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Sample records for washing bench scale

  1. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  2. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  3. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, M. K.; Srivastava, R. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using...

  4. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using plain water with surfactants as an enhancer was used to study the remediation of soil contaminated with (i an organic contaminant (engine lubricant oil and (ii an inorganic contaminant (heavy metal. The lubricant engine oil was used at different percentages (by dry weight of the soil to artificially contaminate the soil. It was found that geotechnical properties of the soil underwent large modifications on account of mixing with the lubricant oil. The sorption experiments were conducted with cadmium metal in aqueous medium at different initial concentration of the metal and at varying pH values of the sorbing medium. For the remediation of contaminated soil matrices, a nonionic surfactant was used for the restoration of geotechnical properties of lubricant oil contaminated soil samples, whereas an anionic surfactant was employed to desorb cadmium from the contaminated soil matrix. The surfactant in case of soil contaminated with the lubricant oil was able to restore properties to an extent of 98% vis-à-vis the virgin soil, while up to 54% cadmium was desorbed from the contaminated soil matrix in surfactant aided desorption experiments.

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues in bench scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Celia; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered a hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions; however, most commercial....... A system resembling conventional electrodialysis was designed and adjusted to fit the high solids content feed solution (10% APC residue, 90% water). Experiments were made in bench scale with raw residue (natural pH > 12), water pre-residue (natural pH > 12), acid pre-washed residue (pH 10), and acid......-treated residue (pH 2). Our results show that the soluble fraction of the toxic elements Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn was removed from the feed solution and concentrated in the concentrate solution. Furthermore, the leaching (leaching test at L/S 2) of these elements was substantially reduced during treatment (fig. 1...

  6. Development of a bench scale biomass torrefier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ja'afar, M. N.; Abd Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Cofiring biomass with coal has become very popular with power utilities to reduce fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. It is relatively easy to implement on most common pulverised coal plants. However, raw biomass is difficult to utilise and requires upgrading to a higher quality fuel to substitute coal. Upgrading by torrefaction can improve the properties of biomass close to low rank coals suitable for cofiring. In this study, a bench scale torrefier was developed to produce torrefied biomass samples for further studies of its properties and combustion behaviour. The torrefier was developed from a domestic 1600W electric oven. Biomass pellets was then torrefied at 250 °C for 1 hour using this torrefier. Proximate analysis and gross calorific value (GCV) of the torrefied biomass were carried out. The results showed that GCV of the torrefied biomass had increased when compared to raw. The moisture content and volatile matter had decreased, and ash content and fixed carbon had increased as expected.

  7. Application of bench-scale biocalorimetry to photoautotrophic cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Patino, R.; Stockar, von U.

    2005-01-01

    Bench-scale biocalorimetry (=1 L) allows for the determination of the metabolic heat flow during bioprocesses under complete control of all process conditions for extended periods of time. It can be combined with a number of on-line and off-line measurement techniques. This combination can

  8. Lab and Bench-Scale Pelletization of Torrefied Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Combined torrefaction and pelletization is used to increase the fuel value of biomass by increasing its energy density and improving its handling and combustion properties. In the present study, a single-pellet press tool was used to screen for the effects of pellet die temperature, moisture...... content, additive addition, and the degree of torrefaction on the pelletizing properties and pellet quality, i.e., density, static friction, and pellet strength. Results were compared with pellet production using a bench-scale pelletizer. The results indicate that friction is the key factor when scaling...... up from single-pellet press to bench-scale pelletizer. Tuning moisture content or increasing the die temperature did not ease the pellet production of torrefied wood chips significantly. The addition of rapeseed oil as a lubricant reduced the static friction by half and stabilized pellet production...

  9. Experimental and modelling studies on continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel in a dedicated bench scale unit using centrifugal contactor separator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Martinez, Alberto Fernandez; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    Continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel (FAME) using a laboratory scale bench scale unit was explored. The unit consists of three major parts: (i) a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) to perform the reaction between sunflower oil and methanol; (ii) a washing unit for the crude

  10. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-12-06

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird{reg_sign} sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method.

  11. Bench-Scale Filtration Testing in Support of the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-09-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP testing program specifies that bench-scale testing is to be performed in support of specific operations, including filtration, caustic leaching, and oxidative leaching.

  12. 100 Area groundwater biodenitrification bench-scale treatability study procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, B.M.; Martin, K.R.

    1993-05-01

    This document describes the methodologies and procedures for conducting the bench-scale biodenitrification treatability tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory{sup a} (PNL). Biodenitrification is the biological conversion of nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen. The tests will use statistically designed batch studies to determine if biodenitrification can reduce residual nitrate concentrations to 45 mg/L, the current maximum contaminant level (MCL). These tests will be carried out in anaerobic flasks with a carbon source added to demonstrate nitrate removal. At the pilot scale, an incremental amount of additional carbon will be required to remove the small amount of oxygen present in the incoming groundwater. These tests will be conducted under the guidance of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-92-73) and the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE/RL-92-48) using groundwater from 100-HR-3. In addition to the procedures, requirements for safety, quality assurance, reporting, and schedule are given. Appendices include analytical procedures, a Quality Assurance Project Plan, a Health and Safety Plan, and Applicable Material Data Safety Sheets. The procedures contained herein are designed specifically for the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan, and while the author believes that the methods described herein are scientifically valid, the procedures should not be construed or mistaken to be generally applicable to any other treatability study.

  13. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the

  14. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

    1994-11-01

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  15. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact and versatile laboratory tubular reactor has been designed and fabricated keeping in view of reducing capital cost and minimising energy consumption for gas/vapor-phase heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The reactor is consisted of two coaxial corning glass tubes with a helical coil of glass tube in between the coaxial tubes serving as vaporiser and pre-heater, the catalyst bed is in the inner tube. A schematic diagram of the reactor with detailed dimensions and working principles are described. The attractive feature of the reactor is that the vaporiser, pre-heater and fixed bed reactor are merged in a single compact unit. Thus, the unit minimises separate vaporiser and pre-heater, also avoids separate furnaces used for them and eliminate auxiliary instrumentation such as temperature controller etc. To demonstrate the system operation and illustrate the key features, catalyst screening data and the efficient collection of complete, and accurate intrinsic kinetic data are provided for oxidation of CO over copper chromite catalyst. CO oxidation is an important reaction for auto-exhaust pollution control. The suitability of the versatile nature of the reactor has been ascertained for catalytic reactions where either volatile or vaporizable feeds can be introduced to the reaction zone, e.g. oxidation of iso-octane, reduction of nitric oxide, dehydrogenation of methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol, hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline, etc. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 February 2009, Accepted: 9 May 2009][How to Cite: R. Prasad, G. Rattan. (2009. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 5-9.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9

  16. Cross contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 between lettuce and wash water during home-scale washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Friedrich, Loretta M; Harris, Linda J; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Lettuce and leafy greens have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study quantifies cross contamination between lettuce pieces in a small-scale home environment. A five-strain cocktail of relevant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains was used. Bacterial transfer between single inoculated lettuce leaf pieces to 10 non-inoculated lettuce leaf pieces that were washed in a stainless steel bowl of water for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, and 5 min was quantified. Regardless of washing time, the wash water became contaminated with 90-99% of bacteria originally present on the inoculated lettuce leaf piece. The E. coli O157:H7 concentration on initially inoculated leaf pieces was reduced ∼ 2 log CFU. Each initially uncontaminated lettuce leaf piece had ∼ 1% of the E. coli O157:H7 from the inoculated lettuce piece transferred to it after washing, with more transfer occurring during the shortest (30 s) and longest (5 min) wash times. In all cases the log percent transfer rates were essentially normally distributed. In all scenarios, most of the E. coli O157:H7 (90-99%) transferred from the inoculated lettuce pieces to the wash water. Washing with plain tap water reduces levels of E. coli O157:H7 on the inoculated lettuce leaf pieces, but also spreads contamination to previously uncontaminated leaf pieces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast Pyrolysis Process Development Unit for Validating Bench Scale Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Biorenewables Research Lab.. Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies. Bioeconomy Inst.; Jones, Samuel T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Biorenewables Research Lab.. Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies. Bioeconomy Inst.

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project was to prepare and operate a fast pyrolysis process development unit (PDU) that can validate experimental data generated at the bench scale. In order to do this, a biomass preparation system, a modular fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor, modular gas clean-up systems, and modular bio-oil recovery systems were designed and constructed. Instrumentation for centralized data collection and process control were integrated. The bio-oil analysis laboratory was upgraded with the addition of analytical equipment needed to measure C, H, O, N, S, P, K, and Cl. To provide a consistent material for processing through the fluidized bed fast pyrolysis reactor, the existing biomass preparation capabilities of the ISU facility needed to be upgraded. A stationary grinder was installed to reduce biomass from bale form to 5-10 cm lengths. A 25 kg/hr rotary kiln drier was installed. It has the ability to lower moisture content to the desired level of less than 20% wt. An existing forage chopper was upgraded with new screens. It is used to reduce biomass to the desired particle size of 2-25 mm fiber length. To complete the material handling between these pieces of equipment, a bucket elevator and two belt conveyors must be installed. The bucket elevator has been installed. The conveyors are being procured using other funding sources. Fast pyrolysis bio-oil, char and non-condensable gases were produced from an 8 kg/hr fluidized bed reactor. The bio-oil was collected in a fractionating bio-oil collection system that produced multiple fractions of bio-oil. This bio-oil was fractionated through two separate, but equally important, mechanisms within the collection system. The aerosols and vapors were selectively collected by utilizing laminar flow conditions to prevent aerosol collection and electrostatic precipitators to collect the aerosols. The vapors were successfully collected through a selective condensation process. The combination of these two mechanisms

  18. Catalytic Pyrolysis of Oak via Pyroprobe and Bench Scale, Packed Bed Pyrolysis Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pyrolytic conversion of oak sawdust at 500°C in flowing He over eight proprietary catalysts is described and compared to the control bed material, quartz sand. The reactions were conducted and compared in two reactors, an analytical, ug-scale pyroprobe reactor and a bench, g-scale packed bed re...

  19. Importance of the Wheel Vertical Dynamics in the Squeal Noise Mechanism on a Scaled Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Collette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the wheel vertical dynamics in the mechanism of squeal noise on a scaled test bench. To this purpose, sustained oscillations are first studied on a single degree of freedom oscillator, considering both a decreasing slope of the friction curve and a vertical excitation. Their relative importance to sustain the oscillations is discussed. Then, a mathematical model of a quarter scale test bench is developed in the frequency domain. Using this model, it is shown that the squeal noise resulting from the excitation of the bending modes of the wheel is sustained because these bending modes are associated with variations of the vertical contact force. Results are further confirmed by experiments conducted on a scaled test bench.

  20. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling

  1. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  2. Domestic Wastewater Reuse in Concrete Using Bench-Scale Testing and Full-Scale Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoup M. Ghrair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand for fresh water by the construction sector is expected to increase due to the high increase in the growth of construction activities in Jordan. This study aims to evaluate the potential of scale-up of the application of treated domestic wastewater in concrete from bench-scale to a full-scale. On the lab scale, concrete and mortar mixes using Primary and Secondary Treated Wastewater (PTW, STW and Distilled Water (DW were cast and tested after various curing ages (7, 28, 120, and 200 days. Based on wastewater quality, according to IS 456-2000, the STW is suitable for mortar and concrete production. Mortar made with STW at curing time up to 200 days has no significant negative effect on the mortar’s compressive strength. Conversely, the PTW exceeded the maximum permissible limits of total organic content and E coli. for concrete mixing-water. Using PTW results, a significant increase in the initial setting time of up to 16.7% and a decrease in the concrete workability are observed. In addition, using PTW as mixing water led to a significant reduction in the compressive strength up to 19.6%. The results that came out from scaling up to real production operation of ready-mix concrete were in harmony with the lab-scale results.

  3. Bench scale demonstration of the Supermethanol concept : The synthesis of methanol from glycerol derived syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, J. G.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Assink, D.; Lemmens, K. P. J.; Heeres, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    An integrated process for the synthesis of methanol from aqueous glycerol involving reforming of the feed to syngas followed by methanol synthesis is successfully demonstrated in a continuous bench scale unit. Glycerol reforming was carried out at pressures of 24-27 MPa and temperatures of 948-998 K

  4. DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

  5. MULTICOMPONENT AEROSOL DYNAMICS OF THE PB-O2 SYSTEM IN A BENCH SCALE FLAME INCINERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was carried out to understand the formation and growth of lead particles in a flame incinerator. A bench scale flame incinerator was used to perform controlled experiments with lead acetate as a test compound. A dilution probe in conjunction with real-time aerosol instrum...

  6. Development of a bench-scale fluidized bed combustor (FBC) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coconut shell) using the relevant ASTM guidelines. For coal combustion, the characteristic quantities measured from the bench-scale fluidized bed combustion include a mean NOx emission of 455.35, 376.69, 323.35 and 277.35 ppm for a ...

  7. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARRINGTON SJ

    2011-01-06

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  8. Steam Reforming, 6-in. Bench-Scale Design and Testing Project -- Technical and Functional Requirements Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losinski, Sylvester John; Marshall, Douglas William

    2002-08-01

    Feasibility studies and technology development work are currently being performed on several processes to treat radioactive liquids and solids currently stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies and development work will be used to select a treatment process for treatment of the radioactive liquids and solids to meet treatment milestones of the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One process under consideration for treating the radioactive liquids and solids, specifically Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) and tank heel solids, is fluid bed steam reforming (FBSR). To support both feasibility and development studies a bench-scale FBSR is being designed and constructed. This report presents the technical and functional requirements, experimental objectives, process flow sheets, and equipment specifications for the bench-scale FBSR.

  9. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have established TDS wastewater regulations and the US EPA has proposed a benchmark conductivity limit to reduce TDS impacts in streams near mining sites. Traditional CMW treatment effectively removes some TDS components, but is not effective in removing major salt ions due to their higher solubility. This paper describes the basic principles, effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of various TDS removal technologies (adsorption, bioremediation, capacitive deionization, desalination, electro-chemical ion exchange, electrocoagulation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation, and reverse osmosis) that have at least been tested in bench- and pilot-scale experiments. Recent discussions about new regulations to include total dissolved solids TDS) limits would propel interest in the TDS removal technologies focused on coal mine water. TDS removal is not a new concept and has been developed using different technologies for a number of applications, but coal mine water has unique characteristics (depending on the site, mining process, and solid-water-oxygen interactions), which make it unlikely to have a single technology predominating over others. What are some novel technolog

  10. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Drira, Anis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reed, Frederick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  11. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlquist, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Technology Development Div.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  12. Screening of phenylpyruvic acid producers and optimization of culture conditions in bench scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

    2014-11-01

    Alpha keto acids are deaminated forms of amino acids that have received significant attention as feed and food additives in the agriculture and medical industries. To date, their production has been commonly performed at shake-flask scale with low product concentrations. In this study, production of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), which is the alpha keto acid of phenylalanine was investigated. First, various microorganisms were screened to select the most efficient producer. Thereafter, growth parameters (temperature, pH, and aeration) were optimized in bench scale bioreactors to maximize both PPA and biomass concentration in bench scale bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Among the four different microorganisms evaluated, Proteus vulgaris was the most productive strain for PPA production. Optimum temperature, pH, and aeration conditions were determined as 34.5 °C, 5.12, and 0.5 vvm for PPA production, whereas 36.9 °C, pH 6.87, and 0.96 vvm for the biomass production. Under these optimum conditions, PPA concentration was enhanced to 1,054 mg/L, which was almost three times higher than shake-flask fermentation concentrations. Moreover, P. vulgaris biomass was produced at 3.25 g/L under optimum conditions. Overall, this study demonstrated that optimization of growth parameters improved PPA production in 1-L working volume bench-scale bioreactors compared to previous studies in the literature and was a first step to scale up the production to industrial production.

  13. Management of Acidic Mine Waste Water by Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems: A Bench Scale Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sheoran, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have emerged as a viable option for treatment of acidic mine wastewater. Bench scale experiments were conducted, to evaluate the performance of wetland treatment system, with emergent macrophyte Desmostachya bipinnata and substrate (containing powdered goat manure, wood shavings and soil) for 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 hours of retention period for different water column heights (100mm, 150mm and 200mm). Within 24 hours of retention period the pH increased from 2.93 to 7.22, ...

  14. Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II

    1982-07-01

    This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 226/Ra from existing waste solutions.

  15. Design of Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Benjamin

    2012-06-30

    The major goal of the project is to design and optimize a bench-scale process for novel silicone CO{sub 2}-capture solvents and establish scalability and potential for commercialization of post-combustion capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants. This system should be capable of 90% capture efficiency and demonstrate that less than 35% increase in the cost of energy services can be achieved upon scale-up. Experiments were conducted to obtain data required for design of the major unit operations. The bench-scale system design has been completed, including sizing of major unit operations and the development of a detailed Process and Instrument Diagram (P&ID). The system has been designed to be able to operate over a wide range of process conditions so that the effect of various process variables on performance can be determined. To facilitate flexibility in operation, the absorption column has been designed in a modular manner, so that the height of the column can be varied. The desorber has also been designed to allow for a range of residence times, temperatures, and pressures. The system will be fabricated at Techniserv Inc.

  16. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Benjamin; Genovese, Sarah; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Farnum, Rachael; Sing, Surinder; Wilson, Paul; Buckley, Paul; Acharya, Harish; Chen, Wei; McDermott, John; Vipperia, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    A bench-scale system was designed and built to test an aminosilicone-based solvent. A model was built of the bench-scale system and this model was scaled up to model the performance of a carbon capture unit, using aminosilicones, for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) for a pulverized coal (PC) boiler at 550 MW. System and economic analysis for the carbon capture unit demonstrates that the aminosilicone solvent has significant advantages relative to a monoethanol amine (MEA)-based system. The CCS energy penalty for MEA is 35.9% and the energy penalty for aminosilicone solvent is 30.4% using a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the energy penalty for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to 29%. The increase in cost of electricity (COE) over the non-capture case for MEA is ~109% and increase in COE for aminosilicone solvent is ~98 to 103% depending on the solvent cost at a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the increase in COE for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to ~95-100%.

  17. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation. Small-Scale Demonstration and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Irreversible Wash Aid Additive process has been under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). This process for radioactive cesium mitigation consists of a solution to wash down contaminated structures, roadways, and vehicles and a sequestering agent to bind the radionuclides from the wash water and render them environmentally immobile. The purpose of this process is to restore functionality to basic services and immediately reduce the consequences of a radiologically-contaminated urban environment. Research and development have resulted in a down-selection of technologies for integration and demonstration at the pilot-scale level as part of the Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) under the Department of Homeland Security and the Denver Urban Area Security Initiative. As part of developing the methods for performing a pilot-scale demonstration at the WARRP conference in Denver in 2012, Argonne conducted small-scale field experiments at Separmatic Systems. The main purpose of these experiments was to refine the wash water collection and separations systems and demonstrate key unit operations to help in planning for the large scale demonstration in Denver. Since the purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the operations of the system, we used no radioactive materials. After a brief set of experiments with the LAKOS unit to familiarize ourselves with its operation, two experiments were completed on two separate dates with the Separmatic systems.

  18. Reduction of microbial counts during kitchen scale washing and sanitization of salad vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssemanda, James Noah; Joosten, Han; Bagabe, Mark Cyubahiro; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Reij, Martine W.

    2018-01-01

    Washing with or without sanitizers is one of the important steps designated to reduce or eliminate microbial hazards in fresh vegetables but the settings, conditions and effectiveness of this step remain contentious. In this study, we investigated kitchen scale salad preparation practices in a field

  19. Bench scale testing of micronized magnetite beneficiation. Quarterly technical progress report 4, October--December, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, K.

    1994-01-25

    This project is aimed at development of a process that, by using ultra fine magnetite suspension, would expand the application of heavy media separation technology to processing fine, {minus}28 mesh coals. These coal fines, produced during coal mining and crushing, are separated in the conventional coal preparation plant and generally impounded in a tailings pond. Development of an economic process for processing these fines into marketable product will expand the utilization of coal for power production in an environmentally acceptable and economically viable way. This process has been successfully researched at PETC but has not been studied on a continuous bench-scale unit, which is a necessary step towards commercial development of this promising technology. The goal of the program is to investigate the technology in a continuous circuit at a reasonable scale to provide a design basis for larger plants and a commercial feasibility data.

  20. A novel bench-scale column assay to investigate site-specific nitrification biokinetics in biological rapid sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A bench-scale assay was developed to obtain site-specific nitrification biokinetic information from biological rapid sand filters employed in groundwater treatment. The experimental set-up uses granular material subsampled from a full-scale filter, packed in a column, and operated with controlled...

  1. Residual moisture reduction of coarse coal using air purging. 1. Bench scale studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, B.K.; Nicol, S.K.; Veal, C.J. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Energy Technology

    2001-02-01

    Air purging is a new way of reducing the moisture content of coarse coal product from vibrating basket centrifuges. The process concept involves the injection of a turbulent stream of high velocity air through the coal bed as it traverses the centrifuge basket. This paper describes some of the basic work that was undertaken to establish the feasibility of this approach, including bench-scale experiments. Tests in a purpose-designed batch centrifuge basket, in which the sample was spun and purged at the same time, showed that air purging was effective on a rank range of coals, the higher rank coals responding the best. Under these idealised conditions, substantial moisture reductions of between 1.5 and2.7 wt% were achieved. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  3. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW{sub t} reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz-lamp-heated boilers to screen candidate boiling-stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750{degree}C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot-press-sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric-discharge-machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  4. Salmonella transfer during pilot plant scale washing and roller conveying of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella transfer during washing and roller conveying of inoculated tomatoes was quantified using a pilot scale tomato packing line equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers. Red round tomatoes (2.3 kg) were dip inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (avirulent) (4 log CFU/g), air dried for 2 h, and then washed in sanitizer-free water for 2 min. Inoculated tomatoes were then passed single file over a 1.5-m conveyor equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers followed by 25 previously washed uninoculated tomatoes. Tomato samples were collected after 2 min of both washing and roller conveying, with all 25 uninoculated tomatoes collected individually after conveying. Roller surface samples were collected before and after conveying the uninoculated tomatoes. Both tomato and surface samples were quantitatively examined for Salmonella by direct plating or membrane filtration using xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. Regardless of the roller type, Salmonella populations on inoculated tomatoes did not significantly (P 100 CFU per tomato. With plastic rollers, 24 and 76% of tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at 10 to 100 and 1 to 10 CFU per tomato, respectively. In contrast, only 8% of 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with brush rollers with Salmonella populations of 1 to 10 CFU per tomato. Overall, cross-contamination was greatest with foam, followed by plastic and brush rollers (P brush rollers.

  5. Runoff and sediment generation on bench -terraced hillsides: measurements and up-scaling of a field-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vertessy, R.A.; Ruijter, J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite widespread bench-terracing, stream sediment yields from agricultural hillsides in upland West Java remain high. We studied the causes of this lack of effect by combining measurements at different spatial scales using an erosion process model. Event runoff and sediment yield from two 4-ha

  6. Bench scale steam explosion pretreatment of acid impregnated elephant grass biomass and its impacts on biomass composition, structure and hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kataria, Rashmi; Mol, Annemerel; Schulten, Els; Happel, Anton; Mussatto, Solange I.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, an acid mediated steam explosion process was evaluated for pretreatment of elephant grass biomass in a bench scale reactor. Different combinations of H2SO4 concentration, reaction time and temperature (leading to different values of combined severity factor - CSF) were used for

  7. Recycling of polyethene and polypropene in a novel bench-scale rotating cone reactor by high temperature pyrolysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Westerhout, R.W.J.; Waanders, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1998-01-01

    The high-temperature pyrolysis of polyethene (PE), polypropene (PP), and mixtures of these polymers was studied in a novel bench-scale rotating cone reactor (RCR). Experiments showed that the effect of the sand or reactor temperature on the product spectrum obtained is large compared to the effect

  8. Pyrolysis of automotive shredder residue in a bench scale rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Michele; Cornacchia, Giacinto; De Gisi, Sabino; Di Canio, Francesco; Freda, Cesare; Garzone, Pietro; Martino, Maria; Valerio, Vito; Villone, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Automotive shredder residue (ASR) can create difficulties when managing, with its production increasing. It is made of different type of plastics, foams, elastomers, wood, glasses and textiles. For this reason, it is complicated to dispose of in a cost effective way, while also respecting the stringent environmental restrictions. Among thermal treatments, pyrolysis seems to offer an environmentally attractive method for the treatment of ASR; it also allows for the recovery of valuable secondary materials/fuels such as pyrolysis oils, chars, and gas. While, there is a great deal of significant research on ASR pyrolysis, the literature on higher scale pyrolysis experiments is limited. To improve current literature, the aim of the study was to investigate the pyrolysis of ASR in a bench scale rotary kiln. The Italian ASR was separated by dry-sieving into two particle size fractions: d30mm. Both the streams were grounded, pelletized and then pyrolyzed in a continuous bench scale rotary kiln at 450, 550 and 650°C. The mass flow rate of the ASR pellets was 200-350g/h and each test ran for about 4-5h. The produced char, pyrolysis oil and syngas were quantified to determine product distribution. They were thoroughly analyzed with regard to their chemical and physical properties. The results show how higher temperatures increase the pyrolysis gas yield (44wt% at 650°C) as well as its heating value. The low heating value (LHV) of syngas ranges between 18 and 26MJ/Nm 3 dry. The highest pyrolysis oil yield (33wt.%) was observed at 550°C and its LHV ranges between 12.5 and 14.5MJ/kg. Furthermore, only two out of the six produced chars respect the LHV limit set by the Italian environmental regulations for landfilling. The obtained results in terms of product distribution and their chemical-physical analyses provide useful information for plant scale-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion.

  10. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  11. Optimal sludge retention time for a bench scale MBR treating municipal sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollice, A; Laera, G; Saturno, D; Giordano, C; Sandulli, R

    2008-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors allow for higher sludge concentrations and improved degradation efficiencies with respect to conventional activated sludge. However, in the current practice these systems are often operated under sub-optimal conditions, since so far no precise indications have yet been issued on the optimal operating conditions of MBR for municipal wastewater treatment. This paper reports some results of four years of operation of a bench scale membrane bioreactor where steady state conditions were investigated under different sludge retention times. The whole experimental campaign was oriented towards the investigation of optimal process conditions in terms of COD removal and nitrification, biomass activity and growth, and sludge characteristics. The membrane bioreactor treated real municipal sewage, and four different sludge ages were tested (20, 40, 60, and 80 days) and compared with previous data on complete sludge retention. The results showed that the the biology of the system, as assessed by the oxygen uptake rate, is less affected than the sludge physical parameters. In particular, although the growth yield was observed to dramatically drop for SRT higher than 80 days, the biological activity was maintained under all the tested conditions. These considerations suggest that high SRT are convenient in terms of limited excess sludge production without losses of the treatment capacity. Physical characteristics such as the viscosity and the filterability appear to be negatively affected by prolonged sludge retention times, but their values remain within the ranges normally reported for conventional activated sludge.

  12. Performance of a Small-scale Treatment Wetland for Treatment of Landscaping Wash Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. J.; Fayed, E.; Fish, W.

    2011-12-01

    A large number of lawn mowers and related equipment must be cleaned each day by commercial landscaping operations and state and local highway maintenance crews. Washing these devices produces wastewater that contains high amounts of organic matter and potentially problematic nutrients, as well as oil and grease and other chemicals and metals that come from the machinery itself. Dirty water washes off the mowers, flows off the pavement and into nearby storm drains without any kind of treatment. A better idea would be to collect such wastewater, retain it in an appropriate catchment such as an engineered wetland where natural processes could break down any pollutants in the wash water, and allow the water to naturally evaporate or percolate into the soil where it could recharge ground water resources safely. This research examines the performance of a small-scale treatment wetland tailored to remove nitrogen from landscaping wash water by incorporating both aerobic and anaerobic phases. Contaminants are analyzed through physical and chemical methods. Both methods involve collection of samples, followed by standardized, validated analytical laboratory tests for measuring total solids, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrates, total and dissolved phosphorus, COD, BOD, oil and grease, and metals (Zn and Cu). High levels of total solids, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrates, total and dissolved phosphorus, COD, BOD, oil and grease are found. Zinc and copper levels are low. Wetland treatment removes 99% total solids, 77% total kjeldahl nitrogen, 100% nitrates, 94% total phosphorus, 86% dissolved phosphorus, 94% COD, 97% BOD, and 76% oil and grease. The results will be a critical step towards developing a sustainable low-energy system for treating such wastewater that could be used by private landscaping companies and government agencies.

  13. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Full-Scale Monitoring & Bench-Scale Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of: 1) Lake Erie 2014 bloom season full-scale treatment plant monitoring data for cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria toxins; 2) Follow-up work to examine the impact of pre-oxidation on suspensions of intact toxin-producing cyanobacterial cells.

  14. Experience gained in pilot-scale and bench-scale fluidised beds processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available , considerable progress has been made. The earliest developments were in coal combustion. Work has been done on in-bed sulphur capture to reduce the sulphur dioxide off-gas content. Expertise in the design and commissioning of industrial-scale plants has led...

  15. Results of bench-scale plasma system testing in support of the Plasma Hearth Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leatherman, G.L.; Cornelison, C. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frank, S. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature process that destroys hazardous organic components and stabilizes the radioactive components and hazardous metals in a leach-resistant vitreous slag waste form. The PHP technology development program is targeted at mixed waste that cannot be easily treated by conventional means. For example, heterogeneous debris, which may contain hazardous organics, toxic metals, and radionuclides, is difficult to characterize and cannot be treated with conventional thermal, chemical, or physical treatment methods. A major advantage of the PHP over other plasma processes is its ability to separate nonradioactive, non-hazardous metals from the non-metallic and radioactive components which are contained in the vitreous slag. The overall PHP program involves the design, fabrication, and operation of test hardware to demonstrate and certify that the PHP concept is viable for DOE waste treatment. The program involves bench-scale testing of PHP equipment in radioactive service, as well as pilot-scale demonstration of the PHP concept using nonradioactive, surrogate test materials. The fate of secondary waste streams is an important consideration for any technology considered for processing mixed waste. The main secondary waste stream generated by the PHP is flyash captured by the fabric- filter baghouse. The PHP concept is that flyash generated by the process can, to a large extent, be treated by processing this secondary waste stream in the PHP. Prior to the work presented in the paper, however, the PHP project has not quantitatively demonstrated the ability to treat PHP generated flyash. A major consideration is the quantity of radionuclides and RCRA-regulated metals in the flyash that can be retained the resultant waste form.

  16. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  17. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2014.

  18. Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Connolly, J.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m{sup 3} at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s to 6.6 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed.

  19. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO{sub 2} capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a bench-scale continuous CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. SiVance LLC was sub-contracted to provide the GAP-1m material and conduct an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP-1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA) were also identified for analysis. All of the solvent components and DDBSA are listed on the EPA’s TSCA Inventory allowing companies to manufacture and use the chemicals commercially. The toxicological effects of each component were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. An engineering and control system, including environmental abatement, was described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  20. Bench-scale biofilter for removing ammonia from poultry house exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S B; Basden, T J; Bhumbla, D K

    2003-01-01

    A bench-scale biofilter was evaluated for removing ammonia (NH3) from poultry house exhaust. The biofilter system was equipped with a compost filter to remove NH3 and calcium oxide (CaO) filter to remove carbon dioxide (CO2). Removal of NH3 and CO2 from poultry house exhaust could allow treated air with residual heat to be recirculated back into the poultry house to conserve energy during winter months. Apart from its use as a plant nutrient, NH3 removal from poultry house exhaust could lessen the adverse environmental impacts of NH3 emissions. Ammonia and CO2 were measured daily with gas detector tubes while temperatures in the poultry pen and compost filter were monitored to evaluate the thermal impact of the biofilter on treated air. During the first 37 days of the 54-day study, exhaust air from 33 birds housed in a pen was treated in the biofilter; for the final 17 days, NH3-laden exhaust, obtained by applying urea to the empty pen was treated in the biofilter. The biofilter system provided near-complete attenuation of a maximum short-term NH3 concentration of 73 ppm. During the last 17 days, with a mean influent NH3 concentration of 26 ppm, the biofilter provided 97% attenuation. The CaO filter was effective in attenuating CO2. Compared with a biofilter sized only for NH3 removal, an oversized biofilter would be required to provide supplemental heat to the treated air through exothermic biochemical reactions in the compost. The biofilter could conserve energy in poultry production and capture NH3 for use as plant nutrient. Based on this study, a house for 27,000 broilers would require a compost filter with a volume of approximately 34 m3.

  1. Bench-scale recovery of phosphorus from flushed dairy manure wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Willie G; Wilkie, Ann C; Cao, Xinde; Sirengo, Roy

    2008-05-01

    Recovery of phosphorus (P) from flushed dairy manure in an easily-dewatered form would enable farmers to manage P as a resource rather than land-apply it in excess at environmental risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (i) the feasibility of P recovery and (ii) the form of recovered P from flushed dairy manure wastewater using crystallization in a fluidized-bed reactor. Wastewater was pumped directly from a dairy farm reservoir and continuously fed in parallel through four bench-scale fluidized-bed reactors deployed on-site. Chemical additives (NaOH and MgSO4) required for recovery were injected directly into the zone of fluidization. Recovered P forms were assessed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and micro-elemental analysis. Recovery of P as poorly-crystalline hydroxylapatite (HAP) was documented in coatings ultrasonically removed from quartz seed grains following fluidization at elevated pH in conjunction with MgSO4 injection. Addition of MgSO4 was required to prevent CaCO3 precipitation upon pH elevation and hence enable calcium phosphate precipitation. It is likely that MgSO4 inhibited CaCO3 via formation of MgCO3 (aq). Periclase (MgO), which also served as an effective seed material, generated sufficient alkalinity at grain surfaces to precipitate abundant CaCO3 and in some cases detectable Ca phosphate even without NaOH addition to elevate pH of bulk solution.

  2. Bench-scale arc melter for R&D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800{degrees}C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter`s ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions.

  3. Bench-Scale Evaluation of the Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Wastewater Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2017-10-03

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of the Genifuel hydrothermal process technology for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge (11.9 wt% solids), secondary sludge (9.7 wt% solids), and post-digester sludge (also referred to as digested solids) (16.0 wt% solids). Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. A comprehensive analysis of all feed and effluent phases was also performed. Total mass and carbon balances closed to within ± 15% in all but one case. Biocrude yields from HTL tests were 37%, 25%, and 34% for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. The biocrude yields accounted for 59%, 39%, and 49% of the carbon in the feed for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to that seen with biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating (i.e., upgrading) of the biocrude produced from primary sludge and digested solids resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to petroleum crude oil. CHG product gas consisted primarily of methane, with methane yields (relative to CHG input) on a carbon basis of 47%, 61%, and 64% for aqueous feeds that were the output of HTL tests with primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids, respectively. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below the detection limit and well below fuel input composition limits set by several engine manufacturers. Relative to that of the sludge feeds, the HTL-CHG process resulted in a reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) of greater than 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%. The test results, as a whole, support

  4. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McCloskey, Pat [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ananthasayanam, Balajee [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Lee, Julia [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wroczynski, Ron [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Stewart, Frederick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McNally, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rownaghi, Ali [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lu, Liu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Koros, William [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goizueta, Roberto [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was

  5. In-situ Subaqueous Capping of Mercury-Contaminated Sediments in a Fresh-Water Aquatic System, Part I-Bench-Scale Microcosm Study to Assess Methylmercury Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absenc...

  6. Soluble Microbial Product Characterization of Biofilm Formation in Bench-Scale

    KAUST Repository

    Mines, Paul

    2012-12-01

    The biological process known as activated sludge (AS) in conjunction with membrane separation technology for the treatment of wastewater has been employed for over four decades. While, membrane biological reactors (MBR) are now widely employed, the phenomenon of membrane fouling is still the most significant factor leading to performance decline of MBRs. Although much research has been done on the subject of MBR fouling over the past two decades, many questions remain unanswered, and consensus within the scientific community is rare. However, research has led to one system parameter generally being regarded as a contributor to membrane fouling, extracellular polymeric compounds (EPS). EPS, and more specifically, the soluble fraction of EPS known as soluble microbial products (SMP), must be further investigated in order to better understand membrane fouling. The biological activity and performance of the MBR is affected by myriad operational parameters, which in turn affects the SMP generated. A commonly varied operational parameter is, depending on the specific treatment needs of a MBR, the sludge retention time (SRT). This study aims to characterize the SMP in three bench-scale MBRs as the SRT is gradually lowered. By studying how the SMP change as the operation of the system is altered, greater understanding of how SMP are related to fouling can be achieved. At the onset of the study, a steady state was established in the system with a SRT of 20 days. Upon stabilization of a 20 day SRT, the system was gradually transitioned to a five and a half day SRT, in stepwise adjustments. Initially, both the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and the SMP concentrations were at relatively low values, indicating the presence of minimal amounts of biofilm on the membrane surfaces. As the system was altered and more activated sludge was wasted from the reactors, the SRT inherently decreased. As the lower SRT was transitioned and established, the data from TMP measurements, as well

  7. Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Caraher, Joel; Chen, Wei; Farnum, Rachael; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. In the first budget period of this project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance.

  8. Foliage and Grass as Fuel Pellets–Small Scale Combustion of Washed and Mechanically Leached Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hari Arti Khalsa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The high contents of disadvantageous elements contained in non-woody biomass are known to cause problems during small and large scale combustion, typically resulting in a higher risk of slagging, corrosion, and increased emissions. Mechanically leaching the respective elements from the biomass through a sequence of process steps has proven to be a promising solution.The florafuel process used here is comprised of size reduction followed by washing and subsequent mechanical dewatering of the biomass. Densification of the upgraded biomass into standardized pellets (Ø 6mm enables an application in existing small-scale boilers. The presented combustion trials investigated the performance of pellets made from leached grass, foliage and a mixture of both in two small-scale boilers (<100 kWth with slightly different technology (moving grate versus water-cooled burner tube during a 4-h measurement period. Emissions were in accordance with German emissions standards except for NOx (threshold is 0.50 g/m3 in the case of pure grass pellets (0.51 g/m3 and particulate matter (PM in all but one case (foliage, 13–16 mg/m3. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP unit installed with one of the boilers successfully reduced PM emission of both the grass and mixture fuel below the threshold of 20 mg/m3 (all emission values refer to 13 vol.% O2, at standard temperature and pressure (STP. Bottom ash composition and grate temperature profiles were analyzed and discussed for one of the boilers.

  9. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. using raw dairy wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production: Characteristics comparison of indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Wang, Xuewei; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    The biomass productivity and nutrient removal capacity of simultaneous Chlorella sp. cultivation for biodiesel production and nutrient removal in raw dairy wastewater (RDW) in indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors were compared. Results from the current work show that maximum biomass productivity in indoor bench-scale cultures can reach 260 mg L(-1) day(-1), compared to that of 110 mg L(-1) day(-1) in outdoor pilot-scale cultures. Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal rate obtained in indoor conditions was 88.38, 38.34, and 2.03 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, this compared to 41.31, 6.58, and 2.74 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, for outdoor conditions. Finally, dominant fatty acids determined to be C16/C18 in outdoor pilot-scale cultures indicated great potential for scale up of Chlorella sp. cultivation in RDW for high quality biodiesel production coupling with RDW treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-Scale Bridge Wash Out Simulation During Tsunami by Using a Particle Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyagawa Yoshiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the huge tsunami caused by the great east Japan earthquake devastated many infrastructures in pacific coast of north eastern Japan. Particularly, collapse of bridges caused a traffic disorder and these collapse behaviors led to delay of recovery after the disaster. In this study, the bridge wash away accident is selected as a target issue, and it is represented by a numerical simulation. For this purpose, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH Method, which is one of the pure mesh free methods, is utilized for the rigid body motion simulation. In this study, rigid body motion is introduced for the fluid-rigid interaction behavior during bridge wash away simulation. In the numerical analysis, the upper bridge structure is washed away by receiving an impact fluid force. The wash away simulation of two types of the bridge girder showed good agreement with the real accident on the great east Japan earthquake tsunami.

  11. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford Tank C-106 sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Hoopes, F.V.; Steele, R.T.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the results of a laboratory-scale washing and caustic leaching test performed on sludge from Hanford Tank C-106. The purpose of this test was to determine the behavior of important sludge components when subjected to washing with dilute or concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions. The results of this laboratory-scale test were used to support the design of a bench-scale washing and leaching process used to prepare several hundred grams of high-level waste solids for vitrification tests to be done by private contractors. The laboratory-scale test was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1996 as part of the Hanford privatization effort. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS; EM-30).

  12. Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent (NAS) CO2 Capture Process for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lail, Marty

    2017-09-12

    The project aimed to advance RTI’s non-aqueous amine solvent technology by improving the solvent to reduce volatility, demonstrating long-term continuous operation at lab- (0.5 liters solvent) and bench-scale (~120 liters solvent), showing low reboiler heat duty measured during bench-scale testing, evaluating degradation products, building a rate-based process model, and evaluating the techno-economic performance of the process. The project team (RTI, SINTEF, Linde Engineering) and the technology performed well in each area of advancement. The modifications incorporated throughout the project enabled the attainment of target absorber and regenerator conditions for the process. Reboiler duties below 2,000 kJt/kg CO2 were observed in a bench-scale test unit operated at RTI.

  13. Investigation of E. coli and Virus Reductions Using Replicate, Bench-Scale Biosand Filter Columns and Two Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The biosand filter (BSF is an intermittently operated, household-scale slow sand filter for which little data are available on the effect of sand composition on treatment performance. Therefore, bench-scale columns were prepared according to the then-current (2006–2007 guidance on BSF design and run in parallel to conduct two microbial challenge experiments of eight-week duration. Triplicate columns were loaded with Accusand silica or crushed granite to compare virus and E. coli reduction performance. Bench-scale experiments provided confirmation that increased schmutzdecke growth, as indicated by decline in filtration rate, is the primary factor causing increased E. coli reductions of up to 5-log10. However, reductions of challenge viruses improved only modestly with increased schmutzdecke growth. Filter media type (Accusand silica vs. crushed granite did not influence reduction of E. coli bacteria. The granite media without backwashing yielded superior virus reductions when compared to Accusand. However, for columns in which the granite media was first backwashed (to yield a more consistent distribution of grains and remove the finest size fraction, virus reductions were not significantly greater than in columns with Accusand media. It was postulated that a decline in surface area with backwashing decreased the sites and surface area available for virus sorption and/or biofilm growth and thus decreased the extent of virus reduction. Additionally, backwashing caused preferential flow paths and deviation from plug flow; backwashing is not part of standard BSF field preparation and is not recommended for BSF column studies. Overall, virus reductions were modest and did not meet the 5- or 3-log10 World Health Organization performance targets.

  14. Immobilized lysozyme for the continuous lysis of lactic bacteria in wine: Bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappannella, Elena; Benucci, Ilaria; Lombardelli, Claudio; Liburdi, Katia; Bavaro, Teodora; Esti, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Lysozyme from hen egg white (HEWL) was covalently immobilized on spherical supports based on microbial chitosan in order to develop a system for the continuous, efficient and food-grade enzymatic lysis of lactic bacteria (Oenococcus oeni) in white and red wine. The objective is to limit the sulfur dioxide dosage required to control malolactic fermentation, via a cell concentration typical during this process. The immobilization procedure was optimized in batch mode, evaluating the enzyme loading, the specific activity, and the kinetic parameters in model wine. Subsequently, a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor was developed, applying the optimized process conditions. HEWL appeared more effective in the immobilized form than in the free one, when the reactor was applied in real white and red wine. This preliminary study suggests that covalent immobilization renders the enzyme less sensitive to the inhibitory effect of wine flavans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Archaeal and bacterial community dynamics and bioprocess performance of a bench-scale two-stage anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria Jesus; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Osorio, Francisco; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2016-07-01

    Two-stage technologies have been developed for anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. In this study, the archaeal and bacterial community structure dynamics and bioprocess performance of a bench-scale two-stage anaerobic digester treating urban sewage sludge have been studied by the means of high-throughput sequencing techniques and physicochemical parameters such as pH, dried sludge, volatile dried sludge, acid concentration, alkalinity, and biogas generation. The coupled analyses of archaeal and bacterial communities and physicochemical parameters showed a direct relationship between archaeal and bacterial populations and bioprocess performance during start-up and working operation of a two-stage anaerobic digester. Moreover, results demonstrated that archaeal and bacterial community structure was affected by changes in the acid/alkalinity ratio in the bioprocess. Thus, a predominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosaeta was observed in the methanogenic bioreactor at high-value acid/alkaline ratio, while a predominance of Methanomassilicoccaeceae archaea and Methanoculleus genus was observed in the methanogenic bioreactor at low-value acid/alkaline ratio. Biodiversity tag-iTag sequencing studies showed that methanogenic archaea can be also detected in the acidogenic bioreactor, although its biological activity was decreased after 4 months of operation as supported by physicochemical analyses. Also, studies of the VFA producers and VFA consumers microbial populations showed as these microbiota were directly affected by the physicochemical parameters generated in the bioreactors. We suggest that the results obtained in our study could be useful for future implementations of two-stage anaerobic digestion processes at both bench- and full-scale.

  16. Bench Scale Development and Testing of Aerogel Sorbents for CO2 Capture Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begag, Redouane [Aspen Aerogels, Northborough, MA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The primary objective of this project was scaling up and evaluating a novel Amine Functionalized Aerogel (AFA) sorbent in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor. The project team (Aspen Aerogels, University of Akron, ADA-ES, and Longtail Consulting) has carried out numerous tests and optimization studies to demonstrate the CO2 capture performance of the AFA sorbent in all its forms: powder, pellet, and bead. The CO2 capture target performance of the AFA sorbent (all forms) were set at > 12 wt.% and > 6 wt.% for total and working CO2 capacity, respectively (@ 40 °C adsorption / 100 – 120 °C desorption). The optimized AFA powders outperformed the performance targets by more than 30%, for the total CO2 capacity (14 - 20 wt.%), and an average of 10 % more for working CO2 capacity (6.6 – 7.0 wt.%, and could be as high as 9.6 wt. % when desorbed at 120 °C). The University of Akron developed binder formulations, pellet production methods, and post treatment technology for increased resistance to attrition and flue gas contaminants. In pellet form the AFA total CO2 capacity was ~ 12 wt.% (over 85% capacity retention of that of the powder), and there was less than 13% degradation in CO2 capture capacity after 20 cycles in the presence of 40 ppm SO2. ADA-ES assessed the performance of the AFA powder, pellet, and bead by analyzing sorption isotherms, water uptake analysis, cycling stability, jet cup attrition and crush tests. At bench scale, the hydrodynamic and heat transfer properties of the AFA sorbent pellet in fluidized bed conditions were evaluated at Particulate Solid Research, Inc. (PSRI). After the process design requirements were completed, by Longtail Consulting LLC, a techno-economic analysis was achieved using guidance from The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) report. This report provides the necessary framework to estimate costs for a temperature swing post

  17. Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Mark L; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    A range of wastewaters and substrates were examined using mini microbial electrolysis cells (mini MECs) to see if they could be used to predict the performance of larger-scale cube MECs. COD removals and coulombic efficiencies corresponded well between the two reactor designs for individual samples, with 66-92% of COD removed for all samples. Current generation was consistent between the reactor types for acetate (AC) and fermentation effluent (FE) samples, but less consistent with industrial (IW) and domestic wastewaters (DW). Hydrogen was recovered from all samples in cube MECs, but gas composition and volume varied significantly between samples. Evidence for direct conversion of substrate to methane was observed with two of the industrial wastewater samples (IW-1 and IW-3). Overall, mini MECs provided organic treatment data that corresponded well with larger scale reactor results, and therefore it was concluded that they can be a useful platform for screening wastewater sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ullery, Mark L.

    2014-10-01

    A range of wastewaters and substrates were examined using mini microbial electrolysis cells (mini MECs) to see if they could be used to predict the performance of larger-scale cube MECs. COD removals and coulombic efficiencies corresponded well between the two reactor designs for individual samples, with 66-92% of COD removed for all samples. Current generation was consistent between the reactor types for acetate (AC) and fermentation effluent (FE) samples, but less consistent with industrial (IW) and domestic wastewaters (DW). Hydrogen was recovered from all samples in cube MECs, but gas composition and volume varied significantly between samples. Evidence for direct conversion of substrate to methane was observed with two of the industrial wastewater samples (IW-1 and IW-3). Overall, mini MECs provided organic treatment data that corresponded well with larger scale reactor results, and therefore it was concluded that they can be a useful platform for screening wastewater sources. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Changyong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhou, Yuexi, E-mail: zhouyuexi@263.net [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Sun, Qingliang [School of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Fu, Liya [Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yu, Ruozhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process can be used to treat petrochemical wastewater. • The toxicity and treatability changed significantly after hydrolysis acidification. • The type and concentration of organics reduced greatly after treatment. • The effluent shows low acute toxicity by luminescent bacteria assay. • Advanced treatment is recommended for the effluent. - Abstract: A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic–oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m{sup 3} h{sup −1}) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD{sub 5}/COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L{sup −1} for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L{sup −1} for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L{sup −1} on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L{sup −1}. There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  20. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations, and process engineering. Final report, February 1977-December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, J.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Brown, L.C.; O' Keefe, D.R.; Allen, C.L.

    1982-05-01

    The sulfur-iodine water-splitting cycle is characterized by the following three reactions: 2H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ + 2HI; H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + 1/2 O/sub 2/; and 2HI ..-->.. H/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/. This cycle was developed at General Atomic after several critical features in the above reactions were discovered. These involved phase separations, catalytic reactions, etc. Estimates of the energy efficiency of this economically reasonable advanced state-of-the-art processing unit produced sufficiently high values (to approx.47%) to warrant cycle development effort. The DOE contract was largely directed toward the engineering development of this cycle, including a small demonstration unit (CLCD), a bench-scale unit, engineering design, and costing. The work has resulted in a design that is projected to produce H/sub 2/ at prices not yet generally competitive with fossil-fuel-produced H/sub 2/ but are projected to be favorably competitive with respect to H/sub 2/ from fossil fuels in the future.

  1. Fe-based heterogeneous catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction: Sonochemical synthesis and bench-scale experimental tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comazzi, Alberto; Pirola, Carlo; Longhi, Mariangela; Bianchi, Claudia L M; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2017-01-01

    The sonochemical synthesis of nanostructured materials owes its origins to the extreme conditions created during acoustic cavitation, i.e., the formation of localized hot spots in the core of collapsing bubbles in a liquid irradiated with high intensity ultrasound (US). In particular, in the present work a sonochemical synthesis has been investigated for the production of three different iron-based samples supported on SiO2 and loaded with different metals and promoters (10 %wt of Fe; 30 %wt of Fe; 30 %wt of Fe, 2 %wt of K and 3.75 %wt of Cu) active in the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process. Sonochemically synthesized heterogeneous catalysts were characterized by BET, XRPD, TPR, ICP, CHN, TEM, SEM and then tested in a fixed bed FT-bench-scale rig fed with a mixture of H2 and CO at a H2/CO molar ratio equal to 2, at activation temperatures of 350-400°C and reaction temperatures of 250-260°C. The experimental results showed that the ultrasonic samples are effective catalysts for the FT process. Notably, increasing the activation temperature increased CO conversion, while product selectivity did not diminish. All the sonochemically prepared samples presented in this work provided better catalytic results compared to the corresponding traditional FT impregnated catalysts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicochemical properties and gasification reactivity of the ultrafine semi-char derived from a bench-scale fluidized bed gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yukui; Zhang, Haixia; Zhu, Zhiping; Na, Yongjie; Lu, Qinggang

    2017-08-01

    Zhundong coalfield is the largest intact coalfield worldwide and fluidized bed gasification has been considered as a promising way to achieve its clean and efficient utilization. The purpose of this study is to investigate the physicochemical properties and gasification reactivity of the ultrafine semi-char, derived from a bench-scale fluidized bed gasifier, using Zhundong coal as fuel. The results obtained are as follows. In comparison to the raw coal, the carbon and ash content of the semi-char increase after partial gasification, but the ash fusion temperatures of them show no significant difference. Particularly, 76.53% of the sodium in the feed coal has released to the gas phase after fluidized bed gasification. The chemical compositions of the semi-char are closely related to its particle size, attributable to the distinctly different natures of diverse elements. The semi-char exhibits a higher graphitization degree, higher BET surface area, and richer meso- and macropores, which results in superior gasification reactivity than the coal char. The chemical reactivity of the semi-char is significantly improved by an increased gasification temperature, which suggests the necessity of regasification of the semi-char at a higher temperature. Consequently, it will be considered feasible that these carbons in the semi-char from fluidized bed gasifiers are reclaimed and reused for the gasification process.

  3. Bench-scale study of the effect of phosphate on an aerobic iron oxidation plant for mine water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Judith S; Wiacek, Claudia; Janneck, Eberhard; Schlömann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    At the opencast pit Nochten acidic iron- and sulfate-rich mine waters are treated biotechnologically in a mine-water treatment plant by microbial iron oxidation. Due to the low phosphate concentration in such waters the treatment plant was simulated in bench-scale to investigate the influence of addition of potassium dihydrogen phosphate on chemical and biological parameters of the mine-water treatment. As a result of the phosphate addition the number of cells increased, which resulted in an increase of the iron oxidation rate in the reactor with phosphate addition by a factor of 1.7 compared to a reference approach without phosphate addition. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis during the cultivation revealed a shift of the microbial community depending on the phosphate addition. While almost exclusively iron-oxidizing bacteria related to "Ferrovum" sp. were detected with phosphate addition, the microbial community was more diverse without phosphate addition. In the latter case, iron-oxidizing bacteria ("Ferrovum" sp., Acidithiobacillus spp.) as well as non-iron-oxidizing bacteria (Acidiphilium sp.) were identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bench-scale study of active mine water treatment using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a neutralization agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact on settled water quality of using cement kiln dust (CKD), a waste by-product, to replace quicklime in the active treatment of acidic mine water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the treatment performance of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) slurries generated using four different CKD samples compared to a control treatment with quicklime (CaO) in terms of reducing acidity and metals concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) samples taken from the effluent of a lead/zinc mine in Atlantic Canada. Results of the study showed that all of the CKD samples evaluated were capable of achieving greater than 97% removal of total zinc and iron. The amount of solid alkaline material required to achieve pH targets required for neutralization of the AMD was found to be higher for treatment with the CKD slurries compared to the quicklime slurry control experiments, and varied linearly with the free lime content of the CKD. The results of this study also showed that a potential benefit of treating mine water with CKD could be reduced settled sludge volumes generated in the active treatment process, and further research into the characteristics of the sludge generated from the use of CKD-generated calcium hydroxide slurries is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bench-scale cross flow filtration of Tank S-107 sludge slurries and Tank C-107 supernatant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    Hanford tank waste filtration experiments were conducted using a bench-scale cross flow filter on 8 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 0.05 wt% Tank S- 107 sludge slurries and on Tank C-107 supernatant. For comparison, two simulants each with solids loadings of 8 wt% and 0.05 wt% were also tested. The purpose of the tests was to determine the efficacy of cross flow filtration on slurries of various solids loadings. -In addition, filtrate flux dependency on axial velocity and transmembrane pressure was sought so that conditions for future experiments might be better selected. The data gathered are compared to the simulants and three cross flow filtration models. A two- parameter central composite design which tested. transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial Velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. The cross flow filter effectively removed solids from the liquid, as 19 of 20 filtrate samples had particle concentrations below the resolution limit of the photon correlation spectrometer used in the Hanford Radiocolloid Laboratory. Radiochemical analysis indicate that all filtrate samples were below Class A waste classification standards for 9OSr and transuranics.

  6. Bench-scale studies on capture of mercury on mineral non-carbon based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Wendt, Jost O.L. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    A new high-temperature, mineral non-carbon based dispersed sorbent derived from paper recycling products has been shown to capture mercury at high temperatures in excess of 600 C. The sorbent is consisted of kaolinite/calcite/lime mixtures. Experiments have been conducted on chemi-sorption of elemental mercury in air on a packed bed. The sorption occurs at temperatures between 600 and 1,100 C and requires activation of the minerals contained within the sorbents. Mercury capture is dominated by temperature and capture on sorbents over long time scales. The capture shows a maximum effectiveness at 1,000 C and increases monotonically with temperature. The presence of oxygen is also the required. Freshly activated sorbent is the most effective, and deactivation of sorbents occurs at high temperatures with long pre-exposure times. This activation is suspected to involve a solid-solid reaction between intimately mixed calcium oxide and silica that are both contained within the sorbent. Deactivation occurs at temperatures higher than 1,000 C, and this is due to melting of the substrate and pore closure. The situation in packed beds is complicated because the bed also shrinks, thus allowing channeling and by-passing, and consequent ambiguities in determining sorbent saturation. Sorbent A had significantly greater capacity for mercury sorption than did Sorbent B, for all temperatures and exposure time examined. The effect of SiO{sub 2} on poor Sorbent B is much larger than sorbent A.

  7. Bench Scale Development and Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process for Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ravi [Innosepra Limited Liability Company, Middlesex, NJ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A physical sorption process to produce dry CO₂ at high purity (>98%) and high recovery (>90%) from the flue gas taken before or after the FGD was demonstrated both in the lab and in the field (one ton per day scale). A CO₂ recovery of over 94% and a CO₂ purity of over 99% were obtained in the field tests. The process has a moisture, SOX, and Hg removal stage followed by a CO₂ adsorption stage. Evaluations based on field testing, process simulation and detailed engineering studies indicate that the process has the potential for more than 40% reduction in the capital and more than 40% reduction in parasitic power for CO₂ capture compared to MEA. The process has the potential to provide CO₂ at a cost (<$40/tonne) and quality (<1 ppm H₂O, <1 ppm SOX, <10 ppm O₂) suitable for EOR applications which can make CO₂ capture profitable even in the absence of climate legislation. The process is applicable to power plants without SOX, Hg and NOX removal equipment.

  8. WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-03-20

    The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the

  9. Uncertainty Quantification Analysis of Both Experimental and CFD Simulation Data of a Bench-scale Fluidized Bed Gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahnam, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States). Research and Innovation Center, Energy Conversion Engineering Directorate; Gel, Aytekin [ALPEMI Consulting, LLC, Phoeniz, AZ (United States); Subramaniyan, Arun K. [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Musser, Jordan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States). Research and Innovation Center, Energy Conversion Engineering Directorate; Dietiker, Jean-Francois [West Virginia Univ. Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-10-02

    Adequate assessment of the uncertainties in modeling and simulation is becoming an integral part of the simulation based engineering design. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the application of non-intrusive Bayesian uncertainty quantification (UQ) methodology in multiphase (gas-solid) flows with experimental and simulation data, as part of our research efforts to determine the most suited approach for UQ of a bench scale fluidized bed gasifier. UQ analysis was first performed on the available experimental data. Global sensitivity analysis performed as part of the UQ analysis shows that among the three operating factors, steam to oxygen ratio has the most influence on syngas composition in the bench-scale gasifier experiments. An analysis for forward propagation of uncertainties was performed and results show that an increase in steam to oxygen ratio leads to an increase in H2 mole fraction and a decrease in CO mole fraction. These findings are in agreement with the ANOVA analysis performed in the reference experimental study. Another contribution in addition to the UQ analysis is the optimization-based approach to guide to identify next best set of additional experimental samples, should the possibility arise for additional experiments. Hence, the surrogate models constructed as part of the UQ analysis is employed to improve the information gain and make incremental recommendation, should the possibility to add more experiments arise. In the second step, series of simulations were carried out with the open-source computational fluid dynamics software MFiX to reproduce the experimental conditions, where three operating factors, i.e., coal flow rate, coal particle diameter, and steam-to-oxygen ratio, were systematically varied to understand their effect on the syngas composition. Bayesian UQ analysis was performed on the numerical results. As part of Bayesian UQ analysis, a global sensitivity analysis was performed based on the simulation results, which shows

  10. Bench-Scale Monolith Autothermal Reformer Catalyst Screening Evaluations in a Micro-Reactor With Jet-A Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.; Yen, Judy C.H.; Budge, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell systems used in the aerospace or commercial aviation environment require a compact, light-weight and highly durable catalytic fuel processor. The fuel processing method considered here is an autothermal reforming (ATR) step. The ATR converts Jet-A fuel by a reaction with steam and air forming hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) to be used for production of electrical power in the fuel cell. This paper addresses the first phase of an experimental catalyst screening study, looking at the relative effectiveness of several monolith catalyst types when operating with untreated Jet-A fuel. Six monolith catalyst materials were selected for preliminary evaluation and experimental bench-scale screening in a small 0.05 kWe micro-reactor test apparatus. These tests were conducted to assess relative catalyst performance under atmospheric pressure ATR conditions and processing Jet-A fuel at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 3.5, a value higher than anticipated to be run in an optimized system. The average reformer efficiencies for the six catalysts tested ranged from 75 to 83 percent at a constant gas-hourly space velocity of 12,000 hr 1. The corresponding hydrocarbon conversion efficiency varied from 86 to 95 percent during experiments run at reaction temperatures between 750 to 830 C. Based on the results of the short-duration 100 hr tests reported herein, two of the highest performing catalysts were selected for further evaluation in a follow-on 1000 hr life durability study in Phase II.

  11. Molecular indicators of Nitrobacter spp. population and growth activity during an induced inhibition event in a bench scale nitrification reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Shawn; Robinson, Kevin; Layton, Alice; Sayler, Gary

    2012-04-15

    The Nitrobacter spp. ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and transcript (rRNAt) abundance were quantified in a bench scale nitrification reactor during baseline periods of high nitrification efficiency and an intervening staged inhibition event. The transcript to gene ratio (rRNAt/rDNA) was highly sensitive to changes in the reactor nitrite oxidation rate. During high nitrification efficiency, the rRNAt/rDNA metric displayed a range from 0.68 to 2.01 with one-sided (α=0.10) lower and upper prediction intervals of 0.70 and 1.78, respectively. When nitrification was inhibited by disabling the reactor pH control system, this activity metric declined an order of magnitude to ≈ 0.05, well below the lower prediction interval reflecting high nitrification efficiency. The decline was rapid (2h) and preceded a significant drop in reactor nitrification performance, which occurred as ammonia accumulated. The rRNAt/rDNA ratio remained low (≈ 0.05) for several days after the pH control system was re-enabled at a setpoint of 8.0, which otherwise induced rapid oxidation of accumulated ammonia and produced high free ammonia concentrations. The timing of a subsequent increase in the rRNAt/rDNA ratio, which transiently exceeded the upper prediction interval established during the baseline period of high nitrification efficiency, was not coincidental with resumption of pH control at 7.2 that lowered free ammonia concentrations to non-inhibitory levels. Rather, nitrite oxidation resumed and the rRNAt/rDNA ratio increased only after oxidation of accumulated ammonia was complete, which was coincidental with reduced reactor oxygen demand. In summary, the Nitrobacter rRNAt/rDNA activity metric reflected timely and easily recognizable changes in nitrite oxidation activity, illustrating that molecular data can be used to diagnose poor biological wastewater treatment performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part I: effect of operational conditions on product gas characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted within the framework of R&D activities on the development of gasification and reforming technologies for energy and chemical recovery from biomass resources. Gasification of the Japanese cedar wood has been investigated under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Parametric tests by varying the residence times, gasification temperatures, equivalence ratios (ERs) and steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratios were performed to determine their effects on the product gas characteristics. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were preformed to predict the equilibrium gas composition and compared with the experimental value. We found that the product gas characteristics in terms of the H(2)/CO ratio, CO(2)/CO ratio, and CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons concentrations are significantly affected by the operating conditions used. Increasing the residence time decreased the CO(2)/CO ratio; however, a nominal effect was noticed on H(2) concentration as a function of the residence time. At sufficient residence time, increasing the temperature led to higher H(2) yields, CO efficiency and higher heating value (HHV) of the product gas. The presence of steam during gasification effectively enhanced the proportion of H(2) in the product gas. However, higher S/C ratio reduced the HHV of the product gas. Increasing the ER from 0 to 0.3 increased the H(2) yields and CO efficiency and decreased the HHV of the product gas. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at low gasification temperatures was relatively higher than that at high temperature gasification. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at high gasification temperatures hardly varied over the investigated operating conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part II: effect of operational conditions on contaminant release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the evolution profile of tar in the product gas during cedar biomass gasification. We also discuss the evolution of other contaminants (H(2)S, COS, NH(3), HCN, and HCl). The cedar wood was gasified under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Tar levels in the product gas were significantly affected by the operating conditions used. At a gasification temperature of 923 K, there was no clear relation between the evolution of phenolic tar in the product gas as a function of residence time. The evolution of PAH tar at a low gasification temperature was lower than the evolution of phenolic tar. With increasing temperature, the proportion of PAH tar content became significant. At a gasification temperature of 1223 K, increasing the residence time reduced the content of PAH tar owing to a catalytic effect associated with ash generation at high temperatures. Increasing the steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratio under thermal conditions had a slight effect on PAH conversion. However, increasing the equivalence ratio (ER) effectively reduced the tar levels. The conversion of fuel-sulfur and fuel-nitrogen to volatile-sulfur and volatile-nitrogen, respectively, increased with increasing S/C ratio and ER. The evolutions of COS and HCN gases were much smaller than the evolution of H(2)S and NH(3). The evolution of HCl in the product gas decreased slightly with increasing ER. Increasing the S/C ratio decreased the HCl levels in the product gas. The effect of temperature on contaminant levels could not be fully understood due to limited availability of experimental data at various temperatures. We also compare our findings with data in the literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A bench-scale study on the removal and recovery of phosphate by hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Fang, Wenkan; Xing, Mingchao; Wu, Deyi

    2017-02-01

    Owing to the easy magnetic separation from water for reuse, magnetic nanoparticles have drawn great interest as adsorbents. Herein hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4@ZrO2) were created by a facile method and a bench-scale study was undertaken to evaluate its effectiveness and mechanism to remove phosphate at low concentrations. Results indicated that phosphate removal by Fe3O4@ZrO2 was fast (95% of phosphate removal within 10 min) and nearly complete removal could be achieved at the adsorbent dosage >0.6 g/L. In tap water or wastewater where competitive anions coexist, regulation of pH was found to be quite effective to augment the performance of phosphate removal. In pH-lowered adsorption systems, phosphate removal followed a good pattern similarly to pure water, i.e., a continuous high efficiency removal followed by a rapid saturation. Adsorption-desorption-regeneration studies showed that Fe3O4@ZrO2 could be repeatedly used for phosphate removal and adsorbed phosphate could be stripped for recovery. The fractionation of adsorbed phosphorus suggested that NaOH-P fraction was dominant. We also found that the adsorption reaction of phosphate with Fe3O4@ZrO2 shifted the isoelectric point of Fe3O4@ZrO2 from 9.0 to 3.0. FTIR measurements further showed the direct coordination of phosphate onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. The formation of the monodentate (ZrO)PO2(OH) complex was proposed.

  15. Hydrogen generation from bioethanol reforming : bench-scale unit performance with Cu/Nb2O5 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, N.R.C.F.; Rizzo, R.C.P.; Calsavara, V.; Takahashi, F.; Almeida, A.A.; Melo, F.R. de; Zschornack, M.A.; Bessani, A.N.; Rodrigues, R.M.O. [State University of Maringa, Maringa (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Lab. of Catalysis; Schmal, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia, Graduate School and Research in Engineering Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute; Cantao, M.P. [Institute of Technology for Development, Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. of Materials

    2003-07-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to produce hydrogen from ethanol reforming. This paper presents the bench-scale study unit that uses a 5 per cent copper-niobium2oxygen5 (Cu/Nb2O5) catalyst previously selected in a micro reactor. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the catalyst contained copper oxide in an amorphous form and that the Nb2O5 was highly crystalline. The calcinated catalyst was analysed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and showed that 35 per cent of total copper was on the surface as Cu{sup I} (55 per cent) and Cu{sup II} (45 per cent). The surface area was mainly comprised of meso and macro pores. There was a two-step reduction of Cu{sup II} to Cu at 245 and 306 degrees C, as shown by temperature programmed reduction, as well as a 6 per cent reduction of Nb2O5. An internal reactor with 16 grams (g) of catalyst pellets was contained in the reaction unit. To optimize hydrogen production, reaction temperature and feed rate were varied, and the major by-product was carbon dioxide. Reagents (water and ethanol) were fed into and vaporized in, an electric pre-heater in stoichiometric proportion. Mean conversion increased from 17 per cent to 35 per cent through an increase of reaction temperature from 300 to 400 degrees C. Minor by-products were detected in the form of ethene and ethyl ether. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Buddle, Stanlee [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Caraher, Joel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Chen, Wei [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Doherty, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Farnum, Rachel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Giammattei, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Hancu, Dan [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Perry, Robert [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Rubinsztajn, Gosia; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2017-05-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal for Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies is the development of technologies available for demonstration by 2025 that can capture 90% of emitted CO2 with at least 95% CO2 purity for less than $40/tonne of CO2 captured. In the first budget period of the project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance. In the second budget period of the project, individual bench-scale unit operations were tested to determine the performance of each of each unit. Solids production was demonstrated in dry simulated flue gas across a wide range of absorber operating conditions, with single stage CO2 conversion rates up to 75mol%. Desorber operation was demonstrated in batch mode, resulting in desorption performance consistent with the equilibrium isotherms for GAP-0/CO2 reaction. Important risks associated with gas humidity impact on solids consistency and desorber temperature impact on thermal degradation were explored, and adjustments to the bench-scale process were made to address those effects. Corrosion experiments were conducted to support selection of suitable materials of construction for the major

  17. Destruction of hazardous and mixed wastes using mediated electrochemical oxidation in a Ag(II)HNO3 bench scale system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, B.; Chiba, Z.; Hsu, P.; Lewis, P.; Murguia, L.; Adamson, M.

    1997-02-01

    engineering development have been completed for a pilot plant-scale MEO system, and numerous data have been gathered on the efficacy of the process for a wide variety of anticipated waste components. This presentation will review the data collected at LLNL for a bench scale system based primarily on the use of a Ag(II) mediator in a nitric acid electrolyte; results from several other mediator/acid combinations will be included. Data obtained on the chemical, electrochemical, and engineering aspects will be presented. The topics of organics destruction, transuranic recovery, and some of the ancillary systems will be addressed, and areas requiring further study will be mentioned.

  18. Permeable Reactive Biobarriers for In Situ Cr(VI) Reduction: Bench Scale Tests Using Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; Robin Gerlach; Vaideeswaran; William A. Apel; James N. Petersen

    2008-12-01

    Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz sand, a continuous inflow of 2 mg/L Cr(VI) was reduced to below detection limits in the effluent for durations of up to 5.7 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued proving the ability of strain ES6 to reduce chromate in the absence of an external electron donor. In the HFO-containing columns, Cr(VI) reduction was significantly prolonged and effluent Cr(VI) concentrations remained below detectable levels for periods of up to 66 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued. Fe was detected in the effluent of the HFO-containing columns throughout the period of Cr(VI) removal indicating that the insoluble Fe(III) bearing solids were being continuously reduced to form soluble Fe(II) resulting in prolonged abiotic Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, growth of Cellulomonas within the soil columns resulted in formation of permeable reactive barriers that could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III) for extended periods even in the absence of external electron donors. Other bioremediation systems employing Fe(II)-mediated reactions require a continuous presence of external nutrients to regenerate Fe(II). After depletion of nutrients, contaminant removal within these systems occurs by reaction with surface-associated Fe(II) that can rapidly become inaccessible due to formation of crystalline Fe-minerals or other precipitates. The ability of fermentative organisms like Cellulomonas to reduce metals without continuous nutrient supply in the subsurface offers a viable and economical alternative technology for in situ remediation of Cr

  19. Permeable reactive biobarriers for in situ Cr(VI) reduction: bench scale tests using Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viamajala, Sridhar; Peyton, Brent M; Gerlach, Robin; Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Apel, William A; Petersen, James N

    2008-12-15

    Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz sand, a continuous inflow of 2 mg/L Cr(VI) was reduced to below detection limits in the effluent for durations of up to 5.7 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued proving the ability of strain ES6 to reduce chromate in the absence of an external electron donor. In the HFO-containing columns, Cr(VI) reduction was significantly prolonged and effluent Cr(VI) concentrations remained below detectable levels for periods of up to 66 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued. Fe was detected in the effluent of the HFO-containing columns throughout the period of Cr(VI) removal indicating that the insoluble Fe(III) bearing solids were being continuously reduced to form soluble Fe(II) resulting in prolonged abiotic Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, growth of Cellulomonas within the soil columns resulted in formation of permeable reactive barriers that could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III) for extended periods even in the absence of external electron donors. Other bioremediation systems employing Fe(II)-mediated reactions require a continuous presence of external nutrients to regenerate Fe(II). After depletion of nutrients, contaminant removal within these systems occurs by reaction with surface-associated Fe(II) that can rapidly become inaccessible due to formation of crystalline Fe-minerals or other precipitates. The ability of fermentative organisms like Cellulomonas to reduce metals without continuous nutrient supply in the subsurface offers a viable and economical alternative technology for in situ remediation of Cr

  20. Numerical simulation of competitive aerobic / anaerobic hydrocarbon plume biodegradation in two-dimensional bench scale lab-experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Ballarini, E.; Bauer, R.; Griebler, C.; Bauer, S.

    2011-12-01

    The biodegradation of oxidizable hydrocarbon contaminants in the subsurface requires the presence of compatible microbial communities as well as sufficient amounts of electron acceptors and nutrients. In this context, transverse mixing, driven by dispersion and diffusion, is one of the main mechanisms governing the availability of dissolved electron acceptors at a hydrocarbon plume fringe. Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons limited by transverse mixing has been studied experimentally in 2D bench-scale flow-through tanks, filled with a saturated porous medium. Flow of groundwater through the tanks was induced by pumping water at one side through injection ports, and simultaneously extracting water at the other side of the tank. An ethylbenzene plume was established by injection through the central inlet port. A mixture of unlabeled and fully deuterium-labeled isotopomers was used in order to investigate the spatial distribution of degradation processes via monitoring of compound-specific stable isotope fractionation. In the first phase of the experiment, aerobic biodegradation was studied. For this purpose, the tank was recharged with water containing oxygen as a dissolved electron acceptor and the aerobic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 was inoculated. Later, nitrate was added to the recharge water as an additional electron acceptor and the denitrifying strain Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 was amended to study competitive aerobic/anaerobic biodegradation. A numerical reactive transport model of the experiment was set up for a model based interpretation of the observed degradation patterns. In a sensitivity analysis, the influence of the relevant hydrodynamic parameters on the observable distributions of ethylbenzene isotopomers, oxygen and nitrate was studied. Subsequent model calibration allowed for a good agreement with ethylbenzene concentrations measured at the tank outlet ports as well as oxygen concentrations, which were measured at several

  1. Enhanced removal of VOCs from aquifers during air sparging using thickeners and surfactants: Bench-scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heonki; Ahn, Dayoung; Annable, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The effects of controlled air flow paths during air sparging on the removal of volatile organic compounds were examined in this study using a two-dimensional bench-scale physical model. An aqueous solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), which is a thickener, was used to increase the resistance of water to displacement by injected air in a region around the targeted zone. At the same time, an aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), which is a surfactant, was used to reduce the air entry pressure to enhance the air flow through the targeted region. Trichloroethene (TCE), dissolved in water, was used to represent an aqueous phase volatile organic compound (VOC). A binary mixture of perchloroethene (PCE) and n-hexane was also used as a nonaqeous phase liquid (NAPL). Controlled air flow through the source zone, achieved by emplacing a high viscosity aqueous solution into a region surrounding the TCE-impacted zone, resulted in increased TCE removal from 23.0% (control) to 38.2% during a 2.5h period. When the air flow was focused on the targeted source zone of aqueous phase TCE (by decreasing the surface tension within the source zone and its vicinity by 28 dyn/cm, no SCMC applied), the mass removal of TCE was enhanced to 41.3% during the same time period. With SCMC and SDBS applied simultaneously around and beneath a NAPL source zone, respectively, the NAPL components were found to be removed more effectively over a period of 8.2h than the sparging experiment with no additives applied; 84.6% of PCE and 94.0% of n-hexane were removed for the controlled air flow path experiments (with both SCMC and SDBS applied) compared to 52.7% (PCE) and 74.0% (n-hexane) removal for the control experiment (no additives applied). Based on the experimental observations made in this study, applying a viscous aqueous solution around the source zone and a surfactant solution in and near the source zone, the air flow was focused through the targeted contaminant

  2. A pilot plant scale evaluation of a new process aid for enhancing chlorine efficacy against pathogen survival and cross-contamination during produce wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yaguang; Nou, Xiangwu; Millner, Patricia; Zhou, Bin; Shen, Cangliang; Yang, Yang; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Qin; Feng, Hao; Shelton, Dan

    2012-08-17

    Developing food safety intervention technology that can be readily adopted by the industry often requires test conditions that match as closely as possible to those of commercial food processing operations; yet biosafety risks inherent in pathogen studies constrain most experiments to laboratory settings. In this study, we report the first semi-commercial pilot-scale evaluation of a new process aid, T128, for its impact on enhancing the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorinated wash water against pathogen survival and cross-contamination. A non-pathogenic, BSL-1, strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was inoculated onto freshly harvested baby spinach leaves and washed with large amounts of freshly cut un-inoculated iceberg lettuce shreds in wash water with free chlorine periodically replenished, in the presence or absence of T128. Changes in water quality and pathogen survival and cross-contamination were monitored at every 2 min intervals for up to 36 min for each treatment during the wash operation. Results indicated that the use of T128 did not significantly (P>0.05) influence the rate of wash water deterioration, nor the pathogen populations remaining on the inoculated spinach leaves. However, in the absence of T128 (control), survival of E. coli O157:H7 in wash water and cross-contamination of un-inoculated lettuce frequently occurred when free chlorine in solution dropped below 1mg/l during the wash process. In contrast, the use of T128 significantly reduced the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 surviving in wash water and of cross-contamination to un-inoculated shredded iceberg lettuce under the same operational conditions, suggesting that the application of T128 in a chlorine-based fresh produce sanitization system could increase the safety margin of process control on fresh-cut operations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments plus anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge for dewatering and biogas production: Bench-scale research and pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Yu, Guangwei; Lin, Jingjiang; Wang, Yin

    2017-06-15

    To test the feasibility and practicability of the process combing hydrothermal pretreatment for dewatering with biogas production for full utilization of sewage sludge, hydrothermal/alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments and in turn anaerobic digestion of the filtrates obtained after dewatering the pretreated sludge were performed at bench- and pilot-scales. The hydrothermal temperature fell within the range of 140 °C-220 °C and the pretreatment time varied from 30 min to 120 min. For the alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment the pH value of the sludge was adjusted to 9.0-11.0 by adding Ca(OH)2. The results showed that the dewaterability of the sewage sludge was improved with increasing pretreatment temperature but the impact of the pretreatment time was not significant. The addition of Ca(OH)2 gave better performance on the subsequent mechanical dewatering of the pretreated sludge compared to pure hydrothermal pretreatment, and the higher the pH value was, the better the dewaterability of the pretreated sludge was. The conditions of 180 °C/30 min and 160 °C/60 min/pH = 10.0 (for hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments, respectively) resulted in relatively good results in the theoretical energy balance, which were verified in the pilot-scale tests. Based on the data from the pilot tests, the alkaline hydrothermal process realized self-sufficiency in energy at the cost of a proper amount of CaO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adhesive strength of pilot-scale-produced water-washed cottonseed meal in comparison with a synthetic glue for non-structural interior application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) has been shown the potential to be used as renewable and environment-friendly adhesives in wood products industry. Recently, WCSM was produced from defatted meal in a pilot scale. In this study, we initially compare the adhesive strength of the pilot-produced WCSM...

  5. Release of K, Cl, and S during combustion and co-combustion with wood of high-chlorine biomass in bench and pilot scale fuel beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Joakim Myung; Aho, Martti; Paakkinen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    and partitioning of these elements. Earlier work by the authors on the release of K, Cl, and S from a high-chlorine biomass (corn stover) in a lab-scale setup is, in the present work, supplemented with novel results from a bench-scale fixed bed reactor and a 100kW moving grate pilot facility. The results from......, respectively. An increase in the relative K-release was observed when increasing the wood chip fraction from 40% to 100% (energy basis). Pilot scale flue gas results indicate that the share of Cl released as HCl decreases towards 0% as the share of wood chips is increased towards 100%. Hence, co...

  6. Characterizing the Effects of Washing by Different Detergents on the Wavelength-Scale Microstructures of Silk Samples Using Mueller Matrix Polarimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Silk fibers suffer from microstructural changes due to various external environmental conditions including daily washings. In this paper, we take the backscattering Mueller matrix images of silk samples for non-destructive and real-time quantitative characterization of the wavelength-scale microstructure and examination of the effects of washing by different detergents. The 2D images of the 16 Mueller matrix elements are reduced to the frequency distribution histograms (FDHs whose central moments reveal the dominant structural features of the silk fibers. A group of new parameters are also proposed to characterize the wavelength-scale microstructural changes of the silk samples during the washing processes. Monte Carlo (MC simulations are carried out to better understand how the Mueller matrix parameters are related to the wavelength-scale microstructure of silk fibers. The good agreement between experiments and simulations indicates that the Mueller matrix polarimetry and FDH based parameters can be used to quantitatively detect the wavelength-scale microstructural features of silk fibers. Mueller matrix polarimetry may be used as a powerful tool for non-destructive and in situ characterization of the wavelength-scale microstructures of silk based materials.

  7. Characterizing the Effects of Washing by Different Detergents on the Wavelength-Scale Microstructures of Silk Samples Using Mueller Matrix Polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; He, Honghui; He, Chao; Zhou, Jialing; Zeng, Nan; Ma, Hui

    2016-08-10

    Silk fibers suffer from microstructural changes due to various external environmental conditions including daily washings. In this paper, we take the backscattering Mueller matrix images of silk samples for non-destructive and real-time quantitative characterization of the wavelength-scale microstructure and examination of the effects of washing by different detergents. The 2D images of the 16 Mueller matrix elements are reduced to the frequency distribution histograms (FDHs) whose central moments reveal the dominant structural features of the silk fibers. A group of new parameters are also proposed to characterize the wavelength-scale microstructural changes of the silk samples during the washing processes. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are carried out to better understand how the Mueller matrix parameters are related to the wavelength-scale microstructure of silk fibers. The good agreement between experiments and simulations indicates that the Mueller matrix polarimetry and FDH based parameters can be used to quantitatively detect the wavelength-scale microstructural features of silk fibers. Mueller matrix polarimetry may be used as a powerful tool for non-destructive and in situ characterization of the wavelength-scale microstructures of silk based materials.

  8. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O' Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  9. Coal-fine beneficiation studies of a bench-scale water-only cyclone using artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.K. Kalyani; T. Gouri Charan; D.D. Haldar; Amalendu Sinha; Nikkam Suresh [Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research, Dhanbad (India)

    2008-04-15

    Coal fines generated in Indian coal preparation plants account for 25%-30% of run-of-mine (ROM) coal. Froth flotation is usually practiced in Indian coal washeries for washing the coals to bring down their ash content to acceptable limits. Because of the supply of feed coal from multiple sources, their different characteristics and composition, viz., varying mineralogy and ash content, presence of microfines, and their varying oxidation levels, the fine coal circuits, more often than not, fail to deliver consistent product quality and desired yields. Water-only cyclones have been used in most of the western countries for treating coal and mineral fines below 3 mm. However, the industrial use of these cyclones in India has not yet been put to practice in the coal-washing industry; the primary reason for this being that their design is unsuitable for high-ash content coals and therefore needs to be suitably modified according to the feed material characteristics. Highlighted in the present paper are the results of a case study of beneficiation of high-ash fine coal, using a water-only cyclone. The influence of two of the critical design variables, viz., cyclone length and solid concentration, on which the cyclone performance and the process yield (%) depend to a great extent, is described. Further, based on the experimental data of a water-only cyclone of varying lengths used for below a 3 mm coal beneficiation study, an attempt has also been made to develop a three-layer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) model, which is inherently trained using an error-back propagation algorithm. The results evince that the predictions from the ANN model are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental observations, thereby validating the applicability and accuracy of the developed ANN model.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE TREATABILITY OF MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATE IN A SBR AND BY COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION ON A BENCH SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fleck

    Full Text Available Abstract This article describes bench scale sequential, biological and coagulation-flocculation treatment of mature leachate for the removal of nitrogen and biodegradable and recalcitrant carbonaceous material. The biological stage was conducted on two SBRs, one of which inoculated with nitrifying sludge, another without an inoculum, for 152 and 133 days, respectively. The coagulation-flocculation stage used four coagulants at different doses and pH adjustments. The treatment conducted on the inoculated SBR when a pH control was used produced mean removals of BOD5, COD and TKN of 69.6%, 38.5% and 51.6%, respectively, and practically complete denitrification. Coagulation-flocculation applied to the effluent of the inoculated biological reactor showed a superior effectiveness of the ferric coagulants, when the pH was adjusted to close to 6.0, producing removals of turbidity, COD and true color close to 95%, 78% and 92%, respectively.

  11. Adhesive strength of pilot-scale washed cottonseed meal in comparison with a synthetic adhesive for non-structural application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great progress has been made on developing bio-based wood adhesives from renewable natural resources over last couple of decades . Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) showed the adhesive performance comparable to cottonseed protein isolate. To promote WCSM as an industrial wood adhesive for non-stru...

  12. Use of a µ-Scale Synthetic Gas Bench for Direct Comparison of Urea-SCR and NH3-SCR Reactions over an Oxide Based Powdered Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael Seneque

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The selective catalytic reduction (SCR of NOx by NH3 has been extensively studied in the literature, mainly because of its high potential to remediate the pollution of diesel exhaust gases. The implementation of the NH3-SCR process into passenger cars requires the use of an ammonia precursor, provided by a urea aqueous solution in the conventional process. Although the thermal decomposition and hydrolysis mechanisms of urea are well documented in the literature, the influence of the direct use of urea on the NOx reduction over SCR catalysts may be problematic. With the aim to evaluate prototype powdered catalysts, a specific synthetic gas bench adjusted to powdered material was developed, allowing the use of NH3 or urea as reductant for direct comparison. The design of the experimental setup allows vaporization of liquid urea at 200 °C under 10 bar using an HPLC pump and a micro injector of 50 μm diameter. This work presents the experimental setup of the catalytic test and some remarkable catalytic results towards further development of new catalytic formulations specifically dedicated to urea-SCR. Indeed, a possible divergence in terms of DeNOx efficiency is evidenced depending on the nature of the reductant, NH3 or urea solution. Particularly, the evaluated catalyst may not allow an optimal NOx conversion because of a lack in ammonia availability when the urea residence time is shortened. This is attributed to insufficient activity of isocyanic acid (HNCO hydrolysis, which can be improved by addition upstream of an active solid for the hydrolysis reaction such as ZrO2. Thus, this µ-scale synthetic gas bench adjusted to powdered materials enables the specific behaviour of urea use for NOx reduction to be demonstrated.

  13. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner, Wolf; Gacem, Riad; Anderlei, Tibor; Raven, Nicole; Schillberg, Stefan; Lattermann, Clemens; Büchs, Jochen

    2013-12-02

    Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham's π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/- 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale.

  14. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. Results A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham’s π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. Conclusion The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/− 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale. PMID:24289110

  15. Hierarchical calibration and validation for modeling bench-scale solvent-based carbon capture. Part 1: Non-reactive physical mass transfer across the wetted wall column: Original Research Article: Hierarchical calibration and validation for modeling bench-scale solvent-based carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Xu, Zhijie [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Lai, Canhai [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Whyatt, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Energy and Environment Directorate, Richland WA; Marcy, Peter [Statistical Sciences Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM; Sun, Xin [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA

    2017-04-27

    A hierarchical model calibration and validation is proposed for quantifying the confidence level of mass transfer prediction using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, where the solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture is simulated and simulation results are compared to the parallel bench-scale experimental data. Two unit problems with increasing level of complexity are proposed to breakdown the complex physical/chemical processes of solvent-based CO2 capture into relatively simpler problems to separate the effects of physical transport and chemical reaction. This paper focuses on the calibration and validation of the first unit problem, i.e. the CO2 mass transfer across a falling ethanolamine (MEA) film in absence of chemical reaction. This problem is investigated both experimentally and numerically using nitrous oxide (N2O) as a surrogate for CO2. To capture the motion of gas-liquid interface, a volume of fluid method is employed together with a one-fluid formulation to compute the mass transfer between the two phases. Bench-scale parallel experiments are designed and conducted to validate and calibrate the CFD models using a general Bayesian calibration. Two important transport parameters, e.g. Henry’s constant and gas diffusivity, are calibrated to produce the posterior distributions, which will be used as the input for the second unit problem to address the chemical adsorption of CO2 across the MEA falling film, where both mass transfer and chemical reaction are involved.

  16. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  17. Toxic Combustion Product Yields as a Function of Equivalence Ratio and Flame Retardants in Under-Ventilated Fires: Bench-Large-Scale Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Purser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale compartment fires; combustion product yields vary with combustion conditions mainly in relation to the fuel:air equivalence ratio (Φ and the effects of gas-phase flame retardants. Yields of products of inefficient combustion; including the major toxic products CO; HCN and organic irritants; increase considerably as combustion changes from well-ventilated (Φ < 1 to under-ventilated (Φ = 1–3. It is therefore essential that bench-scale toxicity tests reproduce this behaviour across the Φ range. Yield data from repeat compartment fire tests for any specific fuel show some variation on either side of a best-fit curve for CO yield as a function of Φ. In order to quantify the extent to which data from the steady state tube furnace (SSTF [1]; ISO TS19700 [2] represents compartment fire yields; the range and average deviations of SSTF data for CO yields from the compartment fire best-fit curve were compared to those for direct compartment fire measurements for six different polymeric fuels with textile and non-textile applications and for generic post-flashover fire CO yield data. The average yields; range and standard deviations of the SSTF data around the best-fit compartment fire curves were found to be close to those for the compartment fire data. It is concluded that SSTF data are as good a predictor of compartment fire yields as are repeat compartment fire test data.

  18. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of mild alkali pre-treated rice straw at high-solid loadings using in-house cellulases in a bench scale system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, Madhuri; Balasubramanian, Velmurugan; James, Jisha P

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, scale-up systems for cellulase production and enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated rice straw at high-solid loadings were designed, fabricated and tested in the laboratory. Cellulase production was carried out using tray fermentation at 45 °C by Aspergillus terreus in a temperature-controlled humidity chamber. Enzymatic hydrolysis studies were performed in a horizontal rotary drum reactor at 50 °C with 25 % (w/v) solid loading and 9 FPU g(-1) substrate enzyme load using in-house as well commercial cellulases. Highly concentrated fermentable sugars up to 20 % were obtained at 40 h with an increased saccharification efficiency of 76 % compared to laboratory findings (69.2 %). These findings demonstrate that we developed a simple and less energy intensive bench scale system for efficient high-solid saccharification. External supplementation of commercial β-glucosidase and hemicellulase ensured better hydrolysis and further increased the saccharification efficiency by 14.5 and 20 %, respectively. An attempt was also made to recover cellulolytic enzymes using ultrafiltration module and nearly 79-84 % of the cellulases and more than 90 % of the sugars were recovered from the saccharification mixture.

  19. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier. Fourth quarterly report, July 1, 1985--September 30, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

    1985-12-31

    The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion.

  20. Flexible Bench-Scale Recirculating Flow CPC Photoreactor for Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Removable TiO2 Immobilized on PET Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. EL-Mekkawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 immobilized on polyethylene (PET nonwoven sheet was used in the solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. TiO2 Evonik Aeroxide P25 was used in this study. The amount of loaded TiO2 on PET was approximately 24%. Immobilization of TiO2 on PET was conducted by dip coating process followed by exposing to mild heat and pressure. TiO2/PET sheets were wrapped on removable Teflon rods inside home-made bench-scale recirculating flow Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC photoreactor prototype (platform 0.7 × 0.2 × 0.4 m3. CPC photoreactor is made up of seven low iron borosilicate glass tubes connected in series. CPC reflectors are made of stainless steel 304. The prototype was mounted on a platform tilted at 30°N local latitude in Cairo. A centrifugal pump was used to circulate water containing methylene blue (MB dye inside the glass tubes. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of MB using TiO2/PET was achieved upon the exposure to direct sunlight. Chemical oxygen demand (COD analyses reveal the complete mineralization of MB. Durability of TiO2/PET composite was also tested under sunlight irradiation. Results indicate only 6% reduction in the amount of TiO2 after seven cycles. No significant change was observed for the physicochemical characteristics of TiO2/PET after the successive irradiation processes.

  1. Bench scale model studies on sanitary landfill leachate treatment with M. oleifera seed extract and hollow fibre micro-filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muyibi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-based study using a Bench Scale model of four unit operations made up of coagulation (using Moringa oleifera seed extract as a coagulant, flocculation, sedimentation and micro-filtration, have been adopted to treat the leachate from Air Hitman Sanitary Landfill at Puchong in Malaysia. M. oleifera dosages of 150 and 175 mg/L had achieved 43.8% Cadmium removal, 21.2% Total Chromium removal, 66.8% Lead removal and 16% Iron removal. It also removed 55.4% of Total Suspended Solids, 10% of Total Dissolved Solids and 24.2% of Volatile Suspended Solids. Micro-filtration hollow fibre membrane decreased the turbidity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, volatile suspended solids, and organic matter in the leachate by 98.3%, 96.7%, 20.8%, 36.6% and 21.9% respectively. Overall heavy metals removal after micro-filtration using hollow fibre membrane was 94% for Cadmium, 29.8% for Total Chromium, 73.2% for Lead, and 18.3% for Iron. The results have shown that M. oleifera is a promising natural polymer for removing heavy metals from leachates and may be used as a pre-treatment to eliminate a portion of the toxic heavy metals, which limits the activity of micro organisms in the leachates.

  2. Numerical Studies of the Gas-Solid Hydrodynamics at High Temperature in the Riser of a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian J. Hodapp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamics of circulating fluidized beds (CFBs is a complex phenomenon that can drastically vary depending on operational setup and geometrical configuration. A research of the literature shows that studies for the prediction of key variables in CFB systems operating at high temperature still need to be implemented aiming at applications in energy conversion, such as combustion, gasification, or fast pyrolysis of solid fuels. In this work the computational fluid dynamics (CFD technique was used for modeling and simulation of the hydrodynamics of a preheating gas-solid flow in a cylindrical bed section. For the CFD simulations, the two-fluid approach was used to represent the gas-solid flow with the k-epsilon turbulence model being applied for the gas phase and the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF for the properties of the dispersed phase. The information obtained from a semiempirical model was used to implement the initial condition of the simulation. The CFD results were in accordance with experimental data obtained from a bench-scale CFB system and from predictions of the semiempirical model. The initial condition applied in this work was shown to be a viable alternative to a more common constant solid mass flux boundary condition.

  3. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Topical Report EH&S Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Herwig, Mark; Giolando, Salvatore; Green, Dianne; Morall, Donna

    2016-05-11

    GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2 capture solvent (award number DEFE0013687). As part of this program, a technology EH&S assessment (Subtask 5.1) has been completed for a CO2 capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. The assessment focuses on two chemicals used in the process, the aminosilicone solvent, GAP-0, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA), the GAP-0 carbamate formed upon reaction of the GAP-0 with CO2, and two potential byproducts formed in the process, GAP-0/SOx salts and amine-terminated, urea-containing silicone (also referred to as “ureas” in this report). The EH&S assessment identifies and estimates the magnitude of the potential air and water emissions and solid waste generated by the process and reviews the toxicological profiles of the chemicals associated with the process. Details regarding regulatory requirements, engineering controls, and storage and handling procedures are also provided in the following sections.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics assessment: Volume 2, Isothermal simulations of the METC bench-scale coal-water slurry combustor: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, I.; Chattree, M.

    1988-09-01

    The isothermal turbulent, swirling flow inside the METC pressurized bench-scale combustor has been simulated using ISOPCGC-2. The effects of the swirl numbers, the momentum ratio of the primary to secondary streams, the annular wall thickness, and the quarl angle on the flow and mixing patterns have been investigated. The results that with the present configuration of the combustor, an annular recirculation zone is present up to secondary swirl number of four. A central (on axis) recirculation zone can be obtained by increasing the momentum of the secondary stream by decreasing the annular area at the reactor inlet. The mixing of the primary (fuel carrier) air with the secondary air improves only slightly due to swirl unless a central recirculation zone is present. Good mixing is achieved in the quarl region when a central recirculation zone is present. A preliminary investigation of the influence of placing flow regulators inside the the combustor shows that they influence the flow field significantly and that there is a potential of obtaining optimum flow conditions using these flow regulators. 58 refs., 47 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Hierarchical Calibration and Validation Framework of Bench-scale Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations for Solvent-based Carbon Capture: Part 2. Chemical Absorption across a Wetted Wall Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Zhijie; Lai, Canhai; Whyatt, Greg A.; Marcy, Peter; Sun, Xin

    2018-02-01

    The first part of this paper (Part 1) presents a numerical model for non-reactive physical mass transfer across a wetted wall column (WWC). In Part 2, we improved the existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate chemical absorption occurring in a WWC as a bench-scale study of solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. To generate data for WWC model validation, CO2 mass transfer across a monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent was first measured on a WWC experimental apparatus. The numerical model developed in this work has the ability to account for both chemical absorption and desorption of CO2 in MEA. In addition, the overall mass transfer coefficient predicted using traditional/empirical correlations is conducted and compared with CFD prediction results for both steady and wavy falling films. A Bayesian statistical calibration algorithm is adopted to calibrate the reaction rate constants in chemical absorption/desorption of CO2 across a falling film of MEA. The posterior distributions of the two transport properties, i.e., Henry’s constant and gas diffusivity in the non-reacting nitrous oxide (N2O)/MEA system obtained from Part 1 of this study, serves as priors for the calibration of CO2 reaction rate constants after using the N2O/CO2 analogy method. The calibrated model can be used to predict the CO2 mass transfer in a WWC for a wider range of operating conditions.

  6. Bacterial community in the biofilm of granular activated carbon (GAC) PreBiofilter in bench-scale pilot plants for surface water pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiehang; Fu, George Yuzhu; Sabula, Michael; Brown, Tommy

    2014-12-01

    Biofilters of granular activated carbon (GAC) are responsible for the removal of organic matters in drinking water treatments. PreBiofilters, which operate as the first unit in a surface water treatment train, are a cost-effective pretreatment for conventional surface water treatment and provide more consistent downstream water quality. This study investigated bacterial communities from the samples of raw surface water, biofilm on the PreBiofilter, and filtrates for surface water pretreatment. A bench-scale pilot plant of PreBiofilter was constructed to pretreat surface water from the Canoochee River, GA, USA. PreBiofilter exhibited a significant reduction of total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon. The evenness and Shannon diversity of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly higher on the biofilm of PreBiofilter than in raw water and filtrates. Similar bacteria communities were observed in the raw water and filtrates using relative abundance of bacterial OTUs. However, the bacterial communities in the filtrates became relatively similar to those in the biofilm using presence/absence of bacterial OTUs. GAC biofilm or raw water and filtrates greatly contributed to the abundance of bacteria; whereas, bacteria sheared from colonized biofilm and entered filtrates. Evenly distributed, diverse and unique bacteria in the biofilm played an important role to remove organic matters from surface water for conventional surface water pretreatment.

  7. Determination and modeling of the influence of the fluid-dynamics in hydro-treating bench scale plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, T.

    1999-09-16

    At an industrial scale, the hydro-treating of oil fractions is carried out in multiphase fixed bed reactors. The oil and hydrogen cross the catalyst bed, usually in co-current downflow. Since the product specifications are steadily becoming more severe, the testing of new catalysts and of modified operating conditions in pilot plants becomes increasingly important. Although these pilot plants are frequently by a factor of 100 000 smaller than the industrial units, they still have to allow the up-scaling to industrial units. In the literature relatively low conversion degrees in pilot plants are frequently reported, especially in downflow. The significantly lower fluid velocities in pilot plants seem to be responsible for such differences, as the influence of fluid-dynamic non-idealities and of the extra-particle mass transfer phenomena increases with a decrease of the fluid velocities. In the present work, the influence of important fluid-dynamic non-idealities on the hydro-treating of gas oil fractions in pilot plants was examined. This was done on the one hand in experiments with different pilot plants and on the other hand by simulations with an especially developed multiphase model. The phenomena were considered as well in an isolated manner. In order to examine any interactions with the chemical reactions, they were also studied in a reactive system. This methodology was applied to the phenomena, 'axial dispersion'and 'gas-liquid mass transfer'. (author)

  8. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  9. A bench-scale study on the removal and recovery of phosphate by hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe; Fang, Wenkan; Xing, Mingchao; Wu, Deyi, E-mail: dywu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Owing to the easy magnetic separation from water for reuse, magnetic nanoparticles have drawn great interest as adsorbents. Herein hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2}) were created by a facile method and a bench–scale study was undertaken to evaluate its effectiveness and mechanism to remove phosphate at low concentrations. Results indicated that phosphate removal by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} was fast (95% of phosphate removal within 10 min) and nearly complete removal could be achieved at the adsorbent dosage >0.6 g/L. In tap water or wastewater where competitive anions coexist, regulation of pH was found to be quite effective to augment the performance of phosphate removal. In pH–lowered adsorption systems, phosphate removal followed a good pattern similarly to pure water, i.e., a continuous high efficiency removal followed by a rapid saturation. Adsorption–desorption–regeneration studies showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} could be repeatedly used for phosphate removal and adsorbed phosphate could be stripped for recovery. The fractionation of adsorbed phosphorus suggested that NaOH-P fraction was dominant. We also found that the adsorption reaction of phosphate with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} shifted the isoelectric point of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} from ~9.0 to ~3.0. FTIR measurements further showed the direct coordination of phosphate onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. The formation of the monodentate (ZrO)PO{sub 2}(OH) complex was proposed. - Highlights: • Hydrous zirconia–coated magnetite was used for phosphate capture. • Regulation of pH was able to enhance P removal in the presence of coexisting ions. • Phosphate was coordinated onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. • The material could be easily separated from water for reuse by a magnet. • Desorption of phosphate from the material could be achieved with NaOH treatment.

  10. Hydrogen generation from bioethanol reforming: bench-scale unit performance with Cu/Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Machado, N.R.C. [State Univ. of Maringa (UEM), Chemical Engineering Dept., Lab. of Catalysis, Maringa (Brazil); Schmal, M. [PEQ/COPPE/UFRJ Cidade Univ., Centro de Tecnologia, Graduate School and Research in Engineering Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute, Rio De Janeiro (Brazil); Cantao, M.P. [LACTEC, Dept. of Materials, Inst. of Technology for Development, Curitiba (Brazil)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    As an alternative route for hydrogen production, ethanol reforming was studied in a bench-scale unit using a 5%Cu/Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst previously selected in a micro reactor. X-Ray Diffraction analysis has shown that this catalyst contains copper oxide in an amorphous form, or in particles smaller than 20 nm, while the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is highly crystalline. Analysis of the calcinated catalyst by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy revealed that 35% of total copper was on the surface as Cu{sup I} (55%) or Cu{sup II} (45%). The catalyst presented a low surface area (35 m{sup 2}/g), mainly from meso and macropores, as textural analysis revealed. Temperature Programmed Reduction showed a two-step reduction of Cu{sup II} to Cu, at 245{sup o}C and 306{sup o}C. It was also observed the reduction of 6% of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The reaction unit consisted of an integral reactor with 16 g of catalyst pellets, approximately 3 mm x 5 mm in size. Reaction temperature and feed rate were varied to optimize hydrogen production, with CO{sub 2} as the main byproduct. Reagents (water and ethanol) in stoichiometric proportion were fed into an electric pre-heater and vaporized. An increase on reaction temperature from 300{sup o}C to 400{sup o}C has led to an increase in mean conversion from 17% to 35%. Ethene and ethyl ether were also detected as minor byproducts. (author)

  11. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States); Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  12. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  13. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  14. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a PhaseChanging Absorbent: Techno-Economic Analysis Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Spiry, Irina [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States)

    2017-01-27

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing CO2 capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2 capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. This report presents system and economic analysis for a process that uses a phase changing aminosilicone solvent to remove CO2 from pulverized coal (PC) power plant flue gas. The aminosilicone solvent is a pure 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (GAP-0). Performance of the phase-changing aminosilicone technology is compared to that of a conventional carbon capture system using aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA). This analysis demonstrates that the aminosilicone process has significant advantages relative to an MEA-based system. The first-year CO2 removal cost for the phase-changing CO2 capture process is $52.1/tonne, compared to $66.4/tonne for the aqueous amine process. The phase-changing CO2 capture process is less costly than MEA because of advantageous solvent properties that include higher working capacity, lower corrosivity, lower vapor pressure, and lower heat capacity. The phase-changing aminosilicone process has approximately 32% lower equipment capital cost compared to that of the aqueous amine process. However, this solvent is susceptible to thermal degradation at CSTR desorber operating temperatures, which could add as much as $88/tonne to the CO2 capture cost associated with solvent makeup. Future work is focused on mitigating this critical risk by developing an advanced low-temperature desorber that can deliver comparable desorption performance and significantly reduced

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Amorphous Solid Dispersions Generated by Different Bench-Scale Processes, Using Griseofulvin as a Model Compound

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Cui, Yong; Ran, Yingqing; Lubach, Joe; Chou, Kang-Jye; Bao, Linda; Jia, Wei; La, Hank; Hau, Jonathan; Sambrone, Amy; Qin, Ann; Deng, Yuzhong; Wong, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Drug polymer-based amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve bioavailability for poorly water-soluble compounds. Spray-drying is the most common process involved in the manufacturing of ASD material. However, spray-drying involves a high investment of material quantity and time. Lower investment manufacturing processes such as fast evaporation and freeze-drying (lyophilization) have been developed to manufacture ASD at the bench level. The gen...

  16. Bench-Scale Testing and Process Performance Projections of CO2 Capture by CO2–Binding Organic Liquids (CO2BOLs) With and Without Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Feng; Heldebrant, David J.; Mathias, Paul M.; Koech, Phillip K.; Bhakta, Mukund; Freeman, Charles J.; Bearden, Mark D.; Zwoster, Andy

    2016-01-12

    This manuscript provides a detailed analysis of a continuous flow, bench scale study of the CO2BOL solvent platform with and without its Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study encompassed four months of continuous flow testing of a candidate CO2BOL with a thermal regeneration and PSAR regeneration using decane antisolvent. In both regeneration schemes, steady state capture of >90 %CO2 was achieved using simulated flue gas at acceptable L/G ratios. Aspen Plus™ modeling was performed to assess process performance compared to previous equilibrium performance projections. This paper also includes net power projections, and comparisons to DOE’s Case 10 amine baseline.

  17. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation: WARRP Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This activity demonstrated, on a practical scale, the primary unit operations for building a containment structure for radioactive wash waters, washing down a hypothetically radioactively contaminated vehicle, collecting the hypothetically radioactive slurry waste water, filtering the hypothetically radioactive wash waters, disassembling the containment, and transporting the materials for final disposition.

  18. The Pepperpot Measurement Bench

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 USPAS (US Particle Accelerator School) included a one week session on Beam Instrumentation of which one day was dedicated to emittance measurements. In addition to formal lectures, a laboratory session, demonstrating different types of transverse emittance measurements, was prepared. The exercises consisted on measurements on an optical bench, where the particle beam is replaced by a light source and the electro-magnetic beam optics is replaced by light optics. These experiments were developed purely for educational purposes but they demonstrate many of the difficulties encountered on the equivalent measurements on the accelerator. Signals must be filtered using digital filters, profiles must be fitted to extract physically meaningful results etc.

  19. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of amorphous solid dispersions generated by different bench-scale processes, using griseofulvin as a model compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Cui, Yong; Ran, Yingqing; Lubach, Joe; Chou, Kang-Jye; Bao, Linda; Jia, Wei; La, Hank; Hau, Jonathan; Sambrone, Amy; Qin, Ann; Deng, Yuzhong; Wong, Harvey

    2013-04-01

    Drug polymer-based amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve bioavailability for poorly water-soluble compounds. Spray-drying is the most common process involved in the manufacturing of ASD material. However, spray-drying involves a high investment of material quantity and time. Lower investment manufacturing processes such as fast evaporation and freeze-drying (lyophilization) have been developed to manufacture ASD at the bench level. The general belief is that the overall performance of ASD material is thermodynamically driven and should be independent of the manufacturing process. However, no formal comparison has been made to assess the in vivo performance of material generated by different processes. This study compares the in vitro and in vivo properties of ASD material generated by fast evaporation, lyophilization, and spray-drying methods using griseofulvin as a model compound and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate as the polymer matrix. Our data suggest that despite minor differences in the formulation release properties and stability of the ASD materials, the overall exposure is comparable between the three manufacturing processes under the conditions examined. These results suggest that fast evaporation and lyophilization may be suitable to generate ASD material for oral evaluation. However, caution should be exercised since the general applicability of the present findings will need to be further evaluated.

  20. Astrophysics on the Lab Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    In this article some basic laboratory bench experiments are described that are useful for teaching high school students some of the basic principles of stellar astrophysics. For example, in one experiment, students slam a plastic water-filled bottle down onto a bench, ejecting water towards the ceiling, illustrating the physics associated with a…

  1. Asymmetric propagation of airblast from bench blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra Catasús, Pablo; Sanchidrián Blanco, José Angel; López Sánchez, Lina María; Domingo, Jesús Felix

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the propagation of airblast from quarry blasting. Peak overpressure is calculated as a function of blasting parameters (explosive mass per delay and velocity at which the detonation sequence proceeds along the bench) and polar coordinates of the point of interest (distance to the blast and azimuth with respect to the free face of the blast). The model is in the form of the product of a classical scaled distance attenuation law times a directional correction factor. The...

  2. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Revised final report, [October 1992--October 1993]: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-27

    The main advantage of the project is that it allowed PTI to gain knowledge and experience about the proper approach, methods and hardware required to properly optimize and control column flotation performance. Many operational problems were incurred during the project, some of that PTI was able to solve during the project and other that must be overcome as the technology is further developed and commercialized. The key operating problems experienced with the KEN-FLOTE{sup TM} Column that must be further researched and overcome include: (1)The low concentrate solids content which limited the throughput capacity of the column, due to high froth washing requirements. The low concentrate solids content also lead to difficulty obtaining accurate On-Line Monitor measurements, due to the poor measurement sensitivity obtained with low solids content samples (particularly less than 5.0 wt %). (2) The higher-than-anticipated reagent dosages that undoubtedly contributed to the low solids content listed above, and also caused foaming problems within PTI`s On-Line Monitor. A defoaming reagent addition (Nalco 7810) was required to provide consistent sample size and reproducible On-Line Monitor counts for the concentrate samples collected within the circuit. PTI and UK`s CAER staff will continue to research alternative column design, particularly alternative air bubble generation and air distribution systems, to try to maximize column concentrate solids content while reducing reagent dosage requirements. In addition to the KEN-FLOTE{sup TM} Column operation there were also a number of hardware problems with PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor that must be remedied for future commercial installations.

  3. Evaluation of the Performance and the Predictive Capacity of Build-Up and Wash-Off Models on Different Temporal Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saja Al Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater quality modeling has arisen as a promising tool to develop mitigation strategies. The aim of this paper is to assess the build-up and wash-off processes and investigate the capacity of several water quality models to accurately simulate and predict the temporal variability of suspended solids concentrations in runoff, based on a long-term data set. A Markov Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC technique is applied to calibrate the models and analyze the parameter’s uncertainty. The short-term predictive capacity of the models is assessed based on inter- and intra-event approaches. Results suggest that the performance of the wash-off model is related to the dynamic of pollutant transport where the best fit is recorded for first flush events. Assessment of SWMM (Storm Water Management Model exponential build-up model reveals that better performance is obtained on short periods and that build-up models relying only on the antecedent dry weather period as an explanatory variable, cannot predict satisfactorily the accumulated mass on the surface. The predictive inter-event capacity of SWMM exponential model proves its inability to predict the pollutograph while the intra-event approach based on data assimilation proves its efficiency for first flush events only. This method is very interesting for management practices because of its simplicity and easy implementation.

  4. Soil washing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

  5. Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-08

    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  6. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture. Manufacturing Plan for Aminosilicone-based CO{sub 2} Absorption Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Kirkland

    2013-02-01

    A commercially cost effective manufacturing plan was developed for GAP-1m, the aminosilicone-based part of the CO{sub 2} capture solvent described in DE-FE0007502, and the small-scale synthesis of GAP-1m was confirmed. The plan utilizes a current intermediate at SiVance LLC to supply the 2013-2015 needs for GE Global Research. Material from this process was supplied to GE Global Research for evaluation and creation of specifications. GE Global Research has since ordered larger quantities (60 liters) for the larger scale evaluations that start in first quarter, 2013. For GE’s much larger future commercial needs, an improved, more economical pathway to make the product was developed after significant laboratory and literature research. Suppliers were identified for all raw materials.

  7. Bench-Scale Study of Hydrogen Separation Using Pre-Commercial Membranes; Estudio, a Escala de Planta Piloto, del Proceso de Separacion de Hidrogeno mediante Membranas Pre-Comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Hervas, J. M.; Marano, M.

    2011-11-10

    This report compiles the research undertaken by CIEMAT over 2009-2011 in the sub-project 8 Purification and Separation of Hydrogen of the PSE H2ENOV Project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, MICINN. Permeability and hydrogen selectivity of a pre-commercial palladium membrane was studied at bench scale level. The effect of main operating parameters - pressure, temperature and feed-flow-rate- on permeate flow-rate was determined. The influence of other gas components on hydrogen permeation was evaluated. Mixtures of H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} were studied. Although nitrogen and carbon dioxide did not permeate, both components decreased hydrogen permeation rate. Operating the membrane for around 1000 h under various conditions showed a small decrease in hydrogen permeation, but not in selectivity. A literature review was done in order to identify causes for permeation inhibition and reduction and for the definition of procedures for membrane regeneration. (Author) 29 refs.

  8. Geodetic Control Points, Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level elevations have been determined., Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Control Points dataset current as of 1995. Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level...

  9. Inhibition of microbial fuel cell operation for municipal wastewater treatment by impact loads of free ammonia in bench- and 45L-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiegemann, Heinz; Lübken, Manfred; Schulte, Patrick; Schmelz, Karl-Georg; Gredigk-Hoffmann, Sylvia; Wichern, Marc

    2017-12-12

    A 45-liter microbial fuel cell (MFC) system was integrated into a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The system was operated under practical conditions with supernatant of a pre-thickener for 50days in order to identify, whether higher power output and energy recovery is possible compared to the use of primary clarifier effluent, as used in a previous study. The higher COD (chemical oxygen demand) loading rates of supernatant neither increased power densities, nor energy recovery, but impact loads of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) in concentrations >800mg/L (free ammonia nitrogen (FAN)>40mg/L) led to an instant collapse of power output and nutrient removal, which was reversed when ammonia concentrations decreased. Investigations in lab-scale under defined conditions verified that the inhibition of the exoelectrogenic biofilm is in fact caused by high levels of FAN. Here, COD removal, power output and energy recovery constantly decreased, when FAN-concentrations were increased above 64mg/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hand Washing: Do's and Dont's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a sick person Inserting or removing contact lenses Always wash your hands after: Preparing food Using ... best to wash your hands with soap and water. Follow these steps: Wet your hands with running ...

  11. Increasing Desalination by Mitigating Anolyte pH Imbalance Using Catholyte Effluent Addition in a Multi-Anode Bench Scale Microbial Desalination Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Robert J.

    2013-09-03

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) uses exoelectrogenic bacteria to oxidize organic matter while desalinating water. Protons produced from the oxidation of organics at the anode result in anolyte acidification and reduce performance. A new method was used here to mitigate anolyte acidification based on adding non-buffered saline catholyte effluent from a previous cycle to the anolyte at the beginning of the next cycle. This method was tested using a larger-scale MDC (267 mL) containing four anode brushes and a three cell pair membrane stack. With an anolyte salt concentration increased by an equivalent of 75 mM NaCl using the catholyte effluent, salinity was reduced by 26.0 ± 0.5% (35 g/L NaCl initial solution) in a 10 h cycle, compared to 18.1 ± 2.0% without catholyte addition. This improvement was primarily due to the increase in buffering capacity of the anolyte, although increased conductivity slightly improved performance as well. There was some substrate loss from the anolyte by diffusion into the membrane stack, but this was decreased from 11% to 2.6% by increasing the anolyte conductivity (7.6 to 14 mS/cm). These results demonstrated that catholyte effluent can be utilized as a useful product for mitigating anolyte acidification and improving MDC performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. A hybrid froth flotation-filtration system as a pretreatment for oil sands tailings pond recycle water management: Bench- and pilot-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Bromley, David; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-09-15

    Through sustainable water management, oil sands companies are working to reduce their reliance on fresh water by minimizing the amount of water required for their operations and by recycling water from tailings ponds. This study was the first pilot-scale testing of a hybrid technology consisting of froth flotation combined with filtration through precoated submerged stainless steel membranes used to treat recycle water from an oil sands facility. The results indicated that the most important factor affecting the performance of the hybrid system was the influent water quality. Any rise in the levels of suspended solids or total organic carbon of the feed water resulted in changes of chemical consumption rates, flux rates, and operating cycle durations. The selections of chemical type and dosing rates were critical in achieving optimal performance. In particular, the froth application rate heavily affected the overall recovery of the hybrid system as well as the performance of the flotation process. Optimum surfactant usage to generate froth (per liter of treated water) was 0.25 mL/L at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and 0.015 mL/L at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. At the tested conditions, the optimal coagulant dose was 80 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and recycle water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An emulsion wash fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Yu.G.; Kasyanenko, N.I.; Nedoseko, L.V.; Yablonovskaya, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    The advantage of making a wash fluid at drill wells far from the clay works from concentrates of pastes delivered there is demonstrated. A formula is cited for the EP-1 emulsion paste, developed in the Dnepropetrovsk section of the Institute of Mineral Resources (IMR), along with its production technology. The low clay emulsion wash liquid, EPZh-1, obtained directly from the drill well from the EP-1 paste, after adding one of the polymers of the acrylic series (hydrolized polyacrylamide, hypan, K-4 and so on) to it is a volume of 1 to 2 percent of the total mass is suitable for use in different geological conditions. Based on the results of broad testing in the geological organizations of the Sevukreologiya and Yuzhukrgeologiya PO, it is established that the EPZh-1 wash fluid promotes an increase in the speed of well passage on the average by 13.7 percent and an increase in the technical drilling speed of 17.3 percent and a reduction in downtime due to the absence of the clearing agent by 53 percent and due to complications by 50 percent. More than 100,000 meters of wells have been drilled using EPZh-1 and a savings of 1.37 rubles per meter drilled has been achieved.

  14. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  15. Please wash your hands often

    OpenAIRE

    Moraru, C.

    2007-01-01

    This poster advises washing hands "before and after using the toilet, handling food, touching animals, eating, drinking, or smoking." It advocates "always use clean water / never wash your hands in used wash water!" The purpose is to protect self and others from diseases. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  16. Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory‘s Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vince Maio

    2011-08-01

    This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine

  17. Responsibility and hand washing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jasmine; Purdon, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that compulsions persist due to a self-perpetuating mechanism of poor memory confidence and repetition. However, most of this work has examined checking compulsions and findings may not generalize well to washing compulsions. This study examined the role of responsibility in the persistence of washing behaviour. Hand washing was examined in undergraduates (n = 80) high and low in contamination fears (CF) under conditions of high or low responsibility (RL). Wash duration and number of visits to objects/locations key to the wash (e.g., soap) were examined. Overvalued responsibility predicted washing duration across groups. Neither wash duration nor number of visits was associated with memory for the wash. Wash duration predicted post-wash certainty that the wash had prevented harm, but only in the high CF group, and that effect varied according to RL: longer wash duration predicted greater certainty under conditions of low RL but predicted less certainty under conditions of high RL. Greater repetition predicted poorer sensory confidence, but only in the high CF group under high RL conditions. The data were collected in an analogue sample of modest size. Replication in a clinical sample is required. Self-perpetuating mechanisms identified in perseverative checking seem to also be present in perseverative washing, but only under conditions of high responsibility. Sensory confidence may be more important to perseverative washing than memory confidence. More research is required to understand self-perpetuating mechanisms at play when washing to under conditions of high responsibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Eficiencia del proceso de lavado en la obtención del citrato de calcio y magnesio a escala de banco Effectiveness of washout process to obtain calcium and magnesium citrate at bench scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Rodríguez Chanfrau

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de la optimización del proceso tecnológico para obtener citrato de calcio y magnesio a partir de dolomitas, se estudió a escala de banco la etapa de lavado para disminuir el contenido de ácido cítrico libre. Las variantes de lavado estudiadas permitieron disminuir el contenido de ácido cítrico libre por debajo del 3 %, mientras que los valores de calcio y magnesio son similares a los del lote antes de realizar el proceso de lavado. Por otro lado, el estudio toxicológico en ratas, comprobó que los lotes a los cuales se les aplicó las diferentes variantes de lavado no provocaron irritabilidad gástrica a las dosis de 2 000 mg/kg de peso corporal, por lo que se puede afirmar que el proceso de lavado establecido es adecuado para garantizar la calidad de la materia prima.As part of the technological process optomization to obtain calcium citrate and magnesium from dolomites, we studied at bench scale, the washout stage to decrease the free citric acid content. Washout variants allowed to decrease the free citric acid content under 3 %, whereas the calcium and magnesium values are similar to those of batch before to carry out the wahout process. On the other hand, toxicity study in rats, proved that the batches where different washout variables were applied not provoke gastric irritability at doses of 2 000 mg/kg of body weight confirming that above mentioned established process is approproate to guarantee the raw material quality.

  19. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  20. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  1. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  2. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  3. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  4. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  5. Washing treatment of automotive shredder residue (ASR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

    2013-08-01

    Worldwide, the amount of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) reaches 50 million units per year. Once the ELV has been processed, it may then be shredded and sorted to recover valuable metals that are recycled in iron and steelmaking processes. The residual fraction, called automotive shredder residue (ASR), represents 25% of the ELV and is usually landfilled. In order to deal with the leachable fraction of ASR that poses a potential threat to the environment, a washing treatment before landfilling was applied. To assess the potential for full-scale application of washing treatment, tests were carried out in different conditions (L/S = 3 and 5L/kgTS; t = 3 and 6 h). Moreover, to understand whether the grain size of waste could affect the washing efficiency, the treatment was applied to ground (<4 mm) and not-ground samples. The findings obtained revealed that, on average, washing treatment achieved removal rates of more than 60% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). With regard to metals and chlorides, sulphates and fluoride leachable fraction, a removal efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained, as confirmed also by EC values. The comparison between the results for ground and not-ground samples did not highlight significant differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  7. Teaching elliptical excision skills to novice medical students: A randomized controlled study comparing low- and high-fidelity bench models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Denadai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The search for alternative and effective forms of training simulation is needed due to ethical and medico-legal aspects involved in training surgical skills on living patients, human cadavers and living animals. Aims : To evaluate if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of elliptical excision skills by novice medical students. Materials and Methods: Forty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed elliptical excision skills′ training (n = 8: didactic materials (control; organic bench model (low-fidelity; ethylene-vinyl acetate bench model (low-fidelity; chicken legs′ skin bench model (high-fidelity; or pig foot skin bench model (high-fidelity. Pre- and post-tests were applied. Global rating scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence based on Likert scale were used to evaluate all elliptical excision performances. Results : The analysis showed that after training, the students practicing on bench models had better performance based on Global rating scale (all P 0.05 between the groups that trained on bench models. The magnitude of the effect (basic cutaneous surgery skills′ training was considered large (>0.80 in all measurements. Conclusion : The acquisition of elliptical excision skills after instructor-directed training on low-fidelity bench models was similar to the training on high-fidelity bench models; and there was a more substantial increase in elliptical excision performances of students that trained on all simulators compared to the learning on didactic materials.

  8. Teaching elliptical excision skills to novice medical students: a randomized controlled study comparing low- and high-fidelity bench models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Oshiiwa, Marie; Saad-Hossne, Rogério

    2014-03-01

    The search for alternative and effective forms of training simulation is needed due to ethical and medico-legal aspects involved in training surgical skills on living patients, human cadavers and living animals. To evaluate if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of elliptical excision skills by novice medical students. Forty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed elliptical excision skills' training (n = 8): didactic materials (control); organic bench model (low-fidelity); ethylene-vinyl acetate bench model (low-fidelity); chicken legs' skin bench model (high-fidelity); or pig foot skin bench model (high-fidelity). Pre- and post-tests were applied. Global rating scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence based on Likert scale were used to evaluate all elliptical excision performances. The analysis showed that after training, the students practicing on bench models had better performance based on Global rating scale (all P 0.05) between the groups that trained on bench models. The magnitude of the effect (basic cutaneous surgery skills' training) was considered large (>0.80) in all measurements. The acquisition of elliptical excision skills after instructor-directed training on low-fidelity bench models was similar to the training on high-fidelity bench models; and there was a more substantial increase in elliptical excision performances of students that trained on all simulators compared to the learning on didactic materials.

  9. The upgraded WIYN bench spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia M.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Willmarth, Daryl; Glaspey, John; Poczulp, Gary; Blanco, Dan; Britanik, Lana; McDougall, Eugene; Corson, Charles; Liang, Ming; Keyes, Joe; Jacoby, George

    2010-07-01

    We present the as-built design overview and post-installation performance of the upgraded WIYN Bench Spectrograph. This Bench is currently fed by either of the general-use multi-fiber instruments at the WIYN 3.5m telescope on Kitt Peak, the Hydra multi-object positioner, and the SparsePak integral field unit (IFU). It is very versatile, and can be configured to accommodate low-order, echelle, and volume phase holographic gratings. The overarching goal of the upgrade was to increase the average spectrograph throughput by ~60% while minimizing resolution loss (three major thrusts: (1) a new CCD was provided with a nearly constant 30% increase is throughput over 320-1000 nm; (2) two Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings were delivered; and (3) installed a new all-refractive collimator that properly matches the output fiber irradiance (EE90) and optimizes pupil placement. Initial analysis of commissioning data indicates that the total throughput of the system has increased 50-70% using the 600 l/mm surface ruled grating, indicating that the upgrade has achieved its goal. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that overall image resolution meets the requirement of <20% loss.

  10. Optical bench development for LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arcio, L.; Bogenstahl, J.; Dehne, M.; Diekmann, C.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Fleddermann, R.; Granova, E.; Heinzel, G.; Hogenhuis, H.; Killow, C. J.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Pijnenburg, J.; Robertson, D. I.; Shoda, A.; Sohmer, A.; Taylor, A.; Tröbs, M.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Weise, D.

    2017-11-01

    For observation of gravitational waves at frequencies between 30 μHz and 1 Hz, the LISA mission will be implemented in a triangular constellation of three identical spacecraft, which are mutually linked by laser interferometry in an active transponder scheme over a 5 million kilometer arm length. On the end point of each laser link, remote and local beam metrology with respect to inertial proof masses inside the spacecraft is realized by the LISA Optical Bench. It implements further- more various ancillary functions such as point-ahead correction, acquisition sensing, transmit beam conditioning, and laser redundancy switching. A comprehensive design of the Optical Bench has been developed, which includes all of the above mentioned functions and at the same time ensures manufacturability on the basis of hydroxide catalysis bonding, an ultrastable integration technology already perfected in the context of LISA's technology demonstrator mission LISA Pathfinder. Essential elements of this design have been validated by dedicated pre-investigations. These include the demonstration of polarizing heterodyne interferometry at the required Picometer and Nanoradian performance levels, the investigation of potential non-reciprocal noise sources in the so-called backlink fiber, as well as the development of a laser redundancy switch breadboard.

  11. 27 CFR 19.328 - Wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 19.328 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Chemical By-Products § 19.328 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits therefrom may be run into a wash tank or a distilling...

  12. Hand washing for preventing diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot, R I; Ehiri, J E; Meremikwu, M M; Critchley, J A

    2008-01-23

    Diarrhoea is a common cause of morbidity and a leading cause of death among children aged less than five years, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. It is transmitted by ingesting contaminated food or drink, by direct person-to-person contact, or from contaminated hands. Hand washing is one of a range of hygiene promotion interventions that can interrupt the transmission of diarrhoea-causing pathogens. To evaluate the effects of interventions to promote hand washing on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. In May 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index, ERIC (1966 to May 2007), SPECTR, Bibliomap, RoRe, The Grey Literature, and reference lists of articles. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Randomized controlled trials, where the unit of randomization is an institution (eg day-care centre), household, or community, that compared interventions to promote hand washing or a hygiene promotion that included hand washing with no intervention to promote hand washing. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and methodological quality. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Fourteen randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Eight trials were institution-based, five were community-based, and one was in a high-risk group (AIDS patients). Interventions promoting hand washing resulted in a 29% reduction in diarrhoea episodes in institutions in high-income countries (IRR 0.71, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.84; 7 trials) and a 31% reduction in such episodes in communities in low- or middle-income countries (IRR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.87; 5 trials). Hand washing can reduce diarrhoea episodes by about 30%. This significant

  13. RAMICS laser optical bench weight reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Geoffrey

    2005-08-01

    To increase margins over requirements and improve structural performance, it was desired to reduce the weight of the optical bench in the Laser Transmitter Unit (LTU) of the Rapid Airborne MIne Clearance System (RAMICS) program. First-mode response for both the optical bench and bench/housing combination is of critical importance to the stability and long-term field performance of this system. Several candidate materials were reviewed and analyzed against the previous design in 7075 aluminum. AlBeMet AM162 was chosen for its high Young's modulus, lower density, and a number of other factors as discussed. Finite element modeling is presented which was used in the downselect process. An optical bench weight reduction of 50% was achieved due to material and design changes, as well as an improvement in the first-mode frequency of the laser transmitter based on analysis. Vibration testing results and a comparison of fabrication costs are also presented.

  14. Hand Washing: Do's and Dont's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in protecting your health. References Wash your hands. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/Features/ ... antibacterial soaps: Effective or just risky? Clinical Infectious Diseases. ... S, et al. Safety of alcohol hand gel use among children and personnel at a ...

  15. Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika F Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis, lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma. Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities.

  16. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a ``Late Wash` facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  17. Simulation of Induction Traction Drive with Supercapacitor Energy Storage System Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Girts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the application of supercapacitor energy storage system for induction traction drive test bench that replaces a real electric public transport for performing testing and researches. The suitability and usage of such bench for research purposes is explained and the importance of the development of software mathematical model for performing simulations to be done before physical implementation measures is reasoned. The working principle of the bench and applied components are described. A virtual model of the bench was built and simulations were performed using Matlab/Simulink software. The basic topology of the virtual bench model is described as well. The calculations of this work show the scaling of supercapacitor energy storage system by setting different limits of working voltage range in order to adjust them to test bench parameters, whereas the modelling compares two simulation cases – the application of less supercapacitors and the application of more supercapacitors with the same common rated voltage. The autonomous mode simulations were also performed. Simulation results are analyzed and recommendations for the application of the supercapacitor energy storage system, with respect to initial supercapacitor circuit voltage, are given.

  18. LHC Magnet Test Benches Controls Renovation

    CERN Document Server

    Andreassen, O O; Page, S; Raimondo, A; Rijllart, A; Zorin, E

    2011-01-01

    The LHC magnet test benches controls were designed in 1996. They were based on VME data acquisition systems, Siemens PLCs control and interlocks systems. After a review of renovation of superconducting laboratories at CERN in 2009, it was decided to replace the VME systems with a PXI based systems and the obsolete Sun/Solaris workstations with Linux PC’s. This paper covers the requirements for the new system and shares the experience of the upgrade of the magnet test benches to these new platforms.

  19. Consumers' Risk Perception of Household Cleaning and Washing Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearth, Angela; Miesler, Linda; Siegrist, Michael

    2017-04-01

    A large share of accidental and nonaccidental poisonings are caused by household cleaning and washing products, such as drain cleaner or laundry detergent. The main goal of this article was to investigate consumers' risk perception and misconceptions of a variety of cleaning and washing products in order to inform future risk communication efforts. For this, a sorting task including 33 commonly available household cleaning and washing products was implemented. A total of 60 female consumers were asked to place the cleaning and washing products on a reference line 3 m in length with the poles "dangerous" and "not dangerous." The gathered data were analyzed qualitatively and by means of multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and linear regression. The dimensionality of the sorting data suggests that both analytically (i.e., written and graphical hazard notes and perceived effectiveness) and intuitively driven risk judgments (i.e., eco vs. regular products) were applied by the participants. Furthermore, results suggest the presence of misconceptions, particularly related to consumers' perceptions of eco cleaning products, which were generally regarded as safer than their regular counterparts. Future risk communication should aim at dispelling these misconceptions and promoting accurate risk perceptions of particular household cleaning and washing products. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Encounters on a Shape-changing Bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Grönvall, Erik; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2014-01-01

    ; a concert hall, an airport and a shopping mall. We gathered insights from more than 120 people, as they unexpectedly encountered the shape changing capabilities of the bench. By taking the user tests out of the lab and into the wild, we explored the influence of context on the users experience of a shape...

  1. NetBench. Automated Network Performance Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Cadeddu, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the operation of high performance routers, CERN has developed the NetBench software to run benchmarking tests by injecting various traffic patterns and observing the network devices behaviour in real-time. The tool features a modular design with a Python based console used to inject traffic and collect the results in a database, and a web user

  2. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum after bench press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoya

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is often associated with asthma and mainly affects adolescent males with a tall, thin body habitus. A 17-year-old man complained of chest and pharyngeal pain after bench press training and spontaneous pneumomediastinum was diagnosed. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain of uncertain cause.

  3. Washing machine usage in remote aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, C R

    1998-10-01

    The use of washing machines was investigated in two remote Aboriginal communities in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara homelands. The aim was to look both at machine reliability and to investigate the health aspect of washing clothes. A total of 39 machines were inspected for wear and component reliability every three months over a one-year period. Of these, 10 machines were monitored in detail for water consumption, hours of use and cycles of operation. The machines monitored were Speed Queen model EA2011 (7 kg washing load) commercial units. The field survey results suggested a high rate of operation of the machines with an average of around 1,100 washing cycles per year (range 150 and 2,300 cycles per year). The results were compared with available figures for the average Australian household. A literature survey, to ascertain the health outcomes relating to washing clothes and bedding, confirmed that washing machines are efficient at removal of bacteria from clothes and bedding but suggested that recontamination of clothing after washing often negated the prior removal. High temperature washing (> 60 degrees C) appeared to be advantageous from a health perspective. With regards to larger organisms, while dust mites and body lice transmission between people would probably be decreased by washing clothes, scabies appeared to be mainly transmitted by body contact and thus transmission would be only marginally decreased by the use of washing machines.

  4. Design of Online Washing Process for an Engine Based on Washing Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop online washing process of a carrier-based aircraft engine and improve washing efficiency, washing equipments were employed in cold operation state to carry out experimental study on structural strength of spray frame, selection of nozzle and determination of injection parameters of online washing spray system, determination of washing injection timing, determination of drying procedure, liquid-washing experiments of different concentrations and water-washing experiments and so on. The results show that if engine is washed in cold operation state, mid-nozzle with upward offset angel of 7°30′ can be selected and the feed liquid pressure provided by washing vehicle is 0.9Mpa. The start time is 20s after an engine cold start-up, and sustains 30s for once washing. After a liquid-washing with the use of washing fluid, the liquid concentration of which is no more than 20%, twice water-washing can be carried out to rinse the almost all cleaning agent remaining in the engine runner(the residue is less than 1%. The engine can be thoroughly dried by power-on operation, the procedure of which is engine operating 2min in ideal state, then 2min in state of n2=85% and 2min of ideal state lastly. Washing will not affect the engine function.

  5. Determination of the Braking Factor in Bench Blasting for Dimension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saliu T

    powder respectively, the charges blow out, which means no cutting was achieved by the charge because the energy liberated is not enough to break the bench. In pattern 2, using 5kg of gun powder for the bench breaking as in table 1, the bench cuts effectively with very high recovery (70%). In pattern 4, 5, 6 and 7 with 6, 7, ...

  6. RemBench: A Digital Workbench for Rembrandt Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Suzan; Van Leeuwen, Rudie; Gerritsen, G.H.; Boves, Lou

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present RemBench, a search engine for research into the life and works of Rembrandt van Rijn. RemBench combines the data from four different databases behind one interface using federated search technology. Metadata filtering is enabled through faceted search. RemBench enables art

  7. Release of titanium dioxide from textiles during washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windler, L; Lorenz, C; von Goetz, N; Hungerbühler, K; Amberg, M; Heuberger, M; Nowack, B

    2012-08-07

    Nano-TiO(2) has the highest production of all nanomaterials, and pigment-TiO(2) is a commodity used on the million tons/year scale. Information on the release of TiO(2) from consumer products is therefore an important part of analyzing the potential environmental exposure to TiO(2). For this study, we investigated the release of TiO(2) from six different functional textiles during washing. TiO(2) is used in textiles because of its UV-absorbing properties and as pigment. Analysis of fiber cross sections showed that the TiO(2) was contained in the fiber matrix. The sun-protection textiles had Ultraviolet Protection Factors that were between 58 and 6100 after washing and therefore above the labeled factor of 50+. Five of the textiles (sun-protection clothes) released low amounts of Ti (0.01 to 0.06 wt % of total Ti) in one wash cycle. One textile (with antimicrobial functionality) released much higher amounts of Ti (5 mg/L, corresponding to 3.4 wt % of total Ti in one wash cycle). Size fractionation showed that about equal amounts were released as particles below and above 0.45 μm. After 10 washings, only in two textiles significantly lower Ti contents were measured. Electron microscopy showed that the TiO(2) particles released into washing solution had a roundish appearance with primary particle sizes between 60 and 350 nm that formed small aggregates with up to 20 particles. The results indicate that functional textiles release some TiO(2) particles, but that the amounts are relatively low and mostly not in the nanoparticulate range.

  8. Increased deltoid and abdominal muscle activity during Swiss ball bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul W M; Murphy, Bernadette A

    2006-11-01

    The swiss is widely used in the recreational training environment as a supplement to conventional resistance training. One such application is to use the swiss ball as a bench support for bench press exercise. There is no evidence to indicate that the use of a swiss ball is beneficial for resistance training exercise. This study investigated muscle activity using surface electromyography of upper-body and abdominal muscles during the concentric and eccentric phases of the bench press on and off a swiss ball. Volunteers for this study were 14 resistance-trained subjects who performed isolated concentric and eccentric bench press repetitions using the 2 test surfaces with a 2-second cadence at a load equivalent to 60% maximum force output. The average root mean square of the muscle activity was calculated for each movement, and perceived exertion during the tasks was collected using a Borg Scale. The results of the study showed that deltoid and abdominal muscle activity was increased for repetitions performed using the swiss ball. Increased deltoid muscle activity supports previous findings for increased activity when greater instability is introduced to the bench press movement. Abdominal muscle activity increases were not hypothesized, but this finding provides scientific evidence for anecdotal reasoning behind swiss ball use as a potential core stability training device.

  9. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water system...

  10. Postoperative washing of sutured wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Harrison

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A best evidence topic was written according to the structured protocol. The three part question addressed was: [In patients undergoing closure of surgical wounds with sutures] does [keeping the wound dry for the first 48 h after closure] [reduce the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs]? 4 relevant papers were culled from the literature and appraised. The authors, date, country, population, study type, main outcomes, key results and study weaknesses were tabulated. Current NICE guidelines recommend cleaning surgical wounds with sterile saline only for the first 48 h following skin closure. We found no evidence that washing wounds with tap water during this period increases the incidence of SSIs compared to keeping them dry. Further randomised controlled trials will enable the construction of conclusive systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

  11. Laser damage test bench for space optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Wolfgang; Allenspacher, Paul

    2017-11-01

    At the German Aerospace Center in Stuttgart a laser damage test bench is run to evaluate damage thresholds of various optical components. The system setup is based on the current ISO standards 11254 [1-3] for single shot and multiple pulse operation. The laser damage test bench contains two repetitively pulsed laser sources, a Ti:Sapphire and a Nd:YAG laser, operating at wavelengths of 775 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. Harmonic wavelength converters to the visible spectral range are available. Both lasers are supplying the same damage testing rig. Online damage assessment techniques like sensitive scatter probe monitoring and video microscopy monitoring are used. The system is suited and has been tested extensively in the past for dielectric coated optics like beam turning mirrors, reflectors and windows, nonlinear optical components, semiconductors, and laser crystals. The damage test bench is located in a class 10,000 cleanroom environment under a laminar flowbox providing an additional isolation factor of >103. The tests can also be performed in sealed optical compartments in partial vacuum and under long term irradiation conditions. All experiments are supported by theoretical simulation of laser-material interactions, down to the sub-ps timescale [4].

  12. Distal clavicular osteolysis in adults: association with bench pressing intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, Mika T.; Morrison, William B.; Zoga, Adam C.; Roedl, Johannes B. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Interventions, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ciccotti, Michael G. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the association between distal clavicular osteolysis (DCO) and bench pressing intensity. From a retrospective review of MRI shoulder reports of individuals between 20 and 40 years of age, 262 male patients with DCO and 227 age-matched male patients without DCO were selected. All patients had completed a bench pressing questionnaire. The patients' bench pressing frequency (times per week), duration (years of bench pressing), bench pressing weight (maximum bench pressing weight with one repetition = 1RM) and the ratio of bench pressing weight to body weight were compared between both groups using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that 56 % (146/262) of patients with DCO were high-intensity bench pressers (1RM more than 1.5 times the body weight) compared to 6 % (14/227) in patients without DCO. High-intensity bench pressing was a risk factor for DCO (OR = 19; 95 %CI = 11-35; p < 0.001). Low-intensity bench pressing (1RM less than 1.5 times the body weight) was not a risk factor for DCO (OR = 0.6; 95 % CI = 0.4-0.8). High frequency (>1 x /week) and duration (>5 years) of bench pressing were risk factors. In bench pressers who suffered from DCO, the mean 1RM was 283 lbs (±SD 57) compared to 209 lbs (±SD 60) in bench pressers not affected by DCO (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). High-intensity, but not low-intensity bench pressing is a risk factor for DCO. (orig.)

  13. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T.L. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (United States); Denault, R.P. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  14. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  15. Improving understanding of the underlying physical process of sediment wash-off from urban road surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Manoranjan; Tait, Simon; Schellart, Alma; Beg, Md Nazmul Azim; Carvalho, Rita F.; de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2018-02-01

    Among the urban aquatic pollutants, the most common is sediment which also acts as a transport medium for many contaminants. Hence there is an increasing interest in being able to better predict the sediment wash-off from urban surfaces. The exponential wash-off model is the most widely used method to predict the sediment wash-off. Although a number of studies proposed various modifications to the original exponential wash-off equation, these studies mostly looked into one parameter in isolation thereby ignoring the interactions between the parameters corresponding to rainfall, catchment and sediment characteristics. Hence in this study we aim (a) to investigate the effect of rainfall intensity, surface slope and initial load on wash-off load in an integrated and systematic way and (b) to subsequently improve the exponential wash-off equation focusing on the effect of the aforementioned three parameters. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out in a full-scale setup, comprising of a rainfall simulator, a 1 m2 bituminous road surface, and a continuous wash-off measuring system. Five rainfall intensities ranging from 33 to 155 mm/h, four slopes ranging from 2 to 16% and three initial loads ranging from 50 to 200 g/m2 were selected based on values obtained from the literature. Fine sediment with a size range of 300-600 μm was used for all of the tests. Each test was carried out for one hour with at least 9 wash-off samples per test collected. Mass balance checks were carried out for all the tests as a quality control measure to make sure that there is no significant loss of sand during the tests. Results show that the washed off sediment load at any given time is proportional to initial load for a given combination of rainfall intensity and surface slope. This indicates the importance of dedicated modelling of build-up so as to subsequently predict wash-off load. It was also observed that the maximum fraction that is washed off from the surface increases

  16. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.60 Time of washing. (a) Frequency of washing. All boilers shall thoroughly be washed... inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See appendix...

  17. Association between Washing Residue on the Feet and Tinea Pedis in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimie Takehara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinea pedis (TP may lead to the development of foot ulcers in diabetic patients; thus, its prevention in diabetic patients is important. TP occurs after dermatophytes on the skin scales of TP patients attach to the feet. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the scales and dermatophytes, and this can be performed using various methods, including foot washing. This study aimed to objectively examine the association between the presence of TP and foot-washing habits. We included 33 diabetic patients, and, of these, 17 had TP. The presence of washing residue on the feet was determined by applying a fluorescent cream to the participants’ feet, and images of the feet were captured under ultraviolet light before and after foot washing. Our results showed that diabetic patients with TP had higher levels of washing residue on their feet than those without TP. The importance of washing feet to prevent TP needs to be emphasized through educational programs for diabetic patients. Furthermore, the development of an effective foot-washing technique is essential.

  18. Environmental diagnosis of the washing machine motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet

    1997-01-01

    An environmental diagnosis of the washing machine focusing on the motor is performed. The goal of the diagnosis is to designate environmental focus points in the product. The LCA of the washing machine showed impact potentials from the life cycle of the product (see: LCA of a washing machine......). The diagnosis points to which of the impact potentials are considered to be problematic, and locates where in the product the problems are situated.The diagnosis is also used for showing which effects ideas for changes in the motor have on the environment. The ideas which are looked upon are: motor efficiency...

  19. Effects of the bench shirt on sagittal bar path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Tobin; Fortenbaugh, Dave; Williams, Ryan

    2009-07-01

    Powerlifting, like many sports, uses specialized equipment to enhance performance and decrease the chance of injury. The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine whether wearing a bench press shirt would alter the natural mechanics of the bench press, causing a more efficient lift when pressing the same weight as without the bench shirt. Participants (n = 5) completed 2 series of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press tests, with 1 week of rest in between 1 series without the bench shirt (no-shirt), and 1 series with a bench shirt (bench shirt). Results revealed that the vertical bar path ranges were significantly less in the bench shirt condition (35.7 +/- 4.8 cm) compared with the no-shirt condition (40.2 +/- 7.0 cm) (p < 0.05). Significant differences were found between the bar's optimal (81.4 +/- 14.2 cm) and observed (96.7 +/- 19.1 cm) total distances traveled in the no-shirt condition (p < 0.01), but no significant differences were found between the bar's optimal (71.6 +/- 12.7 cm) and observed (86.3 +/- 10.5 cm) total distances traveled in the bench shirt condition. These findings suggest that the bar path in bench shirt trials is more efficient and consistent than in the no-shirt trials. This pattern demonstrates that a bench shirt can improve load capacity. It is also possible that the bench shirt decreases the forces that act on the shoulder for a given weight and, thus, may decrease the risk of injury.

  20. Handbook of cannabis therapeutics: from bench to bedside

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grotenhermen, Franjo; Russo, Ethan

    2006-01-01

    ... Jin Alternative Therapies in the Treatment of Brain Injury and Neurobehavioral Disorders: A Practical Guide edited by Gregory J. Murrey Handbook of Cannabis Therapeutics: From Bench to Bedside ...

  1. Validation studies of a quick test for predicting the sorption and washing properties of refillable plastic bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T; Damant, A P; Castle, L

    1997-01-01

    Quick tests are proposed in the literature as alternatives to the large scale contamination and washing studies performed to date to assess the acceptability of plastic beverage bottles for refilling. These tests use small plastic specimens ('strips') in place of bottles and use mixtures of surrogate contaminants to model the myriad of chemicals that could in principle contaminate returned bottles because of consumer mis-use. The work reported here has measured the sorption and wash performance using the quick test protocol with PET (polyethyleneterephthalate) strips and laboratory washing and compared the results with tests using actual bottles and a commercial washing process. The comparison indicates that the quick test satisfactorily simulated contamination and commercial washing of intact bottles. The results also show that repeated washing of PET bottles does not cause higher sorption of contaminants.

  2. Bacterial exchange in household washing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eCallewaert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Household washing machines launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household washing machines. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the washing machine effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin- and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the washing machine. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering.

  3. Chemical washing of contaminated soils and photocatalytic treatments of spent soil washing effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Race, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation has been addressed to study the reclamation of heavy metal contaminated soils by soil washing, and to investigate the feasibility of photocatalytic processes for the treatment of the spent soil washing solution (SSWS). Indeed, the collected SSWS, containing the extracted metals and chelating agents, represents one of the main drawbacks of the washing technique, as it has to be submitted to further treatments for a complete detoxification before being discharged into the envi...

  4. Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1996-05-08

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been charactered by the Department of Enregy (DOE) - Office of Technology Development (OTD) to investigate vitrification technology for the treatment of Low Level Mixed Wastes (LLMW). In fiscal year 1995, LLW streams containing mercury and organics were targeted. This report will present the results of studies with mercury contaminated waste. In order to successfully apply vitrification technology to LLMW, the types and quantities of glass forming additives necessary for producing homogeneous glasses from the wastes had to be determined, and the treatment for the mercury portion had to also be determined. The selected additives had to ensure that a durable and leach resistant waste form was produced, while the mercury treatment had to ensure that hazardous amounts of mercury were not released into the environment.

  5. Performance of a bench-scale fast fluidized bed carbonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2014-01-01

    The carbonate looping process is a promising technology for CO2 capture from flue gas. In this process, the CO2 capture efficiency depends on the performance of a carbonator that may be operated as a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). In this paper, the carbonator performance is investigated...... by applying a new experimental method with accurate control of the particle recirculation rate. The experimental results show that the inlet calcium to carbon molar ratio is the main factor on the CO2 capture efficiency in the carbonator, that is, increasing the inlet Ca/C from 4 to 13 results in increasing...... the CO2 capture efficiency from 40 to 85% with limestone having a maximum CO2 capture capacity of only 11.5%. Furthermore, a reactor model for a carbonator is developed based on the Kunii-Levenspiels model. A key parameter in the model is the particle distribution along the height of the reactor, which...

  6. Thymol Hydrogenation in Bench Scale Trickle Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudas, J.; Hanika, Jiří; Lepuru, J.; Barkhuysen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2005), s. 255-262 ISSN 0352-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : thymol hydrogenation * trickle bed reactor * gas-liquid-solid reaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2005

  7. Nitrate to ammonia ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caime, W.J.; Hoeffner, S.L. [RUST - Clemson Technical Center, Anderson, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) sites such as the Hanford site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. A process to reduce the nitrates to ammonia has been developed at ORNL. This technology creates a sludge lower in nitrates. This report describes stabilization possibilities of the sludge.

  8. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  9. Scaled test bench for the assessment of wave impeding barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuada Coelho, B.A.; Koopman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, several cases emerged in the Netherlands where the infrastructure manager was forced to implement mitigation techniques to reduce the nuisance caused by train traffic. A possible technique to reduce the vibration propagation without intervening on the track, insuring no traffic

  10. Contamination of Laboratory Bench-tops, Incubators and the Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study recommends that spray disinfectant, mostly quaternary ammonium compounds, free of aldehydes can minimize contamination of bench-tops and microbiology incubators during routine working hours. Keywords: Laboratory, contaminants, incubators, bench-tops, spray-disinfectants. Journal of Medical Laboratory ...

  11. Relative Therapeutic Efficacy of the Treadmill and Step Bench in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    umar

    Summary. The aim of this research is to compare the efficacy of treadmill and step bench exercises in hemiparetic gait rehabilitation. Previous studies have supported the use of treadmill and step bench exercises in gait rehabilitation. Nineteen patients were recruited for an 8-week, 2-group quasi-experimental study which ...

  12. Relative Therapeutic Efficacy of the Treadmill and Step Bench in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to compare the efficacy of treadmill and step bench exercises in hemiparetic gait rehabilitation. Previous studies have supported the use of treadmill and step bench exercises in gait rehabilitation. Nineteen patients were recruited for an 8-week, 2-group quasi-experimental study which was ...

  13. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; McCoy, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS) workers, respectively. We designed a survey about hand hygiene practices. The survey was distributed to various national EMS organizations through e-mail. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items (responses on a Likert scale) and subpopulations of survey respondents to identify relationships between variables. We used analysis of variance to test differences in means between the subgroups. There were 1,494 responses. Overall, reported hand hygiene practices were poor among pre-hospital providers in all clinical situations. Women reported that they washed their hands more frequently than men overall, although the differences were unlikely to be clinically significant. Hygiene after invasive procedures was reported to be poor. The presence of available hand sanitizer in the ambulance did not improve reported hygiene rates but improved reported rates of cleaning the stethoscope (absolute difference 0.4, p=0.0003). Providers who brought their own sanitizer were more likely to clean their hands. Reported hand hygiene is poor amongst pre-hospital providers. There is a need for future intervention to improve reported performance in pre-hospital provider hand washing.

  14. Quality of red blood cells washed using a second wash sequence on an automated cell processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Adele L; Turner, Tracey R; Kurach, Jayme D R; Acker, Jason P

    2015-10-01

    Washed red blood cells (RBCs) are indicated for immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient recipients when RBCs from IgA-deficient donors are not available. Canadian Blood Services recently began using the automated ACP 215 cell processor (Haemonetics Corporation) for RBC washing, and its suitability to produce IgA-deficient RBCs was investigated. RBCs produced from whole blood donations by the buffy coat (BC) and whole blood filtration (WBF) methods were washed using the ACP 215 or the COBE 2991 cell processors and IgA and total protein levels were assessed. A double-wash procedure using the ACP 215 was developed, tested, and validated by assessing hemolysis, hematocrit, recovery, and other in vitro quality variables in RBCs stored after washing, with and without irradiation. A single wash using the ACP 215 did not meet Canadian Standards Association recommendations for washing with more than 2 L of solution and could not consistently reduce IgA to levels suitable for IgA-deficient recipients (24/26 BC RBCs and 0/9 WBF RBCs had IgA levels < 0.05 mg/dL). Using a second wash sequence, all BC and WBF units were washed with more than 2 L and had levels of IgA of less than 0.05 mg/dL. During 7 days' postwash storage, with and without irradiation, double-washed RBCs met quality control criteria, except for the failure of one RBC unit for inadequate (69%) postwash recovery. Using the ACP 215, a double-wash procedure for the production of components for IgA-deficient recipients from either BC or WBF RBCs was developed and validated. © 2015 AABB.

  15. RHIC electron lens test bench diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassner, D.; Beebe, E.; Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Hamdi, K.; Hock, J.; Liu, C.; Miller, T.; Pikin, A.; Thieberger, P.

    2011-05-16

    An Electron Lens (E-Lens) system will be installed in RHIC to increase luminosity by counteracting the head-on beam-beam interaction. The proton beam collisions at the RHIC experimental locations will introduce a tune spread due to a difference of tune shifts between small and large amplitude particles. A low energy electron beam will be used to improve luminosity and lifetime of the colliding beams by reducing the betatron tune shift and spread. In preparation for the Electron Lens installation next year, a test bench facility will be used to gain experience with many sub-systems. This paper will discuss the diagnostics related to measuring the electron beam parameters.

  16. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  17. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by § 133.136...

  18. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  19. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  20. Fit for washing; Human factors and ergonomic evaluations of washing machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, N.

    2006-01-01

    People do the laundry all over the world. About 500 million washing machines are in use at the moment. To reduce the heavy workload, washing machines were invented about 100 years ago. 50 years of innovations led to a reduction in water, energy and detergent consumption and the interface became

  1. Enabling safe dry cake disposal of bauxite residue by deliquoring and washing with a membrane filter press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Lubieniecki, Boguslaw; Holliday, Lloyd; Helsto, Jaakko-Juhani; Häkkinen, Antti

    2015-03-01

    Dry cake disposal is the preferred technique for the disposal of bauxite residue, when considering environmental issues together with possible future utilisation of the solids. In order to perform dry cake disposal in an economical way, the deliquoring of the residue must be carried out efficiently, and it is also important to wash the obtained solids well to minimise the amount of soluble soda within the solids. The study presented in this article aims at detecting the most important variables influencing the deliquoring and washing of bauxite residue, performed with a horizontal membrane filter press and by determining the optimal washing conditions. The results obtained from pilot-scale experiments are evaluated by considering the properties of the solids, for instance, the residual alkali and aluminium content, as well as the consumption of wash liquid. Two different cake washing techniques, namely classic washing and channel washing, are also used and their performances compared. The results show that cake washing can be performed successfully in a horizontal membrane filter press, and significant improvements in the recovery of alkali and aluminium can be achieved compared with pressure filtration carried out without washing, or especially compared with the more traditionally used vacuum filtration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. SCR in biofuel combustion - stage 3. Regeneration at full-scale; SCR vid biobraensleeldning - etapp 3. Regenerering i full skala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer; Kling, Aasa; Odenbrand, Ingemar; Khodayari, Raziyeh

    2002-04-01

    gas temperature between 360-390 deg C, lost its activity relatively fast. After 2000 hours of exposure the NO{sub x}, reduction was in the same level as before the sulphation. This result agrees with results from test bench tests at the same temperature. Four full-scale regenerations by washing with water and sulphuric acid have been performed in the ldbaecken plant on the plate catalyst that was installed in 1994. These washings have shown that it is possible, on repeated occasions, to regenerate the catalyst to a relative activity of 70-80%.

  3. Development of eco-friendly washing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakidin Hamzah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A portable, non-electric washing machine powered by human leg identical to cycling is produced in order to fulfil the need of varsity students to wash their clothes in a cheap, eco-friendly and time saving and also to do physical body exercises. A black plastic bin has been used as the main body. At the bottom lies the rotating disk to provide agitation to the water and also cleaning the clothes. Shaft and gears are also been used in the rotating and moving mechanism that is connected to the pedal. This eco-friendly washing machine with an affordable price will benefit the lower income family and also for the college students.

  4. Washing Machine Injuries of the Upper Extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S S

    2008-01-01

    Washing machines are part of every household and there are various reports of upper extremity injuries due to inadequate safety precautions while operating the machine. Most of the injuries occur when an attempt is made to remove the clothes from the machine and the hand gets caught in the spinning machine. The presentation can vary from minor soft tissue injuries to a mangled upper extremity. The chance of neurovascular damage resulting in compartment syndrome is very high. The author reports three cases of washing machine injuries to draw attention to this not so uncommon injury. The relevant literature is also considered. PMID:21654964

  5. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    is to a large extent driven by the desire to realize those losses, either immediately by sharply decreasing the holding of assets carrying unrealized losses, or indirectly by increasing such holdings in order to prepare for a decrease in a future period to earn the tax rebate payment. Our findings are robust......We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  6. Auto-Washing Panty Toilet for Care

    OpenAIRE

    長屋, 幸助; 王, 宇; 小島, 多香子; 福室, 允央

    2004-01-01

    It is important jobs to change diapers for a bedridden patient. Changing diapers hurts prides of the patient, so that a panty toilet, that can be worn to the patient, is of importance, in which feces and urine are washed automatically. In this study, a new-type automatic washing panty toilet system is presented. The system consists of a rubber made panty toilet with tubes at both thighs and a torso, and the control system. In the panty toilet, air expands the tubes, and water leakage is preve...

  7. Use of green washing fluids in a washing process for dioxin contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwalee Yotapukdee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High levels of dioxin contamination in soil have significant environmental challenges. Soil washing is a successful remediation process that is primarily used to treat coarse soils. Several literature studies have used various kinds of chemical washing liquids to remove dioxins from soils, though there are secondary environmental effects. This study intends to develop environmentally friendly soil washing methods that are effective in dioxin removal at an acceptable cost. Sugarcane wine, compost leachate, and ground fish broth were chosen as potential washing liquids. Each washing liquid was analyzed to determine its content of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. These compounds are related to their bio-surfactant content. Several of the identified compounds had properties to help remove dioxins from contaminated soil. In the experiments, high removal efficiencies were observed, up to 70%~95% after five to six washes. Although effective removal was observed, a significant amount of wastewater was produced and the problems were not completely resolved. Thus, the optimal washing conditions are necessary to minimize the overall costs, while improving the process effectiveness. Moreover, an appropriate treatment method is required for wastewater containing dioxins.

  8. Precision-Deployable, Stable, Optical Benches for Cost-Effective Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Rolf; Pellegrino, S.; Dailey, D.; Marks, G.; Bookbinder, J.

    2012-05-01

    To explore the universe at the arcsecond resolution of Chandra, while increasing collecting area by at least an order of magnitude and maintaining affordability, we will need to make creative use of existing and new technology. Precision-deployable, stable, optical benches that fit inside smaller, lower-cost launch vehicles are a prime example of a technology well within current reach that will yield breakthrough benefits for future astrophysics missions. Deployable optical benches for astrophysical applications have a reputation for complexity; however, we are offering an approach, based on techniques used in space for decades, that reduces overall mission cost. Currently, deployable structures are implemented on JAXA’s Astro-H and NASA’s NuStar high-energy astrophysics missions. We believe it is now time to evolve these structures into precision, stable optical benches that are stiff, lightweight, and suitable for space telescopes with focal lengths of 20 meters or more. Such optical benches are required for advanced observatory class missions and can be scaled to Explorer and medium-class missions. To this end, we have formed a partnership between Space Structures Laboratory (SSL) at the California Institute of Technology, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS), Northrop Grumman Astro Aerospace (Astro), and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). Combining the expertise and tools from academia and industry is the most effective approach to take this concept to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. We plan to perform small sub-scale demonstrations, functional tests, and analytical modeling in the academic environment. Using results from SSL, larger prototypes will be developed at facilities at NGAS in Redondo Beach and Carpinteria, CA.

  9. Environmental control during steam boiler washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcio A.B.; Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental; Ringler, Ulrich E.S. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The washing and chemical cleaning of boilers, activities of a high polluting potential, are responsible for the generation of wastewater of high contents of heavy metals, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This paper describes the actions carried out by COPENE - Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A - in order to reduce this problem. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Hand wash and manual skin wipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Boeniger, M.F.; Hemmen, J. van

    2000-01-01

    Hand wash and skin wipes are major techniques that have been used for dermal exposure sampling. Both techniques remove chemicals either deposited on or transferred to the skin contaminant layer by a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. The paper overviews identified methods and

  11. What happens at a car wash?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    ... "What Happens at a Car Wash?" were Barb Gallick, Pam Morbitzer, and Lisa Lee. During this particular semester, our class consisted of 18 children. The majority of children attended for the full day, 5 days a week. Half of the children had attended the child care center the previous semester and had experienced project work during that time. Eight girls a...

  12. Characterization of the SRNL-Washed tank 51 sludge batch 9 qualification sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel have been requested to qualify the next sludge batch (Sludge Batch 9 – SB9) for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To accomplish this task, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) sent SRNL a 3-L sample of Tank 51H slurry to be characterized, washed, and then used in a lab-scale demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet (after combining with Tank 40H sludge). SRNL has washed the Tank 51H sample per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. A part of the qualification process is extensive radionuclide and chemical characterization of the SRNL-washed Tank 51H slurry. This report documents the chemical characterization of the washed slurry; radiological characterization is in progress and will be documented in a separate report. The analytical results of this characterization are comparable to the Tank Farm projections. Therefore, it is recommended that SRNL use this washed slurry for the ongoing SB9 qualification activities.

  13. Hand-washing, subclinical infections, and growth: a longitudinal evaluation of an intervention in Nepali slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Rebecca; Lunn, Peter; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the impact of a hand-washing intervention on growth and biomarkers of child health in Nepali slums. This is the first study to evaluate the impact of hand-washing on markers of subclinical, asymptomatic infections associated with childhood growth faltering. We recruited a total sample of infants in the target age-range (3-12 months) living in the eight largest Kathmandu slums, allocating them to intervention (n = 45) and control (n = 43) groups. In intervention areas, a small-scale community-based hand-washing program was implemented for six months; in control areas, mothers continued their normal practices. Time series linear regression was used to assess the impact of the intervention on levels of morbidity, mucosal damage, immune stimulation and growth. As expected, children with higher levels of mucosal damage exhibited worse growth over the period of the intervention (P = 0.01, hand-washing intervention did not lower levels of mucosal damage or immune stimulation, nor slow growth faltering. Reducing exposure to pathogens is an important global health priority. This study confirms the importance of hand-washing campaigns for reducing childhood morbidity. Yet our data suggest that promoting hand-washing is necessary but not sufficient to address chronic, subclinical infections. From a human biology standpoint, tackling the root causes of childhood infections is needed to address growth faltering in the context of highly contaminated slum environments. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. RF test benches for electron cloud studies

    CERN Document Server

    Iriso-Ariz, U; Laurent, Jean Michel; Mostacci, A

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the CERN program on the electron cloud effects in existing and future accelerators, a coaxial multipacting test stand was built. It consists of a 100 mm diameter vacuum chamber forming the outer conductor and 6 wires cage-aerial-type as the inner conductor. In order to simulate the bunched beam, this test stand is submitted to short RF pulses. The available field strength in a travelling wave mode allows to trigger electron multipacting in as received or baked stainless steel surfaces, but not in chambers treated to reduce the secondary emission yield. Thus a number of upgrades in the bench set-up have been pursued, mainly in two directions. The first one is a general improvement on mismatches and losses. Second, instead of dumping the pulsed power into a load, it is re-circulated in a multiple frequency ring resonator. For this purpose, we designed a directional coupler with several kV DC isolation, very low transmission losses and a four octave bandwidth. In this paper, we give an overvi...

  15. WIYN bench upgrade: a revitalized spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershady, M.; Barden, S.; Blanche, P.-A.; Blanco, D.; Corson, C.; Crawford, S.; Glaspey, J.; Habraken, S.; Jacoby, G.; Keyes, J.; Knezek, P.; Lemaire, P.; Liang, M.; McDougall, E.; Poczulp, G.; Sawyer, D.; Westfall, K.; Willmarth, D.

    2008-07-01

    We describe the redesign and upgrade of the versatile fiber-fed Bench Spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5m telescope. The spectrograph is fed by either the Hydra multi-object positioner or integral-field units (IFUs) at two other ports, and can be configured with an adjustable camera-collimator angle to use low-order and echelle gratings. The upgrade, including a new collimator, charge-coupled device (CCD) and modern controller, and volume-phase holographic gratings (VPHG), has high performance-to-cost ratio by combining new technology with a system reconfiguration that optimizes throughput while utilizing as much of the existing instrument as possible. A faster, all-refractive collimator enhances throughput by 60%, nearly eliminates the slit-function due to vignetting, and improves image quality to maintain instrumental resolution. Two VPH gratings deliver twice the diffraction efficiency of existing surface-relief gratings: A 740 l/mm grating (float-glass and post-polished) used in 1st and 2nd-order, and a large 3300 l/mm grating (spectral resolution comparable to the R2 echelle). The combination of collimator, high-quantum efficiency (QE) CCD, and VPH gratings yields throughput gain-factors of up to 3.5.

  16. The behavior of silver nanotextiles during washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geranio, L; Heuberger, M; Nowack, B

    2009-11-01

    The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in commercial products, especially textiles, will likely result in an unknown spread of Ag into the environment. The quantification and characterization of the Ag released from nano-Ag-products is an important parameter needed to predict the effect of Ag-NPs on the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and the form of Ag released during washing from nine fabrics with different ways of silver incorporation into or onto the fibers. The effect of pH, surfactants, and oxidizing agents was evaluated. The results show that little dissolution of Ag-NPs occurs under conditions relevant to washing (pH 10) with dissolved concentrations 10 times lower than at pH 7. However, bleaching agents such as hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid (formed by the perborate/TAED system) can greatly accelerate the dissolution of Ag. The amount and form of Ag released from the fabrics as ionic and particulate Ag depended on the type of Ag-incorporation into the textile. The percentage of the total silver emitted during one washing of the textiles varied considerably among products (from less than 1 to 45%). In the washing machine the majority of the Ag (at least 50% but mostly >75%) was released in the size fraction >450 nm, indicating the dominant role of mechanical stress. A conventional silver textile did not show any significant difference in the size distribution of the released silver compared to many of the textiles containing nano-Ag. These results have important implications for the risk assessment of Ag-textiles and also for environmental fate studies of nano-Ag, because they show that under conditions relevant to washing, primarily coarse Ag-containing particles are released.

  17. [A nationwide survey on the hand washing behavior and awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Sim; Choi, Jun Kil; Jeong, Ihn Sook; Paek, Kyong Ran; In, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ki Dong

    2007-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the public's awareness of the importance of hand washing and to compare perceptions on the habit of hand washing with actual hand washing behavior. Data were collected by observing 2,800 participants washing their hands after using public restrooms in seven cities nationwide and by surveying 1,000 respondents (age>14 years) through telephone interviews using a structured questionnaire. Although 94% of the survey respondents claimed to mostly or always wash their hands after using public restrooms, only 63.4% of the observed participants did wash their hands after using public restrooms. Significant factors related to increased adherence to hand washing were female gender, approximate ages of 20 to 39 years by their appearance, and the presence of other people from the observation. About 79% of the survey respondents always washed their hands after using bathrooms at home, 73% washed their hands before handling food, and 67% washed their hands upon returning to their home. However, 93.2% and 86.3% of the survey respondents did not wash their hands after coughing or sneezing and after handling money, respectively. Although most of the survey respondents (77.6%) were aware that hand washing is helpful in preventing communicable diseases, 39.6% of the survey respondents did not do so because they were 'not accustomed' to washing their hands and 30.2% thought that washing their hands is 'annoying'. This is the first comprehensive report on hand washing behavior and awareness of the general population in Korea. The result of this study in terms of individual behavior and awareness of hand washing are comparable with similar studies conducted in other countries. However adherence to hand washing is still low and needs to be increased. The results of this study can be used as a baseline in setting up strategies and activities to promote adherence to hand washing.

  18. Brake System Analysis, Reliability Testing And Control Using Bench Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Z.; Yang, B.

    1997-01-01

    In this project, the authors investigated the dynamics and reliability of a brake control system using a test bench which is a Lincoln Town Car brake system. The objectives of the project are to: 1) experimentally characterize the brake system; 2) obtain good nonlinear models of the brake system; 3) perform reliability analysis of the brake control system; and, 4) develop algorithms for brake malfunction detection and brake reliability enhancement. By using the brake test bench, the dynamic c...

  19. Optimization of the catch bench design using a genetic algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruvin Wijesinghe Dakshith You Greg

    2016-01-01

    .... This study proposes a novel methodology which calculates the optimum catch bench width by integrating the rockfall simulation model and genetic algorithm into a Simulation-Optimization Model The proposed methodology is useful when used to determine the minimum catch bench width, or the maximum overall slope angle, insuring that a sufficient factor of safety of the slope is included while maximizing the overall profitability of the open pit mine.

  20. Reducing the treatment gap for mental, neurological and substance use disorders in Africa: lessons from the Friendship Bench in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibanda, D

    2017-08-01

    Mental, neurological and substance use disorders (MNS) are a leading cause of disability in Africa. In response to the large treatment gap for MNS, a growing body of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) is emerging from Africa; however, there is a dearth of knowledge on how to scale up EBT. The Friendship Bench intervention is a brief psychological treatment delivered through the primary health care system in Zimbabwe by trained lay health workers. It has contributed significantly towards narrowing the treatment gap for common mental disorders in Zimbabwe where it has been scaled up to over 70 primary health care facilities. A three-pronged approach consisting of community engagement, use of EBTs and a government endorsed scale-up plan is described as part of the key strategy leading to the scale up of the Friendship Bench.

  1. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-09-03

    Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (148 participants).Hand washing promotion (education activities, sometimes with

  2. HEV Test Bench Based on CAN Bus Sensor Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng ZHAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HEV test bench based on Controller Area Network bus was studied and developed. Control system of HEV power test bench used the CAN bus technology. The application of CAN bus technology on control system development has opened up a new research direction for domestic automobile experimental platform. The HEV power control system development work was completed, including power master controller, electric throttle controller, driving simulation platform, CAN2.0 B communication protocol procedures for formulation, CAN communication monitoring system, the simulation model based on MATLAB code automatic generation technology research, etc. Maximum absorption power of the test bench is 90 kW, the test bench top speed is 6000 r/min, the CAN communication data baud rate is 10~500 k, the conventional electric measurement parameter part precision satisfies the requirement of development of HEV. On the HEV test bench the result of regenerative braking experiment shows that the result got by the test bench was closer to the results got by outdoor road test. And the fuel consumption experiment test results show that the HEV fuel consumption and the charge-discharge character are in linear relationship. The establishment of the test platform for the evaluation of the development of hybrid electric vehicle and power provides physical simulation and test platform.

  3. Effect of nutrient sources on bench scale vinegar production using response surface methodology Efeito das fontes de nutrientes sobre a produção de vinagre em escala de bancada, usando-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma M. Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate on a bench scale, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient source concentrations in vinegar production, a process that is used by small scale industries in the State of Paraiba. The response surface methodology has been utilized for modeling and optimization of the fermentation process. Initially a 2³ complete factorial design was used, where the effects of initial concentrations of ethyl alcohol, phosphorous and nitrogen sources were observed. After this analysis the concentration range of the nutrient variables were extended and a two level plus a star configuration factorial experimental design was performed. The experimental values are well represented by the linear and quadratic model equations obtained. The optimum concentration of ethanol was 4% in which the yield and the productivity of the acetic acid were maximized to the values of 70% and 0.87 g L-1 h-1 respectively, for a 24 hours fermentation period. The evaluation of the quadratic models showed that the yield of vinegar is maximized from 28.1 to 51.04% and the productivity from 0.69 to 1.29 g L-1 h-1 when the concentration of the nitrogen nutrient in the medium is increased from 0.2 to 2.3 g mL-1. Thus, at the optimized nitrogen nutrient concentration both the yield and the productivity of the vinegar are increased by 1.85 times.Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho, estudar em escala de bancada, os efeitos de concentrações de fontes dos nutrientes nitrogênio e fósforo sobre a produção de vinagre de álcool, um processo muito utilizado nas indústrias de pequeno porte do Estado da Paraíba. A metodologia de superfície de resposta foi usada na modelagem e otimização de processo de fermentação acética. Inicialmente, a metodologia de planejamento fatorial completo 2³ foi utilizada, onde os efeitos das concentrações iniciais de etanol, de fontes de fósforo e de nitrogênio foram observados. Após esta análise as faixas das

  4. Food worker hand washing practices: an observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Laura R; Selman, Carol A; Radke, Vincent; Ripley, Danny; Mack, James C; Reimann, David W; Stigger, Tammi; Motsinger, Michelle; Bushnell, Lisa

    2006-10-01

    Improvement of food worker hand washing practices is critical to the reduction of foodborne illness and is dependent upon a clear understanding of current hand washing practices. To that end, this study collected detailed observational data on food worker hand washing practices. Food workers (n = 321) were observed preparing food, and data were recorded on specific work activities for which hand washing is recommended (e.g., food preparation, handling dirty equipment). Data were also recorded on hand washing behaviors that occurred in conjunction with these work activities. Results indicated that workers engaged in approximately 8.6 work activities per hour for which hand washing is recommended. However, workers made hand washing attempts (i.e., removed gloves, if worn, and placed hands in running water) in only 32% of these activities and washed their hands appropriately (i.e., removed gloves, if worn, placed hands in running water, used soap, and dried hands) in only 27% of these work activities. Attempted and appropriate hand washing rates varied by work activity--they were significantly higher in conjunction with food preparation than other work activities (46 versus hand washing; 41 versus hand washing) and were significantly lower in conjunction with touching the body than other work activities (13 versus > or = 27% for attempted hand washing; 10 versus > or = 23% for appropriate hand washing). Attempted and appropriate hand washing rates were significantly lower when gloves were worn (18 and 16%) than when gloves were not worn (37 and 30%). These findings suggest that the hand washing practices of food workers need to be improved, glove use may reduce hand washing, and restaurants should consider reorganizing their food preparation activities to reduce the frequency with which hand washing is needed.

  5. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Jennifer L; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine

    2015-07-23

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant's reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer's efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  6. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Banach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  7. Tax Area Boundaries, Utility, sanitary, lake, technical college, and other miscellaneous districts with taxing authority in Washing County are all maintained as attributes of the parcel feature., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Tax Area Boundaries dataset current as of 2013. Utility, sanitary, lake, technical college, and other miscellaneous districts with taxing authority in Washing County...

  8. Why Is Hand Washing So Important? (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologist? Blood Test: Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies Why Is Hand Washing So Important? KidsHealth > For Parents > Why Is ... es tan importante lavarse las manos? Why Is Hand Washing So Important? Kids don't always listen ...

  9. Washing of the AN-107 entrained solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; FV Hoopes

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AN-107 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching.

  10. Safety assessment of windshield washing Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Willersinn, Dieter; Manger, Daniel; Erdnüß, Bastian; Baumgärtner, D.; Giraud, F

    2016-01-01

    We present a new assessment method for driver visibility based on reaction time measurement and workload in real driving situations from the most relevant accident scenario involving pedestrians. The procedure was validated in a balanced trial to compare a wet flatblade windshield washing system to a conventional Fluidic nozzles system. The test cohort comprised 204 subjects who form a representative sample of German driving license holders. The average reaction time gain of wet flatblade ove...

  11. Mite and mite allergen removal during machine washing of laundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, Larry G; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn L; Morgan, Marjorie S

    2003-06-01

    Few studies have investigated live house dust mite and mite allergen removal from clothing and bedding by washing machines. No studies have investigated the transfer of mites from infested to uninfested clothing and bedding during washing. The purpose of this study was to wash different types of clothing and bedding in residential washing machines to determine the live Dermatophagoides farinae mite and allergen removal and the mite transfer from mite-infested items to mite-free items. Clothing and bedding items were machine washed in 6- and 8-lb loads in warm (36 degrees C-38 degrees C) or cold (22 degrees C-27 degrees C) water with and without recommended concentrations of laundry detergent and sodium hypochlorite bleach. Live mites and allergen present in washed versus unwashed and washed mite-infested versus washed mite-free items were compared. Washing clothing and bedding in water alone, detergent, or detergent plus bleach removed 60% to 83% of the live mites. Washing removed more mites from some items than from others. When mite-infested items were washed with identical sets of mite-free items, many live mites were transferred to the previously mite-free items. Overall, 84% of Der f 1 was removed from items washed in water alone or in detergent and 98% from items washed in detergent plus bleach. Washing clothing and bedding in cold or warm water with detergent or detergent plus bleach removed most allergen and a significant (P washing is required to further reduce mite levels. Live mites were transferred from mite-infested to mite-free items during washing.

  12. Bacterial Exchange in Household Washing Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; Van Nevel, Sam; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Household washing machines (WMs) launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household WMs. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the WM effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin-, and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the WM. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering.

  13. FOCUS ON HAND WASHING Yakubu Tahir Maigari Departm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2014-10-24

    Oct 24, 2014 ... be told to develop the habit of hand washing to avoid infection from various types of diseases? Different organizations have mapped out strategies and schemes for hand washing, enumerating the immense benefits this action. For example, Mayo clinic has this to say: Hand washing does not take much time ...

  14. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b... allowed in paragraph (f) of this section, each cargo tank must have COW machines located to wash all...

  15. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211... § 211.52 Washing and toilet facilities. Adequate washing facilities shall be provided, including hot and cold water, soap or detergent, air driers or single-service towels, and clean toilet facilities easily...

  16. Enhancing The Wash Oil Antifouling Action In A Cracked Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pure grade samples from operational wash oil (used in cracked gas compression unit), light cycle oil, heavy residue and heavy diesel oil were obtained. Miscible blend samples of ratio 1:1 were also obtained from wash oil/light cycle oil and wash oil/heavy residue. These samples were subjected to characterization and the ...

  17. Adhesive performance of washed cottonseed meal at high solid contents and low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) has been shown as a promising biobased wood adhesive. Recently, we prepared WSCM in a pilot scale for promoting its industrial application. In this work, we tested the adhesive strength and viscosity of the adhesive preparation with high solid contents (up to 30%...

  18. Movement Features Which Describe the Flat Bench Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Henryk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In sport technique studies, motion features can be useful as they have a certain defined measure [1]. In this work, we examined the following three features: the structure of the movement (all the characteristics of the movement, the fluency of the movement, and the rhythm of the movement. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of the selected movement features in the evaluation of the flat bench press. The protocol of the study included a flat bench press with free weights and a “touch-and-go” technique. Material and methods. The study involved twenty healthy men; however, only two were selected for analysis. The first subject was a 25-year-old powerlifter (body mass = 95 kg; body height = 182 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 145 kg. The second one was a 25-year-old bodybuilder (body mass = 77 kg; body height = 175 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 100 kg. The subjects performed consecutive sets of a single repetition of flat bench pressing with an increasing load (70, 80, 90, and 100% 1-RM, with the anticipated maximum weight, until the completion of one repetition maximum. Multidimensional movement analysis was made with the measuring system Smart-E (BTS, Italy, which consisted of six infrared cameras (120 Hz and a wireless module to measure muscle bioelectric activity (Pocket EMG. Results. It was demonstrated that the internal structure of the bench press performed by the bodybuilder and the powerlifter was different. As the time-history of barbell kinematics (the acceleration-time curve showed, with increased loading of the barbell, the rhythm of the flat bench press changed, and the fluidity of the movement worsened.

  19. Radiotracer study of wash load movement in a drum-type fabric washing machine using a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balt, A.P.; Brekel, L.D.M. van den; Vandecasteele, C.; Kolar, Z.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the movement of the wash loads in a drum-type washing machine. For this purpose a sup(99m)Tc source was attached to one or two separate textile pieces and the subsequent source positions were determined by means of a gamma-camera. The wash load movement pattern appears to depend on the type of textile material and its amount, as well as on the volume of water present in the washing machine.

  20. To evaluate the effects of a simplified hand washing improvement program in schoolchildren with mild intellectual disability: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Regina L T; Lee, Paul H

    2014-11-01

    A quasi-experimental study using a pretest-posttest design with a control group was used to evaluate the effects of a simplified 5-step multimedia visualization hand hygiene improvement program by schoolchildren with mild intellectual disability (MID). A total of twenty schoolchildren aged 6-12 years old with MID (12 males) were recruited and they were assigned into intervention (n=10) and control (n=10) groups. To evaluate the quality of their hand washing, Glow gel, which contains plastic simulated germs that are visible under an ultra-violet lamp, was applied to participants' hands to assess the quality of hand washing by comparing the amount of visible Glow gel before and after hand washing using a 4-point scale. Four raters used this 4-point scale to assess the quality of hand washing through digital photo images of the participants' hands. A total of eight digital photos per participant were taken. A fifteen-minute hand washing training session was conducted every school day for 4 weeks for the intervention group. Those in the control group received no training. A multimedia visual package on steps of hand washing was presented together with a reward system, whereby a number of stars were earned each week depending on the quality of hand washing. Results showed encouraging findings, as the schoolchildren in the intervention group showed significant improvement in hand washing (phand washing improvement program can be successfully implemented in a special school, and the effect of integrating multimedia visuals in the hand hygiene program could improve hand hygiene among schoolchildren with MID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hand washing practices in a college town environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchgrevink, Carl P; Cha, JaeMin; Kim, SeungHyun

    2013-04-01

    Many people do not wash their hands when the behavior in which they engage would warrant it. Most research of hand washing practices to date has taken place in high-traffic environments such as airports and public attraction venues. These studies have established a persistent shortcoming and a gender difference in hand washing compliance. Using field observations of 3,749 people in a college town environment, the research described in this article replicates and extends earlier work while identifying potential environmental and demographic predictors of hand washing compliance. Additionally, the authors' research suggests that proper hand washing practices, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, are not being practiced. Finally, the authors' research raises a question as to the accuracy of earlier measurements of "proper" hand washing practices, suggesting that compliance rates are inflated. The results can help increase hand washing rates for the general public and thus decrease the risk of transmitting disease.

  2. Object oriented hardware-software test bench for OMTF diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Pawel; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Bunkowski, Karol; Zawistowski, Krystian; Byszuk, Adrian; Bluj, Michał; Doroba, Krzysztof; Górski, Maciej; Kalinowski, Artur; Kierzkowski, Krzysztof; Konecki, Marcin; Królikowski, Jan; Oklinski, Wojciech; Olszewski, Michał; Skala, Aleksander; Zabołotny, Wojciech M.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the object oriented hardware-software model and its sample implementation of diagnostics for the Overlap Muon Track Finder trigger for the CMS experiment in CERN is described. It presents realization of test-bench for control and diagnosis class of multichannel, distributed measurement systems based on FPGA chips. The test-bench fulfills requirements for system's rapid changes, configurability and efficiency. This ability is very significant and desirable by expanded electronic systems. The solution described is a software model based on a method of address space management called the Component Internal Interface (CII). Establishment of stable link between hardware and software, as a purpose of designed and realized programming environment, is presented. The test-bench implementation and example of OMTF algorithm test is presented.

  3. Aqueous treatment of water-sensitive paper objects: capillary unit, blotter wash or paraprint wash?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkx, H.; Iedema, P.; Reissland, B.; van Velzen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Blotter washing andwashing with the capillary unit are both methods used for aqueoustreatment of water-sensitive paper objects. The challenge of thistreatment is to remove water-soluble products while keeping thewater-sensitive medium in its place. In this article the two methodsare compared, along

  4. Beyond bench and bedside: disentangling the concept of translational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, A.L.; Boenink, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The label ‘Translational Research’ (TR) has become ever more popular in the biomedical domain in recent years. It is usually presented as an attempt to bridge a supposed gap between knowledge produced at the lab bench and its use at the clinical bedside. This is claimed to help society harvest the

  5. Orbit attitude processor. STS-1 bench program verification test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A plan for the static verification of the STS-1 ATT PROC ORBIT software requirements is presented. The orbit version of the SAPIENS bench program is used to generate the verification data. A brief discussion of the simulation software and flight software modules is presented along with a description of the test cases.

  6. EMG analysis and modelling of flat bench press using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of particular muscle groups during the Flat Bench Press (FBP) with different external loads. Additionally, the authors attempted to determine whether regression models or Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) can predict FBP results more precisely and whether they can ...

  7. Bench Blasting Design for Optimum Recovery of Blocks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research work, breaking factor is used in place of powder factor since breaking is required not powder. The aim of this research work is to establish a standard breaking factor for bench blasting in dimension quarries that will improve recovery. Two cases were considered. In case 1, gun powder is used for basal ...

  8. Different effect of scion types on callusing in bench grafting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (burst scion) to 11.44% (unburst scion). Rooting ratio were increased along with development of bud; 1.42, 3.44 and 4.67%, respectively for unburst, swollen and burst scions. Highest total callus fresh weight was obtained from swollen scion (1159.35 mg). Key words: Vitis vinifera L., bench grafting, scion, rootstock, callus.

  9. Standard of Electrical Washing Machine for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Background With further improvement of people's living,the household washing machine industry has entered a new stage of development.However,some indicators of GB/T 4288-2003 have become no longer suitable for the development of household washing machine products at present.Particularly,with an increasing number of basic functions and auxiliary functions,many aspects are not covered by the existing standard.In order to further improve the overall quality of China's household washing machines and enhance their competitiveness in the international market,guide manufacturers to produce household washing machines in line with the demands of consumers and instruct consumers to properly purchase and use household washing machines,it is imperative to revise the GB/T 4288-2003 Household Electric Washing Machine.

  10. Factors affecting the bacteriological contamination of commercial washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legnani, P P; Leoni, E

    1997-10-01

    Wash water from self-service washing machines in three commercial launderettes of Bologna (Italy) were examined to verify which factors affect their bacterial contamination and to determine which procedures in the laundering process have the most significant effects on the removal of bacteria. Four washing formulas were compared: a delicates cycle (programmed temperature 25-30 degrees C; actual temperature: 28-31 degrees C); a whites cycle (programmed temperature: 80-90 degrees C; actual temperature: 50-57.5 degrees C); a delicates cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach safe for delicate fabrics and a whites cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach. Bacterial contamination of washing machines was higher in the launderette most heavely used, and, furthermore, it was in relation with the washing temperature and the use of bleaches. The low temperature laundering cycle (20-30 degrees C) did not guarantee elimination of bacterial content from either the inside of the washing machine or from the fabric being washed. Washing with water at a higher temperature, of about 55 degrees C, or adding an oxygen-based bleach to the low temperature cycle did ensure a significant reduction in bacterial recovery from water samples and fabrics, but did not prevent bacteria such as P. aeruginosa from surviving inside the washing machine. Only the addition of bleaches to the hot water program ensured the almost total elimination of bacteria and also guaranteed their elimination from protected parts of the drum.

  11. Landscape of WASH-relevant Training for Humanitarian Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorea, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Background: Both employed humanitarian personnel as well as those seeking to start a career as an aid worker are often provided with or seek training on the theme of humanitarian water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The objective of this study was to conduct a landscaping exercise of the available WASH-relevant training for humanitarian emergencies. Methods: An open internet search was performed with specific terms related to humanitarian WASH. Retained search results included those training opportunities (including past ones) that were themed around or with a mentioned relevance to humanitarian WASH. Results and Discussion: A total of 42 training courses relevant to humanitarian emergency WASH were retained. In addition to the more generic/introductory trainings, some provided thematic variations such as coordination of WASH responses, project management, risk reduction, information, education and communication (IEC), and complex emergencies. Timely topics such as urban WASH, Ebola, and WASH innovations were also observed indicating the responsiveness of the training providers to the changing needs of humanitarian WASH response programmes. This survey also revealed a large variety in terms of target audience, duration, fees, location, and language of courses. There was no centralised listing of courses available on the Internet. Limitations of this exercise were also discussed. PMID:26064781

  12. Development of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Quanser Bench-Top Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, M. H.; Mansor, H.; Gunawan, T. S.

    2017-11-01

    Bench–top helicopter is a laboratory scale helicopter that usually used as a testing bench of the real helicopter behavior. This helicopter is a 3 Degree of Freedom (DOF) helicopter which works by three different axes wshich are elevation, pitch and travel. Thus, fuzzy logic controller has been proposed to be implemented into Quanser bench-top helicopter because of its ability to work with non-linear system. The objective for this project is to design and apply fuzzy logic controller for Quanser bench-top helicopter. Other than that, fuzzy logic controller performance system has been simulated to analyze and verify its behavior over existing PID controller by using Matlab & Simulink software. In this research, fuzzy logic controller has been designed to control the elevation angle. After simulation has been performed, it can be seen that simulation result shows that fuzzy logic elevation control is working for 4°, 5° and 6°. These three angles produce zero steady state error and has a fast response. Other than that, performance comparisons have been performed between fuzzy logic controller and PID controller. Fuzzy logic elevation control has a better performance compared to PID controller where lower percentage overshoot and faster settling time have been achieved in 4°, 5° and 6° step response test. Both controller are have zero steady state error but fuzzy logic controller is managed to produce a better performance in term of settling time and percentage overshoot which make the proposed controller is reliable compared to the existing PID controller.

  13. Cost-benefit of bench terraces, a case study in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthumus, H.; Graaff, de J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil and water conservation measures like bench terraces can reduce erosion in highland crop production. A cost-benefit analysis for 11 cases of bench terraces was undertaken on the basis of both measured data and data obtained from farmers. It showed that the profitability of bench terraces was

  14. Sediment and process water characterization in support of 300 Area North Process Pond physical soil washing test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-02-18

    The sediments in the 300 Area North Process Pond are being considered for clean-up using soil washing processes. Prior to site clean-up several preliminary pilot-scale physical washing campaigns were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff in the summer of 1993. WHC used equipment that was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Specific details are found in the 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan. Physical soil washing includes separation and proper containment of the contaminant-rich fines and residual liquid effluent and release of the coarse ``clean`` fraction, should it meet minimum performance levels for residual contaminant concentration to the site being cleaned. A goal of the demonstration is to concentrate the contaminants into {le}10% of the soil volume excavated and, therefore, to release {ge}90% of the soil back to the site as clean soil. To support interpretation of the WHC soil washing treatability study, PNL performed some sediment and process water characterization on samples taken during three major and one small campaign. This report documents particle-size distributions in various field washed piles, and chemical and gama emitting radionuclide contents as a function of particle-size distribution for the field washed sediments and contents in the spent process water. All of the particle fractions were separated by wet sieving, but two field samples were also subjected to dry sieving and attrition scrubbing followed by wet sieving.

  15. Effectiveness of hand washing on the removal of iron oxide nanoparticles from human skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; Berthet, Aurélie; Maurizi, Lionel; Eisenbeis, Antoine; Hopf, Nancy B

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of washing with soap and water in removing nanoparticles from exposed skin was investigated. Dry, nanoscale hematite (α-Fe2O3) or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) powder, with primary particle diameters between 20-30 nm, were applied to two samples each of fresh and frozen ex vivo human skin in two independent experiments. The permeation of nanoparticles through skin, and the removal of nanoparticles after washing with soap and water were investigated. Bare iron oxide nanoparticles remained primarily on the surface of the skin, without penetrating beyond the stratum corneum. Skin exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles for 1 and 20 hr resulted in removal of 85% and 90%, respectively, of the original dose after washing. In the event of dermal exposure to chemicals, removal is essential to avoid potential local irritation or permeation across skin. Although manufactured at an industrial scale and used extensively in laboratory experiments, limited data are available on the removal of engineered nanoparticles after skin contact. Our finding raises questions about the potential consequences of nanoparticles remaining on the skin and whether alternative washing methods should be proposed. Further studies on skin decontamination beyond use of soap and water are needed to improve the understanding of the potential health consequences of dermal exposure to nanoparticles.

  16. Copper Recovery from Polluted Soils Using Acidic Washing and Bioelectrochemical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Karlfeldt Fedje

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Excavation followed by landfilling is the most common method for treating soils contaminated by metals. However, as this solution is not sustainable, alternative techniques are required. Chemical soil washing is one such alternative. The aim of this experimental lab-scale study is to develop a remediation and metal recovery method for Cu contaminated sites. The method is based on the washing of soil or ash (combusted soil/bark with acidic waste liquids followed by electrolytic Cu recovery by means of bioelectrochemical systems (BES. The results demonstrate that a one- or two-step acidic leaching process followed by water washing removes >80 wt. % of the Cu. Copper with 99.7–99.9 wt. % purity was recovered from the acidic leachates using BES. In all experiments, electrical power was generated during the reduction of Cu. This clearly indicates that Cu can also be recovered from dilute solutions. Additionally, the method has the potential to wash co-pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and oxy-PAHs.

  17. Treatment of table olive washing water using trickling filters, constructed wetlands and electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatoulis, Triantafyllos; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Frontistis, Zacharias; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2017-01-01

    The production of table olives is a significant economic activity in Mediterranean countries. Table olive processing generates large volumes of rinsing water that are characterized by high organic matter and phenol contents. Due to these characteristics, a combination of more than one technology is imperative to ensure efficient treatment with low operational cost. Previously, biological filters were combined with electrooxidation to treat table olive washing water. Although this combination was successful in reducing pollutant loads, its cost could be further reduced. Constructed wetlands could be an eligible treatment method for integrated table olive washing water treatment as they have proved tolerant to high organic matter and phenol loads. Two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands, one planted and one unplanted, were combined with a biological filter and electrooxidation over a boron-doped diamond anode to treat table olive washing water. In the biological filter inlet, chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations ranged from 5500 to 15,000 mg/L, while mean COD influent concentration in the constructed wetlands was 2800 mg/L. The wetlands proved to be an efficient intermediate treatment stage, since COD removal levels for the planted unit reached 99 % (mean 70 %), while the unplanted unit presented removal rates of around 65 %. Moreover, the concentration of phenols in the effluent was typically below 100 mg/L. The integrated trickling filter-constructed wetland-electrooxidation treatment system examined here could mineralize and decolorize table olive washing water and fully remove its phenolic content.

  18. Hand Washing Practices amongst Doctors in A Tertiary Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Washing hand with soap and water is said to be the single most important intervention against hospital acquired infections. This study aimed to explore perceptions, attitudes and hand washing practices amongst doctors in a tertiary institution in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross sectional survey carried out ...

  19. Hand washing practices amongst medical students in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    org. 4. arvis WR. Handwashing the Semmelweis lesson forgotten? The Lancet 1994: 344: 1311 1312. 5. Teare L, Cookson B, French G, Gould D, Jenner E,. McCollough J, et al (Hand Washing liason group). Hand washing modest measure- big ...

  20. Evaluation of Water Consumption by Car Wash Facilities in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: Car wash can be defined as a facility used to clean the exterior and in some cases, the interior of motor vehicles. These facilities are common in Bauchi and other cities in Nigeria. They use water as a major input thereby causing serious challenges to water resources management. Car wash facilities in Bauchi ...

  1. Hand washing practices amongst medical students in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hand washing with soap and water is one of the most effective and inexpensive means of preventing infections. Rates of hand washing are low world wide even amongst health care workers who are should know about its importance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and hand ...

  2. Egg wash wastewater: Estrogenic risk or environmental asset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial production of eggs and egg products requires the washing of eggs to remove urinary / fecal material and broken egg residue. In the case of one Ohio farming facility, 1.6 million birds produce 1.4 million eggs per day, using ~50mL of wash water / egg or ~ 70,000 liters per day. The aqueo...

  3. Assessment of knowledge of hand washing among health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nosocomial infections increase mortality and morbidity although adherence to simple hand washing procedures is suggested to reduce these. Purpose: To assess knowledge of hand washing among health care providers in Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH) in South Sudan and establish associations with ...

  4. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  5. Effects of shampoo and water washing on hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Amanda F; Meyer, Jerrold S; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Novak, Melinda A

    2011-01-30

    Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hand Washing Practices and Compliance among Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a wide disparity between knowledge and practice of hand washing as a way of reducing hospital-acquired infections. Some reasons given for failure to observe proper hand washing include; time wasting, skin irritation and unavailability of soap and water. In addition, we found that the most preferred method of ...

  7. Tenacity of Exogenous Human Papillomavirus DNA in Sperm Washing

    OpenAIRE

    Brossfield, Jeralyn E.; Philip J. Chan; Patton, William C.; King, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm.

  8. Modified Park Bench Position for Superior Vermian Arteriovenous Malformations and Dural Fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiei-Langroudi, Rouzbeh; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Alturki, Abdulrahman Y; Chapman, Paul H; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J

    2017-10-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the superior cerebellar vermis and dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) draining into tentorial venous structures are uncommon lesions. Various surgical approaches and positions have been used to gain access. We present our experience with 10 superior vermian AVMs and 3 dAVFs with retrograde transverse sinus or torcular drainage, each resected through a supracerebellar infratentorial approach in the park bench position with modification of the neck and head position (vertex tilt-up instead of down). All 13 patients were treated surgically, with 4 receiving adjunctive endovascular embolization. Postoperative digital subtraction angiography confirmed complete resection of lesion in all. One patient experienced superficial wound infection treated by oral antibiotics, and another presented with a cerebrospinal fluid collection due to delayed hydrocephalus requiring insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The median modified Rankin Scale score at last follow-up was 1. There were no surgical complications at the time of last follow-up. Our series shows that for superior vermian AVMs or dAVFs with retrograde transverse sinus or torcula venous drainage, the supracerebellar infratentorial approach in a modified vertex tilt-up park bench position is a safe and effective surgical approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vapor cell based sodium laser guide star mechanism study lab-bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Li, Lihang; Luo, Ruiyao; Li, Lei; Ning, Yu; Xi, Fengjie; Xu, Xiaojun

    2016-07-01

    Sodium laser guide star (LGS) is the key for the success of modern adaptive optics (AO) supported large ground based telescopes, however, for many field applications, Sodium LGS's brightness is still a limited factor. Large amounts of theoretical efforts have been paid to optimize Sodium LGS exciting parameters, that is, to fully discover potential of harsh environment surrounding mesospheric extreme thin sodium atoms under resonant excitation, whether quantum or Monte Carlo based. But till to now, only limited proposals are demonstrated with on-sky test due to the high cost and engineering complexities. To bridge the gap between theoretical modeling and on-sky test, we built a magnetic field controllable sodium cell based lab-bench, which includes a small scale sum-frequency single mode 589nm laser, with added amplitude, polarization, and phase modulators. We could perform quantitative resonant fluorescence study under single, multi-frequency, side-band optical re-pumping exciting with different polarization, also we could perform optical field modulation to study Larmor precession which is considered as one of devils of Sodium LGS, and we have the ability to generate beams contain orbital angular moment. Our preliminary sodium cell based optical re-pumping experiments have shown excellent consistence with Bloch equation predicted results, other experimental results will also be presented in the report, and these results will give a direct support that sodium cell based lab-bench study could help a Sodium LGS scientists a lot before their on-sky test.

  10. Bench to beside: motivation for university industry partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Nitish V

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the motivation for entrepreneurship in academia and for forging a relationship between an academic laboratory and a startup. University based personnel, faculty and students, priorities basic bench research. On the other side, industry, particularly startups, prioritize technology development for clinical and commercial translation. The paper presents personal experience as a case study. University based researchers, faculty and students, might participate in and benefit from such an entrepreneurial activity. A University spin off would facilitate translational of bench research ideas and results to technologies for bedside use. Attention to issues such as conflict of interest and concern and ethics of working with human subjects need to be managed by the investigators and the institution. While entrepreneurial activity is not for everyone, it does provide the benefit and satisfaction to see research reach practice.

  11. XAO coronagraphy with the High-Order Test bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Extreme adaptive optics systems dedicated to the search for extra solar planets are currently being developed for 8–10 meter class telescopes. The High-Order Test bench (HOT is a high-contrast imaging adaptive optics bench developed at ESO. Its objective is to test and optimize different techniques and technologies (e.g. wave front sensors, coronagraphs, speckle calibration methods…. It mimics realistic conditions at a telescope (e.g. VLT, including turbulence generator, XAO, and various near-IR coronagraphs. Here we provide a short overview of the system, and present results of recent AO-closed loop coronagraphic runs obtained with an Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC.

  12. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  13. [Soft-ridged bench terrace design in hilly loess region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Chen, Li; Gao, Wangsheng

    2005-08-01

    Reconfiguration of hillside field into terrace is regarded as one of the key techniques for water and soil conservation in mountainous regions. On slopes exceeding 30 degrees, the traditional techniques of terracing are difficult to apply as risers (i.e., backslopes), and if not reinforced, are so abrupt and easy to collapse under gravity alone, thus damaging the terrace. To improve the reconfiguration of hillside field into terrace, holistic techniques of soft-ridged bench terrace engineering, including revegetation, with trees and planting grasses on riser slopes, were tested between 1997 and 2001 in Xiabiangou watershed of Yan' an, Shaanxi Province. A "working with Nature" engineering approach, riser slopes of 45 degrees, similar to the pre-existing slope of 35 degrees, was employed to radically reduce gravity-erosion. Based on the concepts of biodiversity and the principles of landscape ecology, terrace benches, bunds, and risers were planted with trees, shrubs, forage grasses, and crops, serving to generate a diverse array of plants, a semi-forested area, and to stabilize terrace bunds. Soft-ridged bench terrace made it possible to significantly reduce hazards arising from gravity erosion, and reduce the costs of individual bench construction and maintenance by 24.9% and 55.5% of the costs under traditional techniques, respectively. Such a construction allowed an enrichment and concentration of nutrients in the soils of terrace bunds, providing an ideal environment for a range of plants to grow and develop. The terrace riser could be planted with drought-resistant plants ranging from forage grasses to trees, and this riser vegetation would turn the exposed bunds and risers existing under traditional techniques into plant-covered belts, great green ribbons decorating farmland and contributing to the enhancement of the landscape biology.

  14. Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter bench test module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, L.L.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and test of a Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter Bench Test Module. The work presented in this document was conducted as a part of Heat Engine Task of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program. The objective of this task is the development and evaluation of heat engine technologies applicable to distributed receiver systems, in particular, dish electric systems.

  15. PEDOMETER ACCURACY DURING STAIR CLIMBING AND BENCH STEPPING EXERCISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Tanaka

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to examine pedometer accuracy during stair climbing and descending as well as during the performance of a bench stepping exercise. Ten healthy men participated in the present investigation. All subjects ascended and descended an 18 cm high public staircase, and performed a bench stepping exercise by using a 10, 20 and 30 cm high platforms, while wearing three different commercial pedometers (DW-800, YM, HJ- 700IT; OM, Lifecorder; KZ. In both situations, the stepping rate was controlled at 40, 50, 80, 100 and 120 steps·min-1. The pedometer scores tended to underestimate the actual number of steps during stair climbing with a slower stepping rate and/or the lower height of a platform. During the stair ascending and descending and the bench stepping exercise using 20 to 30 cm high platforms at 80 to 120 steps·min-1, the magnitude of the measurement error was -3.8 ± 10. 8 % for KZ, -2.1 ± 9.8 % for YM and -11.0 ± 18.9 % for OM. These results indicate that the KZ and the YM can accurately assess the number of steps during stair climbing using 20 to 30 cm high platforms at 80 to 120 steps·min-1

  16. Washing the guilt away: Effects of personal versus vicarious cleansing on guilty feelings and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.; Bègue, L.; Bushman, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    For centuries people have washed away their guilt by washing their hands. Do people need to wash their own hands, or is it enough to watch other people wash their hands? To induce guilt, we had participants write about a past wrong they had committed. Next, they washed their hands, watched a

  17. Experience gained in bench scale and pilot scale fluidised bed processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available capture to reduce the sulphur dioxide off-gas content. Additionally, work has been conducted on a number of sulphur bearing ores. More recently attention has been placed on the oxidative and reductive roasting of ilmenite to affect the downstream recovery...

  18. Full-Scale and Bench-Scale Studies on the Removal of Strontium from Water (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strontium (Sr) is a natural and commonly occurring alkaline earth metal which has an oxidation state of +2 under normal environmental conditions. Stable strontium is suspended in water and is dissolved after water runs through rocks and soil. It behaves very similar to calcium. G...

  19. Evaluation of students' social hand washing knowledge, practices, and skills in a university setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Ahmet; Bostanci, Mehmet; Onal, Ozgür; Bozkurt, Ali Ihsan; Ergin, Nesrin

    2011-12-01

    Handwashing is an effective and inexpensive way to prevent diarrhea and acute respiratory infections. This study aimed to evaluate the Turkish University students' social hand washing knowledge, practices, skills and related factors. All existing 1st year students in the Medical and Educational Faculty, plus all existing 2nd and 3rd year students in the Medical Faculty of Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey, from April to May, 2010, were eligible for the study. Participants filled in a questionnaire. The questionnaire tested the students' social hand washing knowledge (8 questions), practices (21 questions), and skills (10 questions) and it was prepared using previously published studies. Participants received 1 point for each correct answer provided. Final scores were calculated by summing up the points from all questions in the particular section divided by the number of questions in this section and multiplied by 100. The Family Affluence Scale was used to determine a socioeconomic status (SES). In all 303 students participated in this study. Participants' age (+/- SD) was 20.1 +/- 1.6 and the age range was between 18 and 32. Sixty two point seven percent of the participants were women. Forty four point nine percent of the participants were medical students. Fifty one point eight percent of the participants were in low SES. Twenty seven point four percent of the participants wash their hands less than 5 times a day. main reason for skipping hand washing was the participants' belief of 'no need' (63.7%). The mean scores (+/- SD) of participants' hand washing knowledge, practices, and skills were 71.2 +/- 20.7, 60.3 +/- 13.4 and 79.7 +/- 18.4, respectively. All scores were significantly higher in women. A multivariate analysis showed that gender was the main factor affecting all scores. Increasing quantity and/or quality of available campus based public health educational programs, creating hand-hygiene promotion programs to the general public and using the

  20. [Surgical team satisfaction levels between two preoperative hand-washing methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Fernández, Omar; Morales-Olivera, José Martín; Ponce-de-León-Rosales, Sergio; Vega-Batista, Roger; Mejía-Ovalle, Rabí; Huertas-Jiménez, Martha; Ponce-de-León, Alfredo; Navarrete, Margarita; Ponce-de-León, Samuel; Macías, Alejandro; Takahashi-Monroy, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there have been new antiseptics for surgical scrub that do not require brushing. One of them contains 1% chlorhexidine gluconate and 61% ethyl alcohol; within its benefits, it may offer a low potential for skin sensitization, as well as cost savings and less use of water. To evaluate satisfaction levels, washing time, safety, cost and amount of water between the traditional surgical scrub technique (group A) and brush-free surgical scrub procedure (group B). One hundred clean and clean-contaminated surgeries with four hundred members of surgical teams were included. Satisfaction levels, hand-washing time, skin disorders and problems associated with placement of gloves were evaluated. Hands cultures were taken in 20% of the population and the amount of water used by patients in group A was measured. Total costs and wound infections were analyzed. Satisfaction scale in group A was 9.1 +/- 1.39 and 9.5 +/- 1.54 in group B (p = 0.004). The mean hand-washing time was 3.9 +/- 1.07 min in group A and 2.0 +/- 0.47 min in group B (p = 0.00001). Thirteen patients had dry skin in group A and four in group B (6.5% vs. 2%; p = 0.02). There were ten positives cultures in group A and five in group B (25% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.152). Wound infection rate was 3%. On average, five-hundred eighty liters of water were used by the former group, and the estimated hand-washing cost was lower in the second group. The handwashing technique with CGEA is as effective as traditional surgical scrub technique, and it is associated with less washing time, dry skin, cost and use of water.

  1. Design and optimisation of purification procedure for biodiesel washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Glišić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost complete methanolysis of triglycerides is usually not enough to fulfil the strict standards of biodiesel quality. A key step in this process is neutralization of alkali (catalyst followed by the washing procedure necessary for removing different impurities such as traces of catalyst and methanol and removal of soaps and glycerol from esters phase. The washing with hot water is still widely used in many industrial units for the biodiesel production. In this study, different procedures of biodiesel washing using hot water were investigated. The orto-phosphoric acid was suggested as the best compound for alkali catalyst (sodium hydroxide neutralization. The main goal of the performed analysis was to minimize the water usage in the washing-neutralization step during the biodiesel production. Such solution would make the process of biodiesel synthesis more economical taking into account the decrease of energy consumed for evaporation of water during the final product purification, as well as more acceptable procedure related to the impact on environment (minimal waste water release. Results of the performed simulation of the washing process supported by original experimental data suggested that neutralization after the optimized washing process of the methyl ester layer could be the best solution. The proposed washing procedure significantly decreases the amount of waste water giving at the same time the desired purity of final products (biodiesel and glycerol. The simulation of the process was performed using ASPEN plus software supported by ELCANTREL and UNIQUAC procedure of required properties calculation

  2. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, S.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Hartmann, S.; Tomsche, L.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Ignatius, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-11-01

    Birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleating active biological particles. The ice nucleating activity has previously been tracked down to biological macromolecules that can be easily extracted from the pollen grains in water. In the present study, we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules. Therefore we measured the frozen fractions of particles generated from birch pollen washing water as a function of temperature at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Two different birch pollen samples were considered, with one originating from Sweden and one from the Czech Republic. For the Czech and Swedish birch pollen samples, freezing was observed to start at -19 and -17 °C, respectively. The fraction of frozen droplets increased for both samples down to -24 °C. Further cooling did not increase the frozen fractions any more. Instead, a plateau formed at frozen fractions below 1. This fact could be used to determine the amount of INA macromolecules in the droplets examined here, which in turn allowed for the determination of nucleation rates for single INA macromolecules. The main differences between the Swedish birch pollen and the Czech birch pollen were obvious in the temperature range between -17 and -24 °C. In this range, a second plateau region could be seen for Swedish birch pollen. As we assume INA macromolecules to be the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that birch pollen is able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to derive parameterizations for the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types, using two different methods: a simple exponential fit and the Soccer ball model. With these parameterization methods we were able to describe the ice nucleation behavior of single INA macromolecules from both the Czech and the Swedish birch pollen.

  3. Hand washing frequencies and procedures used in retail food services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Sneed, Jeannie; Paez, Paola; Meyer, Janell

    2008-08-01

    Transmission of viruses, bacteria, and parasites to food by way of improperly washed hands is a major contributing factor in the spread of foodborne illnesses. Field observers have assessed compliance with hand washing regulations, yet few studies have included consideration of frequency and methods used by sectors of the food service industry or have included benchmarks for hand washing. Five 3-h observation periods of employee (n = 80) hand washing behaviors during menu production, service, and cleaning were conducted in 16 food service operations for a total of 240 h of direct observation. Four operations from each of four sectors of the retail food service industry participated in the study: assisted living for the elderly, childcare, restaurants, and schools. A validated observation form, based on 2005 Food Code guidelines, was used by two trained researchers. Researchers noted when hands should have been washed, when hands were washed, and how hands were washed. Overall compliance with Food Code recommendations for frequency during production, service, and cleaning phases ranged from 5% in restaurants to 33% in assisted living facilities. Procedural compliance rates also were low. Proposed benchmarks for the number of times hand washing should occur by each employee for each sector of food service during each phase of operation are seven times per hour for assisted living, nine times per hour for childcare, 29 times per hour for restaurants, and 11 times per hour for schools. These benchmarks are high, especially for restaurant employees. Implementation would mean lost productivity and potential for dermatitis; thus, active managerial control over work assignments is needed. These benchmarks can be used for training and to guide employee hand washing behaviors.

  4. Chelant soil-washing technology for metal-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate here, in a pilot-scale experiment, the feasibility of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)based washing technology for soils contaminated with potentially toxic metals. Acid precipitation coupled to initial alkaline toxic metal removal and an electrochemical advanced oxidation process were used for average recovery of 76 +/- 2% of EDTA per batch and total recycle of water in a closed process loop. No waste water was generated; solid wastes were efficiently bitumen-stabilized before disposal. The technology embodiment, using conventional process equipment, such as a mixer for soil extraction, screen for soil/gravel separation, filter chamber presses for soil/liquid and recycled EDTA separation and soil rinsing, continuous centrifuge separator for removal of precipitated metals and electrolytic cells for process water cleansing, removed up to 72%, 25% and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd from garden soil contaminated with up to 6960, 3797 and 32.6 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, in nine 60kg soil batches. Concentrations of Pb and Zn remaining in the remediated soil and bioaccessible from the simulated human intestinal phase soil were reduced by 97% and 96% and were brought under the level of determination for Cd. In the most cost-effective operation mode, the material and energy costs of remediation amounted to 50.5 Euros ton(-1) soil and the total cost to 299 Euros ton(-1).

  5. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  6. Endotoxins in cotton: washing effects and size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olenchock, S.A.; Mull, J.C.; Jones, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Endotoxin contamination was measured in washed and unwashed cottons from three distinct growing areas, California, Mississippi, and Texas. The data show differences in endotoxin contamination based upon the geographic source of the cotton. It is also shown that washing bulk cotton before the carding process results in lower endotoxin in the cotton dust. Washing conditions can affect the endotoxin levels, and all size fractions of the airborne dust contain quantifiable endotoxin contamination. Endotoxin analyses provide a simple and reliable method for monitoring the cleanliness of cotton or airborne cotton dusts.

  7. A comparison of muscle activation between a Smith machine and free weight bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Evan E; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A; Khamoui, Andy V; Tran, Tai T; Uribe, Brandon P

    2010-03-01

    The bench press exercise exists in multiple forms including the machine and free weight bench press. It is not clear though how each mode differs in its effect on muscle activation. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, and pectoralis major during a Smith machine and free weight bench press at lower (70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and higher (90% 1RM) intensities. Normalized electromyography amplitude values were used during the concentric phase of the bench press to compare muscle activity between a free weight and Smith machine bench press. Participants were classified as either experienced or inexperienced bench pressers. Two testing sessions were used, each of which entailed either all free weight or all Smith machine testing. In each testing session, each participant's 1RM was established followed by 2 repetitions at 70% of 1RM and 2 repetitions at 90% of 1RM. Results indicated greater activation of the medial deltoid on the free weight bench press than on the Smith machine bench press. Also, there was greater muscle activation at the 90% 1RM load than at the 70% 1RM load. The results of this study suggest that strength coaches should consider choosing the free weight bench press over the Smith machine bench press because of its potential for greater upper-body muscular development.

  8. Electrodialytic versus acid extraction of heavy metals from soil washing residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille E.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Allard, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of electrodialytic remediation (EDR) for treatment of suspended sludge after soil washing is in focus in the present paper. Five industrially contaminated soils were treated in laboratory scale remediation experiments, and the toxic elements of the investigation were: As, Cd, Cu, Cr......, Ni, Zn and Pb. The results showed that all investigated elements could be removed from all soils to some extent by EDR. For all anthropogenic contaminants, higher extraction can be obtained under the influence of the direct current during EDR than by washing. During EDR most elements were transferred...... primarily to the cathode, where Cu and Pb precipitated at the cathode, while Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn primarily, or solely (for Ni), were dissolved in the catholyte, showing how cationic species dominated the chemistry of these elements. Despite the differences between the soils, the remediation results were...

  9. Sequential push-pull pumping mechanism for washing and evacuation of an immunoassay reaction chamber on a microfluidic CD platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer Hwai Gilbert Thio

    Full Text Available A centrifugal compact disc (CD microfluidic platform with reservoirs, micro-channels, and valves can be employed for implementing a complete immunoassay. Detection or biosensor chambers are either coated for immuno-interaction or a biosensor chip is inserted in them. On microfluidic CDs featuring such multi-step chemical/biological processes, the biosensor chamber must be repeatedly filled with fluids such as enzymes solutions, buffers, and washing solutions. After each filling step, the biosensor chamber needs to be evacuated by a passive siphoning process to prepare it for the next step in the assay. However, rotational speed dependency and limited space on a CD are two big obstacles to performing such repetitive filling and siphoning steps. In this work, a unique thermo-pneumatic (TP Push-Pull pumping method is employed to provide a superior alternative biosensor chamber filling and evacuation technique. The proposed technique is demonstrated on two CD designs. The first design features a simple two-step microfluidic process to demonstrate the evacuation technique, while the second design shows the filling and evacuation technique with an example sequence for an actual immunoassay. In addition, the performance of the filling and evacuation technique as a washing step is also evaluated quantitatively and compared to the conventional manual bench top washing method. The two designs and the performance evaluation demonstrate that the technique is simple to implement, reliable, easy to control, and allows for repeated push-pulls and thus filling and emptying of the biosensor chamber. Furthermore, by addressing the issue of rotational speed dependency and limited space concerns in implementing repetitive filling and evacuation steps, this newly introduced technique increases the flexibility of the microfluidic CD platform to perform multi-step biological and chemical processes.

  10. Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands and pieces of money from street food processing sites in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). N Barro, AR Bello, A Savadogo, CAT Ouattara, AJ Iiboudo, AS Traoré ...

  11. Control of IPMSM drive system for drum washing machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woncheol; Park, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Hyo; Yu, Jae-Sung; Kim, Gyu-Sik; Won, Chung-Yuen

    2007-12-01

    The use of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) has increased in the industrial field because of its excellent characteristics such as high efficiency, wide range of speed operation, and flexibility of the rotor structure. Therefore, IPMSM, especially one using the rare earth permanent magnet, is being actively studied. In IPMSM using the rare earth permanent magnet, typically the permanent magnet is deeply embedded in the rotor. The washing machine has large load variation and needs high torque. So, IPMSM is better than any other motor types for washing machines. This paper suggests a control algorithm of IPMSM for washing machines. Some experimental results are given in order to show the feasibility of the proposed control schemes for washing machines.

  12. Appraisal of guidelines for pre-operative body wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Elisabet; Westerberg, Lisa; Henricson, Maria

    The pre-operative body wash is a strategy for reducing post-operative infection. However, there is a lack of knowledge about its importance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the quality of guidelines for the pre-operative body wash using the AGREE instrument--35 guidelines containing instructions for the pre-operative body wash or preparation were included. The AGREE instrument was employed to establish a quality assessment framework that facilitated a comparison of the guidelines. The results were based on the six domains of the AGREE instrument, all of which were found to have low adherence. Descriptive statistics were used to present the assessment score. The AGREE instrument is useful for evaluating the quality of clinical guidelines. The development of evidence-based guidelines must include clinical activities. Further research is required to clarify the pre-operative body wash process and how it should be performed to reduce post-operative infection.

  13. Little Puerco Wash-Catalpa Canyon Floodplain Management Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The City of Gallup requested the Soil Conservation Service, through the McKinley Soil and Water Conservation District, to conduct a study of the Little Puerco Wash...

  14. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; McCoy, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS...

  15. Emissions of microplastic fibers from microfiber fleece during domestic washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirc, U; Vidmar, M; Mozer, A; Kržan, A

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics are found in marine and freshwater environments; however, their specific sources are not yet well understood. Understanding sources will be of key importance in efforts to reduce emissions into the environment. We examined the emissions of microfibers from domestic washing of a new microfiber polyester fleece textile. Analyzing released fibers collected with a 200 μm filter during 10 mild, successive washing cycles showed that emission initially decreased and then stabilized at approx. 0.0012 wt%. This value is our estimation for the long-term release of fibers during each washing. Use of detergent and softener did not significantly influence emission. Release of fibers during tumble drying was approx. 3.5 times higher than during washing.

  16. 7 CFR 2902.51 - Parts wash solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Items § 2902.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts in..., cabinet washers, and ultrasonic cleaners. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product...

  17. Documentation of a decision framework to support enhanced sludge washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    This document describes a proposed decision model that, if developed to its fullest, can provide a wide range of analysis options and insights to pretreatment/sludge washing alternatives. A recent decision has been made to terminate this work

  18. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millan, Maria S, E-mail: francisco.alba-bueno@upc.edu, E-mail: fvega@oo.upc.edu, E-mail: millan@oo.upc.edu [Departamento de Optica y Optometria, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, C/ Violinista Vellsola 37, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  19. Evaluation of four commercial automatic endoscope washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D A; Porter, C; Murphy, L; Axon, A T

    1992-11-01

    Four commercially available endoscope washing machines (Pyser System 83, Wolf Fiberscope Disinfector, Olympus EW20, Keymed Auto-Disinfector) were evaluated. In most cases the machines were expensive, immobile and noisy, and could only wash one endoscope per cycle. Daily use involved repetitive chores and contact with glutaraldehyde. Disinfection procedures were flawed; no machine auto-disinfected adequately. In conclusion, these machines are unsatisfactory and represent a potential source of serious infection.

  20. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any se...

  1. Hand Washing Rituals in Trauma Theatre: Clean or Dirty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajipour, L; Longstaff, L; Cleeve, V; Brewster, N; Bint, D; Henman, P

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of contamination of a surgeon's hand following use of chlorhexidine gluconate or alcohol gel as disinfectants. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this prospective, randomised trial, orthopaedic surgeons were allocated to one of two different hand-washing protocols using a randomisation table. The hand-washing protocol dictated that all surgeons should wash for 5 min with chlorhexidine for their first case. Thereafter, the surgeon was randomised to wash for 3 min with either alcohol gel or chlorhexidine. At the end of each procedure, the gloves of each surgeon were carefully removed and the fingertips from each hand were placed on an agar plate. The number of bacterial colonies present after 24 h and 48 h of incubation were recorded for each agar plate by a microbiologist blinded to the washing protocol used. RESULTS Overall, 41 procedures and 82 episodes of hand washings were included in the study. Two episodes were discarded due to contamination at the time of glove removal. Four hands (8%) were contaminated in the chlorhexidine group compared to 19 (34%) in the alcohol group. Fisher's exact test confirmed a significantly higher risk of contamination using alcohol gel compared to chlorhexidine (P = 0.002). In addition, the average bacterial colony count was substantially higher in the alcohol group (20 colony forming units) compared to the chlorhexidine group (5 colony forming units). There was no relationship between the duration of surgery and the degree of contamination (P = 1.12). CONCLUSIONS Alcohol gel disinfectant is not a suitable alternative to chlorhexidine when hand washing before surgery. This study has identified a higher risk of bacterial contamination of surgeons' hands washed with alcohol. This may lead to higher levels of postoperative infection in the event of glove perforation. PMID:16460630

  2. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...... ratio. The dc-dc converter controls the battery charge/discharge current while the grid converter controls the common dc-link voltage and the grid current. The applied control structures and the hardware implementation of both converters are presented, together with their interaction. Experimental...

  3. Fracture of the Scaphoid During a Bench-Press Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John S; Crowell, Michael S; Goss, Donald L

    2015-08-01

    The patient was a 21-year-old male cadet at a military academy who was evaluated by a physical therapist in a direct-access capacity for a chief complaint of left wrist pain that began 1 day after injuring his wrist while performing a bench-press exercise. Due to concern for a scaphoid fracture and because radiographic imaging was not immediately available, a physical therapist credentialed to utilize fluoroscopy evaluated the left wrist. Radiographs were subsequently ordered, which confirmed a mid-waist, nondisplaced scaphoid fracture.

  4. ESA's CCD test bench for the PLATO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Bloemmaert, Sander; Lemmel, Frederic; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Smit, Hans; Butler, Bart; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Heijnen, Jerko; Visser, Ivo

    2016-08-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz and at -70 C. To de-risk the PLATO CCD qualification programme initiated in 2014 and support the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section from the Future Missions Office has developed a dedicated test bench.

  5. Washing machine related injuries in children: a continuing threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, B L; Kenney, B D; Rice, M

    2003-12-01

    To describe washing machine related injuries in children in the United States. Injury data for 496 washing machine related injuries documented by the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System and death certificate data files were analyzed. Gender, age, diagnosis, body part injured, disposition, location and mechanism of injury were considered in the analysis of data. The upper extremities were most frequently injured in washing machine related injuries, especially with wringer machines. Fewer than 10% of patients required admission, but automatic washers accounted for most of these and for both of the deaths. Automatic washer injuries involved a wider range of injury mechanism, including 23 children who fell from the machines while in baby seats. Though most injuries associated with washing machines are minor, some are severe and devastating. Many of the injuries could be avoided with improvements in machine design while others suggest a need for increased education of potential dangers and better supervision of children if they are allowed access to areas where washing machines are operating. Furthermore, washing machines should only be used for their intended purpose. Given the limitations of educational efforts to prevent injuries, health professionals should have a major role in public education regarding these seemingly benign household appliances.

  6. Immunotoxicity of washing soda in a freshwater sponge of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2015-03-01

    The natural habitat of sponge, Eunapius carteri faces an ecotoxicological threat of contamination by washing soda, a common household cleaning agent of India. Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Domestic effluent, drain water and various human activities in ponds and lakes have been identified as the major routes of washing soda contamination of water. Phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules are important immunological responses offered by the cells of sponges against environmental toxins and pathogens. Present study involves estimation of phagocytic response and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase in E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Sodium carbonate exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phagocytic response of sponge cells under 4, 8, 16 mg/l of the toxin for 96h and all experimental concentrations of the toxin for 192h. Washing soda exposure yielded an initial increase in the generation of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide followed by a significant decrease in generation of these cytotoxic agents. Sponge cell generated a high degree of phenoloxidase activity under the experimental exposure of 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l of sodium carbonate for 96 and 192 h. Washing soda induced alteration of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses of E. carteri was indicative to an undesirable shift in their immune status leading to the possible crises of survival and propagation of sponges in their natural habitat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipophilic extractives and the loss of solid material in mechanical pulp washing; Rasvaliukoiset uuteaineet ja kiintoainetappiot mekaanisen massan katkaisupesussa - EKT 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manner, H.; Kaeyhkoe, J.; Keskinen, K. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Paper Technology

    1998-12-31

    In this project the aim is to produce basic information for the optimization of mechanical pulp washing. In the first stage, the main emphasis is put on the behavior of lipophilic extractives and on the solid material which is lost during washing. The first task was to make the simulation of mill scale washing processes on a laboratory scale possible. This has been achieved by building two laboratory scale presses and comparing them to mill scale presses. The experimental information obtained there from verified that similar conditions could be obtained on a laboratory scale as from mill scale presses. The main research areas and results obtained in this project are: Washing studies: A considerable deresination efficiency can be obtained in a single washing stage with reasonable water usage. Dissolution and dispersion of wood components in the mixing: Temperature, time and power in the mixing of mechanical pulp has a significant effect on the dispersion of the lipophilic extractives. Also, the dissolution and dispersion of wood components in the mixing may form quite a complex issue to study. Form of the lipophilic extractives in the filtrates: The amount of lipophilic extractives in the solid phase of the filtrates obtained from the presses was so low that it had no effect on the deresination efficiency. The effect of the dispersing agents on the deresination efficiency: The deresination efficiency can be significantly improved by the optimum usage of dispersing agents. Research work in these areas will be continued. (orig.)

  8. [Microbial contamination of wash water in automatic washing and disinfection machines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolch, A; Krizek, L; Schoenen, D

    1993-11-01

    Samples were taken from the water containing tube system of 7 cleaning and disinfection machines located at the university clinics. The machines were used for the treatment of medical tools. The samples were bacteriologically examined. The results showed systemic contaminations of the tubes of all tested machines. The well known positive effect of common ion-exchangers on bacterial growth was not the only reason for the high degree of microbial contaminations. Partial bacterial growth on the inner sides of the water tubes was detected. The reason was the use of bacteriological objectionable tube materials. Recontamination of the post treated medical tools is possible at any time by the last washing water. Preceding sterile filtration showed as supposed no effect. Consequences for the use of cleaning and disinfection machines are discussed.

  9. A Systematic Review: Costing and Financing of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Shannon M; McKeon, Thomas; Desai, Richa; Ejelonu, Akudo; Laskowski, Stanley; Murphy, Heather M

    2017-04-20

    Despite the success of recent efforts to increase access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) globally, approximately one-third of schools around the world still lack adequate WASH services. A lack of WASH in schools can lead to the spread of preventable disease and increase school absences, especially among women. Inadequate financing and budgeting has been named as a key barrier for integrating successful and sustainable WASH programs into school settings. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge around the costs of WASH components as well as financing models that could be applied to WASH in schools. Results show a lack of information around WASH costing, particularly around software elements as well as a lack of data overall for WASH in school settings as compared to community WASH. This review also identifies several key considerations when designing WASH budgets or selecting financing mechanisms. Findings may be used to advise future WASH in school programs.

  10. Washing technology development for gravel contaminated with uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Uk Ryang; Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Wan Suk; Moon, Jai Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The soil washing method has a short decontamination time and is economical. In addition, methods including phytoremediation, solidification/stabilization and bioremediation exist. Phytoremediation and bioremediation are economical, but have low remedial efficiency. In addition, bioremediation causes washing wastewater because it requires a washing process for the separation of microorganisms from the soils. In addition, solidification/stabilization is a commonly used methods, but eventually increases the volume of wastes. As mentioned above, many researches involved in the decontamination of radioactively contaminated soils have been actively processed. On the other hand, researches for decontaminating radioactively contaminated gravels are not being currently processed. In this study, we performed basic experiments using decontamination methods to decontaminate radioactively contaminated gravel. First, we measured the concentration of uranium in gravel included in uranium-contaminated soils and performed a washing experiment to monitor the tendency of uranium removal. In addition, when managing gravel with a low uranium-decontamination rate, we tried to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal in the wastes (0.4Bq/g or less) by performing a washing experiment after only a physical crushing process. We performed washing experiments to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal (0.4 Bq/g or less) in gravel included in radioactively contaminated soil. We performed washing experiments for gravel whose initial average concentration of uranium was 1.3Bq/g. In addition, the average concentration of uranium was 0.8Bq/g. Too increase the decontamination rate, we crushed the gravel with a jaw crusher and performed the washing experiments. The results were similar to the results without crushing. In addition, it was determined that the smaller the size of the gravel particles, the more efficient the uranium decontamination

  11. Hand washing in operating room: a procedural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Stilo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hand washing has been considered a measure of personal hygiene for centuries and it is known that an improper hand hygiene by healthcare workers is responsible for about 40% of nosocomial infections. Therefore, surgical hand preparation is a critical element for healthcare safety in order to reduce microbial contamination of  surgical wound in case of non detected break of the gloves. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy three antiseptics: Povi-iodine scrub; EPG (Ethanol, Hydrogen Peroxide, Glycerol, recommended by WHO, and common marseille soap type in a liquid formulation. METHODS It was designed a randomized, double-blind, single-center study conducted in the University Hospital of Messina, from January to June 2013. We asked operators to put the fingertips of their right hand (if not left-handed for one minute on the PCA medium, before washing with the three types of antiseptics, and after washing and drying. Drying was made using sterile gauzes or disposable wipes. Then, we measured the number of colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL and calculated the percentage of microbial load reduction. RESULTS 211 samples have been considered for statistical analysis: in 42 samples, in fact, initial microbial load was lower than after washing. Washing with EPG reduced CFU/ml from  a mean of 38,9 to 4,1 (86,5% reduction, washing with povi-iodine scrub from 59,55 to 12,9 (75,9% reduction and washing with Marseille soap from 47,26 to 12,7 (64,3% reduction. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that washing with EPG has superior efficacy in CFU reduction. Antiseptic hand washing, however, cannot be considered the only measure to reduce infections: the anomaly of some results (initial microbial load lower than after washing  demonstrates that drying is an essential phase in the presurgical preparation. Therefore, hand hygiene must be part of a more complex strategy of surveillance and control of nosocomial infections

  12. Vestibular rehabilitation outcomes: velocity trajectory analysis of repeated bench stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldvasser, D; McGibbon, C A; Krebs, D E

    2000-10-01

    To quantify vestibular rehabilitation (VR) outcomes in patients with vestibulospinal reflex pathology (VSP) using a new technique, high curvature analysis (HCA), that measures space trajectory stability. Twelve patients with VSP and 10 healthy controls performed a repeated stepping task in a motion analysis laboratory. Patients with VSP were tested before and after a 12 week VR program. Three dimensional whole body center of gravity (CG) was captured during repeated bench stepping trials (step up forward/step down backward), and the resulting horizontal plane CG velocity trajectories were analyzed using HCA. VSP patients were significantly less stable than healthy subjects prior to VR (P=0.022), but these differences disappeared following VR (P=0.148). The stability of the VSP patients during the stepping task at 3 months increased significantly from baseline values (P=0.013). Evaluating the efficacy of VR requires analysis techniques that are sensitive to changes in stability. We conclude that HCA can be used for assessing improvements in CG stability of VSP patients while performing a repeated bench stepping activity.

  13. Assessment of spatiotemporal variations in the fluvial wash-load component in the 21st century with regard to GCM climate change scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouri, Goro, E-mail: mouri@rainbow.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-11-15

    For stream water, in which a relationship exists between wash-load concentration and discharge, an estimate of fine-sediment delivery may be obtained from a traditional fluvial wash-load rating curve. Here, we demonstrate that the remaining wash-load material load can be estimated from a traditional empirical principle on a nationwide scale. The traditional technique was applied to stream water for the whole of Japan. Four typical GCMs were selected from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble to provide the driving fields for the following regional climate models to assess the wash-load component based on rating curves: the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC), the Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model (MRI-GCM), the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model (HadGEM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) climate model. The simulations consisted of an ensemble, including multiple physics configurations and different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), which was used to produce monthly datasets for the whole country of Japan. The impacts of future climate changes on fluvial wash load in Japanese stream water were based on the balance of changes in hydrological factors. The annual and seasonal variations of the fluvial wash load were assessed from the result of the ensemble analysis in consideration of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission scenarios. The determined results for the amount of wash load increase range from approximately 20 to 110% in the 2040s, especially along part of the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan regions. In the 2090s, the amount of wash load is projected to increase by more than 50% over the whole of Japan. The assessment indicates that seasonal variation is particularly important because the rainy and typhoon seasons, which include extreme events, are the dominant seasons. Because fluvial wash-load-component turbidity

  14. Tenacity of exogenous human papillomavirus DNA in sperm washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossfield, J E; Chan, P J; Patton, W C; King, A

    1999-07-01

    Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm. Prewashed sperm were equally divided and sperm in one portion were exposed to L1 HPV DNA fragments for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Untreated washed sperm served as the control. After transfection, the sperm were washed by either centrifuge, two-layer Isolate colloid wash, or test-yolk buffer procedures. Sperm parameters were measured on a Hamilton Thorn HTM-C analyzer. Sperm DNA were extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out targeting the L1 consensus gene of HPV and the designated sentinel gene, 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Amplified products were analyzed in 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR analyses detected the consensus L1 HPV gene in sperm after they were processed through either of the three procedures. Controls were negative for the L1 gene. Extracted DNA were verified by PCR amplification of 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Transfected sperm had higher percentages of total motility and progression compared with the control. Centrifuged, washed, transfected sperm exhibited a greater curvilinear velocity and hyperactivation. The data showed that washing would not remove exogenous HPV DNA from sperm cells. The viral DNA was tenaciously bound to the sperm, suggesting an internalization into the sperm. The viral DNA also increased the motility of the sperm by affecting the velocity and progression of the sperm, which suggested either an increase in metabolism, an enhancement of the calcium-regulated motility mechanism, or an artifact of PCR reagents. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of DNA stimulated sperm motility.

  15. Remediation trials for hydrocarbon-contaminated sludge from a soil washing process: evaluation of bioremediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, F J García; Pérez, R; Escolano, O; Rubio, A; Gimeno, A; Fernandez, M D; Carbonell, G; Perucha, C; Laguna, J

    2012-01-15

    The usual fate of highly contaminated fine products (silt-clay fractions) from soil washing plants is disposal in a dump or thermal destruction (organic contaminants), with consequent environmental impacts. Alternative treatments for these fractions with the aim of on-site reuse are needed. Therefore, the feasibility of two technologies, slurry bioremediation and landfarming, has been studied for the treatment of sludge samples with a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of 2243 mg/kg collected from a soil washing plant. The treatability studies were performed at the laboratory and pilot-real scales. The bioslurry assays yielded a TPH reduction efficiency of 57% and 65% in 28 days at the laboratory and pilot scale, respectively. In the landfarming assays, a TPH reduction of 85% in six months was obtained at laboratory scale and 42% in three months for the bioremediation performed in the full-scale. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated by ecotoxicity assessments. The toxic effects in the initial sludge sample were very low for most measured parameters. After the remediation treatments, a decrease in toxic effects was observed in earthworm survival and in carbon mineralisation. The results showed the applicability of two well known bioremediation technologies on these residues, this being a novelty. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal operational conditions for the electrochemical regeneration of a soil washing EDTA solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Raffaele; Esposito, Giovanni

    2009-02-01

    The present research deals with the optimization of the operating parameters (cathode replacement time, hydraulic retention time, current intensity and pH) of an electrochemical process aimed at the regeneration of a soil washing EDTA solution used for heavy metal extraction from a natural contaminated soil (excavated from Bellolampo, Palermo, Italy), which was vastly polluted with Cu (59 261.0 mg kg(-1)), Pb (14 178.1 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (14 084.9 mg kg(-1)). The electrolytic regeneration of the exhausted washing solution was performed in a laboratory scale electrolytic cell with 50 ml each cathodic and anodic chambers divided by a cation exchange membrane. Experiments II and III showed maximum Cu and Zn removal efficiencies from the EDTA solution, of 99.2+/-0.2 and 31.5+/-9.3%, respectively, when a current intensity of 0.25 A and a hydraulic retention time of 60 min were applied to the electrolytic cell, while the maximum Pb removal efficiency of 70.9+/-4.6% was obtained with a current intensity of 1.25 A and a hydraulic retention time of 60 min. During Experiment I the overall heavy metals removal efficiency was stable and close to 90% up to 20 h, while decreased to values lower than 80% after 40 h, indicating the occurrence of a significant saturation of the cathode graphite bed between 20 and 40 h. The capability of the regenerated EDTA solution to treat heavy metals polluted soils was tested in further experiments applying both a single and a multi-step washing treatment procedure. In particular, the latter showed the feasibility to increase heavy metal soil extractions over subsequent washing steps with Cu, Pb and Zn total removal efficiencies of 52.6, 100.0 and 41.3%, respectively.

  17. A novel washing algorithm for underarm stain removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgoz Tufan, H.; Gocek, I.; Sahin, U. K.; Erdem, I.

    2017-10-01

    After contacting with human sweat which comprise around 27% sebum, anti-perspirants comprising aluminium chloride or its compounds form a jel-like structure whose solubility in water is very poor. In daily use, this jel-like structure closes sweat pores and hinders wetting of skin by sweat. However, when in contact with garments, they form yellowish stains at the underarm of the garments. These stains are very hard to remove with regular machine washing. In this study, first of all, we focused on understanding and simulating such stain formation on the garments. Two alternative procedures are offered to form jel-like structures. On both procedures, commercially available spray or deo-stick type anti-perspirants, standard acidic and basic sweat solutions and artificial sebum are used to form jel-like structures, and they are applied on fabric in order to get hard stains. Secondly, after simulation of the stain on the fabric, we put our efforts on developing a washing algorithm specifically designed for removal of underarm stains. Eight alternative washing algorithms are offered with varying washing temperature, amounts of detergent, and pre-stain removal procedures. Better algorithm is selected by comparison of Tristimulus Y values after washing.

  18. The potential impact of washing machines on laundry malodour generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, K; Hill, K; Day, K; Perry, J D; Dean, J R

    2013-04-01

    A multidisciplinary approach has been adopted to investigate and identify the source of malodour in washing machines and the potential for cross-contamination of laundry. Four washing machines were olfactively graded, and the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) bacteria was determined in four specific locations. Then, samples of terry-towel and fleece were washed, without the use of detergent, in the machines, and the occurrence of malodour over a 52-h period was assessed. Analysis of the scrapings from the four locations in the two malodorous machines identified a plethora of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by either olfactory detection or mass spectral identification post-gas chromatographic separation. In addition, microbiological analysis from the swabs from the four locations within all four washing machines was carried out. Quantitative analysis of VOCs from 66 microbiological isolates from either the washing machines or fabrics was carried out. In total, 10 VOCs were identified: dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,4-dithiapentane, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-tridecanone, indole, 2-phenylethanol, isovaleric acid, isobutyric acid and 1-undecene. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Machine Shop I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section C--Hand and Bench Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains two learning activity packets (LAPs) for the "hand and bench work" instructional area of a Machine Shop I course. The two LAPs cover the following topics: hand and bench work and pedestal grinder. Each LAP contains a cover sheet that describes its purpose, an introduction, and the tasks included in the LAP;…

  20. [A man with a painful upper arm after bench press exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Ben C T; van der Veen, Hugo C; van Raay, Jos J A M

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male bodybuilder presented with pain and a haematoma of his right upper arm after bench press exercises. Suspicion of a pectoralis muscle tear was confirmed by MRI and surgical repair was performed. Ruptures of the pectoralis major muscle are rare, but may occur in young male bodybuilders, typically after bench press exercises.

  1. TACLeBench: A benchmark collection to support worst-case execution time research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Heiko; Altmeyer, Sebastian; Hellinckx, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -source programs, adapted them to a common coding style, and provide the collection in open-source. The benchmark collection is called TACLeBench and is available from GitHub in version 1.9 at the publication date of this paper. One of the main features of TACLeBench is that all programs are self-contained without...

  2. Design, development and demonstration of an improved bird washing machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Monsef, H; Moghadami, M; Zare, M; Armandei, A

    2014-07-01

    Since oil was first extracted, pollution of the seas and oceans or adjacent coasts has been an obstacle for the oil industry and environmental activists. The major concern is oil discharge into the water which may lead to birds' affliction or death, besides putting marine life in jeopardy. This paper presents the first description of the design and implementation of a new bird washing machine that can be utilized for cleaning of oil-coated birds with the minimum of stress. The machine is equipped with a pneumatic system comprised of 19 moving nozzles which evenly cover the bird's body and is designed to be used in contaminated environments where a vast number of birds are affected. Experimental trials show an improvement in operation efficiency compared to other methods in a reduction in washing time, energy consumption and a decrease in fatality rate of washed birds.

  3. Increasing hand washing compliance with a simple visual cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Boyer, Brian T; Menachemi, Nir; Huerta, Timothy R

    2014-10-01

    We tested the efficacy of a simple, visual cue to increase hand washing with soap and water. Automated towel dispensers in 8 public bathrooms were set to present a towel either with or without activation by users. We set the 2 modes to operate alternately for 10 weeks. Wireless sensors were used to record entry into bathrooms. Towel and soap consumption rates were checked weekly. There were 97,351 hand-washing opportunities across all restrooms. Towel use was 22.6% higher (P=.05) and soap use was 13.3% higher (P=.003) when the dispenser presented the towel without user activation than when activation was required. Results showed that a visual cue can increase hand-washing compliance in public facilities.

  4. Development of a solar charged laboratory bench power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayara, W. A.; Omotosho, T. V.; Usikalu, M. R.; Singh, M. S. J.; Suparta, W.

    2017-05-01

    This product is an improvement on available DC laboratory bench power supply. It is capable of delivering low voltage Alternating Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC) to carry out basic laboratory experiment for both secondary schools and also at higher education institutions. The power supply is capable of delivering fixed DC voltages of 5V, 9V, 12V, variable voltage of between 1.25-30V and a 12V AC voltage. Also Incorporated is a USB port that allows for charging cell phones and other mobile devices, and a dedicated 12V DC output to power 5-7 Watt LED bulb to provide illumination in the laboratory for the instructor who may need to work at night in the absence of utility power.

  5. A Test-Bench for Measurement of Electrical Static Parameters of Strip Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Danilevich, V G; Dmitriev, A Yu; Elsha, V V; Zamiatin, Y I; Zubarev, E V; Ziaziulia, F E; Kozus, V I; Lomako, V M; Stepankov, D V; Khomich, A P; Shumeiko, N M; Cheremuhin, A E

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for measurement data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control.

  6. A ground-water reconnaissance of the Jacmel-Meyer Bench, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.

    1949-01-01

    The Jacmel-Meyer bench lies on the south coast of the southern peninsula of Haiti in the Department de l'Ouest. Jacmel, at the west end of the bench, is about 40 kilometers airline southwest of Port-au-Prince. In the early part of January 1949, the writer in company with Mr. Rémy Lemoine made a reconnaissance study of the ground-water conditions of the bench. The object of the reconnaissance was to determine the availability of ground water for irrigation of the bench as well as for the public water supply of Jacmel. Irrigation is practiced on the bench, bu the existing water supplies are insufficient to cover all irrigable lands. Jacmel is at present supplied with water from a pipe line that delivers the flow of several developed springs to the city by gravity. However, this supply is inadequate and probably at times is contaminated.

  7. Washing effect on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Karina Mireles

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Much recent research on nanoparticles has occurred in the biomedical area, particularly in the area of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs; one such area of research is in their use as magnetically directed prodrugs. It has been reported that nanoscale materials exhibit properties different from those of materials in bulk or on a macro scale [1]. Further, an understanding of the batch-to-batch reproducibility and uniformity of the SPION surface is essential to ensure safe biological applications, as noted in the accompanying article [2], because the surface is the first layer that affects the biological response of the human body. Here, we consider a comparison of the surface chemistries of a batch of SPIONs, before and after the supposedly gentle process of dialysis in water.

  8. Washing effect on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Laura-Karina; Sacher, Edward; Yahia, L'Hocine; Laurent, Sophie; Stanicki, Dimitri

    2016-06-01

    Much recent research on nanoparticles has occurred in the biomedical area, particularly in the area of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs); one such area of research is in their use as magnetically directed prodrugs. It has been reported that nanoscale materials exhibit properties different from those of materials in bulk or on a macro scale [1]. Further, an understanding of the batch-to-batch reproducibility and uniformity of the SPION surface is essential to ensure safe biological applications, as noted in the accompanying article [2], because the surface is the first layer that affects the biological response of the human body. Here, we consider a comparison of the surface chemistries of a batch of SPIONs, before and after the supposedly gentle process of dialysis in water.

  9. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Fenfen, E-mail: zhu@hse.gcoe.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl{sub 2} decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.CaCl{sub 2}) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl{sub 2}. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl{sub 2}.

  10. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in the city, and identified 20 licensed companies in which we evaluated the number of vehicles washed per week, the existence of a system of pre-treatment of wastewater generated and infrastructure that would allow the realization of the collection of samples of the effluent, the second step was carried out chemical and physical characterization of wastewater from five 20 companies surveyed in the previous step, and third stage were measured pollution loads of wastewater from washing of vehicles in the city, from the results obtained in previous steps. The characterization parameters were analyzed: oil and grease, COD, heavy metals, TS, TSS, turbidity, TKN, total P, pH and color. The results demonstrated that the wastewater from the car wash establishments shows high concentrations of organic matter, oils and grease, heavy metals and solids, and as such did not conform with the specific environmental legislation. Evaluation of pollutant loads demonstrated that if releases without proper treatment, it can cause serious environmental problems. It is therefore essential that these establishments are properly monitored.

  11. The Bench: An open drug scene and its people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grønnestad Trond Erik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - This article describes life in an open illicit drug milieu in a Norwegian city. This site, called “the Bench”, is a stigmatised place, and if one sits there, one is marked with the stigma of the place. Our aim is to gain insights into what stigmatised people gain from frequently visiting and staying in a public place that in itself is stigmatised. METHOD - One of the authors spent a year of participant observation, studying what went on at the Bench. He managed to build rapport in a gradual process of inclusion. The theoretical perspective rests on classic ethnography, symbolic interactionism and sociology on labelling and purity and dirt. RESULTS - “The Bench” is not only a local drug market, but also a social meeting place in which one can feel dignity, and where a certain humanisation process takes place through the rituals of everyday life. On “the Bench” it is possible to tell stories of decay, failures and shortcomings in life, stories that in other social arenas would be interpreted as symbols of stigma and degradation. “The Bench” is also a place in which different established power relations may be turned around through storytelling and jokes. This provides the bench-sitters with a sense of mutual control and agency. CONCLUSION - Socialising at “the Bench” is an expression of the need among social human beings to have their existences confirmed, in a society where they have been marginalised and looked upon as second-class citizens, as urban outcasts.

  12. USING BENCH PRESS LOAD TO PREDICT UPPER BODY EXERCISE LOADS IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2 were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01. The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01. Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01 predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28 + 6.30 kg, (b Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33 + 6.20 kg, (c Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33 - 0.60 kg, and (d Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42 + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  13. Development of Real-Time Dual-Display Handheld and Bench-Top Hybrid-Mode SD-OCTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hyun Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a dual-display handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT system for retina and optic-nerve-head diagnosis beyond the volunteer motion constraints is reported. The developed system is portable and easily movable, containing the compact portable OCT system that includes the handheld probe and computer. Eye posterior chambers were diagnosed using the handheld probe, and the probe could be fixed to the bench-top cradle depending on the volunteers’ physical condition. The images obtained using this handheld probe were displayed in real time on the computer monitor and on a small secondary built-in monitor; the displayed images were saved using the handheld probe’s built-in button. Large-scale signal-processing procedures such as k-domain linearization, fast Fourier transform (FFT, and log-scaling signal processing can be rapidly applied using graphics-processing-unit (GPU accelerated processing rather than central-processing-unit (CPU processing. The Labview-based system resolution is 1,024 × 512 pixels, and the frame rate is 56 frames/s, useful for real-time display. The 3D images of the posterior chambers including the retina, optic-nerve head, blood vessels, and optic nerve were composed using real-time displayed images with 500 × 500 × 500 pixel resolution. A handheld and bench-top hybrid mode with a dual-display handheld OCT was developed to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional method.

  14. Financial and environmental modelling of water hardness--implications for utilising harvested rainwater in washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Lurueña, Rodrigo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; Rieradevall, Joan

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the financial and environmental effects of water quality on rainwater harvesting systems. The potential for replacing tap water used in washing machines with rainwater was studied, and then analysis presented in this paper is valid for applications that include washing machines where tap water hardness may be important. A wide range of weather conditions, such as rainfall (284-1,794 mm/year); water hardness (14-315 mg/L CaCO3); tap water prices (0.85-2.65 Euros/m(3)) in different Spanish urban areas (from individual buildings to whole neighbourhoods); and other scenarios (including materials and water storage capacity) were analysed. Rainfall was essential for rainwater harvesting, but the tap water prices and the water hardness were the main factors for consideration in the financial and the environmental analyses, respectively. The local tap water hardness and prices can cause greater financial and environmental impacts than the type of material used for the water storage tank or the volume of the tank. The use of rainwater as a substitute for hard water in washing machines favours financial analysis. Although tap water hardness significantly affects the financial analysis, the greatest effect was found in the environmental analysis. When hard tap water needed to be replaced, it was found that a water price of 1 Euro/m(3) could render the use of rainwater financially feasible when using large-scale rainwater harvesting systems. When the water hardness was greater than 300 mg/L CaCO3, a financial analysis revealed that an net present value greater than 270 Euros/dwelling could be obtained at the neighbourhood scale, and there could be a reduction in the Global Warming Potential (100 years) ranging between 35 and 101 kg CO2 eq./dwelling/year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Partitioning and analyzing temporal variability of wash and bed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 7. Partitioning and analyzing temporal variability of wash and bed material loads in a forest watershed in Iran ... Keywords. Laser particle size distribution; sand and gravel mining; sediment dynamic; suspended sediment; watershed management.

  16. Freeze concentration of proteins in Antarctic krill wash water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiangming; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Kuo; Guo, Hui; Ma, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Water-washing removes fluoride from Antarctic krill but produces large volumes of wash water containing water- soluble proteins and fluoride. The freeze concentration method was tested to determine if it could be used to recover water-soluble proteins while leaving the fluoride in solution. After freezing and thawing the wash water, protein and fluoride contents of the thawed fractions were determined to explore the melting regularity of components in the wash water. The highest concentration factors of protein and fluoride were obtained after 80 min of thawing, such as 1.48 ± 0.06 and 1.35 ± 0.04 times, respectively. The free amino-nitrogen (FAN) content and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pattern results revealed that the highest concentrations of all ingredients were obtained after 80 min of the process. The degree of hydrolysis of all fractions from the thawing process fluctuated in a narrow range around 12% during the entire process, indicating that the thawing order did not change with various proteins or time during the entire thawing course. These results demonstrate that the freeze concentration method can be used to concentrate protein solutions, even those with fluoride. It was concluded that condensation was achieved and no ingredient could be separated, regardless of fluoride, amino acids, or different proteins in the water.

  17. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae from washed and unwashed commercial shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, Michael T; Jones, Deana R; Northcutt, Julie K; Cox, Nelson A; Harrison, Mark A

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of processing on the safety and quality of retail shell eggs, a storage study was conducted with unwashed and commercially washed eggs. This work demonstrated that commercial processing decreased microbial contamination of eggshells. To know which species persisted during storage on washed or unwashed eggs, Enterobacteriaceae isolates were selected and identified biochemically. For each of three replications, shell eggs were purchased from a commercial processing plant, transported back to the laboratory, and stored at 4 degrees C. Once a week for 6 weeks, 12 eggs for each treatment (washed and unwashed control) were rinsed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. A 1-ml aliquot of each sample was plated onto violet red bile glucose agar with overlay and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Following incubation, plates were observed for colonies characteristic of the family Enterobacteriaceae. A maximum of 10 isolates per positive sample were streaked for isolation before being identified to the genus or species level using commercially available biochemical strips. Although most of the isolates from the unwashed control eggs belonged to the genera Escherichia or Enterobacter, many other genera and species were identified. These included Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Pantoea, Providencia, Rahnella, Salmonella, Serratia, and Yersinia. Non-Enterobacteriaceae also recovered from the unwashed egg samples included Xanthomonas and Flavimonas. Very few washed egg samples were contaminated with any of these bacteria. These data provide useful information on the effectiveness of processing in removing microorganisms from commercial shell eggs.

  18. Design and Construction of a Computer Controlled Clothes Washing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we develop a computer software for controlling the operations of a domestic clothes washing machine. The valves, pump, electric motor and other sensitive parts were computer-controlled. In the design, the mechanical timer's function were replaced by a software driven emulator which then controls components ...

  19. ignas semmelweis: the doctor who championed hand -washing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the high contrasting statistics and several causes were attributed. He also noted that women who gave birth in the street never got the fever. The two clinics ... washing. However his doctrine was finally accepted by medical science and became a pillar in infection control and hailed by Joseph Lister the father of modern.

  20. The population of coloured textile fibres in domestic washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Rebecca; Roux, Claude; Robertson, James

    2005-01-01

    A population survey was carried out to analyse examples of the coloured fibre population that may be expected to exist in both front- and top-loading domestic washing machines during Spring, in Sydney, Australia. White cotton T-shirts were washed both individually, and with a normal household wash load, then taped to recover extraneous fibres transferred during the wash cycle. Twelve thousand one hundred and seventy-eight fibres were classified according to length, colour and generic class. Cotton fibres were most prevalent (69.4%), followed by man-made fibres (24.2%). The most common colour/generic class combinations were black/grey cotton (27%), blue cotton (20%) and red cotton (15.6%). Other combinations generally represented under 2% of the total fibre population. Two thirds (65.9%) of the recovered fibres were under 2 mm in length, the proportion of fibres decreasing with increasing fibre length. Variations in machine type did not affect the distribution of fibres with respect to fibre type, colour or length.

  1. Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sarah A; Gaunt, Matthew C; Taylor, Susan M; Snead, Elizabeth C R

    2010-09-01

    Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later.

  2. Effects of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures on biochemical and microbiological quality of dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea). ... Results indicated that TBARS values increased significantly (p<0.05) from 1.39 mgMA/kg in fresh fish to 10.55 mgMA/kg in the market samples. The TVBN values increased ...

  3. Abstract: Hand Washing Compliance among Nurses and Midwives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Hand Washing Compliance among Nurses and Midwives Caring for Newborn Babies in Selected Health Facilities of the Eastern Province, Rwanda. ... No relationship between handwashing performance and participants' demographic factors was found; thus strategies focusing on the identified predictors of hand ...

  4. Conservation of water for washing beef heads at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeOtte, R E; Spivey, K S; Galloway, H O; Lawrence, T E

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to develop methods to conserve water necessary to cleanse beef heads prior to USDA-FSIS inspection. This was to be accomplished by establishing a baseline for the minimum amount of water necessary to adequately wash a head and application of image analysis to provide an objective measure of head cleaning. Twenty-one beef heads were manually washed during the harvest process. An average 18.75 L (2.49 SD) and a maximum of 23.88 L were required to cleanse the heads to USDA-FSIS standards. Digital images were captured before and after manual washing then evaluated for percentage red saturation using commercially available image analysis software. A decaying exponential curve extracted from these data indicated that as wash water increased beyond 20 L the impact on red saturation decreased. At 4 sigma from the mean of 18.75 L, red saturation is 16.0 percent, at which logistic regression analysis indicates 99.994 percent of heads would be accepted for inspection, or less than 1 head in 15,000 would be rejected. Reducing to 3 sigma would increase red saturation to 27.6 percent, for which 99.730 percent of heads likely would be accepted (less than 1 in 370 would be rejected). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Partitioning and analyzing temporal variability of wash and bed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    southern Arizona, the wash load concentration could be predicted by rainfall better than water discharge. Gellis (2013) studied the significant characteristics controlling the variability in storm generated suspended sediment loads and concen- trations in four watersheds with different land uses in humid-tropical Puerto Rico.

  6. assessment of soil wash and soil erodibility indices on miniature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    1976-02-03

    Feb 3, 1976 ... 1., University of Ibadan, Ibadan,. Mallo, I.I.Y. (1988), Slope morphology, soil property variation and rates of soil wash in an area in southern Zaria'. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis,. Department of Geography, Ahmadu Bello. University, Zaria, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ...

  7. Effectiveness Of Different House-Hold Hand Washing Agents On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand hygiene is a very important procedure in infection control. Washing agents commonly in use were investigated for their effectiveness in reducing hand floral and cotton towel was used as drying agent. Agents studied include; water alone, carex soap, dettol, and imperial leather. The hands were inoculated (deliberate ...

  8. All You Have to Do is Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-26

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast teaches children how and when to wash their hands properly.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  9. Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

  10. Design and Construction of a Computer Controlled Clothes Washing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: In this work we develop a computer software for controlling the operations of a domestic clothes washing machine. The valves, pump, electric motor and other sensitive parts were computer-controlled. In the design, the mechanical timer's function were replaced by a software driven emulator which then controls ...

  11. Comparative studies on dyeing rate migration and wash fastness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration and diffusion properties of synthesized azo dyes from 2-aminothiazole derivatives applied on commercial grade undyed cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose triacetate (CTA) were investigated using dyeing conditions of 2% on weight of fabric (owf), 50:1 liquor ratio and subjected to ISO3 and ISO4 standard wash ...

  12. 49 CFR 393.78 - Windshield wiping and washing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Windshield wiping and washing systems. 393.78 Section 393.78 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION...

  13. Hand-washing practices of facial plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Douglas D; Lavasani, Leela; Reiter, David

    2009-01-01

    (1) To define and characterize knowledge of effective hand hygiene and its scientific basis among practicing facial plastic surgeons; (2) to review the existing literature of, basis for, and guidelines on hand washing in clinical practice; and (3) to motivate and facilitate optimum hand hygiene among facial plastic surgeons. National Web-based physician survey and literature review. We conducted a national Web-based survey of members of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery regarding general patient safety practices. A subset of the survey assessed physicians' knowledge of hand hygiene, including supporting rationale and actual practices. One hundred and twenty-two facial plastic surgeons of various demographics replied to the online survey. Of these, 65 (53%) correctly knew which hand washing agents are most effective at killing microorganisms, 88 (74%) knew the preferred hand-washing method for visibly soiled hands, and 51 (42%) correctly identified the indications for hand washing. Adherence to hand hygiene practices is suboptimal among facial plastic surgeons. There seems to be a lack of knowledge regarding indications, methods, and appropriate agents for hand hygiene. Promotion of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines is an important step in increasing hand hygiene compliance among facial plastic surgeons.

  14. Cultivation of freshwater microalgae in biodiesel wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Patrícia Giulianna Petraglia; Calixto, Clediana Dantas; da Silva Santana, Jordana Kaline; Sassi, Roberto; Costa Sassi, Cristiane Francisca; Abrahão, Raphael

    2017-06-21

    Biodiesel wash water is a contaminating industrial effluent that must be treated prior to disposal. The use of this effluent as a low-cost alternative cultivation medium for microalgae could represent a viable supplementary treatment. We cultivated 11 microalgae species with potential use for biodiesel production to assess their growth capacities in biodiesel industrial washing waters. Only Monoraphidium contortum, Ankistrodesmus sp., Chlorococcum sp., and one unidentified Chlorophyceae species grew effectively in that effluent. M. contortum showed the highest growth capacity and had the second highest fatty acid content (267.9 mg g(-1) of DW), predominantly producing palmitic (20.9%), 7,10,13-hexadecatrienoic (14%), oleic (16.2%), linoleic (10.5%), and linolenic acids (23.2%). In the second phase of the experiment, the microalgae were cultivated in biodiesel wash water at 75% of its initial concentration as well as in WC (control) medium. After 21 days of cultivation, 25.8 and 7.2% of the effluent nitrate and phosphate were removed, respectively, and the chemical oxygen demand was diminished by 31.2%. These results suggest the possibility of cultivating biodiesel producing microalgae in industrial wash water effluents.

  15. Wash fastness improvement of malachite green-dyed cotton fabrics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Washing fastness of dyed cotton fabrics by malachite green (MG) blended with nanosols composite of SiO2–TiO2 has been significantly enhanced. The nanoparticulate inorganic sols were prepared by acidcatalyzed hydrolysis of titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and tetraethylortosilicate (TEOS) in ethanol at room ...

  16. An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely collected data in Machakos County Kenya. D.M. Kavoo, S.H. Ali, A.B. Kihara, R.J. Kosgei, H Tweya, W Kizito, Omondi Ogutu, C.N. Tauta ...

  17. Soil washing: A preliminary assessment of its applicability to Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M A; Freeman, H D; Baker, E G; Riemath, W F

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing is being considered for treating soils at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. As a result of over 50 years of operations to produce plutonium for the US Department of Defense and research for DOE, soils in areas within the Site are contaminated with hazardous wastes and radionuclides. In the soil washing process, contaminated soil is mixed with a liquid and then physically and/or chemically treated to dissolve the contaminants into solution and/or concentrate them in a small fraction of the soil. The purpose of this procedure is to separate the contaminants from the bulk of the soil. The key to successful application is to match the types of contaminants and soil characteristics with physical-chemical methods that perform well under the existing conditions. The applicability of soil washing to Hanford Site contaminated soils must take into account both the characteristics of the oil and the type of contamination. Hanford soils typically contain up to 90% sand, gravel, and cobbles, which generally are favorable characteristics for soil washing. For example, in soil samples from the north pond in the 300 Area, 80% to 90% of the soil particles were larger than 250 {mu}m. The principal contaminants in the soil are radionuclides, heavy metals, and nitrate and sulfate salts. For most of the sites, organic contaminants are either not present or are found in very low concentration. 28 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Hand washing practices and the occurrence of enteropathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... levels of compliance to hand washing and related this to the occurrence of infectious bacteria in the test population. A questionnaire which contained information on bio-demographic characteristics and hand hygiene practices was applied to 100 individuals in the study population. Microbiological samples were obtained, ...

  19. Assessment of washing procedure for determination some of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was proposed to assess the suitability of washing technique to distinguish between airborne and soil borne several metal contaminants. For this reason, six plant species which grew under Mobarakeh Steel Company emissions were selected. Aluminum, iron, nickel, manganese, zinc, copper and lead ...

  20. Osmotic Fragility in Stored Non-Detergent Washed Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osmotic fragility (OF) of non-detergent washed erythrocytes was evaluated in Nigerian human male erythrocytes stored for 0h, 12h, 24h and 48h. Storage of these human erythrocytes for up to 24h did not significantly alter their membrane characteristics. Mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) diminished and correlated negatively ...

  1. Strontium Removal: Full-Scale Ohio Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this presentation are to present a brief overview of past bench-scale research to evaluate the impact lime softening on strontium removal from drinking water and present full-scale drinking water treatment studies to impact of lime softening and ion exchange sof...

  2. Hand Washing Among School Children in Bogotá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Freeman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the school administration or teaching staff completed a questionnaire about the school environment. Site inspections of bathroom facilities were conducted. Results. Only 33.6% of the sample reported always or very often washing hands with soap and clean water before eating and after using the toilet. About 7% of students reported regular access to soap and clean water at school. A high level of perceived control was the strongest predictor of positive hand-washing intentions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 7.5). Students with proper hand-washing behavior were less likely to report previous-month gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) or previous-year school absenteeism (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). Conclusions. Scarcity of adequate facilities in most schools in Bogotá prevents children from adopting proper hygienic behavior and thwarts health promotion efforts. The current renovation program of public schools in Bogotá provides a unique opportunity to meet the challenges of providing a supportive environment for adoption of healthy behaviors. PMID:19008513

  3. Bronchial wash cytology: A study on morphology and morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shalinee; Rao, Shivani; Lal, Archana; Barathi, Gunabooshanam; Dhanasekar, Thangaswamy; Duvuru, Prathiba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bronchial wash cytology of lung lesions is a non/minimally invasive procedure utilized for diagnosis of pulmonary lesions. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bronchial wash cytology in the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary lesions and assess the role of morphometry in categorizing dysplastic/malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: All cases of bronchial wash cytology received from January 2006 to June 2010 were retrieved and reviewed. Cases with adequate clinical data or a subsequent biopsy were selected for the study and cytodiagnosis was correlated with available clinical details. Morphometry was done on alcohol fixed hematoxylin and eosin stained cytosmears using computer assisted Image Pro software. Results: One hundred and seventy-six cases of the 373 cases of bronchial cytology received were included for the study. Bronchial wash cytology technique showed high specificity. Cytohistopathology correlation showed 62.06% concordance rate. Cells from normal epithelium, reactive atypia, neoplastic atypia, squamous metaplasia, non-small cell and small cell carcinoma showed a mean nuclear diameter of 7.4 μm, 11.7 μm, 13.9 μm, 13.0 μm, 10.7 μm, and 17.7 μm, respectively, which was statistically significant with P < 0.05. Multiple comparisons between various groups using analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests also showed remarkable statistical significance. Conclusions: Bronchial wash cytology has low sensitivity in detecting pulmonary lesions. It can be of value in patients with contraindication for biopsy. Morphometry can be a useful adjunct to cytomorphology, especially in situations where biopsy is contraindicated. PMID:25210231

  4. Release of synthetic microplastic plastic fibres from domestic washing machines: Effects of fabric type and washing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Imogen E; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-11-15

    Washing clothes made from synthetic materials has been identified as a potentially important source of microscopic fibres to the environment. This study examined the release of fibres from polyester, polyester-cotton blend and acrylic fabrics. These fabrics were laundered under various conditions of temperature, detergent and conditioner. Fibres from waste effluent were examined and the mass, abundance and fibre size compared between treatments. Average fibre size ranged between 11.9 and 17.7μm in diameter, and 5.0 and 7.8mm in length. Polyester-cotton fabric consistently shed significantly fewer fibres than either polyester or acrylic. However, fibre release varied according to wash treatment with various complex interactions. We estimate over 700,000 fibres could be released from an average 6kg wash load of acrylic fabric. As fibres have been reported in effluent from sewage treatment plants, our data indicates fibres released by washing of clothing could be an important source of microplastics to aquatic habitats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Measurement Bench for the LHC Spool Corrector Magnets in Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Arn, A; Giloux, C; Patru, F; Reymond, H; Senis, R; Walckiers, L

    2002-01-01

    The LHC accelerator will be equipped with more than 3500 superconducting spool corrector magnets. CERN has awarded the contract for the series production and testing of these corrector magnets to industry. Magnetic field measurements are done at the factory. Dedicated magnetic measurement benches have been built to test these corrector magnets in the resistive state at room temperature. The benches allow to measure the strength of the main field, normal and skew harmonics, the magnetic axis position and orientation of the main field with respect to the mechanical reference points of the magnet. This paper presents the objectives, a description and the performances obtained with the benches during first measurements at industry.

  6. Assessment of spatiotemporal variations in the fluvial wash-load component in the 21st century with regard to GCM climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro

    2015-11-15

    For stream water, in which a relationship exists between wash-load concentration and discharge, an estimate of fine-sediment delivery may be obtained from a traditional fluvial wash-load rating curve. Here, we demonstrate that the remaining wash-load material load can be estimated from a traditional empirical principle on a nationwide scale. The traditional technique was applied to stream water for the whole of Japan. Four typical GCMs were selected from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble to provide the driving fields for the following regional climate models to assess the wash-load component based on rating curves: the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC), the Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model (MRI-GCM), the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model (HadGEM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) climate model. The simulations consisted of an ensemble, including multiple physics configurations and different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), which was used to produce monthly datasets for the whole country of Japan. The impacts of future climate changes on fluvial wash load in Japanese stream water were based on the balance of changes in hydrological factors. The annual and seasonal variations of the fluvial wash load were assessed from the result of the ensemble analysis in consideration of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission scenarios. The determined results for the amount of wash load increase range from approximately 20 to 110% in the 2040s, especially along part of the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan regions. In the 2090s, the amount of wash load is projected to increase by more than 50% over the whole of Japan. The assessment indicates that seasonal variation is particularly important because the rainy and typhoon seasons, which include extreme events, are the dominant seasons. Because fluvial wash-load-component turbidity

  7. Standardized bench method for evaluating the efficacy of phototherapy devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, H J; Wong, R J; Murdock, J R; Stevenson, D K

    2008-03-01

    As phototherapy (PT) devices employ a variety of broadband light sources, we developed and tested a standardized bench method for evaluating the efficacy of some devices. To evaluate efficacy, we quantified the in vitro photodegradation rate (expressed as t1/2) of unconjugated bilirubin in solution at 37 degrees C during exposure to a given light source at its mean delivered irradiance to the 2D body surface area (BSA) of newborn models. Reproducibility (between-day variation) of the method was determined at irradiance levels from 10 to 70 microW/cm2/nm on three different days. Between-day t1/2 measurements had coefficients of variation from 3% to 10%. When t1/2 values were normalized to the exposable 2D horizontal BSA, halogen lamp devices, without and with fiberoptics, were least effective (t1/2=60-108 min and 100-126 min for preterm and term models, respectively). Fluorescent tube devices had t1/2=19-78 min and 25-78 min, for preterm and term models, respectively. Light-emitting diode (LED)-based devices yielded the shortest t1/2 values (16-24 min) for preterm and term newborn models. We demonstrated the applicability of the method through the determination of the efficacy of several commercially available PT devices. This standardized method is reproducible and effectively evaluates the relative in vitro efficacy of various devices and may guide further in vitro and in vivo evaluations of devices.

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING HAND WASHING PRACTICE AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazliansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand washing is the most effective method of preventing the transmission of diseases through hands. Objective: To identify relationships between gender, availability of hand washing facilities, perception of barriers toward hand washing compliance and subjective norm in implementing hand washing practice among students of public elementary school in Belitung district, Indonesia. Method: A cross-sectional research study was used in this study. Of 309 participants were recruited in 11 public elementary schools from 3 sub districts that has been implemented the hand washing program in Belitung, Indonesia. Purposive sampling method was used to select the participants. This study was used a self-administered questionnaire with minimal interference in order to minimize bias and by emphasizing to the students that this is not an examination. Results: The results showed that 71.8% of the students were not hand washing properly. It also showed that availability of hand washing facilities and gender were not related with hand washing behavior. In regards of barrier perception toward hand washing compliance also showed that was not related to hand washing practice among elementary schools students. However, subjective norm (χ² =4.459, p < .05 was related to hand washing practice among elementary schools students. Conclusion: Subjective norm has a significant relationship to hand washing behavior. Thus health care provider could develop specific intervention programs based on TPB to promote subjective norm among elementary schools students since this norm or perception of norm can motivate hand washing behavior among elementary schools students effectively.

  9. Comparison of hand hygiene monitoring using the 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method versus a wash in-wash out method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Meranda, David; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Zabarsky, Trina F; McKee, Melissa; Macinga, David R; Donskey, Curtis J

    2015-01-01

    One strategy to promote improved hand hygiene is to monitor health care workers' adherence to recommended practices and give feedback. For feasibility of monitoring, many health care facilities assess hand hygiene practices on room entry and exit (wash in-wash out). It is not known if the wash in-wash out method is comparable with a more comprehensive approach, such as the World Health Organization's My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method. During a 1-month period, a surreptitious observer monitored hand hygiene compliance simultaneously using the wash in-wash out and My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene methods. For 283 health care worker room entries, the methods resulted in similar rates of hand hygiene compliance (70% vs 72%, respectively). The wash in-wash out method required 148 hand hygiene events not required by the My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method (ie, before and after room entry with no patient or environmental contact) while not providing monitoring for 89 hand hygiene opportunities in patient rooms. The monitoring methods resulted in similar overall rates of hand hygiene compliance. Use of the wash in-wash out method should include ongoing education and intermittent assessment of hand hygiene before clean procedures and after body fluid exposure in patient rooms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The in vitro effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with indocyanine green on Enterococcus faecalis: Influence of a washing vs non-washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiniforush, Nasim; Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Parker, Steven; Shahabi, Sima; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of washing and non-washing of indocyanine green (ICG) as photosensitizer (PS) on bacterial count, biofilm formation, development and degradation of Enterococcus faecalis. The anti-bacterial, anti-biofilm formation, anti-biofilm development and biofilm degradation of anti-microbial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against E. faecalis was determined at concentrations of 3 to 2000μg/mL of ICG, subject to 18J/cm(2) dose of diode laser (808nm) in washing and non-washing producers. Bacterial viability measurements and biofilm assays were evaluated by broth microdilution method and crystal violet assays, respectively. ICG-mediated aPDT, using 25 to 2000μg/mL and 50 to 2000μg/mL showed significant reduction in E. faecalis growth when compared to the control in non-washing and washing producers, respectively (Pfaecalis in concentration of 6 to 2000μg/mL and 100 to 2000μg/mL in non-washing and washing groups (P<0.05). The biofilm development was inhibited by concentrations of 12 to 2000μg/mL and 100 to 2000μg/mL in non-washing and washing groups. The biofilm degradation increased from concentrations of 12 to 2000μg/mL and 250 to 2000μg/mL in non-washing and washing groups, respectively. This study shows that the application of ICG should be accompanied by laser irradiation without being washed out to achieve better result for bacterial count reduction and anti-biofilm effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash: Clinical Investigation Into Ultra-mildness, Effective Conditioning, and Improved Consumer Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Jamie; Mollica, Leonel-Maximo; Ananthapadmanabhan, K P

    2013-06-01

    To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Biochemical and clinical assays. Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = -0.73), rash (-0.56), itch (-0.927), tightness (-0.585), and all eczema (-0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits.

  12. DRAGON, the Durham real-time, tomographic adaptive optics test bench: progress and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew P.; Myers, Richard M.; Morris, Timothy J.; Basden, Alastair G.; Bharmal, Nazim A.; Rolt, Stephen; Bramall, David G.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Younger, Edward J.

    2014-08-01

    DRAGON is a real-time, tomographic Adaptive Optics test bench currently under development at Durham University. Optical and mechanical design work for DRAGON is now complete, and the system is close to becoming fully operational. DRAGON emulates current 4.2 m and 8 m telescopes, and can also be used to investigate ELT scale issues. The full system features 4 Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wavefront Sensors (WFS), 3 Natural Guide Star (NGS) WFSs and one Truth Sensor, all of which are 31 × 31 sub-aperture Shack-Hartmann WFS. Two Deformable Mirrors (DMs), a Boston MEMS Kilo DM and a Xinetics 97 actuator DM, correct for turbulence induced aberrations and these can be configured to be either open or closed loop of the WFS. A novel method of LGS emulation is implemented which includes the effects of uplink turbulence and elongation in real-time. The atmosphere is emulated by 4 rotating phase screens which can be translated in real-time to replicate altitude evolution of turbulent layers. DRAGON will be used to extensively study tomographic AO algorithms, such as those required for Multi-Object AO. As DRAGON has been designed to be compatible with CANARY, the MOAO demonstrator, results can be compared to those from the CANARY MOAO demonstrator on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. We present here an overview of the current status of DRAGON and some early results, including investigations into the validity of the LGS emulation method.

  13. Patient-ventilator asynchrony during noninvasive ventilation: a bench and clinical study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carteaux, Guillaume; Lyazidi, Aissam; Cordoba-Izquierdo, Ana; Vignaux, Laurence; Jolliet, Philippe; Thille, Arnaud W; Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Brochard, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    ...—and dedicated NIV ventilators. First, a bench model simulating spontaneous breathing efforts was used to assess the respective impact of inspiratory and expiratory leaks on cycling and triggering functions in 19 ventilators...

  14. From bench to bedside: use of human adipose-derived stem cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feisst, Vaughan; Meidinger, Sarah; Locke, Michelle B

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in human adipose tissue nearly 15 years ago, significant advances have been made in progressing this promising cell therapy tool from the laboratory bench to bedside usage...

  15. Performance of Linear Motor Type Rail Brake Using Roller Rig Test Bench

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SAKAMOTO, Yasuaki; KASHIWAGI, Takayuki; HASEGAWA, Hitoshi; SASAKAWA, Takashi; KARINO, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    .... It is necessary however to install this brake between front and rear wheels of the bogie. A prototype rail brake system was designed and built and its electromagnetic characteristics were examined on a test bench with a roller rig...

  16. Development of a Synchronous-Generator Experimental Bench for Standstill Time-Domain Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Arjona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of an experimental bench for performing time-domain tests on synchronousmachines at standstill. The test bench allows the collection of experimental data which can then be used in theparameter estimation of mathematical models of synchronous motors and generators. The system development isbased on the LabVIEW programming language. It effortlessly allows the calibration of voltage and current sensors, thed-q magnetic axis positioning of the synchronous generator, and the spectral analysis from the collected data. Inaddition, the testing environment includes non-sophisticated instrumentation elements and a power amplifier. Thisexperimental bench has a friendly user interface which guides the user throughout a defined methodology to allow theachievement of the different time domain tests on synchronous machines. A 7kVA, 220V, 60Hz synchronousgenerator was used to show the functionality and usefulness of the test bench in research and teaching electricalmachine theory.

  17. Many Parts of the World Lack Soap for Hand-Washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many Parts of the World Lack Soap for Hand-Washing Areas with lowest rates are in Africa, research ... that they do without, a new study finds. Hand-washing with soap can help prevent the spread of ...

  18. Apparatus for washing particulate material. [Removal of silicone oil from microspheres by trichloroethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Justice, G.V.

    1983-12-29

    Transport of nuclear fuel microspheres through a wash liquid is facilitated by feeding a slurry containing the microspheres into the wash liquid via a column having a vibrating tubular screen located under its lower end.

  19. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lukwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.

  20. Removal of Uranium by Exchanger Resins from Soil Washing Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on AM-resin resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a batch-type washing with a 60 .deg. C heated 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions. If the uranium selectively removed from the waste solution, a very small amount of the 2nd waste would be generated. Thus, selective sorption of uranium by ion exchange resins was examined in this study.

  1. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any separation steps. The proposed strategy was realized by controlling the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mediate the interparticle spacing in the protein-AuNP oligomers. We have demonstrated the successful in vitro detection of cancer biomarker in serum samples from patients with high clinical sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  3. Will Astronauts Wash Clothes on the Way to Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Jeng, Frank F.

    2015-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will lengthen to years, and keeping crews clothed without a huge resupply burden is an important consideration for habitation systems. A space laundry system could be the solution; however, the resources it uses must be accounted for and must win out over the reliable practice of simply bringing along enough spare underwear. NASA has conducted trade-off studies through its Logistics Reduction Project to compare current space clothing systems, life extension of that clothing, traditional water-based clothes washing, and other sanitizing techniques. The best clothing system depends on the mission and assumptions but, in general, analysis results indicate that washing clothes on space missions will start to pay off as mission durations approach a year.

  4. Study of a spectrometer line for the Linac4 diagnostics movable bench

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    movable diagnostics bench is currently being designed as part of the Linac4 commissioning plan to characterise the H-beam at the exit of each DTL tank. A spectrometer line has been proposed for installation on the bench to allow performing measurements of the beam energy spread with a slit/dipole/monitor technique. A layout for this diagnostics line is here proposed together with the results of beam dynamics studies to evaluate the resolution achievable and the measurement reach.

  5. Acute chest pain after bench press exercise in a healthy young adult

    OpenAIRE

    Smereck JA; Papafilippaki A; Sudarshan S

    2016-01-01

    Janet A Smereck,1 Argyro Papafilippaki,2 Sawali Sudarshan3 1Department of Emergency Medicine, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, 2Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, PA,3Emergency Department, Washington Adventist Hospital, Takoma Park, MD, USA Abstract: Bench press exercise, which involves repetitive lifting of weights to full arm extension while lying supine on a narrow bench, has been associated with complications ranging in acuity from simple pectoral muscle strain, t...

  6. Study of Soil Washing for Remediation of Pb and Zn Contaminated Coastal Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.

    2013-12-01

    As a result of analyzing the pre-treatment process of Pb, Zn in contaminated coastal landfill soil presented by Korean Soil Analysis Method, the each concentration was presented 577.00mg/kg, 3894.34mg/kg. This soil was critically contaminated with Pb and Zn because it was exceeded the Standard of soil contamination(2area: Pb-400mg/kg, Zn-600mg/kg). Soil remediation efficiency of the soil washing process for the removal of Pb and Zn was determined to be consistent with the results. The batch experiment on the several washing solutions(HCl, HNO3), washing solutions concentrations(0.1-0.8M) and the ratio of soil vs. solution for soil washing(1:3, 1:5 and 1:10) was performed. The results of experiments, washing time was appropriate in 30 minutes. The removal efficiency of soil washing increased as the ratio of soil vs. washing solution increased. But, in the case of heavy metals, the soil vs. solution for soil washing was determined as the optimal ratio of 1 : 5. Five consecutive soil washing with 0.5M of HCl and HNO3 solutions were performed. Results of experiments, in case of Pb was removed by target removal efficiency from soil on the twice washing. With in case of Zn was over on the first washing by target removal efficiency, but suggesting that twice consecutive soil washing is desirable as stability at field. Results of consecutive soil washing experiments, the removal efficiency maintained lower than 10 % after the 4th washing. From the results, demanding consecutive washing is not recommended. Results about the heavy metal contaminated soil washing experiments of the coastal landfill, in the case of HCl with more than 0.5 M of solution was performed at 1:5 of soil ratio vs. solution, 30 minutes of washing time and 2-3 consecutive soil washing. And in the case of HNO3 with 0.8 M of solution was performed various ratios of soil vs. washing solution, suggesting that 2-3 consecutive soil washing was reached to Pb and Zn target removal efficiency. Key words

  7. Characteristics of penicillinase release by washed cells of Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, M G; Ghosh, B K; Lampen, J O

    1968-10-01

    Saline-washed cells of Bacillus licheniformis strain 749/C (constitutive for penicillinase) were able to release exopenicillinase in the presence of concentrations of chloramphenicol that prevented protein synthesis completely. The release reaction was strongly pH-dependent, occurring at a faster rate at alkaline pH in anionic or cationic buffers than at neutral pH. A strongly pH-dependent release reaction was noted in growing cells also. The reaction in washed cells can be stopped completely by changing the pH to 6.0. Within 30 min at pH 9.0, about 55% of the cell-bound penicillinase was released; thereafter, release continued at a greatly reduced rate. Suspensions of washed cells retained their capacity to release penicillinase at pH 9.0 for 90 min. Penicillinase released at pH 9.0 from either cells or protoplasts was not readsorbed over a 60-min period after changing the pH to 6.0. The release reaction was strongly temperature-dependent. We examined the effect of a large number of metabolic inhibitors and other compounds on the pH-dependent release phenomenon. Quinacrine hydrochloride, chloroquine diphosphate, and chlorpromazine hydrochloride reduced secretion substantially at 10(-4)m. Deoxycholate and Triton X-100 were active at 10(-3)m, but tungstate, arsenate, and molybdate had small effects at 10(-1)m. The rate of exopenicillinase release at pH 9.0 from fully stabilized protoplasts was one-half that of intact cells. Protoplasts lysed in hypotonic media or detergents showed even greater reduction in releasing activity. Penicillinase released from washed cells at pH 7.5 or 9.0 appeared to be derived from the periplasmic tubule and vesicle fraction that was released by protoplast formation.

  8. Human papillomavirus gene sequences in washed human sperm deoxyribonucleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P J; Su, B C; Kalugdan, T; Seraj, I M; Tredway, D R; King, A

    1994-05-01

    The present study demonstrated the presence of HPV gene sequences in Percoll-washed sperm cells using polymerase chain reaction primers targeting smaller gene regions. Up to 64% of the sperm specimens were shown to contain gene sequences indicative of the presence of HPV. Human papillomavirus type 16 was detected about twice as often as HPV type 18. The results suggest the possible role of sperm as a vector for HPV.

  9. Effects of Types of Washing and Peeling in Relation to Pesticide Residues in Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Graziela C. R. M.; Monteiro, Sérgio H.; Francisco,Jeane G.; Figueiredo,Leila A.; Rocha, Aderbal A.; Tornisielo,Valdemar L

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are widely consumed and most often without cooking, therefore it is important to estimate the reduction of residues using simple washing procedures. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of household processing such as: washing with water, washing with 10% of vinegar solution and washing with 10% of sodium bicarbonate solution on pesticide residue levels of acetamiprid, azoxystrobin, diflubenzuron, dimethoate, fipronil, imidacloprid, procymidone and thiamethoxam, in s...

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING HAND WASHING PRACTICE AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nazliansyah; Susheewa Wichaikull; Kanokwan Wetasin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand washing is the most effective method of preventing the transmission of diseases through hands. Objective: To identify relationships between gender, availability of hand washing facilities, perception of barriers toward hand washing compliance and subjective norm in implementing hand washing practice among students of public elementary school in Belitung district, Indonesia. Method: A cross-sectional research study was used in this study. Of 309 participants were recrui...

  11. Abdominopelvic washings in gynecologic pathology: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Jefree J; Lastra, Ricardo R

    2016-12-01

    Abdominopelvic washings (APW) performed during gynecologic surgeries have become a common specimen evaluated by cytopathologists. Their role in staging of female genital tract tumors has changed significantly since they were first described, and continue to evolve. The ability of these washings to detect microscopic disease, even in the absence of gross disease, warrants the critical role that these washings play in the staging of certain female gynecologic tract tumors, allowing for optimal staging and subsequent treatment of the patient. Irrespective of the underlying pathology, the gamut of cytomorphologic findings that may be observed in APW is extensive, and ranges from benign lesions that may act as mimickers of malignancy, to both common and rare malignancies. This review discusses the changing role of APW in the staging of gynecologic tumors, and highlights the salient cytomorphologic features of these lesions, with emphasis in their correct identification, including cautionary notes to avoid over or misinterpretation. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:1039-1057. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Food washing and placer mining in captive great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allritz, Matthias; Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep

    2013-10-01

    Sweet potato washing and wheat placer mining in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are among the most well known examples of local traditions in non-human animals. The functions of these behaviors and the mechanisms of acquisition and spread of these behaviors have been debated frequently. Prompted by animal caretaker reports that great apes [chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo abelii)] at Leipzig Zoo occasionally wash their food, we conducted a study of food washing behaviors that consisted of two parts. In the first part we assessed the current distribution of the behavior on the basis of caretaker reports. In the second (experimental) part, we provided subjects individually with a water basin and two types of food (apples and cereal) that was either clean or covered/mixed with sand. We found that subjects of all species (except gorillas) placed apples in the water before consumption, and that they did so more often when the apples were dirty than when they were clean. Several chimpanzees and orangutans also engaged in behaviors resembling wheat placer mining.

  13. Effect of Fatigue Upon Performance and Electromyographic Activity in 6-RM Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Saeterbakken, Atle

    2014-03-27

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fatigue during one set of 6-RM bench pressing upon the muscle patterning and performance. Fourteen resistance-trained males (age 22.5±2.0 years, stature 1.82±0.07 m, body mass 82.0±7.8 kg) conducted a 6-RM bench press protocol. Barbell kinematics and EMG activity of pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus abdominis, oblique external and erector spinae were measured in each repetition during the 6-RM bench press. Total lifting time increased and the velocity in the ascending movement decreased (p≤0.001). However, the kinematics in the descending phase deferred: the time decreased and velocity increased during the 6-RM (p≤0.001). Generally, muscles increased their EMG amplitude during the six repetitions in the ascending movement, while only three of the seven measured muscles showed an increase over the six repetitions in the descending part in 6-RM bench pressing. It was concluded that the bench pressing performance decreased (lower barbell velocities and longer lifting times) with increasing fatigue in the 6-RM execution. Furthermore EMG increased in the prime movers and the trunk stabilizers (abdominal and spine), while the antagonist muscle (biceps) activity was not affected by fatigue during the lifting phase in a single set of 6-RM bench pressing.

  14. Location of Instability During a Bench Press Alters Movement Patterns and Electromyographical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Brian C; Sutherland, Chad A; Drake, Janessa D M

    2015-11-01

    Instability training devices with the bench press exercise are becoming increasingly popular. Typically, the instability device is placed at the trunk/upper body (e.g., lying on a Swiss ball); however, a recent product called the Attitube has been developed, which places the location of instability at the hands by users lifting a water-filled tube. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of different instability devices (location of instability) on kinematic and electromyographical patterns during the bench press exercise. Ten healthy males were recruited and performed 1 set of 3 repetitions for 3 different bench press conditions: Olympic bar on a stable bench (BENCH), Olympic bar on a stability ball (BALL), and Attitube on a stable bench (TUBE). The eccentric and concentric phases were analyzed in 10% intervals while electromyography was recorded from 24 electrode sites, and motion capture was used to track elbow flexion angle and 3-dimensional movement trajectories and vertical velocity of the Bar/Attitube. The prime movers tended to show a reduction in muscle activity during the TUBE trials; however, pectoralis major initially showed increased activation during the eccentric phase of the TUBE condition. The trunk muscle activations were greatest during the TUBE and smallest during the BAR. In addition, the TUBE showed decreased range of elbow flexion and increased medial-lateral movement of the Attitube itself. The results further support the notion that instability devices may be more beneficial for trunk muscles rather than prime movers.

  15. 78 FR 28577 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity: Whirlpool Corporation Subzone 8I; (Washing Machines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...; (Washing Machines): Clyde and Green Springs, Ohio Whirlpool Corporation (Whirlpool), operator of Subzone 8I... standard and high capacity washing machines using certain imported components. The current request would add subassemblies and other unfinished washing machine parts to the list of approved finished products...

  16. Washing of stored red blood cells by an autotransfusion device before transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vroege, R.; Wildevuur, W. R.; Muradin, J. A. G.; Graves, D.; van Oeveren, W.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives The use of an autotransfusion device to wash blood of the incision site is increasing. After washing, this blood is retransfused without side effects caused by activated plasma factors and cell release products. This procedure could be extended to washing of donor blood,

  17. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash...

  18. Testing the Effects of Social Norms and Behavioral Privacy on Hand Washing: A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Maloney, Erin K.; Braz, Mary; Shulman, Hillary C.

    2013-01-01

    A 2-part study examines the influence of normative messages on college males' hand washing perceptions and behaviors. Study 1 tests for the appropriateness of hand washing as a target of social norms campaigns and tests messages designed to change perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that hand washing behavior is appropriate for health…

  19. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water

  20. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  1. Eating disorders: from bench to bedside and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetani, Silvana; Romano, Adele; Provensi, Gustavo; Ricca, Valdo; Lutz, Thomas; Passani, Maria Beatrice

    2016-12-01

    The central nervous system and viscera constitute a functional ensemble, the gut-brain axis, that allows bidirectional information flow that contributes to the control of feeding behavior based not only on the homeostatic, but also on the hedonic aspects of food intake. The prevalence of eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, binge eating and obesity, poses an enormous clinical burden, and involves an ever-growing percentage of the population worldwide. Clinical and preclinical research is constantly adding new information to the field and orienting further studies with the aim of providing a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches to pathological conditions. A recent symposium at the XVI Congress of the Societá Italiana di Neuroscienze (SINS, 2015) 'Eating disorders: from bench to bedside and back' brought together basic scientists and clinicians with the objective of presenting novel perspectives in the neurobiology of eating disorders. Clinical studies presented by V. Ricca illustrated some genetic aspects of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Preclinical studies addressed different issues ranging from the description of animal models that mimic human pathologies such as anorexia nervosa, diet-induced obesity, and binge eating disorders (T. Lutz), to novel interactions between peripheral signals and central circuits that govern food intake, mood and stress (A. Romano and G. Provensi). The gut-brain axis has received increasing attention in the recent years as preclinical studies are demonstrating that the brain and visceral organs such as the liver and guts, but also the microbiota are constantly engaged in processes of reciprocal communication, with unexpected physiological and pathological implications. Eating is controlled by a plethora of factors; genetic predisposition, early life adverse conditions, peripheral gastrointestinal hormones that act directly or indirectly on the central nervous system, all are

  2. Water reuse potential in truck wash using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lucas Subtil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the water reuse potential for truck washing using the effluent treated by a Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC operated in full scale. In order to evaluate the reuse potential, a mass balance was performed for the reuse system taking into account the concentration of Total Dissolved Solids as the critical contaminant. The treatment system produced an effluent with average concentration of color, turbidity, TDS and BOD5 of 45 ± 14 uC, 15 ± 6.0 NTU, 244 ± 99 mg TDS / L and 14 ± 7.3 mg O2 / L, respectively. Based on the mass balance, and considering the TDS concentration established in NBR 13.696, if the final rinse does not use clean water, the potential for effluent reuse can reach 40%. However, if clean water is used as 30% of the total rinsing volume, it would be possible to reuse 70% of the treated effluent without compromising truck washing performance. This water reuse approach would result in an operational cost reduction of R$ 2,590.75/month.

  3. Toxicological assessment and management options for boat pressure-washing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Oreščanin, Višnja; Kollar, Robert; Franekić, Jasna; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2015-04-01

    Boats are washed periodically for maintenance in order to remove biofoulants from hulls, which results in the generation of wastewater. This study aimed at evaluating the cyto/genotoxic and mutagenic properties of wastewater produced by pressure washing of boats. The chemical characterisation of this wastewater showed that Cu, Zn, V, Cr, Fe, Pb, and select organic contaminants exceeded the maximum allowable values from 1.7 up to 96 times. The wastewater produced negative effects on human lymphocytes resulting in decreased cell viability after 4 and 24h of exposure. Chromosome aberration, micronucleus, and comet assay parameters were significantly higher after 24h of exposure. At the same time, the Salmonella typhimurium test showed negative for both TA98 and TA100 strains at all of the concentrations tested. After the treatment of wastewater using electrochemical methods/ozonation during real scale treatment plant, removal rates of colour, turbidity and heavy metals ranged from 99.4% to 99.9%, while the removal of total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was above 85%. This was reflected in the removal of the wastewater's cyto/genotoxicity, which was comparable to negative controls in all of the conducted tests, suggesting that such plants could be implemented in marinas to minimise human impact on marine systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. DESIGN, FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Leininger

    2001-03-31

    Reliable measurement of gasifier reaction chamber temperature is important for the proper operation of slagging, entrained-flow gasification processes. Historically, thermocouples have been used as the main measurement technique, with the temperature inferred from syngas methane concentration being used as a backup measurement. While these have been sufficient for plant operation in many cases, both techniques suffer from limitations. The response time of methane measurements is too slow to detect rapid upset conditions, and thermocouples are subject to long-term drift, as well as slag attack, which eventually leads to failure of the thermocouple. Texaco's Montebello Technology Center (MTC) has developed an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier reaction chamber temperature. This system has a faster response time than both methane and thermocouples, and has been demonstrated to provide reliable temperature measurements for longer periods of time when compared to thermocouples installed in the same MTC gasifier. In addition, the system can be applied to commercial gasifiers without any significant scale-up issues. The major equipment items, the purge system, and the safety shutdown system in a commercial plant are essentially identical to the prototypes at MTC. The desired result of this DOE program is ''a bench-scale prototype, either assembled or with critical components (laboratory) tested in a convincing manner.'' The prototype of the pyrometer system (including gasifier optical access port) that was designed, assembled and tested for this program, has had previous prototypes that have been built and successfully tested under actual coal and coke gasification conditions in three pilot units at MTC. It was the intent of the work performed under the auspices of this program to review and update the existing design, and to fabricate and bench test an updated system that can be field tested in one or more commercial gasifiers

  5. Physiological and microbiological verification of the benefit of hair washing in patients with skin conditions of the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Miwa; Ito, Kei; Sugita, Takashi; Murakami, Yumi; Yamashita, Ryoko; Matsunaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2016-12-01

    It is unclear whether hair washing is effective against scalp eruption and pruritus caused by seborrheic dermatitis or psoriasis vulgaris. To assess whether a proper hair-washing regimen, including the use of antibacterial shampoo, can ameliorate scalp eruption symptoms and alter the composition of the scalp microflora. Eighteen patients with seborrheic dermatitis or psoriasis vulgaris scalp eruptions were instructed in proper techniques of daily hair washing, rinsing, and shampooing, which they underwent for 12 weeks. They used control shampoo in weeks 1-4 and 9-12, and an antibacterial shampoo during weeks 5-8. At the start of the test period and at weeks 4, 8, and 12, we assessed scalp symptoms (erythema, scaling/desquamation, dryness, itchiness, and scratching scars); microbial DNA levels from lesion and nonlesion areas; and levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1ra, and total protein in the scalp's horny layer. Compared to baseline values, scaling/desquamation and itchiness improved significantly at weeks 8 and 12. Other observed skin symptoms also improved over time. Malassezia colonization levels in lesion and nonlesion areas decreased gradually; the decrease was significant at week 8 in lesion areas and at weeks 4 and 8 in nonlesion areas. Bacterial colonization levels also decreased gradually, achieving significance in lesion areas at week 4. Gradual decreases in IL-1ra/IL-1α level showed statistical significance at weeks 4 and 12, while the protein quantity significantly decreased at week 12. Proper hair washing improved scalp condition symptoms, and possibly the underlying etiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Design of the 15 GHz BPM test bench for the CLIC test facility to perform precise stretchedwire RF measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Silvia Zorzetti, Silvia; Galindo Muño, Natalia; Wendt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) requires a low emittance beam transport and preservation, thus a precise control of the beam orbit along up to 50 km of the accelerator components in the sub-m regime is required. Within the PACMAN3 (Particle Accelerator Components Metrology and Alignment to the Nanometer Scale) PhD training action a study with the objective of pre-aligning the electrical centre of a 15 GHz cavity beam position monitor (BPM) to the magnetic centre of the main beam quadrupole is initiated. Of particular importance is the design of a specific test bench to study the stretched-wire setup for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) BPM, focusing on the aspects of microwave signal excitation, transmission and impedance-matching, as well as the mechanical setup and reproducibility of the measurement method.

  7. Physicochemical Quality and Chemical Safety of Chlorine as a Reconditioning Agent and Wash Water Disinfectant for Fresh-Cut Lettuce Washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haute, Sam; Holvoet, Kevin; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 μg/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing. PMID:23396332

  8. Physicochemical quality and chemical safety of chlorine as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant for fresh-cut lettuce washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haute, Sam; Sampers, Imca; Holvoet, Kevin; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-05-01

    Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 μg/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing.

  9. Physical and Chemical Properties of Bench Sediments in Self-Formed Agricultural Drainage Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, M.; Witter, J.; Islam, K. R.; Mouser, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Two-stage ditches are a novel approach to managing agricultural drainage and are designed with floodplain benches set within the banks of a standard, trapezoidal channel. The floodplain bench serves to attenuate pollutant loads in surface waters through (1) capture of sediments, (2) nutrient assimilation by vegetation, and (3) transformation of C and residual N and P by indigenous microorganisms. Two-stage channels have been constructed in the tri-state region of Ohio-Michigan-Indiana over the last decade with initial results indicating C and P sequestration and enhanced N removal via denitrification. However, the sustainability and the net ecosystem services provided by these designs are relatively unknown beyond this timeframe. To better characterize the properties of two-stage ditches aged more than a decade, we examined the physical and chemical properties of sediments in unplanned, self-formed floodplain benches across 5 distinct Midwest ecoregions. Established benches were selected from 3 locations within each ecoregion and sampled along depth and bench-positional gradients from geo-referenced sites. The sediment-bound C, N, and P concentrations were quantified along with soil texture and channel geomorphology. Nutrient concentrations did not differ across bench position (upstream, downstream, near bank, or near channel); however, significant differences were observed between ecoregions. Steeper slopes and higher benches were associated with higher sand content than surrounding soils and promoted greater storage of C and N. Gradual slopes, on the other hand, were associated with higher clay and silt content. Across these specific ecoregions, P storage declined with increasing depth. However, this was unexplained by the particle size distribution at these depths. Further research is therefore needed to investigate whether P is released from waterlogged sediments or there is biological redistribution of this nutrient across the column depth.

  10. Leaching Behavior of Circulating Fluidised Bed MSWI Air Pollution Control Residue in Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air pollution control (APC residue is conducted with water washing process to reduce its chloride content. A novel electrical conductivily (EC measurement method is proposed to monitor the dynamic change of chloride concentrations in leachate as well as the chloride content of the residue. The method equally applies to various washing processes with different washing time, liquid/solid ratio and washing frequency. The results show that washing effectively extracts chloride salts from APC residues, including those from circulating fluidized bed (CFB municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI. The most appropriate liquid/solid ratio and washing time in the first washing are found to be around 4 L water per kg of APC residue and 30 min, respectively, and washing twice is required to obtain maximum dissolution. The pH value is the major controlling factor of the heavy metals speciation in leachate, while chloride concentration also affects the speciation of Cd. Water washing causes no perceptible transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs from the APC residue to leachate. The chloride concentration is strongly related with electrical conductivity (EC, as well as with the concentrations of calcium, sodium and potassium of washing water. Their regression analyses specify that soluble chloride salts and EC could act as an indirect indicator to monitor the change of chloride concentration and remaining chloride content, thus, contributing to the selection of the optimal washing conditions.

  11. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hand washing practices in urban and rural communities in and around Kolkata, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S K; Dobe, M; Lahiri, A; Basu, S S

    2009-01-01

    Public health importance of hand washing was known since 19th century. Many researchers also highlighted how hand washing could bring down the incidence of diarrhea, ARI & other diseases. To find out the extent of hand washing as practiced by the community, to what extent suggested steps of hand washing was followed and to assess the changes in bacteriological count of hand before and after hand washing. A community based cross sectional study was carried out during January-February 2007 among 161 respondents in and around Kolkata through interview, observation of hand washing in some situations as well as carrying out microbiological test. 100% respondents interviewed practiced hand washing after defecation either with soap (59%) or with plain water, ash & mud (41%). But 64%, 51.6% and only 21.7% practiced hand washing before preparation of food; after using urinals; after changing the babies' nappies and disposing their feces respectively. Only 16.1% respondents washed their hands as per the recommended time of 15-30 seconds. Majority (75%) dried hands with apparently unclean materials. 90.7% followed step1 but none followed all the steps. Swab collection before and after hand washing revealed a decrease in colony count in 60% of the samples. It can be concluded that extent of desirable practices regarding hand washing is still lacking and needs to be emphasized.

  13. Hand washing practices in two communities of two states of Eastern India: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sandip Kumar; Zaman, Forhad Akhtar; Laskar, Nasrin Banu

    2010-01-01

    Public health importance of hand washing as well as its importance in reduction of communicable diseases such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infections have been highlighted in many studies worldwide. This study was designed to study the hand washing practices followed in two urban slums as well as to assess and compare the status of different components of hand washing at the pre- and post-intervention phases. A community-based cross-sectional intervention study on hand washing practices was carried out at two urban slums situated in two states of Eastern India with similar sociocultural and linguistic background. The study was carried out by using an interview technique as well as observation of hand washing practices. Interpersonal communication for behavioural change was chosen as a method of intervention. The majority (>90%) practiced hand washing after defecation in both the study areas. However, hand washing following all six steps and for stipulated time period was seen to be poor before intervention. Significant improvement was observed in all the aspects of hand washing after intervention in both the areas. The poor practice of hand washing was observed in some situations and needed attention. Use of soap and clean material for drying hands after hand washing was poor initially followed by improvement after intervention. Based on the findings of the study, it could be suggested that Behaviour Change Communication program should be further planned with emphasis on different components of hand washing with a final objective to bring down the incidence of target diseases.

  14. Factors influencing hand washing behaviour in primary schools: process evaluation within a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomised controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n=16, ages 6 to 11, semi-structured interviews (n=16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n=57). Pupils and staff in intervention and control schools demonstrated a similar level of understanding of how, when and why they should wash their hands. Lack of time, poor adult modelling of regular hand washing and unattractive facilities were seen as important barriers to regular hand washing. Reminders and explanations for the importance of hand hygiene were thought to have a positive impact. Influencing individual choices about hand washing through education and information may be necessary, but not sufficient, for initiating and maintaining good hand washing practices. Structural factors, including having time to wash hands using accessible, clean facilities, and being encouraged through the existence of hand washing opportunities in the daily routine and hand washing being viewed as the social norm, will also influence hand washing behaviour. The effectiveness of educational interventions at improving hand hygiene in primary schools may be improved by changing priorities of staff and increasing accessibility to quality facilities. PMID:22623617

  15. Stent longitudinal integrity bench insights into a clinical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, John A; Webber, Bruce; Webster, Mark W I

    2011-12-01

    Standardized bench-top compression and elongation testing was undertaken to assess the longitudinal strength of contemporary stents. Insights gained may improve clinical stent choice and deployment techniques, and facilitate future stent design improvements. The hoops of coronary stents provide radial support, and connectors hold hoops together. Strut material, shape, and thickness, along with connector number and configuration, provide the balance between stent flexibility and longitudinal integrity. Longitudinal distortion manifests as length change, strut overlap, strut separation, malapposition, and luminal obstruction. These may predispose to restenosis and stent thrombosis, obstruct passage of devices, be misinterpreted as strut fracture, and require additional stenting. The force required to compress and to elongate 7 contemporary stents was measured with an Instron universal testing machine (Norwood, Massachusetts). Stents deployed in a silicone phantom damaged by a balloon or guide catheter were imaged by microcomputed tomography to understand better the appearances and effects of longitudinal distortion. Stents with 2 connectors (Boston Scientific [Natick, Massachusetts] Omega and Medtronic [Santa Rosa, California] Driver) required significantly less force to be compressed up to 5 mm and elongated by 1 mm than designs with more connectors. The 6-connector Cypher Select required significantly more force to be elongated 5 mm than other designs. Stents with 2 connectors between hoops have less longitudinal strength when exposed to compressing or elongating forces than those with more connectors. This independent, standardized study may assist stent selection in clinical situations where longitudinal integrity is important, and may aid future design improvements. Stent longitudinal strength, the resistance to shortening or elongation, appears related to the number of connectors between hoops. Using a standardized testing protocol, designs with 2 connectors

  16. Bench-scale electrokinetic remediation for cesium-contaminated sediment at the Hanford Site, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Yang, Jungseok; Um, Wooyong

    2015-05-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) remediation has been applied to extract various contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic compounds from contaminated sediment and soil using electric currents. We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the efficiency of EK remediation method for Hanford sediment (76% sand and 24% silt-clay) after artificial contamination with nonradioactive 133Cs (0.01 M CsNO3) as a surrogate for radioactive 137Cs. The initial 133Cs concentration in the bulk sediment was 668 mg kg-1, with a higher 133Cs concentration for the silt-clay fraction (867 mg kg-1) than for the sand fraction (83 mg kg-1). A significant removal of cationic 133Cs from the sediment occurred from the cathode side (-), whereas the removal was negligible from the anode side (+) during the EK remediation process for 68 days. Based on microwave-assisted total digestion, 312 mg kg-1 of 133Cs was removed from the bulk sediment, which corresponds to the removal efficiency of 47%. The EK method was significantly more efficient for the silt-clay fraction than for the sand fraction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses indicate that change in major crystalline mineral phases was insignificant during the EK remediation and the removal of 133Cs from the Hanford sediment by the EK method is attributed mainly to cation exchange with K in clay minerals. The experimental results suggest that the EK method can effectively remove radioactive Cs from the surface or subsurface sediment contaminated by radioactive materials in the Hanford Site, Washington, USA.

  17. From a single pellet press to a bench scale pellet mill - Pelletizing six different biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Shang, Lei; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for biomass pellets requires the investigation of alternative raw materials for pelletizetion. In the present paper, the pelletization process of fescue, alfalfa, sorghum, triticale, miscanthus and willow is studied to determine if results obtained in a single pellet press...

  18. Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with Microcel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-29

    The primary objective of the proposed work is to design, install and operate an advanced fine coal processing circuit combining Microcel and MGS technologies. Both of these processes have specific advantages as stand-alone units. For example, the Microcel column is effective in removing ash-bearing mineral matter, while the MGS is capable of efficiently removing coal-pyrite composites. Therefore, by combining both of these unit operations into a single processing circuit, synergistic advantages can be gained. As a result, this circuit arrangement has the potential of improving coal quality beyond that which could be achieved using either one of the technologies individually. In addition to the primary objective, secondary objectives of the proposed test program will include: (1) Circuit Optimization: The performance of each unit operation, individually and combined, will be optimized by conducting parametric studies as a function of key operating variables. The goal of this work will be to maximize the rejections of pyritic sulfur and ash while maintaining a high energy recovery; and (2) Process Variability: The steady-state performance of the optimized processing circuit will be studied (i) by conducting several long-duration test runs over a period of several days and (ii) by testing coal samples from other sources specified by the participating coal companies.

  19. Evaluation of Nitrification Inhibition Using Bench-Scale Rate Measurements, Profile Sampling, and Process Simulation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Phill Hokyung

    2010-01-01

    The Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD) operates thirteen treatment plants in the eastern Virginia area with a combined capacity of 231 million gallons per day (mgd). The Nansemond Treatment Plant (NTP) is one of the larger facilities, and is designed to treat 30 mgd using a 3-stage Virginia Initiative Process (VIP) biological nutrient removal (BNR) process. The majority of the influent is domestic, but there is also a large industrial contribution, particularly from a hog processing fa...

  20. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF BENCH-SCALE COMPOST TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil bound contamination presents a significant set of problems to those attempting to remediate the soil. Bioremediation has received considerable attention, as a potential answer to the obvious remediation needs. Composting technology represents a promising means to use indigen...

  1. Behaviour of meat and bonemeal/peat pellets in a bench scale fluidised bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonnell, K.; Desmond, J.; Leahy, J.J.; Howard-Hildige, R.; Ward, S. [University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland). Agriculture and Food Engineering Department

    2001-01-01

    As a result of the recent Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy crisis in the European beef industry, safe animal by-product disposal is currently being addressed. One such disposal option is the combustion of by-product material such as meat and bone meal (MBM) in a fluidised bed combustor (FBC) for the purpose of energy recovery. Two short series of combustion tests were conducted on a FBC at the University of Twente, the Netherlands. In the first series, pellets (10 mm in diameter and approximately 10 mm in length) were made from a mixture of MBM and milled peat, at MBM inclusion rates of 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100%. In the second series of tests, the pellets were commercially made and were 4.8 mm in diameter and between 12 and 15 mm long. These pellets had a weight of about 0.3 g and contained 0%, 25%, 35%, 50% and 100% MBM inclusion with the peat. Both sets of pellets were combusted at 800{degree}C. The residence times in the FBC varied from 300 s (25% MBM inclusion) to 120 s (100% MBM inclusion) for the first series of pellets. Increasing compaction pressure increased the residence time. For the second series of pellets, the residence time varied from about 300 s (25% MBM inclusion) to 100 s (100% MBM inclusion). MBM was found to be a volatile product (about 65%) and co-firing it with milled peat in a pelleted feed format reduces its volatile intensity. Pellets made from 100% bone based meal remained intact within the bed and are thought to have undergone a process of calcination during combustion. A maximum MBM inclusion rate of 35% with milled peat in a pellet is recommended.

  2. Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with Microcel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-30

    Work this quarter focused on the development of the engineering design specifications for the ET Test Circuit. Process flowsheets and detailed equipment specifications were finalized. Based on this information, bid packages were assembled and purchase orders were issued for all of the necessary process equipment. The design and procurement information is summarized in the ET Circuit Design Report submitted to the DOE's COR this quarter. Final drafts of the ET Circuit - System Safety Analysis, Nuclear Density Gauge - System Safety Analysis and Operating Manual/SOP were also completed and submitted to the COR this quarter. Preliminary characterization studies were also initiated this quarter. Tests were conducted to determine the grinding conditions required to achieve the desired particle size distributions for the characterization work. Flotation release analysis tests were conducted on both the Pittsburgh [number sign]8 and Illinois [number sign]6 seam coals as a function of grind size. The primary objective of the proposed work is to design, install, and operate an advanced fine coal processing circuit combining the Microcel and Multi-Gravity-Separator (MGS) technologies. Both of these processes have specific advantages as stand-alone units. For example, the Microcel column effectively removes ash-bearing mineral matter, while the MGS efficiently removes coal-pyrite composites. By combining both unit operations into a single processing circuit, synergistic advantages can be gained. As a result, this circuit arrangement has the potential to improve coal quality beyond that achieved using the individual technologies.

  3. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Bench-Scale Nitrifying BiofiltersRemoving Trihalomethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial biofilm communities in four nitrifying biofilters degrading regulated drinking water trihalomethanes were characterized by 454 pyrosequencing. The three most abundant phylotypes based on total diversity were Nitrosomonas (70%), Nitrobacter (14%), and Chitinophagace...

  4. Technical Approach for In Situ Biological Treatment Research: Bench- Scale Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    manufacture of-- Benzene derivatives Saccharin Medicines Dyes TNT Used in-- Solvent recovery Gasoline component Solvent for paints and coatings Asphalt and...because of their widespread use in the chemical and manufacturing industries as solvents and in synthesis of plastics, paints, and other chemicals

  5. Copper recovery in a bench-scale carrier facilitated tubular supported liquid membrane system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaka S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of copper ions in a tubular supported liquid membrane using LIX 984NC as a mobile carrier was studied, evaluating the effect of the feed characteristics (flowrate, density, viscosity on the feedside laminar layer of the membrane. A vertical countercurrent, double pipe perspex benchscale reactor consisting of a single hydrophobic PVDF tubular membrane mounted inside was used in all test work. The membrane was impregnated with LIX 984NC and became the support for this organic transport medium. Dilute Copper solution passed through the centre pipe and sulphuric acid as strippant passed through the shell side. Copper was successfully transported from the feedside to the stripside and from the data obtained, a relationship between Schmidt, Reynolds and Sherwood number was achieved of.

  6. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vipperla, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray

    2012-11-01

    This report presents system and economic analysis for a carbon capture unit which uses an amino-silicone solvent for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. The amino-silicone solvent is based on GAP-1 with Tri-Ethylene Glycol (TEG) as a co-solvent. The report also shows results for a CCS unit based on a conventional approach using mono-ethanol amine (MEA). Models were developed for both processes and used to calculate mass and energy balances. Capital costs and energy penalty were calculated for both systems, as well as the increase in cost of electricity. The amino-silicone solvent based system demonstrates significant advantages compared to the MEA system.

  7. Bench-scale synthesis of zeolite A from subbituminous coal ashes with high crystalline silica content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareonpanich, M.; Jullaphan, O.; Tang, C. [Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-15

    In this present work, fly ash and bottom ash with high crystalline silica content were obtained from the coal-fired boilers within the paper industries in Thailand. These coal ashes were used as the basic raw materials for synthetic zeolite production. The crystal type and crystallinity, specific surface area and pore size, and textural properties of zeolite products were characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), N{sub 2} sorption analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. It was found that sodalite octahydrate was selectively formed via the direct conventional (one-step) synthesis, whereas through a two-step, sodium silicate preparation and consecutive zeolite A synthesis process, 94 and 72 wt.% zeolite A products could be produced from the fly ash and bottom ash, respectively. The cation-exchange capacity (CEC) of fly ash and bottom ash-derived zeolite A products were closely similar to that of the commercial grade zeolite A.

  8. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,`` there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  9. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,'' there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  10. [The responsibility schema in obsessive compulsive checking and washing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermou, B; Efstathiou, G; Kalantzi-Azizi, A

    2009-07-01

    According to the theory of cognitive therapy, mental disorders are related to specific dysfunctional schemata, assumptions and automatic thoughts. Various pathogenic schemata have been identified in the context of the cognitive explanation of obsessive compulsive disorder, among which is the responsibily schema, proposed by Salkovskis in 1985. The responsibility schema has been defined as the belief that one possesses pivotal power to provoke or prevent subjective crucial negative outcomes. In order to investigate the relationship between the major obsessive compulsive themes and the cognitive schema of responsibility, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory and the Responsibility Questionnaire were administered to a non-clinical sample of 366 college students. Two groups, consisting of 15 participants each, were identified having obsessive compulsive manifestations (complaints). The first group manifested obsessive compulsive checking and the second group manifested obsessive compulsive washing. No significant sex differences were found between the groups (x²=0.186, df=1, p>0.005), but significant age differences were observed (t=-2.41, df=19.68, pobsessive compulsive checking and washing on responsibility were analyzed. The findings seem to verify this relationship for obsessive compulsive checking (F=5.63, df=1.307, pobsessive-compulsive checking reported an increased sense of responsibility as compared to those who experienced obsessive-compulsive washing or were free of obsessive-compulsive manifestations. The available questionnaires did not allow the investigation of the relationship between other types of obsessive compulsive manifestations and responsibility. The use of a non-clinical sample should also be noted.

  11. The Application Queueing Theory in Singkil Service Car Wash

    OpenAIRE

    Bongkriwan, Melisa Irene; Tumewu, Ferdinand

    2015-01-01

    In the service industry, long queuing will for waiting to be served is a taboo. Since, customers will switch to other competitors and reduce revenues. This research is conducted to find out the effectiveness and efficiency in queuing system in order to achieve customer satisfaction in the Singkil Service Car Wash. This research used model B M/M/S formula to get the average incoming customer. In normal condition, there were 2 customers and 3 line services, in the quiet condition, 1 customer an...

  12. Washing, Leaching, and Other Ways to Disturb Geochronological Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, E. E.; Bast, R.

    2016-12-01

    Contamination effects in geochronology depend on the mass fraction of contaminant and how much its composition differs from that of the sample. Attempts to remove contamination range from gentle washing of grains in cold water or dilute acids to harsh leaching of powders in hot, concentrated acids. It is often assumed that 1) for the element(s) of interest, the portion contributed by contamination is more readily removed than that originally hosted by the target minerals, and 2) washing neither fractionates parent-daughter ratios nor changes the isotope composition of the daughter element by contamination or fractionation. The latter may even be relevant for Pb-Pb [1]. These assumptions are seldom tested. Leaching experiments and differences between variously treated aliquots of the same samples imply that they may not always hold, e.g., in the case of Lu-Hf: for grt [2], ol [3 cf. 4], and plag [3-6 cf. 7]. Similar issues may affect mineral separations done by "selective digestion" of grt [8] or ol [4], or "cleansing" grt of phosphate inclusions [9]. The effectiveness of washing procedures depends on the relative solubilities of the contamination host (salts, fine-grained silicates, or alteration products at grain boundaries and cracks) and the target mineral. We found that 2 M HNO3 was ineffective at removing terrestrial contamination from meteorite minerals, but did not adversely affect those minerals [10]. Whereas much has been done to understand washing, leaching, and stepwise dissolution, especially for U-Pb [11, 12] and Pb-Pb [13-15], there is still an urgent need for systematic testing of such methods to determine which are effective yet safe for other minerals and isotope systems. [1] Amelin et al. (2016) Goldschmidt, A57. [2] Scherer et al. (2000) GCA 64, 3413-3432. [3] Bast et al., GCA submitted. [4] Sanborn et al. (2015) GCA 171, 80-99. [5] Lundgaard et al. (2004) GCA 68 suppl, 738. [6] Thrane et al. (2006) MAPS 41, A173. [7] Bouvier et al., (2015) MAPS

  13. Speciation of mercury in sludge solids: washed sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lourie, A. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-24

    The objective of this applied research task was to study the type and concentration of mercury compounds found within the contaminated Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (SRS LWS). A method of selective sequential extraction (SSE), developed by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences1,2 and adapted by SRNL, utilizes an extraction procedure divided into seven separate tests for different species of mercury. In the SRNL’s modified procedure four of these tests were applied to a washed sample of high level radioactive waste sludge.

  14. Hand washing with soap and WASH educational intervention reduces under-five childhood diarrhoea incidence in Jigjiga District, Eastern Ethiopia: A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashi, Abdiwahab; Kumie, Abera; Gasana, Janvier

    2017-06-01

    Despite the tremendous achievement in reducing child mortality and morbidity in the last two decades, diarrhoea is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. Hand washing with soap promotion, water quality improvements and improvements in excreta disposal significantly reduces diarrhoeal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hand washing with soap and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) educational Intervention on the incidence of under-five children diarrhoea. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in 24 clusters (sub-Kebelles) in Jigjiga district, Somali region, Eastern Ethiopia from February 1 to July 30, 2015. The trial compared incidence of diarrhoea among under-five children whose primary caretakers receive hand washing with soap and water, sanitation, hygiene educational messages with control households. Generalized estimating equation with a log link function Poisson distribution family was used to compute adjusted incidence rate ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. The results of this study show that the longitudinal adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of diarrhoeal diseases comparing interventional and control households was 0.65 (95% CI 0.57, 0.73) suggesting an overall diarrhoeal diseases reduction of 35%. The results are similar to other trials of WASH educational interventions and hand washing with soap. In conclusion, hand washing with soap practice during critical times and WASH educational messages reduces childhood diarrhoea in the rural pastoralist area.

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing: The Translational Medicine Approach from “Bench to Bedside to Population”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muzafar Beigh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have predicted the relationship between heredity and diseases for a long time. Only in the beginning of the last century, scientists begin to discover the connotations between different genes and disease phenotypes. Recent trends in next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies have brought a great momentum in biomedical research that in turn has remarkably augmented our basic understanding of human biology and its associated diseases. State-of-the-art next generation biotechnologies have started making huge strides in our current understanding of mechanisms of various chronic illnesses like cancers, metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative anomalies, etc. We are experiencing a renaissance in biomedical research primarily driven by next generation biotechnologies like genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics etc. Although genomic discoveries are at the forefront of next generation omics technologies, however, their implementation into clinical arena had been painstakingly slow mainly because of high reaction costs and unavailability of requisite computational tools for large-scale data analysis. However rapid innovations and steadily lowering cost of sequence-based chemistries along with the development of advanced bioinformatics tools have lately prompted launching and implementation of large-scale massively parallel genome sequencing programs in different fields ranging from medical genetics, infectious biology, agriculture sciences etc. Recent advances in large-scale omics-technologies is bringing healthcare research beyond the traditional “bench to bedside” approach to more of a continuum that will include improvements, in public healthcare and will be primarily based on predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine approach (P4. Recent large-scale research projects in genetic and infectious disease biology have indicated that massively parallel whole-genome/whole-exome sequencing

  16. Inactivation of Human Norovirus Genogroups I and II and Surrogates by Free Chlorine in Postharvest Leafy Green Wash Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, Nathan; Weng, ShihChi; Jacangelo, Joseph G; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-11-15

    maintain microbial quality of postharvest processing water in order to limit cross-contamination. This study modeled viral inactivation data and quantified the free-chlorine CT values that processing facilities must meet in order to achieve the desired level of hNoV GI and GII reduction. Disinfection experiments were conducted in industrial leafy green wash water collected from a full-scale fresh produce processing facility in the United States, and hNoV GI and GII results were compared with surrogate molecular and infectivity data. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  18. The Effects of Load on Peak Power Output Fatigue During the Bench Throw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffey, David; Sokmen, Bulent; Sollanek, Kurt; Boda, Wanda; Winter, Steven

    2017-11-14

    The ability to create power is an important variable for athletic success. No study to date has compared peak power output (PPO) fatigue across multiple sets and with different loads with the bench throw. This study aimed to begin the process of establishing empirical upper body power training guidelines for moderately strong athletes by determining how load (30%, 45%, 60% 1RM) affects PPO (Watts) dropoff during 3 sets of 10 repetitions of the bench throw. 10 resistance-trained male volunteers ((mean ± SD): age 20.58 ± 1.36 years, height 176.05 ± 9.09 cm., weight 78.65 ± 9.93 kg, bench press 1RM 99.79 ±18.52 kg) performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions of the bench throw with one of the three loads during 3 weekly sessions. A Humac 360 device collected concentric phase PPO data during each repetition. The data were analyzed using one-way (Treatment) and two-way (Treatment × Time) repeated measures ANOVA. A significant decrease in PPO was observed during repetitions 5-7 at 30%, 3-4 at 45%, and 2-3 at 60% 1RM. Based on the results of this study, coaches who want to maximize power should potentially keep sets of upper body plyometrics within these repetition ranges. The authors recommend that moderately strong athletes perform the bench throw on a Smith machine at 45% or 60% 1RM to produce high PPO over multiple sets.

  19. A Coupling Vibration Test Bench and the Simulation Research of a Maglev Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the characteristics of the coupling vibration between a maglev vehicle and its track beam system and to improve the performance of the levitation system, a new type of vibration test bench was developed. Take a single maglev frame as the study object; simulation of the coupling vibration of the maglev vehicle, levitation system, and track beam were achieved. In addition, all types of real track irregularity excitations can be simulated using hydraulic actuators of the test bench. To expand the research scope, a simulation model was developed that can conduct the simulation research synergistically with the test bench. Based on a dynamics model of the test bench, the dynamics simulation method determined the influence on the levitation control performance of three factors: the track beam support stiffness, the track beam mass, and the track irregularity. The vibration resonance phenomenon of the vehicle/track system was reproduced by the dynamics simulation, and a portion of the simulation results were validated by the test results. By combining the test bench and the dynamics model, experiments can be guided by the simulation results, and the experimental results can validate the dynamics simulation results.

  20. SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION FOR THE PORT OF NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

    1999-07-01

    Decontamination and beneficial use of dredged material is a component of a comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan for the Port of New York and New Jersey. The authors describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program that is being implemented to meet the needs of the Port. The components of the train include: (1) dredging and preliminary physical processing (materials handling), (2) decontamination treatment, (3) beneficial use, and (4) public outreach. Several types of treatment technologies suitable for use with varying levels of sediment contamination have been selected based on the results of bench- and pilot-scale tests. This work is being conducted under the auspices of the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA). The use of sediment washing is suitable for sediments with low to moderate contamination levels, typical of industrialized waterways. BioGenesis Enterprises and Roy F. Weston, Inc. performed the first phase of an incremental decontamination demonstration with the goal of decontaminating 700 cubic yards (cy) (pilot-scale) for engineering design and cost economics information for commercial scale operations. This pilot test was completed in March, 1999. The next phase will scale-up to operation of a commercial facility capable of treating 40 cy/hr. It is anticipated that this will be completed by January 2000 (250,000 cy/yr). Manufactured topsoil is one beneficial use product from this process. Tests of two high-temperature treatment technologies are also in progress. They are well suited to produce almost complete destruction of organic compounds in moderate to highly contaminated dredged materials and for production of high-value beneficial reuse products. The Institute of Gas Technology is demonstrating a natural gas-fired thermochemical manufacturing process with an initial treatment capacity of 30,000 cy/yr into operation by the fall of 1999. Design and construction of a 100,000 cy/yr facility will be based on the

  1. Assessment of hand washing facilities, personal hygiene and the bacteriological quality of hand washes in some grocery and dairy shops in alexandria, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi, Mohamed; Gomaa, Naglaa F; Bakr, Wafaa M

    2009-01-01

    Food produced with satisfactory hygienic standards is one of the essential conditions for promoting and preserving health. A total of 15 grocery and dairy shops were randomly selected from Alexandria, Egypt to assess their hand washing facilities and personal hygiene of food handlers using a pre-designed sanitation checklist. Also the bacteriological profile of the handlers' hand washes was determined. Only 20% of these shops were acceptable concerning their hand washing facilities ((3) 50% score percentages). Observing 29 food handlers revealed that only 3.4% of them were acceptable in their personal hygiene with a mean score percentage of only 31.0 +/- 9.2. Although the hand washing method followed by the food handlers significantly decreased both aerobic mesophilic and staphylococci counts, they were still high. Moreover, fecal coliforms increased insignificantly from 5 to 7 MPN/100ml indicating that the hand washing was improperly done due several pitfalls. Most of the handlers who washed their hands for less than 10 seconds (41.4%) had higher counts of aerobic mesophiles and staphylococci than those who washed for more 10 seconds. Most of the handlers (93.1%) did not avoid contamination from the tap after hand washing. Moreover, their hand washes were contaminated with fecal coliforms (8 MPN/100ml) and with slightly higher staphylococci counts than those who avoid contamination either by rinsing a tap or closing it by elbow. Much effort should be done from the responsible authority to improve the sanitation inside these shops and food handlers should be given in-service training to know how to efficiently wash their hands.

  2. Virtual Reality Compared with Bench-Top Simulation in the Acquisition of Arthroscopic Skill: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszek, Daniel; You, Daniel; Chang, Justues; Pickell, Michael; Hesse, Daniel; Hopman, Wilma M; Borschneck, Daniel; Bardana, Davide

    2017-04-05

    Work-hour restrictions as set forth by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and other governing bodies have forced training programs to seek out new learning tools to accelerate acquisition of both medical skills and knowledge. As a result, competency-based training has become an important part of residency training. The purpose of this study was to directly compare arthroscopic skill acquisition in both high-fidelity and low-fidelity simulator models and to assess skill transfer from either modality to a cadaveric specimen, simulating intraoperative conditions. Forty surgical novices (pre-clerkship-level medical students) voluntarily participated in this trial. Baseline demographic data, as well as data on arthroscopic knowledge and skill, were collected prior to training. Subjects were randomized to 5-week independent training sessions on a high-fidelity virtual reality arthroscopic simulator or on a bench-top arthroscopic setup, or to an untrained control group. Post-training, subjects were asked to perform a diagnostic arthroscopy on both simulators and in a simulated intraoperative environment on a cadaveric knee. A more difficult surprise task was also incorporated to evaluate skill transfer. Subjects were evaluated using the Global Rating Scale (GRS), the 14-point arthroscopic checklist, and a timer to determine procedural efficiency (time per task). Secondary outcomes focused on objective measures of virtual reality simulator motion analysis. Trainees on both simulators demonstrated a significant improvement (p arthroscopic skills compared with baseline scores and untrained controls, both in and ex vivo. The virtual reality simulation group consistently outperformed the bench-top model group in the diagnostic arthroscopy crossover tests and in the simulated cadaveric setup. Furthermore, the virtual reality group demonstrated superior skill transfer in the surprise skill transfer task. Both high-fidelity and low

  3. Characterization of the effluent from a nanosilver producing washing machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Julia; Peter, Hannes; Christian, Paul; Gallego Urrea, Julián Alberto; Hassellöv, Martin; Tuoriniemi, Jani; Gustafsson, Stefan; Olsson, Eva; Hylland, Ketil; Thomas, Kevin Victor

    2011-08-01

    The increasing number of nanomaterial based consumer products raises concerns about their possible impact on the environment. This study provides an assessment of the effluent from a commercially available silver nanowashing machine. The washing machine released silver in its effluent at an average concentration of 11μgL(-1), as determined by inductive coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed by single particle ICP-MS as well as ion selective electrode measurements and filtration techniques. Size measurements showed particles to be in the defined nanosize range, with an average size of 10nm measured with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 60-100nm determined with nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). The effluent was shown to have negative effects on a natural bacterial community as its abundance was clearly reduced when exposed to the nanowash water. If washing machines capable of producing AgNPs become a common feature of households in the future, wastewater will contain significant loadings of AgNPs which might be released into the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Precipitation-filtering technology for uranium waste solution generated on washing-electrokinetic decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam, E-mail: kimsum@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Uk-Ryang; Kim, Seung-Soo; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2015-05-15

    lower than that upon injection of 0.4 g of alum. The results of industrial scale precipitation experiments were as follows. When NaOH was injected as a precipitant, the uranium radioactivity in the treated solution was the lowest of the three precipitants, and the dried sludge volume was the smallest. However, when the treated solution was recycled as a washing solution or electrolyte, K(I) ions can be accumulated in the treated solution. When Ca(OH){sub 2} was injected as a precipitant, the volume of the generated waste solution was found to increase. After drying for 24 h, the volume of sludge was reduced to 35% of the initial sludge volume. Meanwhile, a recycling process diagram for the volume reduction of waste solution generated from soil washing and electrokinetic decontamination was developed through experiments.

  5. A review of hand-washing techniques in primary care and community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sheree M S

    2009-03-01

    This review seeks to identify the most effective hand-washing and hand-cleansing practice that could be used in primary care. Healthcare associated infection is a major problem in the UK causing 5000 deaths every year. Current guidelines indicate expert opinion is the level of evidence for hand washing as an activity to reduce infection. Systematic review. Publications on hand-washing, hand-cleansing studies, policy and practice-based documents were sought by searching several databases. Terms used included hand washing, hand cleansing, hand hygiene, hand decontamination, infection control and primary care. Few articles described the hand-washing technique in detail and some publications simply referred to either the European and British Standards or the Centre for Disease Control statement on hand washing. Major discrepancies in hand position and water flow direction were found. Several methodological problems were also identified and few studies were undertaken in primary care. This review has found a lack of evidence for hand-washing techniques being undertaken in practice today. Findings from hand-washing technique studies were inconclusive and methodological issues exist resulting in sparse reliable evidence. There is an urgent need to undertake methodologically sound studies of hand-washing techniques for use in the ever expanding scope of primary care practice. Evidence for hand-washing and hand-cleansing techniques will inform healthcare professional practice, and contribute to the overall management of infection control in primary care.

  6. Examining the relationship between socio-economic status, WASH practices and wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihan, Mohammad Jyoti; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Sultana, Sabiha; Haque, Md Ahshanul; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Waid, Jillian L; McCormick, Ben; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2017-01-01

    Childhood wasting is a global problem and is significantly more pronounced in low and middle income countries like Bangladesh. Socio Economic Status (SES) and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) practices may be significantly associated with wasting. Most previous research is consistent about the role of SES, but the significance of WASH in the context of wasting remains ambiguous. The effect of SES and WASH on weight for length (WHZ) is examined using a Structural Equation Model (SEM) to explicitly describe the direct and indirect role of WASH in the context of SES.A nationally representative survey of 10,478 Bangladeshi children under 5 were examined. An expert defined SEM was used to construct latent variables for SES and WASH. The SEM included a direct pathway from SES to WHZ and an indirect pathway from SES to WHZ via WASH along with regression of relevant covariates on the outcome WHZ and the latent variables. Both SES (p<0.01) and WASH (p<0.05) significantly affect WHZ. SES (p<0.01) also significantly affects WASH. Other structural components showed that child's age (p<0.01) affects WHZ and types of residence (p<0.01) affects SES. WASH practices at least partially mediate the association between SES and wasting status. WASH and SES are both significantly associated with WHZ.

  7. Effect of Barbell Weight on the Structure of the Flat Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Henryk; Gołaś, Artur

    2017-05-01

    Król, H and Gołaś, A. Effect of barbell weight on the structure of the flat bench press. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1321-1337, 2017-In this study, we have used the multimodular measuring system SMART. The system consisted of 6 infrared cameras and a wireless module to measure muscle bioelectric activity. In addition, the path of the barbell was measured with a special device called the pantograph. Our study concerns the change in the structure of the flat bench press when the weight of the barbell is increased. The research on the bench press technique included both the causes of the motion: the internal structure of the movement and the external kinematic structure showing the effects of the motion, i.e., all the characteristics of the movement. Twenty healthy, male recreational weight trainers with at least 1 year of lifting experience (the mean ± SD = 3.3 ± 1.6 years) were recruited for this study. The subjects had a mean body mass of 80.2 ± 8.6 kg, an average height of 1.77 ± 0.08 m, and their average age was 24.7 ± 0.9 years. In the measuring session, the participants performed consecutive sets of a single repetition of bench pressing with an increasing load (about 70, 80, 90, and 100% of their 1 repetition maximum [1RM]). The results showed a significant change in the phase structure of the bench press, as the barbell weight was increased. While doing the bench press at a 100% 1RM load, the pectoralis major changes from being the prime mover to being the supportive prime mover. At the same time, the role of the prime mover is taken on by the deltoideus anterior. The triceps brachii, in particular, clearly shows a greater involvement.

  8. A bench-top K X-ray fluorescence system for quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticles for biological sample diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricketts, K., E-mail: k.ricketts@ucl.ac.uk [Division of Surgery and Interventional Sciences, University College London, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Guazzoni, C.; Castoldi, A. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria Politecnico di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano P.za Leonardo da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Royle, G. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-21

    Gold nanoparticles can be targeted to biomarkers to give functional information on a range of tumour characteristics. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques offer potential quantitative measurement of the distribution of such heavy metal nanoparticles. Biologists are developing 3D tissue engineered cellular models on the centimetre scale to optimise targeting techniques of nanoparticles to a range of tumour characteristics. Here we present a high energy bench-top K-X-ray fluorescence system designed for sensitivity to bulk measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration for intended use in such thick biological samples. Previous work has demonstrated use of a L-XRF system in measuring gold concentrations but being a low energy technique it is restricted to thin samples or superficial tumours. The presented system comprised a high purity germanium detector and filtered tungsten X-ray source, capable of quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration of thicker samples. The developed system achieved a measured detection limit of between 0.2 and 0.6 mgAu/ml, meeting specifications of biologists and being approximately one order of magnitude better than the detection limit of alternative K-XRF nanoparticle detection techniques. The scatter-corrected K-XRF signal of gold was linear with GNP concentrations down to the detection limit, thus demonstrating potential in GNP concentration quantification. The K-XRF system demonstrated between 5 and 9 times less sensitivity than a previous L-XRF bench-top system, due to a fundamental limitation of lower photoelectric interaction probabilities at higher K-edge energies. Importantly, the K-XRF technique is however less affected by overlying thickness, and so offers future potential in interrogating thick biological samples.

  9. Test bench HEATREC for heat loss measurement on solar receiver tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, José M.; López-Martín, Rafael; Valenzuela, Loreto; Zarza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) plants the thermal energy of solar radiation is absorbed by solar receiver tubes (HCEs) and it is transferred to a heat transfer fluid. Therefore, heat losses of receiver tubes have a direct influence on STE plants efficiency. A new test bench called HEATREC has been developed by Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in order to determinate the heat losses of receiver tubes under laboratory conditions. The innovation of this test bench consists in the possibility to determine heat losses under controlled vacuum.

  10. Attentional focus and grip width influences on bench press resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different attentional foci for varied grip widths in the bench press. Eighteen resistance-trained men were familiarized with the procedure and performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM) test during Session 1. In Session 2, they used three different standardized...... grip widths (100%, 150%, and 200% of biacromial width distance) in random order at 50% of 1RM while also engaged in three different attention focus conditions (external focus on the bench press, internal focus on pectoralis major muscles, and internal focus on triceps brachii muscles). Surface...

  11. Neuromuscular Control During the Bench Press Movement in an Elite Disabled and Able-Bodied Athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołaś Artur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The disabled population varies significantly in regard to physical fitness, what is conditioned by the damage to the locomotor system. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability. One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is one of the most popular resistance exercises used for the upper body in healthy individuals. It is used not only by powerlifters, but also by athletes in most strength-speed oriented sport disciplines. The objective of the study was to compare neuromuscular control for various external loads (from 60 to 100% 1RM during the flat bench press performed by an elite able-bodied athlete and an athlete with lower limb disability. The research project is a case study of two elite bench press athletes with similar sport results: an able-bodied athlete (M.W., age 34 years, body mass 103 kg, body height 1.72 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 200 kg and a disabled athlete (M.T., age 31 years, body mass 92 kg, body height 1.70 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 190 kg. The activity was recorded for four muscles: pectoralis major (PM, anterior deltoid (AD, as well as for the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii (TBlat and TBlong. The T-test revealed statistically significant differences between peak activity of all the considered muscles (AD with p = 0.001; PM with p = 0.001; TBlat with p = 0.0021 and TBlong with p = 0.002 between the 2 athletes. The analysis of peak activity differences of M.W and M.T. in relation to the load revealed statistically significant differences for load changes between: 60 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.007, 70 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.016 and 80 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.032. The flat bench press performed without legs resting firmly on the ground leads to the increased engagement of upper body muscles and to their greater activation. Isolated initial positions can be used to

  12. Design and construction of a test bench to characterize the charging and discharging behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roggendorf, Christoph; Blank, Tobias; Thomas, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Battery energy storage systems are able to compensate volatile energy sources, such as wind and solar energy. One system topology for medium voltage grids uses high voltage batteries. This yields in an improvement of the overall system efficiency. High voltage batteries may be advantageous...... these processes for different battery technologies. A special safety infrastructure for the test bench must be developed due to the high voltage and the storable energy of approximately 120 kWh. This paper presents the layout of the test bench with all components, the safety requirements with the resultant safety...

  13. The optical alignment of the Gemini planet imager adaptive optics bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazder, John; Bauman, Brian; Dillon, Daren; Fletcher, Murray; Lacoursière, Jean; Reshetov, Vlad

    2012-09-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a facility instrument under construction for the 8-m Gemini South telescope. This paper describes the methods used for optical alignment of the adaptive optics (AO) bench. The optical alignment of the off-axis paraboloid mirrors was done using a pre-alignment method utilizing a HeNe laser and alignment telescopes followed by a fine-tuning using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a shear plate. A FARO arm measuring system was used to place the fiducials for the alignment. Using these methods the AO bench was aligned to 13nm RMS of wavefront error.

  14. Neuromuscular Control During the Bench Press Movement in an Elite Disabled and Able-Bodied Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzchowska, Anna; Maszczyk, Adam; Wilk, Michał; Stastny, Petr; Zając, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The disabled population varies significantly in regard to physical fitness, what is conditioned by the damage to the locomotor system. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability. One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is one of the most popular resistance exercises used for the upper body in healthy individuals. It is used not only by powerlifters, but also by athletes in most strength-speed oriented sport disciplines. The objective of the study was to compare neuromuscular control for various external loads (from 60 to 100% 1RM) during the flat bench press performed by an elite able-bodied athlete and an athlete with lower limb disability. The research project is a case study of two elite bench press athletes with similar sport results: an able-bodied athlete (M.W., age 34 years, body mass 103 kg, body height 1.72 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 200 kg) and a disabled athlete (M.T., age 31 years, body mass 92 kg, body height 1.70 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 190 kg). The activity was recorded for four muscles: pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), as well as for the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii (TBlat and TBlong). The T-test revealed statistically significant differences between peak activity of all the considered muscles (AD with p = 0.001; PM with p = 0.001; TBlat with p = 0.0021 and TBlong with p = 0.002) between the 2 athletes. The analysis of peak activity differences of M.W and M.T. in relation to the load revealed statistically significant differences for load changes between: 60 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.007), 70 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.016) and 80 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.032). The flat bench press performed without legs resting firmly on the ground leads to the increased engagement of upper body muscles and to their greater activation. Isolated initial positions can be used to

  15. Effect of a school-based hand washing promotion program on knowledge and hand washing behavior of girl students in a middle school of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ankur; Taneja, Davendra Kumar; Badhan, Suresh Kumar; Ingle, Gopal Krishan

    2013-01-01

    The intervention study was conducted in a school of New Delhi to assess the effect of a school based hand-washing promotion program on knowledge and hand-washing behavior among school children and extent of information sharing with parents. Intervention was carried out on randomly selected 300 students (100 each from 6th class to 8th class) with 281 students being part of the final analysis. Tools of the study were hand-washing questionnaire and household survey performa; essay, poster, slogan writing competition; classroom interactions. Data were analyzed in the SPSS 16.0 software and Mcnemar test and Student paired t-test were used. After the program, 95% felt that hand should be washed frequently. Overall, there was a significant improvement in the knowledge regarding hand-washing and frequency of hand-washing practices after the intervention. 42% children shared this information with their parents. The intervention proved effective in improving awareness and highlights the potential of school for hand-washing promotion activities.

  16. How often do you wash your hands? A review of studies of hand-washing practices in the community during and after the SARS outbreak in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac C-H; Cairncross, Sandy

    2007-06-01

    We reviewed evidence of hand-washing compliance in community settings during the 2003 SARS outbreak. Literature was searched through PubMed, Cochrane Library, Wan Fang database and Google. English and Chinese papers were reviewed. Studies containing data on hand-washing, self-reported or directly observed, in community settings were selected. Case-control studies and studies in healthcare settings were excluded. Fourteen studies were reviewed. Self-reported hand-washing compliance increased in the first phase of the SARS outbreak and maintained a high level 22 months after the outbreak. The decline of hand-washing in Hong Kong after SARS was relatively slow. A significant gender difference in hand-washing compliance (female > male) was found in eight studies. The importance of family support and 'significant female others' in hand hygiene promotion are noted. The impact of education is uncertain. Perceived susceptibility to and severity of SARS, and perceived efficacy of hand-washing in preventing SARS, also predicted self-reported hand-washing compliance.

  17. Effects of egg washing and storage temperature on the quality of eggshell cuticle and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Wu, Ying-Chen; Lee, Yi-Chain; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2016-11-15

    This study investigated the quality of washed and unwashed eggs stored at 7°C (WC and UC for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) and 25°C (WR and UR for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) for 4weeks. The results show that the Haugh unit, albumin pH, thick albumin ratio, yolk index, air cell size, and S-ovalbumin content of UC were significantly the most superior, followed by those of WC, WR, and UR, in that order. Scanning electron microscopy and cuticle staining confirmed the damages and decreased cuticle coverage caused by washing and extended storage. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that cuticle composition changed significantly after washing and storage (Pegg quality, and egg washing reduced cuticle coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ExoGeoLab Test Bench for Landers, Rovers and Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    2009-04-01

    In the frame of ESTEC technology and research pilot project, we have started a small pilot facility with a ExoGeoLab and a mini-Habitat, supported by two design and control offices in the European Space Incubator (ESI), as well as infrastructure support and manpower. We have in addition to contribution on external instruments and manpower from partner institutes. From this test bench and kit of ExoGeoLab instruments, we plan to operate comprehensive instruments packages that could help in the technical research and science preparation of lander/rover missions studied in the frame of Cosmic Vision or the Exploration programme. The ExoGeoLab research incubator project includes a sequence of activities: - Data analysis and interpretation of remote sensing data (MEX, SMART-1, VEX, Cassini-Huygens) and in-situ (Huygens, MER) , and merging of multi-scale data sets - Procurement and integration of geophysical, geochemical and astrobiological breadboard instruments in an surface station and rover (ExoGeoLab) - Research operations and exploitation of ExoGeoLab test bench for various conceptual configurations (Moon, Mars, NEO, Titan) - Contribution to the exploitation of surface lander results (MER, Phenix, MSL, preparation Exomars) - Scientific simulation of planetary surfaces using laboratory and modelling tools - Support research for definition and design of science surface packages on the Moon, Mars, NEO, Titan - Research support to community preparation of payload for surface lander opportunities Specific goals and methods of ESTEC ExoGeoLab: we have started to integrate instruments in an ExoGeoLab crossing various techniques. The methodic steps for this hands-on research are: 1) We have procured and adapted instruments to equip a mid-size ExoGeoRover (made available in collaboration with ESTEC robotics section), and a small surface station. 2) This terrestrial payload (instruments, sensors, data handling) will be deployed, operated and used as collaborative research

  19. Cell saver autologous transfusion: metabolic consequences of washing blood with normal saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, N A; Alicea, M; Seabrook, B; Spungen, A M; McElhinney, A J; Greenstein, R J

    1996-09-01

    To evaluate acid-base and electrolyte changes in high volume cell saver autologous blood transfusion when normal saline (0.9% NaCl) is used as the wash solution. Open-label study. Nine anesthetized and anticoagulated mongrel dogs underwent 15 cycles of cell saver autologous blood transfusion. Eight percent of the circulating blood volume (125 mL) was withdrawn, washed with normal saline, and retransfused for each cycle. Analyses of acid-base, electrolyte, and hematologic parameters were performed on both systemic and the washed blood. The washed blood had increased levels of sodium and chloride. There were decreased levels in pH, Pco2, total CO2 (bicarbonate), lactic acid, potassium, total and ionized calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, total protein, and albumin. Systemically, in the animals, by the end of the study, there were significant increases in the levels of chloride, inorganic phosphorus, hemoglobin, and hematocrit and significant decreases in the levels of pH, total CO2, total and ionized calcium, magnesium, total protein, and albumin. Acid-base, electrolyte, and hematologic changes occur when normal saline is used as the wash solution in high volume cell saver autologous blood transfusion. The washed blood with its elevation of sodium and chloride appears to reflect the constituents of the wash solution, normal saline. The depletion in the washed blood of PCO2, total CO2, potassium, total calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, total protein, and albumin we feel is because of the absence of these electrolytes in the wash solution and their physical removal during salvaged blood separation and washing. The systemic acid-base and electrolyte changes primarily reflect the electrolyte pattern of the reinfused washed blood except for inorganic phosphorus. Inorganic phosphorus was maintained systemically, despite its wash out in the cell salvage process. This paradoxical finding may be caused by intracellular to extracellular inorganic

  20. Factors influencing hand washing behaviour in primary schools: process evaluation within a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomised controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n=16, ages 6 to 11, semi-structured interviews (n=16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n=57). Pupils and staff in intervention and control schools demonstrated a similar level of understanding of how, when and why they should wash their hands. Lack of time...

  1. Scaling up for the industrial production of rifamycin B; optimization of the process conditions in bench-scale fermentor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewaida F. El-Sedawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of fermentation process conditions using a gene amplified variant of Amycolatopsis mediterranei (NCH was carried out. The use of aeration level 1.5 vvm increased the yield by 16.6% (from 13.81 to 16.1 g/l upon controlling the temperature at 28 °C. Adjustment of the aeration level at 1.5 vvm for 3 days then controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO at 30% saturation further increased the yield to 17.8 g/l. The optimum pH was 6.5 for 3 days then 7 thereafter when a production yield of 16.1 g/l was recorded using an aeration rate of 1.5 vvm. Controlling the pH at constant value (6.5 or 7 all through the fermentation process decreased the yield by 5–21%. Controlling the temperature at 30 °C for 3 days then 28 °C thereafter slightly increased the yield by 5% upon using an aeration rate of 1 vvm while it decreased upon using an aeration rate of 1.5 vvm. Integration of the most optimum conditions increased the production yield by 22% from 13.81 to 17.8 g/l.

  2. Effect of a school-based hand washing promotion program on knowledge and hand washing behavior of girl students in a middle school of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Ankur Garg; Davendra Kumar Taneja; Suresh Kumar Badhan; Gopal Krishan Ingle

    2013-01-01

    The intervention study was conducted in a school of New Delhi to assess the effect of a school based hand-washing promotion program on knowledge and hand-washing behavior among school children and extent of information sharing with parents. Intervention was carried out on randomly selected 300 students (100 each from 6th class to 8th class) with 281 students being part of the final analysis. Tools of the study were hand-washing questionnaire and household survey performa; essay, poster, sloga...

  3. Wash durability and optimal drying regimen of four brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets after repeated washing under tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieli Francis K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was undertaken to determine the optimal wash-drying regimen and the effects of different washing procedures on the efficacy, and durability of four brands of newly introduced long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs under tropical conditions. Methods In the current study, the following four LLINs were tested: Olyset®, PermaNet ®2.0, BASF® and TNT®. Nets were divided into three sets; one set was washed by hand rubbing and air-dried either hanging or spread on the ground in direct sunlight or hanging or spread on the ground under the shade. A second set was washed using the WHO protocol (machine and the third set was washed by beating the nets on rocks. The biological activities of the nets were assessed by a three-minute bioassay cone test and the residual insecticide contents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure. Results Nets that were dried hanging under the shade retained more insecticide, 62.5% and recorded higher mortality compared to nets which were dried lying on the ground in direct sunlight 58.8%, nets dried under the shade spread on the ground 56.3%, and 57.8% for nets dried hanging in direct sunlight. It was also observed that nets washed by the standard WHO protocol, retained more insecticide and were more effective in killing mosquitoes compared to nets washed by local methods of hand rubbing and beating on rocks. There were significant differences between drying regimens (p ® and TNT there were no significant differences observed between the four drying regimens (p = 0.7944 and 0.4703 respectively. For BASF and Olyset, the differences were significant (p 0.0001. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that washing and drying regimen influence the insecticidal activity of LLINs. The standard WHOPES washing protocol underestimates the amount of insecticide washed from LLINs compared to the abrasive washing procedures that are used in the field

  4. Washing of cut persimmon with thyme or lemon essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Celia; Castelló, María L; Tarrazó, José; Ortolá, María D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally processed persimmon product by applying different concentrations of thyme essential oil or lemon essential oil on the product in order to increase its shelf life. Essential oils were applied on cut persimmon in a preliminary stage of immersion, and the samples were then stored at 4 ℃ for seven days. Moisture content, soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, pH, optical and mechanical properties and microbiology counts were periodically analysed. Noteworthy was that the application of thyme essential oil in the washing stage improved the preservation of the fruits' colour. All samples would be considered safe according to microbiology requirements and based on the period of study, regardless of the type of essential oil applied. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. [Biosynthesis of enniatin by washed cells of Fusarium sambucinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasian, A E; Chermenskĭ, D N; Bezborodov, A M

    1979-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the depsipeptide membrane ionophore--enniatin B by the washed mycelium Fusarium sambucinum Fuck 52 377 was studied. Metabolic precursors of enniatin B, alpha-ketovaleric acid, 14C-L-valine, and 14CH3-methionine, were added to the system after starvation. The amino acid content in the metabolic pool increased 1.5 times after addition of alpha-ketovaleric acid, 2.2 times after that of valine, and 2.5 times after addition of methionine. 14C-L-valine and 14CH3-methionine were incorporated into the molecule of enniatin B. Valine methylation in the molecule occurred at the level of synthesized depsipeptide. Amino acids of the metabolic pool performed the regulatory function in the synthesis.

  6. Suspended Sediment and Phosphorus Removal in a Woodchip Filter System Treating Agricultural Wash Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Tahina; Robertson, Will Dean; Finnigan, Darryl S

    2016-05-01

    Woodchip filters have received attention in recent years for their ability to sustain denitrification activity across multiyear time frames. However, in some freshwater aquatic ecosystems, P rather than N is the nutrient considered most responsible for eutrophication. Previous studies have indicated that woodchip filters have limited ability to remove dissolved P, but in agricultural terrain, P export in watercourses is often dominated by particulate P (PP). Woodchip media, because of their high porosity and permeability and the surface roughness of the particles, could be effective for PP removal. In this study, we tested a woodchip filter for its ability to remove suspended sediment and associated PP at a farm in southern Ontario, Canada, where vegetable wash water with extremely high total suspended solids (TSS) was generated. The treatment system consisted of a 12.3-m concrete sedimentation tank and a slightly larger woodchip filter (16.1 m) installed in a subsurface trench. During 7 mo of full-scale operation, treating 10.8 m d, the filter system removed 71% of influent total P (TP) averaging 8.8 mg L and 99% of TSS averaging 5800 mg L, with most of the removal occurring in the tank and a lesser amount (6-16%) occurring in the woodchip filter. Almost all of the TP removal was associated with PP (91% removal) because dissolved P, averaging 1.5 mg L in the wash water, was little changed. Woodchip filters, when coupled with a solids settling tank, have the potential to provide high-capacity, low-maintenance treatment of suspended solids and associated particulate P in turbid waters. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Conversion of Bench Demonstration Using the Overhead Projector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A. H.; Al-Shuaili, Ali

    2001-01-01

    Presents a new technique for projecting science demonstrations, enabling a larger number of students to see the demonstration without scaling up the experiment. Describes innovative attachments that magnify projector images using mirrors, solutions to the problem of convergent test tubes, development of overhead projection experiments, necessary…

  8. Contact allergens and irritants in household washing and cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano, Michela; Silvani, Simonetta; Vincenzi, Colombina; Nino, Massimiliano; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-12-01

    Household cleaning products often contain potential allergens and irritants but allergic contact dermatitis from these products in general consumers is rarely reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of irritants and allergens as indicated on the labels or on the product information found on the website of household cleaning products marketed in Italy. We examined the labels and the product information of 291 liquid household washing and cleaning products, including 43 washing-up liquids, 63 laundry detergents, 61 fabric conditioners, 47 spray detergents, and 77 hard surface cleaning products. We obtained the data from the product information found on the websites for 263 products and directly on the product packages for 28 products. For each product we specifically recorded the presence of surfactants, preservatives, and fragrances listed in Annex III of Directive 76/768/EEC. The websites of two Italian brands do not respect EU regulations as they provide product information only with bar codes of the products. Preservatives and fragrances are the main allergens declared in the label of household cleaning products with methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) listed in 35.7% and limonene in 43.6% of the products. Surfactants were listed in 16.5% of the studied products. Our study shows that household cleaning products in Italian market contain several allergens, particularly preservatives and fragrances. For consumers, at least in Italy, it may not be easy to retrieve product information from the website for two widely sold brands. The information had to be taken from the actual package.

  9. Chelator induced phytoextraction and in situ soil washing of Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, Bostjan; Lestan, Domen

    2004-11-01

    In a soil column experiment, we investigated the effect of 5 mmol kg{sup -1} soil addition of citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) and [S,S]-stereoisomer of ethylenediamine-disuccinate (EDDS) on phytoextraction of Cu from a vineyard soil with 162.6 mg kg{sup -1} Cu, into the test plant Brassica rapa var. pekinensis. We also examined the use of a horizontal permeable barrier, composed of layers of nutrient enriched sawdust and apatite, for reduction of chelator induced Cu leaching. The addition of all chelators, except citric acid, enhanced Cu mobility and caused leaching of 19.5-23% of initial total Cu from the soil column. However, Cu plant uptake did not increase accordingly; the most effective was the EDDS treatment, in which plant Cu concentration reached 37.8{+-}1.3 mg kg{sup -1} Cu and increased by 3.3-times over the control treatment. The addition of none of the chelators in the concentration range from 5 to 15 mmol kg{sup -1} exerted any toxic effect on respiratory soil microorganisms. When EDDS was applied into the columns with horizontal permeable barriers, only 0.53{+-}0.32% of the initial total Cu was leached. Cu (36.7%) was washed from the 18 cm soil layer above the barrier and accumulated in the barrier. Our results indicate that rather than for a reduction of Cu leaching during rather ineffective chelate induced Cu phytoextraction, horizontal permeable barriers could be more effective in a new remediation technique of controlled in situ soil washing of Cu with biodegradable chelates.

  10. Harmony: A Hand Wash Monitoring and Reminder System using Smart Watches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Sayeed Mondol

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hand hygiene compliance is extremely important in hospitals, clinics and food businesses. Caregivers' compliance with hand hygiene is one of the most effective tools in preventing healthcare associated infections (HAIs in hospitals and clinics. In food businesses, hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent food contamination, and thus food borne illness. Washing hands properly is the cornerstone of hand hygiene. However, the hand wash compliance rate by the workers (care givers, waiters, chefs, food processors and so on is not up to the mark. Monitoring hand wash compliance along with a reminder system increases the compliance rate significantly. Quality of a hand wash is also important which can be achieved by washing hands in accordance with standard guidelines. In this paper, we present Harmony, a hand wash monitoring and reminder system that monitors hand wash events and their quality, provides real time feedback, reminds the person of interest when he/she is required to wash hands, and stores related data in a server for further use. Worker worn smart watches are the key components of Harmony that can differentiate hand wash gestures from other gestures with an average accuracy of about 88%. Harmony is robust, scalable, and easy to install, and it overcomes most of the problems of existing related systems.

  11. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.

    2009-07-01

    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  12. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic habits and seasonal influenza infection. We conducted a case-control study to test whether the risk of influenza transmission associated with self-reported hand-washing and unhealthy hygienic habits among residents in Fujian Province, southeastern China. Laboratory confirmed seasonal influenza cases were consecutively included in the study as case-patients (n = 100). For each case, we selected 1 control person matched for age and city of residence. Telephone interview was used to collect information on hand-washing and hygienic habits. The associations were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the poorest hand-washing score of 0 to 3, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased progressively from 0.26 to 0.029 as hand-washing score increased from 4 to the maximum of 9 (P hand-washing score, providing soap or hand cleaner beside the hand-washing basin, and receiving influenza vaccine. Regular hand-washing and good hygienic habits were associated with a reduced risk of influenza infection. These findings support the general recommendation for nonpharmaceutical interventions against influenza. PMID:26986125

  13. Hand washing practice among health care workers in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S K; Joshi, A; Park, B J; Aryal, U R

    2013-01-01

    Health care associated infection has been identified as one of the major challenges of modern medicine and remains as a major health concern around the globe. Hands of the health-care workers are potential vehicle for transmission of pathogenic organisms within the healthcare environment. Hand washing is widely accepted as one of the most effective measures in prevention of health care associated infections. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the hand washing practice among the doctors, intern doctors, nurses, medical students and nursing students in a multi specialty, non government tertiary care teaching hospital in Kathmandu. Summary statistics and chi-square tests were performed and the type I error was set at 0.05 for analysis. Out of the total 336 participants of the study, there was significant difference in hand washing practice among the participants (PHand washing practice both before and after the patient examination was found to be highest among the nursing students followed by the nurses. The frequency of hand washing after exposure to hospital instruments, blood or other body fluids among the participants was remarkably high (more than 90%) in all groups. Nearly 99% of the participants agreed upon the fact that hand washing could be an effective measure in preventing health care associated infections. The healthcare workers understand the importance of hand washing but tend to wash their hands selectively depending upon the indications. The majority of the health care workers wash their hands after the patient care than before.

  14. How Adequate is your CV? Analyzing French CVs with ReaderBench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutu, Gabriel; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Lepoivre, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at presenting a new ReaderBench-based tool built to support candidates in increasing the quality of their CV for a job opening. Both the visual quality and the textual content are considered while also providing an overview and corresponding feedback for the entire CV.

  15. Characterization benches for neutrino telescope Optical Modules at the APC laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avgitas Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As has been demonstrated by the first generation of neutrino telescopes Antares and IceCube, precise knowledge of the photon detection efficiency of optical modules is of fundamental importance for the understanding of the instrument and accurate event reconstruction. Dedicated test benches have been developed to measure all related quantities for the Digital Optical Modules of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope being currently deployed in the Mediterranean sea. The first bench is a black box with robotic arms equipped with a calibrated single photon source or laser which enable a precise mapping of the detection efficiency at arbitrary incident angles as well as precise measurements of the time delays induced by the photodetection chain. These measurement can be incorporated and compared to full GEANT MonteCarlo simulations of the optical modules. The second bench is a 2 m×2 m ×2 m water tank equipped with muon hodoscopes on top and bottom. It enables to study and measure the angular dependence of the DOM's detection efficiency of the Cherenkov light produced in water by relativistic muons, thus reproducing in situ detection conditions. We describe these two benches and present their first results and status.

  16. The effects of variable resistance using chains on bench throw performance in trained rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Mark S; Fernandes, John F T; Twist, Craig

    2018-01-03

    This study sought to determine the effects of variable resistance using chain resistance on bench throw performance. Eight male rugby union players (19.4 ± 2.3 y, 88.8 ± 6.0 kg, 1RM 105.6 ± 17.0 kg) were recruited from a national league team. In a randomised cross-over design participant's performed three bench throws at 45% one repetition maximum (1RM) at a constant load (No Chains) or a variable load (30% 1RM constant load, 15% 1RM variable load; Chains) with seven days between conditions. For each repetition the peak and mean velocity, peak power, peak acceleration and time to peak velocity were recorded. Differences in peak and mean power were very likely trivial and unclear between the Chains and No Chains conditions, respectively. Possibly greater peak and likely greater mean bar velocity were accompanied by likely to most likely greater bar velocity between 50-400 ms from initiation of bench press in the Chains compared to the No Chains condition. Accordingly, bar acceleration was very likely greater in the Chains compared to the No Chains condition. In conclusion, these results show that the inclusion of chain resistance can acutely enhance several variables in the bench press throw and gives support to this type of training.

  17. Qualification of the LHC Corrector Magnet Production with the CERN-built Measurement Benches

    CERN Document Server

    Giloux, C; Mugnai, G; Remondino, V; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Viret, P; Walckiers, L; Wolf, R

    2008-01-01

    The LHC will incorporate about 7600 superconducting single aperture corrector magnets mounted in the main magnet cold masses. In order to follow up their production, we have designed and built 12 different benches for warm magnetic measurements based on rotating coils. Each bench was manufactured in two copies, one installed at the industry sites and the other kept at CERN for cross checks and monitoring of the measurement quality. These systems measure the main field, the field quality and the position and orientation of the field relative to the mechanical construction, all properties that are required for an effective use of the magnets. After calibration, the benches automatically refer the measured quantities to the mechanical interfaces used to align the correctors in the cold masses (pin holes or keys). In this paper we evaluate the global uncertainty achieved with the benches and compare the field measurements performed at room temperature in industry with measurements at 1.9 K performed at CERN on sa...

  18. ReaderBench goes Online: A Comprehension-Centered Framework for Educational Purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutu, Gabriel; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Dessus, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the online version of our ReaderBench framework, which includes multi-lingual comprehension-centered web services designed to address a wide range of individual and collaborative learning scenarios, as follows. First, students can be engaged in reading a course

  19. Low-load bench press and push-up induce similar muscle hypertrophy and strength gain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naoki Kikuchi; Koichi Nakazato

    2017-01-01

    ...) bench press on muscle hypertrophy and strength gain in men. Methods: Eighteen male participants (age, 20.2 ± 0.73 years, range: 19−22 years, height: 169.8 ± 4.4 cm, weight: 64.5 ± 4.7 kg...

  20. A Bench Measurement of the Energy Loss of a Stored Beam to a Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M; Rees, J.; /SLAC

    2016-12-19

    A rather simple electronic bench experiment is proposed for obtaining a measure of the impulse energy loss of a stored particle bunch to an rf cavity or other vacuum-chamber structure--the so-called "cavity radiation". The proposed method is analyzed in some detail.