanet to be discovered by the WASP and SOPHIE collaboration. WASP-3b transits its host star USNO-B1.0 1256-0285133 every 1.846834+-0.000002 days. Our high precision radial-velocity measurements present a variation with amplitude characteristic of a planetary-mass companion and in-phase with the light-curve. Adaptive optics imaging shows no evidence for nearby stellar companions, and line-bisector analysis excludes faint, unresolved binarity and stellar activity as the cause of the radial-velocity variations. We make a preliminary spectroscopic analysis of the host star finding it to have Teff = 6400+-100 K and log g = 4.25+-0.05 which suggests it is most likely an unevolved main sequence star of spectral type F7-8V. Our simultaneous modelling of the transit photometry and reflex motion of the host leads us to derive a mass of 1.76 +0.08 -0.14 M_J and radius 1.31 +0.07-0.14 R_J for WASP-3b. The proximity and relative temperature of the host star sugg...

  5. Antennal and cephalic organelles in the social wasp Paravespula germanica (Hymenoptera, Vespinae): form and possible function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon, Ifaat; Plotkin, Marian; Ermakov, Natalya Y; Barkay, Zahava; Ishay, Jacob S

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with hairs and organelles present on the head and antennae of the German wasp, Paravespula germanica, and their possible role in sensing the physical and chemical ambience, as well as in intercommunicating both while in flight outside or in the nest. Via scanning electron microscope photography, we detected on the frons plate of the wasp's head, hairs that were about 300 microm long and comprised the longest hairs on the body of the wasps. Additionally, the two antennae bore along their entire length photoreceptors, placoids, campaniforms, trichoids, and agmons. These organelles are located at high but variable density along the antennal segments. The paper provides the dimensions of each of the mentioned organelles, and discusses the possible functions of the organelles as well as of the hairs on the frons. Photographs taken via atomic force microscope reveal that the epicuticle of the antenna is of two typical shapes; one, bearing both longitudinal stripes as well as transverse bands that are about 1 mum in width, and a second granulated form. Conceivably, the wasp uses the various organelles mentioned to communicate with its mates that are some distance away, somewhat like the use of radar by humans.

  6. The influence of past experience on wasp choice related to foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina, Moreyra; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    Memory has been little studied in social wasps. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) frequently revisits nondepleted food sources, making several trips between the resource and the nest. In this study, we analyzed this relocating behavior in order to evaluate whether this species is capable of remembering an established association after 1 h. To this end, we trained wasps to feed from a certain array. Then it was removed, setting it up again 1 h later, but this time 2 baited feeders were put in place, one at the original feeding site and the other opposite the first. We recorded the proportion of returning foragers, and their choice of feeder, after either 1 or 4 feeding trials. After 1 h, 78% of wasps trained with 4 feeding trials and 65% trained with 1, returned to the experimental area. Furthermore, during the testing phase, wasps trained with 4 feeding trials collected food from the previously learned feeder significantly more frequently than from the nonlearned one (P food on 4 consecutive occasions, but not after only 1. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that V. germanica is capable of remembering an association 1 h after the last associative event, demonstrating that 1 h does not impair memory retention if 4 feeding experiences have occurred. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. HST hot-Jupiter transmission spectral survey: Clear skies for cool Saturn WASP-39b

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Patrick D; Sing, David K; Henry, Gregory W; Williamson, Michael W; Fortney, Jonathan J; Burrows, Adam S; Kataria, Tiffany; Nikolov, Nikolay; Showman, Adam P; Ballester, Gilda E; Désert, Jean-Michel; Aigrain, Suzanne; Deming, Drake; Etangs, Alain Lecavelier des; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    We present HST STIS optical transmission spectroscopy of the cool (approximately 1116 K) Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b from 0.29-1.025 micron, along with complementary transit observations from Spitzer IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 micron. The low density and large atmospheric pressure scale height of WASP-39b make it particularly amenable to atmospheric characterization using this technique. We detect a Rayleigh scattering slope as well as sodium and potassium absorption features; this is the first exoplanet in which both alkali features are clearly detected with the extended wings predicted by cloud-free atmosphere models. The full transmission spectrum is well matched by a clear, H2- dominated atmosphere or one containing a weak contribution from haze, in good agreement with the preliminary reduction of these data presented in Sing et al. (2016). WASP-39b is predicted to have a pressure-temperature profile comparable to that of HD 189733b and WASP-6b, making it one of the coolest transiting gas giants observed in o...

  8. WASP-80b has a dayside within the T-dwarf range

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Ehrenreich, David; Herrero, Enrique; Lendl, Monika; Anderson, David R; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Delrez, Laetitia; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Hellier, Coel; Heng, Keving; Jehin, Emmanuel; Maxted, Pierre F L; Pollacco, Don; Queloz, Didier; Ribas, Ignasi; Smalley, Barry; Smith, Alexis M S; Udry, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    WASP-80b is a missing link in the study of exo-atmospheres. It falls between the warm Neptunes and the hot Jupiters and is amenable for characterisation, thanks to its host star's properties. We observed the planet through transit and during occultation with Warm Spitzer. Combining our mid-infrared transits with optical time series, we find that the planet presents a transmission spectrum indistinguishable from a horizontal line. In emission, WASP-80b is the intrinsically faintest planet whose dayside flux has been detected in both the 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m Spitzer channels. The depths of the occultations reveal that WASP-80b is as bright and as red as a T4 dwarf, but that its temperature is cooler. If planets go through the equivalent of an L-T transition, our results would imply this happens at cooler temperatures than for brown dwarfs. Placing WASP-80b's dayside into a colour-magnitude diagram, it falls exactly at the junction between a blackbody model and the T-dwarf sequence; we cannot discern which of thos...

  9. Fig wasps from Ficus dzumacensis, with notes on the genus Sycobiella Westwood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1964-01-01

    A sample of fig wasps from New Caledonia, sent to me by Mr. E. J. H. Corner, contained a species of Blastophaga Gravenhorst (Agaonidae) and a species of Sycobiella Westwood (Torymidae). The insects were reared from the receptacles of Ficus dzumacensis Guillaum. The Blastophaga is of interest because

  10. Relationship between Representatives of American Dream and Non-WASPs of America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆妍

    2013-01-01

    American dream represents a wonderful wish of pursuit of better life, it attracts not only American, but also people all over the world to realize their dreams through hard-working. Focusing on people who have become representatives of American dream, we will find that most of them are Non-WASPS.

  11. Brighter-colored paper wasps (Polistes dominula have larger poison glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal-Cordero J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Aposematism is a defense system against predators consisting of the toxicity warning using conspicuous coloration. If the toxin production and aposematic coloration is costly, only individuals in good physical condition could simultaneously produce abundant poison and striking coloration. In such cases, the aposematic coloration not only indicates that the animal is toxic, but also the toxicity level of individuals. The costs associated with the production of aposematic coloration would ensure that individuals honestly indicate their toxicity levels. In the present study, we examine the hypothesis that a positive correlation exists between the brightness of warning coloration and toxicity level using as a model the paper wasp (Polistes dominula. Results We collected wasps from 30 different nests and photographed them to measure the brightness of warning coloration in the abdomen. We also measured the volume of the poison gland, as well as the length, and the width of the abdomen. The results show a positive relationship between brightness and poison-gland size, which remained positive even after controlling for the body size and abdomen width. Conclusion The results suggest that the coloration pattern of these wasps is a true sign of toxicity level: wasps with brighter colors are more poisonous (they have larger poison glands.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-117b photometry and radial velocities (Lendl+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.; Van Grootel, V.; West, R.

    2014-08-01

    We present photometric time-series obtained with EulerCam and TRAPPIST during one and four transits of WASP-117, respectively. We also present radial velocity data from CORALIE and HARPS used to characterize the planetary orbit. (4 data files).

  13. Subordinate wasps are more aggressive in colonies with low reproductive skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, D.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Turillazzi, S.

    2008-01-01

    The small societies of primitively eusocial wasps have provided interesting testing grounds for reproductive skew theory because all individuals have similar reproductive potential, which is unusual in social insects but common in vertebrate societies. Aggression is a key parameter in testing the...

  14. Wolbachia in guilds of Anastrepha fruit flies (Tephritidae) and parasitoid wasps (Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Rodrigo O; Prezotto, Leandro F; Perondini, André Luiz P; Marino, Celso Luiz; Selivon, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The endosymbiont Wolbachia is efficiently transmitted from females to their progenies, but horizontal transmission between different taxa is also known to occur. Aiming to determine if horizontal transmission might have occurred between Anastrepha fruit flies and associated braconid wasps, infection by Wolbachia was screened by amplification of a fragment of the wsp gene. Eight species of the genus Anastrepha were analyzed, from which six species of associated parasitoid wasps were recovered. The endosymbiont was found in seven Anastrepha species and in five species of braconids. The WSP Typing methodology detected eight wsp alleles belonging to Wolbachia supergroup A. Three were already known and five were new ones, among which four were found to be putative recombinant haplotypes. Two samples of Anastrepha obliqua and one sample of Doryctobracon brasiliensis showed multiple infection. Single infection by Wolbachia was found in the majority of samples. The distribution of Wolbachia harboring distinct alleles differed significantly between fruit flies and wasps. However, in nine samples of fruit flies and associated wasps, Wolbachia harbored the same wsp allele. These congruences suggest that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia might have occurred in the communities of fruit flies and their braconid parasitoids. PMID:27648768

  15. Orbital alignment and star-spot properties in the WASP-52 planetary system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Raia, G.

    2017-01-01

    were detected in four transits over a period of 43 days. In the hypothesis that we are dealing with the same starspot, periodically occulted by the transiting planet, we estimated the projected orbital obliquity of WASP-52b to be lambda = 3.8 \\pm 8.4 degree. We also determined the true orbital...

  16. Chemical espionage on species-specific butterfly anti-aphrodisiacs by hitchhiking Trichogramma wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Woelke, J.B.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Smid, H.M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic wasps employ a wide range of chemical cues to find their hosts. Very recently, we discovered how 2 closely related egg parasitoids, Trichogramma brassicae and Trichogramma evanescens, exploit the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide of one of their hosts, the gregarious large cabbage

  17. Strong dispersal in a parasitoid wasp overwhelms habitat fragmentation and host population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchoux, C; Seppä, P; van Nouhuys, S

    2016-07-01

    The population dynamics of a parasite depend on species traits, host dynamics and the environment. Those dynamics are reflected in the genetic structure of the population. Habitat fragmentation has a greater impact on parasites than on their hosts because resource distribution is increasingly fragmented for species at higher trophic levels. This could lead to either more or less genetic structure than the host, depending on the relative dispersal rates of species. We examined the spatial genetic structure of the parasitoid wasp Hyposoter horticola, and how it was influenced by dispersal, host population dynamics and habitat fragmentation. The host, the Glanville fritillary butterfly, lives as a metapopulation in a fragmented landscape in the Åland Islands, Finland. We collected wasps throughout the 50 by 70 km archipelago and determined the genetic diversity, spatial population structure and genetic differentiation using 14 neutral DNA microsatellite loci. We compared the genetic structure of the wasp with that of the host butterfly using published genetic data collected over the shared landscape. Using maternity assignment, we also identified full-siblings among the sampled parasitoids to estimate the dispersal range of individual females. We found that because the parasitoid is dispersive, it has low genetic structure, is not very sensitive to habitat fragmentation and has less spatial genetic structure than its butterfly host. The wasp is sensitive to regional rather than local host dynamics, and there is a geographic mosaic landscape for antagonistic co-evolution of host resistance and parasite virulence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Wolbachia in guilds of Anastrepha fruit flies (Tephritidae and parasitoid wasps (Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo O Mascarenhas

    Full Text Available Abstract The endosymbiont Wolbachia is efficiently transmitted from females to their progenies, but horizontal transmission between different taxa is also known to occur. Aiming to determine if horizontal transmission might have occurred between Anastrepha fruit flies and associated braconid wasps, infection by Wolbachia was screened by amplification of a fragment of the wsp gene. Eight species of the genus Anastrepha were analyzed, from which six species of associated parasitoid wasps were recovered. The endosymbiont was found in seven Anastrepha species and in five species of braconids. The WSP Typing methodology detected eight wsp alleles belonging to Wolbachia supergroup A. Three were already known and five were new ones, among which four were found to be putative recombinant haplotypes. Two samples of Anastrepha obliqua and one sample of Doryctobracon brasiliensis showed multiple infection. Single infection by Wolbachia was found in the majority of samples. The distribution of Wolbachia harboring distinct alleles differed significantly between fruit flies and wasps. However, in nine samples of fruit flies and associated wasps, Wolbachia harbored the same wsp allele. These congruences suggest that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia might have occurred in the communities of fruit flies and their braconid parasitoids.

  19. Falling Victim to Wasps in the Air: A Fate Driven by Prey Flight Morphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Yolanda; Polidori, Carlo; Tormos, José; Baños-Picón, Laura; Asís, Josep D

    2016-01-01

    In prey-predator systems where the interacting individuals are both fliers, the flight performance of both participants heavily influences the probability of success of the predator (the prey is captured) and of the prey (the predator is avoided). While the flight morphology (an estimate of flight performance) of predatory wasps has rarely been addressed as a factor that may contribute to explain prey use, how the flight morphology of potential prey influences the output of predator-prey encounters has not been studied. Here, we hypothesized that flight morphology associated with flight ability (flight muscle mass to body mass ratio (FMR) and body mass to wing area ratio (wing loading, WL)) of Diptera affect their probability of being captured by specialized Diptera-hunting wasps (Bembix merceti and B. zonata), predicting a better manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity achieved by higher FMR and lower WL, and flight speed achieved by higher WL. In addition, wasp species with better flight morphology should be less limited by an advantageous Diptera flight morphology. Overall, the abundance of dipterans in the environment explained an important part of the observed variance in prey capture rate. However, it was not the only factor shaping prey capture. First, higher prey abundance was associated with greater capture rate for one species (B. merceti), although not for the other one. Second, the interaction observed between the environmental dipteran availability and dipteran WL for B. zonata suggests that greater dipteran WL (this probably meaning high cruising speed) decreased the probability of being captured, as long as fly abundance was high in the environment. Third, greater dipteran FMR (which likely means high manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity) helped to reduce predation by B. merceti if, again, dipterans were abundant in the environment. Wasp WL only varied with body mass but not between species, thereby hardly accounting for inter

  20. Competitive exclusion among fig wasps achieved via entrainment of host plant flowering phenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques are revealing increasing numbers of morphologically similar but co-existing cryptic species, challenging the niche theory. To understand the co-existence mechanism, we studied phenologies of morphologically similar species of fig wasps that pollinate the creeping fig (F. pumila in eastern China. We compared phenologies of fig wasp emergence and host flowering at sites where one or both pollinators were present. At the site where both pollinators were present, we used sticky traps to capture the emerged fig wasps and identified species identity using mitochondrial DNA COI gene. We also genotyped F. pumila individuals of the three sites using polymorphic microsatellites to detect whether the host populations were differentiated. Male F. pumila produced two major crops annually, with figs receptive in spring and summer. A small partial third crop of receptive figs occurred in the autumn, but few of the second crop figs matured at that time. Hence, few pollinators were available to enter third crop figs and they mostly aborted, resulting in two generations of pollinating wasps each year, plus a partial third generation. Receptive figs were produced on male plants in spring and summer, timed to coincide with the release of short-lived adult pollinators from the same individual plants. Most plants were pollinated by a single species. Plants pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 1 released wasps earlier than those pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 3, with little overlap. Plants occupied by different pollinators were not spatially separated, nor genetically distinct. Our findings show that these differences created mismatches with the flight periods of the other Wiebesia species, largely 'reserving' individual plants for the resident pollinator species. This pre-emptive competitive displacement may prevent long term co-existence of the two pollinators.

  1. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  2. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  3. Fitness reduction for uncooperative fig wasps through reduced offspring size: a third component of host sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandér, K C; Dafoe, A; Herre, E A

    2016-09-01

    Mutually beneficial interactions between two species-mutualisms-are ancient, diverse, and of fundamental ecological importance. Nonetheless, factors that prevent one partner from reaping the benefits of the interaction without paying the cost are still poorly understood. Fig trees and their unique pollinators, fig wasps, present a powerful model system for studying mutualism stability. Both partners depend completely on each other for reproduction, cooperation levels can be manipulated, and the resulting field-based fitness quantified. Previous work has shown that fig trees can impose two types of host sanctions that reduce the fitness of wasps that do not pollinate: (1) fig abortion, which kills all developing larvae, and (2) reduced number of wasp offspring in figs that are not aborted. Here we demonstrate a third component of host sanctions. Through manipulative field experiments, we show that for four of five studied species, offspring of pollen-free foundresses are only 50-90% the size of offspring of pollinating foundresses. We further show that in all four studied species, smaller wasps are less likely to reach and enter a flowering fig to become foundresses themselves. Therefore, the experimentally determined size reduction of offspring is estimated to cause an additional reduction of up to 80% in fitness for a pollen-free foundress. We determine that the size reduction of pollen-free offspring acts on the level of the entire fig fruit rather than on individual flowers. These results show that estimates of the fitness effect of host sanctions on uncooperative symbionts should consider not only offspring quantity but also offspring quality. We discuss implications beyond the fig tree-fig wasp mutualism.

  4. Decrease of memory retention in a parasitic wasp: an effect of host manipulation by Wolbachia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishani Farahani, Hossein; Ashouri, Ahmad; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Shapiro, Martin S; Pierre, Jean-Sebastien; van Baaren, Joan

    2017-08-01

    Several factors, such as cold exposure, aging, the number of experiences and viral infection, have been shown to affect learning ability in different organisms. Wolbachia has been found worldwide as an arthropod parasite/mutualist symbiont in a wide range of species, including insects. Differing effects have been identified on physiology and behavior by Wolbachia. However, the effect of Wolbachia infection on the learning ability of their host had never previously been studied. The current study carried out to compare learning ability and memory duration in 2 strains of the parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae: 1 uninfected and 1 infected by Wolbachia. Both strains were able to associate the novel odors with the reward of an oviposition into a host egg. However, the percentage of females that responded to the experimental design and displayed an ability to learn in these conditions was higher in the uninfected strain. Memory duration was longer in uninfected wasps (23.8 and 21.4 h after conditioning with peppermint and lemon, respectively) than in infected wasps (18.9 and 16.2 h after conditioning with peppermint and lemon, respectively). Memory retention increased in response to the number of conditioning sessions in both strains, but memory retention was always shorter in the infected wasps than in the uninfected ones. Wolbachia infection may select for reduced memory retention because shorter memory induces infected wasps to disperse in new environments and avoid competition with uninfected wasps by forgetting cues related to previously visited environments, thus increasing transmission of Wolbachia in new environments. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Host niches and defensive extended phenotypes structure parasitoid wasp communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bailey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oak galls are spectacular extended phenotypes of gallwasp genes in host oak tissues and have evolved complex morphologies that serve, in part, to exclude parasitoid natural enemies.Parasitoids and their insect herbivore hosts have coevolved to produce diverse communities comprising about a third of all animal species. The factors structuring these communities, however, remain poorly understood. An emerging theme in community ecology is the need to consider the effects of host traits, shaped by both natural selection and phylogenetic history, on associated communities of natural enemies. Here we examine the impact of host traits and phylogenetic relatedness on 48 ecologically closed and species-rich communities of parasitoids attacking gall-inducing wasps on oaks. Gallwasps induce the development of spectacular and structurally complex galls whose species- and generation-specific morphologies are the extended phenotypes of gallwasp genes. All the associated natural enemies attack their concealed hosts through gall tissues, and several structural gall traits have been shown to enhance defence against parasitoid attack. Here we explore the significance of these and other host traits in predicting variation in parasitoid community structure across gallwasp species. In particular, we test the "Enemy Hypothesis," which predicts that galls with similar morphology will exclude similar sets of parasitoids and therefore have similar parasitoid communities. Having controlled for phylogenetic patterning in host traits and communities, we found significant correlations between parasitoid community structure and several gall structural traits (toughness, hairiness, stickiness, supporting the Enemy Hypothesis. Parasitoid community structure was also consistently predicted by components of the hosts' spatiotemporal niche, particularly host oak taxonomy and gall location (e.g., leaf versus bud versus seed. The combined explanatory power of structural and

  6. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Dr, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Machalek, Pavel [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Croll, Bryce [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844 (United States); Deming, Drake [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Greene, Tom [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hora, Joseph L., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R{sub p} /R{sub *}){sup 2} = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 {mu}m, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F{sub day}/F{sub *} = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 {mu}m, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 {mu}m, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 {mu}m ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 {mu}m transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 {mu}m depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 {mu}m eclipse depth

  7. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R(sub p)/R(sub *))(sup 2) = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 micrometers, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F(sub day)/F(sub *) = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 micrometers, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 micrometers, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 micrometer ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 micrometer transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 micrometer depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much

  8. Absolute parameters for AI Phoenicis using WASP photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby-Kent, J. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Serenelli, A. M.; Turner, O. D.; Evans, D. F.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    Context. AI Phe is a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary, in which a K-type sub-giant star totally eclipses its main-sequence companion every 24.6 days. This configuration makes AI Phe ideal for testing stellar evolutionary models. Difficulties in obtaining a complete lightcurve mean the precision of existing radii measurements could be improved. Aims: Our aim is to improve the precision of the radius measurements for the stars in AI Phe using high-precision photometry from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP), and use these improved radius measurements together with estimates of the masses, temperatures and composition of the stars to place constraints on the mixing length, helium abundance and age of the system. Methods: A best-fit ebop model is used to obtain lightcurve parameters, with their standard errors calculated using a prayer-bead algorithm. These were combined with previously published spectroscopic orbit results, to obtain masses and radii. A Bayesian method is used to estimate the age of the system for model grids with different mixing lengths and helium abundances. Results: The radii are found to be R1 = 1.835 ± 0.014 R⊙, R2 = 2.912 ± 0.014 R⊙ and the masses M1 = 1.1973 ± 0.0037 M⊙, M2 = 1.2473 ± 0.0039 M⊙. From the best-fit stellar models we infer a mixing length of 1.78, a helium abundance of YAI = 0.26 +0.02-0.01 and an age of 4.39 ± 0.32 Gyr. Times of primary minimum show the period of AI Phe is not constant. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine the cause of this variation. Conclusions: Improved precision in the masses and radii have improved the age estimate, and allowed the mixing length and helium abundance to be constrained. The eccentricity is now the largest source of uncertainty in calculating the masses. Further work is needed to characterise the orbit of AI Phe. Obtaining more binaries with parameters measured to a similar level of precision would allow us to test for relationships between helium

  9. Discovery of defense- and neuropeptides in social ants by genome-mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Christian W; Muttenthaler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Natural peptides of great number and diversity occur in all organisms, but analyzing their peptidome is often difficult. With natural product drug discovery in mind, we devised a genome-mining approach to identify defense- and neuropeptides in the genomes of social ants from Atta cephalotes (leaf-cutter ant), Camponotus floridanus (carpenter ant) and Harpegnathos saltator (basal genus). Numerous peptide-encoding genes of defense peptides, in particular defensins, and neuropeptides or regulatory peptide hormones, such as allatostatins and tachykinins, were identified and analyzed. Most interestingly we annotated genes that encode oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (inotocins) and their putative receptors. This is the first piece of evidence for the existence of this nonapeptide hormone system in ants (Formicidae) and supports recent findings in Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) and Nasonia vitripennis (parasitoid wasp), and therefore its confinement to some basal holometabolous insects. By contrast, the absence of the inotocin hormone system in Apis mellifera (honeybee), another closely-related member of the eusocial Hymenoptera clade, establishes the basis for future studies on the molecular evolution and physiological function of oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (vasotocin nonapeptide family) and their receptors in social insects. Particularly the identification of ant inotocin and defensin peptide sequences will provide a basis for future pharmacological characterization in the quest for potent and selective lead compounds of therapeutic value.

  10. Discovery of defense- and neuropeptides in social ants by genome-mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W Gruber

    Full Text Available Natural peptides of great number and diversity occur in all organisms, but analyzing their peptidome is often difficult. With natural product drug discovery in mind, we devised a genome-mining approach to identify defense- and neuropeptides in the genomes of social ants from Atta cephalotes (leaf-cutter ant, Camponotus floridanus (carpenter ant and Harpegnathos saltator (basal genus. Numerous peptide-encoding genes of defense peptides, in particular defensins, and neuropeptides or regulatory peptide hormones, such as allatostatins and tachykinins, were identified and analyzed. Most interestingly we annotated genes that encode oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (inotocins and their putative receptors. This is the first piece of evidence for the existence of this nonapeptide hormone system in ants (Formicidae and supports recent findings in Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle and Nasonia vitripennis (parasitoid wasp, and therefore its confinement to some basal holometabolous insects. By contrast, the absence of the inotocin hormone system in Apis mellifera (honeybee, another closely-related member of the eusocial Hymenoptera clade, establishes the basis for future studies on the molecular evolution and physiological function of oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (vasotocin nonapeptide family and their receptors in social insects. Particularly the identification of ant inotocin and defensin peptide sequences will provide a basis for future pharmacological characterization in the quest for potent and selective lead compounds of therapeutic value.

  11. New records of potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Arunachal Pradesh, India: five genera and ten species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srinivasan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Six genera and eleven wasp species belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are reported from the state of Arunachal Pradesh, of which five genera and 10 species are new records for the state.

  12. Development and characterisation of microsatellite markers for Liporrhopalum tentacularis Grandi, the pollinator fig wasp of Ficus montana Blume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavodna, M.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.; Van Dijk, P.J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Microsatellite markers for the pollinator fig wasp Liporrhopalum tentacularis were developed using genomic libraries enriched for di-, tri- and tetranucleotide repeats. A subset of 31 positive clones was sequenced and primers were designed. Eleven primer pairs produced polymorphic amplification prod

  13. Association of a new Wolbachia strain with, and its effects on, Leptopilina victoriae, a virulent wasp parasitic to Drosophila spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Gwenaelle; Onemola, Bodunde; Govind, Shubha

    2012-08-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are ubiquitous intracellular bacteria of arthropods. Often considered reproductive parasites, they can benefit certain host species. We describe a new Wolbachia strain from Leptopilina victoriae, a Drosophila wasp. The strain is closely related to Wolbachia from Culex sp. Located to the posterior poles of oocytes, it manipulates its host's reproduction by inducing a male development type of cytoplasmic incompatibility. We also report its diverse effects on the wasp's life history traits.

  14. Host pollination mode and mutualist pollinator presence: net effect of internally ovipositing parasite in the fig-wasp mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengping; Peng, Yanqiong; Compton, Stephen G.; Zhao, Yi; Yang, Darong

    2009-04-01

    The Ficus-their specific pollinating fig wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) interaction presents a striking example of mutualism. Figs also shelter numerous non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) that exploit the fig-pollinator mutualism. Only a few NPFW species can enter figs to oviposit, they do not belong to the pollinating lineage Agaonidae. The internally ovipositing non-agaonid fig wasps can efficiently pollinate the Ficus species that were passively pollinated. However, there is no study to focus on the net effect of these internally ovipositing non-agaonid wasps in actively pollinated Ficus species. By collecting the data of fig wasp community and conducting controlled experiments, our results showed that internally ovipositing Diaziella bizarrea cannot effectively pollinate Ficus glaberrima, an actively pollinated monoecious fig tree. Furthermore, D. bizarrea failed to reproduce if they were introduced into figs without Eupristina sp., the regular pollinator, as all the figs aborted. Furthermore, although D. bizarrea had no effect on seed production in shared figs, it significantly reduced the number of Eupristina sp. progeny emerging from them. Thus, our experimental evidence shows that reproduction in Diaziella depends on the presence of agaonid pollinators, and whether internally ovipositing parasites can act as pollinators depends on the host fig’s pollination mode (active or passive). Overall, this study and others suggest a relatively limited mutualistic role for internally ovipositing fig wasps from non-pollinator (non-Agaonidae) lineages.

  15. Thermoregulation of individual paper wasps ( Polistes dominula) plays an important role in nest defence and dominance battles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höcherl, Nicole; Tautz, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Paper wasps, like Polistes dominula, are considered as primitively eusocial. Hence, they are often used as model species for studies about the evolution of eusociality and dominance hierarchies. However, our knowledge about basic physiological processes in these wasps remains limited. In particular, the thermoregulation of individual wasps in their natural habitat has not yet been investigated in detail. We conducted a comprehensive field study to test their ability to respond to external hazards with elevated thorax temperatures. We presented artificial threats by applying smoke or carbon dioxide simulating fire and predator attacks, respectively, and monitored the thorax temperature of wasps on the nest using infrared thermography. We found that P. dominula workers recognized smoke and CO2 and reacted almost instantaneously and simultaneously with an increase of their thorax temperature. The maximal thorax temperature was reached about 65 s after the application of both stressors, but subsequently, the wasps showed a different behaviour pattern. No rise of the thorax temperature was detectable after an air blast was applied or in wasps resting on the nest. These observations provide evidence that P. dominula is able to heat up its thorax and that thermoregulation is employed in escape and defence reactions. Additionally, we investigated the thorax temperatures of queens during dominance battles. We found that the thorax temperature of the dominant queens rose up to 5 °C compared to that of subordinate queens that attacked the former, suggesting that the dominant queen defends herself as well as her nest.

  16. WASP-39b: a highly inflated Saturn-mass planet orbiting a late G-type star

    CERN Document Server

    Faedi, F; Anderson, D R; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Pollacco, D; Boisse, I; Hebrard, G; Lendl, M; Lister, T A; Smalley, B; Street, R A; Triaud, A H M J; Bento, J; Butters, O W; Enoch, B; Bouchy, F; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Keenan, F P; Miller, G R M; Moulds, V; Moutou, C; Norton, A J; Queloz, D; Santerne, A; Simpson, E K; Skillen, I; Smith, A M S; Udry, S; Watson, C A; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of WASP-39b, a highly inflated transiting Saturn-mass planet orbiting a late G-type dwarf star with a period of 4.055259$\\pm0.000008$~d, Transit Epoch T$_{0}=2455342.9688\\pm0.0002$(HJD), of duration 0.1168$\\pm0.0008$~d. A combined analysis of the WASP photometry, high-precision follow up transit photometry and radial velocities yield a planetary mass of $\\mpl=0.28\\pm0.03$~\\mj\\ and a radius of $\\rpl=1.27\\pm0.04$~\\rj, resulting in a mean density of 0.14$\\pm0.02$~\\rhoj. The stellar parameters are mass $\\mstar = 0.93\\pm0.03\\msun$, radius $\\rstar = 0.895\\pm0.23\\rsun$, and age $9^{+3}_{-4}$~Gyr. Only WASP-17b and WASP-31b have lower densities than WASP-39b, although they are slightly more massive and highly irradiated planets. We measure, from our spectral analysis, the metallicity of WASP-39 to be [Fe/H]= $-0.12\\pm0.01$ dex, and we find the planet to have an equilibrium temperature of $1116^{+33}_{-32}$~K; both values strengthen the observed empirical correlation between these parameters a...

  17. Transit Timing Variation Measurements of WASP-12b and Qatar-1b: No Evidence Of Additional Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-02-01

    WASP-12b and Qatar-1b are transiting hot Jupiters for which previous works have suggested the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) indicative of additional bodies in these systems—an Earth-mass planet in WASP-12 and a brown-dwarf mass object in Qatar-1. Here, we present 23 new WASP-12b and 18 new Qatar-1b complete (or nearly complete) transit observations. We perform global system fits to all of our light curves for each system, as well as RV and stellar spectroscopic parameters from the literature. The global fits provide refined system parameters and uncertainties for each system, including precise transit center times for each transit. The transit model residuals of the combined and five minute binned light curves have an rms of 183 and 255 parts per million (ppm) for WASP-12b and Qatar-1b, respectively. Most of the WASP-12b system parameter values from this work are consistent with values from previous studies, but have ∼40%–50% smaller uncertainties. Most of the Qatar-1b system parameter values and uncertainties from this work are consistent with values recently reported in the literature. We find no convincing evidence for sinusoidal TTVs with a semi-amplitude of more than ∼35 and ∼25 s in the WASP-12b and Qatar-1b systems, respectively.

  18. Some pollinators are more equal than others: Factors influencing pollen loads and seed set capacity of two actively and passively pollinating fig wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellberg, Finn; Suleman, Nazia; Raja, Shazia; Tayou, Abelouahad; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    The nursery pollination system of fig trees (Ficus) results in the plants providing resources for pollinator fig wasp larvae as part of their male reproductive investment, with selection determining relative investment into pollinating wasps and the pollen they carry. The small size of Ficus pollen suggests that the quantities of pollen transported by individual wasps often limits male reproductive success. We assessed variation in fig wasp pollen loads and its influence on seed production in actively pollinated (Ficus montana) and passively pollinated (Ficus carica) dioecious fig trees.

  19. Towards the conservation of parasitoid wasp species in Canada: Preliminary assessment of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first to consider braconid parasitoid wasps in conservation efforts in Canada. Out of the 28 genera of the subfamily Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae present in the country, 13 genera were studied and 16 species were identified as potential candidates to be included in the Species Candidate Lists of COSEWIC (The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. For every selected species a brief summary of its broad geographical distribution is provided, with detailed and in many cases new information of its distribution and collecting dates in Canada, hosts (Lepidoptera if known, and color pictures of all wasp species. A preliminary assessment is made using Prioritization Criteria developed by COSEWIC, and some general recommendations are made based in those analyses.

  20. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of a parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nedoluzhko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of multicellular organisms coexist with bacterial symbionts that may play various roles during their life cycle. Parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae belongs to the smallest known insects whose size is comparable with some bacteria. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS, we described microbiota diversity for this arthropod and its potential impact on their lifecycle. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX2363723 and SRX2363724. We found that small body size and limited lifespan do not lead to a significant reduction of bacterial symbionts diversity. At the same time, we show here a specific feature of microbiota composition in M. amalphitanum – the absence of the Rickettsiaceae family representatives that are known to cause sex-ratio distortion in arthropods and well represented in other populations of parasitoid wasps.

  1. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon;

    2011-01-01

    Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social...... of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal...... and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding...

  2. Behavioral plasticity mediates asymmetric competition between invasive wasps and native ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangier, Julien; Lester, Philip J

    2012-03-01

    One of the most successful invasive species is the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. We recently reported how foragers of this species have adopted previously unknown interference behavior when competing for food with native ants. Picking their opponents up in their mandibles, flying backward and dropping them some distance away from the disputed resource, wasps were shown to efficiently deal with a yet aggressive competitor and to modulate this behavior according to circumstances. Here we further discuss the nature and functioning of this unusual strategy. We first highlight the questions this interaction raises regarding the competitive advantages offered by asymmetries in body size and flight ability. Then, we argue that this study system illustrates the important role of behavioral plasticity in biological invasions; not only in the success of invaders but also in the ability of native species to coexist with these invaders.

  3. Interactions between chestnut gall wasp and blight: a new criticality for chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast spread of Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus represents a new constraint factor for chestnut stands and orchards in Italy. So far, the favourable effect of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica-Castanea sativa patho-system allowed the development of chestnut cultivation. This situation could be modified by the progressive weakening of the trees caused by intensive attacks of the new parasite. During recent surveys worrying blight damage recurrences were observed in different Italian chestnut areas (in Piemonte, Trentino and Toscana regions which were highly infested by the Chinese wasp. While biological control treatments against the parasite are carried out, it is necessary to set up integrated protocols for the management of chestnut orchards to allow the survival of trees and their productivity.

  4. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  5. WASP-37b: a 1.7 MJ exoplanet transiting a metal-poor star

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, E K; Barros, S C C; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Hebb, L; Pollacco, D; Smalley, B; Todd, I; Butters, O W; Hebrard, G; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Santerne, A; Street, R A; Skillen, I; Triaud, A H M J; Anderson, D R; Bento, J; Boisse, I; Bouchy, F; Enoch, B; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Horne, K; Keenan, F P; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Moulds, V; Moutou, C; Norton, A J; Parley, N; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Stempels, H C; Udry, S; Watson, C A; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery of WASP-37b, a transiting hot Jupiter orbiting a mv = 12.7 G2-type dwarf, with a period of 3.577471 +/- 0.00001 d, transit epoch T0 = 2455338.6189 +/- 0.0006 (HJD), and a transit duration 0.1307 +/- 0.0019 d. The planetary companion has a mass Mp = 1.696(+0.123)(-0.128) MJ and radius Rp = 1.136(+0.060){-0.051} RJ, yielding a mean density of 1.169(+0.119)(-0.152) times that of Jupiter. From a spectral analysis and comparisons with stellar models, we find the host star has M* = 0.849(+0.067)(-0.040) Msun, R* = 0.977(+0.045)(-0.042) Rsun, Teff = 5800 +/- 150 K and [Fe/H] = -0.40 +/- 0.12. WASP-37 is therefore one of the lowest metallicity stars to host a transiting planet.

  6. Cellular immunity and pathogen strategies in combative interactions involving Drosophila hosts and their endoparasitic wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Nappi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Various cellular innate immune responses protect invertebrates from attack by eukaryotic pathogens. In insects, assessments of the factor(s causing, or contributing to, pathogen mortality have long considered as toxic components certain molecules associated with enzyme-mediated melanogenesis. In Drosophila hosts, observations that have prompted additional or alternative considerations are those that document either the survival of certain endoparasitic wasps despite melanotic encapsulation, or the destruction of the parasite with no evidence of this type of host response. Investigations of the production of some reactive intermediates of oxygen and nitrogen during infection provide a basis for proposing that these molecules constitute important elements of the immune arsenal of Drosophila. Studies of the target specificity of virulence factors injected by female wasps during infection that suppress the host immune response will likely facilitate identification of the toxic host molecules, and contribute to a more detailed understanding of the cell-signaling pathways that regulate their synthesis.

  7. Orbital period changes and the higher-order multiplicity fraction amongst SuperWASP eclipsing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Lohr, M E; Payne, S G; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2015-01-01

    Orbital period changes of binary stars may be caused by the presence of a third massive body in the system. Here we have searched the archive of the Wide Angle Search for Planets (SuperWASP) project for evidence of period variations in 13927 eclipsing binary candidates. Sinusoidal period changes, strongly suggestive of third bodies, were detected in 2% of cases; however, linear period changes were observed in a further 22% of systems. We argue on distributional grounds that the majority of these apparently linear changes are likely to reflect longer-term sinusoidal period variations caused by third bodies, and thus estimate a higher-order multiplicity fraction of 24% for SuperWASP binaries, in good agreement with other recent figures for the fraction of triple systems amongst binary stars in general.

  8. The shocking transit of WASP-12b: Modelling the observed early ingress in the near ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Llama, J; Jardine, M; Vidotto, A A; Helling, Ch; Fossati, L; Haswell, C A

    2011-01-01

    Near ultraviolet observations of WASP-12b have revealed an early ingress compared to the optical transit lightcurve. This has been interpreted as due to the presence of a magnetospheric bow shock which forms when the relative velocity of the planetary and stellar material is supersonic. We aim to reproduce this observed early ingress by modelling the stellar wind (or coronal plasma) in order to derive the speed and density of the material at the planetary orbital radius. From this we determine the orientation of the shock and the density of compressed plasma behind it. With this model for the density structure surrounding the planet we perform Monte Carlo radiation transfer simulations of the near UV transits of WASP-12b with and without a bow shock. We find that we can reproduce the transit lightcurves with a wide range of plasma temperatures, shock geometries and optical depths. Our results support the hypothesis that a bow shock could explain the observed early ingress.

  9. WASP-26b: A 1-Jupiter-mass planet around an early-G-type star

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, B; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Bentley, S J; Enoch, B; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D L; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Udry, S; Wheatley, P J; Wood, P L; Bento, J

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-26b, a moderately over-sized Jupiter-mass exoplanet transiting its 11.3-magnitude early-G-type host star (1SWASP J001824.70-151602.3; TYC 5839-876-1) every 2.7566 days. A simultaneous fit to transit photometry and radial-velocity measurements yields a planetary mass of 1.02 +/- 0.03 M_Jup and radius of 1.32 +/- 0.08 R_Jup. The host star, WASP-26, has a mass of 1.12 +/- 0.03 M_sun and a radius of 1.34 +/- 0.06 R_sun and is in a visual double with a fainter K-type star. The two stars are at least a common-proper motion pair with a common distance of around 250 +/- 15 pc and an age of 6 +/- 2 Gy.

  10. High frequency A-type pulsators discovered using SuperWASP

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, Daniel L; Gillon, M; Clubb, K I; Southworth, J; Maxted, P F L; Anderson, D R; Barros, S C C; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Faedi, F; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Horne, K; Jehin, E; Norton, A J; Pollacco, D; Skillen, I; Smith, A M S; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a survey using the WASP archive to search for high frequency pulsations in F-, A- and B-type stars. Over 1.5 million targets have been searched for pulsations with amplitudes greater than 0.5 millimagnitude. We identify over 350 stars which pulsate with periods less than 30 min. Spectroscopic follow-up of selected targets has enabled us to confirm 10 new rapidly oscillating Ap stars, 13 pulsating Am stars and the fastest known $\\delta$ Scuti star. We also observe stars which show pulsations in both the high-frequency domain and in the low-frequency $\\delta$ Scuti range. This work shows the power of the WASP photometric survey to find variable stars with amplitudes well below the nominal photometric precision per observation.

  11. Insurance-based advantages for subordinate co-foundresses in a temperate paper wasp.

    OpenAIRE

    Shreeves, Gavin; Cant, Michael A.; Bolton, Alan; Field, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Recent explanations for the evolution of eusociality, focusing more on costs and benefits than relatedness, are largely untested. We validate one such model by showing that helpers in foundress groups of the paper wasp Polistes dominulus benefit from an insurance-based mechanism known as Assured Fitness Returns (AFRs). Experimental helper removals left remaining group members with more offspring than they would normally rear. Reduced groups succeeded in preserving the dead helpers' investment...

  12. Pathophysiological effects caused by the venom of the social wasp Synoeca surinama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro e Silva, Juliana; Oliveira, Fagner Neves; Moreira, Karla Graziela; Mayer, Andreia Biolchi; Freire, Daniel Oliveira; Cherobim, Mariana Dornelas; Gomes de Oliveira Junior, Nelson; Schwartz, Carlos Alberto; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Mortari, Márcia Renata

    2016-04-01

    Envenomation by wasp stings is a public health preoccupation, and signals after stings have variable effects depending on the number of attacks and individual sensitivities. Even with the high rate of wasp sting cases, the study of phatophysiological effects of the envenomation is still very incipient. In this context, early and accurate assessment of this prognostic can aid in the reduction of the symptomatology and complete remission of the later symptoms. Then, the present study evaluated the toxicological effects caused by envenomation produced by Synoeca surinama, a wasp easily found in Neotropical regions. In vivo tests comprised the evaluation of LD50 (OECD 423), nociception, edema, myotoxic lesion and hemorrhage induction, in vitro tests were realized to evaluate hemolysis, contractile and coagulation alteration. The envenomation effects observed were dose- and time-dependent; the LD50 observed for S. surinama was 178 μg/kg, approximately 17 times more lethal than that of the honeybee. Moreover, a potent algesic and oedema effect, and weak hemorrhagic signal were observed after injection of the venom wasp. Assays in vitro showed that this venom is able to prolong the clotting time of plasma and to increase creatine kinase levels. Our results demonstrated that this venom induced serious local and systemic effects in mammals and, so, to avoid permanent damage to the patient, health professionals should carefully investigate each accident. Moreover, due to its high occurrence in Neotropical regions, ecological management, particularly in areas with free access of children and elderly, should be performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diapriinae Wasps (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea: Diapriidae Associated with Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Loiácono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of diapriid wasps associated with ants in Argentina and the diversity of interactions they have developed with their hosts. As a result, we report 16 species of nine genera of Diapriinae, two new geographic distributions, three new association records, illustrations, and photographs. We highlight myrmecophile symphylic species, with a high degree of integration with the host ants, adaptation being morphological and behavioral. A table with diapriid species and ant hosts is given.

  14. Foraging behaviour of the exotic wasp Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) on a native caterpillar defoliator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantuono, A L; Moreyra, S; Lozada, M

    2017-09-19

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp and an opportunistic predator. While foraging, these wasps learn and integrate different kinds of cues. They have successfully invaded many parts of the world, including native Nothofagus and Lophozonia forests located in the Andean-Patagonian region, where they forage on native arthropods. Perzelia arda, a lepidopteron defoliator of Lophozonia obliqua, uses the foliage to hide in and feed on. The purpose of this work is to study whether V. germanica use olfactory cues when foraging on P. arda. To do this, we used a Y-tube olfactometer and established three treatments to compare pairs of all combinations of stimuli (larvae, leaves with larval traces, and leaves without larval traces) and controls. Data were analysed via two developed models that showed decisions made by V. germanica and allowed to establish a scale of preferences between the stimuli. The analysis demonstrates that V. germanica wasps choose P. arda as larval prey and are capable of discriminating between the offered stimuli (deviance information criterion (DIC) null model = 873.97; DIC simple model = 84.5, n = 152). According to the preference scale, V. germanica preferred leaves with traces of larvae, suggesting its ability to associate these traces with the presence of the prey. This may be because, under natural conditions, larvae are never exposed outside their shelters of leaves and therefore V. germanica uses indirect signals. The presence of V. germanica foraging on P. arda highlights the flexible foraging behaviour of this wasp which may also act as a positive biological control, reducing lepidopteran populations.

  15. Practices to manage chestnut orchards infested by the Chinese gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in Italian chestnut growing areas is causing new criticisms. In this context, in addition to a clear plant suffering due to the wasp infestation, the dangerous recurrence of chestnut blight and the sudden spread of Gnomoniopsis sp., a coloniser of galls but also the etiological agent of nut brown rot, must be considered. Therefore, it is very important to increase the plants’ vigour and prevent their decline. Preliminary experiments were carried out in different Italian regions between 2010 and 2011. Organic plant fertilizers were applied to plants showing middle or high defoliation levels caused by the wasp attacks. The observations carried out during the growing season indicate a good vegetative restart in the treated plants compared to the untreated controls, in all the situations and independently of the fertilizers applied. Most of the treated plants (between the 75% and the 100% showed an evident improvement in the canopy vegetation, while the untreated controls were always classified in the worse classes of crown condition. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of this kind of treatments for infested chestnut stands. This strategy, which is based on the preliminary evaluation of the plant vigour (following the proposed scale of attack severity and lack of foliage, consists in a manuring treatment at vegetative restart, which can be repeated in the following years in dependence on the results obtained. Moreover, pruning may be suggested only to manage the development of plants showing a definite recovery. The gall wasp pullulation requires new management strategies aimed at preserving the chestnut orchards, in order to avoid the chestnut cultivation to be marginalized or abandoned.

  16. Invasive Vespula Wasps Utilize Kairomones to Exploit Honeydew Produced by Sooty Scale Insects, Ultracoelostoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert L; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Unelius, C Rikard; Beggs, Jacqueline R; Suckling, David M

    2015-11-01

    Vespula wasps are widely distributed invasive alien species that are able to reach high population densities in the 1.2 M ha of beech forests (Fuscospora spp.) of New Zealand's South Island. These endemic temperate forests have an abundance of carbohydrate-rich honeydew produced by native scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp.). A characteristic aroma is associated with the honeydew in beech forests, which we hypothesized is the signal used by wasps to harvest the vast resources previously exploited by birds and other insects. Volatile collections were taken of black beech tree trunks with honeydew and sooty mold present, and analyzed with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Eleven compounds (benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, methyl 2-phenylacetate, ethyl 2-phenylacetate, methyl salicylate, n-octanol, octan-3-ol, and 1-octen-3-ol) were positively identified from the headspace, and were shown to elicit an electrophysiological response from Vespula vulgaris worker antennae by using electroantennography (EAG). Field trials with delta traps individually baited with these compounds confirmed wasp attraction to 8 of the 11 compounds tested, with 2-phenylethyl acetate, methyl salicylate, and octan-3-ol capturing the same numbers of wasps as the control. In later trials, attraction to a 1:1 blend of benzaldehyde and n-octanol was significantly higher (45%) than to any other treatment. Many of the chemicals identified are known to be associated with fermenting sugars, or with fungal aroma. Benzaldehyde and n-octanol are common compounds produced by many different species in nature. The ability to respond to generic signals emanating from sugar resources is likely to contribute to the success of V. vulgaris as an invasive species.

  17. Nature's Swiss Army knives: ovipositor structure mirrors ecology in a multitrophic fig wasp community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Ghara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resource partitioning is facilitated by adaptations along niche dimensions that range from morphology to behaviour. The exploitation of hidden resources may require specially adapted morphological or sensory tools for resource location and utilisation. Differences in tool diversity and complexity can determine not only how many species can utilize these hidden resources but also how they do so. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sclerotisation, gross morphology and ultrastructure of the ovipositors of a seven-member community of parasitic wasps comprising of gallers and parasitoids developing within the globular syconia (closed inflorescences of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae was investigated. These wasps also differ in their parasitism mode (external versus internal oviposition and their timing of oviposition into the expanding syconium during its development. The number and diversity of sensilla, as well as ovipositor teeth, increased from internally ovipositing to externally ovipositing species and from gallers to parasitoids. The extent of sclerotisation of the ovipositor tip matched the force required to penetrate the syconium at the time of oviposition of each species. The internally ovipositing pollinator had only one type of sensillum and a single notch on the ovipositor tip. Externally ovipositing species had multiple sensilla types and teeth on their ovipositors. Chemosensilla were most concentrated at ovipositor tips while mechanoreceptors were more widely distributed, facilitating the precise location of hidden hosts in these wasps which lack larval host-seeking behaviour. Ovipositor traits of one parasitoid differed from those of its syntopic galler congeners and clustered with those of parasitoids within a different wasp subfamily. Thus ovipositor tools can show lability based on adaptive necessity, and are not constrained by phylogeny. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ovipositor structure mirrored the increasingly complex

  18. Functional morphology and wasp pollination of two South American asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, A P; Sérsic, A N; Marino, S; Simões, A O; Cocucci, A A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with respect to morphology and anatomy of flower structures, dynamic aspects of the pollination mechanism, diversity of visitors and effectiveness of pollinators. Floral structure was studied with fresh and fixed flowers following classical techniques. The pollination mechanism was studied by visiting fresh flowers in the laboratory with artificial pollinator body parts created with an eyelash. Morphometric and nectar measurements were also taken. Pollen transfer efficiency in the flowers was calculated by recording the frequency of removed and inserted pollinia. Visitor activity was recorded in the field, and floral visitors were captured for subsequent analysis of pollen loads. Finally, pollinator effectiveness was calculated with an index. The detailed structure of the flowers revealed a complex system of guide rails and chambers precisely arranged in order to achieve effective pollinaria transport. Morrenia odorata is functionally specialized for wasp pollination, and M. brachystephana for wasp and bee pollination. Pollinators transport chains of pollinaria adhered to their mouthparts. Morrenia odorata and M. brachystephana present differences in the morphology and size of their corona, gynostegium and pollinaria, which explain the differences in details of the functioning of the general pollination mechanism. Pollination is performed by different groups of highly effective pollinators. Morrenia species are specialized for pollination mainly by several species of wasps, a specialized pollination which has been poorly studied. In particular, pompilid wasps are reported as important pollinators in other regions outside South

  19. Use of molecular identification techniques for the study of parasitoids of the chestnut gall wasp

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) is considered as a major pest of Castanea species worldwide. A three-year monitoring of the indigenous parasitoids of this pest was performed by collecting specimens inside the galls. Each specimen was processed by molecular analysis. DNA was analysed by amplification and sequencing of the COI gene, coding for cytochrome c oxydase subunit 1. Each sequence was compared with reference sequences from adults sampled i...

  20. Sustainable control of taro beetles via scoliid wasps\\ud and Metarhizium anisopliae

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Taro Scarab beetles (Papuana uninodis, Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) inflict severe damage on important root crops and plants such as Taro or Cocoyam, yam, sweet potatoes, oil palm and coffee tea plants across Africa and Asia resulting in economic hardship and starvation in some nations. Scoliid wasps and Metarhizium anisopliae fungus - bio-control agents; are shown to be able to control the population of Scarab beetle adults and larvae using a newly created simulation model based on non-linear o...

  1. Structure elucidation of female-specific volatiles released by the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Tröger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce the putative polydeoxypropionates (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-diene and (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-dien-1-ol or their enantiomers as sex specific volatiles. The structures were assigned on the basis of GC–MS investigations using synthetic reference compounds.

  2. Nanomorphology of the blue iridescent wings of a giant tropical wasp, ''Megascolia procer javanensis'' (Hymenoptera)

    CERN Document Server

    Sarrazin, Michael; Welch, Victoria; Rassart, Marie

    2007-01-01

    The wings of the giant wasp ''Megascolia Procer Javanensis'' are opaque and iridescent. The origin of the blue-green iridescence is studied in detail, using reflection spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and physical modelling. It is shown that the structure responsible for the iridescence is a single homogeneous transparent wax layer covering the whole surface of each wing. The opacity is essentially due to the presence of melanin in the stratified medium which forms the mechanical core of the wing.

  3. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to avocado (Persea americana pollination in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Perez-Balam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although avocado is native to Mexico, there are no comparative measures in this country on the performance of its flower visitors as pollinators. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to the pollination of avocado from tropical Mexico was assessed by comparing abundance, speed of flower visitation, quantity of pollen carried per individual and pollen deposited on virgin flowers after single visits. The values of abundance and frequency of flower visitation with pollen deposition were combined to obtain a measure of pollinator performance (PP. The most abundant insects on avocado were flies (mean ± SE: 15. 2 ± 6.2, followed by honey bees (9.4 ± 6.3 and wasps (4.2 ± 3.1 (ANOVA F = 91.71, d.f. = 2,78; P P P = 0.001, the number of pollen grains deposited on a stigma after a single visit was similar for the three taxa (2-5. There was evidence for a significant and similarly positive PP of both honey bees and flies as avocado pollinators over wasps, given their abundance, potential for pollen transport and deposition of pollen on stigmas.

  4. WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b are Members of Triple Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Morton, Timothy D.

    2014-06-01

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M ⊙ using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  5. Empowering Water Quality Management in Lamtakhong River Basin, Thailand Using WASP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nares Chuersuwan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at empowering local authorities on water quality management in the Lamtakhong river basin, Thailand with the assist of a water quality model, namely Water quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP. Organic overcapacity and consequent dissolved oxygen depletion was recently the primary water quality issue of the river. WASP was successfully calibrated and validated using collected monthly hydrologic and water quality data from the year 2008 to 2009. The model was found to be capable of capturing variation and predicting the concentrations of dissolved oxygen for the river system. With the aid of the WASP simulation model, it was demonstrated that “business-as-usual” will seriously impact water quality in the future, causing dissolved oxygen levels to approach zero in some areas downstream. The model results were used in local communities hearing campaign in upstream, middle-stream and downstream communities to raise public awareness. Consensus was reach that household pollution reduction was needed and 5% should be a starting point. Pollution reduction of 5-20% will help improve water quality somewhat. However, a substantial 50% reduction in pollution would considerably improve the water quality of the river.

  6. An SK3 channel/nWASP/Abi-1 complex is involved in early neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Liebau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stabilization or regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for cellular structure and function. Recently, we could show that the activation of the SK3-channel that represents the predominant SK-channel in neural stem cells, leads to a rapid local outgrowth of long filopodial processes. This observation indicates that the rearrangement of the actin based cytoskeleton via membrane bound SK3-channels might selectively be controlled in defined micro compartments of the cell. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found two important proteins for cytoskeletal rearrangement, the Abelson interacting protein 1, Abi-1 and the neural Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein, nWASP, to be in complex with SK3- channels in neural stem cells (NSCs. Moreover, this interaction is also found in spines and postsynaptic compartments of developing primary hippocampal neurons and regulates neurite outgrowth during early phases of differentiation. Overexpression of the proteins or pharmacological activation of SK3 channels induces obvious structural changes in NSCs and hippocampal neurons. In both neuronal cell systems SK3 channels and nWASP act synergistic by strongly inducing filopodial outgrowth while Abi-1 behaves antagonistic to its interaction partners. CONCLUSIONS: Our results give good evidence for a functional interplay of a trimeric complex that transforms incoming signals via SK3-channel activation into the local rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in early steps of neuronal differentiation involving nWASP and Abi-1 actin binding proteins.

  7. Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code and Application to WASP-43b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Bowman, Oliver; Rojo, Patricio; Stemm, Madison; Lust, Nathaniel B.; Challener, Ryan; Foster, Austin James; Foster, Andrew S.; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Bruce, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    We present a new open-source Bayesian radiative-transfer framework, Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART, https://github.com/exosports/BART), and its application to WASP-43b. BART initializes a model for the atmospheric retrieval calculation, generates thousands of theoretical model spectra using parametrized pressure and temperature profiles and line-by-line radiative-transfer calculation, and employs a statistical package to compare the models with the observations. It consists of three self-sufficient modules available to the community under the reproducible-research license, the Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances module (TEA, https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA, Blecic et al. 2015}, the radiative-transfer module (Transit, https://github.com/exosports/transit), and the Multi-core Markov-chain Monte Carlo statistical module (MCcubed, https://github.com/pcubillos/MCcubed, Cubillos et al. 2015). We applied BART on all available WASP-43b secondary eclipse data from the space- and ground-based observations constraining the temperature-pressure profile and molecular abundances of the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  8. Departure from the constant-period ephemeris for the transiting exoplanet WASP-12 b

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, G; Fernández, M; Sota, A; Nowak, G; Ohlert, J; Nikolov, G; Bukowiecki, Ł; Hinse, T C; Pallé, E; Tingley, B; Kjurkchieva, D; Lee, J W; Lee, C -U

    2016-01-01

    Most hot Jupiters are expected to spiral in towards their host stars due to transfering of the angular momentum of the orbital motion to the stellar spin. Their orbits can also precess due to planet-star interactions. Calculations show that both effects could be detected for the very-hot exoplanet WASP-12 b using the method of precise transit timing over a timespan of the order of 10 yr. We acquired new precise light curves for 29 transits of WASP-12 b, spannning 4 observing seasons from November 2012 to February 2016. New mid-transit times, together with literature ones, were used to refine the transit ephemeris and analyse the timing residuals. We find that the transit times of WASP-12 b do not follow a linear ephemeris with a 5 sigma confidence level. They may be approximated with a quadratic ephemeris that gives a rate of change in the orbital period of -2.56 +/- 0.40 x 10^{-2} s/yr. The tidal quality parameter of the host star was found to be equal to 2.5 x 10^5 that is comparable to theoretical predicti...

  9. Deciphering the Atmospheric Composition of WASP-12b: A Comprehensive Analysis of its Dayside Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Kevin B; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    WASP-12b was the first planet reported to have a carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) greater than one in its dayside atmosphere. However, recent work to further characterize its atmosphere and confirm its composition has led to incompatible measurements and divergent conclusions. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ~1" from WASP-12 further complicates the analyses and subsequent interpretations. We present a uniform analysis of all available Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope secondary-eclipse data, including previously-unpublished Spitzer measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. The primary controversy in the literature has centered on the value and interpretation of the eclipse depth at 4.5 microns. Our new measurements and analyses confirm the shallow eclipse depth in this channel, as first reported by Campo and collaborators and used by Madhusudhan and collaborators to infer a carbon-rich composition. To explain WASP-12b's observed dayside emission spectrum, we implemented several recent ...

  10. Antimycobacterial Activity of a New Peptide Polydim-I Isolated from Neotropical Social Wasp Polybia dimorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, Rogerio Coutinho; Trentini, Monalisa Martins; de Castro e Silva, Juliana; Simon, Karina Smidt; Bocca, Anamelia Lorenzetti; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Mortari, Marcia Renata; Kipnis, Andre; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense, a rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) that is becoming increasingly important among human infectious diseases, is virulent and pathogenic and presents intrinsic resistance to several antimicrobial drugs that might hamper their elimination. Therefore, the identification of new drugs to improve the current treatment or lower the risk of inducing resistance is urgently needed. Wasp venom primarily comprises peptides that are responsible for most of the biological activities in this poison. Here, a novel peptide Polydim-I, from Polybia dimorpha Neotropical wasp, was explored as an antimycobacterial agent. Polydim-I provoked cell wall disruption and exhibited non-cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells. Polydim-I treatment of macrophages infected with different M. abscessus subsp. massiliense strains reduced 40 to 50% of the bacterial load. Additionally, the Polydim-I treatment of highly susceptible mice intravenously infected with M. abscessus subsp. massiliense induced 0.8 to 1 log reduction of the bacterial load in the lungs, spleen, and liver. In conclusion, this is the first study to show the therapeutic potential of a peptide derived from wasp venom in treating mycobacteria infections. Polydim-I acts on the M. abscessus subsp. massiliense cell wall and reduce 40–90% of the bacterial load both in vitro and in vivo. The presented results encourage further studies on the use of Polydim-I as one of the components for M. abscessus subsp. massiliense treatment. PMID:26930596

  11. EFFICASY OF NATURAL POPULATION OF Trichogramma WASPS AGAINST EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the natural infestation of European corn borer (ECB eggs by Trichogramma wasps (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae under field conditions. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia in 2013. The experiment included two levels of irrigations, two nitrogen rates and two maize genotypes. Parameters of ECB feeding activity and maize tolerance (cob mass, tunnel length, number of ECB larvae per plant, as well as number of parasitized ECB eggs by Trihogramma wasps were evaluated. Genotypes were significantly different in terms of tolerance to ECB injury. In treatments with nitrogen fertilization, ECB feeding activity was increased at both nitrogen rates. Agricultural practices did not significantly affect parasitism of ECB eggs by Trichogramma. Correlation between parameters of ECB feeding activity and parasitism by Trichogramma was slight to moderate and not significant. Natural occurrence of Trichogramma wasps were not significantly affected by agricultural practices in maize, and population of these parasitoids was low significantly affect ECB feeding activity.

  12. WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b are Members of Triple Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bechter, Eric B; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A; Batygin, Konstantin; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Phillip S; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W; Montet, Benjamin T; Matthews, Christopher T; Morton, Timothy D

    2013-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate the hot Jupiters WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary star of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightness consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. 2011 and Crossfield et al. 2012, into two distinct sources separated by 84.3+/-0.6 mas (21 +/- 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al. 2011, is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3+/-0.5 mas (15+/-1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper-motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18+/-0.02Msun using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well-studied pl...

  13. The Mechanisms of Water Exchange: The Regulatory Roles of Multiple Interactions in Social Wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanshu Agrawal

    Full Text Available Evolutionary benefits of task fidelity and improving information acquisition via multiple transfers of materials between individuals in a task partitioned system have been shown before, but in this paper we provide a mechanistic explanation of these phenomena. Using a simple mathematical model describing the individual interactions of the wasps, we explain the functioning of the common stomach, an information center, which governs construction behavior and task change. Our central hypothesis is a symmetry between foragers who deposit water and foragers who withdraw water into and out of the common stomach. We combine this with a trade-off between acceptance and resistance to water transfer. We ultimately derive a mathematical function that relates the number of interactions that foragers complete with common stomach wasps during a foraging cycle. We use field data and additional model assumptions to calculate values of our model parameters, and we use these to explain why the fullness of the common stomach stabilizes just below 50 percent, why the average number of successful interactions between foragers and the wasps forming the common stomach is between 5 and 7, and why there is a variation in this number of interactions over time. Our explanation is that our proposed water exchange mechanism places natural bounds on the number of successful interactions possible, water exchange is set to optimize mediation of water through the common stomach, and the chance that foragers abort their task prematurely is very low.

  14. WASP-41b: A Transiting Hot Jupiter Planet Orbiting a Magnetically Active G8V Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hellier, C.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Street, R. A.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; West, R. G.; Gillon, M.; Lister, T. A.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.

    2011-05-01

    We report the discovery of a transiting planet with an orbital period of 3.05 days orbiting the star TYC 7247-587-1. The star, WASP-41, is a moderately bright G8 V star (V = 11.6) with a metallicity close to solar ([Fe/H] = -0.08 ± 0.09). The star shows evidence of moderate chromospheric activity, both from emission in the cores of the Ca ii H and K ines and photometric variability with a period of 18.4 days and an amplitude of about 1%. We use a new method to show quantitatively that this periodic signal has a low false-alarm probability. The rotation period of the star implies a gyrochronological age for WASP-41 of 1.8 Gyr with an error of about 15%. We have used a combined analysis of the available photometric and spectroscopic data to derive the mass and radius of the planet (0.92 ± 0.06 MJup, 1.20 ± 0.06 RJup). Further observations of WASP-41 can be used to explore the connections between the properties of hot Jupiter planets and the level of chromospheric activity in their host stars.

  15. Chemical cues for host location by the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinara, Giacinto S; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus is one of the most damaging pests of Castanea spp. Behavioral, chemical, and electrophysiological investigations were employed to examine the role of plant volatiles for host location by this thelytokuos cynipid. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays showed that adult wasps are significantly attracted by C. sativa twigs with at least 1-hr-old mechanical damage. Odors of undamaged host seedlings, intact twigs, and twigs with a fresh mechanical damage were not attractive. Wasps were repelled by plant materials of the non-host Prunus laurocerasus. Fourteen compounds, mainly general green leaf volatiles, were identified in the head-space of attractive host plant twigs by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. All compounds elicited dose-dependent antennal responses in adult wasps. A synthetic blend comprising all identified compounds in the same ratio as in the attractive host source induced significant positive responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The study gives a basis for future identification of host plant attractants that could contribute to semiochemical-based monitoring and management practices of this pest.

  16. SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR A TEMPERATURE INVERSION IN THE DAYSIDE ATMOSPHERE OF HOT JUPITER WASP-33b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Korey; Mandell, Avi M. [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Knutson, Heather, E-mail: khaynes0112@gmail.com [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-06-20

    We present observations of two occultations of the extrasolar planet WASP-33b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope, which allow us to constrain the temperature structure and composition of its dayside atmosphere. WASP-33b is the most highly irradiated hot Jupiter discovered to date, and the only exoplanet known to orbit a δ-Scuti star. We observed in spatial scan mode to decrease instrument systematic effects in the data, and removed fluctuations in the data due to stellar pulsations. The rms for our final, binned spectrum is 1.05 times the photon noise. We compare our final spectrum, along with previously published photometric data, to atmospheric models of WASP-33b spanning a wide range in temperature profiles and chemical compositions. We find that the data require models with an oxygen-rich chemical composition and a temperature profile that increases at high altitude. We find that our measured spectrum displays an excess in the measured flux toward short wavelengths that is best explained as emission from TiO. If confirmed by additional measurements at shorter wavelengths, this planet would become the first hot Jupiter with a thermal inversion that can be definitively attributed to the presence of TiO in its dayside atmosphere.

  17. Observed spectral energy distribution of the thermal emission from the dayside of WASP-46b

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guo; Wang, Hongchi; Nikolov, Nikolay; Seemann, Ulf; Henning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We aim to construct a spectral energy distribution (SED) for the emission from the dayside atmosphere of the hot Jupiter WASP-46b and to investigate its energy budget. We observed a secondary eclipse of WASP-46b simultaneously in the g'r'i'z'JHK bands using the GROND instrument on the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope. Eclipse depths of the acquired light curves were derived to infer the brightness temperatures at multibands that cover the SED peak. We report the first detection of the thermal emission from the dayside of WASP-46b in the K band at 4.2-sigma level and tentative detections in the H (2.5-sigma) and J (2.3-sigma) bands, with flux ratios of 0.253 +0.063/-0.060%, 0.194 +/- 0.078%, and 0.129 +/- 0.055%, respectively. The derived brightness temperatures (2306 +177/-187K, 2462 +245/-302K, and 2453 +198/-258K, respectively) are consistent with an isothermal temperature profile of 2386K, which is significantly higher than the dayside-averaged equilibrium temperature, indicative of very poor heat redistribution eff...

  18. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

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    Christof Schüepp

    Full Text Available It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity, as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  19. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  20. The Curious Case of Elemental Abundance Differences in the Dual Hot Jupiter Hosts WASP-94AB

    CERN Document Server

    Teske, Johanna K; Ramírez, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Binary stars provide an ideal laboratory for investigating the potential effects of planet formation on stellar composition. Assuming the stars formed in the same environment/from the same material, any compositional anomalies between binary components might indicate differences in how material was sequestered in planets, or accreted by the star in the process of planet formation. We present here a study of the elemental abundance differences between WASP-94AB, a pair of stars that each host a hot Jupiter exoplanet. The two stars are very similar in spectral type (F8 and F9), and their ~2700 AU separation suggests their protoplanetary disks were likely not influenced by stellar interactions, but WASP-94Ab's orbit -- misaligned with the host star spin axis and likely retrograde -- points towards a dynamically active formation mechanism, perhaps different than that of WASP-94Bb, which is not misaligned and has nearly circular orbit. Based on our high-quality spectra and strictly relative abundance analysis, we ...

  1. WASP-121 b: a hot Jupiter in a polar orbit and close to tidal disruption

    CERN Document Server

    Delrez, L; Almenara, J -M; Anderson, D R; Collier-Cameron, A; Díaz, R F; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; Van Grootel, V; West, R G

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey, in close collaboration with the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes, of WASP-121 b, a new remarkable short-period transiting hot Jupiter, whose planetary nature has been statistically validated by the PASTIS software. The planet has a mass of $1.183_{-0.062}^{+0.064}$ $M_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, a radius of 1.865 $\\pm$ 0.044 $R_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, and transits every $1.2749255_{-0.0000025}^{+0.0000020}$ days an active F6-type main-sequence star ($V$=10.4, $1.353_{-0.079}^{+0.080}$ $M_{\\odot}$, 1.458 $\\pm$ 0.030 $R_{\\odot}$, $T_{\\mathrm{eff}}$ = 6460 $\\pm$ 140 K). A notable property of WASP-121 b is that its orbital semi-major axis is only $\\sim$1.15 times larger than its Roche limit, which suggests that the planet might be close to tidal disruption. Furthermore, its large size and extreme irradiation ($\\sim$$7.1\\:10^{9}$ erg $\\mathrm{s}^{-1} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$) make it an excellent target for atmospheric studies via secondary eclipse observations. Using the TRAPPIST telescope,...

  2. Cdc42/N-WASP signaling links actin dynamics to pancreatic β cell delamination and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Lieven, Oliver; Mamidi, Anant; Öhlin, Zarah Löf; Johansson, Jenny Kristina; Li, Wan-Chun; Lommel, Silvia; Greiner, Thomas Uwe; Semb, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Delamination plays a pivotal role during normal development and cancer. Previous work has demonstrated that delamination and epithelial cell movement within the plane of an epithelium are associated with a change in cellular phenotype. However, how this positional change is linked to differentiation remains unknown. Using the developing mouse pancreas as a model system, we show that β cell delamination and differentiation are two independent events, which are controlled by Cdc42/N-WASP signaling. Specifically, we show that expression of constitutively active Cdc42 in β cells inhibits β cell delamination and differentiation. These processes are normally associated with junctional actin and cell-cell junction disassembly and the expression of fate-determining transcription factors, such as Isl1 and MafA. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of N-WASP in β cells expressing constitutively active Cdc42 partially restores both delamination and β cell differentiation. These findings elucidate how junctional actin dynamics via Cdc42/N-WASP signaling cell-autonomously control not only epithelial delamination but also cell differentiation during mammalian organogenesis. PMID:24449844

  3. Do Quiescence and Wasp Venom-Induced Lethargy Share Common Neuronal Mechanisms in Cockroaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Stav; Libersat, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The escape behavior of a cockroach may not occur when it is either in a quiescent state or after being stung by the jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa). In the present paper, we show that quiescence is an innate lethargic state during which the cockroach is less responsive to external stimuli. The neuronal mechanism of such a state is poorly understood. In contrast to quiescence, the venom-induced lethargic state is not an innate state in cockroaches. The Jewel Wasp disables the escape behavior of cockroaches by injecting its venom directly in the head ganglia, inside a neuropile called the central complex a 'higher center' known to regulate motor behaviors. In this paper we show that the coxal slow motoneuron ongoing activity, known to be involved in posture, is reduced in quiescent animals, as compared to awake animals, and it is further reduced in stung animals. Moreover, the regular tonic firing of the slow motoneuron present in both awake and quiescent cockroaches is lost in stung cockroaches. Injection of procaine to prevent neuronal activity into the central complex to mimic the wasp venom injection produces a similar effect on the activity of the slow motoneuron. In conclusion, we speculate that the neuronal modulation during the quiescence and venom-induced lethargic states may occur in the central complex and that both states could share a common neuronal mechanism.

  4. Octopamine partially restores walking in hypokinetic cockroaches stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Lior Ann; Glusman, Jose Gustavo; Libersat, Frederic

    2007-12-01

    When stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa, cockroaches Periplaneta americana enter a hypokinetic state that is characterized by little, if any, spontaneous locomotor activity. In the present study we investigate the effect of an octopamine receptor agonist and an antagonist on the locomotor behavior of stung and control cockroaches. We show that in cockroaches stung by a wasp the octopamine receptor agonist chlordimeform induces a significant increase in spontaneous walking. In good agreement, in control individuals an octopamine receptor antagonist significantly reduces walking activity. Adipokinetic hormone I (AKH-I) promotes spontaneous walking in controls but does not do so in stung individuals, which suggests that the venom effect is most probably not mediated by AKH-I. Dopamine receptor agonists or antagonists had no significant effect on the spontaneous walking of stung or control cockroaches, respectively. The effect of the octopamine receptor agonist was maximal when injected into the brain, suggesting that the wasp venom interferes with octopaminergic modulation of walking initiation in central structures of the cockroach brain.

  5. Eocene and not Cretaceous origin of spider wasps: Fossil evidence from amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spider wasps had long been proposed to originate in the mid-Cretaceous based on the Burmese amber fossil Bryopompilus interfector Engel and Grimaldi, 2006. We performed a morphological examination of this fossil and determined it does not belong to Pompilidae or any other described hymenopteran family. Instead, we place it in the new family Bryopompilidae. The oldest verifiable member of the Pompilidae is from Baltic amber, which suggests the family probably originated in the Eocene, not in the mid-Cretaceous as previously proposed. The origin of spider wasps appears to be correlated with an increase in spider familial diversity in the Cenozoic. We also we add two genera to the extinct pompilid fauna: Tainopompilus gen. nov., and Paleogenia gen. nov., and describe three new species of fossil spider wasps: Anoplius planeta sp. nov., from Dominican amber (Burdigalian to Langhian; Paleogenia wahisi sp. nov., from Baltic amber (Lutetian to Priabonian; and Tainopompilus argentum sp. nov, from Dominican amber (Chattian to Langhian.

  6. Learning in an exotic social wasp while relocating a food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Mariana; D'Adamo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review several studies on Vespulagermanica behavioral plasticity while relocating a food source in natural environments. This exotic social wasp, which has become established in many parts of the world, displays diverse cognitive abilities when foraging. Given its successful invasiveness worldwide, our initial hypothesis was that this species has great behavioral plasticity, which enables it to face environmental uncertainty. In our work we have analyzed foraging behavior associated with undepleted resources. Throughout several experiments, rapid learning was observed in this species; after few learning experiences they associate diverse contextual cues with a food source. However, by exploring wasp behavior when food suddenly disappeared, either because it had been removed or displaced, we found that they continued searching over a no longer rewarding site for a considerable period of time, suggesting that past experience can hinder new learning. Particularly surprising is the fact that when food was displaced nearby, wasps persisted in searching over the empty dish, ignoring the presence of food close by. We propose that this species could be a suitable model for studying cognitive plasticity in relation to environmental uncertainty.

  7. Poneromorph Ants Associated with Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Kapala Cameron (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae in French Guiana

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    Jean-Paul Lachaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucharitid wasps are specific, specialized parasitoids of ants. The genus Kapala Cameron is the most common in the Neotropics but few species are described, and information dealing with their biology, behavior and host associations is scarce. Numerous poneromorph ant colonies were inspected over 4 collection surveys in French Guiana. A diverse fauna of parasites and parasitoids was found, including mermithid nematodes, flies, eucharitids, and another gregarious endoparasitoid wasp. Five new host associations for Kapala are reported, all of them involving medium- to large-size poneromorph ant species from 4 genera: Ectatomma brunneum Fr. Smith, Gnamptogenys tortuolosa (Fr. Smith, Odontomachus haematodus (L., O. mayi Mann, and Pachycondyla verenae (Forel. Three other associations involving O. hastatus (Fabr., P. apicalis (Latreille, and P. stigma (Fabr., already reported for other countries but new for French Guiana, are confirmed. The data extend the number of hosts for Kapala to 24 ant species from 7 genera. The high diversity of the ant host genera associated with Kapala, combined with the fact that these ant genera are the most widely distributed among Neotropical poneromorph ants, could account for the dominant status of the genus Kapala among the eucharitine wasps of Central and South America.

  8. Mullerian mimicry as a result of codivergence between velvet ants and spider wasps.

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    Juanita Rodriguez

    Full Text Available Recent studies have delineated a large Nearctic Müllerian mimicry complex in Dasymutilla velvet ants. Psorthaspis spider wasps live in areas where this mimicry complex is found and are phenotypically similar to Dasymutilla. We tested the idea that Psorthaspis spider wasps are participating in the Dasymutilla mimicry complex and that they codiverged with Dasymutilla. We performed morphometric analyses and human perception tests, and tabulated distributional records to determine the fit of Psorthaspis to the Dasymutilla mimicry complex. We inferred a dated phylogeny using nuclear molecular markers (28S, elongation factor 1-alpha, long-wavelength rhodopsin and wingless for Psorthaspis species and compared it to a dated phylogeny of Dasymutilla. We tested for codivergence between the two groups using two statistical analyses. Our results show that Psorthaspis spider wasps are morphologically similar to the Dasymutilla mimicry rings. In addition, our tests indicate that Psorthaspis and Dasymutilla codiverged to produce similar color patterns. This study expands the breadth of the Dasymutilla Müllerian mimicry complex and provides insights about how codivergence influenced the evolution of mimicry in these groups.

  9. N-wasp is required for structural integrity of the blood-testis barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During spermatogenesis, the blood-testis barrier (BTB segregates the adluminal (apical and basal compartments in the seminiferous epithelium, thereby creating a privileged adluminal environment that allows post-meiotic spermatid development to proceed without interference of the host immune system. A key feature of the BTB is its continuous remodeling within the Sertoli cells, the major somatic component of the seminiferous epithelium. This remodeling is necessary to allow the transport of germ cells towards the seminiferous tubule interior, while maintaining intact barrier properties. Here we demonstrate that the actin nucleation promoting factor Neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP provides an essential function necessary for BTB restructuring, and for maintaining spermatogenesis. Our data suggests that the N-WASP-Arp2/3 actin polymerization machinery generates branched-actin arrays at an advanced stage of BTB remodeling. These arrays are proposed to mediate the restructuring process through endocytic recycling of BTB components. Disruption of N-WASP in Sertoli cells results in major structural abnormalities to the BTB, including mis-localization of critical junctional and cytoskeletal elements, and leads to disruption of barrier function. These impairments result in a complete arrest of spermatogenesis, underscoring the critical involvement of the somatic compartment of the seminiferous tubules in germ cell maturation.

  10. Insect responses to host plant provision beyond natural boundaries: latitudinal and altitudinal variation in a Chinese fig wasp community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Quinnell, Rupert J; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Barwell, Louise; Chen, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Many plants are grown outside their natural ranges. Plantings adjacent to native ranges provide an opportunity to monitor community assembly among associated insects and their parasitoids in novel environments, to determine whether gradients in species richness emerge and to examine their consequences for host plant reproductive success. We recorded the fig wasps (Chalcidoidea) associated with a single plant resource (ovules of Ficus microcarpa) along a 1200 km transect in southwest China that extended for 1000 km beyond the tree's natural northern range margin. The fig wasps included the tree's agaonid pollinator and other species that feed on the ovules or are their parasitoids. Phytophagous fig wasps (12 species) were more numerous than parasitoids (nine species). The proportion of figs occupied by fig wasps declined with increasing latitude, as did the proportion of utilized ovules in occupied figs. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of fig wasps also significantly changed along both latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. Parasitoids declined more steeply with latitude than phytophages. Seed production declined beyond the natural northern range margin, and at high elevation, because pollinator fig wasps became rare or absent. This suggests that pollinator climatic tolerances helped limit the tree's natural distribution, although competition with another species may have excluded pollinators at the highest altitude site. Isolation by distance may prevent colonization of northern sites by some fig wasps and act in combination with direct and host-mediated climatic effects to generate gradients in community composition, with parasitoids inherently more sensitive because of declines in the abundance of potential hosts.

  11. Transmission spectroscopy of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b from 0.7 to 5 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Seifahrt, Andreas; Kreidberg, Laura [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MC 170-25 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Bergmann, Marcel [National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Homeier, Derek, E-mail: kbs@uchicago.edu [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574, CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2014-06-01

    Since the first report of a potentially non-solar carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in its dayside atmosphere, the highly irradiated exoplanet WASP-12b has been under intense scrutiny and the subject of many follow-up observations. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ∼1'' from WASP-12 has obfuscated interpretation of the observational data. Here we present new ground-based multi-object transmission-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b that we acquired over two consecutive nights in the red optical with Gemini-N/GMOS. After correcting for the influence of WASP-12's stellar companions, we find that these data rule out a cloud-free H{sub 2} atmosphere with no additional opacity sources. We detect features in the transmission spectrum that may be attributed to metal oxides (such as TiO and VO) for an O-rich atmosphere or to metal hydrides (such as TiH) for a C-rich atmosphere. We also reanalyzed NIR transit-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b from HST/WFC3 and broadband transit photometry from Warm Spitzer. We attribute the broad spectral features in the WFC3 data to either H{sub 2}O or CH{sub 4} and HCN for an O-rich or C-rich atmosphere, respectively. The Spitzer data suggest shallower transit depths than the models predict at infrared wavelengths, albeit at low statistical significance. A multi-instrument, broad-wavelength analysis of WASP-12b suggests that the transmission spectrum is well approximated by a simple Rayleigh scattering model with a planet terminator temperature of 1870 ± 130 K. We conclude that additional high-precision data and isolated spectroscopic measurements of the companion stars are required to place definitive constraints on the composition of WASP-12b's atmosphere.

  12. Sensory arsenal on the stinger of the parasitoid jewel wasp and its possible role in identifying cockroach brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Ram; Kaiser, Maayan; Haspel, Gal; Libersat, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The parasitoid jewel wasp uses cockroaches as live food supply for its developing larva. To this end, the adult wasp stings a cockroach and injects venom directly inside its brain, turning the prey into a submissive 'zombie'. Here, we characterize the sensory arsenal on the wasp's stinger that enables the wasp to identify the brain target inside the cockroach's head. An electron microscopy study of the stinger reveals (a) cuticular depressions innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron, which are presumably campaniform sensilla; and (b) dome-shaped structures innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron and 4-5 chemosensory neurons, which are presumably contact-chemoreceptive sensilla. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings from stinger afferents show increased firing rate in response to mechanical stimulation with agarose. This response is direction-selective and depends upon the concentration (density) of the agarose, such that the most robust response is evoked when the stinger is stimulated in the distal-to-proximal direction (concomitant with the penetration during the natural stinging behavior) and penetrating into relatively hard (0.75%-2.5%) agarose pellets. Accordingly, wasps demonstrate a normal stinging behavior when presented with cockroaches in which the brain was replaced with a hard (2.5%) agarose pellet. Conversely, wasps demonstrate a prolonged stinging behavior when the cockroach brain was either removed or replaced by a soft (0.5%) agarose pellet, or when stinger sensory organs were ablated prior to stinging. We conclude that the parasitoid jewel wasp uses at least mechanosensory inputs from its stinger to identify the brain within the head capsule of the cockroach prey.

  13. Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest. The knowledge of social wasp richness and biology in the Amazonian region is considered insufficient. Although the Amazonas state is the largest in the region, until now only two brief surveys were conducted there. Considering that the systematic inventory of an area is the first step towards its conservation and wise use, this study presents faunal data on social wasp diversity in a 25 km² area of "terra firme" (upland forest at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Wasps were collected in the understory, following a protocol of three collectors walking along 60 trails 1,000 m in extension for 16 days between August and October 2010. Methods used were active search of individuals with entomological nets and nest collecting. Fifty-eight species of social wasps, allocated in 13 genera, were recorded; 67% of the collected species belong to Polybia, Agelaia and Mischocyttarus; other genera were represented by only four species or less. The most frequent species in active searches were Agelaia fulvofasciata (DeGeer, 1773, Agelaia testacea (Fabricius, 1804 and Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier, 1836. Twelve species were collected in nests. Prior to this study, 65 Polistinae species were deposited at the INPA Collection. Collecting in the study grid, an area not previously sampled for wasps, resulted in an increase of 25% species, and species richness was 86. According to the results, there is evidence that the diversity of social wasps at the Ducke Reserve is even higher, making it one of the richest areas in the Brazilian Amazonia.

  14. Seasonal Changes in the Trade-off Among Fig-supported Wasps and Viable Seeds in Figs and Their Evolutionary Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Wu WANG; Jun-Xing YANG; Da-Rong YANG

    2005-01-01

    What the real trade-off is among fig-supported wasps and the viable seeds of figs is heatedly debated in the studies of fig/fig wasp mutualism. In the present study, we collected wasp offspring (galls)and the viable seeds of premature fruits, and determined the foundress number in receptive fruits and all the types of wasps supported by Ficus racemosa L. during both the rainy and dry seasons in Xishuangbanna,China. The data show that the galls were positively correlated with viable seeds (n = 32; r = 0.74; P < 0.001)when the proportion of vacant female flowers (PVFF) was high, in April (68.0%), and were negatively correlated with viable seeds (n = 48; r =- 0.59; P < 0.05) when PVFF were limited (PVFF = 42.6%) during a colder month (January). The mean foundress number per fruit during the colder months is significantly lower than during the warmer months (F5, 603 = 27.9; P < 0.001) and pollinator wasps can live longer during the colder months. During the colder months, the proportions of non-pollinators and wasp offspring are higher than those found during other months, whereas the proportion of viable seeds is not different compared with that of other months. Non-pollinator wasps tend to oviposit the female flowers that have been oviposited by pollinator wasps. The non-pollinators only negatively affect pollinator wasps and there is no obvious negative effect of non-pollinator wasps on viable seeds, so ovipositing by non-pollinator wasps will not result in the extinction of the figs during the process of evolution. The results of the present study indicate that figs can allow less foundresses to be in fruit cavities when PVFF are limited, which provides supporting evidence for the previous assumption that the plants have developed a mechanism to maintain a stable system because of the conflicts between the parties involved.

  15. Efeito de vespas não-polinizadoras sobre o mutualismo Ficus - vespas de figos Effect of non-pollinating fig wasps over fig-fig wasp mutualism

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    Larissa G. Elias

    Full Text Available Relações ecológicas interespecíficas, que resultam em benefício para todos os organismos participantes, são conhecidas como mutualismo. No entanto, tal cooperação abre espaço para o surgimento de estratégias oportunistas (ou de trapaça, representadas por indivíduos parasitas do mutualismo, que recebem o benefício de um dos parceiros sem oferecer nada em troca. A interação figueiras - vespas - de - figo é um sistema adequado para o estudo do mutualismo e de estratégias oportunistas (parasitas de mutualismos. Representantes do gênero Ficus (Moraceae apresentam uma relação mutualística com pequenas vespas polinizadoras (Agaonidae e são explorados por outras espécies de vespas não-polinizadoras. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto das vespas não-polinizadoras sobre o mutualismo Ficus citrifolia e suas vespas polinizadoras, Pegoscapus tonduzi Grandi, 1919. Para tal, foi comparada a produção de aquênios (função feminina e de fêmeas da espécie polinizadora (função masculina entre amostras de sicônios altamente infestados e pouco infestados por vespas não-polinizadoras, coletadas nos municípios de Londrina (Paraná, Campinas e Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo, Brasil. Nossos resultados apontaram que as vespas não-polinizadoras exercem impacto negativo nos componentes feminino e masculino da planta, sendo maior no masculino. A produção de vespas polinizadoras foi cerca de sete vezes menor nos figos infestados, ao passo que a produção de aquênios foi 1,5 vez menor nesses mesmos figos. Hipóteses sobre a estabilidade do mutualismo na presença das espécies oportunistas são discutidas.Mutualism is the name given to interspecific interactions which result in benefit for all partners involved. However, such cooperation is open to opportunistic strategies: individuals that extract the benefit from the partner, but do not offer any benefit in exchange. The fig-fig wasp interaction is an appropriate case to

  16. A trophic cascade induced by predatory ants in a fig-fig wasp mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Geng, Xiang-Zong; Ma, Li-Bin; Cook, James M; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2014-09-01

    A trophic cascade occurs when predators directly decrease the densities, or change the behaviour, of herbivores and thus indirectly increase plant productivity. The predator-herbivore-plant context is well known, but some predators attack species beneficial to plants (e.g. pollinators) and/or enemies of herbivores (e.g. parasites), and their role in the dynamics of mutualisms remains largely unexplored. We surveyed the predatory ant species and studied predation by the dominant ant species, the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina, associated with the fig tree Ficus racemosa in southwest China. We then tested the effects of weaver ants on the oviposition behaviour of pollinating and non-pollinating fig wasps in an ant-exclusion experiment. The effects of weaver ants on fig wasp community structure and fig seed production were then compared between trees with and without O. smaragdina. Oecophylla smaragdina captured more non-pollinating wasps (Platyneura mayri) than pollinators as the insects arrived to lay eggs. When ants were excluded, more non-pollinators laid eggs into figs and fewer pollinators entered figs. Furthermore, trees with O. smaragdina produced more pollinator offspring and fewer non-pollinator offspring, shifting the community structure significantly. In addition, F. racemosa produced significantly more seeds on trees inhabited by weaver ants. Oecophylla smaragdina predation reverses the dominance of the two commonest wasp species at the egg-laying stage and favours the pollinators. This behavioural pattern is mirrored by wasp offspring production, with pollinators' offspring dominating figs produced by trees inhabited by weaver ants, and offspring of the non-pollinator P. mayri most abundant in figs on trees inhabited by other ants. Overall, our results suggest that predation by weaver ants limits the success of the non-pollinating P. mayri and therefore indirectly benefits the mutualism by increasing the reproductive success of both the

  17. WASP-117b: a 10-day-period Saturn in an eccentric and misaligned orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.; Van Grootel, V.; West, R. G.

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-117b, the first planet with a period beyond 10 days found by the WASP survey. The planet has a mass of Mp = 0.2755 ± 0.0089 MJ, a radius of Rp= 1.021_{-0.065+0.076 Rjup} and is in an eccentric (e = 0.302 ± 0.023), 10.02165 ± 0.00055 d orbit around a main-sequence F9 star. The host star's brightness (V = 10.15 mag) makes WASP-117 a good target for follow-up observations, and with a periastron planetary equilibrium temperature of Teq= 1225_{-39+36} K and a low planetary mean density (ρp= 0.259_{-0.048+0.054 ρjup}) it is one of the best targets for transmission spectroscopy among planets with periods around 10 days. From a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we infer a projected angle between the planetary orbit and stellar spin axes of β = -44 ± 11 deg, and we further derive an orbital obliquity of ψ = 69.6 +4.7-4.1 deg. Owing to the large orbital separation, tidal forces causing orbital circularization and realignment of the planetary orbit with the stellar plane are weak, having had little impact on the planetary orbit over the system lifetime. WASP-117b joins a small sample of transiting giant planets with well characterized orbits at periods above 8 days. Based on data obtained with WASP-South, CORALIE and EulerCam at the Euler-Swiss telescope, TRAPPIST, and HARPS at the ESO 3.6 m telescope (Prog. IDs 087.C-0649, 089.C-0151, 090.C-0540)Photometric and radial velocities are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A81

  18. The GTC exoplanet transit spectroscopy survey . VII. An optical transmission spectrum of WASP-48b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgas, F.; Pallé, E.; Parviainen, H.; Chen, G.; Nortmann, L.; Nowak, G.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Iro, N.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Transiting planets offer an excellent opportunity for characterizing the atmospheres of extrasolar planets under very different conditions from those found in our solar system. Aims: We are currently carrying out a ground-based survey to obtain the transmission spectra of several extrasolar planets using the 10 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. In this paper we investigate the extrasolar planet WASP-48b, a hot Jupiter orbiting around an F-type star with a period of 2.14 days. Methods: We obtained long-slit optical spectroscopy of one transit of WASP-48b with the Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) spectrograph. We integrated the spectrum of WASP-48 and one reference star in several channels with different wavelength ranges, creating numerous color light curves of the transit. We fit analytic transit curves to the data taking into account the systematic effects present in the time series in an effort to measure the change of the planet-to-star radius ratio (Rp/Rs) across wavelength. The change in transit depth can be compared with atmosphere models to infer the presence of particular atomic or molecular compounds in the atmosphere of WASP-48b. Results: After removing the transit model and systematic trends to the curves we reached precisions between 261 ppm and 455-755 ppm for the white and spectroscopic light curves, respectively. We obtained Rp/Rs uncertainty values between 0.8 × 10-3 and 1.5 × 10-3 for all the curves analyzed in this work. The measured transit depth for the curves made by integrating the wavelength range between 530 nm and 905 nm is in agreement with previous studies. We report a relatively flat transmission spectrum for WASP-48b with no statistical significant detection of atmospheric species, although the theoretical models that fit the data more closely include TiO and VO. The transit light curves are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http

  19. Signs of strong Na and K absorption in the transmission spectrum of WASP-103b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Cubillos, P. E.; Hagelberg, J.; Müller, A.; Juvan, I.; Fossati, L.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Transmission spectroscopy has become a prominent tool for characterizing the atmospheric properties on close-in transiting planets. Recent observations have revealed a remarkable diversity in exoplanet spectra, which show absorption signatures of Na, K and H2O, in some cases partially or fully attenuated by atmospheric aerosols. Aerosols (clouds and hazes) themselves have been detected in the transmission spectra of several planets thanks to wavelength-dependent slopes caused by the particles' scattering properties. Aims: We present an optical 550-960 nm transmission spectrum of the extremely irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-103b, one of the hottest (2500 K) and most massive (1.5 MJ) planets yet to be studied with this technique. WASP-103b orbits its star at a separation of less than 1.2 times the Roche limit and is predicted to be strongly tidally distorted. Methods: We have used Gemini/GMOS to obtain multi-object spectroscopy throughout three transits of WASP-103b. We used relative spectrophotometry and bin sizes between 20 and 2 nm to infer the planet's transmission spectrum. Results: We find that WASP-103b shows increased absorption in the cores of the alkali (Na, K) line features. We do not confirm the presence of any strong scattering slope as previously suggested, pointing towards a clear atmosphere for the highly irradiated, massive exoplanet WASP-103b. We constrain the upper boundary of any potential cloud deck to reside at pressure levels above 0.01 bar. This finding is in line with previous studies on cloud occurrence on exoplanets which find that clouds dominate the transmission spectra of cool, low surface gravity planets while hot, high surface gravity planets are either cloud-free, or possess clouds located below the altitudes probed by transmission spectra. The spectrophotometric time series data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  20. Using parasitoid wasps in Integrated Pest Management in museums against biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella cause much damage to museum objects. Some objects and materials are very attractive to these two pest species and objects are often re-infested after treatment. For some years parasitoid wasps have been used in biological pest control to treat and reduce infestations of stored product pests in food processing facilities. Their application in museums is still new and in a research stage. Results from five different museums in Germany and Austria and their application are presented. Lariophagus distinguendus wasps were released against Stegobium paniceum in the municipal library Augsburger Stadtarchiv (Germany, the Ethnological Museum in Berlin (Germany and the Picture Gallery in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna (Austria. Trichogramma evanescens were released against Tineola bisselliella in the Technisches Museum in Vienna (Austria and in the Deutsches Museum Verkehrszentrum in Munich (Germany. Results show that for active biscuit beetle infestations good results can be expected using the Lariophagus distinguendus in museums. Active clothes moth infestations are harder to treat but with a very regular and long-term exposure to the wasps, the clothes moth population can be reduced over the years. We see the application of parasitoid wasps as part of an Integrated Pest Management concept that should be used besides regular insect monitoring and other preventive measures. Difficulties, limitations and research needs in the application of parasitoid wasps in museums are discussed.

  1. Associative learning for danger avoidance nullifies innate positive chemotaxis to host olfactory stimuli in a parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare; Giunti, Giulia; Geri, Serena; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    Animals rely on associative learning for a wide range of purposes, including danger avoidance. This has been demonstrated for several insects, including cockroaches, mosquitoes, drosophilid flies, paper wasps, stingless bees, bumblebees and honeybees, but less is known for parasitic wasps. We tested the ability of Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) females to associate different dosages of two innately attractive host-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), ethyl octanoate and decanal, with danger (electric shocks). We conducted an associative treatment involving odours and shocks and two non-associative controls involving shocks but not odours and odours but not shocks. In shock-only and odour-only trained wasps, females preferred on HIPV-treated than on blank discs. In associative-trained wasps, however, P. concolor's innate positive chemotaxis for HIPVs was nullified (lowest HIPV dosage tested) or reversed (highest HIPV dosage tested). This is the first report of associative learning of olfactory cues for danger avoidance in parasitic wasps, showing that the effects of learning can override innate positive chemotaxes.

  2. Recruitment in Swarm-Founding Wasps: Polybia occidentalis Does not Actively Scent-Mark Carbohydrate Food Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scent marking food resources is expected to enhance foraging efficiency reducing search time. Many social bees exhibit this behavior, but scent-marking is absent in social wasps, except for Vespa mandarinia. We tested for scent marking in the swarm-founding wasp, Polybia occidentalis. This wasp has moderately large colonies and utilizes resources that are concentrated in time and space, making scent marking profitable. Also, this wasp uses chemical markings to lead nestmates to a new nest site during swarm emigration, making it possible that it could use the same behavior to recruit nestmates to a food source. Foragers from 11 colonies were given a choice between a previously visited feeder and an unvisited one, both containing a rich, unscented sucrose solution. There was no difference in the number of visits to the two treatments. However, some individuals chose the feeder on one side more often. We conclude that foragers of this species of wasp do not use odor marks left behind by nestmates to find food, but they do exhibit the tendency, when returning to a food source that has not been depleted, to choose a resource based on its relative position, presumably by using visual cues.

  3. WASP-32b: A Transiting Hot Jupiter Planet Orbiting a Lithium-Poor, Solar-Type Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; West, R. G.; Enoch, R.; Lister, T. A.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D. L.; Ségransan, D.; Skillen, I.; Udry, S.

    2010-12-01

    We report the discovery of a transiting planet orbiting the star TYC 2-1155-1. The star, WASP-32, is a moderately bright (V = 11.3) solar-type star (Teff = 6100 ± 100 K, [Fe/H] = -0.13 ± 0.10). The light curve of the star obtained with the WASP-South and WASP-North instruments shows periodic transitlike features with a depth of about 1% and a duration of 0.10 day every 2.72 days. The presence of a transitlike feature in the light curve is confirmed using z -band photometry obtained with Faulkes Telescope North. High-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Coralie spectrograph confirms the presence of a planetary mass companion. From a combined analysis of the spectroscopic and photometric data, assuming that the star is a typical main-sequence star, we estimate that the planet has a mass Mp of 3.60 ± 0.07 MJup and a radius Rp = 1.19 ± 0.06 RJup. WASP-32 is one of a small group of hot Jupiters with masses greater than 3 MJup. We find that some stars with hot Jupiter companions and with masses M⋆ ≈ 1.2 M⊙, including WASP-32, are depleted in lithium and that the majority of these stars have lithium abundances similar to field stars.

  4. Effect of host-cocoon mass on adult size in the secondary hyperparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus semotus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffrey A.Harvey; Alex Gumovsky; Rieta Gols

    2012-01-01

    Parasitoids have long proven to be model organisms in studying resourcerelated constraints on immature development.Here we examine the relationship between host cocoon (=pupal) size in the gregarious endoparasitoid wasp,Cotesia glomerata,and development time and adult size in the solitary idiobiont hyperparasitoid,Pteromalus semotus.Little is known about the biology or ecology of this ecto-hyperparasitoid species,although it is one of the major secondary hyperparasitoids of C.glomerata.The size of the adult wasp covaried with the size of the host cocoon at parasitism.Moreover,female wasps were larger than male wasps for a given cocoon size.Adult wasps have remarkably long life-spans,3 months on average.Longevity did not significantly differ with sex.We also examined how larvae of P.semotus exclude other potential competitors.P.semotus is protandrous,with females taking significantly longer to complete their development than males.In experiments where several eggs of P.semotus were placed on individual pupae of C.glomerata,newly hatched hyperparasitoid larvae moved rapidly over the surface of the host and destroyed the eggs of any conspecifics by biting them before they would initiate feeding on host tissues.Our results are discussed in relation to those with other studies with solitary ichneumonid idiobiont hyperparasitoids of C.glomerata.

  5. The Atmospheric Circulation of the Hot Jupiter WASP-43b: Comparing Three-Dimensional Models to Spectrophotometric Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kataria, Tiffany; Fortney, Jonathan J; Stevenson, Kevin B; Line, Michael R; Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L; Désert, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    The hot Jupiter WASP-43b has now joined the ranks of transiting hot Jupiters HD 189733b and HD 209458b as an exoplanet with a large array of observational constraints on its atmospheric properties. Because WASP-43b receives a similar stellar flux as HD 209458b but has a rotation rate 4 times faster and a much higher gravity, studying WASP-43b serves as a test of the effect of rotation rate and gravity on the circulation when stellar irradiation is held approximately constant. Here we present 3D atmospheric circulation models of WASP-43b using the SPARC/MITgcm, a coupled radiation and circulation model, exploring the effects of composition, metallicity, and frictional drag. We find that the circulation regime of WASP-43b is not unlike other hot Jupiters, with equatorial superrotation that yields an eastward-shifted hotspot and large day-night temperature variations (~600 K at photospheric pressures). We then compare our model results to observations from Stevenson et al. which utilize HST/WFC3 to collect spect...

  6. Associative learning for danger avoidance nullifies innate positive chemotaxis to host olfactory stimuli in a parasitic wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare; Giunti, Giulia; Geri, Serena; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    Animals rely on associative learning for a wide range of purposes, including danger avoidance. This has been demonstrated for several insects, including cockroaches, mosquitoes, drosophilid flies, paper wasps, stingless bees, bumblebees and honeybees, but less is known for parasitic wasps. We tested the ability of Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) females to associate different dosages of two innately attractive host-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), ethyl octanoate and decanal, with danger (electric shocks). We conducted an associative treatment involving odours and shocks and two non-associative controls involving shocks but not odours and odours but not shocks. In shock-only and odour-only trained wasps, females preferred on HIPV-treated than on blank discs. In associative-trained wasps, however, P. concolor's innate positive chemotaxis for HIPVs was nullified (lowest HIPV dosage tested) or reversed (highest HIPV dosage tested). This is the first report of associative learning of olfactory cues for danger avoidance in parasitic wasps, showing that the effects of learning can override innate positive chemotaxes.

  7. On the ultraviolet anomalies of the WASP-12 and HD 189733 systems: Trojan satellites as a plasma source

    CERN Document Server

    Kislyakova, K G; Funk, B; Lammer, H; Fossati, L; Eggl, S; Schwarz, R; Boudjada, M Y; Erkaev, N V

    2016-01-01

    We suggest an additional possible plasma source to explain part of the phenomena observed for the transiting hot Jupiters WASP-12b and HD 189733b in their ultraviolet (UV) light curves. In the proposed scenario, material outgasses from the molten surface of Trojan satellites on tadpole orbits near the Lagrange points L$_4$ and L$_5$. We show that the temperature at the orbital location of WASP-12b is high enough to melt the surface of rocky bodies and to form shallow lava oceans on them. In case of WASP-12b, this leads to the release of elements such as Mg and Ca, which are expected to surround the system. The predicted Mg and Ca outgassing rates from two Io-sized WASP-12b Trojans are $\\approx 2.2 \\times 10^{27}$ s$^{-1}$ and $\\approx 2.2 \\times 10^{26}$ s$^{-1}$, respectively. Trojan outgassing can lead to the apparent lack of emission in Mg{\\sc ii}\\,h\\&k and Ca{\\sc ii}\\,H\\&K line cores of WASP-12. For HD 189733b, the mechanism is only marginally possible due to the lower temperature. This may be one...

  8. Transmission Spectroscopy of the Hot-Jupiter WASP-12b from 0.7 to 5 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Kevin B; Seifahrt, Andreas; Desert, Jean-Michel; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Bergmann, Marcel; Kreidberg, Laura; Homeier, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Since the first report of a potentially non-solar carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in its dayside atmosphere, the highly-irradiated exoplanet WASP-12b has been under intense scrutiny and the subject of many follow-up observations. Additionally, the recent discovery of a stellar companion ~1 arcsec from WASP-12 has obfuscated interpretation of the observational data. Here we present new ground-based multi-object transmission-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b that we acquired over two consecutive nights in the red optical with Gemini-N/GMOS. After correcting for the influence of WASP-12's stellar companion, we find that these data rule out a cloud-free, H2 atmosphere with no additional opacity sources. Some of the observed features may be attributed to metal oxides (such as TiO and VO) for an O-rich atmosphere or to metal hydrides (such as TiH) for a C-rich atmosphere. We also reanalyzed NIR transit-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b from HST/WFC3 and broadband transit photometry from Warm Spitzer. We attrib...

  9. First European Report of Social Wasps Trapped in Response to Acetic acid, Isobutanol, 2-Methyl-2-propanol, and Heptyl butyrate in Tests Conducted in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of social wasps were captured in trapping tests in Hungary that evaluated the attractiveness of acetic acid, isobutanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, and heptyl butyrate to social wasps. Both Vespula vulgaris (L.) and Vespula germanica (Fabr.), were captured in traps baited with isobutanol, t...

  10. A cuckoo in wolves' clothing? Chemical mimicry in a specialized cuckoo wasp of the European beewolf (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae and Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzner Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-parasite interactions are among the most important biotic relationships. Host species should evolve mechanisms to detect their enemies and employ appropriate counterstrategies. Parasites, in turn, should evolve mechanisms to evade detection and thus maximize their success. Females of the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae hunt exclusively honeybee workers as food for their progeny. The brood cells containing the paralyzed bees are severely threatened by a highly specialized cuckoo wasp (Hedychrum rutilans, Hymenoptera, Chrysididae. Female cuckoo wasps enter beewolf nests to oviposit on paralyzed bees that are temporarily couched in the nest burrow. The cuckoo wasp larva kills the beewolf larva and feeds on it and the bees. Here, we investigated whether H. rutilans evades detection by its host. Since chemical senses are most important in the dark nest, we hypothesized that the cuckoo wasp might employ chemical camouflage. Results Field observations suggest that cuckoo wasps are attacked by beewolves in front of their nest, most probably after being recognized visually. In contrast, beewolves seem not to detect signs of the presence of these parasitoids neither when these had visited the nest nor when directly encountered in the dark nest burrow. In a recognition bioassay in observation cages, beewolf females responded significantly less frequently to filter paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females, than to filter paper discs treated with an extract from another cuckoo wasp species (Chrysis viridula. The behavior to paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females did not differ significantly from the behavior towards filter paper discs treated with the solvent only. We hypothesized that cuckoo wasps either mimic the chemistry of their beewolf host or their host's prey. We tested this hypothesis using GC-MS analyses of the cuticles of male and

  11. Spitzer Phase Curve Constraints for WASP-43b at 3.6 and 4.5 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Kevin B; Bean, Jacob L; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J; Showman, Adam P; Kataria, Tiffany; Kreidberg, Laura; Feng, Y Katherina

    2016-01-01

    Previous measurements of heat redistribution efficiency (the ability to transport energy from a planet's highly-irradiated dayside to its eternally-dark nightside) show considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and temperature for tidally-locked planets; however, recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WASP-43b spectroscopic phase curve results are inconsistent with current predictions. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we obtained a total of three phase curve observations of WASP-43b at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. The first 3.6 micron visit exhibits spurious nightside emission that requires invoking unphysical conditions in our atmospheric retrievals. The two other visits exhibit strong day-night contrasts that are consistent with the HST data. To reconcile the departure from theoretical predictions, WASP-43b would need to have a high-altitude, nightside cloud/haze layer blocking its thermal emission. Clouds/hazes could be produced within...

  12. THE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF THE HOT JUPITER WASP-43b: COMPARING THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELS TO SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Line, Michael R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Stevenson, Kevin B.; Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel, E-mail: tkataria@astro.ex.ac.uk [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    The hot Jupiter WASP-43b (2 M{sub J}, 1 R{sub J}, T {sub orb} = 19.5 hr) has now joined the ranks of transiting hot Jupiters HD 189733b and HD 209458b as an exoplanet with a large array of observational constraints. Because WASP-43b receives a similar stellar flux as HD 209458b but has a rotation rate four times faster and a higher gravity, studying WASP-43b probes the effect of rotation rate and gravity on the circulation when stellar irradiation is held approximately constant. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation models of WASP-43b, exploring the effects of composition, metallicity, and frictional drag. We find that the circulation regime of WASP-43b is not unlike other hot Jupiters, with equatorial superrotation that yields an eastward-shifted hotspot and large day-night temperature variations (∼600 K at photospheric pressures). We then compare our model results to Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 spectrophotometric phase curve measurements of WASP-43b from 1.12 to 1.65 μm. Our results show the 5× solar model light curve provides a good match to the data, with a peak flux phase offset and planet/star flux ratio that is similar to observations; however, the model nightside appears to be brighter. Nevertheless, our 5× solar model provides an excellent match to the WFC3 dayside emission spectrum. This is a major success, as the result is a natural outcome of the 3D dynamics with no model tuning. These results demonstrate that 3D circulation models can help interpret exoplanet atmospheric observations, even at high resolution, and highlight the potential for future observations with HST, James Webb Space Telescope, and other next-generation telescopes.

  13. Display of wasp venom allergens on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen Lars K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast surface display is a technique, where the proteins of interest are expressed as fusions with yeast surface proteins and thus remain attached to the yeast cell wall after expression. Our purpose was to study whether allergens expressed on the cell surface of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae preserve their native allergenic properties and whether the yeast native surface glycoproteins interfere with IgE binding. We chose to use the major allergens from the common wasp Vespula vulgaris venom: phospholipase A1, hyaluronidase and antigen 5 as the model. Results The proteins were expressed on the surface as fusions with a-agglutinin complex protein AGA2. The expression was confirmed by fluorescent cytometry (FACS after staining the cells with antibody against a C-tag attached to the C-terminal end of the allergens. Phospholipase A1 and hyaluronidase retained their enzymatic activities. Phospholipase A1 severely inhibited the growth of the yeast cells. Antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells bound IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patient sera but not from control sera as demonstrated by FACS. Moreover, antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells were capable of mediating allergen-specific histamine release from human basophils. Conclusions All the three major wasp venom allergens were expressed on the yeast surface. A high-level expression, which was observed only for antigen 5, was needed for detection of IgE binding by FACS and for induction of histamine release. The non-modified S. cerevisiae cells did not cause any unspecific reaction in FACS or histamine release assay despite the expression of high-mannose oligosaccharides. In perspective the yeast surface display may be used for allergen discovery from cDNA libraries and possibly for sublingual immunotherapy as the cells can serve as good adjuvant and can be produced in large amounts at a low price.

  14. Evidence that Cerambycid Beetles Mimic Vespid Wasps in Odor as well as Appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert F; Curkovic, Tomislav; Mongold-Diers, Judith A; Neuteboom, Lara; Galbrecht, Hans-Martin; Tröger, Armin; Bergmann, Jan; Francke, Wittko; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2017-01-01

    We present evidence that cerambycid species that are supposed mimics of vespid wasps also mimic their model's odor by producing spiroacetals, common constituents of vespid alarm pheromones. Adults of the North American cerambycids Megacyllene caryae (Gahan) and Megacyllene robiniae (Forster) are conspicuously patterned yellow and black, and are believed to be mimics of aculeate Hymenoptera, such as species of Vespula and Polistes. Adult males of M. caryae produce an aggregation-sex pheromone, but both sexes produce a pungent odor when handled, which has been assumed to be a defensive response. Headspace aerations of agitated females of M. caryae contained 16 compounds with mass spectra characteristic of spiroacetals of eight distinct chemical structures, with the dominant compound being (7E,2E)-7-ethyl-2-methyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane. Headspace samples of agitated males of M. caryae contained five of the same components, with the same dominant compound. Females of M. robiniae produced six different spiroacetals, one of which was not produced by M. caryae, (2E,7E)-2-ethyl-7-methyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane, and five that were shared with M. caryae, including the dominant (2E,8E)-2,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane. The latter compound is the sole spiroacetal produced by both males and females of a South American cerambycid species, Callisphyris apicicornis (Fairmaire & Germain), which is also thought to be a wasp mimic. Preliminary work also identified spiroacetals of similar or identical structure released by vespid wasps that co-occur with the Megacyllene species.

  15. Multifaceted defense against antagonistic microbes in developing offspring of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Weiss

    Full Text Available Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R-(--mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R-(--mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R-(--mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum. We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R-(--mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several

  16. Colitis and Colon Cancer in WASP-Deficient Mice Require Helicobacter Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Deanna D.; Muthupalani, Suresh; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Eston, Michelle A.; Mobley, Melissa; Taylor, Nancy S.; McCabe, Amanda; Marin, Romela; Snapper, Scott B.; Fox, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP)-deficient patients and mice are immunodeficient and can develop inflammatory bowel disease. The intestinal microbiome is critical to the development of colitis in most animal models, in which, Helicobacter spp. have been implicated in disease pathogenesis. We sought to determine the role of Helicobacter spp. in colitis development in WASP-deficient (WKO) mice. Methods Feces from WKO mice raised under specific pathogen free conditions were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter spp., after which, a subset of mice were rederived in Helicobacter spp.-free conditions. Helicobacter spp.-free WKO animals were subsequently infected with Helicobacter bilis. Results Helicobacter spp. were detected in feces from WKO mice. After re-derivation in Helicobacter spp.-free conditions, WKO mice did not develop spontaneous colitis but were susceptible to radiation-induced colitis. Moreover, a T-cell transfer model of colitis dependent on WASP-deficient innate immune cells also required Helicobacter spp. colonization. Helicobacter bilis infection of rederived WKO mice led to typhlitis and colitis. Most notably, several H. bilis-infected animals developed dysplasia with 10% demonstrating colon carcinoma, which was not observed in uninfected controls. Conclusions Spontaneous and T-cell transfer, but not radiation-induced, colitis in WKO mice is dependent on the presence of Helicobacter spp. Furthermore, H. bilis infection is sufficient to induce typhlocolitis and colon cancer in Helicobacter spp.-free WKO mice. This animal model of a human immunodeficiency with chronic colitis and increased risk of colon cancer parallels what is seen in human colitis and implicates specific microbial constituents in promoting immune dysregulation in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:23820270

  17. Plants attract parasitic wasps to defend themselves against insect pests by releasing hexenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant volatiles play an important role in defending plants against insect attacks by attracting their natural enemies. For example, green leaf volatiles (GLVs and terpenoids emitted from herbivore-damaged plants were found to be important in the host location of parasitic wasps. However, evidence of the functional roles and mechanisms of these semio-chemicals from a system of multiple plants in prey location by the parasitoid is limited. Little is known about the potential evolutionary trends between herbivore-induced host plant volatiles and the host location of their parasitoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study includes hierarchical cluster analyses of plant volatile profiles from seven families of host and non-host plants of pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, and behavioral responses of a naive parasitic wasp, Opius dissitus, to some principal volatile compounds. Here we show that plants can effectively pull wasps, O. dissitus, towards them by releasing a universally induced compound, (Z-3-hexenol, and potentially keep these plants safe from parasitic assaults by leafminer pests, L. huidobrensis. Specifically, we found that volatile profiles from healthy plants revealed a partly phylogenetic signal, while the inducible compounds of the infested-plants did not result from the fact that the induced plant volatiles dominate most of the volatile blends of the host and non-host plants of the leafminer pests. We further show that the parasitoids are capable of distinguishing the damaged host plant from the non-host plant of the leafminers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that, as the most passive scenario of plant involvement, leafminers and mechanical damages evoke similar semio-chemicals. Using ubiquitous compounds, such as hexenol, for host location by general parasitoids could be an adaptation of the most conservative evolution of tritrophic interaction. Although for this, other compounds may be

  18. Orbital alignment and star-spot properties in the WASP-52 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Raia, G.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Mollière, P.; Bozza, V.; Bretton, M.; Bruni, I.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Dominik, M.; Hinse, T. C.; Hundertmark, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Korhonen, H.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Starkey, D.; Calchi Novati, S.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Henning, Th.; Juncher, D.; Haugbølle, T.; Kains, N.; Popovas, A.; Schmidt, R. W.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Surdej, J.; Wertz, O.

    2017-02-01

    We report 13 high-precision light curves of eight transits of the exoplanet WASP-52 b, obtained by using four medium-class telescopes, through different filters, and adopting the defocussing technique. One transit was recorded simultaneously from two different observatories and another one from the same site but with two different instruments, including a multiband camera. Anomalies were clearly detected in five light curves and modelled as star-spots occulted by the planet during the transit events. We fitted the clean light curves with the JKTEBOP code, and those with the anomalies with the PRISM+GEMC codes in order to simultaneously model the photometric parameters of the transits and the position, size and contrast of each star-spot. We used these new light curves and some from the literature to revise the physical properties of the WASP-52 system. Star-spots with similar characteristics were detected in four transits over a period of 43 d. In the hypothesis that we are dealing with the same star-spot, periodically occulted by the transiting planet, we estimated the projected orbital obliquity of WASP-52 b to be λ = 3.8° ± 8.4°. We also determined the true orbital obliquity, ψ = 20° ± 50°, which is, although very uncertain, the first measurement of ψ purely from star-spot crossings. We finally assembled an optical transmission spectrum of the planet and searched for variations of its radius as a function of wavelength. Our analysis suggests a flat transmission spectrum within the experimental uncertainties.

  19. Seeing in the dark: vision and visual behaviour in nocturnal bees and wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2008-06-01

    In response to the pressures of predation, parasitism and competition for limited resources, several groups of (mainly) tropical bees and wasps have independently evolved a nocturnal lifestyle. Like their day-active (diurnal) relatives, these insects possess apposition compound eyes, a relatively light-insensitive eye design that is best suited to vision in bright light. Despite this, nocturnal bees and wasps are able to forage at night, with many species capable of flying through a dark and complex forest between the nest and a foraging site, a behaviour that relies heavily on vision and is limited by light intensity. In the two best-studied species - the Central American sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae) and the Indian carpenter bee Xylocopa tranquebarica (Apidae) - learned visual landmarks are used to guide foraging and homing. Their apposition eyes, however, have only around 30 times greater optical sensitivity than the eyes of their closest diurnal relatives, a fact that is apparently inconsistent with their remarkable nocturnal visual abilities. Moreover, signals generated in the photoreceptors, even though amplified by a high transduction gain, are too noisy and slow to transmit significant amounts of information in dim light. How have nocturnal bees and wasps resolved these paradoxes? Even though this question remains to be answered conclusively, a mounting body of theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that the slow and noisy visual signals generated by the photoreceptors are spatially summed by second-order monopolar cells in the lamina, a process that could dramatically improve visual reliability for the coarser and slower features of the visual world at night.

  20. How to measure patch encounter rate: decision-making mechanisms in the parasitic wasp Asobara tabida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Andra

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic wasps are faced with the decision of where and for how long to search for hosts. Their leaving decisions depend on the rate at which new host-containing patches are encountered: parasitoids increase foraging efficiency by leaving earlier when patch encounter rates become higher. The mechanisms by which these often tiny insects can assess patch encounter rates have not been thoroughly investigated so far. The aim of the present study, where females of the braconid wasp Asobara tabida encountered patches after varying time intervals, was to measure the shape of the travel-time response curve and to analyse how information on inter-patch distances is translated into foraging behaviour. I examined several proxies for travel-time duration, like those of physiological nature as egg content, cues of senescence, amount of energy spent, or muscle fatigue, as well as true cognitive mechanisms, like measurement of distance or interval timing. Constraints in the wasp's ability to detect patch borders accurately after travelling, e.g. habituation to the patch odour or receptor blocking, are also discussed. From the data presented, most of the above-mentioned mechanisms and constraints can be rejected to work for A. tabida. The effects of inter-patch travel time are strongest when they are short, and even though it cannot be excluded that time measures are processed using an internal clock, I suggest that a Bayesian-like mechanism of timing, the biological basis of which might involve the build-up of neurosecretory material, is the most likely candidate influencing leaving decisions in A. tabida.