WorldWideScience

Sample records for warm intrusive bodies

  1. Warm Bodies: A Student Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schario, Tracy A.

    A participant in forensic tournament competition presents her perspective as well as overall student reaction to the function of "warm bodies," competitors who are entered in a tournament by the coach or tournament director only to meet qualifying requirements. Overall, participants in an informal survey believed that the warm body…

  2. Intrusion of Magmatic Bodies Into the Continental Crust: 3-D Numerical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyk, Weronika; Vogt, Katharina

    2018-03-01

    Magma intrusion is a major material transfer process in the Earth's continental crust. Yet the mechanical behavior of the intruding magma and its host are a matter of debate. In this study we present a series of numerical thermomechanical simulations on magma emplacement in 3-D. Our results demonstrate the response of the continental crust to magma intrusion. We observe change in intrusion geometries between dikes, cone sheets, sills, plutons, ponds, funnels, finger-shaped and stock-like intrusions, and injection time. The rheology and temperature of the host are the main controlling factors in the transition between these different modes of intrusion. Viscous deformation in the warm and deep crust favors host rock displacement and plutons at the crust-mantle boundary forming deep-seated plutons or magma ponds in the lower to middle crust. Brittle deformation in the cool and shallow crust induces cone-shaped fractures in the host rock and enables emplacement of finger- or stock-like intrusions at shallow or intermediate depth. Here the passage of magmatic and hydrothermal fluids from the intrusion through the fracture pattern may result in the formation of ore deposits. A combination of viscous and brittle deformation forms funnel-shaped intrusions in the middle crust. Intrusion of low-density magma may more over result in T-shaped intrusions in cross section with magma sheets at the surface.

  3. Linking The Atlantic Gyres: Warm, Saline Intrusions From Subtropical Atlantic to the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa M.; Rhines, P. B.

    2010-01-01

    Ocean state estimates from SODA assimilation are analyzed to understand how major shifts in the North Atlantic Current path relate to AMOC, and how these shifts are related to large scale ocean circulation and surface forcing. These complement surface-drifter and altimetry data showing the same events. SODA data indicate that the warm water limb of AMOC, reaching to at least 600m depth, expanded in density/salinity space greatly after 1995, and that Similar events occurred in the late 1960s and around 1980. While there were large changes in the upper limb, there was no immediate response in the dense return flow, at least not in SODA, however one would expect a delayed response of increasing AMOC due to the positive feedback from increased salt transport. These upper limb changes are winddriven, involving changes in the eastern subpolar gyre, visible in the subduction of low potential vorticity waters. The subtropical gyre has been weak during the times of the northward intrusions of the highly saline subtropical waters, while the NAO index has been neutral or in a negative phase. The image of subtropical/subpolar gyre exchange through teleconnections within the AMOC overturning cell will be described.

  4. Deforestation and stream warming affect body size of Amazonian fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilha, Paulo; Schiesari, Luis; Yanagawa, Fernando I; Jankowski, KathiJo; Navas, Carlos A

    2018-01-01

    Declining body size has been suggested to be a universal response of organisms to rising temperatures, manifesting at all levels of organization and in a broad range of taxa. However, no study to date evaluated whether deforestation-driven warming could trigger a similar response. We studied changes in fish body size, from individuals to assemblages, in streams in Southeastern Amazonia. We first conducted sampling surveys to validate the assumption that deforestation promoted stream warming, and to test the hypothesis that warmer deforested streams had reduced fish body sizes relative to cooler forest streams. As predicted, deforested streams were up to 6 °C warmer and had fish 36% smaller than forest streams on average. This body size reduction could be largely explained by the responses of the four most common species, which were 43-55% smaller in deforested streams. We then conducted a laboratory experiment to test the hypothesis that stream warming as measured in the field was sufficient to cause a growth reduction in the dominant fish species in the region. Fish reared at forest stream temperatures gained mass, whereas those reared at deforested stream temperatures lost mass. Our results suggest that deforestation-driven stream warming is likely to be a relevant factor promoting observed body size reductions, although other changes in stream conditions, like reductions in organic matter inputs, can also be important. A broad scale reduction in fish body size due to warming may be occurring in streams throughout the Amazonian Arc of Deforestation, with potential implications for the conservation of Amazonian fish biodiversity and food supply for people around the Basin.

  5. Deforestation and stream warming affect body size of Amazonian fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Fernando I.; Jankowski, KathiJo; Navas, Carlos A.

    2018-01-01

    Declining body size has been suggested to be a universal response of organisms to rising temperatures, manifesting at all levels of organization and in a broad range of taxa. However, no study to date evaluated whether deforestation-driven warming could trigger a similar response. We studied changes in fish body size, from individuals to assemblages, in streams in Southeastern Amazonia. We first conducted sampling surveys to validate the assumption that deforestation promoted stream warming, and to test the hypothesis that warmer deforested streams had reduced fish body sizes relative to cooler forest streams. As predicted, deforested streams were up to 6 °C warmer and had fish 36% smaller than forest streams on average. This body size reduction could be largely explained by the responses of the four most common species, which were 43–55% smaller in deforested streams. We then conducted a laboratory experiment to test the hypothesis that stream warming as measured in the field was sufficient to cause a growth reduction in the dominant fish species in the region. Fish reared at forest stream temperatures gained mass, whereas those reared at deforested stream temperatures lost mass. Our results suggest that deforestation-driven stream warming is likely to be a relevant factor promoting observed body size reductions, although other changes in stream conditions, like reductions in organic matter inputs, can also be important. A broad scale reduction in fish body size due to warming may be occurring in streams throughout the Amazonian Arc of Deforestation, with potential implications for the conservation of Amazonian fish biodiversity and food supply for people around the Basin. PMID:29718960

  6. Thermodynamic Limits of Body Dimension of Warm Blooded Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborn, Boye K.

    2000-05-01

    The metabolic rates Г o = aoM 0.73 [W], a 0 = 3.6, of animals of different body masses M [kg] determines their heat production Q' and their mechanical power output P. The metabolic heat production of small warm blooded animals living in a cold environment sets lower size limits for the body mass of birds and terrestrial mammals of Mt,b ≥ 0.01 kg and Maq ≥ 10 kg for fast aquatic mammals. Birds must travel at the speed υfl = 15M 1/6 [m/s] in order to stay aloft, but their muscles only generate the metabolic velocity υ Г ≤≈ 50M -0.25 [m/s]. These conditions yield an upper body size limit for flying birds: Mb ,max ≤ 15 kg. Walking speeds scale with body mass as υ walk ∝ M 1/6, while propagation speeds for endurance running are nearly independent of body mass. This makes walking faster than endurance running for animals with body masses M ≥ 600 kg.

  7. Geology, alteration, age dating and petrogenesis of intrusive bodies in Halak Abad prospect area, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Ghourchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Halak Abad prospect occurs in the northeastern part of Central Iran zone (Sabzevar structural zone. In this investigation, geochemical evolution, age and source of part of northeastern Iran magmatic arc (intrusive bodies in Halak Abad area in the Khorasan Razavi province has been studied. The exposed rocks consist of volcanic rocks with andesite and dacite nature, limestone, plutonic rocks mostly diorite, quartz diorite, monzodiorite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite and granite and sedimentary rocks such as limestone, sandstone and conglomerate. Magnetic susceptibility of intrusive rocks is >100 × 10-5 SI, so they belong to the magnetite-series (oxidized. This magmatism is mainly low-K (tholeiite series and meta-aluminous. The amounts of Zr, Th, Nb and Ti show depletion compared to N-MORB. Trace elements behavior shows a nearly flat pattern. Age of granodiorite body based on U-Pb zircon dating is 99.7±1.8 Ma (Mid-Cretaceous and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio is 0.7047. The geochemical signature and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio in the area suggest volcanic arc magmatism in subduction zone. This magmatism has characteristic such as high Na2O (3-7 %, low K2O (0.12-1 %, high CaO (4-5.7%, low Rb (1-20 ppm, low total REE (<40 ppm, high Ba/Nb, Sm/Yb<2, (La/YbN<5, 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio < 0.7045 and εNd: +4.5 show differences with normal granitoids in subduction zones. Geochemical and petrological characteristics indicate melting in relatively low pressure (shallow depth. The lines of evidence demonstrate that formation of this granitoid needs a suprasubduction zone.

  8. Phytoplankton response to winter warming modified by large-bodied zooplankton: an experimental microcosm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu He

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While several field investigations have demonstrated significant effects of cool season (winter or spring warming on phytoplankton development, the role played by large-bodied zooplankton grazers for the responses of phytoplankton to winter warming is ambiguous. We conducted an outdoor experiment to compare the effect of winter warming (heating by 3°C in combination with presence and absence of Daphnia grazing (D. similis on phytoplankton standing crops and community structure under eutrophic conditions. When Daphnia were absent, warming was associated with significant increases in phytoplankton biomass and cyanobacterial dominance. In contrast, when Daphnia were present, warming effects on phytoplankton dynamics were offset by warming-enhanced grazing, resulting in no significant change in biomass or taxonomic dominance. These results emphasize that large-bodied zooplankton like Daphnia spp. may play an important role in modulating the interactions between climate warming and phytoplankton dynamics in nutrient rich lake ecosystems.

  9. Comparison of body conformation of Moravian warm-blooded horse and Sarvar horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šamková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 7 body measures and 6 indices of body conformation on 34 breeding individuals of Moravian warm-blooded horse and 19 of Sarvar horse (Leutstettener were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Czech Republik, Germany, sire lines or breed (Furioso, Przedswit, English thoroughbred, Sarvar, Others and age (4 classes. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by GLM procedure. Significant differences were found between both Czech and German population only in index of body frame. Sarvar horses are longer to their height than Moravian warm-blooded horses. The shorter body frame have the horses by English thoroughbred, the longer by Furioso. The younger horses are higher than the older. According to results of Linear Description of Body Conformation we found out, that population of Sarvar horse is more balanced than population of Moravian warm-blooded horse.

  10. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Garzke

    Full Text Available Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5 and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts.

  11. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts.

  12. Warming up human body by nanoporous metallized polyethylene textile

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Lili; Song, Alex Y.; Wu, Peilin; Hsu, Po-Chun; Peng, Yucan; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chong; Catrysse, Peter B.; Liu, Yayuan; Yang, Ankun; Zhou, Chenxing; Zhou, Chenyu; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Space heating accounts for the largest energy end-use of buildings that imposes significant burden on the society. The energy wasted for heating the empty space of the entire building can be saved by passively heating the immediate environment around the human body. Here, we demonstrate a nanophotonic structure textile with tailored infrared (IR) property for passive personal heating using nanoporous metallized polyethylene. By constructing an IR-reflective layer on an IR-transparent layer wi...

  13. Warm Body Temperature Facilitates Energy Efficient Cortical Action Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na+, and outward K+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37–42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code. PMID:22511855

  14. Warm body temperature facilitates energy efficient cortical action potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yu

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na(+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na(+, and outward K(+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na(+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37-42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code.

  15. Warming up human body by nanoporous metallized polyethylene textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lili; Song, Alex Y; Wu, Peilin; Hsu, Po-Chun; Peng, Yucan; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chong; Catrysse, Peter B; Liu, Yayuan; Yang, Ankun; Zhou, Chenxing; Zhou, Chenyu; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2017-09-19

    Space heating accounts for the largest energy end-use of buildings that imposes significant burden on the society. The energy wasted for heating the empty space of the entire building can be saved by passively heating the immediate environment around the human body. Here, we demonstrate a nanophotonic structure textile with tailored infrared (IR) property for passive personal heating using nanoporous metallized polyethylene. By constructing an IR-reflective layer on an IR-transparent layer with embedded nanopores, the nanoporous metallized polyethylene textile achieves a minimal IR emissivity (10.1%) on the outer surface that effectively suppresses heat radiation loss without sacrificing wearing comfort. This enables 7.1 °C decrease of the set-point compared to normal textile, greatly outperforming other radiative heating textiles by more than 3 °C. This large set-point expansion can save more than 35% of building heating energy in a cost-effective way, and ultimately contribute to the relief of global energy and climate issues.Energy wasted for heating the empty space of the entire building can be saved by passively heating the immediate environment around the human body. Here, the authors show a nanophotonic structure textile with tailored infrared property for passive personal heating using nanoporous metallized polyethylene.

  16. Geology, mineralization, U-Pb dating and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry of intrusive bodies in northeast of Kashmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Almasi

    2015-04-01

    similar scenario to Neotethys subduction. Khaf-Kashmar-Bardeskan volcano-plutonic belt is located between Neotethys suture and Alborz- Sabzevar Back- arc (Asiabanha and Foden, 2012. We suggest Khaf-Kashmar-Bardeskan volcano-plutonic belt forms at the arc-parallel fault and shear zones in the back of continental magmatic arc. In the basis of all evidences (Shear zone system, high-K to shoshonitic calc-alkaline I- and A-type magmatism, typical alterations related to upper zones of IOCG deposits and IOCG mineralization, we suggest IOCG (Au-Cu mineralization in Kashmar. Discussion On the basis of former regional (Muller and Walter, 1983 and local structural studies (this research, regional compression causes sinistral strike-slip movements of Dorouneh and Taknar faults, shear zone, pull-apart and Riedel fractures (P, R and R' types in the study area. These events cause magma intrusion and circulation of hydrothermal fluids. On the basis of geology, geochemistry and magnetic susceptibility measuring of intrusive rocks, several high K to shoshonitic calc-alkaline to alkaline I-type and one A-type intrusive rocks are intruded in Kashmar area. Swarm dykes are the youngest and the agent for alteration and mineralization. U-Pb dating related to quartz monzonite body (preventative sample for I-type intrusive rocks which are older than A-type series show 40 Ma (Middle Eocene for this rock group in Kashmar. The mean of initial 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd are 0.705-0.707 and 0.5135-0.5126 for I-type series, respectively. εNd(i amounts for I-type series are in negative to positive limit ranges (-1.65 to 1.33. These amounts show subduction source with contamination to continental crust. Two type alteration and mineralization occur in Kashmar: 1 primary alterations (advanced argillic+ sericite+ silicification which are synchronous with sulfide base-metal veins (chalcopyrite+ pyrite± galena± quartz± chloride and 2 Lateral alterations (carbonatization+ Fe-oxides+ silicification

  17. Human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, S.; Neill, R.; Williams, R.; Bauser, M.; Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper focused on the possible approaches to evaluating the impacts of human intrusion on nuclear waste disposal. Several major issues were reviewed. First, it was noted that human intrusion could be addressed either quantitatively through performance assessments or qualitatively through design requirements. Second, it was decided that it was impossible to construct a complete set of possible future human intrusion scenarios. Third, the question of when the effect of possible human intrusion should be considered, before or after site selection was reviewed. Finally, the time frame over which human intrusion should be considered was discussed

  18. Geology, petrography, alteration, mineralization and petrogenesis of intrusive bodies in the Hamech prospect area, Southwest of Birjand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Etemadi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Hamech prospect area is located in the eastern Iran, 85 kilometers southwest of Birjand. The study area coordinates between 58¬¬˚¬53΄¬00 ˝ to 59˚¬00΄¬00˝ latitude and 32˚¬22΄¬30 ˝ to 32˚¬26΄¬00˝ longitude. Due to the high volume of magmatism and the presence of geo-structure special condition in the Lut Block at a different time, a variety of metal (copper, lead, zinc, gold, etc. and non-metallic mineralization has been formed (Karimpour et al., 2012. The studied area (Hamech includes Paleocene-Eocene igneous outcrops which contain a wide range of subvolcanic bodies (diorite to monzonite porphyry associated with mafic intrusives, volcanic units (andesite, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks. Material and Methods This study was done in two parts including field and laboratory works. Sampling and structural studies were done during field work. Geological and alteration maps for the study area were also prepared. 200 thin and 60 polished sections for petrographic purpose were studied. The number of 200 thin sections and 60 polished sections were prepared and studied in order to investigate petrography and mineralogy. Major oxides (XRF method- East Amethyst Laboratory in Mashhad, rare earth elements and trace (ICP-MS method-ACME Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada elements were analyzed for 13 samples that included subvolcanic units and intrusive bodies. Data processing and geological and alteration mapping is done by the GCD.kit and Arcgis software. Discussion and Results Based on lab work and XRF analysis, the rocks in the area are composed of intrusive-subvolcanic bodies and volcanic rocks (andesite, trachyandesite and dacite together with volcano-classic and sedimentary rocks. Also, alteration zones consist of a variety of argillic, silicified, quartz-sericite-pyrite (QSP, propylitic and carbonate. Igneous rock textures are mainly porphyritic for sub-volcanic and granular for intrusive bodies. Phenocrysts

  19. Seasonal body size reductions with warming covary with major body size gradients in arthropod species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, Curtis R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, David

    2017-01-01

    experience different developmental conditions. Yet, unlike other size patterns, these common seasonal temperature–size gradients have never been collectively analysed. We undertake the largest analysis to date of seasonal temperature-size gradients in multivoltine arthropods, including 102 aquatic...... and terrestrial species from 71 global locations. Adult size declines in warmer seasons in 86% of the species examined. Aquatic species show approximately 2.5-fold greater reduction in size per °C of warming than terrestrial species, supporting the hypothesis that greater oxygen limitation in water than in air...

  20. Decreases in beetle body size linked to climate change and warming temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Michelle; Kaur, Katrina M; Soleimani Pari, Sina; Sarai, Karnjit; Chan, Denessa; Yao, Christine H; Porto, Paula; Toor, Anmol; Toor, Harpawantaj S; Fograscher, Katrina

    2018-05-01

    Body size is a fundamental ecological trait and is correlated with population dynamics, community structure and function, and ecosystem fluxes. Laboratory data from broad taxonomic groups suggest that a widespread response to a warming world may be an overall decrease in organism body size. However, given the myriad of biotic and abiotic factors that can also influence organism body size in the wild, it is unclear whether results from these laboratory assays hold in nature. Here we use datasets spanning 30 to 100 years to examine whether the body size of wild-caught beetles has changed over time, whether body size changes are correlated with increased temperatures, and we frame these results using predictions derived from a quantitative review of laboratory responses of 22 beetle species to temperature. We found that 95% of laboratory-reared beetles decreased in size with increased rearing temperature, with larger-bodied species shrinking disproportionately more than smaller-bodied beetles. In addition, the museum datasets revealed that larger-bodied beetle species have decreased in size over time, that mean beetle body size explains much of the interspecific variation in beetle responses to temperature, and that long-term beetle size changes are explained by increases in autumn temperature and decreases in spring temperature in this region. Our data demonstrate that the relationship between body size and temperature of wild-caught beetles matches relatively well with results from laboratory studies, and that variation in this relationship is largely explained by interspecific variation in mean beetle body size. This long-term beetle dataset is one of the most comprehensive arthropod body size datasets compiled to date, it improves predictions regarding the shrinking of organisms with global climate change, and together with the meta-analysis data, call for new hypotheses to explain why larger-bodied organisms may be more sensitive to temperature. © 2018 The

  1. The effect of warmed inspired gases on body temperature during arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Youn Yi; Kim, Hong Soon; Chang, Young Jin; Yun, Soon Young; Kwak, Hyun Jeong

    2013-07-01

    Perioperative hypothermia can develop easily during shoulder arthroscopy, because cold irrigation can directly influence core body temperature. The authors investigated whether active warming and humidification of inspired gases reduces falls in core body temperature and allows redistribution of body heat in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia. Patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were randomly assigned to receive either room temperature inspired gases using a conventional respiratory circuit (the control group, n = 20) or inspired gases humidified and heated using a humidified and electrically heated circuit (HHC) (the heated group, n = 20). Core temperatures were significantly lower in both groups from 30 min after anesthesia induction, but were significantly higher in the heated group than in the control group from 75 to 120 min after anesthesia induction. In this study the use of a humidified and electrically heated circuit did not prevent core temperature falling during arthroscopic shoulder surgery, but it was found to decrease reductions in core temperature from 75 min after anesthesia induction.

  2. Active body surface warming systems for preventing complications caused by inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Eva; Urrútia, Gerard; Roqué i Figuls, Marta; Pardo-Hernandez, Hector; Campos, Juan Manuel; Paniagua, Pilar; Maestre, Luz; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2016-04-21

    Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a phenomenon that can occur as a result of the suppression of the central mechanisms of temperature regulation due to anaesthesia, and of prolonged exposure of large surfaces of skin to cold temperatures in operating rooms. Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia has been associated with clinical complications such as surgical site infection and wound-healing delay, increased bleeding or cardiovascular events. One of the most frequently used techniques to prevent inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is active body surface warming systems (ABSW), which generate heat mechanically (heating of air, water or gels) that is transferred to the patient via skin contact. To assess the effectiveness of pre- or intraoperative active body surface warming systems (ABSW), or both, to prevent perioperative complications from unintended hypothermia during surgery in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 9, 2015); MEDLINE (PubMed) (1964 to October 2015), EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to October 2015), and CINAHL (Ovid) (1982 to October 2015). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an ABSW system aimed at maintaining normothermia perioperatively against a control or against any other ABSW system. Eligible studies also had to include relevant clinical outcomes other than measuring temperature alone. Several authors, by pairs, screened references and determined eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by discussion and consensus, with the collaboration of a third author. We included 67 trials with 5438 participants that comprised 79 comparisons. Forty-five RCTs compared ABSW versus control, whereas 18 compared two different types of ABSW, and 10 compared two different techniques to administer the same type of ABSW. Forced-air warming (FAW) was by far the most studied intervention.Trials varied widely regarding whether the interventions were

  3. Contrasting effects of summer and winter warming on body mass explain population dynamics in a food-limited Arctic herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albon, Steve D; Irvine, R Justin; Halvorsen, Odd; Langvatn, Rolf; Loe, Leif E; Ropstad, Erik; Veiberg, Vebjørn; van der Wal, René; Bjørkvoll, Eirin M; Duff, Elizabeth I; Hansen, Brage B; Lee, Aline M; Tveraa, Torkild; Stien, Audun

    2017-04-01

    The cumulative effects of climate warming on herbivore vital rates and population dynamics are hard to predict, given that the expected effects differ between seasons. In the Arctic, warmer summers enhance plant growth which should lead to heavier and more fertile individuals in the autumn. Conversely, warm spells in winter with rainfall (rain-on-snow) can cause 'icing', restricting access to forage, resulting in starvation, lower survival and fecundity. As body condition is a 'barometer' of energy demands relative to energy intake, we explored the causes and consequences of variation in body mass of wild female Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) from 1994 to 2015, a period of marked climate warming. Late winter (April) body mass explained 88% of the between-year variation in population growth rate, because it strongly influenced reproductive loss, and hence subsequent fecundity (92%), as well as survival (94%) and recruitment (93%). Autumn (October) body mass affected ovulation rates but did not affect fecundity. April body mass showed no long-term trend (coefficient of variation, CV = 8.8%) and was higher following warm autumn (October) weather, reflecting delays in winter onset, but most strongly, and negatively, related to 'rain-on-snow' events. October body mass (CV = 2.5%) increased over the study due to higher plant productivity in the increasingly warm summers. Density-dependent mass change suggested competition for resources in both winter and summer but was less pronounced in recent years, despite an increasing population size. While continued climate warming is expected to increase the carrying capacity of the high Arctic tundra, it is also likely to cause more frequent icing events. Our analyses suggest that these contrasting effects may cause larger seasonal fluctuations in body mass and vital rates. Overall our findings provide an important 'missing' mechanistic link in the current understanding of the population biology of a

  4. Efficient cooling of rocky planets by intrusive magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Diogo L.; Rozel, Antoine B.; Gerya, Taras; Tackley, Paul J.

    2018-05-01

    The Earth is in a plate tectonics regime with high surface heat flow concentrated at constructive plate boundaries. Other terrestrial bodies that lack plate tectonics are thought to lose their internal heat by conduction through their lids and volcanism: hotter planets (Io and Venus) show widespread volcanism whereas colder ones (modern Mars and Mercury) are less volcanically active. However, studies of terrestrial magmatic processes show that less than 20% of melt volcanically erupts, with most melt intruding into the crust. Signatures of large magmatic intrusions are also found on other planets. Yet, the influence of intrusive magmatism on planetary cooling remains unclear. Here we use numerical magmatic-thermo-mechanical models to simulate global mantle convection in a planetary interior. In our simulations, warm intrusive magmatism acts to thin the lithosphere, leading to sustained recycling of overlying crustal material and cooling of the mantle. In contrast, volcanic eruptions lead to a thick lithosphere that insulates the upper mantle and prevents efficient cooling. We find that heat loss due to intrusive magmatism can be particularly efficient compared to volcanic eruptions if the partitioning of heat-producing radioactive elements into the melt phase is weak. We conclude that the mode of magmatism experienced by rocky bodies determines the thermal and compositional evolution of their interior.

  5. Warm hands, cold heart: progressive whole-body cooling increases warm thermosensitivity of human hands and feet in a dose-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Morris, Nathan B; Jay, Ollie

    2017-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Investigations on inhibitory/facilitatory modulation of vision, touch and pain show that conditioning stimuli outside the receptive field of testing stimuli modulate the central processing of visual, touch and painful stimuli. We asked whether contextual modulation also exists in human temperature integration. What is the main finding and its importance? Progressive decreases in whole-body mean skin temperature (the conditioning stimulus) significantly increased local thermosensitivity to skin warming but not cooling (the testing stimuli) in a dose-dependent fashion. In resembling the central mechanisms underlying endogenous analgesia, our findings point to the existence of an endogenous thermosensory system in humans that could modulate local skin thermal sensitivity to facilitate thermal behaviour. Although inhibitory/facilitatory central modulation of vision and pain has been investigated, contextual modulation of skin temperature integration has not been explored. Hence, we tested whether progressive decreases in whole-body mean skin temperature (T sk ; a large conditioning stimulus) alter the magnitude estimation of local warming and cooling stimuli applied to hairy and glabrous skin. On four separate occasions, eight men (27 ± 5 years old) underwent a 30 min whole-body cooling protocol (water-perfused suit; temperature, 5°C), during which a quantitative thermosensory test, consisting of reporting the perceived magnitude of warming and cooling stimuli (±8°C from 30°C baseline) applied to the hand (palm/dorsum) and foot (sole/dorsum), was performed before cooling and every 10 min thereafter. The cooling protocol resulted in large progressive reductions in T sk [10 min, -3.36°C (95% confidence interval -2.62 to -4.10); 20 min, -5.21°C (-4.47 to -5.95); and 30 min, -6.32°C (-5.58 to -7.05); P fashion. In highlighting a novel feature of human temperature integration, these findings point to the existence

  6. Effect of various practical warm-up protocols on acute lower-body power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttifant, David; Hrysomallis, Con

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of box squats with barbell (BBSquat), box squats with elastic resistance bands (BandSquat), and static stretches (SStretch) on external power during a 20-kg weighted jump squat. Twelve male athletes performed each of the 3 warm-up protocols on separate occasions in a randomized order. Weighted jump squat power was assessed using a linear position transducer attached to the bar of a Smith machine. Jump power was measured pre-warm-up and 5 and 10 minutes post-warm-up protocol. The BBSquat protocol involved 3 sets of 3RM, BandSquat involved 3 sets of 3 repetitions using highest resistance elastic bands, and the SStretch protocol comprises two 30-second stretches for muscles of the lower limbs. Jump power significantly increased from pre-warm-up to 5 and 10 minutes post-warm-up for both the BandSquat and BBSquat protocols. There was no statistical difference in power values between BandSquat and BBSquat. Power output significantly decreased from pre-warm-up to 5 and 10 minutes post-warm-up for the SStretch protocol. The BandSquat was just as effective as BBSquat in augmenting acute jump power. The SStretch was detrimental to jump performance. A practical warm-up using relatively inexpensive and portable equipment such as elastic resistance bands was just as effective as a warm-up protocol that requires more substantial and less transportable equipment such as a squat rack and associated free weights. The BandSquat warm-up may be considered more accessible for athletes at various competition levels.

  7. USE OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION AS A MODE OF WARMING UP BEFORE COUNTER MOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Artero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration (WBV has been suggested to be particularly effective on the stretch-shortening cycle-based movements, such as the counter movement jump (CMJ test (Issurin, 2005. Nevertheless, the literature on short-term vibration exposure and lower limb explosive performance (measured by CMJ test is contradictory. Either transient improvements (Bosco et al., 2000; Cochrane and Stannard, 2005; Torvinen et al., 2002a or no effects (Torvinen et al., 2002b; Rittweger et al., 2003; Cormie et al., 2006 have been reported after a single WBV exposure ranging from 30 s to 10 min. The present study aimed at better characterizing the use of a single short bout of WBV as a mode of warming up before a CMJ test.A total of 114 university students (37 men, 77 women, aged 19.6 ± 2.0 years signed an informed consent form and volunteered to participate in the study. The study protocol was approved by the Review Committee for Research Involving Human Subjects of our center. Participants were asked to come to the laboratory in three occasions three days apart. First visit: familiarization session aiming to learn the CMJ technique and to experience the vibration stimulus. Second visit: the participants performed three consecutive CMJ with one min rest interval. No significant differences were observed among the jumps, and the highest score was retained. Third visit: the participants were exposed to a single short bout of WBV and immediately after they performed three CMJ with one min rest interval.An infrared contact timing platform (ERGO JUMP Plus - BOSCO SYSTEM, Byomedic, S.C.P., Barcelona, Spain was used to measure "flight" time (t during the vertical jump (accuracy 0.001 s. Maximum height achieved by the body centre of gravity (h was then estimated, i.e. h = g · t2 / 8, where g = 9.81 m/s2. In all occasions, the participants were instructed to abstain from strenuous exercise for the preceding 24 hours.Whole-body vibration was carried out on an oscillating

  8. Shrinkage of body size of small insects: A possible link to global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jihuan

    2007-01-01

    The increase of global mean surface temperature leads to the increase of metabolic rate. This might lead to an unexpected threat from the small insect world. Global warming shrinks cell size, shorten lifespan, and accelerate evolution. The present note speculates on possible connections between allometry and E-infinity theory

  9. Whole-body pre-cooling and heat storage during self-paced cycling performance in warm humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, D; Taaffe, D R; Marino, F E

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that pre-cooling the skin without a concomitant reduction in core temperature has on subsequent self-paced cycling performance under warm humid (31 degrees C and 60% relative humidity) conditions. Seven moderately trained males performed a 30 min self-paced cycling trial on two separate occasions. The conditions were counterbalanced as control or whole-body pre-cooling by water immersion so that resting skin temperature was reduced by approximately 5-6 degrees C. After pre-cooling, mean skin temperature was lower throughout exercise and rectal temperature was lower (P body sweat fell from 1.7+/-0.1 l x h(-1) to 1.2+/-0.1 l h(-1) (P < 0.05). The distance cycled increased from 14.9+/-0.8 to 15.8+/-0.7 km (P < 0.05) after pre-cooling. The results indicate that skin pre-cooling in the absence of a reduced rectal temperature is effective in reducing thermal strain and increasing the distance cycled in 30 min under warm humid conditions.

  10. Accept, distract, or reframe? An exploratory experimental comparison of strategies for coping with intrusive body image thoughts in anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andrea S; Thomas, Jennifer J; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Rosenfield, Elizabeth H; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-02-28

    Negative body image is the hallmark of anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). One aspect of body image, appearance-related thoughts, have shown to be a major contributor to relapse, thus further investigation of successful treatment strategies targeting these maladaptive thoughts are warranted. The present study tested an acceptance/mindfulness (AC), a cognitive restructuring (CR), and a distraction strategy with regard to their short-term effectiveness of reducing the frequency of thought occurrence and associated outcomes in participants with AN (n=20), BDD (n=21), and healthy controls (HC; n=22). Although all strategies led to a significant reduction of thought frequency, there was no group × strategy interaction effect in their reduction. Positive affect increased in the BDD group through the AC strategy, but decreased in healthy controls. Acceptance of the thought increased in the CR strategy in AN, whereas that strategy seemed to work least for BDD. Healthy controls showed most acceptance when using distraction. Taken together, the study suggests that all strategies might have their benefits and that it might be worthwhile further investigating differential indication of the strategies with regard to diagnosis and individual factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of Body Ventilation System for Reducing Strain in Warm and Hot Climates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinevere, Troy D; Cadarette, Bruce S; Goodman, Daniel A; Ely, Brett R; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Sawka, Michael N

    2008-01-01

    ...) wearing the Army Combat Uniform, interceptor body armor (IBA) and Kevlar helmet. Three trials in each environment were BVS turned on (BVS (On)), BVS turned off (BVS(Off)), and no BVS (IBA). In HD, BVS...

  12. Orthodontic intrusion : Conventional and mini-implant assisted intrusion mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Belludi

    2012-01-01

    intrusion has revolutionized orthodontic anchorage and biomechanics by making anchorage perfectly stable. This article addresses various conventional clinical intrusion mechanics and especially intrusion using mini-implants that have proven effective over the years for intrusion of maxillary anteriors.

  13. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  14. Human intrusion: New ideas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Inadvertent human intrusion has been an issue for the disposal of solid radioactive waste for many years. This paper discusses proposals for an approach for evaluating the radiological significance of human intrusion as put forward by ICRP with contribution from work at IAEA. The approach focuses on the consequences of the intrusion. Protective actions could, however, include steps to reduce the probability of human intrusion as well as the consequences. (author)

  15. Growth hormone and prolactin responses during partial and whole body warm-water immersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, J; Rovensky, J; Zimanova, T; Vigas, M

    2003-05-01

    To elucidate the role of core and skin thermoreceptors in the release of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), a sequence of two experiments using whole-body (head-out) and partial (one forearm) hot water immersions was performed. Experiment 1: Nine healthy men were exposed to head-out and partial water immersions (25 min, 38-39 degrees C). Head-out immersion increased the core temperature (38.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 36.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C, P immersion the core temperature was slightly elevated (36.8 +/- 0.1 vs. 36.6 +/- 0.1, P immersed one forearm once in 39 degrees C and once in 38 degrees C water. The measurements were performed in 5-min intervals. The GH concentration increased gradually from the beginning of the immersions (min 10; 39 degrees C: 1.9 +/- 1.0 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.3 ng mL(-1), P Immersion in 38 degrees C water did not induce core temperature changes. Peripheral thermoreceptors are involved in GH release when the body is exposed to elevated environmental temperature while a substantial elevation of core temperature is a precondition of PRL release.

  16. The effect of thermal velocities on structure formation in N-body simulations of warm dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Matteo; Baugh, Carlton M.; Li, Baojiu; Pascoli, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the impact of thermal velocities in N-body simulations of structure formation in warm dark matter models. Adopting the commonly used approach of adding thermal velocities, randomly selected from a Fermi-Dirac distribution, to the gravitationally-induced velocities of the simulation particles, we compare the matter and velocity power spectra measured from CDM and WDM simulations, in the latter case with and without thermal velocities. This prescription for adding thermal velocities introduces numerical noise into the initial conditions, which influences structure formation. At early times, the noise affects dramatically the power spectra measured from simulations with thermal velocities, with deviations of the order of ~ Script O(10) (in the matter power spectra) and of the order of ~ Script O(102) (in the velocity power spectra) compared to those extracted from simulations without thermal velocities. At late times, these effects are less pronounced with deviations of less than a few percent. Increasing the resolution of the N-body simulation shifts these discrepancies to higher wavenumbers. We also find that spurious haloes start to appear in simulations which include thermal velocities at a mass that is ~3 times larger than in simulations without thermal velocities.

  17. Forced-Air Warming Provides Better Control of Body Temperature in Porcine Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Dent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but less evaluation has been performed in techniques to prevent hypothermia perioperatively in pigs. Methods: We compared body temperature regulation during surgery before and after modification of the ambient temperature of the operating laboratories. Three different methods of heating were then compared; a standard circulating water mattress, a resistive fabric blanket, and a forced hot air system. The primary measure was percentage of temperature readings outside a specification range of 36.7–40.0 °C. Results: Tighter control of the ambient temperature while using a circulating water mattress reduced the occurrence of out-of-specification body temperature readings from 20.8% to 5.0%, with most of these the result of hypothermia. Use of a resistive fabric blanket further reduced out-of-specification readings to 1.5%, with a slight increase in the occurrence of hyperthermia. Use of a forced air system reduced out-of-specification readings to less 0.1%. Conclusions: Maintenance of normothermia perioperatively in pig can be improved by tightly controlling ambient temperatures. Use of a resistive blanket or a forced air system can lead to better control than a circulating water mattress, with the forced air system providing a faster response to temperature variations and less chance of hyperthermia.

  18. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Interior intrusion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C.; Dry, B.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Options for human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauser, M.; Williams, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses options for dealing with human intrusion in terms of performance requirements and repository siting and design requirements. Options are presented, along with the advantages and disadvantages of certain approaches. At the conclusion, a conceptual approach is offered emphasizing both the minimization of subjective judgements concerning future human activity, and specification of repository requirements to minimize the likelihood of human intrusion and any resulting, harmful effects should intrusion occur

  1. Is Recovery of Large-Bodied Zooplankton after Nutrient Loading Reduction Hampered by Climate Warming? A Long-Term Study of Shallow Hypertrophic Lake Søbygaard, Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Gutierrez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient fluctuations and climate warming can synergistically affect trophic dynamics in lakes, resulting in enhanced symptoms of eutrophication, thereby potentially counteracting restoration measures. We performed a long-term study (23 years of zooplankton in Danish Lake Søbygaard, which is in recovery after nutrient loading reduction, but now faces the effects of climate warming. We hypothesized that the recovery of large-bodied zooplankton after nutrient loading reduction would be hampered by climate warming through indirect effects on fish size structure. We found a shift in macrozooplankton from initial dominance of Daphnia spp. towards Bosmina spp. as well as a decline in the body size of copepods and an increase in the abundance of nauplii. These changes coincided with the increase in small sized fish as a result of rising water temperature. Despite a reduction in body size, the total biomass of cladocerans increased coinciding with a diminished fish catch per unit effort (CPUE, and likely then an overall reduction in the predation on zooplankton. A cascading effect to phytoplankton was evidenced by enhanced zooplankton:phytoplankton and cladoceran:phytoplankton ratios and a decrease in Chl-a:TP and Chl-a:TN ratios. Our results indicate that climate warming, through changes in the size structure of fish community, has major effects on zooplankton size structure. In Lake Søbygaard, the decline in zooplankton size did not prevent, but modulated, the positive cascading effect on phytoplankton through an expected diminished fish CPUE related to nutrient loading reduction.

  2. Intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1978-07-01

    Intrusion detection sensors are an integral part of most physical security systems. Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security, Sandia Laboratories has conducted a survey of available intrusion detection sensors and has tested a number of different sensors. An overview of these sensors is provided. This overview includes (1) the operating principles of each type of sensor, (2) unique sensor characteristics, (3) desired sensor improvements which must be considered in planning an intrusion detection system, and (4) the site characteristics which affect the performance of both exterior and interior sensors. Techniques which have been developed to evaluate various intrusion detection sensors are also discussed

  3. Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Energy Storage in a Single Working Body: Electrification and Thermal Effects upon Pressure-Induced Water Intrusion-Extrusion in Nanoporous Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu, Yaroslav; Mierzwa, Michał; Eroshenko, Valentine A; Pawlus, Sebastian; Chorażewski, Mirosław; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Grolier, Jean-Pierre E

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the first experimental evidence of pronounced electrification effects upon reversible cycle of forced water intrusion-extrusion in nanoporous hydrophobic materials. Recorded generation of electricity combined with high-pressure calorimetric measurements improves the energy balance of {nanoporous solid + nonwetting liquid} systems by compensating mechanical and thermal energy hysteresis in the cycle. Revealed phenomena provide a novel way of "mechanical to electrical" and/or "thermal to electrical" energy transformation with unprecedented efficiency and additionally open a perspective to increase the efficiency of numerous energy applications based on such systems taking advantage of electricity generation during operational cycle.

  4. Influence of Whole Body Vibration and Specific Warm-ups on Force during an Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Cazás-Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of general and specific warm-up protocols on rate of force development (RFD, relative RFD (rRFD, ground reaction force (GRF and relative ground reaction force (rGRF during an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP, after WBV exposure. Methods: Fifteen healthy recreationally trained males  (age: 24.1 ± 2.3 yrs, height: 72.9 ± 7.8 cm; mass: 86.9 ± 8.3 completed five protocols: baseline, isometric vibration (iVib, isometric no vibration (iNV, dynamic vibration (dVib and dynamic no vibration (dNV. The baseline was completed without any warm-up prior to the IMTP. The intervention protocols had the same prescription of 4 sets of 30-second bouts of quarter squats (dynamic [DQS] and isometric [IQS] on the WBV platform with or without vibration. Following a one-minute rest period after each protocol, participants completed three maximal IMTPs. Results: Repeated measures ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc demonstrated that RFD in dNV (7657.8 ± 2292.5 N/s was significantly greater than iVib (7156.4 ± 2170.0 N/s. However, the other experimental trials for RFD demonstrated no significant differences (p>0.05. There were also no significant differences for rRFD, GRF or rGRF between protocols. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that a dynamic warm-up without WBV elicits greater RFD than an isometric warm-up with WBV prior to a maximal isometric exercise. Further research needs to be investigated utilizing dynamic and isometric warm-ups in conjunction with WBV and power output. Keywords: males, recreationally trained, power

  5. Sea urchins in a high-CO2 world: partitioned effects of body size, ocean warming and acidification on metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Harianto, Januar; Byrne, Maria

    2016-04-15

    Body size and temperature are the major factors explaining metabolic rate, and the additional factor of pH is a major driver at the biochemical level. These three factors have frequently been found to interact, complicating the formulation of broad models predicting metabolic rates and hence ecological functioning. In this first study of the effects of warming and ocean acidification, and their potential interaction, on metabolic rate across a broad range in body size (two to three orders of magnitude difference in body mass), we addressed the impact of climate change on the sea urchin ITALIC! Heliocidaris erythrogrammain context with climate projections for southeast Australia, an ocean warming hotspot. Urchins were gradually introduced to two temperatures (18 and 23°C) and two pH levels (7.5 and 8.0), at which they were maintained for 2 months. Identical experimental trials separated by several weeks validated the fact that a new physiological steady state had been reached, otherwise known as acclimation. The relationship between body size, temperature and acidification on the metabolic rate of ITALIC! H. erythrogrammawas strikingly stable. Both stressors caused increases in metabolic rate: 20% for temperature and 19% for pH. Combined effects were additive: a 44% increase in metabolism. Body size had a highly stable relationship with metabolic rate regardless of temperature or pH. None of these diverse drivers of metabolism interacted or modulated the effects of the others, highlighting the partitioned nature of how each influences metabolic rate, and the importance of achieving a full acclimation state. Despite these increases in energetic demand there was very limited capacity for compensatory modulating of feeding rate; food consumption increased only in the very smallest specimens, and only in response to temperature, and not pH. Our data show that warming, acidification and body size all substantially affect metabolism and are highly consistent and

  6. Adaptive intrusion data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data compression, storage, and formatting system. It also incorporates capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be utilized for the collection of environmental, bi-level, analog and video data. The output of the system is digital tapes formatted for direct data reduction on a CDC 6400 computer, and video tapes containing timed tagged information that can be correlated with the digital data

  7. Network Intrusion Dataset Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Natural Computing, volume 2, pages 413–416, June 2009. • Rung Ching Chen, Kai -Fan Cheng, and...Chia-Fen Hsieh . “Using rough set and support vector machine for network intrusion detection.” International Journal of Network Security & Its...intrusion detection using FP tree rules.” Journal Of Advanced Networking and Applications, 1(1):30–39, 2009. • Ming-Yang Su, Gwo-Jong Yu , and Chun-Yuen

  8. Body mapping of cutaneous wetness perception across the human torso during thermo-neutral and warm environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2014-10-15

    Sensing skin wetness is linked to inputs arising from cutaneous cold-sensitive afferents. As thermosensitivity to cold varies significantly across the torso, we investigated whether similar regional differences in wetness perception exist. We also investigated the regional differences in thermal pleasantness and whether these sensory patterns are influenced by ambient temperature. Sixteen males (20 ± 2 yr) underwent a quantitative sensory test under thermo-neutral [air temperature (Tair) = 22°C; relative humidity (RH) = 50%] and warm conditions (Tair = 33°C; RH = 50%). Twelve regions of the torso were stimulated with a dry thermal probe (25 cm(2)) with a temperature of 15°C below local skin temperature (Tsk). Variations in Tsk, thermal, wetness, and pleasantness sensations were recorded. As a result of the same cold-dry stimulus, the skin-cooling response varied significantly by location (P = 0.003). The lateral chest showed the greatest cooling (-5 ± 0.4°C), whereas the lower back showed the smallest (-1.9 ± 0.4°C). Thermal sensations varied significantly by location and independently from regional variations in skin cooling with colder sensations reported on the lateral abdomen and lower back. Similarly, the frequency of perceived skin wetness was significantly greater on the lateral and lower back as opposed to the medial chest. Overall wetness perception was slightly higher under warm conditions. Significantly more unpleasant sensations were recorded when the lateral abdomen and lateral and lower back were stimulated. We conclude that humans present regional differences in skin wetness perception across the torso, with a pattern similar to the regional differences in thermosensitivity to cold. These findings indicate the presence of a heterogeneous distribution of cold-sensitive thermo-afferent information. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Interior intrusion alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    In meeting the requirements for the safeguarding of special nuclear material and the physical protection of licensed facilities, the licensee is required to design a physical security system that will meet minimum performance requirements. An integral part of any physical security system is the interior intrusion alarm system. The purpose of this report is to provide the potential user of an interior intrusion alarm system with information on the various types, components, and performance capabilities available so that he can design and install the optimum alarm system for his particular environment. In addition, maintenance and testing procedures are discussed and recommended which, if followed, will help the user obtain the optimum results from his system

  10. Intrusion detection system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  11. Perimeter intrusion sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  12. Radionuclide investigations of the hormonal reflection of warm stress in cancer patients under whole body guided hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorova, V.I.; Zhavrid, Eh.A.; Fradkin, S.Z.; Tsyrus', T.P.; Shitikov, B.D.; Kosheleva, M.I.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the radioimmunoassay of ACTH, ST, hydrocortisone, glucagon, C-peptide, insulin and cyclic nucleotides in 180 patients with advanced and metastatic melanomas, soft tissue sarcomas, lung cancers and renal cell carcinomas testify to the development of the syndrome of endocrine hyperfunction in patients under whole-body guided hyperthermia and artificial hyperglycemia as well as of functional pancreas insufficiency. The data presented form a biochemical basis for working out measures to optimally carry out whole-body hyperthermia and artificial hyperglycemia treatment, aimed at increasing the range of indications for its use in clinical oncology

  13. Effect of a warm footbath before bedtime on body temperature and sleep in older adults with good and poor sleep: an experimental crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Chun; Wang, Lee; Kuo, Ching-Pyng; Lo, Chyi; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Ting, Hua

    2013-12-01

    The decrease in core body temperature before sleep onset and during sleep is associated with dilation of peripheral blood vessels, which permits heat dissipation from the body core to the periphery. A lower core temperature coupled with a higher distal (hands and feet) temperature before sleep are associated with shorter sleep latency and better sleep quality. A warm footbath is thought to facilitate heat dissipation to improve sleep outcomes. This study examined the effect of a warm footbath (40°C water temperature, 20-min duration) on body temperature and sleep in older adults (≥55 years) with good and poor sleep. Two groups and an experimental crossover design was used. Forty-three adults responded to our flyer and 25 participants aged 59.8±3.7 years (poor sleeper with a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score≥5=17; good sleepers with a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scoretemperatures (core, abdomen, and foot) and polysomnography recorded for 3 consecutive nights. The first night was for adaptation and sleep apnea screening. Participants were then randomly assigned to either the structured foot bathing first (second night) and non-bathing second (third night) condition or the non-bathing first (second night) and foot bathing second (third night) condition. A footbath before sleep significantly increased and retained foot temperatures in both good and poor sleepers. The pattern of core temperatures during foot bathing was gradually elevated (poor sleepers vs. good sleepers=+0.40±0.58°C vs. +0.66±0.17°C). There were no significant changes in polysomnographic sleep and perceived sleep quality between non-bathing and bathing nights for both groups. A footbath of 40°C water temperature and 20-min duration before sleep onset increases foot temperatures and distal-proximal skin temperature gradients to facilitate vessel dilatation and elevates core temperature to provide heat load to the body. This footbath does not alter sleep in older adults with good and

  14. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.; Whittaker, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal

  15. Formation of continental crust by intrusive magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozel, A. B.; Golabek, G. J.; Jain, C.; Tackley, P. J.; Gerya, T.

    2017-09-01

    How were the continents formed in the Earth? No global numerical simulation of our planet ever managed to generate continental material self-consistently. In the present study, we show that the latest developments of the convection code StagYY enable to estimate how to produce the early continents, more than 3 billion years ago. In our models, melting of pyrolitic rocks generates a basaltic melt and leaves behind a depleted solid residue (a harzburgite). The melt generated in the mantle is transported to the surface. Only basaltic rocks melting again can generate continental crust. Should the basaltic melt always reach the open air and cool down? Should the melt be intruded warm in the pre-existing crust? The present study shows that both processes have to be considered to produce continents. Indeed, granitoids can only be created in a tight window of pressure-temperature. If all basalt is quickly cooled by surface volcanism, the lithosphere will be too cold. If all basalt is intruded warm below the crust then the lithosphere will be too warm. The key is to have both volcanism and plutonism (intrusive magmatism) to reach the optimal temperature and form massive volumes of continental material.

  16. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  17. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  18. Effect of Groundwater Pumping on Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Sherif

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Many aquifers around the globe are located in coastal areas and are thus subjected to the seawater intrusion phenomenon. The growth of population in coastal areas and the conjugate increase in human, agricultural, and industrial activities have imposed an increasing demand for freshwater. This increase in water demand is often covered by extensive pumping of fresh groundwater, causing subsequent lowering of the water table (or piezometric head and upsetting the dynamic balance between freshwater and saline water bodies. The classical result of such a development is seawater intrusion. This paper presents a review for the seawater intrusion phenomenon in coastal aquifers. The effect of pumping activities on the seawater intrusion in the Nile Delta aquifer of Egypt is investigated. It was concluded that any additional pumping should be located in the middle Delta and avoided in the eastern and western sides of the Delta.

  19. Alpha intrusion on ovenight polysomnogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahapetian R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 30 year-old Army veteran with a past medical history significant for chronic lumbar back pain stemming from a fall-from-height injury sustained in 2006 was referred to the sleep laboratory for evaluation of chronic fatigue and excessive daytime hypersomnolence. His Epworth sleepiness scale score was 16. He denied a history of snoring and witnessed apnea. Body Mass Index (BMI was 25.7 kg/m2. His main sleep related complaints were frequent nocturnal arousals, poor sleep quality, un-refreshing sleep, prolonged latency to sleep onset, and nightmares. An In-lab attended diagnostic polysomnogram was performed. Sleep efficiency was reduced (73% and overall arousal index was not significantly elevated (3.2 events/hour. The sleep study showed rapid eye movement (REM related sleep disordered breathing that did not meet diagnostic criteria for sleep apnea. There was no evidence for period limb movement disorder. However, the study was significant for alpha wave intrusion in stage N2 non-REM and stage ...

  20. Network Intrusion Forensic Analysis Using Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Kumar; Dr. M. Hanumanthappa; Dr. T.V. Suresh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The need for computer intrusion forensics arises from the alarming increase in the number of computer crimes that are committed annually. After a computer system has been breached and an intrusion has been detected, there is a need for a computer forensics investigation to follow. Computer forensics is used to bring to justice, those responsible for conducting attacks on computer systems throughout the world. Because of this the law must be follow precisely when conducting a forensics investi...

  1. Rapid laccolith intrusion driven by explosive volcanic eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jonathan M; Cordonnier, Benoit; Schipper, C Ian; Tuffen, Hugh; Baumann, Tobias S; Feisel, Yves

    2016-11-23

    Magmatic intrusions and volcanic eruptions are intimately related phenomena. Shallow magma intrusion builds subsurface reservoirs that are drained by volcanic eruptions. Thus, the long-held view is that intrusions must precede and feed eruptions. Here we show that explosive eruptions can also cause magma intrusion. We provide an account of a rapidly emplaced laccolith during the 2011 rhyolite eruption of Cordón Caulle, Chile. Remote sensing indicates that an intrusion began after eruption onset and caused severe (>200 m) uplift over 1 month. Digital terrain models resolve a laccolith-shaped body ∼0.8 km 3 . Deformation and conduit flow models indicate laccolith depths of only ∼20-200 m and overpressures (∼1-10 MPa) that likely stemmed from conduit blockage. Our results show that explosive eruptions may rapidly force significant quantities of magma in the crust to build laccoliths. These iconic intrusions can thus be interpreted as eruptive features that pose unique and previously unrecognized volcanic hazards.

  2. Total body propofol clearance (TBPC) after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) surgery is decreased in patients with a long warm ischemic time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdari, Wael S; Kunimoto, Fumio; Saito, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Koujirou; Koyama, Hiroshi; Horiuchi, Ryuya; Goto, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic capacity after liver transplant surgery may be affected by the graft size and by hepatic injury during the surgery. This study was carried out to investigate the postoperative total body propofol clearance (TBPC) in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) patients and to investigate the major factors that contribute to decreased postoperative TBPC in LDLT patients. Fourteen patients scheduled for LDLT were included in this study. Propofol was administered at a rate of 2.0 mg.kg(-1).h(-1) as a sedative in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. To calculate TBPC, propofol arterial blood concentration was measured by HPLC. Five variables were selected as factors affecting postoperative TBPC; bleeding volume (BLD), warm ischemic time (WIT), cold ischemic time (CIT), graft weight/standard liver volume ratio (GW/SLV), and portal blood flow after surgery (PBF). After factor analysis of six variables, including TBPC, varimax rotation was carried out, and this yielded three interpretable factors that accounted for 75.5% of the total variance in the data set. TBPC, WIT, CIT, and BLD were loaded on the first factor, PBF on the second factor, and GW/SLV on the third factor. The adjusted correlation coefficient between TBPC and WIT showed the highest value (r = -0.61) in the first factor. The LDLT patients were divided into two groups according to WIT; group A (WIT > 100 min) and group B (WIT < 100 min). Mean TBPC values in group A and group B were 14.6 +/- 2.1 and 28.5 +/- 4.1 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), respectively (P < 0.0001). These data suggest that LDLT patients with a long WIT have a risk of deteriorated drug metabolism.

  3. Global Warming: A Reduced Threat?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Stooksbury, David E.

    1992-10-01

    One popular and apocalyptic vision of the world influenced by increasing concentrations of infrared-absorbing trace gases is that of ecological disaster brought about by rapidly rising temperatures, sea level, and evaporation rates. This vision developed from a suite of climate models that have since considerably changed in both their dynamics and their estimates of prospective warming. Observed temperatures indicate that much more warming should already have taken place than predicted by earlier models in the Northern Hemisphere, and that night, rather than day, readings in that hemisphere show a relative warming. A high-latitude polar-night warming or a general night warming could be either benign or beneficial. A large number of plant species show both increased growth and greater water-use efficiency under enhanced carbon dioxide.An extensive body of evidence now indicates that anthropo-generated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. The sulfate emissions, though, are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. However, the sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies.

  4. THE GEOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES OF INTRUSIVE MAGMATIC STRUCTURES FROM BÂRGĂU MOUNTAINS (EASTERN CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bâca

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Igneous intrusive structures from Bârgău Mountains belong to the group of central Neogene volcanic chain of the Eastern Carpathians of Romania. The evolution of the relief developed on these structures are three main stages: the stage of injection of structures (Pannonian, the stage of uncovering of igneous intrusive bodies from Oligo-Miocene sedimentary cover (Pliocene, and the stage of subaerial modeling of magmatic bodies (Pliocene-current.In those circumstances, the geodiversity of intrusive magmatic structures from Bârgău Mountains is represented by several types of landforms such as: polycyclic landforms (erosional levels, structural landforms (the configuration of igneous intrusive structures, petrographic landforms (andesites, lithological contact, fluvial landforms (valleys, slopes, ridges, periglacial landforms (cryogenic and crionival landforms, biogenic and anthropogenic landforms. This study highlights certain features of the landforms modeled on igneous intrusive bodies with the aim of developing some strategy for tourism recovery by local and county authorities.

  5. Successive reactive liquid flow episodes in a layered intrusion (Unit 9, Rum Eastern Layered Intrusion, Scotland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthold, Julien; Blundy, Jon; Holness, Marian

    2014-05-01

    We will present a detailed microstructural and geochemical study of reactive liquid flow in Unit 9 of the Rum Eastern Layered Intrusion. In the study region, Unit 9 comprises an underlying lens-like body of peridotite overlain by a sequence of troctolite and gabbro (termed allivalite), with some local and minor anorthosite. The troctolite is separated from the overlying gabbro by a distinct, sub-horizontal, undulose horizon (the major wavy horizon). Higher in the stratigraphy is another, similar, horizon (the minor wavy horizon) that separates relatively clinopyroxene-poor gabbro from an overlying gabbro. To the north of the peridotite lens, both troctolite and gabbro grade into poikilitic gabbro. Clinopyroxene habit in the allivalite varies from thin rims around olivine in troctolite, to equigranular crystals in gabbro, to oikocrysts in the poikilitic gabbro. The poikilitic gabbros contain multiple generations of clinopyroxene, with Cr-rich (~1.1 wt.% Cr2O3), anhedral cores with moderate REE concentrations (core1) overgrown by an anhedral REE-depleted second generation with moderate Cr (~0.7 wt.% Cr2O3) (core2). These composite cores are rimmed by Cr-poor (~0.2 wt.% Cr2O3) and REE-poor to moderate clinopyroxene. We interpret these microstructures as a consequence of two separate episodes of partial melting triggered by the intrusion of hot olivine-phyric picrite to form the discontinuous lenses that comprise the Unit 9 peridotite. Loss of clinopyroxene-saturated partial melt from the lower part of the allivalite immediately following the early stages of sill intrusion resulted in the formation of clinopyroxene-poor gabbro. The spatial extent of clinopyroxene loss is marked by the minor wavy horizon. A further partial melting event stripped out almost all clinopyroxene from the lowest allivalite, to form a troctolite, with the major wavy horizon marking the extent of melting during this second episode. The poikilitic gabbro formed from clinopyroxene-saturated melt

  6. From intrusive to oscillating thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Anne Griswold

    2007-10-01

    This paper focused on the possibility that intrusive thoughts (ITs) are a form of an evolutionary, adaptive, and complex strategy to prepare for and resolve stressful life events through schema formation. Intrusive thoughts have been studied in relation to individual conditions, such as traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. They have also been documented in the average person experiencing everyday stress. In many descriptions of thought intrusion, it is accompanied by thought suppression. Several theories have been put forth to describe ITs, although none provides a satisfactory explanation as to whether ITs are a normal process, a normal process gone astray, or a sign of pathology. There is also no consistent view of the role that thought suppression plays in the process. I propose that thought intrusion and thought suppression may be better understood by examining them together as a complex and adaptive mechanism capable of escalating in times of need. The ability of a biological mechanism to scale up in times of need is one hallmark of a complex and adaptive system. Other hallmarks of complexity, including self-similarity across scales, sensitivity to initial conditions, presence of feedback loops, and system oscillation, are also discussed in this article. Finally, I propose that thought intrusion and thought suppression are better described together as an oscillatory cycle.

  7. Saltwater intrusion monitoring in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    Florida's communities are largely dependent on freshwater from groundwater aquifers. Existing saltwater in the aquifers, or seawater that intrudes parts of the aquifers that were fresh, can make the water unusable without additional processing. The quality of Florida's saltwater intrusion monitoring networks varies. In Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, for example, there is a well-designed network with recently constructed short open-interval monitoring wells that bracket the saltwater interface in the Biscayne aquifer. Geochemical analyses of water samples from the network help scientists evaluate pathways of saltwater intrusion and movement of the saltwater interface. Geophysical measurements, collected in these counties, aid the mapping of the saltwater interface and the design of monitoring networks. In comparison, deficiencies in the Collier County monitoring network include the positioning of monitoring wells, reliance on wells with long open intervals that when sampled might provide questionable results, and the inability of existing analyses to differentiate between multiple pathways of saltwater intrusion. A state-wide saltwater intrusion monitoring network is being planned; the planned network could improve saltwater intrusion monitoring by adopting the applicable strategies of the networks of Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, and by addressing deficiencies such as those described for the Collier County network.

  8. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-01-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  9. Data Mining for Intrusion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anoop; Jajodia, Sushil

    Data Mining Techniques have been successfully applied in many different fields including marketing, manufacturing, fraud detection and network management. Over the past years there is a lot of interest in security technologies such as intrusion detection, cryptography, authentication and firewalls. This chapter discusses the application of Data Mining techniques to computer security. Conclusions are drawn and directions for future research are suggested.

  10. Non-intrusive refractometer sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An experimental realization of a simple non-intrusive refractometer sensor .... and after amplification is finally read by a digital multimeter (Fluke make: 179 true ... To study the response of the present FO refractometer, propylene glycol has been ... values of all the samples were initially measured by Abbe's refractometer.

  11. Zero Trust Intrusion Containment for Telemedicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sood, Arun

    2002-01-01

    .... Our objective is the design and analysis of 'zero-trust' Intrusion Tolerant Systems. These are systems built under the extreme assumption that all intrusion detection techniques will eventually fail...

  12. Methods of patient warming during abdominal surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. METHODS: Patients (n = 160 scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients' nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate warming efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of warmed patients compared to those not warmed. RESULTS: When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific warming methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the warmed groups and controls. DISCUSSION: The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable warming methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and warmed surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed.

  13. Intrusive luxation of 60 permanent incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is an uncommon injury but it is considered one of the most severe types of dental trauma because of the risk for damage to the periodontal ligament, pulp and alveolar bone. Management of intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is controversial....... The purpose of this study was to evaluate pulp survival and periodontal healing in intrusive luxated permanent teeth in relation to treatment alternatives, degree of intrusion and root development....

  14. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  15. Metallogenic aspects of Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, G.; Pascholati, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    The integrated use of geological, geochemical, geophysical and remote sensing data is providing interesting new information on the metallogenic characteristics of the Itu Intrusive Suite. During World War II, up to 1959, a wolframite deposit was mined near the border of the northernmost body (Itupeva Granite). This deposit is formed by greisen veins associated with cassiterite and topaz, clearly linked with later phases of magmatic differentiation. Generally those veins are related to hydrothermal alteration of the granites and the above mentioned shear zone. U, Th and K determinations by field and laboratory gammaspectrometry were used for regional distribution analysis of those elements and its ratios and calculation of radioactivity heat production. In this aspects, the Itupeva Granite is the hottest and presents several anomalies in the Th/U ratio, indicative of late or post magmatic oxidation processes. (author)

  16. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-05-01

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems

  17. Intrusive Images in Psychological Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Brewin, Chris R.; Gregory, James D.; Lipton, Michelle; Burgess, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Involuntary images and visual memories are prominent in many types of psychopathology. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, and psychosis frequently report repeated visual intrusions corresponding to a small number of real or imaginary events, usually extremely vivid, detailed, and with highly distressing content. Both memory and imagery appear to rely on common networks involving medial prefrontal regions, posterior regions in th...

  18. Episodic intrusion, internal differentiation, and hydrothermal alteration of the miocene tatoosh intrusive suite south of Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, E.A.; Bacon, C.R.; John, D.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Miocene Tatoosh intrusive suite south of Mount Rainier is composed of three broadly granodioritic plutons that are manifestations of ancestral Cascades arc magmatism. Tatoosh intrusive suite plutons have individually diagnostic characteristics, including texture, mineralogy, and geochemistry, and apparently lack internal contacts. New ion-microprobe U-Pb zircon ages indicate crystallization of the Stevens pluton ca. 19.2 Ma, Reflection-Pyramid pluton ca. 18.5 Ma, and Nisqually pluton ca. 17.5 Ma. The Stevens pluton includes rare, statistically distinct ca. 20.1 Ma zircon antecrysts. Wide-ranging zircon rare earth element (REE), Hf, U, and Th concentrations suggest late crystallization from variably evolved residual liquids. Zircon Eu/Eu*-Hf covariation is distinct for each of the Reflection-Pyramid, Nisqually, and Stevens plutons. Although most Tatoosh intrusive suite rocks have been affected by weak hydrothermal alteration, and sparse mineralized veins cut some of these rocks, significant base or precious metal mineralization is absent. At the time of shallow emplacement, each of these magma bodies was largely homogeneous in bulk composition and petrographic features, but, prior to final solidification, each of the Tatoosh intrusive suite plutons developed internal compositional variation. Geochemical and petrographic trends within each pluton are most consistent with differential loss of residual melt, possibly represented by late aplite dikes or erupted as rhyolite, from crystal-rich magma. Crystal-rich magma that formed each pluton evidently accumulated in reservoirs below the present level of exposure and then intruded to a shallow depth. Assembled by episodic intrusion, the Tatoosh intrusive suite may be representative of midsized composite plutonic complexes beneath arc volcanoes. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  19. Thermal History and Crystallinity of Sheet Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, A. G.; Nabelek, P. I.; Hofmeister, A.

    2011-12-01

    Magma emplaced in a sheet intrusion has two potential fates: to crystallize, or quench to glass. Rapidly chilled sheet margins are typically glassy or microcrystalline, while interiors are coarser-grained. The actual textures result from a combination of thermal history and crystallization kinetics, which are related by various feedback mechanisms. The thermal history of cooling sheet intrusions is often approximated using the analytical solution for a semi-infinite half-space, which uses constant thermal properties such as heat capacity (CP), thermal diffusivity (D) and thermal conductivity (k = DρCP), where ρ is density. In reality, both CP and D are strongly T-dependent for glasses and crystals, and melts have higher CP and lower D than crystals or glasses. Another first-order feature ignored in the analytical solution is latent heat of crystallization (ΔHxt), which can be implemented numerically as extra heat capacity over the crystallization interval. For rhyolite melts, D is ~0.5 mm2s-1 and k is ~1.5 Wm-1K-1, which are similar to those of major crustal rock types and granitic protoliths at magmatic temperatures, suggesting that changes in thermal properties accompanying partial melting of the crust should be relatively minor. Numerical models of hot (~920°C liquidus for 0.5 wt.% H2O) shallow rhyolite intrusions indicate that the key difference in thermal history between bodies that quench to obsidian, and those that crystallize, results from the release of latent heat of crystallization, which enables bodies that crystallize to remain at high temperatures for much longer times. The time to solidification is similar in both cases, however, because solidification requires cooling through the glass transition (Tg ~620°C) in the first case, and cooling only to the solidus (~770°C) in the second. For basaltic melts, D is ~0.3 mm2s-1 and k is ~1.0 Wm-1K-1, compared to ~0.6 mm2s-1 and 2.5 Wm-1K-1 for crystalline basalt or peridotite at magmatic temperatures

  20. Intrusion scenarios in fusion waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Zucchetti, M.; Rocco, P.

    1998-01-01

    Results of analyses on human intrusions into repositories of fusion radioactive waste are presented. The main topics are: duration of the institutional control, occurrence of intrusion, intrusion scenarios, acceptable risk limits and probabilistic data. Application to fusion waste repositories is implemented with a computational model: wells drilling is considered as the possible scenario. Doses and risks to intruder for different SEAFP-2 cases turn out to be very small. No intervention to reduce the hazard is necessary. (authors)

  1. Intrusion scenarios in fusion waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchetti, M. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Advanced Material, Ispra, Vatican City State, Holy See (Italy); Zucchetti, M.; Rocco, P. [Energetics Dept., Polytechnic of Turin (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Results of analyses on human intrusions into repositories of fusion radioactive waste are presented. The main topics are: duration of the institutional control, occurrence of intrusion, intrusion scenarios, acceptable risk limits and probabilistic data. Application to fusion waste repositories is implemented with a computational model: wells drilling is considered as the possible scenario. Doses and risks to intruder for different SEAFP-2 cases turn out to be very small. No intervention to reduce the hazard is necessary. (authors)

  2. [Analysis of intrusion errors in free recall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2017-06-01

    Extra-list intrusion errors during five trials of the eight-word list-learning task of the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test (ADST) were investigated in 823 consecutive psychogeriatric patients (87.1% suffering from major neurocognitive disorder). Almost half of the participants (45.9%) produced one or more intrusion errors on the verbal recall test. Correct responses were lower when subjects made intrusion errors, but learning slopes did not differ between subjects who committed intrusion errors and those who did not so. Bivariate regression analyses revealed that participants who committed intrusion errors were more deficient on measures of eight-word recognition memory, delayed visual recognition and tests of executive control (the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale and the ADST-Graphical Sequences as measures of response inhibition). Using hierarchical multiple regression, only free recall and delayed visual recognition retained an independent effect in the association with intrusion errors, such that deficient scores on tests of episodic memory were sufficient to explain the occurrence of intrusion errors. Measures of inhibitory control did not add significantly to the explanation of intrusion errors in free recall, which makes insufficient strength of memory traces rather than a primary deficit in inhibition the preferred account for intrusion errors in free recall.

  3. An international perspective on Facebook intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Benvenuti, Martina; Cannata, Davide; Ciobanu, Adela Magdalena; Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat; Giannakos, Michail N; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pappas, Ilias O; Popa, Camelia; Seidman, Gwendolyn; Yu, Shu; Wu, Anise M S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-08-30

    Facebook has become one of the most popular social networking websites in the world. The main aim of the study was to present an international comparison of Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration while examining possible gender differences. The study consisted of 2589 participants from eight countries: China, Greece, Israel, Italy, Poland, Romania, Turkey, USA. Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration were taken into consideration. In this study the relationship between Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration was demonstrated. Facebook intrusion was slightly negatively related to Internet penetration in each country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intrusive Images in Psychological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R.; Gregory, James D.; Lipton, Michelle; Burgess, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Involuntary images and visual memories are prominent in many types of psychopathology. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, and psychosis frequently report repeated visual intrusions corresponding to a small number of real or imaginary events, usually extremely vivid, detailed, and with highly distressing content. Both memory and imagery appear to rely on common networks involving medial prefrontal regions, posterior regions in the medial and lateral parietal cortices, the lateral temporal cortex, and the medial temporal lobe. Evidence from cognitive psychology and neuroscience implies distinct neural bases to abstract, flexible, contextualized representations (C-reps) and to inflexible, sensory-bound representations (S-reps). We revise our previous dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder to place it within a neural systems model of healthy memory and imagery. The revised model is used to explain how the different types of distressing visual intrusions associated with clinical disorders arise, in terms of the need for correct interaction between the neural systems supporting S-reps and C-reps via visuospatial working memory. Finally, we discuss the treatment implications of the new model and relate it to existing forms of psychological therapy. PMID:20063969

  5. Intrusive and Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Danilo Burbano Acuña

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is not discussion about the need of energyconservation, it is well known that energy resources are limitedmoreover the global energy demands will double by the end of2030, which certainly will bring implications on theenvironment and hence to all of us.Non-Intrusive load monitoring (NILM is the process ofrecognize electrical devices and its energy consumption basedon whole home electric signals, where this aggregated load datais acquired from a single point of measurement outside thehousehold. The aim of this approach is to get optimal energyconsumption and avoid energy wastage. Intrusive loadmonitoring (ILM is the process of identify and locate singledevices through the use of sensing systems to support control,monitor and intervention of such devices. The aim of thisapproach is to offer a base for the development of importantapplications for remote and automatic intervention of energyconsumption inside buildings and homes as well. For generalpurposes this paper states a general framework of NILM andILM approaches.Appliance discerns can be tackled using approaches fromdata mining and machine learning, finding out the techniquesthat fit the best this requirements, is a key factor for achievingfeasible and suitable appliance load monitoring solutions. Thispaper presents common and interesting methods used.Privacy concerns have been one of the bigger obstacles forimplementing a widespread adoption of these solutions; despitethis fact, developed countries like those inside the EU and theUK have established a deadline for the implementation ofsmart meters in the whole country, whereas USA governmentstill struggles with the acceptance of this solution by itscitizens.The implementation of security over these approachesalong with fine-grained energy monitoring would lead to abetter public agreement of these solutions and hence a fasteradoption of such approaches. This paper reveals a lack ofsecurity over these approaches with a real scenario.

  6. Influence of crystallised igneous intrusions on fault nucleation and reactivation during continental extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Craig; McDermott, Kenneth G.; Stevenson, Carl T. E.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2014-05-01

    Continental rifting is commonly accommodated by the nucleation of normal faults, slip on pre-existing fault surfaces and/or magmatic intrusion. Because crystallised igneous intrusions are pervasive in many rift basins and are commonly more competent (i.e. higher shear strengths and Young's moduli) than the host rock, it is theoretically plausible that they locally intersect and modify the mechanical properties of pre-existing normal faults. We illustrate the influence that crystallised igneous intrusions may have on fault reactivation using a conceptual model and observations from field and subsurface datasets. Our results show that igneous rocks may initially resist failure, and promote the preferential reactivation of favourably-oriented, pre-existing faults that are not spatially-associated with solidified intrusions. Fault segments situated along strike from laterally restricted fault-intrusion intersections may similarly be reactivated. This spatial and temporal control on strain distribution may generate: (1) supra-intrusion folds in the hanging wall; (2) new dip-slip faults adjacent to the igneous body; or (3) sub-vertical, oblique-slip faults oriented parallel to the extension direction. Importantly, stress accumulation within igneous intrusions may eventually initiate failure and further localise strain. The results of our study have important implications for the structural of sedimentary basins and the subsurface migration of hydrocarbons and mineral-bearing fluids.

  7. Human intrusion: issues concerning its assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimwood, P.D.; Smith, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The potential significance of human intrusion in the performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories has been increasingly recognized in recent years. It is however an area of assessment in which subjective judgments dominate. This paper identifies some of the issues involved. These include regulatory criteria, scenario development, probability assignment, consequence assessment and measures to mitigate human intrusion

  8. Intrusion-Aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jae Song

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

  9. A Comprehensive Review and meta-analysis on Applications of Machine Learning Techniques in Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojit Chattopadhyay

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Securing a machine from various cyber-attacks has been of serious concern for researchers, statutory bodies such as governments, business organizations and users in both wired and wireless media. However, during the last decade, the amount of data handling by any device, particularly servers, has increased exponentially and hence the security of these devices has become a matter of utmost concern. This paper attempts to examine the challenges in the application of machine learning techniques to intrusion detection. We review different inherent issues in defining and applying the machine learning techniques to intrusion detection. We also attempt to identify the best technological solution for changing usage pattern by comparing different machine learning techniques on different datasets and summarizing their performance using various performance metrics. This paper highlights the research challenges and future trends of intrusion detection in dynamic scenarios of intrusion detection problems in diverse network technologies.

  10. THE TECTONICS STRESS AND STRAIN FIELD MODELING ADJUSTED FOR EVOLUTION OF GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES (SAILAG INTRUSION, EASTERN SAYAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Voytenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a tectonophysical model showing evolution of structures in the Sailag granodiorite massif in relation to its gold-bearing capacity. The model takes into account the load patterns according to geological data, accumulated deformation, and gravity stresses. This model provides for updating the structural-geological model showing development of the intrusion body and the ore field. Forecasted are destruction patterns in the apical and above-dome parts of the massif  in the intrusion and contraction phase, formation of the long-term shear zone at the steeply dipping slope of the intrusion body, and subvertical fractures associated with the long-term shear zone and vertical mechanical ‘layering’ of the intrusive body.  

  11. Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium (SSWC) data set documents the stratospheric, tropospheric, and surface climate impacts of sudden stratospheric warmings. This...

  12. Periodontal changes following molar intrusion with miniscrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Bayani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, these results suggest that not only periodontal status was not negatively affected by intrusion, but also there were signs of periodontal improvement including attachment gain and shortening of clinical crown height.

  13. A Citizen's Guide to Vapor Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes how vapor intrusion is the movement of chemical vapors from contaminated soil and groundwater into nearby buildings.Vapors primarily enter through openings in the building foundation or basement walls.

  14. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  15. Acknowledging the dilemmas of intrusive media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David; Finger, Juliane; Dias, Patrcia

    2017-01-01

    Part of the stakeholder consultation addressed strategies that media audiences are developing to cope with pressures and intrusions in a changing media environment, characterised by digitalisation and interactive possibilities. We interviewed ten stakeholders representing interests such as content...... production, media literacy, media regulation, and activism. Consulting with these stakeholders left the impression that pressures and intrusions from media lack widespread acknowledgement, and that little is known about audiences’ strategies to cope with media. Even when intrusions are acknowledged, we find...... no consensual motivation, nor any clear avenue for action. Therefore, we have analysed different discursive positions that prevent acknowledging or taking action upon the pressures and intrusions that we presented to these stakeholders. The discursive positions are outlined below....

  16. NIST Special Publication on Intrusion Detection Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bace, Rebecca Gurley

    2001-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are software or hardware systems that automate the process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network, analyzing them for signs of security problems...

  17. Prevention and analysis of hacker's intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoxu; An Dehai; Xu Rongsheng

    2000-01-01

    The author analyzes the behavior characteristics and relevant technologies about the hacker's intrusion, and gives some corresponding solutions pertinently. To the recent events about hackers, the author gives detailed introduction and puts forward the relevant advice and valuable consideration

  18. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems’ operation

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus Mora-Rodriguez, P. Amparo López-Jimenez, Helena M. Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuse...

  19. Analogue modelling on the interaction between shallow magma intrusion and a strike-slip fault: Application on the Middle Triassic Monzoni Intrusive Complex (Dolomites, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Maria; Coltorti, Massimo; Gianolla, Piero; Riva, Alberto; Rosenau, Matthias; Bonadiman, Costanza; Galland, Olivier; Guldstrand, Frank; Thordén Haug, Øystein; Rudolf, Michael; Schmiedel, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    The southwestern part of the Dolomites in Northern Italy has undergone a short-lived Ladinian (Middle Triassic) tectono-magmatic event, forming a series of significant magmatic features. These intrusive bodies deformed and metamorphosed the Permo-Triassic carbonate sedimentary framework. In this study we focus on the tectono-magmatic evolution of the shallow shoshonitic Monzoni Intrusive Complex of this Ladinian event (ca 237 Ma), covering an area of 20 km^2. This NW-SE elongated intrusive structure (5 km length) shows an orogenic magmatic affinity which is in contrast to the tectonic regime at the time of intrusion. Strain analysis shows anorogenic transtensional displacement in accordance with the ENE-WSW extensional pattern in the central Dolomites during the Ladinian. Field interpretations led to a detailed description of the regional stratigraphic sequence and the structural features of the study area. However, the geodynamic context of this magmatism and the influence of the inherited strike-slip fault on the intrusion, are still in question. To better understand the specific natural prototype and the general mechanisms of magma emplacement in tectonically active areas, we performed analogue experiments defined by, but not limited to, first order field observations. We have conducted a systematic series of experiments in different tectonic regimes (static conditions, strike-slip, transtension). We varied the ratio of viscous to brittle stresses between magma and country rock, by injecting Newtonian fluids both of high and low viscosity (i.e. silicone oil/vegetable oil) into granular materials of varying cohesion (sand, silica flour, glass beads). The evolving surface and side view of the experiments were monitored by photogrammetric techniques for strain analyses and topographic evolution. In our case, the combination of the results from field and analogue experiments brings new insights regarding the tectonic regime, the geometry of the intrusive body, and

  20. Effects of static-stretching and whole-body-vibration during warm-ups on bench-press kinematics in males and females college-aged. [Efectos de los estiramientos estáticos y vibraciones durante el calentamiento en los parámetros cinemáticos del press banca en hombres y mujeres estudiantes].

    OpenAIRE

    Esperanza Martín-Santana; Sonsoles Hernández-Sánchez; zael J. Herrero-Alonso; David García-López

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of different specific warm-up protocols including static stretching (SS) and whole body vibrations (WBV) on kinematics and number of repetitions during a bench press set to failure in physically active male and female subjects. A secondary purpose was to analyze the role of sex on the warm-up induced effects. 24 participants (13 females and 11 males) were randomly assigned to complete 3 experimental conditions in a cross-over design: SS, WBV and SS+WBV...

  1. Count out your intrusions: Effects of verbal encoding on intrusive memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans, J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Becker, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    Peri-traumatic information processing is thought to affect the development of intrusive trauma memories. This study aimed to replicate and improve the study by Holmes, Brewin, and Hennessy (2004, Exp. 3) on the role of peri-traumatic verbal processing in analogue traumatic intrusion development.

  2. Network Intrusion Detection System using Apache Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Manzoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Network security implements various strategies for the identification and prevention of security breaches. Network intrusion detection is a critical component of network management for security, quality of service and other purposes. These systems allow early detection of network intrusion and malicious activities; so that the Network Security infrastructure can react to mitigate these threats. Various systems are proposed to enhance the network security. We are proposing to use anomaly based network intrusion detection system in this work. Anomaly based intrusion detection system can identify the new network threats. We also propose to use Real-time Big Data Stream Processing Framework, Apache Storm, for the implementation of network intrusion detection system. Apache Storm can help to manage the network traffic which is generated at enormous speed and size and the network traffic speed and size is constantly increasing. We have used Support Vector Machine in this work. We use Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 1999 (KDD’99 dataset to test and evaluate our proposed solution.

  3. The Basketball warms-ups - theoretical assumptions and practical solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Łubiński; Jan Kosendiak

    2017-01-01

    Many authors emphasize the importance of warm-up. Warm-up in team games aims at enhancing the body adaptation to the physical activity and to activate physiological functions from the rest state to the active state. Warm-up brings many different benefits, for example: physiological, psychological, and preventive, regardless of the classification of the above. From a psychological standpoint, the warm-up is performed to create the body "alertness", activity and readiness, and a willingness to ...

  4. Evidential reasoning research on intrusion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianpei; Xu, Hua; Zheng, Sheng; Cheng, Anyu

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, we mainly aim at D-S theory of evidence and the network intrusion detection these two fields. It discusses the method how to apply this probable reasoning as an AI technology to the Intrusion Detection System (IDS). This paper establishes the application model, describes the new mechanism of reasoning and decision-making and analyses how to implement the model based on the synscan activities detection on the network. The results suggest that if only rational probability values were assigned at the beginning, the engine can, according to the rules of evidence combination and hierarchical reasoning, compute the values of belief and finally inform the administrators of the qualities of the traced activities -- intrusions, normal activities or abnormal activities.

  5. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, Usha; Kedlaya, Prashanth G; Gokulnath

    2009-01-01

    Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily activities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering sociodemographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was carried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were analyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 + - 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%), 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear families. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 + - 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%), work (70%) finance (55%), diet (50%) sexual life (38%) and psychological status (25%). Illness had not intruded in areas of relationship with spouse (67%), friends (76%), family (79%), social (40%) and religious functions (72%). Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02). (author)

  6. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapat Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily acti-vities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among pa-tients on hemodialysis (HD and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering socio-demographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was ca-rried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were ana-lyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 ± 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%, 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear fami-lies. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 ± 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%, work (70% finance (55%, diet (50% sexual life (38% and psychological status (25%. Illness had not intruded in areas of rela-tionship with spouse (67%, friends (76%, family (79%, social (40% and religious functions (72%. Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02.

  7. Fracturing of doleritic intrusions and associated contact zones: Implications for fluid flow in volcanic basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Kim; Buckley, Simon J.; Chevallier, Luc; Fagereng, Åke; Galland, Olivier; Kurz, Tobias H.; Ogata, Kei; Planke, Sverre; Tveranger, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Igneous intrusions act as both carriers and barriers to subsurface fluid flow and are therefore expected to significantly influence the distribution and migration of groundwater and hydrocarbons in volcanic basins. Given the low matrix permeability of igneous rocks, the effective permeability in- and around intrusions is intimately linked to the characteristics of their associated fracture networks. Natural fracturing is caused by numerous processes including magma cooling, thermal contraction, magma emplacement and mechanical disturbance of the host rock. Fracturing may be locally enhanced along intrusion-host rock interfaces, at dyke-sill junctions, or at the base of curving sills, thereby potentially enhancing permeability associated with these features. In order to improve our understanding of fractures associated with intrusive bodies emplaced in sedimentary host rocks, we have investigated a series of outcrops from the Karoo Basin of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, where the siliciclastic Burgersdorp Formation has been intruded by various intrusions (thin dykes, mid-sized sheet intrusions and thick sills) belonging to the Karoo dolerite. We present a quantified analysis of fracturing in- and around these igneous intrusions based on five outcrops at three individual study sites, utilizing a combination of field data, high-resolution lidar virtual outcrop models and image processing. Our results show a significant difference between the three sites in terms of fracture orientation. The observed differences can be attributed to contrasting intrusion geometries, outcrop geometry (for lidar data) and tectonic setting. Two main fracture sets were identified in the dolerite at two of the sites, oriented parallel and perpendicular to the contact respectively. Fracture spacing was consistent between the three sites, and exhibits a higher degree of variation in the dolerites compared to the host rock. At one of the study sites, fracture frequency in the

  8. Magmatic intrusions in the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, C.; Thorey, C.

    2015-10-01

    The lunar highlands are very old, with ages covering a timespan between 4.5 to 4.2 Gyr, and probably formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean. The lunar crust provides thus an invaluable evidence of the geological and magmatic processes occurring in the first times of the terrestrial planets history. According to the last estimates from the GRAIL mission, the lunar primary crust is particularly light and relatively thick [1] This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the dense primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basin: at least part of the crust must have been removed for the magma to reach the surface. However, the trajectory of the magma from the mantle to the surface is unknown. Using a model of magma emplacement below an elastic overlying layer with a flexural wavelength Λ, we characterize the surface deformations induced by the presence of shallow magmatic intrusions. We demonstrate that, depending on its size, the intrusion can show two different shapes: a bell shape when its radius is smaller than 4 times Λ or a flat top with small bended edges if its radius is larger than 4 times Λ[2]. These characteristic shapes for the intrusion result in characteristic deformations at the surface that also depend on the topography of the layer overlying the intrusion [3].Using this model we provide evidence of the presence of intrusions within the crust of the Moon as surface deformations in the form of low-slope lunar domes and floor-fractured craters. All these geological features have morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. Further more,at floor-fractured craters, the deformation is contained within the crater interior, suggesting that the overpressure at the origin of magma ascent and intrusion was less than the pressure due to the weight of the crust removed by

  9. Adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) software routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-07-01

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect information from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data-compression, storage, and formatting system; it also incorporates a capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be used for the collection of environmental, bilevel, analog, and video data. This report describes the software routines that control the different AIDS data-collection modes, the diagnostic programs to test the operating hardware, and the data format. Sample data printouts are also included

  10. Intrusion Detection amp Prevention Systems - Sourcefire Snort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Vuppala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information security is a challenging issue for all business organizations today amidst increasing cyber threats. While there are many alternative intrusion detection amp prevention systems available to choose from selecting the best solution to implement to detect amp prevent cyber-attacks is a difficult task. The best solution is of the one that gets the best reviews and suits the organizations needs amp budget. In this review paper we summarize various classes of intrusion detection and prevention systems compare features of alternative solutions and make recommendation for implementation of one as the best solution for business organization in Fiji.

  11. Computationally Efficient Neural Network Intrusion Security Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2009-08-01

    An enhanced version of an algorithm to provide anomaly based intrusion detection alerts for cyber security state awareness is detailed. A unique aspect is the training of an error back-propagation neural network with intrusion detection rule features to provide a recognition basis. Network packet details are subsequently provided to the trained network to produce a classification. This leverages rule knowledge sets to produce classifications for anomaly based systems. Several test cases executed on ICMP protocol revealed a 60% identification rate of true positives. This rate matched the previous work, but 70% less memory was used and the run time was reduced to less than 1 second from 37 seconds.

  12. Intrusion Detection System In IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Intrusion detection detects misbehaving nodes in a network. In Internet of Things(IoT), IPv6 Routing for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is the standard routing protocol. In IoT, devices commonly have low energy, storage and memory, which is why the implemented intrusion algorithm in this thesis will try to minimize the usage of these resources. IDS for RPL-networks have been implemented before, but the use of resources or the number of packets sent was too high to be successful when findi...

  13. Why tropical forest lizards are vulnerable to climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Raymond B.; Deutsch, Curtis A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Vitt, Laurie J.; Hertz, Paul E.; Álvarez Pérez, Héctor J.; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Biological impacts of climate warming are predicted to increase with latitude, paralleling increases in warming. However, the magnitude of impacts depends not only on the degree of warming but also on the number of species at risk, their physiological sensitivity to warming and their options for behavioural and physiological compensation. Lizards are useful for evaluating risks of warming because their thermal biology is well studied. We conducted macrophysiological analyses of diurnal lizards from diverse latitudes plus focal species analyses of Puerto Rican Anolis and Sphaerodactyus. Although tropical lowland lizards live in environments that are warm all year, macrophysiological analyses indicate that some tropical lineages (thermoconformers that live in forests) are active at low body temperature and are intolerant of warm temperatures. Focal species analyses show that some tropical forest lizards were already experiencing stressful body temperatures in summer when studied several decades ago. Simulations suggest that warming will not only further depress their physiological performance in summer, but will also enable warm-adapted, open-habitat competitors and predators to invade forests. Forest lizards are key components of tropical ecosystems, but appear vulnerable to the cascading physiological and ecological effects of climate warming, even though rates of tropical warming may be relatively low. PMID:19324762

  14. Wireless sensing without sensors—an experimental study of motion/intrusion detection using RF irregularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Pius W Q; Tan, Hwee-Pink; Seah, Winston K G; Yao, Zexi

    2010-01-01

    Motion and intrusion detection are often cited as wireless sensor network (WSN) applications with typical configurations comprising clusters of wireless nodes equipped with motion sensors to detect human motion. Currently, WSN performance is subjected to several constraints, namely radio irregularity and finite on-board computation/energy resources. Radio irregularity in radio frequency (RF) propagation rises to a higher level in the presence of human activity due to the absorption effect of the human body. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of monitoring RF transmission for the purpose of intrusion detection through experimentation. With empirical data obtained from the Crossbow TelosB platform in several different environments, the impact of human activity on the signal strength of RF signals in a WSN is evaluated. We then propose a novel approach to intrusion detection by turning a constraint in WSN, namely radio irregularity, into an advantage for the purpose of intrusion detection, using signal fluctuations to detect the presence of human activity within the WSN. Unlike RF fingerprinting, the 'intruders' here neither transmit nor receive any RF signals. By enabling existing wireless infrastructures to serve as intrusion detectors instead of deploying numerous costly sensors, this approach shows great promise for providing novel solutions

  15. Repeated magmatic intrusions at El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Saz, Maria A.; Parks, Michelle M.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; García-Cañada, Laura

    2017-09-01

    After more than 200 years of quiescence, in July 2011 an intense seismic swarm was detected beneath the center of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands), culminating on 10 October 2011 in a submarine eruption, 2 km off the southern coast. Although the eruption officially ended on 5 March 2012, magmatic activity continued in the area. From June 2012 to March 2014, six earthquake swarms, indicative of magmatic intrusions, were detected underneath the island. We have studied these post-eruption intrusive events using GPS and InSAR techniques to characterize the ground surface deformation produced by each of these intrusions, and to determine the optimal source parameters (geometry, location, depth, volume change). Source inversions provide insight into the depth of the intrusions ( 11-16 km) and the volume change associated with each of them (between 0.02 and 0.13 km3). During this period, > 20 cm of uplift was detected in the central-western part of the island, corresponding to approximately 0.32-0.38 km3 of magma intruded beneath the volcano. We suggest that these intrusions result from deep magma migrating from the mantle, trapped at the mantle/lower crust discontinuity in the form of sill-like bodies. This study, using joint inversion of GPS and InSAR data in a post-eruption period, provides important insight into the characteristics of the magmatic plumbing system of El Hierro, an oceanic intraplate volcanic island.

  16. Warm Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-17

    State of Alaska State of Alaska - Warm Mix Project Warm Mix Project: Location - Petersburg, Alaska which is Petersburg, Alaska which is located in the heart of Southeast Alaska located in the heart of Southeast Alaska's Inside Passage at the tip of M...

  17. [Startup mechanism of moxibustion warming and dredging function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyu; Liang, Shuang; Sun, Zheng; Zhang, Jianbin

    2017-09-12

    With "moxibustion" and "warm stimulation" as the keywords, the literature on moxibustion mechanism of warming and dredging from June 1st, 1995 to June 1st, 2016 was collected from PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang database. The startup mechanism of moxibustion warming and dredging function was analyzed in terms of moxibustion warming stimulation. The results were found that moxibustion was based on local rising temperature of acupoint. It activated local specific receptors, heat sensitive immune cells, heat shock proteins and so on to start the warming and dredging function and produce various local effects. The warming stimulation signals as well as subsequent effects through nerve and body fluid pathways induced the effects of further specific target organs and body systems.

  18. Test of an Hypothesis of Magnetization, Tilt and Flow in an Hypabyssal Intrusion, Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, S.; MacDonald, W. D.; Estrada, J. J.; Sierra, G. M.

    2002-05-01

    Magnetic remanence in the Miocene Clavijo intrusion in the Cauca Valley, adjacent to the Cordillera Central, plunges steeply northward (MacDonald et al., 1996). Assuming magnetization in a normal magnetic field, the expected remanence direction is approximately I= 10o, D= 000o; the observed remanence is I=84o, D=003o. The discrepancy could be explained by a 74o rotation about a horizontal E-W axis, i.e., about an axis normal to the nearby N-S trending Romeral fault zone. If the intrusion is the shallow feeder of a now-eroded andesitic volcano, then perhaps the paleovertical direction is preserved in flow lineations and provides a test of the tilt/rotation of the remanence. In combination, the steep remanence direction, vertical flow, and the inferred rotation of the volcanic neck lead to the hypothesis of a shallow-plunging southward lineation for this body. Using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a proxy for the flow lineation, it is predicted that the K1 (maximum susceptibility) axis in this body plunges gently south. This hypothesis was tested using approximately 50 oriented cores from 5 sites near the west margin of the Clavijo intrusion. The results suggest a NW plunging lineation, inconsistent with the initial hypothesis. However, a relatively consistent flow lineation is suggested by the K1 axes. If this flow axis represents paleovertical, it suggests moderate tilting of the Clavijo body towards the southeast. The results are encouraging enough to suggest that AMS may be useful for determining paleo-vertical in shallow volcanic necks and hypabyssal intrusions, and might ultimately be useful in a tilt-correction for such bodies. Other implications of the results will be discussed. MacDonald, WD, Estrada, JJ, Sierra, GM, Gonzalez, H, 1996, Late Cenozoic tectonics and paleomagnetism of North Cauca Basin intrusions, Colombian Andes: Dual rotation modes: Tectonophysics, v 261, p. 277-289.

  19. Wave Induced Saline Intrusion in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy is dissip...

  20. Work Zone Intrusion Report Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    While necessary for roadways, work zones present a safety risk to crew. Half of road workers deaths between 2005 and 2010 were due to collisions with motorists intruding on the work zone. Therefore, addressing intrusions is an important step for ensu...

  1. Access Control from an Intrusion Detection Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.

    Access control and intrusion detection are essential components for securing an organization's information assets. In practice, these components are used in isolation, while their fusion would contribute to increase the range and accuracy of both. One approach to accomplish this fusion is the

  2. Smart sensor systems for outdoor intrusion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A major improvement in outdoor perimeter security system probability of detection (PD) and reduction in false alarm rate (FAR) and nuisance alarm rate (NAR) may be obtained by analyzing the indications immediately preceding an event which might be interpreted as an intrusion. Existing systems go into alarm after crossing a threshold. Very slow changes, which accumulate until the threshold is reached, may be assessed falsely as an intrusion. A hierarchial program has begun at Stellar to develop a modular, expandable Smart Sensor system which may be interfaced to most types of sensor and alarm reporting systems. A major upgrade to the SSI Test Site is in progress so that intrusions may be simulated in a controlled and repeatable manner. A test platform is being constructed which will operate in conduction with a mobile instrumentation center with CCTVB, lighting control, weather and data monitoring and remote control of the test platform and intrusion simulators. Additional testing was contracted with an independent test facility to assess the effects of severe winter weather conditions

  3. Root resorption after orthodontic intrusion and extrusion:.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, G.; Huang, S.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Zeng, X.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare root resorption in the same individual after application of continuous intrusive and extrusive forces. In nine patients (mean age 15.3 years), the maxillary first premolars were randomly intruded or extruded with a continuous force of 100 cN for eight

  4. An Adaptive Database Intrusion Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Rita M.

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion detection is difficult to accomplish when attempting to employ current methodologies when considering the database and the authorized entity. It is a common understanding that current methodologies focus on the network architecture rather than the database, which is not an adequate solution when considering the insider threat. Recent…

  5. Petrology of the Sutherland commanage melilite intrusives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viljoen, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    The petrology of the Sutherland Commonage olivine melilitite intrusives have been investigated using petrographic and chemical methods. The results of the geochemical study suggest that the Commonage melilites were derived by the melting of a recently metasomatised region of the asthenosphere, probably under the influence of an ocean-island-type hotspot situated in the lower mantle

  6. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Seawater intrusion; coastal aquifers; density-dependent flow and ... The seawater intrusion mechanism in coastal aquifers generally causes the occurrence of ... (4) The dynamic viscosity of the fluid does not change with respect to salinity and.

  7. Automated electronic intruder simulator for evaluation of ultrasonic intrusion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    An automated electronic intruder simulator for testing ultrasonic intrusion detectors is described. This simulator is primarily intended for use in environmental chambers to determine the effects of temperature and humidity on the operation of ultrasonic intrusion detectors

  8. Intrusive trauma memory: A review and functional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans, J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Becker, E.S.; Holmes, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Our contribution to this special issue focuses on the phenomenon of intrusive trauma memory. While intrusive trauma memories can undoubtedly cause impairment, we argue that they may exist for a potentially adaptive reason. Theory and experimental research on intrusion development are reviewed and

  9. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  10. Global Warming: A Myth?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Global Warming: A Myth? - Credibility of Climate Scenarios Predicted by Systems Simulations. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 13-21 ...

  11. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the radiologist or sonographer will apply some warm water-based gel on your skin and then place the transducer firmly against your body, moving it back and forth over the area ...

  13. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  14. Research on IPv6 intrusion detection system Snort-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zihao; Wang, Hui

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the common intrusion detection technologies, discusses the work flow of Snort intrusion detection system, and analyzes IPv6 data packet encapsulation and protocol decoding technology. We propose the expanding Snort architecture to support IPv6 intrusion detection in accordance with CIDF standard combined with protocol analysis technology and pattern matching technology, and present its composition. The research indicates that the expanding Snort system can effectively detect various intrusion attacks; it is high in detection efficiency and detection accuracy and reduces false alarm and omission report, which effectively solves the problem of IPv6 intrusion detection.

  15. Global warming yearbook: 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arris, L. [ed.

    1999-02-01

    The report brings together a year`s worth of global warming stories - over 280 in all - in one convenient volume. It provides a one-stop report on the scientific, political and industrial implications of global warming. The report includes: detailed coverage of negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol; scientific findings on carbon sources and sinks, coral bleaching, Antarctic ice shelves, plankton, wildlife and tree growth; new developments on fuel economy, wind power, fuel cells, cogeneration, energy labelling and emissions trading.

  16. Media Pembelajaran Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Tham, Fikri Jufri; Liliana, Liliana; Purba, Kristo Radion

    2016-01-01

    Computer based learning media is one of the media has an important role in learning. Learning media will be attractive when packaged through interactive media , such as interactive media created in paper manufacture " instructional media global warming" . The advantage gained is that it can increase knowledge, generally educate people to be more concerned about the environment , and also can be a means of entertainment. This application is focused to learn about global warming and packaged in...

  17. Multilayer Statistical Intrusion Detection in Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Mohamed; Meddeb-Makhlouf, Amel; Boudriga, Noureddine

    2008-12-01

    The rapid proliferation of mobile applications and services has introduced new vulnerabilities that do not exist in fixed wired networks. Traditional security mechanisms, such as access control and encryption, turn out to be inefficient in modern wireless networks. Given the shortcomings of the protection mechanisms, an important research focuses in intrusion detection systems (IDSs). This paper proposes a multilayer statistical intrusion detection framework for wireless networks. The architecture is adequate to wireless networks because the underlying detection models rely on radio parameters and traffic models. Accurate correlation between radio and traffic anomalies allows enhancing the efficiency of the IDS. A radio signal fingerprinting technique based on the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT) is developed. Moreover, a geometric clustering algorithm is presented. Depending on the characteristics of the fingerprinting technique, the clustering algorithm permits to control the false positive and false negative rates. Finally, simulation experiments have been carried out to validate the proposed IDS.

  18. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  19. In-situ trainable intrusion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, Christopher T.; Beaver, Justin M.; Gillen, Rob; Potok, Thomas E.

    2016-11-15

    A computer implemented method detects intrusions using a computer by analyzing network traffic. The method includes a semi-supervised learning module connected to a network node. The learning module uses labeled and unlabeled data to train a semi-supervised machine learning sensor. The method records events that include a feature set made up of unauthorized intrusions and benign computer requests. The method identifies at least some of the benign computer requests that occur during the recording of the events while treating the remainder of the data as unlabeled. The method trains the semi-supervised learning module at the network node in-situ, such that the semi-supervised learning modules may identify malicious traffic without relying on specific rules, signatures, or anomaly detection.

  20. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses and thereby an important parameter in resilience of seagrass ecosystems. In contrast seegrasses colonize and grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to invasion of toxic gaseous sulfide. Remarkably little...... strategies of seagrasses to sustain sulfide intrusion. Using stable isotope tracing, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray analysis, tracing sulfur compounds combined with ecosystem parameters we found different spatial, intraspecific and interspecific strategies to cope with sulfidic sediments. 1...... not present in terrestrial plants at that level. Sulfide is not necessarily toxic but used as sulfur nutrition, presupposing healthy seagrass ecosystems that can support detoxification mechanisms. Presence or absence of those mechanisms determines susceptibility of seagrass ecosystems to sediment sulfide...

  1. Refrigeration and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Some aspects of global warming in general, and the implications for refrigerants and refrigerator efficiency in particular, are briefly considered in a question and answer format. The concepts of Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) are explained. GWP is an index which allows a simple comparison to be make between the warming effects of different gases on a kg to kg basis relative to carbon. The GWP depends both on the lifetime of a substance in the atmosphere and its infra-red absorption capacity. The overall warming effect of operating a refrigeration system for its entire life is measured by its TEWI. Chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) which have been widely used as refrigerants are powerful greenhouse gases with high GWPs. Because of the bank of CFCs in refrigerating systems, their levels in the atmosphere are still increasing and it will be some time before refrigerant changes will be effective in reducing the warming effects of refrigerant releases. Hydrocarbons, hydroflourocarbons and ammonia all have a part to play as substitute refrigerants. Refrigerator efficiency is very important in terms of reducing CO 2 emissions. (UK)

  2. WIPP performance assessment: impacts of human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Hunter, R.L.; Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Lappin, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is a research and development facility that may become the USA's first and only mined geologic repository for transuranic waste. Human intrusion into the WIPP repository after closure has been shown by preliminary sensitivity analyses and calculations of consequences to be an important, and perhaps the most important, factor in long-term repository performance

  3. AMDIS Case Conference: Intrusive Medication Safety Alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J; Levick, D; Schreiber, R

    2010-01-01

    Clinical decision support that provides enhanced patient safety at the point of care frequently encounters significant pushback from clinicians who find the process intrusive or time-consuming. We present a hypothetical medical center's dilemma about its allergy alerting system and discuss similar problems faced by real hospitals. We then share some lessons learned and best practices for institutions who wish to implement these tools themselves.

  4. AMDIS Case Conference: Intrusive Medication Safety Alerts

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, J.; Levick, D.; Schreiber, R.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical decision support that provides enhanced patient safety at the point of care frequently encounters significant pushback from clinicians who find the process intrusive or time-consuming. We present a hypothetical medical center’s dilemma about its allergy alerting system and discuss similar problems faced by real hospitals. We then share some lessons learned and best practices for institutions who wish to implement these tools themselves.

  5. INTRUSIVE MARKETING METHODS A CONTEMPORARY CONSUMER PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Owais, Faizan

    2008-01-01

    Is marketing practice destroying the faith of consumers? It may be argued that marketing practice over recent years has taken a more direct approach that appears intrusive and manipulative to consumers. The marketing activities we see today are a desperate attempt to grab consumer attention in any way possible and it is all spelling out bad news for marketing. Marketers have been faced with many challenges, with markets at saturation point, competitiveness is on the rise and marketers are...

  6. Stochastic Tools for Network Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Lu; Brooks, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet and the sharp increase of network crime, network security has become very important and received a lot of attention. We model security issues as stochastic systems. This allows us to find weaknesses in existing security systems and propose new solutions. Exploring the vulnerabilities of existing security tools can prevent cyber-attacks from taking advantages of the system weaknesses. We propose a hybrid network security scheme including intrusion detecti...

  7. Perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Jacobs, J.; McGovern, D.E.

    1977-11-01

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  8. Seasonal fluctuations of ichthyoplankton assemblage in the northeastern South China Sea influenced by the Kuroshio intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Delian; Zhang, Xia; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Arbi, Iman; Jiang, Xin; Huang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Wenjing

    2017-09-01

    The distribution and assemblage of ichthyoplankton related to local hydrographic features, especially intrusion of the Kuroshio Current (KC) and Guangdong Coastal Current (GCC) in the northeastern South China Sea (NESCS) were investigated in this study. A total of 193 species of ichthyoplankton belonging to 141 genera and 66 families were recognized in summer 2015 and late-winter 2016. The ichthyoplankton assemblage was identified with distinct seasonal differences, and the differences were responded well with the oceanography conditions. In summer, the assemblages were identified into offshore and inshore groups, as controlled by the South China Sea Warm Current (SCSWC) in off-shelf, upwelling, and the diluted water from the Pearl River in inshore. In winter, three groups were divided, representing the southwestern inshore, intrusion of the KC in the eastern offshore, and the GCC in the northern inshore area, respectively. Furthermore, Sigmops gracilis and Vinciguerria sp.3 were probably brought into the NESCS by intrusion of the KC from the eastern Luzon Strait. In addition, high ichthyoplankton abundance was found in high chlorophyll a located in upwelling areas in the northern coastal area in summer and in the southwestern Taiwan Bank in winter, respectively. The nutrition outcropped by the upwelling together, and those brought from the Pearl River probably supported high food availability of the ichthyoplankton in the northern coast of the NESCS.

  9. Efficient Mining and Detection of Sequential Intrusion Patterns for Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Mei-Ling; Huang, Zifang; Luo, Hongli

    In recent years, pervasive computing infrastructures have greatly improved the interaction between human and system. As we put more reliance on these computing infrastructures, we also face threats of network intrusion and/or any new forms of undesirable IT-based activities. Hence, network security has become an extremely important issue, which is closely connected with homeland security, business transactions, and people's daily life. Accurate and efficient intrusion detection technologies are required to safeguard the network systems and the critical information transmitted in the network systems. In this chapter, a novel network intrusion detection framework for mining and detecting sequential intrusion patterns is proposed. The proposed framework consists of a Collateral Representative Subspace Projection Modeling (C-RSPM) component for supervised classification, and an inter-transactional association rule mining method based on Layer Divided Modeling (LDM) for temporal pattern analysis. Experiments on the KDD99 data set and the traffic data set generated by a private LAN testbed show promising results with high detection rates, low processing time, and low false alarm rates in mining and detecting sequential intrusion detections.

  10. Global warming on trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeker, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing

  11. Long range global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth's steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth's temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic

  12. An intrusion detection system based on fiber hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junrong; Qiu, Xiufen; Shen, Heping

    2017-10-01

    This paper provides a new intrusion detection system based on fiber hydrophone, focusing beam forming figure positioning according to the near field and high precision sound source location algorithm which can accurately position the intrusion; obtaining its behavior path , obtaining the intrusion events related information such as speed form tracking intrusion trace; And analyze identification the detected intrusion behavior. If the monitor area is larger, the algorithm will take too much time once, and influence the system response time, for reduce the calculating time. This paper provides way that coarse location first, and then scanned for accuracy, so as to realize the intrusion events (such as car, etc.) the remote monitoring of positioning. The system makes up the blank in process capture of the fiber optic intrusion detection technology, and improves the understanding of the invasion. Through the capture of the process of intrusion behavior, and the fusion detection of intrusion behavior itself, thus analysis, judgment, identification of the intrusion information can greatly reduce the rate of false positives, greatly improved the reliability and practicability of the perimeter security system.

  13. Assessing Human Activity in Elderly People Using Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, José M; Ureña, Jesús; Hernández, Álvaro; Gualda, David

    2017-02-11

    The ageing of the population, and their increasing wish of living independently, are motivating the development of welfare and healthcare models. Existing approaches based on the direct heath-monitoring using body sensor networks (BSN) are precise and accurate. Nonetheless, their intrusiveness causes non-acceptance. New approaches seek the indirect monitoring through monitoring activities of daily living (ADLs), which proves to be a suitable solution. ADL monitoring systems use many heterogeneous sensors, are less intrusive, and are less expensive than BSN, however, the deployment and maintenance of wireless sensor networks (WSN) prevent them from a widespread acceptance. In this work, a novel technique to monitor the human activity, based on non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM), is presented. The proposal uses only smart meter data, which leads to minimum intrusiveness and a potential massive deployment at minimal cost. This could be the key to develop sustainable healthcare models for smart homes, capable of complying with the elderly people' demands. This study also uses the Dempster-Shafer theory to provide a daily score of normality with regard to the regular behavior. This approach has been evaluated using real datasets and, additionally, a benchmarking against a Gaussian mixture model approach is presented.

  14. Assessing Human Activity in Elderly People Using Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Alcalá

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ageing of the population, and their increasing wish of living independently, are motivating the development of welfare and healthcare models. Existing approaches based on the direct heath-monitoring using body sensor networks (BSN are precise and accurate. Nonetheless, their intrusiveness causes non-acceptance. New approaches seek the indirect monitoring through monitoring activities of daily living (ADLs, which proves to be a suitable solution. ADL monitoring systems use many heterogeneous sensors, are less intrusive, and are less expensive than BSN, however, the deployment and maintenance of wireless sensor networks (WSN prevent them from a widespread acceptance. In this work, a novel technique to monitor the human activity, based on non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM, is presented. The proposal uses only smart meter data, which leads to minimum intrusiveness and a potential massive deployment at minimal cost. This could be the key to develop sustainable healthcare models for smart homes, capable of complying with the elderly people’ demands. This study also uses the Dempster-Shafer theory to provide a daily score of normality with regard to the regular behavior. This approach has been evaluated using real datasets and, additionally, a benchmarking against a Gaussian mixture model approach is presented.

  15. G-warm inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Ramón, E-mail: ramon.herrera@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2017-05-01

    A warm inflationary universe in the context of Galileon model or G-model is studied. Under a general formalism we study the inflationary dynamics and the cosmological perturbations considering a coupling of the form G (φ, X )= g (φ) X . As a concrete example, we consider an exponential potential together with the cases in which the dissipation and Galilean coefficients are constants. Also, we study the weak regime given by the condition R <1+3 gH φ-dot , and the strong regime in which 1< R +3 gH φ-dot . Additionally, we obtain constraints on the parameters during the evolution of G-warm inflation, assuming the condition for warm inflation in which the temperature T > H , the conditions or the weak and strong regimes, together with the consistency relation r = r ( n {sub s} ) from Planck data.

  16. G-warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ramón

    2017-05-01

    A warm inflationary universe in the context of Galileon model or G-model is studied. Under a general formalism we study the inflationary dynamics and the cosmological perturbations considering a coupling of the form G(phi,X)=g(phi) X. As a concrete example, we consider an exponential potential together with the cases in which the dissipation and Galilean coefficients are constants. Also, we study the weak regime given by the condition RR+3gHdot phi. Additionally, we obtain constraints on the parameters during the evolution of G-warm inflation, assuming the condition for warm inflation in which the temperature T>H, the conditions or the weak and strong regimes, together with the consistency relation r=r(ns) from Planck data.

  17. The global warming problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

  18. Thermal evolution of magma reservoirs in the shallow crust and incidence on magma differentiation: the St-Jean-du-Doigt layered intrusion (Brittany, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, M.; Bussy, F.; Ovtcharova, M.; Schoene, B.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the emplacement and growth of intrusive bodies in terms of mechanism, duration, thermal evolution and rates are fundamental aspects of crustal evolution. Recent studies show that many plutons grow in several Ma by in situ accretion of discrete magma pulses, which constitute small-scale magmatic reservoirs. The residence time of magmas, and hence their capacities to interact and differentiate, are controlled by the local thermal environment. The latter is highly dependant on 1) the emplacement depth, 2) the magmas and country rock composition, 3) the country rock thermal conductivity, 4) the rate of magma injection and 5) the geometry of the intrusion. In shallow level plutons, where magmas solidify quickly, evidence for magma mixing and/or differentiation processes is considered by many authors to be inherited from deeper levels. We show however that in-situ differentiation and magma interactions occurred within basaltic and felsic sills at shallow depth (0.3 GPa) in the St-Jean-du-Doigt bimodal intrusion, France. Field evidence coupled to high precision zircon U-Pb dating document progressive thermal maturation within the incrementally built laccolith. Early m-thick mafic sills are homogeneous and fine-grained with planar contacts with neighbouring felsic sills; within a minimal 0.5 Ma time span, the system gets warmer, adjacent sills interact and mingle, and mafic sills are differentiating in the top 40 cm of the layer. Rheological and thermal modelling show that observed in-situ differentiation-accumulation processes may be achieved in less than 10 years at shallow depth, provided that (1) the differentiating sills are injected beneath consolidated, yet still warm basalt sills, which act as low conductive insulating screens, (2) the early mafic sills accreted under the roof of the laccolith as a 100m thick top layer within 0.5 My, and (3) subsequent and sustained magmatic activity occurred on a short time scale (years) at an injection rate of ca. 0

  19. Warm-Ups: The Key to the Beginning of a Great Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alisa R.; Collier, Douglas H.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, traditional pre-lesson warm-ups in physical education have consisted of callisthenic exercises such as jumping jacks, pushups, sit-ups, and running laps, as well as static stretching activities. These warm-ups are used to increase core body temperature and to assist blood flow to the working muscles. Although the traditional warm-up…

  20. Greenhouse Warming Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    2016-01-01

    The changing greenhouse effect caused by natural and anthropogenic causes is explained and efforts to model the behavior of the near-surface constituents of the Earth's land, ocean and atmosphere are discussed. Emissions of various substances and other aspects of human activity influence...... the greenhouse warming, and the impacts of the warming may again impact the wellbeing of human societies. Thus physical modeling of the near-surface ocean-soil-atmosphere system cannot be carried out without an idea of the development of human activities, which is done by scenario analysis. The interactive...

  1. Geophysical characterization from Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascholati, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The integrated use of geophysical, geological, geochemical, petrographical and remote sensing data resulted in a substantial increase in the knowledge of the Itu Intrusive Suite. The main geophysical method was gamma-ray spectrometry together with fluorimetry and autoradiography. Three methods were used for calculation of laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry data. For U, the regression method was the best one. For K and Th, equations system and absolute calibration presented the best results. Surface gamma-ray spectrometry allowed comparison with laboratory data and permitted important contribution to the study of environmental radiation. (author)

  2. Unconventional applications of conventional intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.; Matter, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A number of conventional intrusion detection sensors exists for the detection of persons entering buildings, moving within a given volume, and crossing a perimeter isolation zone. Unconventional applications of some of these sensors have recently been investigated. Some of the applications which are discussed include detection on the edges and tops of buildings, detection in storm sewers, detection on steam and other types of large pipes, and detection of unauthorized movement within secure enclosures. The enclosures can be used around complicated control valves, electrical control panels, emergency generators, etc

  3. Iron isotope systematics of the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesher, Charles; Lundstrom, C.C.; Barfod, Gry

    crystallization on non-traditional stable isotope systems, particularly iron. FeTi oxide minerals (titanomagnetite and ilmenite) appear after ~60% of the magma had solidified. This was a significant event affecting the liquid line of descent and potentially accompanied by iron isotope fractionation. Here we...... report the results of a broad study of the iron isotope compositions of gabbros within the layered and upper border series of the Skaergaard intrusion, pegmatite and granophyre associated with these gabbroic rocks, and the sandwich horizon thought to represent the product of extreme differentiation and...

  4. Apriori-based network intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenjin; Liu Junrong; Liu Baoxu

    2012-01-01

    With the development of network communication technology, more and more social activities run by Internet. In the meantime, the network information security is getting increasingly serious. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) has greatly improved the general security level of whole network. But there are still many problem exists in current IDS, e.g. high leak rate detection/false alarm rates and feature library need frequently upgrade. This paper presents an association-rule based IDS. This system can detect unknown attack by generate rules from training data. Experiment in last chapter proved the system has great accuracy on unknown attack detection. (authors)

  5. Introduction to gravity currents and intrusions

    CERN Document Server

    Ungarish, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The whole book is well written in a clear and pedagogical general style. … the author has, in my opinion, produced the first comprehensive book entirely devoted to the modeling of gravity currents and intrusions. This book will be particularly useful to graduate and PhD students, as well as to academics and research engineers working in this field. It may be used as a self-consistent document to get a detailed idea of the state of knowledge about a given problem or a guide toward more specialized papers. It is rich with ideas regarding the direction in which further research is warranted. This

  6. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Benjamin C; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-03-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression.

  7. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Kalivas, Benjamin C.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumben...

  8. Identification of Human Intrusion Types into Radwaste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan

    2007-01-01

    Human intrusion has long been recognized as a potentially important post-closure safety issue for rad waste disposal facility. It is due to the difficulties in predicting future human activities. For the preliminary study of human intrusion, identification of human intrusion types need to be recognized and investigated also the approaching of problem solving must be known to predict the prevention act and accepted risk. (author)

  9. Diabetes Intrusiveness and Wellness among Elders: A Test of the Illness Intrusiveness Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoster, Vaughn A.; Killian, Tim; Roessler, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Using data collected from 147 predominately African American senior citizens in Arkansas, this research examined the Illness Intrusiveness Model (Devins, 1991; Devins & Seland, 1987; Devins & Shnek, 2000) to explain variations in wellness specifically related to participants' adaptation to diabetes. The theoretical model hypothesized that…

  10. Warm pre-stressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Literature survey and critical evaluation of the phenomenon of warm pre-stressing (WPS) is presented. It is found that the cause of it is not clear and a calculated control is missing. The effect of irradiation is unknown, and the influence of WPS on the behaviour of reactor vessels is discussed. (G.B.)

  11. Being Warm-Hearted

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李函; 任汉鼎

    2017-01-01

    Good morning,ladies and gentlemen.It’s my honor to address[向……致辞] you.My English name is Isabella.I’m a high school student of 17.I have some good personality traits[特点],including being warm-hearted.So here comes my topic:Being

  12. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  13. The global warming scare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunavala, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that the present propaganda about the global warming with its disastrous consequences is a scare spread by some First World countries, especially the United States, to prevent the rapid industrialization of developing third world countries. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  14. Paralyzed warming world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ač, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 81-86 ISSN 1876-8156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : global warming * climate Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://ojs.ubvu.vu.nl/alf/article/view/134/250

  15. A new intrusion prevention model using planning knowledge graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zengyu; Feng, Yuan; Liu, Shuru; Gan, Yong

    2013-03-01

    Intelligent plan is a very important research in artificial intelligence, which has applied in network security. This paper proposes a new intrusion prevention model base on planning knowledge graph and discuses the system architecture and characteristics of this model. The Intrusion Prevention based on plan knowledge graph is completed by plan recognition based on planning knowledge graph, and the Intrusion response strategies and actions are completed by the hierarchical task network (HTN) planner in this paper. Intrusion prevention system has the advantages of intelligent planning, which has the advantage of the knowledge-sharing, the response focused, learning autonomy and protective ability.

  16. Multi-User Low Intrusive Occupancy Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Azkario Rizky; Widyawan, Widyawan; Lazovik, Alexander; Aiello, Marco

    2018-03-06

    Smart spaces are those that are aware of their state and can act accordingly. Among the central elements of such a state is the presence of humans and their number. For a smart office building, such information can be used for saving energy and safety purposes. While acquiring presence information is crucial, using sensing techniques that are highly intrusive, such as cameras, is often not acceptable for the building occupants. In this paper, we illustrate a proposal for occupancy detection which is low intrusive; it is based on equipment typically available in modern offices such as room-level power-metering and an app running on workers' mobile phones. For power metering, we collect the aggregated power consumption and disaggregate the load of each device. For the mobile phone, we use the Received Signal Strength (RSS) of BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) nodes deployed around workspaces to localize the phone in a room. We test the system in our offices. The experiments show that sensor fusion of the two sensing modalities gives 87-90% accuracy, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Multi-User Low Intrusive Occupancy Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyawan, Widyawan; Lazovik, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Smart spaces are those that are aware of their state and can act accordingly. Among the central elements of such a state is the presence of humans and their number. For a smart office building, such information can be used for saving energy and safety purposes. While acquiring presence information is crucial, using sensing techniques that are highly intrusive, such as cameras, is often not acceptable for the building occupants. In this paper, we illustrate a proposal for occupancy detection which is low intrusive; it is based on equipment typically available in modern offices such as room-level power-metering and an app running on workers’ mobile phones. For power metering, we collect the aggregated power consumption and disaggregate the load of each device. For the mobile phone, we use the Received Signal Strength (RSS) of BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) nodes deployed around workspaces to localize the phone in a room. We test the system in our offices. The experiments show that sensor fusion of the two sensing modalities gives 87–90% accuracy, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:29509693

  18. Multi-User Low Intrusive Occupancy Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azkario Rizky Pratama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart spaces are those that are aware of their state and can act accordingly. Among the central elements of such a state is the presence of humans and their number. For a smart office building, such information can be used for saving energy and safety purposes. While acquiring presence information is crucial, using sensing techniques that are highly intrusive, such as cameras, is often not acceptable for the building occupants. In this paper, we illustrate a proposal for occupancy detection which is low intrusive; it is based on equipment typically available in modern offices such as room-level power-metering and an app running on workers’ mobile phones. For power metering, we collect the aggregated power consumption and disaggregate the load of each device. For the mobile phone, we use the Received Signal Strength (RSS of BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy nodes deployed around workspaces to localize the phone in a room. We test the system in our offices. The experiments show that sensor fusion of the two sensing modalities gives 87–90% accuracy, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Salt Intrusion in the Tweed Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncles, R. J.; Stephens, J. A.

    1996-09-01

    Results are presented from a 2-week field programme in the Tweed Estuary, U.K. Maximum values of the empirically based Estuarine Richardson Number, Ri E, occurred during neap tides, and minimum values occurred during spring tides. Estimated values of Ri Evaried between 0·3 and 2·3, suggesting the occurrence of partially mixed to stratified conditions, depending on tidal state and freshwater inflow. These relatively large values of Ri Ewere consistent with both observed strong salinity stratification and large salt fluxes due to vertical shear transport. Low values (0·5) values in the halocline. A velocity maximum occurred within the halocline during the early flood. Wave-like spatial oscillations of the halocline occurred on the ebb. The oscillation troughs were situated above deep holes located just down-estuary of the rail and old road bridges. There was an indication that the constricted flow between the bridges' arches resulted in enhanced mixing of near-surface waters and a thickening of the halocline. It is also possible that these wave-like structures were stationary, near-critical internal lee waves, triggered by the deep holes. Trapping of high-salinity waters occurred on the ebb. Saline pools were isolated within a deep hole or deeper section of bed by the falling halocline. When the salt wedge moved further down-estuary, the ' trapped ' waters were subjected to strongly ebbing, overlying freshwater, and were subsequently entrained and flushed. The salinity intrusion was a strong function of spring-neap tidal state and a weaker function of freshwater inflow. The estimated salinity intrusion varied from about 4·7 to 7·6 km during the fieldwork period. The strong dependence on tidal range followed from the comparable lengths of the tidal excursion and salinity intrusion. Long excursion lengths were also partly responsible for the short residence (or flushing) times and their strong dependence on spring-neap tidal state. For typical summer freshwater

  20. Reconstructing warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ramón

    2018-03-01

    The reconstruction of a warm inflationary universe model from the scalar spectral index n_S(N) and the tensor to scalar ratio r( N) as a function of the number of e-folds N is studied. Under a general formalism we find the effective potential and the dissipative coefficient in terms of the cosmological parameters n_S and r considering the weak and strong dissipative stages under the slow roll approximation. As a specific example, we study the attractors for the index n_S given by nS-1∝ N^{-1} and for the ratio r∝ N^{-2}, in order to reconstruct the model of warm inflation. Here, expressions for the effective potential V(φ ) and the dissipation coefficient Γ (φ ) are obtained.

  1. Thinking About Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web

  2. Climate change - global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciconkov, Risto

    2001-01-01

    An explanation about climate, weather, climate changes. What is a greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their influence on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate changes in the previous period by known international institutions, higher concentrations of global average temperature. Projecting of likely scenarios for the future climate changes and consequences of them on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resources. The main points of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. The need of preparing a country strategy concerning the acts of the Kyoto Protocol, suggestions which could contribute in the preparation of the strategy. A special attention is pointed to the energy, its resources, the structure of energy consumption and the energy efficiency. (Author)

  3. Warm natural inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Hiranmaya; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh

    2012-01-01

    In warm inflation models there is the requirement of generating large dissipative couplings of the inflaton with radiation, while at the same time, not de-stabilising the flatness of the inflaton potential due to radiative corrections. One way to achieve this without fine tuning unrelated couplings is by supersymmetry. In this Letter we show that if the inflaton and other light fields are pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons then the radiative corrections to the potential are suppressed and the thermal corrections are small as long as the temperature is below the symmetry breaking scale. In such models it is possible to fulfil the contrary requirements of an inflaton potential which is stable under radiative corrections and the generation of a large dissipative coupling of the inflaton field with other light fields. We construct a warm inflation model which gives the observed CMB-anisotropy amplitude and spectral index where the symmetry breaking is at the GUT scale.

  4. Slowing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, C.

    1990-01-01

    According to the authors, global warming promises to be one of the central environmental issues of the nineties. After a decade of scientific concern but popular neglect, the eighties ended with a growing political as well as scientific consensus that the world can no longer afford to procrastinate about this issue. This paper reports on coping with global warming which, according to the author, will force societies to move rapidly into uncharted terrain, reversing powerful trends that have dominated the industrial age. This challenge cannot be met without a strong commitment on the part of both individual consumers and governments. In terms of the earth's carbon balance, the unprecedented policy changes that have now become urgent include a new commitment to greater energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, a carbon tax on fossil fuels, a reversal of deforestation in tropical countries, and the rapid elimination of CFCs

  5. Military Implications of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-20

    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  6. EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Basanti Jain

    2017-01-01

    The abnormal increase in the concentration of the greenhouse gases is resulting in higher temperatures. We call this effect is global warming. The average temperature around the world has increased about 1'c over 140 years, 75% of this has risen just over the past 30 years. The solar radiation, as it reaches the earth, produces "greenhouse effect" in the atmosphere. The thick atmospheric layers over the earth behaves as a glass surface, as it permits short wave radiations from coming in, but ...

  7. Warm natural inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Hiranmaya; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh

    2013-01-01

    In warm inflation models there is the requirement of generating large dissipative couplings of the inflation with radiation, while at the same Âătime, not de-stabilising the flatness of the inflation potential due to radiative corrections. One way to achieve this without fine tuning unrelated couplings is by supersymmetry. In this talk we will discuss warm inflation with Pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons (PNGB). In this case inflation and other light fields are PNGB. So, the radiative corrections to the potential are suppressed and the thermal Âăcorrections are small as long as the temperature is below the symmetry breaking scale. In such models it is possible to fulfill the contrary requirements of an inflation potential which is stable under radiative corrections and the generation of a large dissipative coupling of the inflation field with other light fields. This warm inflation model with PNGB gives the observed CMB-anisotropy amplitude and spectral index having the symmetry breaking scale at the GUT scale. (author)

  8. Young women's experiences of intrusive behavior in 12 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Lorraine; Scott, Adrian J; Roberts, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides international comparisons of young women's (N = 1,734) self-reported experiences of intrusive activities enacted by men. Undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, and Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they had personally experienced. Intrusive behavior was not uncommon overall, although large differences were apparent between countries when women's personal experiences of specific intrusive activities were compared. Correlations were carried out between self-reported intrusive experiences, the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), and Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures. The primary associations were between women's experiences of intrusive behavior and the level of power they are afforded within the 12 countries. Women from countries with higher GEM scores reported experiencing more intrusive activities relating to courtship and requests for sex, while the experiences of women from countries with lower GEM scores related more to monitoring and ownership. Intrusive activities, many of them constituent of harassment and stalking, would appear to be widespread and universal, and their incidence and particular form reflect national level gender inequalities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. An ontology-based intrusion patterns classification system | Shonubi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that computer intrusions have been on the increase in recent times. Many techniques and patterns are being used by intruders to gain access to data on host computer networks. In this work, intrusion patterns were identified and classified and inherent knowledge were represented using an ontology of ...

  10. Effects of igneous intrusions on the petroleum system: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senger, Kim; Millett, John; Planke, Sverre; Ogata, Kei; Eide, Christian Haug; Festøy, Marte; Galland, Olivier; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2017-01-01

    Igneous intrusions feature in many sedimentary basins where hydrocarbon exploration and production is continuing. Owing to distinct geophysical property contrasts with siliciclastic host rocks (e.g., higher Vp, density and resistivity than host rocks), intrusions can be easily delineated within data

  11. An evaluation of classification algorithms for intrusion detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of classification algorithms for intrusion detection. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Most of the available IDSs use all the 41 features in the network to evaluate and search for intrusive pattern in which ...

  12. Intrusive Memories of Distressing Information: An fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Battaglini

    Full Text Available Although intrusive memories are characteristic of many psychological disorders, the neurobiological underpinning of these involuntary recollections are largely unknown. In this study we used functional magentic resonance imaging (fMRI to identify the neural networks associated with encoding of negative stimuli that are subsequently experienced as intrusive memories. Healthy partipants (N = 42 viewed negative and neutral images during a visual/verbal processing task in an fMRI context. Two days later they were assessed on the Impact of Event Scale for occurrence of intrusive memories of the encoded images. A sub-group of participants who reported significant intrusions (n = 13 demonstrated stronger activation in the amygdala, bilateral ACC and parahippocampal gyrus during verbal encoding relative to a group who reported no intrusions (n = 13. Within-group analyses also revealed that the high intrusion group showed greater activity in the dorsomedial (dmPFC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, inferior frontal gyrus and occipital regions during negative verbal processing compared to neutral verbal processing. These results do not accord with models of intrusions that emphasise visual processing of information at encoding but are consistent with models that highlight the role of inhibitory and suppression processes in the formation of subsequent intrusive memories.

  13. The Torres del Paine intrusion as a model for a shallow magma chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Lukas; Bodner, Robert; Leuthold, Julien; Muntener, Othmar; Putlitz, Benita; Vennemann, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    The shallow magmatic Torres del Paine Intrusive Complex (TPIC) belongs to a series of sub-volcanic and plutonic igneous bodies in Southern Chile and Argentina. This trench-parallel belt is located in a transitional position between the Patagonia Batholith in the West, and the alkaline Cenozoic plateau lavas in the East. While volumetrically small amounts of magmatism started around 28 my ago in the Torres del Paine area, and a second period occurred between 17-16 Ma, it peaked with the TPIC 12.59-12.43 Ma ago. The spectacular cliffs of the Torres del Paine National park provide a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a very shallow magma chamber and the interaction with its host rocks. Intrusion depth can be estimated based on contact metamorphic assemblages and granite solidus thermobarometry to 750±250 bars, corresponding to an intrusion depth of ca. 3km, ca. 500m above the base of the intrusion. Hornblende thermobarometry in mafic rocks agrees well with these estimates (Leuthold et al., 2014). The TPIC is composed of a granitic laccolith emplaced over 90ka (Michel et al., 2008) in 3 major, several 100m thick sheets, forming an overall thickness of nearly 2 km. Contacts are sharp between sheets, with the oldest sheet on the top and the youngest on the bottom (Michel et al., 2008). The granitic laccolith is under-plated by a ca. 400m thick mafic laccolith, built up over ca. 50ka (Leuthold et al. 2012), constructed from the bottom up. Granitic and mafic sheets are themselves composed of multiple metric to decametric pulses, mostly with ductile contacts between them, resulting in outcrop patterns resembling braided stream sediments. The contact of the TPIC with the Cretaceous flysch sediments document intrusion mechanism. Pre-existing sub-horizontal fold axes are rotated in the roof of the TPIC, clearly demonstrating ballooning of the roof; no ballooning was observed in the footwall of the intrusion. Extension during ballooning of the roof is indicated by

  14. Stress, intrusive imagery, and chronic distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of stress in the context of problems with its definition and sources of confusion regarding its usefulness and specificity. Stress can be defined as a negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, and behavioral changes that are directed toward adaptation either by manipulating the situation to alter the stressor or by accommodating its effects. Chronic stress is more complex than most definitions suggest and is clearly not limited to situations in which stressors persist for long periods of time. Responses may habituate before a stressor disappears or may persist long beyond the physical presence of the stressor. This latter case, in which chronic stress and associated biobehavioral changes outlast their original cause, is considered in light of research at Three Mile Island and among Vietnam veterans. The role of intrusive images of the stressor or uncontrollable thoughts about it in maintaining stress is explored

  15. USBcat - Towards an Intrusion Surveillance Toolset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Chapman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies an intrusion surveillance framework which provides an analyst with the ability to investigate and monitor cyber-attacks in a covert manner. Where cyber-attacks are perpetrated for the purposes of espionage the ability to understand an adversary's techniques and objectives are an important element in network and computer security. With the appropriate toolset, security investigators would be permitted to perform both live and stealthy counter-intelligence operations by observing the behaviour and communications of the intruder. Subsequently a more complete picture of the attacker's identity, objectives, capabilities, and infiltration could be formulated than is possible with present technologies. This research focused on developing an extensible framework to permit the covert investigation of malware. Additionally, a Universal Serial Bus (USB Mass Storage Device (MSD based covert channel was designed to enable remote command and control of the framework. The work was validated through the design, implementation and testing of a toolset.

  16. Petrology, geochemistry, and geochronology of the Chah-Bazargan gabbroic intrusions in the south Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, Neyriz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlnia, Abdolnaser; Schenk, Volker; Appel, Peter; Alizade, Abouzar

    2013-07-01

    The Chah-Bazargan gabbroic intrusions are located in the south of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Precise U-Pb zircon SHRIMP ages of the intrusions show magmatic ages of 170.5 ± 1.9 Ma. These intrusions consist primarily of gabbros, interspersed with lenticular bodies of anorthosite, troctolite, clinopyroxenite, and wehrlite. The lenticular bodies show gradational or sharp boundaries with the gabbros. In the gradational boundaries, gabbros are mineralogically transformed into anorthosites, wehrlites, and/or clinopyroxenites. On the other hand, where the boundaries are sharp, the mineral assemblages change abruptly. There is no obvious deformation in the intrusions. Hence, the changes in mineral compositions are interpreted as the result of crystallization processes, such as fractionation in the magma chamber. Rock types with sharp boundaries show abrupt chemical changes, but the changes exhibit the same patterns of increasing and decreasing elements, especially of rare earth elements, as the gradational boundaries. Therefore, it is possible that all parts of the intrusions were formed from the same parental magma. Parts showing signs of nonequilibrium crystallization, such as cumulate features and sub-solidification, underwent fracturing and were interspersed throughout the magma chamber by late injection pulses or mechanical movements under mush conditions. The geological and age data show that the intrusions were formed from an Al-, Sr-, Fe-enriched and K-, Nb-depleted tholeiitic magma. The magma resulted from the partial melting of a metasomatized spinel demonstrated by negative Nb, P, Hf, and Ti, and positive Ba, Sr, and U anomalies typical of subduction-related magmas.

  17. Approach for Assessing Human Intrusion into a Radwaste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dong Keun; Kim, Jung Woo; Jeong, Jong Tae; Baik, Min Hoon

    2016-01-01

    An approach to assess human intrusion into radwaste repository resulting from future human actions was proposed based on the common principals, requirements, and recommendations from IAEA, ICRP, and OECD/NEA, with the assumption that the intrusion occurs after loss of knowledge of the hazardous nature of the disposal facility. At first, the essential boundary conditions were derived on the basis of international recommendations, followed by overall approach to deal with inadvertent human intrusion. The essential premises were derived on the basis of international recommendations, followed by overall approach to deal with inadvertent human intrusion. The procedure to derive protective measures was also explained with four steps regarding how to derive safety framework, general measures, potential measures, and eventual protective measures on the basis of stylized scenarios. It is expected that the approach proposed in this study will be effectively used to reduce the potential for and/or consequence of human intrusion during entire processes of realization of disposal facility.

  18. Salt water intrusion on Uznam Island - 'Wydrzany' water intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochaniec, M.

    1999-01-01

    Aquifers of Uznam Island have high risk of saline water intrusion due to geographical and geological location. Hydrogeological and geophysical researchers were taken up in order to evaluate changes in intrusion of saline water into aquifer of Uznam Island. Water intake named 'Wydrzany' was built in south part of island in 1973. Since 1975 geophysical research has shown intrusion of salt water from reservoirs and bedrock due to withdrawn of water. In 1997 geoelectrical researches evaluated changes which have taken place since 1975 in saline water intrusion into aquifers of Uznam Island. The last research result showed that intrusion front moved 1100 m to the centre of island in comparison with situation in 1975. (author)

  19. Network Intrusion Detection through Stacking Dilated Convolutional Autoencoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection is one of the most important parts for cyber security to protect computer systems against malicious attacks. With the emergence of numerous sophisticated and new attacks, however, network intrusion detection techniques are facing several significant challenges. The overall objective of this study is to learn useful feature representations automatically and efficiently from large amounts of unlabeled raw network traffic data by using deep learning approaches. We propose a novel network intrusion model by stacking dilated convolutional autoencoders and evaluate our method on two new intrusion detection datasets. Several experiments were carried out to check the effectiveness of our approach. The comparative experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model can achieve considerably high performance which meets the demand of high accuracy and adaptability of network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs. It is quite potential and promising to apply our model in the large-scale and real-world network environments.

  20. A Machine Learning Based Intrusion Impact Analysis Scheme for Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Arshad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clouds represent a major paradigm shift, inspiring the contemporary approach to computing. They present fascinating opportunities to address dynamic user requirements with the provision of on demand expandable computing infrastructures. However, Clouds introduce novel security challenges which need to be addressed to facilitate widespread adoption. This paper is focused on one such challenge - intrusion impact analysis. In particular, we highlight the significance of intrusion impact analysis for the overall security of Clouds. Additionally, we present a machine learning based scheme to address this challenge in accordance with the specific requirements of Clouds for intrusion impact analysis. We also present rigorous evaluation performed to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method to address this challenge for Clouds. The evaluation results demonstrate high degree of effectiveness to correctly determine the impact of an intrusion along with significant reduction with respect to the intrusion response time.

  1. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  2. A Frequency-Based Approach to Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zhou

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on network security and intrusion detection strategies presents many challenging issues to both theoreticians and practitioners. Hackers apply an array of intrusion and exploit techniques to cause disruption of normal system operations, but on the defense, firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS are typically only effective in defending known intrusion types using their signatures, and are far less than mature when faced with novel attacks. In this paper, we adapt the frequency analysis techniques such as the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT used in signal processing to the design of intrusion detection algorithms. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the frequency-based detection strategy by running synthetic network intrusion data in simulated networks using the OPNET software. The simulation results indicate that the proposed intrusion detection strategy is effective in detecting anomalous traffic data that exhibit patterns over time, which include several types of DOS and probe attacks. The significance of this new strategy is that it does not depend on the prior knowledge of attack signatures, thus it has the potential to be a useful supplement to existing signature-based IDS and firewalls.

  3. Large-scale circulation associated with moisture intrusions into the Arctic during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Cian; Caballero, Rodrigo; Svensson, Gunilla

    2014-05-01

    Observations during recent decades show that there is a greater near surface warming occurring in the Arctic, particularly during winter, than at lower latitudes. Understanding the mechanisms controlling surface temperature in the Arctic is therefore an important priority in climate research. The surface energy budget is a key proximate control on Arctic surface temperature. During winter, insolation is low or absent and the atmospheric boundary layer is typically very stable, limiting turbulent hear exchange, so that the surface energy budget is almost entirely governed by longwave radiation. The net surface longwave radiation (NetLW) at this time has a strikingly bimodal distribution: conditions oscillate between a 'radiatively clear' state with rapid surface heat loss and a "moist cloudy" state with NetLW ˜ 0 W m-2. Each state can persist for days or weeks at a time but transitions between them happen in a matter of hours. This distribution of NetLW has important implications for the Arctic climate, as even a small shift in the frequency of occupancy of each state would be enough to significantly affect the overall surface energy budget and thus winter sea ice thickness. The clear and cloudy states typically occur during periods of relatively high and low surface pressure respectively, suggesting a link with synoptic-scale dynamics. This suggestion is consistent with previous studies indicating that the formation of low-level and mid-level clouds over the Arctic Ocean is typically associated with cyclonic activity and passing frontal systems . More recent work has shown that intense filamentary moisture intrusion events are a common feature in the Arctic and can induce large episodic increases of longwave radiation into the surface. The poleward transport of water vapor across 70N during boreal winter is examined in the ERA-Interim reanalysis product and 16 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models, focusing on intense moisture

  4. Antarctica: Cooling or Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunde, Armin; Ludescher, Josef; Franzke, Christian

    2013-04-01

    We consider the 14 longest instrumental monthly mean temperature records from the Antarctica and analyse their correlation properties by wavelet and detrended fluctuation analysis. We show that the stations in the western and the eastern part of the Antarctica show significant long-term memory governed by Hurst exponents close to 0.8 and 0.65, respectively. In contrast, the temperature records at the inner part of the continent (South Pole and Vostok), resemble white noise. We use linear regression to estimate the respective temperature differences in the records per decade (i) for the annual data, (ii) for the summer and (iii) for the winter season. Using a recent approach by Lennartz and Bunde [1] we estimate the respective probabilities that these temperature differences can be exceeded naturally without inferring an external (anthropogenic) trend. We find that the warming in the western part of the continent and the cooling at the South Pole is due to a gradually changes in the cold extremes. For the winter months, both cooling and warming are well outside the 95 percent confidence interval, pointing to an anthropogenic origin. In the eastern Antarctica, the temperature increases and decreases are modest and well within the 95 percent confidence interval. [1] S. Lennartz and A. Bunde, Phys. Rev. E 84, 021129 (2011)

  5. High precision ages from the Torres del Paine Intrusion, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J.; Baumgartner, L.; Cosca, M.; Ovtcharova, M.; Putlitz, B.; Schaltegger, U.

    2006-12-01

    The upper crustal bimodal Torres del Paine Intrusion, southern Chile, consists of the lower Paine-Mafic- Complex and the upper Paine-Granite. Geochronologically this bimodal complex is not well studied except for a few existing data from Halpern (1973) and Sanchez (2006). The aim of this study is to supplement the existing data and to constrain the age relations between the major magmatic pulses by applying high precision U-Pb dating on accessory zircons and 40Ar/39Ar-laser-step-heating-ages on biotites from the Torres del Paine Intrusion. The magmatic rocks from mafic complex are fine to medium-grained and vary in composition from quartz- monzonites to granodiorites and gabbros. Coarse-grained olivine gabbros have intruded these rocks in the west. The granitic body is represented by a peraluminous, biotite-orthoclase-granite and a more evolved leucocratic granite in the outer parts towards the host-rock. Field observations suggest a feeder-zone for the granite in the west and that the granite postdates the mafic complex. Two granite samples of the outermost margins in the Northeast and South were analyzed. The zircons were dated by precise isotope-dilution U-Pb techniques of chemically abraded single grains. The data are concordant within the analytical error and define weighted mean 206/238U ages of 12.59 ± 0.03 Ma and 12.58 ± 0.01 Ma for the two samples respectively. A 40Ar/39Ar-age for the second sample yield a date of 12.37 ± 0.11 Ma. Three 40Ar/39Ar -ages of biotites were obtained for rocks belonging to the mafic complex. A hbl-bio- granodiorite from the central part, approximately 150 m below the subhorizontal contact with the granite, gives an age of 12.81 ± 0.11 Ma. A hbl-bio-granodiorite and an olivine-gabbro west of the feeder-zone date at 12.42 ± 0.14 Ma and 12.49 ± 0.11 Ma, respectively. The obtained older age of 12.81 Ma for the granodiorite in the central part is consistent with structural relationships of brittle fracturing of the mafic

  6. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  7. User's guide to the repository intrusion risk evaluation code INTRUDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Thorne, M.C.

    1986-05-01

    The report, commissioned by the Department of the Environment as part of its radioactive waste management research programme, constitutes the user's guide to the repository intrusion risk evaluation code INTRUDE. It provides an explanation of the mathematical basis of the code, the database used and the operation of the code. INTRUDE is designed to facilitate the estimation of individual risks arising from the possibility of intrusion into shallow land burial facilities for radioactive wastes. It considers a comprehensive inventory of up to 65 long-lived radionuclides and produces risk estimates for up to 20 modes of intrusion and up to 50 times of evaluation. (author)

  8. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1989-04-01

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  9. Salinity intrusion modeling for Sungai Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Roseli Zainal Abidin; Abd Jalil Hassan; Suriyani Awang; Liew Yuk San; Norbaya Hashim

    2006-01-01

    Salinity intrusion into estuary of the Sungai Selangor has been carried out on a hydrodynamic numerical modeling to access the parameter that governed the amount of salt in the river. Issues such as water pollution and extraction of water from Sungai Selangor system has been said to be the cause of fading fireflies. The berembang trees on the river bank that become the fireflies habitat need some amount of salt for proper growth. Living at the lower reaches of Sungai Selangor, the fireflies are affected not only by the activities in their vicinity, but by activities in the entire river basin. Rapid economic development in the basin and the strong demand for the water resources puts pressure on the ecosystem. This research has been carried out to investigate the effect of water extraction along Sungai Selangor towards altering the amount of salt content in the river. The hydrodynamic modeling with regards to the salt content is expected to support long term assessment that may affect the berembang trees as a result of changes in the flow from upstream because of the water abstraction activity for domestic water supply. (Author)

  10. On the classification of seawater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Adrian D.

    2017-08-01

    Seawater intrusion (SWI) arising from aquifer depletion is often classified as ;active; or ;passive;, depending on whether seawater moves in the same direction as groundwater flow or not. However, recent studies have demonstrated that alternative forms of active SWI show distinctly different characteristics, to the degree that the term ;active SWI; may be misleading without additional qualification. In response, this article proposes to modify hydrogeology lexicon by defining and characterizing three classes of SWI, namely passive SWI, passive-active SWI and active SWI. The threshold parameter combinations for the onset of each form of SWI are developed using sharp-interface, steady-state analytical solutions. Numerical simulation is then applied to a hypothetical case study to test the developed theory and to provide additional insights into dispersive SWI behavior. The results indicate that the three classes of SWI are readily predictable, with the exception of active SWI occurring in the presence of distributed recharge. The key characteristics of each SWI class are described to distinguish their most defining features. For example, active SWI occurring in aquifers receiving distributed recharge only creates watertable salinization downstream of the groundwater mound and only where dispersion effects are significant. The revised classification of SWI proposed in this article, along with the analysis of thresholds and SWI characteristics, provides coastal aquifer custodians with an improved basis upon which to expect salinization mechanisms to impact freshwater availability following aquifer depletion.

  11. Abstracting audit data for lightweight intrusion detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    High speed of processing massive audit data is crucial for an anomaly Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to achieve real-time performance during the detection. Abstracting audit data is a potential solution to improve the efficiency of data processing. In this work, we propose two strategies of data abstraction in order to build a lightweight detection model. The first strategy is exemplar extraction and the second is attribute abstraction. Two clustering algorithms, Affinity Propagation (AP) as well as traditional k-means, are employed to extract the exemplars, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is employed to abstract important attributes (a.k.a. features) from the audit data. Real HTTP traffic data collected in our institute as well as KDD 1999 data are used to validate the two strategies of data abstraction. The extensive test results show that the process of exemplar extraction significantly improves the detection efficiency and has a better detection performance than PCA in data abstraction. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Differences in clinical intrusive thoughts between obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Nogueira-Arjona, Raquel; Godoy-Ávila, Antonio; Gavino-Lázaro, Aurora; Freeston, Mark H

    2017-11-01

    Differences and similarities between intrusive thoughts typical of obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis are relevant for their differential diagnosis, formulation, and psychological treatment. Previous research in non-clinical samples pointed out the relevance of some process variables, such as responsibility, guilt, or neutralization strategies. This research is aimed to investigate the differences and similarities between clinical obsessions, worries, and illness intrusions in some of these process variables. A second aim is to identify models based on these variables that could reliably differentiate between them. Three groups of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 35; 60% women, mean age 38.57), generalized anxiety disorder (n = 36; 61.1% women, mean age 41.50), and hypochondriasis (n = 34; 70.6% women, mean age 31.59) were evaluated using the Cognitive Intrusions Questionnaire-Transdiagnostic Version (Romero-Sanchiz, Nogueira-Arjona, Godoy-Ávila, Gavino-Lázaro, & Freeston, ). The results showed that some appraisals (e.g., responsibility or egodystonicity), emotions (e.g., guilt or insecurity), neutralization strategies, and other variables (e.g., verbal content or trigger from body sensation) are relevant for the discrimination between obsessions, worries, and illness intrusions. The results also showed 3 stable models based on these variables for the discrimination between these thoughts. The implication of these results in the diagnosis, formulation, and psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis is discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Radionuclide investigations of the hormonal reflection of warm stress in cancer patients under whole body guided hyperthermia. Radionuklidnye issledovaniya gormonal'nykh proyavlenij teplovogo stressa u onkologicheskikh bol'nykh pri obshchej upravlyaemoj gipertermii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokhorova, V I; Zhavrid, Eh A; Fradkin, S Z; Tsyrus' , T P; Shitikov, B D; Kosheleva, M I

    1991-01-01

    The results of the radioimmunoassay of ACTH, ST, hydrocortisone, glucagon, C-peptide, insulin and cyclic nucleotides in 180 patients with advanced and metastatic melanomas, soft tissue sarcomas, lung cancers and renal cell carcinomas testify to the development of the syndrome of endocrine hyperfunction in patients under whole-body guided hyperthermia and artificial hyperglycemia as well as of functional pancreas insufficiency. The data presented form a biochemical basis for working out measures to optimally carry out whole-body hyperthermia and artificial hyperglycemia treatment, aimed at increasing the range of indications for its use in clinical oncology.

  14. Intrusive hyaloclastite and peperitic breccias associated to sill and cryptodome emplacement on an Early Paleocene polymagmatic compound cone-dome volcanic complex from El Guanaco mine, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, G. N.; Permuy Vidal, C.; Galina, M.; López, L.; Jovic, S. M.; Guido, D. M.

    2018-04-01

    This work explores the textural characteristics, morphology and facies architecture of well-preserved Paleocene hyaloclastic and peperitic breccias associated with subvolcanic intrusions at El Guanaco gold mine (Northern Chile). The El Guanaco mine volcanic sequence is part of a polymagmatic compound cone-dome volcanic complex grouping several dacitic domes and maar-diatremes, and subordinated subvolcanic intrusions of basaltic, andesitic and dacitic compositions. The Soledad-Peñafiel Fault System is a first order regional structure controlling the location and style of the volcanism in the region. Three different intrusive bodies (Basaltic sills, Dacitic cryptodomes and Andesitic cryptodomes) were found to intrude into a wet and poorly consolidated pyroclastic sequence representing the upper portions of a maar-diatreme. Consequently, extensive quench fragmentation and fluidization along their contacts occurred, leading to the formation of widespread breccia bodies enclosing a coherent nucleus. Differences in matrix composition allows to define two main breccias types: 1) poorly-sorted monomictic breccias (intrusive hyaloclastites) and 2) poorly-sorted tuff-matrix breccias (peperites). The observed facies architecture is interpreted as the result of the interplay of several factors, including: 1) magma viscosity, 2) the geometry of the intrusives, and 3) variations on the consolidation degree of the host rocks. Additionally, the overall geometry of each intrusive is interpreted to be controlled by the effective viscosity of the magmas along with the available magma volume at the time of the intrusions. The presence of three compositionally different subvolcanic bodies with intrusive hyaloclastite and peperite envelopes indicate, not only that all these intrusions occurred in a short period of time (probably less than 2-3 Ma), but also that the volcaniciclastic pile suffer little or none compaction nor consolidation during that time. The presence of three

  15. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatmen...

  16. Some reflections on human intrusion into a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlind, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarises some of the Swedish nuclear regulators' requirements and views related to intrusion into a repository for spent nuclear fuel, in the post-closure phase. The focus is however on experiences from the interaction with various stakeholders in the Swedish process for siting a repository. It is recognised that intrusion is not a major concern but that it is regularly raised in the debate, often in connection with issues related to retrievability. It is pointed out that more attention should be paid to the repository performance after an intrusion event, both in safety assessments and in communication with stakeholders, and not only address the immediate impacts to intruders. It is believed that international co-operation would be useful for developing methodologies for defining intrusion scenarios. (author)

  17. QOS and Control-Theoretic Techniques for Intrusion Tolerance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye, Nong

    2004-01-01

    ...), even in the face of intrusions. This report examines two host-based resources, a router and a web server, and presents simulated models of modifications that can be made to these resources to make them QoS-capable...

  18. Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Ying; Marca, Roberto La; Steptoe, Andrew; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical sudden reduction in HR after a startle stimulus and higher trait dissociation was identified. Only among these individuals was lower perifilm HR found to indicate higher state dissociation, fear, and anxiety, along with reduced vividness of intrusions. The current findings emphasize how peritraumatic physiological responses relate to emotional reactions and intrusive memory. The moderating role of individual difference in stress defense style was highlighted. PMID:24397333

  19. Semantic intrusion detection with multisensor data fusion using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spatiotemporal relations to form complex events which model the intrusion patterns. ... Wireless sensor networks; complex event processing; event stream; ...... of the 2006 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, 407– ...

  20. Ensemble of classifiers based network intrusion detection system performance bound

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkuzangwe, Nenekazi NP

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a performance bound of a network intrusion detection system (NIDS) that uses an ensemble of classifiers. Currently researchers rely on implementing the ensemble of classifiers based NIDS before they can determine the performance...

  1. Implementing an Intrusion Detection System in the Mysea Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tenhunen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    .... The objective of this thesis is to design an intrusion detection system (IDS) architecture that permits administrators operating on MYSEA client machines to conveniently view and analyze IDS alerts from the single level networks...

  2. Security Enrichment in Intrusion Detection System Using Classifier Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma R. Salunkhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Internet and with increasing number of people as its end users, a large number of attack categories are introduced daily. Hence, effective detection of various attacks with the help of Intrusion Detection Systems is an emerging trend in research these days. Existing studies show effectiveness of machine learning approaches in handling Intrusion Detection Systems. In this work, we aim to enhance detection rate of Intrusion Detection System by using machine learning technique. We propose a novel classifier ensemble based IDS that is constructed using hybrid approach which combines data level and feature level approach. Classifier ensembles combine the opinions of different experts and improve the intrusion detection rate. Experimental results show the improved detection rates of our system compared to reference technique.

  3. Nuclear waste disposal facility intrusion: an archeologist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virginia, C.; Christie, L.

    1981-01-01

    A scenario is presented for the intrusion of a shallow land burial site by archeologists from a future generation. A description is given for the potential widespread exposure and contamination of populations by recovered artifacts

  4. How Intrusion Detection Can Improve Software Decoy Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monteiro, Valter

    2003-01-01

    This research concerns information security and computer-network defense. It addresses how to handle the information of log files and intrusion-detection systems to recognize when a system is under attack...

  5. Ant colony induced decision trees for intrusion detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botes, FH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available platform. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) analyse network traffic to identify suspicious patterns with the intention to compromise the system. Practitioners train classifiers to classify the data within different categories e.g. malicious or normal...

  6. Intrusion resistant underground structure (IRUS) - safety assessment and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the safety goals, human exposure scenarios and critical groups, the syvac-nsure performance assessment code, groundwater pathway safety results, and inadvertent human intrusion of the IRUS. 2 tabs

  7. Probabilistic risk assessment for six vapour intrusion algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, J.; Reijnders, L.; Bronders, J.; Van Keer, I.; Govaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    A probabilistic assessment with sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation for six vapour intrusion algorithms, used in various regulatory frameworks for contaminated land management, is presented here. In addition a deterministic approach with default parameter sets is evaluated against

  8. Simulation of sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dependent miscible flow and transport modelling approach for simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. A nonlinear optimization-based simulation methodology was used in this study. Various steady state simulations are performed for a ...

  9. Global Warming on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  10. Structure of Warm Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, S.; Uhrenholt, H.

    2009-01-01

    We study the structure of nuclei in the energy region between the ground state and the neutron separation energy, here called warm nuclei. The onset of chaos in the nucleus as excitation energy is increased is briefly reviewed. Chaos implies fluctuations of energies and wave functions qualitatively the same for all chaotic nuclei. On the other hand, large structure effects are seen, e.g. in the level-density function at same excitation energies. A microscopic model for the level density is reviewed and we discuss effects on structure of the total level-density function, parity enhancement, and the spin distribution function. Comparisons to data are performed at the neutron separation energy for all observed nuclei, and structure of the level-density function for a few measured cases. The role of structure effects in the level-density function for fission dynamics is exemplified.

  11. Interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ m α ρ e β form, where ρ m and ρ e are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w m and w e of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used

  12. A survey of intrusion detection techniques in Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, C.; Patel, D.; Patel, H.; Borisaniya, B.; Patel, A.; Rajarajan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing provides scalable, virtualized on-demand services to the end users with greater flexibility and lesser infrastructural investment. These services are provided over the Internet using known networking protocols, standards and formats under the supervision of different managements. Existing bugs and vulnerabilities in underlying technologies and legacy protocols tend to open doors for intrusion. This paper, surveys different intrusions affecting availability, confidentiality and...

  13. Environmental data processor of the adaptive intrusion data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.S.

    1977-06-01

    A data acquisition system oriented specifically toward collection and processing of various meteorological and environmental parameters has been designed around a National Semiconductor IMP-16 microprocessor, This system, called the Environmental Data Processor (EDP), was developed specifically for use with the Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) in a perimeter intrusion alarm evaluation, although its design is sufficiently general to permit use elsewhere. This report describes in general detail the design of the EDP and its interaction with other AIDS components

  14. Sensitive Data Protection Based on Intrusion Tolerance in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Jingyu Wang; xuefeng Zheng; Dengliang Luo

    2011-01-01

    Service integration and supply on-demand coming from cloud computing can significantly improve the utilization of computing resources and reduce power consumption of per service, and effectively avoid the error of computing resources. However, cloud computing is still facing the problem of intrusion tolerance of the cloud computing platform and sensitive data of new enterprise data center. In order to address the problem of intrusion tolerance of cloud computing platform and sensitive data in...

  15. Resilient Control and Intrusion Detection for SCADA Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Lowe. The myths and facts behind cyber security risks for industrial control systems . VDE Congress, 2004. [45] I. S. C37.1-1994. Ieee standard...Resilient Control and Intrusion Detection for SCADA Systems Bonnie Xia Zhu Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Resilient Control and Intrusion Detection for SCADA Systems 5a. CONTRACT

  16. The design about the intrusion defense system for IHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoxu; Xu Rongsheng; Yu Chuansong; Wu Chunzhen

    2003-01-01

    With the development of network technologies, limitations on traditional methods of network security protection are becoming more and more obvious. An individual network security product or the simple combination of several products can hardly complete the goal of keeping from hackers' intrusion. Therefore, on the basis of the analyses about the security problems of IHEPNET which is an open and scientific research network, the author designs an intrusion defense system especially for IHEPNET

  17. When Intrusion Detection Meets Blockchain Technology: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Weizhi; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang; Wang, Qingju; Wang, Yu; Han, Jinguang

    2018-01-01

    With the purpose of identifying cyber threats and possible incidents, intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are widely deployed in various computer networks. In order to enhance the detection capability of a single IDS, collaborative intrusion detection networks (or collaborative IDSs) have been developed, which allow IDS nodes to exchange data with each other. However, data and trust management still remain two challenges for current detection architectures, which may degrade the effectiveness ...

  18. Multisensor Fusion for Intrusion Detection and Situational Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hallstensen, Christoffer V

    2017-01-01

    Cybercrime damage costs the world several trillion dollars annually. And al-though technical solutions to protect organizations from hackers are being con-tinuously developed, criminals learn fast to circumvent them. The question is,therefore, how to create leverage to protect an organization by improving in-trusion detection and situational awareness? This thesis seeks to contribute tothe prior art in intrusion detection and situational awareness by using a multi-sensor data fusion...

  19. Unique Challenges in WiFi Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Milliken, Jonny

    2014-01-01

    The Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a common means of protecting networked systems from attack or malicious misuse. The deployment of an IDS can take many different forms dependent on protocols, usage and cost. This is particularly true of Wireless Intrusion Detection Systems (WIDS) which have many detection challenges associated with data transmission through an open, shared medium, facilitated by fundamental changes at the Physical and MAC layers. WIDS need to be considered in more deta...

  20. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  1. A Survey on Anomaly Based Host Intrusion Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Shijoe; Malathi, D.; Reddy, Bharath; Jayaseeli, Dorathi

    2018-04-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) is hardware, software or a combination of two, for monitoring network or system activities to detect malicious signs. In computer security, designing a robust intrusion detection system is one of the most fundamental and important problems. The primary function of system is detecting intrusion and gives alerts when user tries to intrusion on timely manner. In these techniques when IDS find out intrusion it will send alert massage to the system administrator. Anomaly detection is an important problem that has been researched within diverse research areas and application domains. This survey tries to provide a structured and comprehensive overview of the research on anomaly detection. From the existing anomaly detection techniques, each technique has relative strengths and weaknesses. The current state of the experiment practice in the field of anomaly-based intrusion detection is reviewed and survey recent studies in this. This survey provides a study of existing anomaly detection techniques, and how the techniques used in one area can be applied in another application domain.

  2. Fusion of arkosic sand by intrusive andesite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Roy A.

    1954-01-01

    An andesite dike in the Valles Mountains of northern New Mexico has intruded and partly fused arkosic sediments for a distance of 50 feet from its contacts. The dike is semi-circular in form, has a maximum width of about 100 feet, and is about 500 feet long. Small associated arcuate dikes are arranged in spiral fashion around the main dike, suggesting that they were intruded along shear fractures similar to those described by Burbank (1941). The fused rocks surrounding the andesite dike are of three general types: 1) partly fused arkosic sand, 2) fused clay, and 3) hybrid rocks. The fused arkosic sand consists of relict detrital grains of quartz, orthoclose, and plagioclase, imbedded in colorless glass containing microlites of tridymite, cordierite, and magnetite. The relict quartz grains are corroded and embayed by glass; the orthoclase is sanidinized and partly fused; and the plagioclase is inverted to the high temperature form and is partly fused. The fused clay, which was originally a mixture of montmorillonite and hydromica, consists primarily of cordierite but also contains needle-like crystals of sillimanite (?) or mullite (?). The hybrid rocks originated in part by intermixing of fused arkosic sediments and andesitic liquid and in part by diffusion of mafic constituents through the fused sediments. They are rich in cordierite and magnetite and also contain hypersthene, augite, and plagioclase. The composition of pigeonite in the andesite indicates that the temperature of the andesite at the time of intrusion probably did not exceed 1200?C. Samples of arkosic sand were fused in the presence of water in a Morey bomb at 1050?C. Stability relations of certain minerals in the fused sand suggest that fusion may have taken place at a lower temperature, however, and the fluxing action of volatiles from the andesite are thought to have made this possible.

  3. Non-Intrusive Battery Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Non-intrusive battery health monitoring”, developed by Airbus Defence and Space (ADS in cooperation with the CIRIMAT-CNRS laboratory and supported by CNES, aims at providing a diagnosis of the battery ageing in flight, called State of Health (SOH, using only the post-treatment of the battery telemetries. The battery current and voltage telemetries are used by a signal processing tool on ground to characterize and to model the battery at low frequencies which allows monitoring the evolution of its degradation with great accuracy. The frequential behaviour estimation is based on inherent disturbances on the current during the nominal functioning of the battery. For instance, on-board thermal control or equipment consumption generates random disturbances on battery current around an average current. The battery voltage response to these current random disturbances enables to model the low frequency impedance of the battery by a signal processing tool. The re-created impedance is then compared with the evolution model of the low frequencies impedance as a function of the battery ageing to estimate accurately battery degradation. Hence, this method could be applied to satellites which are already in orbit and whose battery telemetries acquisition system fulfils the constraints determined in the study. This innovative method is an improvement of present state-of-the-art and is important to have a more accurate in-flight knowledge of battery ageing which is crucial for mission and operation planning and also for possible satellite mission extension or deorbitation. This method is patented by Airbus Defence and Space and CNES.

  4. Contribution to uranium geochemistry in intrusive granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, R.

    1959-01-01

    This work aims to define the position of a certain number of French granitic deposits within the field of the geochemistry of granites in general, and of the geochemistry of uranium in particular. The regions concerned are: - 3 French Hercynian ranges, in the Vendee, in Brittany and in the Morvan, - 1 African range, probably precambrian, of the Hoggar. For each range, the petrochemical framework is first of all determined and then the degree of chemical homogeneity of the rocks is evaluated. In the petrochemical groups thus obtained the geochemical behaviour of the uranium is studied. From a point of view of the geochemistry of the granites under investigation, a comparison of the laws of distribution of the major elements in the 4 ranges shows up a convergence of average composition which was not anticipated by geological and petrographic considerations alone. The statistical and geochemical distribution laws of the total uranium as a function of the petrochemical variations are established. A study of the chemical forms of uranium in the rocks has drawn an attention to the qualitative and quantitative importance of the fraction of this uranium soluble in dilute acids. We have therefore reconsidered on the one hand, the laws of distribution of the insoluble uranium, which represents essentially the uranium fixed in crystalline structures (zircon, allanite...), and we have justified on the other hand the interest presented by the soluble uranium: this, although more complex in character, presents a geochemical unity in post magmatic phenomena which makes possible to find a genetic connection between the uraniferous deposits and the intrusive massifs. Finally we have given a plan of the geochemical cycle of uranium, in which we hope to have provided some more accurate data on the igneous phase. (author) [fr

  5. The challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Global warming and prairie wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poiani, K.A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model

  7. The great problems are in the street : a phenomonology of men's stranger intrusions on women in public spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Fiona Vera

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes new and unique evidence to the limited body of empirical literature on men’s stranger intrusion in public space, commonly termed ‘street harassment’, through a transdisciplinary study bringing a philosophical framework to the study of violence against women and girls (VAWG). Analysis of 50 women’s accounts given during a three stage research process is presented, alongside the development of a theoretical framework combining feminist approaches to VAWG with the gendere...

  8. Perceived illness intrusions among continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Bapat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the perceived illness intrusion of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients, to examine their demographics, and to find out the association among demographics, duration of illness as well as illness intrusion, 40 chronic kidney disease stage V patients on CAPD during 2006-2007 were studied. Inclusion criteria were patients′ above 18 years, willing, stable, and completed at least two months of dialysis. Those with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. Sociodemographics were collected using a semi-structured interview schedule. A 14-item illness intrusion checklist covering various aspects of life was administered. The subjects had to rate the illness intrusion in their daily life and the extent of intrusion. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi square test of association. The mean age of the subjects was 56.05 ± 10.05 years. There was near equal distribution of gender. 82.5% were married, 70.0% belonged to Hindu religion, 45.0% were pre-degree, 25.0% were employed, 37.5% were housewives and 30.0% had retired. 77.5% belonged to the upper socioeconomic strata, 95.0% were from an urban background and 65.0% were from nuclear families. The mean duration of dialysis was 19.0 ± 16.49 months. Fifty-eight percent of the respondents were performing the dialysis exchanges by themselves. More than 95.0%were on three or four exchanges per day. All the 40 subjects reported illness intrusion in their daily life. Intrusion was perceived to some extent in the following areas: health 47.5%, work 25.0%, finance 37.5%, diet 40.0%, and psychological 50.0%. Illness had not intruded in the areas of relationship with spouse 52.5%, sexual life 30.0%, with friends 92.5%, with family 85.5%, social functions 52.5%, and religious functions 75.0%. Statistically significant association was not noted between illness intrusion and other variables. CAPD patients perceived illness intrusion to some extent in their daily life

  9. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

  10. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  11. Geomathematical characterisation of the mineralization indicators: a case study from Tincova magmatic intrusion (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tudor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of the hydrothermal mineralization in the Tincova Laramian intrusion were tested at the contact zone between the intrusive body and the metamorphic host rocks. The mineralization consists of Cu, Pb and Zn sulfides, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite and pyrite in gangue of quartz, carbonates, feldspar, sericite or clay minerals, and includes areas of hydrothermal alteration or oxidation. Seventy-nine samples were analyzed and processed as two distinct populations. Geomathematical methods highlight the importance of factors such as the shape, sizes of the mineralized zones and geological processes involved in the ore genesis. Trend maps for Cu, Pb + Zn, and Ag interpolated by kriging method, show anomalous values of Cu along the edge of the intrusive body with the metamorphic country rocks, and Pb + Zn in a marginal area. Departing from the study of correlations between different variables, the factor analysis (R-mode highlights five factors that represent a sequence of geological processes: pneumatolytic phase (Sn, deposition of the association with arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, molybdenite (Ni, Co, Mo, formation of the Cu ± Ag + Bi sulfide mineralization, galena mineralization ± Au, hydrothermal alteration processes (addition of Ba, Sr, V. The dependence of Cu on other elements is performed by multiple linear regression, resulting an equation statistically tested by F-test, and interpreted as originating in a phase of the metallogenetic processes. The shape of the Cu-Mo mineralized stockwork from Vălişor Valley area has been studied on the basis of samples from drillings, Cu trend maps at three depth levels, and a three-dimensional model.

  12. Contact metamorphic effects of the basic intrusive rocks on the Proterozoic uraniferous dolostone in Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh: implications on uranium mobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Minati; Panda, Arjuna; Dhana Raju, R.

    1997-01-01

    Mafic intrusive rocks in the Vempalle formation of the mid-Proterozoic Cuddapah basin occur as sills and dykes. These include minor bodies of gabbro, olivine gabbro, olivine norite, basalt and mainly dolerite with basaltic andesite. The metamorphic effects of these intrusive rocks on the uraniferous phosphatic siliceous dolostone are mainly mineralogical (thermal) with subordinate changes in chemistry. These are manifested by (a) formation of plagioclase-hornblende hornfels, (b) notable mineralogical changes in the dolostone leading to enrichment of magnetite, epidote, anatase and de-dolomitised calcite, (c) decrease in specific gravity of dolostone from 3.0 to 2.8 due to volatilisation reaction products of epidote and smectite, and (d) formation of wollastonite, chalcedony, and secondary uranium minerals (autunite and uranophane) at places, in the contact aureole that led to notable changes in the chemistry of the intrusive body and the host rock. Intrusive rocks at the contact show enrichment in Fe 2+ , Mg, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Ni, and depletion in Ca and Fe 3+ , whereas the dolostone shows enrichment in Ti, Ca, and depletion in Si, Al, alkalies and P. Depletion of uranium in the affected parts (0.003% U 3 O 8 ) of mineralised dolostone (0.062% U 3 O 8 ) adjacent to the basic intrusive rocks suggests its mobilisation, due to increase in temperature, resulting in baking. This phenomenon is also manifested, at places, in the formation of secondary uranium minerals - result of remobilisation of uranium from primary phases and its subsequent precipitation. (author)

  13. Forests and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, T.

    1991-04-01

    The importance of forests to Canada, both in economic and environmental terms, is indisputable. A warmer global climate may well have profound effects on the Canadian boreal forest, and at least some of the effects will not be beneficial. With the state of the current knowledge of climate processes and climate change it is not possible to predict the extent or rate of projected changes of anthropogenic origin. Given these uncertainties, the appropriate course of action for the Canadian forest sector is to develop policies and strategies which will make good sense under the current climatic regime, and which will also be appropriate for actions in a warmer climate scenario. The business as usual approach is not acceptable in the context of pollution control as it has become clear that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants must be substantially reduced, both to prevent (or at least slow the rate of) possible global warming, and to reduce impacts on the biophysical environment and human health. Effective mitigative actions must be introduced on both a national and global scale. Forest management policies more effectively geared to the sustainability of forests are needed. The programs that are developed out of such policies must be cognizant of the real possibility that climate in the present boreal forest regions may change in the near future. 13 refs

  14. Number of Waste Package Hit by Igneous Intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wallace

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to document calculations of the number of waste packages that could be damaged in a potential future igneous event through a repository at Yucca Mountain. The analyses include disruption from an intrusive igneous event and from an extrusive volcanic event. This analysis supports the evaluation of the potential consequences of future igneous activity as part of the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Igneous activity is a disruptive event that is included in the TSPA-LA analyses. Two igneous activity scenarios are considered: (1) The igneous intrusion groundwater release scenario (also called the igneous intrusion scenario) considers the in situ damage to waste packages or failure of waste packages that occurs if they are engulfed or otherwise affected by magma as a result of an igneous intrusion. (2) The volcanic eruption scenario depicts the direct release of radioactive waste due to an intrusion that intersects the repository followed by a volcanic eruption at the surface. An igneous intrusion is defined as the ascent of a basaltic dike or dike system (i.e., a set or swarm of multiple dikes comprising a single intrusive event) to repository level, where it intersects drifts. Magma that does reach the surface from igneous activity is an eruption (or extrusive activity) (Jackson 1997 [DIRS 109119], pp. 224, 333). The objective of this analysis is to develop a probabilistic measure of the number of waste packages that could be affected by each of the two scenarios

  15. Hysteretic behavior in seawater intrusion in response to discontinuous drought periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salandin, P.; Darvini, G.

    2017-12-01

    The seawater intrusion (SWI) represents a relevant problem for communities living in many coastal regions and in small islands, where the amount of fresh water available for human consumption or irrigation purposes depends on the equilibrium between the natural groundwater recharge from precipitations and the surrounding sea. This issue is exacerbated by climate changes, and, as a consequence, the reduction of natural groundwater recharge and the decrease the seaward flows of fresh water rather than sea level rise, as recently demonstrated by Ketabchi et al. (2016), leads to magnify the seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers. The temporal fluctuation of the fresh water table level are a natural consequence of the interaction of the aquifer with a water body or due to the seasonal replenishment of the water table. The severe and prolonged drought phenomena as that observed in last years in some areas of the Mediterranean, as over the central western Mediterranean basin, Italy and Spain, where a decreasing trend in total precipitation was detected (Alpert et al., 2002) in addition to the rise in temperature, enlarges the variation of the freshwater flux and can magnify the progression of the saline wedge. In the present study we demonstrate that the presence of varying boundary constraints or forcing factors may lead to hysteretic behavior in saltwater intrusion, showing dependence of the saline wedge on historic conditions. Therefore, the dynamic behavior of SWI may depend on both the present and past forcing conditions. To this aim different transient simulations supported by evidences deduced from a physical model are carried out to assess the presence of the hysteretic effects in the SWI phenomenon and to evaluate its influence in the management of the coastal aquifers for both the rational exploitation and the corrected management of water resources. About 70% of the world's population dwells in coastal zones. Therefore the optimal exploitation of fresh

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... levels of sedative and anesthetic. Ultrasound may be used to guide the foreign body removal procedure. After you are positioned on the examination table, the radiologist or sonographer will apply some warm water-based gel on your skin and then place ...

  17. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  18. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Katsev

    Full Text Available Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  19. Global warming: the complete briefing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, J

    1994-01-01

    The science of global warming, its impacts, and what action might be taken, are described in this book, in a way which the intelligent non-scientist can understand. It also examines ethical and moral issues of concern about global warming, considering mankind as stewards of the earth. Chapter headings of the book are: global warming and climate change; the greenhouse effect; the greenhouse gases; climates of the past; modelling the climate; climate change and business-as-usual; the impacts of climate change; why should we be concerned ; weighing the uncertainty; action to slow and stabilize climate change; energy and transport for the future; and the global village.

  20. Optimization of Design and Manufacturing Process of Metal Foam Filled Anti-Intrusion Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Andrea; Mussi, Valerio; Strano, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    The role of an anti-intrusion bar for automotive use is to absorb the kinetic energy of the colliding bodies that is partially converted into internal work of the bodies involved in the crash. The aim of this paper is to investigate the performances of a new kind of anti-intrusion bars for automotive use, filled with metallic foams. The reason for using a cellular material as a filler deals with its capacity to absorb energy during plastic deformation, while being lightweight. The study is the evolution of a previous paper presented by the authors at Esaform 2010 and will present new results and findings. It is conducted by evaluating some key technical issues of the manufacturing problem and by conducting experimental and numerical analyses. The evaluation of materials and shapes of the closed sections to be filled is made in the perspective of a car manufacturer (production costs, weight reduction, space availability in a car door, etc.). Experimentally, foams are produced starting from an industrial aluminium precursor with a TiH 2 blowing agent. Bars are tested in three point bending, in order to evaluate their performances in terms of force-displacement response and other specific performance parameters. In order to understand the role of interface between the inner surface of the tube and the external surface of the foam, different kinds of interface are tested.

  1. Railway clearance intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingfang; Guo, Baoqing; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In the stage of railway construction and operation, objects intruding railway clearance greatly threaten the safety of railway operation. Real-time intrusion detection is of great importance. For the shortcomings of depth insensitive and shadow interference of single image method, an intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision is proposed to reconstruct the 3D scene for locating the objects and judging clearance intrusion. The binocular cameras are calibrated with Zhang Zhengyou's method. In order to improve the 3D reconstruction speed, a suspicious region is firstly determined by background difference method of a single camera's image sequences. The image rectification, stereo matching and 3D reconstruction process are only executed when there is a suspicious region. A transformation matrix from Camera Coordinate System(CCS) to Track Coordinate System(TCS) is computed with gauge constant and used to transfer the 3D point clouds into the TCS, then the 3D point clouds are used to calculate the object position and intrusion in TCS. The experiments in railway scene show that the position precision is better than 10mm. It is an effective way for clearance intrusion detection and can satisfy the requirement of railway application.

  2. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems' operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Jesus; Lopez-Jimenez, P. Amparo [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  3. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho

    2015-05-12

    Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future warming experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse warming can amplify Arctic surface warming considerably. The warming-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton warms the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic warming further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes.

  4. From Static Stretching to Dynamic Exercises: Changing the Warm-Up Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shawna

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, pre-exercise static stretching seems to have become common practice and routine. However, research suggests that it is time for a paradigm shift--that pre-exercise static stretching be replaced with dynamic warm-up exercises. Research indicates that a dynamic warm-up elevates body temperature, decreases muscle and joint…

  5. Fewer bacteria in warm water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagh, Lene

    1999-01-01

    There has been many suggestions to how the ideal warm water system should be. Particularly whether warm water containers or heat exchangers in larger houses are the best solutions in order to maintain a water quality with low levels of bacteria. In an investigation made by Statens Byggeforskningsinstitutt (Denmark) regarding ''Bacterial growth in warm water installations with heat exchangers'' there were used several heat exchangers made by Gjelsted and Lund of three of which had HWAT heating cables. The bacterial content was low from these exchangers compared to exchangers with circulation. The article presents promising results from a study where the method was investigated over a longer period in two new larger warm water systems. Some energy conservation aspects are discussed

  6. Warm mix asphalt : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The performance of pavements constructed using warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology were : compared to the performance of conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements placed on the : same project. Measurements of friction resistance, rutting/wear, ride ...

  7. Authropogenic Warming in North Alaska?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Sappington, David E.; Stooksbury, David E.

    1988-09-01

    Using permafrost boreholes, Lachenbruch and Marshall recently reported evidence for a 2°-4°C warming in North Alaska occurring at some undetermined time during the last century. Popular accounts suggest their findings are evidence for anthropogenic warming caused by trace gases. Analyses of North Alaskan 1000-500 mb thickness onwards back to 1948 indicate that the warming was prior to that date. Relatively sparse thermometric data for the early twentieth century from Jones et al. are too noisy to support any trend since the data record begins in 1910, or to apply to any subperiod of climatic significance. Any warming detected from the permafrost record therefore occurred before the major emissions of thermally active trace gases.

  8. The 2001 Mt. Etna eruption: new constraints on the intrusive mechanism from ground deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.

    2013-04-01

    The occurrence of seismic swarms beneath the SW flank of Mt. Etna, often observed just a few months before an eruption, has been considered as the fragile response to a magma intrusion (Bonanno et al., 2011 and reference therein). These intrusions and/or pressurization of deep magmatic bodies, have been able to significantly affect the seismic pattern within the volcano edifice, leading to a changes in the local stress field. For example, during the months preceding the 1991-1993 Mt. Etna eruption, shallow intense seismic swarms (4-6 km deep) occurring in the SW flank (e.g. Cocina et al., 1998), related to the magma intrusion before the eruption onset, were observed contemporaneously with a rotation of stress field of about 90°. A similar scenario was observed during January 1998, when a magma recharging phases induced a local rotation of stress tensor, forcing a buried fault zone located beneath the SW flank of Mt. Etna to slip as a right-lateral strike-slip fault (Bonanno et al., 2011). This fault system was forced to slip again, during late April 2001 (more than 200 events in less than 5 days; maximum Magnitude = 3.6) by the pressurization of the magmatic bodies feeding the July-August 2001 Mt. Etna eruption. Here we analyzed in detail the July-August 2001 Mt. Etna eruption as well as the dynamics preceding this event, by using a large dataset of geodetic data (GPS and synthetic aperture radar interferometry) collected between July 2000 and August 2001. References Cocina, O., Neri, G., Privitera, E. and Spampinato S., 1998. Seismogenic stress field beneath Mt. Etna South Italy and possible relationships with volcano-tectonic features. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 83, 335-348. Bonanno A., Palano M., Privitera E., Gresta S., Puglisi G., 2011. Magma intrusion mechanisms and redistribution of seismogenic stress at Mt. Etna volcano (1997-1998). Terra Nova, 23, 339-348, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2011.01019.x, 2011.

  9. Global warming and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The problems of pollution, global warming and renewable energy sources are not going to go away. Governments need to act with urgency if they are to produce a long-term energy policy. This paper looks at the current energy situation, and how this would project into the future without the instigation of radical changes. It concludes that nuclear is the best option available for averting a growing energy, pollution and global warming crisis. (author)

  10. Global warming: A vicious circle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, J.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases the planet is already committed to regional droughts, storms, disruption of fisheries and the extinction of many plant and animal species. But current predictions of global warming do not take into account the reactions and interactions of the planet's land, ocean and ice masses to the rise in temperatures. It seems likely that the greenhouse effect will give rise to positive feedback reactions, leading to greater global warming than predicted

  11. Strontium isotopic geochemistry of intrusive rocks, Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The strontium isotope geochemistry is given for three Puerto Rican intrusive rocks: the granodioritic Morovis and San Lorenzo plutons and the Rio Blanco stock of quartz dioritic composition. The average calculated initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are 0.70370, 0.70355 and 0.70408, respectively. In addition, the San Lorenzo data establish a whole-rock isochron of 71 +- 2 m.y., which agrees with the previously reported K-Ar age of 73 m.y. Similarity of most of the intrusive rocks in the Greater Antilles with respect to their strontium isotopic geochemistry regardless of their major element composition indicates that intrusive magmas with a wide range of composition can be derived from a single source material. The most likely source material, in view of the available isotopic data, is the mantle wedge overlying the subduction zone. (orig.)

  12. Topographic Beta Spiral and Onshore Intrusion of the Kuroshio Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-Zhou; Huang, Rui Xin; Yin, Bao-shu; Feng, Xing-Ru; Chen, Hai-ying; Qi, Ji-Feng; Xu, Ling-jing; Shi, Yun-long; Cui, Xuan; Gao, Guan-Dong; Benthuysen, Jessica A.

    2018-01-01

    The Kuroshio intrusion plays a vitally important role in carrying nutrients to marginal seas. However, the key mechanism leading to the Kuroshio intrusion remains unclear. In this study we postulate a mechanism: when the Kuroshio runs onto steep topography northeast of Taiwan, the strong inertia gives rise to upwelling over topography, leading to a left-hand spiral in the stratified ocean. This is called the topographic beta spiral, which is a major player regulating the Kuroshio intrusion; this spiral can be inferred from hydrographic surveys. In the world oceans, the topographic beta spirals can be induced by upwelling generated by strong currents running onto steep topography. This is a vital mechanism regulating onshore intruding flow and the cross-shelf transport of energy and nutrients from the Kuroshio Current to the East China Sea. This topographic beta spiral reveals a long-term missing link between the oceanic general circulation theory and shelf dynamic theory.

  13. Activating attachment representations during memory retrieval modulates intrusive traumatic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Chan, Iris

    2017-10-01

    Although priming mental representations of attachment security reduces arousal, research has not examined the effect of attachment on the retrieval of emotionally arousing memories. This study investigated the effect of priming attachment security on the retrieval of emotional memories. Seventy-five participants viewed negative and neutral images, and two days later received either an attachment prime or a control prime immediately prior to free recall of the images. Two days later, participants reported how frequently they experienced intrusions of the negative images. The attachment group had less distress, and reported fewer subsequent intrusions than the control group. Attachment style moderated these effects such that individuals with an avoidant attachment style were not impacted by the attachment prime. These findings suggest that priming attachment security decreases distress during memory reactivation, and this may reduce subsequent intrusive memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effects of Saltwater Intrusion to Flood Mitigation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azida Abu Bakar, Azinoor; Khairudin Khalil, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of saltwater intrusion to flood mitigation project located in the flood plains in the district of Muar, Johor. Based on the studies and designs carried out, one of the effective flood mitigation options identified is the Kampung Tanjung Olak bypass and Kampung Belemang bypass at the lower reaches of Sungai Muar. But, the construction of the Kampung Belemang and Tanjung Olak bypass, while speeding up flood discharges, may also increase saltwater intrusion during drought low flows. Establishing the dynamics of flooding, including replicating the existing situation and the performance with prospective flood mitigation interventions, is most effectively accomplished using computer-based modelling tools. The finding of this study shows that to overcome the problem, a barrage should be constructed at Sungai Muar to solve the saltwater intrusion and low yield problem of the river.

  15. Alerts Visualization and Clustering in Network-based Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dr. Li [University of Tennessee; Gasior, Wade C [ORNL; Dasireddy, Swetha [University of Tennessee

    2010-04-01

    Today's Intrusion detection systems when deployed on a busy network overload the network with huge number of alerts. This behavior of producing too much raw information makes it less effective. We propose a system which takes both raw data and Snort alerts to visualize and analyze possible intrusions in a network. Then we present with two models for the visualization of clustered alerts. Our first model gives the network administrator with the logical topology of the network and detailed information of each node that involves its associated alerts and connections. In the second model, flocking model, presents the network administrator with the visual representation of IDS data in which each alert is represented in different color and the alerts with maximum similarity move together. This gives network administrator with the idea of detecting various of intrusions through visualizing the alert patterns.

  16. When Intrusion Detection Meets Blockchain Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang; Wang, Qingju

    2018-01-01

    developed, which allow IDS nodes to exchange data with each other. However, data and trust management still remain two challenges for current detection architectures, which may degrade the effectiveness of such detection systems. In recent years, blockchain technology has shown its adaptability in many...... fields such as supply chain management, international payment, interbanking and so on. As blockchain can protect the integrity of data storage and ensure process transparency, it has a potential to be applied to intrusion detection domain. Motivated by this, this work provides a review regarding...... the intersection of IDSs and blockchains. In particular, we introduce the background of intrusion detection and blockchain, discuss the applicability of blockchain to intrusion detection, and identify open challenges in this direction....

  17. Influence of seawater intrusion on microbial communities in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Tatsuya; Kim, Jungman; Kim, Yumi; Nguyen, Son G; Guevarra, Robin B; Kim, Gee Pyo; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of potable water on Jeju Island in the Republic of (South) Korea. Groundwater is also used for irrigation and industrial purposes, and it is severely impacted by seawater intrusion in coastal areas. Consequently, monitoring the intrusion of seawater into groundwater on Jeju is very important for health and environmental reasons. A number of studies have used hydrological models to predict the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by seawater intrusion. However, there is conflicting evidence of intrusion due to complicated environmental influences on groundwater quality. Here we investigated the use of next generation sequencing (NGS)-based microbial community analysis as a way to monitor groundwater quality and detect seawater intrusion. Pristine groundwater, groundwater from three coastal areas, and seawater were compared. Analysis of the distribution of bacterial species clearly indicated that the high and low salinity groundwater differed significantly with respect to microbial composition. While members of the family Parvularculaceae were only identified in high salinity water samples, a greater percentage of the phylum Actinobacteria was predominantly observed in pristine groundwater. In addition, we identified 48 shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with seawater, among which the high salinity groundwater sample shared a greater number of bacterial species with seawater (6.7%). In contrast, other groundwater samples shared less than 0.5%. Our results suggest that NGS-based microbial community analysis of groundwater may be a useful tool for monitoring groundwater quality and detect seawater intrusion. This technology may also provide additional insights in understanding hydrological dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Possible climate effects of the CAMP intrusive and extrusive activity and its influence on the end-Triassic mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, A.; Davies, J.; Valeriani, L.; Preto, N.; Cirilli, S.; Panfili, G.; Dal Corso, J.; Vasconcellos, E.; Ernesto, M.; Youbi, N.; Callegaro, S.

    2017-12-01

    The end-Triassic global climate changes were probably triggered by the emplacement of the CAMP (Central Atlantic magmatic province). Here we explore the possibility that CAMP intrusions triggered global warming, while CAMP eruptions triggered short-lived cooling events. The main phase of the end-Triassic environmental changes and mass extinction was marked by two carbon isotopic excursions (CIEs). Based on stratigraphic and geochronologic data, we show that the earliest CAMP intrusions were emplaced at ca. 201.6 Ma prior to the first CIE (Davies et al., 2017). The main phase of CAMP magmatism started during the first CIE at ca. 201.5 Ma and continued until the second CIE and the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (at ca. 201.3 Ma). In particular, intrusion of the over 1 million cubic km of basaltic sills in Amazonia (Brazil) and of widespread sills from North America and Africa occurred within this interval. Multidisciplinary analyses show that organic matter rich sediments close to the sills from Brazil, Morocco, and the USA underwent contact metamorphism and organic carbon depletion. Such process may have released large amounts of thermogenic gases (CO2 and CH4) leading to global perturbation of the carbon cycle and to global warming. The timing of CAMP volcanic eruptions is well constrained by combined geochronologic, stratigraphic and palynologic data. In Morocco, newly observed palynological assemblages for sediments at the top of the lava piles are nearly identical to those found at the base of the volcanic sequences. These new data combined with carbon isotopic data indicate that over 95% of the CAMP lava flows in Morocco erupted during a short time interval at the very beginning of the end-Triassic extinction interval. A similar scenario applies possibly to the lava flows from North America. CAMP basalts are quite sulfur rich (up to 1800 ppm) suggesting that CAMP eruptions emitted large amounts of SO2. Such emissions lead possibly to short-lived cooling events

  19. The Basketball warms-ups - theoretical assumptions and practical solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Łubiński

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many authors emphasize the importance of warm-up. Warm-up in team games aims at enhancing the body adaptation to the physical activity and to activate physiological functions from the rest state to the active state. Warm-up brings many different benefits, for example: physiological, psychological, and preventive, regardless of the classification of the above. From a psychological standpoint, the warm-up is performed to create the body "alertness", activity and readiness, and a willingness to act effectively. It was found that the players who perform the correct warm-up are better mentally prepared than those who do not perform it. After a well performed warm-up, the athlete is self-confident and has a positive attitude to the match. It is believed that the warm-up can also be the way to relieve tension and anxiety and to increase concentration and motivation before the match. Warm-up also improves the emotional states and reduces fear of failure. It has been verified that the warm-up, performed under appropriate conditions, improves focus, visual perception, action accuracy, self-confidence, speed and responsiveness, speed of processing and decision making. From the physiological point of view, the warm-up is an activity that adapts the basketball player’s body to an effort. It is an important factor that affects the effect of participation in the competition. Data from the literature suggest that the warm-up individualization is necessary in terms of duration and intensity. There are two types of warm-ups: passive and active. Passive warm-up is the one that is performed by using hot showers, baths, saunas, and steam baths or by using energetics massage. Active warm-up requires a lot of commitment and determination from the athlete during exercises that prepare the body and muscles for an effort. The training measures used during this part of warm-up are the general exercises that improve strength, stretch, coordination

  20. Working group 4B - human intrusion: Design/performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    There is no summary of the progress made by working group 4B (Human Intrusion: Design/performance Requirements) during the Electric Power Research Institute's EPRI Workshop on the technical basis of EPA HLW Disposal Criteria, March 1993. This group was to discuss the waste disposal standard, 40 CFR Part 191, in terms of the design and performance requirements of human intrusion. Instead, because there were so few members, they combined with working group 4A and studied the three-tier approach to evaluating postclosure performance

  1. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field...... as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments....

  2. A subtractive approach to interior intrusion detection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sons, R.J.; Graham, R.H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the subtractive approach to interior intrusion detection system design which assumes that all sensors are viable candidates until they are subjected to the constraints imposed by a particular facility. The constraints are determined by a sequence of questions concerning parameters such as threat definition, facility description and operation, environment, assets to be protected, security system capabilities, and cost. As a result of the questioning, some sensors will be eliminated from the candidate list, and the ''best'' set of sensors for the facility will remain. This form of questioning could be incorporated into an expert system aiding future intrusion detection system designs

  3. Power-Aware Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Sevil; Clark, John A.; Tapiador, Juan E.

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a highly promising new form of networking. However they are more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. In addition, conventional intrusion detection systems (IDS) are ineffective and inefficient for highly dynamic and resource-constrained environments. Achieving an effective operational MANET requires tradeoffs to be made between functional and non-functional criteria. In this paper we show how Genetic Programming (GP) together with a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) can be used to synthesise intrusion detection programs that make optimal tradeoffs between security criteria and the power they consume.

  4. Lower crustal intrusions beneath the southern Baikal Rift Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer; Thybo, Hans

    2009-01-01

    centre. The BEST (Baikal Explosion Seismic Transect) project acquired a 360-km long, deep seismic, refraction/wide-angle reflection profile in 2002 across southern Lake Baikal. The data from this project is used for identification of large-scale crustal structures and modelling of the seismic velocities....../s and 7.9 km/s. We interpret this feature as resulting from mafic to ultra-mafic intrusions in the form of sills. Petrological interpretation of the velocity values suggests that the intrusions are sorted by fractional crystallization into plagioclase-rich low-velocity layers and pyroxene- and olivine...

  5. Granite intrusion in a metamorphic core complex: the example of the Mykonos laccolith (Cyclades, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denèle, Yoann; Lecomte, Emmanuel; Jolivet, Laurent; Huet, Benjamin; Labrousse, Loïc.; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Lacombe, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Numerical and analogical modelling underlined the importance of a pre-existing anomaly of viscosity-density such as a granite or migmatitic body below the brittle-ductile transition as a primary cause of metamorphic core complex (MCC) developpement. While field studies of MCC show a spatial and temporal link between MCC formation and plutonic activity, thermochronological studies show that there is no link between the intrusion of granites and the velocity of slip on the detachement plane. The Aegean domain is a good natural laboratory for studying the formation of MCC and syn-tectonic granites. In the northern Cyclades, the Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia MCC is characterised by the intrusion of a plurikilometric Late Miocene pluton of I-type granite within a migmatitic gneiss dome. AMS (Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility) and microstructural studies in the Mykonos granites combined with recent cooling rate data allow us to use the granites as strain marker. The Mykonos granitoïds form a plurikilometric laccolith slightly deeping to the east and presenting an elliptical shape with a N170°E long axis. The laccolith is strongly asymmetrical with an outlying root zone in the SW cropping out on Delos and Rhenia islands and a major body mainly developed to the NE and cropping out on Mykonos Island. The laccolith consists of various petrographic facies presenting straight contacts that demonstrate emplacement by successive pulses of more or less differentiated magmas. The laccolith was developed at the interface between the Cycladic Basement and the Blueschists Unit and within the Blueschist Unit. Two events of deformation have been recorded in the granites. The first event is characterized by submagmatic and high to middle temperature protomylonite microstructures developped during or just after the intrusion. The second event of deformation characterized by low temperature mylonites and cataclasites close to the major detachment fault corresponds to the localization of

  6. Unexpected Impacts of Global warming on Extreme Warm Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; McColl, C.; Penland, C.

    2017-12-01

    It is generally presumed that the likelihood of extreme warm spells around the globe has increased, and will continue to increase, due to global warming. However, we find that this is generally not true in three very different types of global observational datasets and uncoupled atmospheric model simulations of the 1959 to 2012 period with prescribed observed global SSTs, sea ice, and radiative forcing changes. While extreme warm spells indeed became more common in many regions, in many other regions their likelihood remained almost the same or even decreased from the first half to the second half of this period. Such regions of unexpected changes covered nearly 40 percent of the globe in both winter and summer. The basic reason for this was a decrease of temperature variability in such regions that offset or even negated the effect of the mean temperature shift on extreme warm spell probabilities. The possibility of such an impact on extreme value probabilities was highlighted in a recent paper by Sardeshmukh, Compo, and Penland (Journal of Climate 2015). The consistency of the changes in extreme warm spell probabilities among the different observational datasets and model simulations examined suggests that they are robust regional aspects of global warming associated with atmospheric circulation changes. This highlights the need for climate models to represent not just the mean regional temperature signals but also the changes in subseasonal temperature variability associated with global warming. However, current climate models (both CMIP3 and CMIP5) generally underestimate the magnitude of the changes in the atmospheric circulation and associated temperature variability. A likely major cause of this is their continuing underestimation of the magnitude of the spatial variation of tropical SST trends. By generating an overly spatially bland tropical SST warming in response to changes in radiative forcing, the models spuriously mute tropically

  7. Hydrodynamic modeling of the intrusion phenomenon in water distribution systems; Modelacion hidrodinamica del fenomeno de intrusion en tuberia de abastecimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Jimenez, Petra Amparo; Mora-Rodriguez, Jose de Jesus; Perez-Garcia, Rafael; Martinez-Solano, F. Javier [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    This paper describes a strategy for the hydrodynamic modeling of the pathogen intrusion phenomenon in water distribution systems by the combination of a breakage with a depression situation. This scenario will be modeled computationally and experimentally. The phenomenon to be represented by both simulations is the same: the entrance of an external volume into the circulation of a main volume, known as a pathogen intrusion, as long as the main volume is potable water. To this end, a prototype and a computational model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are used, which allow visualizing the fields of speeds and pressures in a simulated form. With the comparison of the results of both models, conclusions will be drawn on the detail of the studied pathogen intrusion phenomenon. [Spanish] En el presente documento se describe una estrategia de modelacion del fenomeno hidrodinamico de la intrusion patogena en redes de distribucion de agua por combinacion de una rotura con una situacion de depresion. Este escenario sera modelado computacional y experimentalmente. El fenomeno que se desea representar con ambas simulaciones es el mismo: la entrada de un caudal externo a una conduccion para la que circula un caudal principal, denominado intrusion patogena, siempre y cuando el caudal principal sea agua potable. Para ello se dispone de un prototipo y un modelo computacional basado en la Dinamica de Fluidos Computacional (DFC de aqui en adelante), que permite visualizar los campos de velocidades y presiones de forma simulada. Con la comparacion de los resultados de ambos modelos se extraeran conclusiones sobre el detalle del fenomeno de la intrusion patogena estudiado.

  8. Investigation of a dynamic seawater intrusion event using strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels Oluf; Andersen, Martin S.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2008-01-01

    groundwater and deep groundwater from the underlying limestone aquifer as end-members. A mixing analysis is performed using the Cl contents and the 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The mixing analysis indicates a zone with leakage of deep groundwater from the limestone aquifer into the lower part of the shallow sandy...... and lower part of the water body in the shallow sandy aquifer. The leakage of deep groundwater increased during the intrusion experiment as a result of the large abstraction of groundwater. Following the ceasing of the groundwater pumping, the interface went from being vertical to being predominantly......A seawater intrusion experiment was carried out in a shallow coastal unconfined aquifer at Skansehage, Denmark. The aquifer consists of 6-10 m of postglacial (Holocene) eolian and marine sands and gravels resting on Pleistocene glacial sequence of tills and glacio-fluviatile sediments on a basement...

  9. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  10. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  11. Intra-operative warming with a forced-air warmer in preventing hypothermia after tourniquet deflation in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-S; Jeon, Y-S; Lee, J-A; Park, W-K; Koh, H-S; Joo, J-D; In, J-H; Seo, K-W

    2009-01-01

    This randomized, single-blind study aimed to explore the effects of intra-operative warming with a forced-air warmer in the prevention of hypothermia after tourniquet deflation in elderly patients undergoing unilateral total knee replacement arthroplasty under general anaesthesia. Patients were randomized to receive either intra-operative warming using a forced-air warmer with an upper body blanket (warming group; n = 12) or no intra-operative warming (nonwarming group; n = 12). Oesophageal temperature was measured as core body temperature. At 30 min following tourniquet inflation, the core body temperature started to increase in the warming group whereas it continued to drop in the non-warming group. This difference was statistically significant. The final core body temperature after tourniquet deflation was significantly higher in the warming group (mean +/- SD 36.1 +/- 0.2 degrees C) than in the non-warming group (35.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C). Intra-operative forced-air warming increased the core body temperature before tourniquet deflation and prevented subsequent hypothermia in elderly patients under general anaesthesia.

  12. How warm days increase belief in global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local warming effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global warming attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global warming.

  13. Saline water intrusion toward groundwater: Issues and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnama S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, saline water pollution has been gaining its importance as the major issue around the world, especially in the urban coastal area. Saline water pollution has major impact on human life and livelihood. It ́s mainly a result from static fossil water and the dynamics of sea water intrusion. The problem of saline water pollution caused by seawater intrusion has been increasing since the beginning of urban population. The problem of sea water intrusion in the urban coastal area must be anticipated as soon as possible especially in the urban areas developed in coastal zones,. This review article aims to; (i analyze the distribution of saline water pollution on urban coastal area in Indonesia and (ii analyze some methods in controlling saline water pollution, especially due to seawater intrusion in urban coastal area. The strength and weakness of each method have been compared, including (a applying different pumping patterns, (b artificial recharge, (c extraction barrier, (d injection barrier and (e subsurface barrier. The best method has been selected considering its possible development in coastal areas of developing countries. The review is based considering the location of Semarang coastal area, Indonesia. The results have shown that artificial recharge and extraction barrier are the most suitable methods to be applied in the area.

  14. Revisiting Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.

    2009-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are well-known and widely-deployed security tools to detect cyber-attacks and malicious activities in computer systems and networks. A signature-based IDS works similar to anti-virus software. It employs a signature database of known attacks, and a successful match

  15. Capability for intrusion detection at nuclear fuel sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    A safeguards vulnerability assessment was conducted at three separate licensed nuclear processing facilities. Emphasis was placed on: (1) performance of the total intrusion detection system, and (2) vulnerability of the system to compromise by insiders. The security guards were interviewed to evaluate their effectiveness in executing their duties in accordance with the plant's security plan and to assess their knowledge regarding the operation of the security equipment. A review of the training schedule showed that the guards, along with the other plant employees, are required to periodically attend in-plant training sessions. The vulnerability assessments continued with interviews of the personnel responsible for maintaining the security equipment, with discussions of detector false alarm and maintenance problems. The second part of the vulnerability assessments was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intrusion detection systems including the interior and the perimeter sensors, CCTV surveillance devices and the exterior lighting. Two types of perimeter detectors are used at the sites, a fence disturbance sensor and an infrared barrier type detector. Infrared barrier type detectors have a higher probability of detection, especially in conjunction with dedicated CCTV cameras. The exterior lights satisfy the 0.2 footcandle illumination requirement. The interior intrusion detection systems included ultrasonic motion detectors, microwave motion detectors,balanced magnetic switches, and CCTV cameras. Entrance doors to the materials access areas and vital areas are protected with balanced magnetic switches. The interior intrusion detection systems at the three nuclear processing sites are considered satisfactory with the exception of the areas protected with ultrasonic motion detectors

  16. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic

    2009-07-01

    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  17. Data Fusion for Network Intrusion Detection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoquan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid progress of networking technologies leads to an exponential growth in the number of unauthorized or malicious network actions. As a component of defense-in-depth, Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS has been expected to detect malicious behaviors. Currently, NIDSs are implemented by various classification techniques, but these techniques are not advanced enough to accurately detect complex or synthetic attacks, especially in the situation of facing massive high-dimensional data. Besides, the inherent defects of NIDSs, namely, high false alarm rate and low detection rate, have not been effectively solved. In order to solve these problems, data fusion (DF has been applied into network intrusion detection and has achieved good results. However, the literature still lacks thorough analysis and evaluation on data fusion techniques in the field of intrusion detection. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive review on them. In this article, we focus on DF techniques for network intrusion detection and propose a specific definition to describe it. We review the recent advances of DF techniques and propose a series of criteria to compare their performance. Finally, based on the results of the literature review, a number of open issues and future research directions are proposed at the end of this work.

  18. A Labeled Data Set For Flow-based Intrusion Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperotto, Anna; Sadre, R.; van Vliet, Frank; Pras, Aiko; Nunzi, Giorgio; Scoglio, Caterina; Li, Xing

    2009-01-01

    Flow-based intrusion detection has recently become a promising security mechanism in high speed networks (1-10 Gbps). Despite the richness in contributions in this field, benchmarking of flow-based IDS is still an open issue. In this paper, we propose the first publicly available, labeled data set

  19. Intrusion of beach-disposed dredger spoil into the Mhlathuze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediment intrusion and its impact on the beds of the seagrass Zostera capensis in the estuary were monitored from 1996 to 1999. Fine sediment did enter the estuary from the marine environment and was deposited mainly in its lower reaches, where its settling on the leaves of Zostera resulted in a major die-back. However ...

  20. Psychological Intrusion – An Overlooked Aspect of Dental Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Chapman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental fear/anxiety is a widely recognised problem affecting a large proportion of the population. It can result in avoidance and/or difficulty accepting dental care. We believe that psychological intrusion may play a role in the aetiology and maintenance of dental fear for at least some individuals. In this narrative review we will take a developmental perspective in order to understand its impact across the lifespan. We will consider the nature of ‘self,’ parenting styles, the details of intrusive parenting or parental psychological control, and briefly touch upon child temperament and parental anxiety. Finally, we draw together the supporting (largely unrecognised evidence available in the dental literature. We illustrate the paper with clinical examples and discuss possibly effective ways of addressing the problem. We conclude that psychological intrusion appears to play an important role in dental fear, for at least some individuals, and we call for detailed research into the extent and exact nature of the problem. A simple means of identifying individuals who are vulnerable to psychological intrusion would be useful for dentists.

  1. AANtID: an alternative approach to network intrusion detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Computer Science and Its Application ... Security has become not just a feature of an information system, but the core and a necessity especially the systems that communicate and transmit data over the Internet for they are more ... Keywords: Intrusion, Genetic Algorithm, detection, Security, DARPA dataset ...

  2. 1420 Ma diabasic intrusives from the Mesoproterozoic Singhora ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Earth that includes accretion and dispersal of supercontinents, viz., Columbia (Rogers and. Santosh 2002; Zhao et al 2004) and Rodinia. Keywords. Chhattisgarh Supergroup; Singhora Group; diabasic intrusive; geochemistry and age. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 120, No. 2, April 2011, pp. 223–236 c Indian Academy of Sciences.

  3. Approaches in anomaly-based network intrusion detection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, S.; Di Pietro, R.; Mancini, L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Anomaly-based network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs) can take into consideration packet headers, the payload, or a combination of both. We argue that payload-based approaches are becoming the most effective methods to detect attacks. Nowadays, attacks aim mainly to exploit vulnerabilities at

  4. On Emulation-Based Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Wetzel, Jos; Bokslag, Wouter; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Emulation-based network intrusion detection systems have been devised to detect the presence of shellcode in network traffic by trying to execute (portions of) the network packet payloads in an in- strumented environment and checking the execution traces for signs of shellcode activity.

  5. On emulation-based network intrusion detection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.; Wetzels, J.; Bokslag, W.; Zambon, E.; Etalle, S.; Stavrou, A.; Bos, H.; Portokalidis, G.

    2014-01-01

    Emulation-based network intrusion detection systems have been devised to detect the presence of shellcode in network traffic by trying to execute (portions of) the network packet payloads in an instrumented environment and checking the execution traces for signs of shellcode activity.

  6. Boosting Web Intrusion Detection Systems by Inferring Positive Signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    We present a new approach to anomaly-based network intrusion detection for web applications. This approach is based on dividing the input parameters of the monitored web application in two groups: the "regular" and the "irregular" ones, and applying a new method for anomaly detection on the

  7. Approaches in Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, Sandro

    Anomaly-based network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs) can take into consideration packet headers, the payload, or a combination of both. We argue that payload-based approaches are becoming the most effective methods to detect attacks. Nowadays, attacks aim mainly to exploit vulnerabilities at

  8. Petrography of some altered intrusive rocks from the Lower Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrography of some altered intrusive rocks from the Lower Benue Trough, Nigeria. Smart C Obiora, Alphonso C Umeji. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology 2005, Vol 41(1): 1-9. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. Climate Change and Saltwater Intrusion along the Eastern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Eastern Mediterranean is highly vulnerable to saltwater intrusion into the freshwater aquifers along its coasts. The degradation of these aquifers would result in serious socioeconomic consequence to people living there. This project will investigate how climate change is affecting the salinity of coastal aquifers at several ...

  10. Revised predictive equations for salt intrusion modelling in estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisen, J.I.A.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Nijzink, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    For one-dimensional salt intrusion models to be predictive, we need predictive equations to link model parameters to observable hydraulic and geometric variables. The one-dimensional model of Savenije (1993b) made use of predictive equations for the Van der Burgh coefficient $K$ and the dispersion

  11. Pre-Stressor Interference Control and Intrusive Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, J.; Wessel, I.; De Jong, P.J.; Nieuwenhuis, Maurice; Huntjens, R.J.C.

    Although intrusive imagery is a common response in the aftermath of a stressful or traumatic event, only a minority of trauma victims show persistent re-experiencing and related psychopathology. Individual differences in pre-trauma executive control possibly play a critical role. Therefore, this

  12. Salt intrusion study in Cochin estuary - Using empirical models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, B.; Revichandran, C.; NaveenKumar, K.R.

    been applied to the Cochin estuary in the present study to identify the most suitable model for predicting the salt intrusion length. Comparison of the obtained results indicate that the model of Van der Burgh (1972) is the most suitable empirical model...

  13. Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Systems Utilizing System Call Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    52 Table 7. Place Reachability Statistics for Low Level CPN...54 Table 8. Place Reachability Statistics for High Level CPN................................................. 55 Table 9. Password Stealing...the efficiency of traditional anti-virus software tools that are dependent on gigantic , continuously updated databases. Fortunately, Intrusion

  14. State of the Practice of Intrusion Detection Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    functions, procedures, and scripts, an Oracle database structure, Borne shell scripts, and configuration files which together communicate with ASIM Sensor...34Plugging the Holes in eCommerce Leads to 135% Growth in the Intrusion Detection and Vulnerability Assessment Software Market," PRNewswire. August

  15. Saltwater Intrusion Appraisal of Shallow Aquifer in Burutu Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    is not caused by saltwater intrusion rather by iron which cannot be separately distinguished from groundwater by ... The sand and gravels forms the aquifer in the. Formation and are .... K.S; Soulios, G; Pliakas, F; Tsokas, G ( 2016). Seawater ...

  16. Illness intrusiveness among survivors of autologous blood and marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, A D; Elliott, M E; Abbey, S E; Raiz, L; Keating, A; Beanlands, H J; McCay, E; Messner, H A; Lipton, J H; Devins, G M

    2001-12-15

    Illness-induced disruptions to lifestyles, activities, and interests (i.e., illness intrusiveness) compromise subjective well-being. The authors measured illness intrusiveness in autologous blood and bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) survivors and compared the results with survivors of solid organ transplants. Forty-four of 64 consecutive ABMT survivors referred to the University of Toronto ABMT long-term follow-up clinic completed the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale (IIRS), the Affect Balance Scale (ABS), the Atkinson Life Happiness Rating (ATKLH), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Mean time from ABMT to evaluation was 4.6 +/- 2.8 years. All patients were in remission or had stable disease at the time of evaluation. Autologous blood and bone marrow transplantation patients' IIRS scores were compared with scores reported by recipients of kidney (n = 357), liver (n = 150), lung (n = 77), and heart (n = 60) transplants. Mean IIRS score for the 44 ABMT patients was 37.2 +/- 17 (maximum possible score, 91; minimum possible score, 13). Higher IIRS scores correlated with lower scores on the ABS (r = -0.54; P work, financial situation, and active recreation. Despite achieving a remission after ABMT, patients continue to experience illness intrusiveness compromising subjective well-being. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.

  17. Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion into Lekki lagoon and transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal characteristics were studied during March, 2006 and February, 2008. The water quality analysis indicated that, salinity has drastically increased recently in the lagoon (0.007 to ...

  18. Trauma Films, Information Processing, and Intrusive Memory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emily A.; Brewin, Chris R.; Hennessy, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments indexed the effect of various concurrent tasks, while watching a traumatic film, on intrusive memory development. Hypotheses were based on the dual-representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder (C. R. Brewin, T. Dalgleish, & S. Joseph, 1996). Nonclinical participants viewed a trauma film under various encoding conditions…

  19. Warm measurements of CBA superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Willen, E.; Yamin, P.

    1983-01-01

    We present results on magnetic field measurements of CBA dipole magnets in the warm (normal conductor) and cryogenic (superconducting) states. We apply two methods for the warm measurements, a dc and ac method. We find a good correlation between warm and cryogenic measurements which lends itself to a reliable diagnosis of magnet field errors using warm measurements early in the magnet assembly process. We further find good agreement between the two warm measurement methods, both done at low currents

  20. Peranan Environmental Accounting Terhadap Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Martusa, Riki

    2009-01-01

    This article explores about is global warming. The distortion of nature causes global warming. Industrial sector is one of global warming incurred. Some nations create a group to cope this matter. They try to reduce carbon emission as one of global warming causes by controlling industrial carbon emission through financial reporting. This article explores normatively roles of environmental accounting in cope with global warming.  

  1. Radiological risks due to intrusion into a deep bedrock repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlinder, S.; Bergstroem, U.; Edlund, O.

    1999-01-01

    The Swedish concept for disposal of high-level waste is a deep (500 m) bedrock repository (SFL) protected by multiple barriers that isolate the waste from the environment for such a long time that the physical decay will cause a substantial reduction of the radioactivity. The aim of concentration and isolation of high-level waste is to reduce the radiation risk. Intrusion in the repository may introduce a small residual risk to individuals. A risk analysis was performed comprising dose assessment and probabilities of occurrence. Intrusions may be considered to take place either due to conscious actions or by actions without any knowledge about the repository. For conscious intrusion it may be assumed that there will be enough knowledge to manage the radiation situation in a professional manner. Several reasons for making inadvertent intrusion are possible. Independently of the purpose, the most probable initial way of coming into contact with the radioactive material is by deep drilling. Examples of causes for drilling could be general scientific purposes or exploitation of geothermal energy. Dose assessments were made for intrusion due to inclined drilling directly into a canister, and drilling near an initially malfunctioning canister from which radionuclides have leaked into the groundwater. For the former case, external pathways were considered due to exposure from a core of the canister with fuel and contaminated bore dust. The most common drilling method is with water flushing for removal of bore dust, which will not cause any substantial transfer of radionuclides to air. For the second case, it was assumed that there was a well in the vicinity. The only pathway considered was therefore consumption of water because it dominates the exposure. The highest dose rates to man were, as expected, obtained by drilling into the canister. Dose rates decrease with time after closure. During the first time the relatively short-lived radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 give

  2. GROUND WATER SAMPLING OF VOCS IN THE WATER/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR VAPOR INTRUSION ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion has recently been considered a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from certain volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). The recent Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document states that ground water samples should be obtained from the u...

  3. The effect of destination linked feature selection in real-time network intrusion detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mzila, P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available techniques in the network intrusion detection system (NIDS) is the feature selection technique. The ability of NIDS to accurately identify intrusion from the network traffic relies heavily on feature selection, which describes the pattern of the network...

  4. A note on the layered intrusions at Annandagstoppane and Juletoppane, western Dronning Maud Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krynauw, J.R.; Hunter, D.R.; Wilson, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of the geology and geochemistry of the layered rocks at Annandagstoppane (72 degrees 33'S, 06 degrees 16'W) and Juletoppane (72 degrees 23'S, 05 degrees 33'W) in the Giaeverryggen, western Dronning Maud Land, are discussed. The mafic rocks in the two areas have been divided into a 'main suite' and a 'younger suite'. The main suite rocks comprise medium-grained gabbros, gabbronorites and anorhositic gabbros. lenticular and discontinuous rhythmic layers are present. The younger suite comprises basaltic dykes at Annandagstoppane, and a dolerite sill and small pods of fine-grained gabbroic bodies at Juletoppane. Petrographic and geochemical aspects of main suite rocks in the two areas show close similarities, and indicate that pyroxene and plagioclase were the primocrysts in the orthocumulate assemblages. The preliminary results suggest that the Annandagstoppane and Juletoppane gabbroic rocks may either constitute a single layered intrusion, or reflect outcrops of intrusions of several ages, their magmas having been derived from compositionally similar mantle sources. The close chemical similarities of the younger suite with the main suite suggest that all the mafic phases in the two areas are genetically related

  5. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Spinhoven

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”. These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories.Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM.Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N = 83.We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress.The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  6. Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Bernot

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The model is based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. This constitutes the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA (BSC 2003a) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2002a). The technical work plan is governed by the procedures of AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model: (1) Impacts of magma intrusion on the components of engineered barrier system (e.g., drip shields and cladding) of emplacement drifts in Zone 1, and the fate of waste forms. (2) Impacts of conducting magma heat and diffusing magma gases on the drip shields, waste packages, and cladding in the Zone 2 emplacement drifts adjacent to the intruded drifts. (3) Impacts of intrusion on Zone 1 in-drift thermal and geochemical environments, including seepage hydrochemistry. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the invert and

  7. Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-08-16

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The model is based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. This constitutes the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA (BSC 2003a) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2002a). The technical work plan is governed by the procedures of AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model: (1) Impacts of magma intrusion on the components of engineered barrier system (e.g., drip shields and cladding) of emplacement drifts in Zone 1, and the fate of waste forms. (2) Impacts of conducting magma heat and diffusing magma gases on the drip shields, waste packages, and cladding in the Zone 2 emplacement drifts adjacent to the intruded drifts. (3) Impacts of intrusion on Zone 1 in-drift thermal and geochemical environments, including seepage hydrochemistry. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the invert and

  8. Intrusions of a drowsy mind: neural markers of phenomenological unpredictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreika, Valdas; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Koh, Justin; Taylor, Mae; Massey, Irving; Bekinschtein, Tristan A

    2015-01-01

    The transition from a relaxed to a drowsy state of mind is often accompanied by hypnagogic experiences: most commonly, perceptual imagery, but also linguistic intrusions, i.e., the sudden emergence of unpredictable anomalies in the stream of inner speech. This study has sought to describe the contents of such intrusions, to verify their association with the progression of sleep onset, and to investigate the electroencephalographic processes associated with linguistic intrusions as opposed to more common hypnagogic perceptual imagery. A single participant attended 10 experimental sessions in the EEG laboratory, where he was allowed to drift into a drowsy state of mind, while maintaining metacognition of his own experiences. Once a linguistic intrusion or a noticeable perceptual image occurred, the participant pressed a button and reported it verbally. An increase in the EEG-defined depth of drowsiness as assessed by the Hori system of sleep onset was observed in the last 20 s before a button press. Likewise, EEG Dimension of Activation values decreased before the button press, indicating that the occurrence of cognitively incongruous experiences coincides with the rapid change of EEG predictability patterns. EEG hemispheric asymmetry analysis showed that linguistic intrusions had a higher alpha and gamma power in the left hemisphere electrodes, whereas perceptual imagery reports were associated with a higher beta power over the right hemisphere. These findings indicate that the modality as well as the incongruence of drowsiness-related hypnagogic experiences is strongly associated with distinct EEG signatures in this participant. Sleep onset may provide a unique possibility to study the neural mechanisms accompanying the fragmentation of the stream of consciousness in healthy individuals.

  9. Intrusions of a drowsy mind: Neural markers of phenomenological unpredictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas eNoreika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition from a relaxed to a drowsy state of mind is often accompanied by hypnagogic experiences: most commonly, perceptual imagery, but also linguistic intrusions, i.e. the sudden emergence of unpredictable anomalies in the stream of inner speech. This study has sought to describe the contents of such intrusions, to verify their association with the progression of sleep onset, and to investigate the electroencephalographic processes associated with linguistic intrusions as opposed to more common hypnagogic perceptual imagery. A single participant attended 10 experimental sessions in the EEG laboratory, where he was allowed to drift into a drowsy state of mind, while maintaining metacognition of his own experiences. Once a linguistic intrusion or a noticeable perceptual image occurred, the participant pressed a button and reported it verbally. An increase in the EEG-defined depth of drowsiness as assessed by the Hori system of sleep onset was observed in the last 20 sec before a button press. Likewise, EEG Dimension of Activation values decreased before the button press, indicating that the occurrence of cognitively incongruous experiences coincides with the rapid change of EEG predictability patterns. EEG hemispheric asymmetry analysis showed that linguistic intrusions had a higher alpha and gamma power in the left hemisphere electrodes, whereas perceptual imagery reports were associated with a higher beta power over the right hemisphere. These findings indicate that the modality as well as the incongruence of drowsiness-related hypnagogic experiences is strongly associated with distinct EEG signatures in this participant. Sleep onset may provide a unique possibility to study the neural mechanisms accompanying the fragmentation of the stream of consciousness in healthy individuals.

  10. The politics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, N.

    1991-01-01

    The probable warming of the world over the next few decades due to human activity presents a unique threat. The threat of global warming has been brought about by the activities of the entire human race, and only action by a large part of the human race can slow down the process or halt it. Other unwanted effects of industrial activity are trans-national, and require international agreements to regulate them, most obviously radioactivity from nuclear power accidents, acid rain and river pollution; but climatic change, unlike these, is global. International negotiations are going on now to deal with the problem of global warming, mostly by reducing the emission of gases that contribute to it. These are preliminary, yet already different perceptions and conflicting interests are emerging. The aim of the present negotiations is a convention for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in June 1992, the so-called ''Earth Summit''. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Waste Tanks Suspected of Water Intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feero, Amie J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Schofield, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusions evaluations for twelve single-shell tanks were completed in 2013. The evaluations consisted of remote visual inspections, data analysis, and calculations of estimated intrusion rates. The observation of an intrusion or the preponderance of evidence confirmed that six of the twelve tanks evaluated had intrusions. These tanks were tanks 241-A-103, BX-101, BX-103, BX-110, BY-102, and SX-106

  12. Saline-water intrusion related to well construction in Lee County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Durward Hoye; Missimer, T.M.; O'Donnell, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    concentration in water from the water table aquifer ranged from 200 to 590 mg/L as a result of intrusion. In areas adjacent to tidal-water bodies, the water table aquifer contains water that is very saline, Where the wells in such areas have been constructed with metal casings, the metal corrodes when exposed to the saline water, and many ultimately develop holes. This permits saline water to leak into the well where the water level in the well is lower than the water table. The intrusion of saline water from the water-table aquifer into the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation is a major problem in parts of Cape Coral. Withdrawal of water from the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation has caused water levels to decline below the lowest annual position of the water table, so that downward leakage is perennial. In some coastal areas, wells that tap the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation contain water whose chloride concentration is as much as 9,500 mg/L. Upward leakage of saline water from the deep artesian aquifers and downward leakage of saline water from the water-table aquifer can be prevented by proper well construction.

  13. Enhancing collaborative intrusion detection networks against insider attacks using supervised intrusion sensitivity-based trust management model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wenjuan; Meng, Weizhi; Kwok, Lam-For

    2017-01-01

    To defend against complex attacks, collaborative intrusion detection networks (CIDNs) have been developed to enhance the detection accuracy, which enable an IDS to collect information and learn experience from others. However, this kind of networks is vulnerable to malicious nodes which are utili......To defend against complex attacks, collaborative intrusion detection networks (CIDNs) have been developed to enhance the detection accuracy, which enable an IDS to collect information and learn experience from others. However, this kind of networks is vulnerable to malicious nodes which...... are utilized by insider attacks (e.g., betrayal attacks). In our previous research, we developed a notion of intrusion sensitivity and identified that it can help improve the detection of insider attacks, whereas it is still a challenge for these nodes to automatically assign the values. In this article, we...... of intrusion sensitivity based on expert knowledge. In the evaluation, we compare the performance of three different supervised classifiers in assigning sensitivity values and investigate our trust model under different attack scenarios and in a real wireless sensor network. Experimental results indicate...

  14. Efficiency, sustainability and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, Richard T.; Bishop, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Economic analyses of global warming have typically been grounded in the theory of economic efficiency. Such analyses may be inappropriate because many of the underlying concerns about climate change are rooted not in efficiency, but in the intergenerational allocation of economic endowments. A simple economic model is developed which demonstrates that an efficient economy is not necessarily a sustainable economy. This result leads directly to questions about the policy relevance of several economic studies of the issue. We then consider policy alternatives to address global warming in the context of economies with the dual objectives of efficiency and sustainability, with particular attention to carbon-based taxes

  15. Global Warming: Physics and Facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, B.G.; Hafemeister, D.; Scribner, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO 2 ; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment

  16. Warm-Up Strategies for Sport and Exercise: Mechanisms and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Courtney J; Pyne, David B; Thompson, Kevin G; Rattray, Ben

    2015-11-01

    It is widely accepted that warming-up prior to exercise is vital for the attainment of optimum performance. Both passive and active warm-up can evoke temperature, metabolic, neural and psychology-related effects, including increased anaerobic metabolism, elevated oxygen uptake kinetics and post-activation potentiation. Passive warm-up can increase body temperature without depleting energy substrate stores, as occurs during the physical activity associated with active warm-up. While the use of passive warm-up alone is not commonplace, the idea of utilizing passive warming techniques to maintain elevated core and muscle temperature throughout the transition phase (the period between completion of the warm-up and the start of the event) is gaining in popularity. Active warm-up induces greater metabolic changes, leading to increased preparedness for a subsequent exercise task. Until recently, only modest scientific evidence was available supporting the effectiveness of pre-competition warm-ups, with early studies often containing relatively few participants and focusing mostly on physiological rather than performance-related changes. External issues faced by athletes pre-competition, including access to equipment and the length of the transition/marshalling phase, have also frequently been overlooked. Consequently, warm-up strategies have continued to develop largely on a trial-and-error basis, utilizing coach and athlete experiences rather than scientific evidence. However, over the past decade or so, new research has emerged, providing greater insight into how and why warm-up influences subsequent performance. This review identifies potential physiological mechanisms underpinning warm-ups and how they can affect subsequent exercise performance, and provides recommendations for warm-up strategy design for specific individual and team sports.

  17. Warm-Up Exercises May Not Be So Important for Enhancing Submaximal Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kazuki; Yamaguchi, Taichi; Shibata, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    Takizawa, K, Yamaguchi, T, and Shibata, K. Warm-up exercises may not be so important for enhancing submaximal running performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1383-1390, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine an appropriate warm-up intensity for enhancing performance in submaximal running at 90% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max (it assumes 3,000-5,000 m in track events). Seven trained male university athletes took part in this study (age: 21.3 ± 2.1 years, height: 169.3 ± 4.7 cm, body mass: 58.4 ± 5.6 kg, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 73.33 ± 5.46 ml·kg·min). Each subject ran on a treadmill at 90% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max until exhaustion after 1 of 4 warm-up treatments. The 4 warm-up treatments were no warm-up, 15 minutes running at 60% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, at 70% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and at 80% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The running performance was evaluated by time to exhaustion (TTE). V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and vastus lateralis muscle temperature were also measured. There were no significant differences in TTE among the warm-up exercises (p > 0.05). V[Combining Dot Above]O2 in no warm-up showed slower reaction than the other warm-up exercises. Regarding, the vastus lateralis muscle temperature immediately after warm-up, no warm-up was significantly (p warm-up exercises. Our results suggested that submaximal running performance was not affected by the presence or absence of a warm-up or by warm-up intensity, although physiological changes occurred.

  18. U–Pb geochronology of the Eocene Kærven intrusive complex, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Holm, Paul Martin; Tappe, Sebatstian

    2016-01-01

    Several major tholeiitic (e.g. the Skaergaard intrusion) and alkaline (e.g. the Kangerlussuaq Syenite) intrusive complexes of the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province are exposed along the Kangerlussuaq Fjord in East Greenland. The Kærven Complex forms a satellite intrusion to the Kangerlussuaq ...

  19. Assessing water quality of the Chesapeake Bay by the impact of sea level rise and warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Linker, L.; Wang, H.; Bhatt, G.; Yactayo, G.; Hinson, K.; Tian, R.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of sea level rise and warming on circulation and water quality of the Chesapeake Bay under projected climate conditions in 2050 were estimated by computer simulation. Four estuarine circulation scenarios in the estuary were run using the same watershed load in 1991-2000 period. They are, 1) the Base Scenario, which represents the current climate condition, 2) a Sea Level Rise Scenario, 3) a Warming Scenario, and 4) a combined Sea Level Rise and Warming Scenario. With a 1.6-1.9°C increase in monthly air temperatures in the Warming Scenario, water temperature in the Bay is estimated to increase by 0.8-1°C. Summer average anoxic volume is estimated to increase 1.4 percent compared to the Base Scenario, because of an increase in algal blooms in the spring and summer, promotion of oxygen consumptive processes, and an increase of stratification. However, a 0.5-meter Sea Level Rise Scenario results in a 12 percent reduction of anoxic volume. This is mainly due to increased estuarine circulation that promotes oxygen-rich sea water intrusion in lower layers. The combined Sea Level Rise and Warming Scenario results in a 10.8 percent reduction of anoxic volume. Global warming increases precipitation and consequently increases nutrient loads from the watershed by approximately 5-7 percent. A scenario that used a 10 percent increase in watershed loads and current estuarine circulation patterns yielded a 19 percent increase in summer anoxic volume, while a scenario that used a 10 percent increase in watershed loads and modified estuarine circulation patterns by the aforementioned sea level rise and warming yielded a 6 percent increase in summer anoxic volume. Impacts on phytoplankton, sediments, and water clarity were also analysed.

  20. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions? LUAMI 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Trickl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale comparison of water-vapour vertical-sounding instruments took place over central Europe on 17 October 2008, during a rather homogeneous deep stratospheric intrusion event (LUAMI, Lindenberg Upper-Air Methods Intercomparison. The measurements were carried out at four observational sites: Payerne (Switzerland, Bilthoven (the Netherlands, Lindenberg (north-eastern Germany, and the Zugspitze mountain (Garmisch-Partenkichen, German Alps, and by an airborne water-vapour lidar system creating a transect of humidity profiles between all four stations. A high data quality was verified that strongly underlines the scientific findings. The intrusion layer was very dry with a minimum mixing ratios of 0 to 35 ppm on its lower west side, but did not drop below 120 ppm on the higher-lying east side (Lindenberg. The dryness hardens the findings of a preceding study (“Part 1”, Trickl et al., 2014 that, e.g., 73 % of deep intrusions reaching the German Alps and travelling 6 days or less exhibit minimum mixing ratios of 50 ppm and less. These low values reflect values found in the lowermost stratosphere and indicate very slow mixing with tropospheric air during the downward transport to the lower troposphere. The peak ozone values were around 70 ppb, confirming the idea that intrusion layers depart from the lowermost edge of the stratosphere. The data suggest an increase of ozone from the lower to the higher edge of the intrusion layer. This behaviour is also confirmed by stratospheric aerosol caught in the layer. Both observations are in agreement with the idea that sections of the vertical distributions of these constituents in the source region were transferred to central Europe without major change. LAGRANTO trajectory calculations demonstrated a rather shallow outflow from the stratosphere just above the dynamical tropopause, for the first time confirming the conclusions in “Part 1” from the Zugspitze CO observations. The

  1. Development of an Assessment Procedure for Seawater Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi Ting, F.; Yih Chi, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Pingtung Plain is one of the areas with extremely plentiful groundwater resources in Taiwan. Due to that the application of the water resource is restricted by significant variation of precipitation between wet and dry seasons, groundwater must be used as a recharge source to implement the insufficient surface water resource during dry seasons. In recent years, the coastal aquaculture rises, and the over withdrawn of groundwater by private well results in fast drop of groundwater level. Then it causes imbalance of groundwater supply and leads to serious seawater intrusion in the coastal areas. The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated numerical model of groundwater resources and seawater intrusion. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), MODFLOW and MT3D models were applied to analyze the variation of the groundwater levels and salinity concentration to investigate the correlation of parameters, which are used to the model applications in order to disposal saltwater intrusion. The data of groundwater levels, pumping capacity and hydrogeological data to were collected to build an integrated numerical model. Firstly, we will collect the information of layered aquifer and the data of hydrological parameters to build the groundwater numerical model at Pingtung Plain, and identify the amount of the groundwater which flow into the sea. In order to deal with the future climate change conditions or extreme weather conditions, we will consider the recharge with groundwater model to improve the seawater intrusion problem. The integrated numerical model which describes that seawater intrusion to deep confined aquifers and shallow unsaturated aquifers. Secondly, we will use the above model to investigate the weights influenced by different factors to the amount area of seawater intrusion, and predict the salinity concentration distribution of evaluation at coastal area of Pingtung Plain. Finally, we will simulate groundwater recharge/ injection at the coastal

  2. Contributions of non-intrusive coupling in nonlinear structural mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    This PhD thesis, part of the ANR ICARE project, aims at developing methods for complex analysis of large scale structures. The scientific challenge is to investigate very localised areas, but potentially critical as of mechanical systems resilience. Classically, representation models, discretizations, mechanical behaviour models and numerical tools are used at both global and local scales for simulation needs of graduated complexity. Global problem is handled by a generic code with topology (plate formulation, geometric approximation...) and behaviour (homogenization) simplifications while local analysis needs implementation of specialized tools (routines, dedicated codes) for an accurate representation of the geometry and behaviour. The main goal of this thesis is to develop an efficient non-intrusive coupling tool for multi-scale and multi-model structural analysis. Constraints of non-intrusiveness result in the non-modification of the stiffness operator, connectivity and the global model solver, allowing to work in a closed source software environment. First, we provide a detailed study of global/local non-intrusive coupling algorithm. Making use of several relevant examples (cracking, elastic-plastic behaviour, contact...), we show the efficiency and the flexibility of such coupling method. A comparative analysis of several optimisation tools is also carried on, and the interacting multiple patches situation is handled. Then, non-intrusive coupling is extended to globally non-linear cases, and a domain decomposition method with non-linear re-localization is proposed. Such methods allowed us to run a parallel computation using only sequential software, on a high performance computing cluster. Finally, we apply the coupling algorithm to mesh refinement with patches of finite elements. We develop an explicit residual based error estimator suitable for multi-scale solutions arising from the non-intrusive coupling, and apply it inside an error driven local mesh

  3. Global warming enhances sulphide stress in a key seagrass species (NW Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Rosa; Holmer, Marianne; Duarte, Carlos M; Marbà, Núria

    2013-12-01

    The build-up of sulphide concentrations in sediments, resulting from high inputs of organic matter and the mineralization through sulphate reduction, can be lethal to the benthos. Sulphate reduction is temperature dependent, thus global warming may contribute to even higher sulphide concentrations and benthos mortality. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica is very sensitive to sulphide stress. Hence, if concentrations build up with global warming, this key Mediterranean species could be seriously endangered. An 8-year monitoring of daily seawater temperature, the sulphur isotopic signatures of water (δ(34)S(water)), sediment (δ(34)SCRS ) and P. oceanica leaf tissue (δ(34)S(leaves)), along with total sulphur in leaves (TS(leaves)) and annual net population growth along the coast of the Balearic archipelago (Western Mediterranean) allowed us to determine if warming triggers P. oceanica sulphide stress and constrains seagrass survival. From the isotopic S signatures, we estimated sulphide intrusion into the leaves (F(sulphide)) and sulphur incorporation into the leaves from sedimentary sulphides (SS(leaves)). We observed lower δ(34)S(leaves), higher F(sulphide) and SS(leaves) coinciding with a 6-year period when two heat waves were recorded. Warming triggered sulphide stress as evidenced by the negative temperature dependence of δ(34)S(leaves) and the positive one of F(sulphide), TS(leaves) and SS(leaves). Lower P. oceanica net population growth rates were directly related to higher contents of TS(leaves). At equivalent annual maximum sea surface water temperature (SST(max)), deep meadows were less affected by sulphide intrusion than shallow ones. Thus, water depth acts as a protecting mechanism against sulphide intrusion. However, water depth would be insufficient to buffer seagrass sulphide stress triggered by Mediterranean seawater summer temperatures projected for the end of the 21st century even under scenarios of moderate greenhouse gas emissions, A1B

  4. Effects of static-stretching and whole-body-vibration during warm-ups on bench-press kinematics in males and females college-aged. [Efectos de los estiramientos estáticos y vibraciones durante el calentamiento en los parámetros cinemáticos del press banca en hombres y mujeres estudiantes].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Martín-Santana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of different specific warm-up protocols including static stretching (SS and whole body vibrations (WBV on kinematics and number of repetitions during a bench press set to failure in physically active male and female subjects. A secondary purpose was to analyze the role of sex on the warm-up induced effects. 24 participants (13 females and 11 males were randomly assigned to complete 3 experimental conditions in a cross-over design: SS, WBV and SS+WBV. After each condition, participants performed one bench-press set to volitional exhaustion with a load equivalent to the 60% of one-repetition maximum (1RM. No significant differences (P>0.05 were observed in number of repetitions, mean and maximal accelerative portion (AP, mean and maximal velocity, and lifting velocity time-course pattern. Males showed significantly higher values regarding number of repetitions achieved and maximal and mean lifting velocity. However, regarding the percentage of the concentric phase in which barbell is accelerated, there were no sex differences. In conclusion, no relevant difference in kinematics variables can be shown when applying any of these three different warm-up protocols, these results may be useful when designing training programs. We recommend the protocol SS due to the cost-benefit relationship. Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar el efecto de diferentes protocolos de calentamiento incluyendo estiramientos estáticos (EE y vibraciones de cuerpo entero (WBV en variables cinemáticas y número de repeticiones completadas en una serie de press banca realizada hasta el fallo muscular, en hombres y mujeres físicamente activos. Un segundo objetivo fue analizar el papel de la variable sexo en los efectos inducidos por el calentamiento. 24 participantes (13 mujeres y 11 hombres completaron, de forma aleatoria, 3 condiciones experimentales con un diseño cruzado: EE, WBV, y EE+WBV. Al terminar cada protocolo de

  5. Rb-Sr ages and palaeomagnetic data for some Angolan alkaline intrusives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allsopp, H.L.; Hargraves, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    New Rb-Sr age measurements are reported for a number of intrusives from Angola. Data for the Njoio and Tchivira nepheline syenite bodies yield mineral isochrons indicating ages of 104,3+-0,8 Ma and 130,8+-1,4 Ma respectively. Palaeomagnetic studies on the same occurrences gave marginal and scattered results respectively. Micas from the Camafuca crater-facies kimberlite yielded and apparent age of 1 822+-151 Ma, a result that is far in excess of the Tertiary (or younger) age inferred for this pipe. Similarly conflicting data were obtained for the Nova Lisboa kimberlite. It is likely that older crustal micas incorporated in the kimberlite breccias are responsible for the anomalous ages reported on the kimberlites. Satisfactory palaeomagnetic data are reported for the Zenza and Bailundu occurrences, not dated by the Rb-Sr method. A convenient K-Ar age of 80+-0,8 Ma was obtainable for Zenza

  6. Acute effects of a loaded warm-up protocol on change of direction speed in professional badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Sean J; Turner, Anthony N; Miller, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    It has previously been shown that a loaded warm-up may improve power performances. We examined the acute effects of loaded dynamic warm-up on change of direction speed (CODS), which had not been previously investigated. Eight elite badminton players participated in three sessions during which they performed vertical countermovement jump and CODS tests before and after undertaking the dynamic warm-up. The three warm-up conditions involved wearing a weighted vest (a) equivalent to 5% body mass, (b) equivalent to 10% body mass, and (c) a control where a weighted vest was not worn. Vertical jump and CODS performances were then tested at 15 seconds and 2, 4, and 6 minutes post warm-up. Vertical jump and CODS significantly improved following all warm-up conditions (P badminton players.

  7. Semi-non-intrusive objective intelligibility measure using spatial filtering in hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Charlotte; Boldt, Jesper Bünsow; Gran, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    -intrusive metrics have not been able to achieve acceptable intelligibility predictions. This paper presents a new semi-non-intrusive intelligibility measure based on an existing intrusive measure, STOI, where an estimate of the clean speech is extracted using spatial filtering in the hearing aid. The results......Reliable non-intrusive online assessment of speech intelligibility can play a key role for the functioning of hearing aids, e.g. as guidance for adjusting the hearing aid settings to the environment. While existing intrusive metrics can provide a precise and reliable measure, the current non...

  8. Sill intrusion in volcanic calderas: implications for vent opening probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Martini, Marcello; D'Auria, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Calderas show peculiar behaviors with remarkable dynamic processes, which do not often culminate in eruptions. Observations and studies conducted in recent decades have shown that the most common cause of unrest in the calderas is due to magma intrusion; in particular, the intrusion of sills at shallow depths. Monogenic cones, with large areal dispersion, are quite common in the calderas, suggesting that the susceptibility analysis based on geological features, is not strictly suitable for estimating the vent opening probability in calderas. In general, the opening of a new eruptive vent can be regarded as a rock failure process. The stress field in the rocks that surrounds and tops the magmatic reservoirs plays an important role in causing the rock failure and creating the path that magma can follow towards the surface. In this conceptual framework, we approach the problem of getting clues about the probability of vent opening in volcanic calderas through the study of the stress field produced by the intrusion of magma, in particular, by the intrusion of a sill. We simulate the intrusion of a sill free to expand radially, with shape and dimensions which vary with time. The intrusion process is controlled by the elastic response of the rock plate above the sill, which bends because of the intrusion, and by gravity, that drives the magma towards the zones where the thickness of the sill is smaller. We calculated the stress field in the plate rock above the sill. We found that at the bottom of the rock plate above the sill the maximum intensity of tensile stress is concentrated at the front of the sill and spreads radially with it, over time. For this reason, we think that the front of the spreading sill is prone to open for eruptive vents. Even in the central area of the sill the intensity of stress is relatively high, but at the base of the rock plate stress is compressive. Under isothermal conditions, the stress soon reaches its maximum value (time interval

  9. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakonson, T. E.; Gladney, E. S.

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burialsites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. The need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatment is demonstrated. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and sil overburden depth.

  10. Securing Cloud Computing from Different Attacks Using Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Achbarou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new way of integrating a set of old technologies to implement a new paradigm that creates an avenue for users to have access to shared and configurable resources through internet on-demand. This system has many common characteristics with distributed systems, hence, the cloud computing also uses the features of networking. Thus the security is the biggest issue of this system, because the services of cloud computing is based on the sharing. Thus, a cloud computing environment requires some intrusion detection systems (IDSs for protecting each machine against attacks. The aim of this work is to present a classification of attacks threatening the availability, confidentiality and integrity of cloud resources and services. Furthermore, we provide literature review of attacks related to the identified categories. Additionally, this paper also introduces related intrusion detection models to identify and prevent these types of attacks.

  11. IGNEOUS INTRUSION IMPACTS ON WASTE PACKAGES AND WASTE FORMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernot, P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The models are based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. The models described in this report constitute the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA (BSC 2004 [DIRS:167796]) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 166296]). The technical work plan was prepared in accordance with AP-2.27Q, Planning for Science Activities. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the following sections as they occur. The TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model assessments: (1) Mechanical and thermal impacts of basalt magma intrusion on the invert, waste packages and waste forms of the intersected emplacement drifts of Zone 1. (2) Temperature and pressure trends of basaltic magma intrusion intersecting Zone 1 and their potential effects on waste packages and waste forms in Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (3) Deleterious volatile gases, exsolving from the intruded basalt magma and their potential effects on waste packages of Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (4) Post-intrusive physical

  12. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eung Jun Cho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of energy or memory. A partially distributed intrusion detection system with low memory and power demands is proposed here. It employs a Bloom filter, which allows reduced signature code size. Multiple Bloom filters can be combined to reduce the signature code for each Bloom filter array. The mechanism could then cope with potential denial of service attacks, unlike many previous detection systems with Bloom filters. The mechanism was evaluated and validated through analysis and simulation.

  13. Use of behavioral biometrics in intrusion detection and online gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolskiy, Roman V.; Govindaraju, Venu

    2006-04-01

    Behavior based intrusion detection is a frequently used approach for insuring network security. We expend behavior based intrusion detection approach to a new domain of game networks. Specifically, our research shows that a unique behavioral biometric can be generated based on the strategy used by an individual to play a game. We wrote software capable of automatically extracting behavioral profiles for each player in a game of Poker. Once a behavioral signature is generated for a player, it is continuously compared against player's current actions. Any significant deviations in behavior are reported to the game server administrator as potential security breaches. Our algorithm addresses a well-known problem of user verification and can be re-applied to the fields beyond game networks, such as operating systems and non-game networks security.

  14. Misuse and intrusion detection at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; Neuman, M.C.; Simmonds, D.D.; Stallings, C.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Christoph, G.G.

    1995-04-01

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic auditing and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in system audit records, in system vulnerability postures, and in other evidence found through active system testing. Since 1989 we have implemented a misuse and intrusion detection system at Los Alamos. This is the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter, or NADIR. NADIR currently audits a Kerberos distributed authentication system, file activity on a mass, storage system, and four Cray supercomputers that run the UNICOS operating system. NADIR summarizes user activity and system configuration in statistical profiles. It compares these profiles to expert rules that define security policy and improper or suspicious behavior. It reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations, As NADIR is constantly evolving, this paper reports its development to date.

  15. Hybrid Intrusion Forecasting Framework for Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehun; Shin, Seong-Jun; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kwon, Ki Hoon; Han, Younggoo

    Recently, cyber attacks have become a serious hindrance to the stability of Internet. These attacks exploit interconnectivity of networks, propagate in an instant, and have become more sophisticated and evolutionary. Traditional Internet security systems such as firewalls, IDS and IPS are limited in terms of detecting recent cyber attacks in advance as these systems respond to Internet attacks only after the attacks inflict serious damage. In this paper, we propose a hybrid intrusion forecasting system framework for an early warning system. The proposed system utilizes three types of forecasting methods: time-series analysis, probabilistic modeling, and data mining method. By combining these methods, it is possible to take advantage of the forecasting technique of each while overcoming their drawbacks. Experimental results show that the hybrid intrusion forecasting method outperforms each of three forecasting methods.

  16. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsch, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  17. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, S.P. [Ontario Hydro, Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  18. Corrosion inhibitor development for slightly sour environments with oxygen intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.; Wang, H.; Li, J. [Clariant Oil Services North America, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that examined the effect of oxygen on the inhibition of carbon steel in slightly sour corrosion, and the initiation and propagation of localized attack. Oxygen can enter sour water injection systems through the vapor space in storage tanks and process system. Oxygen aggravates the corrosion attack by participating in the cathodic reaction under full or partial diffusion control. Laboratory testing results were reported in this presentation along with the development of corrosion inhibitors for such a slightly sour system. Bubble testing cells were used with continuous H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixture gas sparging and occasional oxygen intrusion of 2 to 4 hours during a week long test. Linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and weight loss corrosion coupons were used to quantify the corrosion attack. The findings were presented in terms of the magnitude of localized attacks at different oxygen concentrations and intrusion periods, with and without the presence of corrosion inhibitors. tabs., figs.

  19. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redus, Kenneth S.

    2003-01-01

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R and D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex

  20. Thermodynamics of water intrusion in nanoporous hydrophobic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailliez, Fabien; Trzpit, Mickael; Soulard, Michel; Demachy, Isabelle; Boutin, Anne; Patarin, Joël; Fuchs, Alain H

    2008-08-28

    We report a joint experimental and molecular simulation study of water intrusion in silicalite-1 and ferrerite zeolites. The main conclusion of this study is that water condensation takes place through a genuine first-order phase transition, provided that the interconnected pores structure is 3-dimensional. In the extreme confinement situation (ferrierite zeolite), condensation takes place through a continuous transition, which is explained by a shift of both the first-order transition line and the critical point with increasing confinement. The present findings are at odds with the common belief that conventional phase transitions cannot take place in microporous solids such as zeolites. The most important features of the intrusion/extrusion process can be understood in terms of equilibrium thermodynamics considerations. We believe that these findings are very general for hydrophobic solids, i.e. for both nonwetting as well as wetting water-solid interface systems.

  1. Medication Adherence using Non-intrusive Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity recognition approaches have been applied in home ambient systems to monitor the status and well- being of occupant especially for home care systems. With the advancement of embedded wireless sensing devices, various applications have been proposed to monitor user´s activities and maintain a healthy lifestyle. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a Smart Medication Alert and Treatment Electronic Systems (SmartMATES using a non-intrusive wearable activity recognition sensing system to monitor and alert an user for missing medication prescription. Two sensors are used to collect data from the accelerometer and radio transceiver. Based on the data collected, SmartMATES processes the data and generate a model for the various actions including taking medication. We have evaluated the SmartMATES on 9 participants. The results show that the SmartMATES can identify and prevent missing dosage in a less intrusive way than existing mobile application and traditional approaches.

  2. Manipulating recall vantage perspective of intrusive memories in dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alishia D; Moulds, Michelle L

    2008-10-01

    The current study attempted to experimentally manipulate mode of recall (field, observer perspective) in a sample of mildly dysphoric participants (N=134) who reported a distressing intrusive memory of negative autobiographical event. Specifically, the current study sought to ascertain whether shifting participants into a converse perspective would have differential effects on the reported experience of their memory. Results indicated that shifting participants from a field to an observer perspective resulted in decreased experiential ratings: specifically, reduced distress and vividness. Also, as anticipated, the converse shift in perspective (from observer to field) did not lead to a corresponding increase in experiential ratings, but did result in reduced ratings of observation and a trend was observed for decreased levels of detachment. The findings support the notion that recall perspective has a functional role in the regulation of intrusion-related distress and represents a cognitive avoidance mechanism.

  3. Whole-rock and mineral compositional constraints on the magmatic evolution of the Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide ore-bearing Kevitsa intrusion, northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luolavirta, Kirsi; Hanski, Eero; Maier, Wolfgang; Santaguida, Frank

    2018-01-01

    The 2.06 Ga mafic-ultramafic Kevitsa intrusion is located in the Central Lapland greenstone belt. The lower ultramafic part of the intrusion hosts a large disseminated Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposit with Ni tenors ranging widely from architecture, variations in whole-rock and mineral compositions, and the presence of numerous inclusions and xenoliths. The OLPXs are mainly composed of cumulus olivine (Fo77-89) and clinopyroxene (Mg#81-92) with variable amounts of oikocrystic orthopyroxene (Mg#79-84). They comprise the bulk of the ultramafic cumulates and are the dominant host rocks to the sulfide ore. The host rocks to the regular and false ore type are mineralogically and compositionally similar (Fo 80-83, mostly) and show mildly LREE-enriched REE patterns (CeN/YbN 2), characteristic for the bulk of the Kevitsa ultramafic cumulates. The abundance of orthopyroxene and magnetite is lowest in the host rocks to the Ni-PGE ore type, being in line with the mineral compositions of the silicates, which are the most primitive in the intrusion. However, it contrasts with the LREE-enriched nature of the ore type (CeN/YbN 7), indicating significant involvement of crustal material in the magma. The contrasting intrusive stratigraphy in the different parts of the intrusion likely reflects different emplacement histories. It is proposed that the Kevitsa magma chamber was initially filled by stable continuous flow ("single" input) of basaltic magma followed by differentiation in an at least nearly closed system. In the following stage, new magma pulses were repeatedly emplaced into the interior of the intrusion in a dynamic (open) system forming the sulfide ore bodies. To gain the peculiar compositional and mineralogical characteristics of the Ni-PGE ore type, the related magma probably interacted with different country rocks en route to the Kevitsa magma chamber.

  4. Zircon U-Pb geochronology and emplacement history of intrusive rocks in the Ardestan section, central Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarjoughian, F.; Kananian, A.

    2017-11-01

    The Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA) is part of the Alpine–Himalayan orogenic belt and interpreted to be a subduction-related Andean-type magmatic arc. Along this belt, Eocene volcanics and some gabbroic to granitic bodies crop out. The main rock types of the studied intrusion are granite, granodiorite, and diorite. They have geochemical features typical of magnesian, calc-alkaline, metaluminous to slightly peraluminous granites and I-type intrusive rock that have a strong enrichment in Large-Ion Lithophile (LIL) elements (e.g. Rb, Ba, Sr), and a depletion in High Field Strength (HFS) elements (e.g. Nb, Ti, P), typical of subduction-related magmas. Zircon U-Pb dating was applied to determine the emplacement ages of the different intrusions in the Ardestan area. Among them the Kuh-e Dom diorite is 53.9±0.4Ma old; the Kuh-e Dom granodiorite is 51.10±0.4Ma old; the Mehrabad granodiorite is 36.8±0.5Ma old, the Nasrand granodiorite is 36.5±0.5Ma old, the Zafarghand granodiorite is 24.6±1.0Ma old, and the Feshark granodiorite is 20.5±0.8Ma old. These results delineate more accurately the magmatic evolution related to the Neotethyan subduction from the Lower Eocene to Lower Miocene, and the subsequent Zagros orogeny that resulted from the Arabia-Eurasia collision. The emplacement of these intrusive rocks inside the UDMA, which has a close relationship with the collisional orogeny, is transitional from a subduction-related setting to post-collisional setting in the Ardestan area.

  5. Zircon U-Pb geochronology and emplacement history of intrusive rocks in the Ardestan section, central Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarjoughian, F.; Kananian, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA) is part of the Alpine–Himalayan orogenic belt and interpreted to be a subduction-related Andean-type magmatic arc. Along this belt, Eocene volcanics and some gabbroic to granitic bodies crop out. The main rock types of the studied intrusion are granite, granodiorite, and diorite. They have geochemical features typical of magnesian, calc-alkaline, metaluminous to slightly peraluminous granites and I-type intrusive rock that have a strong enrichment in Large-Ion Lithophile (LIL) elements (e.g. Rb, Ba, Sr), and a depletion in High Field Strength (HFS) elements (e.g. Nb, Ti, P), typical of subduction-related magmas. Zircon U-Pb dating was applied to determine the emplacement ages of the different intrusions in the Ardestan area. Among them the Kuh-e Dom diorite is 53.9±0.4Ma old; the Kuh-e Dom granodiorite is 51.10±0.4Ma old; the Mehrabad granodiorite is 36.8±0.5Ma old, the Nasrand granodiorite is 36.5±0.5Ma old, the Zafarghand granodiorite is 24.6±1.0Ma old, and the Feshark granodiorite is 20.5±0.8Ma old. These results delineate more accurately the magmatic evolution related to the Neotethyan subduction from the Lower Eocene to Lower Miocene, and the subsequent Zagros orogeny that resulted from the Arabia-Eurasia collision. The emplacement of these intrusive rocks inside the UDMA, which has a close relationship with the collisional orogeny, is transitional from a subduction-related setting to post-collisional setting in the Ardestan area.

  6. An Immune-inspired Adaptive Automated Intrusion Response System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-xi Peng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An immune-inspired adaptive automated intrusion response system model, named as , is proposed. The descriptions of self, non-self, immunocyte, memory detector, mature detector and immature detector of the network transactions, and the realtime network danger evaluation equations are given. Then, the automated response polices are adaptively performed or adjusted according to the realtime network danger. Thus, not only accurately evaluates the network attacks, but also greatly reduces the response times and response costs.

  7. Assessment of permeation quality of concrete through mercury intrusion porosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bhattacharjee, B.

    2004-01-01

    Permeation quality of laboratory cast concrete beams was determined through initial surface absorption test (ISAT). The pore system characteristics of the same concrete beam specimens were determined through mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). Data so obtained on the measured initial surface absorption rate of water by concrete and characteristics of pore system of concrete estimated from porosimetry results were used to develop correlations between them. Through these correlations, potential of MIP in assessing the durability quality of concrete in actual structure is demonstrated

  8. A Fusion of Multiagent Functionalities for Effective Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanalakshmi Krishnan Sadhasivan; Kannapiran Balasubramanian

    2017-01-01

    Provision of high security is one of the active research areas in the network applications. The failure in the centralized system based on the attacks provides less protection. Besides, the lack of update of new attacks arrival leads to the minimum accuracy of detection. The major focus of this paper is to improve the detection performance through the adaptive update of attacking information to the database. We propose an Adaptive Rule-Based Multiagent Intrusion Detection System (ARMA-IDS) to...

  9. Mass memory formatter subsystem of the adaptive intrusion data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-09-01

    The Mass Memory Formatter was developed as part of the Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) to control a 2.4-megabit mass memory. The data from a Memory Controlled Processor is formatted before it is stored in the memory and reformatted during the readout mode. The data is then transmitted to a NOVA 2 minicomputer-controlled magnetic tape recorder for storage. Techniques and circuits are described

  10. Respon Konsumen pada Mobile Advergames: Intrusiveness dan Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Kusumasondjaja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Increasing adoption of mobile advergames to deliver marketing messages has not been followed by empirical findings to support its effectiveness. This research attempts to examine the effect of mobile advergames intrusiveness on consumer irritation, attitudes, and purchase intention. This investigation on mobile advergame effectiveness was based on the increasing use of mobile media to deliver marketing messages to consumers from different demographic background. Conceptual framework was developed based on Advertising Avoidance Theory. For data collection, self-administered survey was conducted by adopting purposive sampling involving 213 respondents residing in Surabaya who have had experience in playing mobile game as respondents. Results indicate that intrusiveness positively affects consumer irritation. Consumer irritation negatively affects attitude towards the mobile advergames and attitude towards the advertised product. The better the consumer attitude towards the mobile advergames, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product. Moreover, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product, the greater the consumer intention to purchase. Interestingly, consumer attitude toward the mobile advergames has insignificant influence on purchase intention. Findings of the study offer significant contribution to marketing practices using mobile advergames as media placement in their advertising strategy. Keywords: intrusiveness, irritation, mobile advergames, attitude, advertising

  11. Anomaly-based intrusion detection for SCADA systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.; Usynin, A.; Hines, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Most critical infrastructure such as chemical processing plants, electrical generation and distribution networks, and gas distribution is monitored and controlled by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA. These systems have been the focus of increased security and there are concerns that they could be the target of international terrorists. With the constantly growing number of internet related computer attacks, there is evidence that our critical infrastructure may also be vulnerable. Researchers estimate that malicious online actions may cause $75 billion at 2007. One of the interesting countermeasures for enhancing information system security is called intrusion detection. This paper will briefly discuss the history of research in intrusion detection techniques and introduce the two basic detection approaches: signature detection and anomaly detection. Finally, it presents the application of techniques developed for monitoring critical process systems, such as nuclear power plants, to anomaly intrusion detection. The method uses an auto-associative kernel regression (AAKR) model coupled with the statistical probability ratio test (SPRT) and applied to a simulated SCADA system. The results show that these methods can be generally used to detect a variety of common attacks. (authors)

  12. Treatment of Intrusive Suicidal Imagery Using Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaël S. van Bentum

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns, and affect 3–9% of the population worldwide. Despite increased efforts for national suicide prevention strategies, there are still few effective interventions available for reducing suicide risk. In this article, we describe various theoretical approaches for suicide ideation and behavior, and propose to examine the possible effectiveness of a new and innovative preventive strategy. A model of suicidal intrusion (mental imagery related to suicide, also referred to as suicidal flash-forwards is presented describing one of the assumed mechanisms in the etiology of suicide and the mechanism of therapeutic change. We provide a brief rationale for an Eye Movement Dual Task (EMDT treatment for suicidal intrusions, describing techniques that can be used to target these suicidal mental images and thoughts to reduce overall behavior. Based on the available empirical evidence for the mechanisms of suicidal intrusions, this approach appears to be a promising new treatment to prevent suicidal behavior as it potentially targets one of the linking pins between suicidal ideation and suicidal actions.

  13. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V; Serrano, Juan J

    2015-09-18

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature.

  14. Coplanar capacitance sensors for detecting water intrusion in composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassr, Amr A; El-Dakhakhni, Wael W; Ahmed, Wael H

    2008-01-01

    Composite materials are becoming more affordable and widely used for retrofitting, rehabilitating and repairing reinforced concrete structures designed and constructed under older specifications. However, the mechanical properties and long-term durability of composite materials may degrade severely in the presence of water intrusion. This study presents a new non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for detecting the water intrusion in composite structures by evaluating the dielectric properties of different composite system constituent materials. The variation in the dielectric signatures was employed to design a coplanar capacitance sensor with high sensitivity to detect such defects. An analytical model was used to study the effect of the sensor geometry on the output signal and to optimize sensor design. A finite element model was developed to validate analytical results and to evaluate other sensor design-related parameters. Experimental testing of a concrete specimen wrapped with composite laminate and containing a series of pre-induced water intrusion defects was conducted in order to validate the concept of the new technique. Experimental data showed excellent agreement with the finite element model predictions and confirmed sensor performance

  15. A Nuisance Alarm Data System for evaluation of intrusion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ream, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    A Nuisance Alarm Data System (NADS) was developed to gather long-term background alarm data on exterior intrusion detectors as part of their evaluation. Since nuisance alarms play an important part in the selection of intrusion detectors for use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, an economical and reliable way to monitor and record these alarms was needed. NADS consists of an IBM personal computer and printer along with other commercial units to communicate with the detectors, to gather weather data, and to record video for assessment. Each alarm, its assessment, and the weather conditions occurring at alarm time are placed into a data base that is used in the evaluation of the detector. The operating software is written in Turbo Pascal for easy maintenance and modification. A portable system, based on the NADS design, has been built and shipped to other DOE locations to do on-site alarm monitoring. This has been valuable for the comparison of different detectors in the on-site environment and for testing new detectors when the appropriate conditions do not exist or cannot be simulated at the Exterior Intrusion Detection Testbed

  16. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Gladney, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause waste site failure and subsequent radionuclide transport. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatments. Plants and animals not only can transport radionuclides to the ground surface via root systems and soil excavated from the cover profile by animal burrowing activities, but they modify physical and chemical processes within the cover profile by changing the water infiltration rates, soil erosion rates and chemical composition of the soil. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and soil overburden depth. The rate of biological intrusion through the various barrier materials is being evaluated through the use of activatable stable tracers

  17. Kissing Bug ( spp. Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Klotz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kissing bugs ( Triatoma spp. frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi , the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae. Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  18. Data mining approach to web application intrusions detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicki, Arkadiusz

    2011-10-01

    Web applications became most popular medium in the Internet. Popularity, easiness of web application script languages and frameworks together with careless development results in high number of web application vulnerabilities and high number of attacks performed. There are several types of attacks possible because of improper input validation: SQL injection Cross-site scripting, Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF), web spam in blogs and others. In order to secure web applications intrusion detection (IDS) and intrusion prevention systems (IPS) are being used. Intrusion detection systems are divided in two groups: misuse detection (traditional IDS) and anomaly detection. This paper presents data mining based algorithm for anomaly detection. The principle of this method is the comparison of the incoming HTTP traffic with a previously built profile that contains a representation of the "normal" or expected web application usage sequence patterns. The frequent sequence patterns are found with GSP algorithm. Previously presented detection method was rewritten and improved. Some tests show that the software catches malicious requests, especially long attack sequences, results quite good with medium length sequences, for short length sequences must be complemented with other methods.

  19. Numerical Continuation Methods for Intrusive Uncertainty Quantification Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safta, Cosmin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Najm, Habib N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phipps, Eric Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Rigorous modeling of engineering systems relies on efficient propagation of uncertainty from input parameters to model outputs. In recent years, there has been substantial development of probabilistic polynomial chaos (PC) Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) methods, enabling studies in expensive computational models. One approach, termed ”intrusive”, involving reformulation of the governing equations, has been found to have superior computational performance compared to non-intrusive sampling-based methods in relevant large-scale problems, particularly in the context of emerging architectures. However, the utility of intrusive methods has been severely limited due to detrimental numerical instabilities associated with strong nonlinear physics. Previous methods for stabilizing these constructions tend to add unacceptably high computational costs, particularly in problems with many uncertain parameters. In order to address these challenges, we propose to adapt and improve numerical continuation methods for the robust time integration of intrusive PC system dynamics. We propose adaptive methods, starting with a small uncertainty for which the model has stable behavior and gradually moving to larger uncertainty where the instabilities are rampant, in a manner that provides a suitable solution.

  20. An Automata Based Intrusion Detection Method for Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT transforms network communication to Machine-to-Machine (M2M basis and provides open access and new services to citizens and companies. It extends the border of Internet and will be developed as one part of the future 5G networks. However, as the resources of IoT’s front devices are constrained, many security mechanisms are hard to be implemented to protect the IoT networks. Intrusion detection system (IDS is an efficient technique that can be used to detect the attackers when cryptography is broken, and it can be used to enforce the security of IoT networks. In this article, we analyzed the intrusion detection requirements of IoT networks and then proposed a uniform intrusion detection method for the vast heterogeneous IoT networks based on an automata model. The proposed method can detect and report the possible IoT attacks with three types: jam-attack, false-attack, and reply-attack automatically. We also design an experiment to verify the proposed IDS method and examine the attack of RADIUS application.

  1. AdaBoost-based algorithm for network intrusion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Wei; Maybank, Steve

    2008-04-01

    Network intrusion detection aims at distinguishing the attacks on the Internet from normal use of the Internet. It is an indispensable part of the information security system. Due to the variety of network behaviors and the rapid development of attack fashions, it is necessary to develop fast machine-learning-based intrusion detection algorithms with high detection rates and low false-alarm rates. In this correspondence, we propose an intrusion detection algorithm based on the AdaBoost algorithm. In the algorithm, decision stumps are used as weak classifiers. The decision rules are provided for both categorical and continuous features. By combining the weak classifiers for continuous features and the weak classifiers for categorical features into a strong classifier, the relations between these two different types of features are handled naturally, without any forced conversions between continuous and categorical features. Adaptable initial weights and a simple strategy for avoiding overfitting are adopted to improve the performance of the algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm has low computational complexity and error rates, as compared with algorithms of higher computational complexity, as tested on the benchmark sample data.

  2. Abstracting massive data for lightweight intrusion detection in computer networks

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2016-10-15

    Anomaly intrusion detection in big data environments calls for lightweight models that are able to achieve real-time performance during detection. Abstracting audit data provides a solution to improve the efficiency of data processing in intrusion detection. Data abstraction refers to abstract or extract the most relevant information from the massive dataset. In this work, we propose three strategies of data abstraction, namely, exemplar extraction, attribute selection and attribute abstraction. We first propose an effective method called exemplar extraction to extract representative subsets from the original massive data prior to building the detection models. Two clustering algorithms, Affinity Propagation (AP) and traditional . k-means, are employed to find the exemplars from the audit data. . k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and one-class Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used for the detection. We then employ another two strategies, attribute selection and attribute extraction, to abstract audit data for anomaly intrusion detection. Two http streams collected from a real computing environment as well as the KDD\\'99 benchmark data set are used to validate these three strategies of data abstraction. The comprehensive experimental results show that while all the three strategies improve the detection efficiency, the AP-based exemplar extraction achieves the best performance of data abstraction.

  3. Versions of the Waste Reduction Model (WARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides a brief chronology of changes made to EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM), organized by WARM version number. The page includes brief summaries of changes and updates since the previous version.

  4. Documentation for the Waste Reduction Model (WARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes the WARM documentation files and provides links to all documentation files associated with EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The page includes a brief summary of the chapters documenting the greenhouse gas emission and energy factors.

  5. Global warming: Clouds cooled the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2016-12-01

    The slow instrumental-record warming is consistent with lower-end climate sensitivity. Simulations and observations now show that changing sea surface temperature patterns could have affected cloudiness and thereby dampened the warming.

  6. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of felsic intrusions in the El Teniente and Laguna La Huifa areas, Central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbia, O.M.; Hernandez, L.B.; King, R.W.; Lopez Escobar, L

    2001-01-01

    The giant El Teniente porphyry Cu-Mo deposit is located in the Andes foothills of Central Chile (34 o S). In simplistic terms, the igneous rocks at the mine can be grouped in two major units: a felsic suite of silicic intrusives (the porphyries; SiO 2 ≥56wt%) with subvertical stock-like to dyke shapes, and a mafic volcanic to subvolcanic sequence (the Farellones formation; SiO 2 <≤56wt%) with a sub-horizontal nature. The felsic rocks intrude the volcanogenic Farellones formation, which is known at the mine site as 'Andesitas de la mina'. The major felsic intrusives are locally known as the 'Diorita Sewell' and 'Porfido Teniente' bodies, plus a series of minor plugs, apophyses and dikes. According to Cuadra (1986), the age of the main intrusive units spans from Late Miocene ('Diorita Sewell'; 7-8Ma) to Early Pliocene ('Porfido Teniente'; ∼4-5Ma). These felsic intrusives are closely related to copper mineralization ( ∼4-5Ma; Cuadra, 1986), particularly the younger 'Porfido Teniente' (Camus, 1975). Additionally, Skewes and Stern (1996) have suggested the existence of an even slightly younger porphyry pluton, not exposed at surface, but still linked to the ore genesis. Similar felsic intrusive bodies are also present in the Laguna La Huifa area (Reich, 2001), located less than 3 km to the NE from the main El Teniente body. The copper mineralization here, is interpreted to be almost contemporaneous with the El Teniente mineralization (Cuadra, 1986). Based on petrographic and geochemical information on the silicic intrusive suite, Rabbia et al. (2000) suggested that this magmatism could be considered as a Phanerozoic equivalent of an Archean high-Al TTG. Furthermore it may be classified as a modified (Na-rich) 'I' type granitoid, in the sense of Atherton and Petford (1993) and Petford and Atherton (1996). According to these authors, the younger (and hotter) lower Andean crust would be a better candidate than the older (and colder) subducted Nazca plate basalts

  7. The Response of a Branch of Puget Sound, Washington to the 2014 North Pacific Warm Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickett, J.; Newton, J.; Devol, A.; Krembs, C.; Ruef, W.

    2016-02-01

    The flow of the unprecedentedly-warm upper-ocean North Pacific "Blob" water into Puget Sound, Washington, caused local extreme water property anomalies that extended from the arrival of the water inshore in the fall of 2014 through 2015. Here we report on moored and seaplane observations from Hood Canal, a branch of Puget Sound, where temperature was more than 2σ above climatology for much of the year with maximum temperature anomalies at depth and at the surface +2.5 °C and +7 °C respectively. The low density of the oceanic warm "Blob" water resulted in weak deep water flushing in Hood Canal in the fall of 2014, which combined with a lack of wintertime flushing to result in anomalously-low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations at depth. Late-summer 2015 DO values were the lowest in a decade of mooring observations and more than 2σ below climatology. The anomalously low density of the deep basin water allowed a very early onset of the annually-occurring, late-summer intrusion, which first entered Hood Canal at the end of July compared to the usual arrival in early to mid-September. In late August this intrusion conspired with an early fall storm to lift the very low DO deep water to surface at the south end of Hood Canal, causing a significant fish kill event.

  8. Innovative methods to reduce salt water intrusion in harbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenenboom, J.; Uittenbogaard, R.; Hulsen, L.; van der Kaaij, T.; Kielen, N.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of fresh water in densely populated estuarine environments will in the future more often be threatened due to both human (e.g. channel deepening) and natural (sea-level rise, storm surges, extremely low river discharges) causes. Here, the salt water intrusion into the New Waterway, the main navigation channel of the port of Rotterdam, is used as a case study to elaborate on two innovative ways to mitigate the effects of salt water intrusion. The first method is based on the concept that vertical mixing of a salt wedge reduces its intrusion length. The idea is to equip a vessel with cranes that hold perforated tubes close to the bed alongside the vessel. By connecting compressors to the perforated tubes, a bubble screen with an adjustable vertical location can be created. Since the horizontal location of the bubble screens is not fixed, the vessel can sail in the vicinity of the moving salt wedge therewith increasing the effectiveness of the method. Another advantage of this intervention is that it can be deployed temporarily when the urgency for the prevention of salt water intrusion is high. The second method originates from the Port of Rotterdam Authority and is inspired by a small bypass that is present between two parallel channels (New Waterway and Caland Canal) connecting the North Sea to the Port of Rotterdam. Due to the different hydrodynamic characteristics of the hinterland of both channels, a difference in salinity and water level is present between both ends of the bypass. As a result, a lateral inflow of water into the New Waterway occurs at the same moment that the flood velocities transport saline water landwards. The lateral inflow of water into this channel has no momentum in the landward direction and therefore decreases the landward flow velocity and therewith the salt water intrusion. In addition, the inflow drives a vertical circulation that mixes the water column close to the bypass. Similar to the bubble screens mentioned

  9. Cosmic rays and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

  10. Global Warming and Financial Umbrellas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosi, C.; Moretto, M.

    2001-10-01

    A new instrument for hedging weather risks has made its appearance in the financial arena. Trade in 'weather derivatives' has taken off in the US, and interest is growing elsewhere. Whilst such contracts may be simply interpreted as a new tool for solving a historical problem, the question addressed in this paper is if, besides other factors, the appearance of weather derivatives is somehow related to anthropogenic climate change. Our tentative answer is positive. Since 'global warming' does not simply mean an increase in averaged temperatures, but increased climate variability, and increased frequency and magnitude of weather extremes, derivative contracts may potentially become a useful tool for hedging some weather risks, insofar as they may provide coverage at a lower cost than standard insurance schemes. Keywords: Global warming, climate variability, insurance coverage, weather derivatives

  11. Warm Debris Disks from WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    "The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. We report on a preliminary investigation of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars with 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages warm debris disk candidates are detected among FGK stars and a similar number of A stars within 120 pc. We are in the process of obtaining spectra to determine spectral types and activity level of these stars and are using HST, Herschel and Keck to characterize the dust, multiplicity, and substellar companions of these systems. In this contribution, we will discuss source selection methods and individual examples from among the WISE debris disk candidates. "

  12. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  13. Plant movements and climate warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Frenne, Pieter; Coomes, David A.; De Schrijver, An

    2014-01-01

    environments can establish in nonlocal sites. •We assess the intraspecific variation in growth responses to nonlocal soils by planting a widespread grass of deciduous forests (Milium effusum) into an experimental common garden using combinations of seeds and soil sampled in 22 sites across its distributional...... range, and reflecting movement scenarios of up to 1600 km. Furthermore, to determine temperature and forest-structural effects, the plants and soils were experimentally warmed and shaded. •We found significantly positive effects of the difference between the temperature of the sites of seed and soil...... collection on growth and seedling emergence rates. Migrant plants might thus encounter increasingly favourable soil conditions while tracking the isotherms towards currently ‘colder’ soils. These effects persisted under experimental warming. Rising temperatures and light availability generally enhanced plant...

  14. Global warming and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    A panel discussion was held to discuss climate change. Six panelists made presentations that summarized ozone depletion and climate change, discussed global responses, argued against the conventional scientific and policy dogmas concerning climate change, examined the effects of ultraviolet radiation on phytoplankton, examined the effects of carbon taxes on Canadian industry and its emissions, and examined the political and strategic aspects of global warming. A question session followed the presentations. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the six presentations

  15. Global warming and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonand, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The macro-economic impacts of climate change and of policies to reduce carbon content should be moderate on a global basis for the planet - a few hundredths of a % of world GDP on an annual basis, but significant for some regions (Asia-Pacific notably). The probability of extreme climatic events justifies with effect from today the implementation of measures that will carry a cost in order to limit global warming. (author)

  16. Nitrous oxide and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeze, C.

    1994-01-01

    The climatic impact of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions is calculated annually for the period 1900-2100, using a globally averaged computer model. Emissions of N 2 O have been increasing up top an estimated 12.7 Tg N/year in 1990 by human activities and global warming. If the current trends continue, emissions are estimated to be 25.7 Tg N/year by 2100, with fossil-fuel use and human food production as major contributors. The resulting equilibrium temperature increase (0.37 degree C) exceeds the forcing derived from climate goals that may be considered environmentally desirable. Limiting equilibrium warming to 0.1 degree C per decade would require anthropogenic-induced and warming-induced N 2 O emissions to be reduced by 80% relative to current trends and to be stabilized from 2050, so that 10.7 Tg N/year is emitted by 2100. To stabilize the current concentration or climate forcing of N 2 , substantially larger cuts are needed. However, even in an optimistic scenario, emissions keep increasing up to 14.4. Tg N/year by 2100. A major reason is the close connection between N 2 O emissions and human food production. Synthetic fertilizer use, land-use change, and production of manure increase almost inevitably as the human population grows. Thus if global warming is to be limited to 0.1 degree C per decade it may be necessary to set emission reductions for other greenhouse gases relatively high to compensate for growth in climatic forcing by N 2 O

  17. Aspects of cold intrusions over Greece during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Constantina; Marinaki, Aggeliki; Zeini, Konstantina; Konstantara, Metaxia

    2010-05-01

    This study is focused on the description of atmospheric disturbances that caused intense cold intrusions over Greece during autumn for a period of 25 years (1982-2006). The study was based on data analysis from the meteorological station network of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Initially, the days with temperature at the isobaric surface of 850 hPa less or equal to the mean temperature for the 10-day period the day under investigation belongs to are isolated, composing a new confined data set which was further used. An event of intense cold intrusion is identified based on a subjective set of criteria, considering the temperature decrease at the level of 850 hPa and its duration. In particular, the criteria that were used to identify a cold intrusion were: temperature variation between two successive days at the isobaric level of 850 hPa being equal or greater than 50 C at least once during the event and duration of the event of at least two successive days with continuous temperature decrease. Additionally, the synoptic analysis of the atmospheric disturbances involved using weather charts from ECMWF, revealed that all cases were related to low pressure systems at the level of 500 hPa, accompanied by cold air masses. Moreover, a methodology proposed to classify the cold intrusions based on general circulation characteristics of the atmosphere, resulted in seven major categories. More than half of the events belong in two categories, originated northwest of the greater Greek area (Greece and parts of neighbouring countries), between 400 and 600 N. Further analysis indicated that the frequency of events increases from September to November and the majority of the events lasted two to three days. Additionally, the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used for the investigation of the statistical significance of the trends appearing in the results. The tests revealed that over

  18. Movement of global warming issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Taishi

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and the movement of the global warming issues as seen from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference of the Parties: COP) and the policy discussions in Japan. From the Fifth Assessment Report published by IPCC, it shows the following items: (1) increasing trends of greenhouse effect gas emissions during 1970 and 2010, (2) trends in world's greenhouse effect gas emissions according to income segment, and (3) factor analysis of changes in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Next, it takes up the greenhouse gas emission scenario of IPCC, shows the scenario due to temperature rise pattern, and introduces the assumption of emission reduction due to BECCS. Regarding the 2 deg. scenario that has become a hot topic in international negotiations, it describes the reason for difficulties in its implementation. In addition, as the international trends of global warming, it describes the agreement of numerical targets for emissions at COP3 (Kyoto Conference) and the subsequent movements. Finally, it introduces Japan's measures against global warming, as well as the future movement. (A.O.)

  19. Global warming: Economic policy responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  20. World warms to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.

    1989-01-01

    The greenhouse effect and global warming is a major environmental issue. The nuclear industry has taken this opportunity to promote itself as providing clean energy without implication in either the greenhouse effect or acid rain. However, it is acknowledged that nuclear power does have its own environment concerns. Two questions are posed -does nuclear power contribute to carbon dioxide emissions and can nuclear power provide a realistic long-term solution to global warming? Although nuclear power stations do not emit carbon dioxide, emissions occur during the manufacture of reactor components, the operation of the nuclear fuel cycle and especially, during the mining and processing of the uranium ore. It is estimated that the supply of high grade ores will last only 23 years, beyond that the carbon dioxide emitted during the processing is estimated to be as great as the carbon dioxide emitted from an coal-fired reactor. Fast breeder reactors are dismissed as unable to provide an answer, so it is concluded that nuclear technology has only a very limited role to play in countering global warming.(UK)

  1. Greenhouse gases and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the e nhanced greenhouse effect ? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

  2. Salp distribution and grazing in a saline intrusion off NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskin, Iñaki; Elices, Ma. José; Anadón, Ricardo

    2003-07-01

    Salp distribution and grazing were studied along three transects (19 stations) and a Lagrangian phase (7 stations) off Galician coast (NW Spain) in November 1999 during GIGOVI 99 cruise. A poleward saline intrusion was detected at the shelf-break, reaching salinity values above 35.90 u.p.s. at 100-m depth. The salp community was dominated by Salpa fusiformis, although Cyclosalpa bakeri, Thalia democratica and Iasis zonaria were also found in the study area. Total salp abundance ranged from 4 to 4500 ind m -2, representing biomass values between 0.2 and 2750 mg C m -2. Maximum densities were located in the frontal area separating the saline body from coastal waters. S. fusiformis pigment ingestion was estimated using the gut fluorescence method. Gut contents were linearly related to salp body size. Total pigment ingestion ranged from 0.001 to 15 mg Chl- a m -2 d -1, with maximum values at the coastal edge of the saline body. Estimated ingestion translates into an average daily grazing impact of 7% of chlorophyll standing stock, ranging from <1% to 77%.

  3. Late Triassic Porphyritic Intrusions And Associated Volcanic Rocks From The Shangri-La Region, Yidun Terrane, Eastern Tibetan Plateau: Implications For Adakitic Magmatism And Porphyry Copper Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Zhou, M.; Li, J.; Yan, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Yidun terrane, located on the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, has been commonly considered to be a Triassic volcanic arc produced by subduction of the Ganzi-Litang oceanic lithosphere. The Yidun terrane is characterized by numerous arc-affinity granitic intrusions located along a 500-km-long, north-south-trending belt. Among these granitic bodies, several small porphyritic intrusions in the southern segment of the terrane (Shangri-La region) are associated with large porphyry copper deposits. These porphyritc intrusions are composed of diorite and quartz diorite, and spatially associated with andesites and dacites. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of the intrusions range from 230 to 215 Ma. The andesites and dacites are intercalated with slates and sandstones and have ages of around 220 Ma. The intrusive and volcanic rocks have SiO2 contents from 56.6 to 67.1 wt.%, Al2O3 from 14.2 to 17.4 wt.% and MgO from 1.9 to 4.2 wt.%. They show significant negative Nb-Ta anomalies on primitive mantle-normalized spidergrams. They have high La/Yb (13-49) ratios with no prominent Eu anomalies. All the rocks have high Sr (258-1980 ppm), and low Y (13-21 ppm) with high Sr/Y ratios (29-102). The geochemical features indicate that both the volcanic rocks and porphyritic intrusions were derived from adakitic magmas. They have similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7058 to 0.7077) and ɛNd (-1.88 to -4.93) values, but can be further divided into two groups: high silica (HSA) and low silica adakitic rocks (LSA). The HSA, representing an early stage of magmatism (230 to 215 Ma), were derived from oceanic slab melts with limited interaction with the overlying mantle wedge. At 215 Ma, more extensive interaction resulted in the formation of LSA. We propose that HSA were produced by flat subduction leading to melting of oceanic slab, whereas subsequent slab break-off caused the significant interaction between slab melts and the mantle wedge and thus the generation of the LSA. Compared with

  4. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this

  5. Impact and prevention on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heon Ryeol

    2003-11-01

    This book deals with impact and prevention on global warming with eight chapters, which introduce the change after the earth was born and natural environment, how is global atmospheric environment under the control of radiant energy? What does global warming look with the earth history like? What's the status of global warming so far? How does climate change happen? What is the impact by global warming and climate change and for preservation of global environment of 21 century with consumption of energy, measure and prospect on global warming. It has reference, index and three appendixes.

  6. Global warming and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Ji, M; Zhang, S

    2018-02-01

    Global warming and the obesity epidemic are two unprecedented challenges mankind faces today. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO and Scopus for articles published until July 2017 that reported findings on the relationship between global warming and the obesity epidemic. Fifty studies were identified. Topic-wise, articles were classified into four relationships - global warming and the obesity epidemic are correlated because of common drivers (n = 21); global warming influences the obesity epidemic (n = 13); the obesity epidemic influences global warming (n = 13); and global warming and the obesity epidemic influence each other (n = 3). We constructed a conceptual model linking global warming and the obesity epidemic - the fossil fuel economy, population growth and industrialization impact land use and urbanization, motorized transportation and agricultural productivity and consequently influences global warming by excess greenhouse gas emission and the obesity epidemic by nutrition transition and physical inactivity; global warming also directly impacts obesity by food supply/price shock and adaptive thermogenesis, and the obesity epidemic impacts global warming by the elevated energy consumption. Policies that endorse deployment of clean and sustainable energy sources, and urban designs that promote active lifestyles, are likely to alleviate the societal burden of global warming and obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Global warming-setting the stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Most of us have heard or read about global warming. However, the messages we receive are often in conflict, raising more questions than answer. Is global warming a good or a bad thing? has it already started or is it part of our future? Are we, or are we not doing anything about it? Should we be concerned? This primer on Global Warming is designed to clear up some of this confusion by providing basic scientific information on global warming issue. It is clear that there is still much to learn about global warming. However, it is also clear that there is a lot that we already know - and that dose provide cause for concern. We must understand the global warming issue if we are to make wise decisions and take responsible actions in response to the challenges and opportunities posed by global warming. Chapter 1 of 'the primer on global Warming' set the stage with a brief overview of science of global warming within the context of climate change. In addition, it introduces the specific issues that surround the global warming problem. As far as the science of global warming is concerned the following questions are discussed. What is global climate? Is climate change natural? What causes climate to vary on a global scale? How does the composition of the atmosphere relate to climate change. but there are also certain issues discussed here which surround the global warming such as: If climate varies naturally, why is there a concern about 'global warming'? What are the potential consequences of 'global warning'. What human activities contribute to 'global warming'. (Author)

  8. [The innovation of warm disease theory in the Ming Dynasty before Wen yi lun On Pestilence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-bin

    2008-10-01

    Some doctors of the Ming dynasty raised subversive doubts against the traditional viewpoints of "exogenous cold disease is warm-heat" before the emergence of Wen yi lun (On Pestilence), holding that warm-heat disease "is contracted in different seasons instead of being transformed from cold to warm and/or heat". The conception of the separation of warm-heat disease and exogenous cold disease had changed from obscure to clear. As the idea became clear, the recognition on the new affection of warm, heat, summer-heat, pestilent pathogen was formed, and the idea that the pathogens of summer-heat and warm entered the human body through the mouth and nostrils was put forward. The six-channel syndrome differentiation of warm disease and the five sweat-resolving methods in pestilence raised by the doctors of this period are the aspects of the differential diagnosis of syndrome and treatment in warm diseases, and deserve to be paid attention to.

  9. Biopower in the bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Tejeda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lately, the studies of biopolitics and biopower have risen significantly. It is an old issue, which is present in Greek philosophy and in its reality. It is the old argument of the relationship and the intrusion of politics in the life and the overcoming of the state of nature. The reality of biopolitics is reflected in the dimension that technology acquires and in the siege of the global powers against democracy. The human body as an external and visible entity resists all kinds of interventions and fastenings aimed at the individualization and establishment of a totalitarian reality. Tanatopolitics and Biopolitics are interlaced to manage life and death in a chilling reality where technique introduces the artifice beyond the natural. The human body as a borderline area between the natural and the artificial expresses the scopes of post-humanism. A more balanced physical culture could help to curb the widespread dehumanization, which reduces and degrades the body at the same time, while the powers submit, discriminate, and intervene in the more and more docile bodies.

  10. Use of a Far-Infrared Active Warming Device in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarndt, Bethany S; Buchta, Jessica N; Garver, Lindsey S; Davidson, Silas A; Rowton, Edgar D; Despain, Kenneth E

    2015-11-01

    Small mammals have difficulty maintaining body temperature under anesthesia. This hypothermia is a potential detriment not only to the health and comfort of the animal but also to the integrity of any treatment given or data gathered during the anesthetic period. Using an external warming device to assist with temperature regulation can mitigate these effects. In this study, we investigated the ability of an advanced warming device that uses far-infrared (FIR) heating and responds to real-time core temperature monitoring to maintain a normothermic core temperature in guinea pigs. Body temperatures were measured during 30 min of ketamine-xylazine general anesthesia with and without application of the heating device. The loss of core body heat from anesthetized guinea pigs under typical (unwarmed) conditions was significant, and this loss was almost completely mitigated by application of the FIR heating pad. The significant difference between the temperatures of the actively warmed guinea pigs as compared with the control group began as early as 14 min after anesthetic administration, leading to a 2.6 °C difference at 30 min. Loss of core body temperature was not correlated with animals' body weight; however, weight influences the efficiency of FIR warming slightly. These study results show that the FIR heating device accurately controls core body temperature in guinea pigs, therefore potentially alleviating the effects of body heat loss on animal physiology.

  11. Animal intrusion status report for fiscal year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1991-03-01

    The Protective Barrier and Warning Marker System Development Plan identified tasks that need to be completed to design a final protective barrier to implement in-place disposal of radioactive waste. This report summarizes the animal intrusion work conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company in fiscal year 1990 regarding small mammals and water infiltration. An animal intrusion lysimeter facility was constructed and installed in fiscal year 1988. The facility consists of two outer boxes buried at grade that serve as receptacles for six animal intrusion lysimeters. Small burrowing mammals common to the Hanford Site environs are introduced over a 3- to 4-month period. Supplemental precipitation is added to three of the lysimeters with a rainulator at a rate equivalent to a 100-year storm. Soil moisture samples are taken before and after each test, and soil moisture measurements are also taken with a hydroprobe during the test period. During fiscal year 1990, tests three and four were completed and test five was initiated. Results of test three (summer treatment), which used Townsend ground squirrels and pocket gophers, indicated that the additional 1.5 inches of precipitation that was added with the rainulator was lost during this test. The plots that did not receive any additional precipitation all lost water (5 to 6 percent). Results from test four (winter treatment), which used pocket gophers and pocket mice, indicated that all of the lysimeters except one gained water. The two control lysimeters (rainulator plots and nonrainulator lysimeters with no animals) gained more water than their corresponding animal burrow lysimeters. 4 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Relationship between vapor intrusion and human exposure to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Natalie P; Bradford, Carrie M; Villanacci, John F; Crain, Neil E; Corsi, Richard L; Chambers, David M; Burk, Tonia; Blount, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater has the potential to volatilize through soil into indoor air where it can be inhaled. The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals living above TCE-contaminated groundwater are exposed to TCE through vapor intrusion. We examined associations between TCE concentrations in various environmental media and TCE concentrations in residents. For this assessment, indoor air, outdoor air, soil gas, and tap water samples were collected in and around 36 randomly selected homes; blood samples were collected from 63 residents of these homes. Additionally, a completed exposure survey was collected from each participant. Environmental and blood samples were analyzed for TCE. Mixed model multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine associations between TCE in residents' blood and TCE in indoor air, outdoor air, and soil gas. Blood TCE concentrations were above the limit of quantitation (LOQ; ≥ 0.012 µg L(-1)) in 17.5% of the blood samples. Of the 36 homes, 54.3%, 47.2%, and >84% had detectable concentrations of TCE in indoor air, outdoor air, and soil gas, respectively. Both indoor air and soil gas concentrations were statistically significantly positively associated with participants' blood concentrations (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.04, respectively). Geometric mean blood concentrations of residents from homes with indoor air concentrations of >1.6 µg m(-3) were approximately 50 times higher than geometric mean blood TCE concentrations in participants from homes with no detectable TCE in indoor air (P < .0001; 95% CI 10.4-236.4). This study confirms the occurrence of vapor intrusion and demonstrates the magnitude of exposure from vapor intrusion of TCE in a residential setting.

  13. A Proposal for Non-Intrusive Namespaces in OCaml

    OpenAIRE

    Couderc , Pierrick; Canou , Benjamin; Chambart , Pierre; Le Fessant , Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We present a work-in-progress about adding namespaces to OCaml. Inspired by other lan-guages such as Scala or C++, our aim is to de-sign and formalize a simple and non-intrusive namespace mechanism without complexifying the core language. Namespaces in our ap-proach are a simple way to define libraries while avoiding name clashes. They are also meant to simplify the build process, clarify-ing and reducing (to zero whenever possible) the responsibility of external tools.

  14. The role of extrusions and intrusions in fatigue crack initiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Mazánová, Veronika; Heczko, Milan; Petráš, Roman; Kuběna, Ivo; Casalena, L.; Man, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 185, NOV (2017), s. 46-60 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA MŠk LM2015069; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA ČR GA15-08826S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Extrusion * Fatigue crack initiation * Intrusion * Persistent slip marking * Stainless steel Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 2.151, year: 2016

  15. Attack Pattern Analysis Framework for a Multiagent Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Juszczyszyn

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the use of attack pattern ontology and formal framework for network traffic anomalies detection within a distributed multi-agent Intrusion Detection System architecture. Our framework assumes ontology-based attack definition and distributed processing scheme with exchange of communicates between agents. The role of traffic anomalies detection was presented then it has been discussed how some specific values characterizing network communication can be used to detect network anomalies caused by security incidents (worm attack, virus spreading. Finally, it has been defined how to use the proposed techniques in distributed IDS using attack pattern ontology.

  16. Neuroscientific Prediction and the Intrusion of Intuitive Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun

    2017-03-01

    How might advanced neuroscience-in which perfect neuro-predictions are possible-interact with ordinary judgments of free will? We propose that peoples' intuitive ideas about indeterminist free will are both imported into and intrude into their representation of neuroscientific scenarios and present six experiments demonstrating intrusion and importing effects in the context of scenarios depicting perfect neuro-prediction. In light of our findings, we suggest that the intuitive commitment to indeterminist free will may be resilient in the face of scientific evidence against such free will. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Non-intrusive load characterization of an airfoil using PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudheusden, B.W. van; Scarano, F.; Casimiri, E.W.F. [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Delft Univ. of Tech., Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-06-15

    An assessment is made of the feasibility of using PIV velocity data for the non-intrusive aerodynamic force characterization (lift, drag and pitching moment) of an airfoil. The method relies upon the application of control-volume approaches in combination with the deduction of the pressure from the PIV experimental data, by making use of the momentum equation. First, the consistency of the method is verified by means of synthetic data obtained from CFD. Subsequently, the procedure was applied in an experimental investigation, in which the PIV approach is validated against standard pressure-based methods (surface pressure distribution and wake rake). (orig.)

  18. Environnements de tests d’intrusion pour mobiles et tablettes

    OpenAIRE

    Vianin, Jérémie; Bocchi, Yann

    2017-01-01

    L’objectif de ce travail est de réaliser une recherche des possibilités actuelles de tests d’intrusion mobiles. Après avoir recherché les technologies existantes, nous les analysons et les comparons afin de proposer un outil complet. Dans ce travail, nous analysons les possibilités de pentesting mobile avec l’aide d’une tablette de la marque Nexus et un smartphone de la gamme One d’HTC. Nous voyons le pentest mobile sous trois grands angles : OS, package et application.

  19. DUNDRUM Restriction-Intrusion of Liberty Ladders (DRILL) Audit Toolkit

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Harry G

    2011-09-01

    This series of rating \\'ladders\\' is intended to allow a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of restrictive and intrusive interventions as part of the therapeutic management of violence and aggression in psychiatric hospital settings. This is an evolving handbook. The ladders are currently organised to facilitate a behavioural analysis. Context, antecedents, behaviour, interventions, consequences are conceptualised as a series of events organised in temporal sequence so that causes, interactions and effects can be considered. The complexity of analysis possible is limited by the statistical power of the numbers of cases and events available. \\r\

  20. The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Little, R.H.; Asthon, J.; Staunton, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented

  1. Review on assessment methodology for human intrusion into a repository for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dong Keun; Kim, Jung Woo; Jeong, Jong Tae; Baik, Min Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    An approach to assess inadvertent human intrusion into radwaste repository was proposed with the assumption that the intrusion occurs after a loss of knowledge of the hazardous nature of the disposal facility. The essential boundary conditions were derived on the basis of international recommendations, followed by an overall approach to deal with inadvertent human intrusion. The interrelation between societal factors, human intrusion scenarios, and protective measures is described to provide a concrete explanation of the approach, including the detailed procedures to set up the human intrusion scenario. The procedure for deriving protective measures is also explained with four steps, including how to derive a safety framework, general measures, potential measures, and eventual protective measures on the basis of stylized scenarios. It is expected that the approach proposed in this study will be used effectively to reduce the potential for and/or the consequences of human intrusion during the entire process of realizing a disposal facility.

  2. Review on assessment methodology for human intrusion into a repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dong Keun; Kim, Jung Woo; Jeong, Jong Tae; Baik, Min Hoon

    2016-01-01

    An approach to assess inadvertent human intrusion into radwaste repository was proposed with the assumption that the intrusion occurs after a loss of knowledge of the hazardous nature of the disposal facility. The essential boundary conditions were derived on the basis of international recommendations, followed by an overall approach to deal with inadvertent human intrusion. The interrelation between societal factors, human intrusion scenarios, and protective measures is described to provide a concrete explanation of the approach, including the detailed procedures to set up the human intrusion scenario. The procedure for deriving protective measures is also explained with four steps, including how to derive a safety framework, general measures, potential measures, and eventual protective measures on the basis of stylized scenarios. It is expected that the approach proposed in this study will be used effectively to reduce the potential for and/or the consequences of human intrusion during the entire process of realizing a disposal facility

  3. The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Little, R.H.; Ashton, J.; Staunton, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented

  4. US demilitarization and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyes, A.G.; Liston-Heyes, C.; Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, London

    1993-01-01

    In the paper input-output methods are used to generate ballpark empirical estimates of the implications for global warming of the projected demilitarization of the US federal budget. The impact is found to be qualitatively ambiguous, and highly sensitive to the manner in which the funds saved are distributed. The effect is adverse where the budgetary savings are used to fund economy-wide cuts in personal taxation and/or deficit reduction. In other cases the effect may be neutral or beneficial. (author)

  5. Non-Intrusive Intelligibility Prediction Using a Codebook-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Charlotte; Kavalekalam, Mathew Shaji; Xenaki, Angeliki

    2017-01-01

    It could be beneficial for users of hearing aids if these were able to automatically adjust the processing according to the speech intelligibility in the specific acoustic environment. Most speech intelligibility metrics are intrusive, i.e., they require a clean reference signal, which is rarely...... a high correlation between the proposed non-intrusive codebookbased STOI (NIC-STOI) and the intrusive STOI indicating that NIC-STOI is a suitable metric for automatic classification of speech signals...

  6. Three Smoking Guns Prove Falsity of Green house Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, P.

    2001-12-01

    Three observed facts: 1, the cloud coverage increased 4.1% in 50 years; 2. the precipitation increased 7.8% in 100 years; 3. the two rates are the same. {Interpretation}. 1, By the increased albedo of the clouds heat dissipation is increased 3.98 W/m2 by 2XCO2 time, canceling out greenhouse warming of 4 W/m{2}. Thus no global warming. 2, The precipitation increase show the increased release of latent heat of vaporization, which turns out to be equal to that absorbed by ocean due to increased evaporation by the greenhouse forcing. This all greenhouse heat is used up in evaporation and the warming of the earth is zero. 3, The identity of the two rates double-checked the two independent proofs. Therefore experimentally no greenhouse warming is triply proved. A new branch of science Pleistocene Climatology is developed to study the theoretical origin of no greenhouse warming. Climatology, like mechanics of a large number of particles, is of course complex and unwieldy. If totally order-less then there is no hope. However, if some regularity appears, then a systematic treatment can be done to simplify the complexity. The rigid bodies are subjected to a special simplifying condition (the distances between all particles are constant) and only 6 degrees of freedom are significant, all others are sidetracked. To study the spinning top there is no need to study the dynamics of every particle of the top by Newton's laws through super-computer. It only needs to solve the Euler equations without computer. In climate study the use of super-computer to study all degrees of freedom of the climate is as untenable as the study of the spinning top by super-computer. Yet in spite of the complexity there is strict regularity as seen in the ice ages, which works as the simplifying conditions to establish a new science Pleistocene climatology. See my book Greenhouse Warming and Nuclear Hazards just published (www.PeterFongBook.com). This time the special condition is the presence of a

  7. Cultural differences in the relationship between intrusions and trauma narratives using the trauma film paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Laura; Dalgleish, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Two studies explored the influence of culture on the relationship between British and East Asian adults' autobiographical remembering of trauma film material and associated intrusions. Participants were shown aversive film clips to elicit intrusive images. Then participants provided a post-film narrative of the film content (only Study 1). In both studies, participants reported intrusive images for the film in an intrusion diary during the week after viewing. On returning the diary, participants provided a narrative of the film (delayed). The trauma film narratives were scored for memory-content variables. It was found that for British participants, higher levels of autonomous orientation (i.e. expressions of autonomy and self-determination) and self-focus in the delayed narratives were correlated significantly with fewer intrusions. For the East Asian group, lower levels of autonomous orientation and greater focus on others were correlated significantly with fewer intrusions. Additionally, Study 2 found that by removing the post-film narrative task there was a significant increase in the number of intrusions relative to Study 1, suggesting that the opportunity to develop a narrative resulted in fewer intrusions. These findings suggest that the greater the integration and contextualization of the trauma memory, and the more the trauma memory reflects culturally appropriate remembering, the fewer the intrusions.

  8. Exploring machine-learning-based control plane intrusion detection techniques in software defined optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huibin; Wang, Yuqiao; Chen, Haoran; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie

    2017-12-01

    In software defined optical networks (SDON), the centralized control plane may encounter numerous intrusion threatens which compromise the security level of provisioned services. In this paper, the issue of control plane security is studied and two machine-learning-based control plane intrusion detection techniques are proposed for SDON with properly selected features such as bandwidth, route length, etc. We validate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed techniques by simulations. Results show an accuracy of 83% for intrusion detection can be achieved with the proposed machine-learning-based control plane intrusion detection techniques.

  9. Cultural Differences in the Relationship between Intrusions and Trauma Narratives Using the Trauma Film Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Laura; Dalgleish, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Two studies explored the influence of culture on the relationship between British and East Asian adults’ autobiographical remembering of trauma film material and associated intrusions. Participants were shown aversive film clips to elicit intrusive images. Then participants provided a post-film narrative of the film content (only Study 1). In both studies, participants reported intrusive images for the film in an intrusion diary during the week after viewing. On returning the diary, participants provided a narrative of the film (delayed). The trauma film narratives were scored for memory-content variables. It was found that for British participants, higher levels of autonomous orientation (i.e. expressions of autonomy and self-determination) and self-focus in the delayed narratives were correlated significantly with fewer intrusions. For the East Asian group, lower levels of autonomous orientation and greater focus on others were correlated significantly with fewer intrusions. Additionally, Study 2 found that by removing the post-film narrative task there was a significant increase in the number of intrusions relative to Study 1, suggesting that the opportunity to develop a narrative resulted in fewer intrusions. These findings suggest that the greater the integration and contextualization of the trauma memory, and the more the trauma memory reflects culturally appropriate remembering, the fewer the intrusions. PMID:25203300

  10. Biological intrusion barriers for large-volume waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Cline, J.F.; Rickard, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    intrusion of plants and animals into shallow land burial sites with subsequent mobilization of toxic and radiotoxic materials has occured. Based on recent pathway modeling studies, such intrusions can contribute to the dose received by man. This paper describes past work on developing biological intrusion barrier systems for application to large volume waste site stabilization. State-of-the-art concepts employing rock and chemical barriers are discussed relative to long term serviceability and cost of application. The interaction of bio-intrusion barrier systems with other processes affecting trench cover stability are discussed to ensure that trench cover designs minimize the potential dose to man. 3 figures, 6 tables

  11. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymann, Roy J. E. M.; Swaab, Dick F.; van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2005-01-01

    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin

  12. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Swaab, D.F.; Someren, E.J.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin

  13. Global warming potential of pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santero, Nicholas J [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 407 McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1712 (United States); Horvath, Arpad, E-mail: njsantero@cal.berkeley.ed, E-mail: horvath@ce.berkeley.ed [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 215B McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1712 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Pavements comprise an essential and vast infrastructure system supporting our transportation network, yet their impact on the environment is largely unquantified. Previous life-cycle assessments have only included a limited number of the applicable life-cycle components in their analysis. This research expands the current view to include eight different components: materials extraction and production, transportation, onsite equipment, traffic delay, carbonation, lighting, albedo, and rolling resistance. Using global warming potential as the environmental indicator, ranges of potential impact for each component are calculated and compared based on the information uncovered in the existing research. The relative impacts between components are found to be orders of magnitude different in some cases. Context-related factors, such as traffic level and location, are also important elements affecting the impacts of a given component. A strategic method for lowering the global warming potential of a pavement is developed based on the concept that environmental performance is improved most effectively by focusing on components with high impact potentials. This system takes advantage of the fact that small changes in high-impact components will have more effect than large changes in low-impact components.

  14. Global warming potential of pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santero, Nicholas J; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-01-01

    Pavements comprise an essential and vast infrastructure system supporting our transportation network, yet their impact on the environment is largely unquantified. Previous life-cycle assessments have only included a limited number of the applicable life-cycle components in their analysis. This research expands the current view to include eight different components: materials extraction and production, transportation, onsite equipment, traffic delay, carbonation, lighting, albedo, and rolling resistance. Using global warming potential as the environmental indicator, ranges of potential impact for each component are calculated and compared based on the information uncovered in the existing research. The relative impacts between components are found to be orders of magnitude different in some cases. Context-related factors, such as traffic level and location, are also important elements affecting the impacts of a given component. A strategic method for lowering the global warming potential of a pavement is developed based on the concept that environmental performance is improved most effectively by focusing on components with high impact potentials. This system takes advantage of the fact that small changes in high-impact components will have more effect than large changes in low-impact components.

  15. Economic approaches to greenhouse warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Global environmental problems raise a host of major policy questions. They are all scientifically complex and controversial, and no scientific consensus is likely to emerge until irreversible decisions have been made. The costs and benefits of these changes transcend national boundaries, and nations, which cannot appropriate the global costs and benefits of such changes, are unlikely to be able or willing to make efficient decisions on how to combat these global externalities. In addition, these concerns sometimes have impacts over hundreds of years and thereby strain political decision making, which often functions effectively only when the crisis is at hand. This chapter considers some of the economic issues involved in deciding how to react to the threat of global warming. The author first reviews the theory and evidence on the greenhouse effect. He then presents evidence on the impacts of greenhouse warming, the costs of stabilizing climate, and the kinds of adaptations that might be available. In the final section, he reviews the policy initiatives that nations might follow in the near term

  16. The "Arnold Schwarzenegger Effect": is strength of the "victim" related to misinterpretations of harm intrusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Noah C; Wheaton, Michael G; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2012-12-01

    The present study used an in vivo paradigm to examine whether the victim's vulnerability in a harm-related intrusion affects beliefs about the importance of thoughts (i.e., Thought Action Fusion; TAF). Sixty-six undergraduate students at a large university were randomly assigned to imagine either a vulnerable (e.g., elderly man) or able-bodied individual (e.g., strong youthful male) they know getting into a car accident and provided in vivo ratings of anxiety, guilt, likelihood, moral wrongness, and urges to neutralize. Results indicated that thinking of car accident involving a vulnerable, compared to an able-bodied person, provoked more distress (anxiety and guilt), stronger feelings of moral wrongness, greater urges to cancel the effects of thinking such thoughts, and higher estimates of the likelihood that the collision would occur. The findings of our study broadly support Rachman's (1998) assertion that more significance and importance is attached to negative thoughts about vulnerable or helpless people. Current findings are discussed in terms of the cognitive-behavioral model of obsessions and clinical implications are addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of human intrusion in the dutch safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.; Weers, A.W.v.; Glasbergen, P.; Slot, A.F.M.

    1989-01-01

    In the Netherlands the OPLA research program in which a large number of possible disposal concepts for radioactive waste is investigated has been carried out recently. The disposal concepts concern three different waste strategies, two disposal techiques and three different types of salt formations. In the OPLA program the post-closure safety of the disposal concepts has been investigated. The paper reviews the role of the human intrusion in this safety study. The hydrological consequences of human activities in the underground are discussed and it has been demonstrated that these effects could be taken into account during the groundwater transport calculations. Four different scenario's for human intrusion in the repository have been studied to obtain an indication of the radiological effects. The results show that extremely high doses may result if, after several hundred years, human beings come into direct contact with highly active waste. For the final assessment the probability that the doses will be received should be calculated. This should be done in a subsequent research

  18. assessment of Seawater Intrusion in Concrete by Measuring Chlorine Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, A.M.; Kansouh, W.A.; Osman, A.M.; Bashter, I.I.

    2011-01-01

    The object of this work is to measure water intrusion in concrete using a new methodology based on neutron activation technique. The applied method depends on measuring the activated gamma energy lines emitted from 38 Cl using a gamma spectrometer with Ge(Li) and HPGe detectors. Concrete samples with different percentages of silica fume (SF), up to 20 % submerged in seawater for different period of time were used to perform the investigation. Samples of concrete taken from different positions along the direction of water intrusion in concrete block were irradiated by thermal neutrons using the irradiation cell of 252 Cf neutron source and one of the vertical channels of search reactor at Delft University. The measured 38 Cl concentrations of the irradiated samples were used to plot groups of water profiles distribution in concrete samples with different SF % and submerged in seawater for different periods. These profiles were compared with the others which use here measured by neutron back emitted method where a satisfactory agreement was observed between the two. Further, the displayed measured results; show that the diffusivity for all water contents decreases with increasing the silica fume percentage up to 15 %. However, for concrete samples with silica fume 20 % the observed phenomenon is reversed due to the deterioration of concrete physical and mechanical properties

  19. Effective approach toward Intrusion Detection System using data mining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Nadiammai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the tremendous growth of the usage of computers over network and development in application running on various platform captures the attention toward network security. This paradigm exploits security vulnerabilities on all computer systems that are technically difficult and expensive to solve. Hence intrusion is used as a key to compromise the integrity, availability and confidentiality of a computer resource. The Intrusion Detection System (IDS plays a vital role in detecting anomalies and attacks in the network. In this work, data mining concept is integrated with an IDS to identify the relevant, hidden data of interest for the user effectively and with less execution time. Four issues such as Classification of Data, High Level of Human Interaction, Lack of Labeled Data, and Effectiveness of Distributed Denial of Service Attack are being solved using the proposed algorithms like EDADT algorithm, Hybrid IDS model, Semi-Supervised Approach and Varying HOPERAA Algorithm respectively. Our proposed algorithm has been tested using KDD Cup dataset. All the proposed algorithm shows better accuracy and reduced false alarm rate when compared with existing algorithms.

  20. Nuclear data needs for non-intrusive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D. L.; Michlich, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Various nuclear-based techniques are being explored for use in non-intrusive inspection. Their development is motivated by the need to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, to thwart trafficking in illicit narcotics, to stop the transport of explosives by terrorist organizations, to characterize nuclear waste, and to deal with various other societal concerns. Non-intrusive methods are sought in order to optimize inspection speed, to minimize damage to packages and containers, to satisfy environmental, health and safety requirements, to adhere to legal requirements, and to avoid inconveniencing the innocent. These inspection techniques can be grouped into two major categories: active and passive. They almost always require the use of highly penetrating radiation and therefore are generally limited to neutrons and gamma rays. Although x-rays are widely employed for these purposes, their use does not constitute nuclear technology and therefore is not discussed here. This paper examines briefly the basic concepts associated with nuclear inspection and investigates the related nuclear data needs. These needs are illustrated by considering four of the methods currently being developed and tested

  1. Nuclear data needs for non-intrusive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Micklich, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Various nuclear-based techniques are being explored for use in non-intrusive inspection. Their development is motivated by the need to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, to thwart trafficking in illicit narcotics, to stop the transport of explosives by terrorist organizations, to characterize nuclear waste, and to deal with various other societal concerns. Non-intrusive methods are sought in order to optimize inspection speed, to minimize damage to packages and containers, to satisfy environmental, health and safety requirements, to adhere to legal requirements, and to avoid inconveniencing the innocent. These inspection techniques can be grouped into two major categories: active and passive. They almost always require the use of highly penetrating radiation and therefore are generally limited to neutrons and gamma rays. Although x-rays are widely employed for these purposes, their use does not constitute 'nuclear technology' and therefore is not discussed here. This paper examines briefly the basic concepts associated with nuclear inspection and investigates the related nuclear data needs. These needs are illustrated by considering four of the methods currently being developed and tested. (author)

  2. Hybrid feature selection for supporting lightweight intrusion detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianglong; Zhao, Wentao; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Redundant and irrelevant features not only cause high resource consumption but also degrade the performance of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), especially when coping with big data. These features slow down the process of training and testing in network traffic classification. Therefore, a hybrid feature selection approach in combination with wrapper and filter selection is designed in this paper to build a lightweight intrusion detection system. Two main phases are involved in this method. The first phase conducts a preliminary search for an optimal subset of features, in which the chi-square feature selection is utilized. The selected set of features from the previous phase is further refined in the second phase in a wrapper manner, in which the Random Forest(RF) is used to guide the selection process and retain an optimized set of features. After that, we build an RF-based detection model and make a fair comparison with other approaches. The experimental results on NSL-KDD datasets show that our approach results are in higher detection accuracy as well as faster training and testing processes.

  3. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981

  4. Ameliorating intrusive memories of distressing experiences using computerized reappraisal training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L; Holmes, Emily A; Postma, Peggy; Dalgleish, Tim; Mackintosh, Bundy

    2012-08-01

    The types of appraisals that follow traumatic experiences have been linked to the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Could changing reappraisals following a stressful event reduce the emergence of PTSD symptoms? The present proof-of-principle study examined whether a nonexplicit, systematic computerized training in reappraisal style following a stressful event (a highly distressing film) could reduce intrusive memories of the film, and symptoms associated with posttraumatic distress over the subsequent week. Participants were trained to adopt a generally positive or negative poststressor appraisal style using a series of scripted vignettes after having been exposed to highly distressing film clips. The training targeted self-efficacy beliefs and reappraisals of secondary emotions (emotions in response to the emotional reactions elicited by the film). Successful appraisal induction was verified using novel vignettes and via change scores on the post traumatic cognitions inventory. Compared with those trained negatively, those trained positively reported in a diary fewer intrusive memories of the film during the subsequent week, and lower scores on the Impact of Event Scale (a widely used measure of posttraumatic stress symptoms). Results support the use of computerized, nonexplicit, reappraisal training after a stressful event has occurred and provide a platform for future translational studies with clinical populations that have experienced significant real-world stress or trauma.

  5. Doses resulting from intrusion into uranium tailings areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    In the future, it is conceivable that institutional controls of uranium tailings areas may cease to exist and individuals may intrude into these areas unaware of the potential radiation hazards. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential doses to the intruders for a comprehensive set of intrusion scenarios. Reference tailings areas in the Elliot Lake region of northern Ontario and in northern Saskatchewan were developed to the extent required to calculate radiation exposures. The intrusion scenarios for which dose calculations were performed, were categorized into the following classes: habitation of the tailings, agricultural activities, construction activities, and recreational activities. Realistic exposure conditions were specified and annual doses were calculated by applying standard dose conversion factors. The exposure estimates demonstrated that the annual doses resulting from recreational activities and from construction activities would be generally small, less than twenty millisieverts, while the habitational and agricultural activities could hypothetically result in doses of several hundred millisieverts. However, the probability of occurrence of these latter classes of scenarios is considered to be much lower than scenarios involving either construction or recreational activities

  6. Marshes on the Move: Testing effects of seawater intrusion on ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northeastern United States is a hotspot for sea level rise (SLR), subjecting coastal salt marshes to erosive loss, shifts in vegetation communities, and altered biogeochemistry due to seawater intrusion. Salt marsh plant community zonation is driven by tradeoffs in stress tolerance and interspecific interactions. As seawater inundates progressively higher marsh elevations, shifts in marsh vegetation communities landward may herald salt marsh “migration”, which could allow continuity of marsh function and ecosystem service provision. To elucidate possible effects of seawater intrusion on marsh-upland edge plant communities, a space-for-time approach was replicated at two Rhode Island salt marshes. At each site, peat blocks (0.5 m x 0.5 m x 0.5 m, n=6) with intact upland-marsh edge vegetation were transplanted downslope into the regularly-inundated mid-marsh. Procedural controls (n=3) were established at each elevation by removing and replacing peat blocks, and natural controls (n=3) consisted of undisturbed plots. During peak productivity, each plot was assessed for species composition, percent cover and average height. Results demonstrate stunting of marsh-upland edge vegetation in response to increased inundation, and the beginnings of colonization of the transplanted plots by salt marsh species. The extent of colonization differed between the two sites, suggesting that site-specific factors govern vegetation responses to increased inundation.

  7. Creating prototypes for cooling urban water bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortesoao, Joao; Klok, E.J.; Lenzholzer, Sanda; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Kluck, J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract When addressing urban heat problems, climate- conscious urban design has been assuming that urban water bodies such as canals, ditches or ponds cool down their surroundings. Recent research shows that this is not necessarily the case and that urban water bodies may actually have a warming e

  8. Oxygen intrusion into anoxic fjords leads to increased methylmercury availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiteberg Braaten, Hans Fredrik; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Yakushev, Evgeniy

    2013-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) appears in the oxic surface waters of the oceans at low levels (sub ng/L). Because inorganic Hg can be methylated into the toxic and bioaccumulative specie methylmercury (MeHg) levels can be high at the top of the marine food chain. Even though marine sea food is considered the main risk driver for MeHg exposure to people most research up to date has focused on Hg methylation processes in freshwater systems. This study identifies the mechanisms driving formation of MeHg during oxygen depletion in fjords, and shows how MeHg is made available in the surface water during oxygen intrusion. Studies of the biogeochemical structure in the water column of the Norwegian fjord Hunnbunn were performed in 2009, 2011 and 2012. In autumn of 2011 mixing flushing events were observed and lead to both positive and negative effects on the ecosystem state in the fjord. The oxygenated water intrusions lead to a decrease of the deep layer concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia and phosphate. On the other hand the intrusion also raised the H2S boundary from 8 m to a shallower depth of just 4 m. Following the intrusion was also observed an increase at shallower depths of nutrients combined with a decrease of pH. Before flushing events were observed concentrations of total Hg (TotHg) increased from 1.3 - 1.7 ng/L in the surface layer of the fjord to concentrations ranging from 5.2 ng/L to 6.4 ng/L in the anoxic zone. MeHg increased regularly from 0.04 ng/L in the surface water to a maximum concentration of 5.2 ng/L in the deeper layers. This corresponds to an amount of TotHg present as MeHg ranging from 2.1 % to 99 %. The higher concentrations of MeHg in the deeper layer corresponds to an area where no oxygen is present and concentrations of H2S exceeds 500 µM, suggesting a production of MeHg in the anoxic area as a result of sulphate reducing bacteria activity. After flushing the concentrations of TotHg showed a similar pattern ranging from 0.6 ng/L in the

  9. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-03-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatment significantly decreased soil nematodes density, and night-time warming treatment marginally affected the density. The response of bacterivorous nematode and fungivorous nematode to experimental warming showed the same trend with the total density. Redundancy analysis revealed an opposite effect of soil moisture and soil temperature, and the most important of soil moisture and temperature in night-time among the measured environment factors, affecting soil nematode community. Our findings suggested that daily minimum temperature and warming induced drying are most important factors affecting soil nematode community under the current global asymmetric warming.

  10. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  11. Coarsening of AA6013-T6 Precipitates During Sheet Warm Forming Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciano, M.; DiCecco, S.; Esmaeili, S.; Wells, M. A.; Worswick, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    The use of warm forming for AA6xxx-T6 sheet is of interest to improve its formability; however, the effect warm forming may have on the coarsening of precipitates and the mechanical strength of these sheets has not been well studied. In this research, the coarsening behavior of AA6013-T6 precipitates has been explored, in the temperature range of 200-300 °C, and time of 30 s up to 50 h. Additionally, the effect of warm deformation on coarsening behavior was explored using: (1) simulated warm forming tests in a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator and (2) bi-axial warm deformation tests. Using a strong obstacle model to describe the yield strength (YS) evolution of the AA6013-T6 material, and a Lifshitz, Slyozov, and Wagner (LSW) particle coarsening law to describe the change in precipitate size with time, the coarsening kinetics were modeled for this alloy. The coarsening kinetics in the range of 220-300 °C followed a trend similar to that previously found for AA6111 for the 180-220 °C range. There was strong evidence that coarsening kinetics were not altered due to warm deformation above 220 °C. For warm forming between 200 and 220 °C, the YS of the AA6013-T6 material increased slightly, which could be attributed to strain hardening during warm deformation. Finally, a non-isothermal coarsening model was used to assess the potential reduction in the YS of AA6013-T6 for practical processing conditions related to auto-body manufacturing. The model calculations showed that 90% of the original AA6013-T6 YS could be maintained, for warm forming temperatures up to 280 °C, if the heating schedule used to get the part to the warm forming temperature was limited to 1 min.

  12. Impaired ecosystem process despite little effects on populations: modeling combined effects of warming and toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Nika; Grimm, Volker; Forbes, Valery E

    2017-08-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are exposed to many stressors, including toxic chemicals and global warming, which can impair, separately or in combination, important processes in organisms and hence higher levels of organization. Investigating combined effects of warming and toxicants has been a topic of little research, but neglecting their combined effects may seriously misguide management efforts. To explore how toxic chemicals and warming, alone and in combination, propagate across levels of biological organization, including a key ecosystem process, we developed an individual-based model (IBM) of a freshwater amphipod detritivore, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, feeding on leaf litter. In this IBM, life history emerges from the individuals' energy budgets. We quantified, in different warming scenarios (+1-+4 °C), the effects of hypothetical toxicants on suborganismal processes, including feeding, somatic and maturity maintenance, growth, and reproduction. Warming reduced mean adult body sizes and population abundance and biomass, but only in the warmest scenarios. Leaf litter processing, a key contributor to ecosystem functioning and service delivery in streams, was consistently enhanced by warming, through strengthened interaction between the detritivorous consumer and its resource. Toxicant effects on feeding and maintenance resulted in initially small adverse effects on consumers, but ultimately led to population extinction and loss of ecosystem process. Warming in combination with toxicants had little effect at the individual and population levels, but ecosystem process was impaired in the warmer scenarios. Our results suggest that exposure to the same amount of toxicants can disproportionately compromise ecosystem processing depending on global warming scenarios; for example, reducing organismal feeding rates by 50% will reduce resource processing by 50% in current temperature conditions, but by up to 200% with warming of 4 °C. Our study has implications for

  13. The physics and history of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yongyun

    2012-01-01

    Global warming is not only a hot research area in atmospheric sciences and even all Earth sciences but is also a controversial topic in the international community. The purpose of this paper is not to clarify these controversies, but instead, to address the physical basis on which our understanding of global warming is founded, and to briefly review the nearly 200-year history of global warming sciences. We hope the paper will help readers, who have no background in the atmospheric and climate sciences, understand scientific issues of global warming. (author)

  14. Magmatic Diversity of the Wehrlitic Intrusions in the Oceanic Lower Crust of the Northern Oman Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, R.; Adachi, Y.; Miyashita, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Oman ophiolite extends along the east coast of Oman, and is the world's largest and best-preserved slice of obducted oceanic lithosphere. The magmatic history of this ophiolite is complex and is generally regarded as having occurred in three stages (MOR magmatism, subduction magmatism and intraplate magmatism). Wehrlitic intrusions constitute an important element of oceanic lower crust of the ophiolite, and numerous intrusions cut gabbro units in the northern Salahi block of this ophiolite. In this study area, we identified two different types of wehrlitic intrusions. One type of the intrusions mainly consists of dunite, plagioclase (Pl) wehrlite and mela-olivine (Ol) gabbro, in which the crystallization sequence is Ol followed by the contemporaneous crystallization of Pl and clinopyroxene (Cpx). This type is called "ordinary" wehrlitic intrusions and has similar mineral compositions to host gabbros (Adachi and Miyashita 2003; Kaneko et al. 2014). Another type of the intrusions is a single intrusion that crops out in an area 250 m × 150 m along Wadi Salahi. This intrusion consists of Pl-free "true" wehrlite, in which the crystallization sequence is Ol and then Cpx. The forsterite contents (Fo%) of Ol from the "ordinary" wehrlitic intrusions and "true" wehrlitic intrusions have ranges of 90.8-87.0 (NiO = 0.36-0.13 wt%) and 84.7 (NiO = 0.31 wt%), respectively. Cr numbers (Cr#) of Cr-spinel from the "true" wehrlitic intrusions show higher Cr# value of 0.85 than those of the "ordinary" wehrlitic intrusions (0.48-0.64). But the former is characterized by very high Fe3+ values (YFe3+ = 0.49-0.68). Kaneko et al. (2014) showed that the "ordinary" ubiquitous type has similar features to MOR magmatism and the depleted type in the Fizh block (Adachi and Miyashita 2003) links to subduction magmatism. These types are distinguished by their mineral chemistries (TiO2 and Na2O contents of Cpx). The TiO2 and Na2O contents of Cpx from the "true" wehrlitic intrusions have 0

  15. Saharan dust intrusions in Spain: Health impacts and associated synoptic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Carmona, Rocío; Russo, Ana; Ortiz, Cristina; Salvador, Pedro; Trigo, Ricardo Machado

    2017-07-01

    A lot of papers have been published about the impact on mortality of Sahara dust intrusions in individual cities. However, there is a lack of studies that analyse the impact on a country and scarcer if in addition the analysis takes into account the meteorological conditions that favour these intrusions. The main aim is to examine the effect of Saharan dust intrusions on daily mortality in different Spanish regions and to characterize the large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with such dust intrusions. For determination of days with Saharan dust intrusions, we used information supplied by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food & Environment, it divides Spain into 9 main areas. In each of these regions, a representative province was selected. A time series analysis has been performed to analyse the relationship between daily mortality and PM 10 levels in the period from 01.01.04 to 31.12.09, using Poisson regression and stratifying the analysis by the presence or absence of Saharan dust advections. The proportion of days on which there are Saharan dust intrusions rises to 30% of days. The synoptic pattern is characterised by an anticyclonic ridge extending from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula. Particulate matter (PM) on days with intrusions are associated with daily mortality, something that does not occur on days without intrusions, indicating that Saharan dust may be a risk factor for daily mortality. In other cases, what Saharan dust intrusions do is to change the PM-related mortality behaviour pattern, going from PM 2.5 . A study such as the one conducted here, in which meteorological analysis of synoptic situations which favour Saharan dust intrusions, is combined with the effect on health at a city level, would seem to be crucial when it comes to analysing the differentiated mortality pattern in situations of Saharan dust intrusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Warm liquid calorimetry for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Geulig,E; Wallraff,W; Bézaguet, Alain-Arthur; Cavanna, F; Cinnini, P; Cittolin, Sergio; Dreesen, P; Demoulin, M; Dunps, L; Fucci, A; Gallay, G; Givernaud, Alain; Gonidec, A; Jank, Werner; Maurin, Guy; Placci, Alfredo; Porte, J P; Radermacher, E; Samyn, D; Schinzel, D; Schmidt, W F; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    Results from the beam tests of the U/TMP "warm liquid" calorimeter show that such a technique is very promising for the LHC. Our aim is to extend this programme and design a calorimeter that can satisfy the requirements of high rates, high radiation levels, compensation, uniformity and granularity, as well as fully contain hadronic showers. We propose to construct liquid ionization chambers operated at very high fields, capable of collecting the total charge produced by ionizing particles within times comparable to the bunch crossing time of the future Collider. For this reason we plan to extend the current programme on tetramethylpentane (TMP) to tetramethylsilane (TMSi). An electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of very high field ionization chambers filled with TMSi as sensitive medium with Uranium and/or other high density material as absorber will first be built (to be followed by a full-scale calorimeter module), on which newly designed fast amplifiers and readout electronics will be tested. In addition...

  17. The tragedy of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominique Auverlot

    2014-01-01

    The author first evokes the consequences of global warming: ocean acidity, ice melt, sea level rise, repeated and always more intense extreme climatic events (a list of the main meteorological and climatic events which occurred in 2013 is given). He outlines that these phenomena happen more quickly than foreseen. He notices that these facts confirm the content of the different IPCC reports. The author outlines the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. He discusses the evolutions of these emissions between 1970 and 2010 in the different countries with respect to their level of economic development. It clearly appears that developed countries produce more emissions, and have only stabilized their emission level whereas emerging countries have notably increased their emissions. Developed and emerging countries should therefore act as quickly as possible

  18. Automobility: Global Warming as Symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Backhaus

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The argument of this paper is that sustainability requires a new worldview-paradigm. It critically evaluates Gore’s liberal-based environmentalism in order to show how “shallow ecologies” are called into question by deeper ecologies. This analysis leads to the notion that global warming is better understood as a symptom indicative of the worldview that is the source for environmental crises. Heidegger’s ontological hermeneutics and its critique of modern technology show that the modern worldview involves an enframing (a totalizing technological ordering of the natural. Enframing reveals entities as standing reserve (on demand energy suppliers. My thesis maintains that enframing is geographically expressed as automobility. Because of the energy needs used to maintain automobility, reaching the goal of sustainability requires rethinking the spatial organization of life as a function of stored energy technologies.

  19. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  20. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2014-02-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  1. How to stop global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on how to stop global warming. At the Toronto Conference on Climate Change in 1988, the world's industrialized nations agreed on a goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions 20 percent by the year 2005. This would not stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases but would at least slow their accumulation. Although difficult to achieve, the Toronto goal is certainly reachable. Newer, more efficient technologies can lower energy consumption without effecting economic output. CFC- substitutes can provide refrigeration. In fact, an international carbon tax of just $1 per barrel of oil, or $6 per ton of coal, would generate more than enough revenue to pay for the necessary fuel-saving measures. This tax could result from an international agreement similar to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which obliges its signatories to cut down on production of CFCs

  2. The economics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillet, G.; Hediger, W.; Kypreos, S.; Corbaz, C.

    1993-05-01

    The global warming threat is challenging the world community to both international cooperation and national policy action. This report focuses on the necessity to alternate between ''global and national climate policies''. The Swiss perspective is at issue. The economic rationales for comparing national climate policy options are analyzed. This report explicitly focusses on the fundamental role of the normative framework and the related environmental-economic requisites for establishing an efficient national climate policy and computing a ''carbon tax''. Finally, the latest results of the energy and greenhouse gas scenarios for Switzerland, elaborated on within the network of the IEA/ETSAP Project, Annex IV, ''Greenhouse Gases and National Energy Options: Technologies and Costs for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases'', illustrate Switzerland's difficulties in reducing greenhouse gas emissions at ''reasonable cost'' compared with other countries. This should make Switzerland very sensitive to the implementation of efficient environmental-policy instruments and international cooperation. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  3. Keeping cool on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, F.; Hawkins, W.; Nierenberg, W.; Salmon, J.; Jastrow, R.; Moore, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    A number of scientific groups have concluded that the greenhouse effect caused by the man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other bases has produced much or all of the rise in global temperatures. They predict that there will be an increase in greenhouse gases equivalent to a doubling of carbon dioxide by the middle of the 21st century, and that this will cause the temperature of the earth to rise by as much as 5C. According to these scientists, a temperature rise of this magnitude would cause major disruptions in the earth's ecosystem, including severe summer drought in the midwestern US and other agricultural regions. The worst-case scenarios predict a major rise in sea level as a result of the greenhouse warming, inundating areas of New York, Miami and other coastal cities as well as low-lying river deltas and islands. The lives of hundreds of millions of people would be disrupted. The available data on climate change, however, do not support these predictions, nor do they support the idea that human activity has caused, or will cause, a dangerous increase in global temperatures. As the authors make this statement, they are aware that it contradicts widespread popular opinion, as well as the technical judgments of some of their colleagues. But it would be imprudent to ignore the facts on global warming that have accumulated over the last two years. These facts indicate that theoretical estimates of the greenhouse problem have greatly exaggerated its seriousness. Enormous economic stakes ride on forthcoming government decisions regarding carbon taxes and other restrictions on CO 2 emissions. Due attention must therefore be given to the scientific evidence, no matter how contrary to popular opinion its implications appear to be. This article discusses the scientific evidence

  4. Source characteristics and tectonic setting of mafic-ultramafic intrusions in North Xinjiang, NW China: Insights from the petrology and geochemistry of the Lubei mafic-ultramafic intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Yun; Yu, Jin-Jie; Liu, Shuai-Jie

    2018-05-01

    The newly discovered Lubei sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion forms the western extension of the Huangshan-Jin'erquan mafic-ultramafic intrusion belt in East Tianshan, NW China. The Lubei intrusion comprises hornblende peridotite, lherzolite, and harzburgite in its southern portion, gabbro in its middle portion, and hornblende gabbro in its northern portion. Intrusive relationships indicate that three magma pulses were involved in the formation of the intrusion, and that they were likely evolved from a common primitive magma. Estimated compositions of the Lubei primitive magma are similar to those of island arc calc-alkaline basalt except for the low Na2O and CaO contents of the Lubei primitive magma. This paper reports on the mineral compositions, whole-rock major and trace element contents, and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of the Lubei intrusion, and a zircon LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb age for hornblende gabbro. The Lubei intrusion is characterized by enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements, depletion in high-field-strength elements, and marked negative Nb and Ta anomalies, with enrichment in chondrite-normalized light rare earth elements. It exhibits low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70333-0.70636 and low (143Nd/144Nd)i ratios of 0.51214-0.51260, with positive εNd values of +4.01 to +6.33. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages yielded a weighted-mean age of 287.9 ± 1.6 Ma for the Lubei intrusion. Contemporaneous mafic-ultramafic intrusions in different tectonic domains in North Xinjiang show similar geological and geochemical signatures to the Lubei intrusion, suggesting a source region of metasomatized mantle previously modified by hydrous fluids from the slab subducted beneath the North Xinjiang region in the early Permian. Metasomatism of the mantle was dominated by hydrous fluids and was related to subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic lithosphere during the Paleozoic. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest that the mantle source was a mixture of depleted mid

  5. Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground warming in the B4WarmED (Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B

    2015-06-01

    Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves warming of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air warming experiment called Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger (B4WarmED) that addresses the potential for projected climate warming to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil warming (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). Warming was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed warming. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil warming to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the warming approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Multi-year composite view of ozone enhancements and stratosphere-to-troposphere transport in dry intrusions of northern hemisphere extratropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegle, L.; Wood, R.; Wargan, K.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the role of extratropical cyclones in stratosphere-to-troposphere (STT) exchange by using cyclone-centric composites of O3 retrievals from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard the Aura satellite and contrasting them to composites obtained with Modern-Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA and MERRA-2) as well as with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. MERRA sea level pressure fields are used to identify 15,978 extratropical cyclones in the northern hemisphere (NH) between 2005 and 2012. The lowermost stratosphere (261 hPa) and middle troposphere (424 hPa) composites of these cyclones feature a distinct 1,000 km wide O3 enhancement in the dry intrusion to the southwest of the cyclone center, coinciding with a lowered tropopause, enhanced potential vorticity, and decreased water vapor. In the lowermost stratosphere, MLS composites show that the dry intrusion O3 enhancements reach a 210 ppbv maximum in April. In the middle troposphere, TES composites display dry intrusion maximum O3 enhancements of 27 ppbv in May. The magnitude and seasonality of these enhancements are captured by MERRA and MERRA-2, but GEOS-Chem is a factor of two too low. The MERRA-2 composites show that the O3-rich dry intrusion forms a coherent and vertically aligned structure between 300 and 800 hPa, wrapping cyclonically with the warm conveyor belt. In winter and spring dry intrusions, O3 is enhanced by 100 pbbv or 100-130% relative to background conditions at 300 hPa, with a significant contribution reaching pressure altitudes below 500 hPa (6-20 ppbv or 15-30% enhancement). We calculate that extratropical cyclones result in a STT flux of 119 Tg O3 yr-1, accounting for 42% of the annual NH O3 extratropical STT flux. The STT flux in cyclones is highest in spring and displays a strong dependence on westerly 300 hPa wind speeds.

  7. Effect of various warm-up devices on bat velocity of intercollegiate softball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, David J; Bassett, Kylie E; Beiser, Erik J; Till, Megan E; Medlin, Greg L; Beam, Jason R; Derenne, Coop

    2012-01-01

    Numerous warm-up devices are available for use by softball players while they are in the on-deck circle. It is difficult to know which warm-up device produces the greatest bat velocity (BV) in the batter's box for softball players because on-deck studies with these individuals are sparse. Because the majority of warm-up device research has been conducted with baseball players, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various warm-up devices on the BV of female intercollegiate softball players and compare the results with those of male baseball players. A secondary purpose was to evaluate 2 new commercially available resistance devices as warm-up aids. Nineteen Division I intercollegiate softball players (age = 19.8 ± 1.2 years, height = 167.0 ± 4.7 cm, body mass = 69.2 ± 8.6 kg, lean body mass = 49.6 ± 3.6 kg, % body fat = 27.9 ± 5.9) participated in a warm-up with 1 of 8 resistance devices on separate days. Each of the 8 testing sessions had players perform a standardized dynamic warm-up, 3 maximal dry swings mimicking their normal game swing with the assigned warm-up device, 2 comfortable dry swings with a standard 83.8-cm, 652-g (33-in., 23-oz) softball bat followed by 3 maximal game swings (20-second rest between swings) while hitting a softball off a batting tee with the same standard softball bat. Results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in BV after using any of the 8 warm-up devices (510.3-2,721.5 g or 18-96 oz) similar to in previous baseball research. This indicates that the results for both male and female intercollegiate players are similar and that intercollegiate softball players can use any of the 8 warm-up devices in the on-deck circle and have similar BVs. However, similar to in other previous baseball research, it is not recommended that female intercollegiate softball players warm up with the popular commercial donut ring in the on-deck circle because it produced the slowest BV.

  8. Longitudinal Relations of Intrusive Parenting and Effortful Control to Ego-Resiliency during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency (ER), effortful control (EC), and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age ("Ns" = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted EC a year later, over and above earlier levels. EC at…

  9. Appraisal and control of sexual and non-sexual intrusive thoughts in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D A; Purdon, C; Byers, E S

    2000-05-01

    This study examined differences in the appraisal and thought control strategies associated with the perceived control of unwanted sexual and non-sexual intrusive thoughts. Eleven appraisal dimensions, subjective physiological arousal and 10 thought control strategies were measured in 171 university students who were administered the Revised Obsessive Intrusions Inventory-Sex Version, a self-report measure of unwanted intrusive thoughts. Thought-action fusion (TAF) likelihood was a significant unique predictor of the perceived controllability of respondents' most upsetting sexual and non-sexual intrusive thought. Moreover greater subjective physiological arousal was a significant predictor of reduced control over sexual intrusions, whereas worry that one might act on an intrusive thought and greater effort to control the intrusion were significant unique predictors of the control of non-sexual intrusive thoughts. Various thought control strategies were more often used in response to non-sexual than sexual cognitions. The results are discussed in terms of the differential role of various appraisal processes in the control of unwanted sexual and non-sexual thoughts.

  10. Pukala intrusion, its age and connection to hydrothermal alteration in Orivesi, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Talikka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pukala intrusion is situated in the Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian Shield in the contact region between the Central Finland Granitoid Complex and the Tampere Belt. The acid subvolcanic intrusion, which is in contact or close to severalaltered domains, mainly consists of porphyritic granodiorite and trondhjemite. The Pukala intrusion was emplaced into volcanic sequence in an island-arc or fore-arc setting before or during the early stages of the main regional deformation phase of the Svecofennian orogeny. On the basis of the geochemical data, the Pukala intrusion is a peraluminous volcanic-arc granitoid. After crystallisation at 1896±3 Ma, multiphase deformation and metamorphismcaused alteration, recrystallisation, and orientation of the minerals, and tilted the intrusion steeply towards south. The 1851±5 Ma U-Pb age for titanite is connected to the late stages of the Svecofennian tectonometamorphic evolution of the region. Several hydrothermally altered domains are located in the felsic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks of the Tampere Belt within less than one kilometre south of the Pukala intrusion. Alteration is divided into three basic types: partial silica alteration, chlorite-sericite±silica alteration, and sericite alteration in shear zones. The first two types probably formed during the emplacement and crystallisation of the Pukala intrusion, and the third is linked to late shearing. Intense sericitisation and comb quartz bands in the contact of theintrusion and the altered domain at Kutemajärvi suggest that the hydrothermal system was driven by the Pukala intrusion.

  11. Context-aware local Intrusion Detection in SCADA systems : a testbed and two showcases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chromik, Justyna Joanna; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Pilch, Carina; Brackmann, Pascal; Duhme, Christof; Everinghoff, Franziska; Giberlein, Artur; Teodorowicz, Thomas; Wieland, Julian

    2017-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of a testbed that we have developed for context-aware local intrusion detection. This testbed is based on the co-simulation framework Mosaik and allows for the validation of local intrusion detection mechanisms at field stations in power distribution networks. For two

  12. Individual differences in experiencing intrusive memories : The role of the ability to resist proactive interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Johan; Wessel, Ineke; de Jong, Peter J.

    This study explored whether a relatively poor ability to resist or inhibit interference from irrelevant information in working memory is associated with experiencing undesirable intrusive memories. Non-selected participants (N = 91) completed a self-report measure of intrusive memories, and carried

  13. Intensively exploited Mediterranean aquifers: resilience and proximity to critical points of seawater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazi, K.; Koussis, A. D.; Destouni, G.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate here seawater intrusion in three prominent Mediterranean aquifers that are subject to intensive exploitation and modified hydrologic regimes by human activities: the Nile Delta Aquifer, the Israel Coastal Aquifer and the Cyprus Akrotiri Aquifer. Using a generalized analytical sharp-interface model, we review the salinization history and current status of these aquifers, and quantify their resilience/vulnerability to current and future sea intrusion forcings. We identify two different critical limits of sea intrusion under groundwater exploitation and/or climatic stress: a limit of well intrusion, at which intruded seawater reaches key locations of groundwater pumping, and a tipping point of complete sea intrusion upto the prevailing groundwater divide of a coastal aquifer. Either limit can be reached, and ultimately crossed, under intensive aquifer exploitation and/or climate-driven change. We show that sea intrusion vulnerability for different aquifer cases can be directly compared in terms of normalized intrusion performance curves. The site-specific assessments show that the advance of seawater currently seriously threatens the Nile Delta Aquifer and the Israel Coastal Aquifer. The Cyprus Akrotiri Aquifer is currently somewhat less threatened by increased seawater intrusion.

  14. Intensively exploited Mediterranean aquifers: resilience to seawater intrusion and proximity to critical thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazi, K.; Koussis, A. D.; Destouni, G.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate seawater intrusion in three prominent Mediterranean aquifers that are subject to intensive exploitation and modified hydrologic regimes by human activities: the Nile Delta, Israel Coastal and Cyprus Akrotiri aquifers. Using a generalized analytical sharp interface model, we review the salinization history and current status of these aquifers, and quantify their resilience/vulnerability to current and future seawater intrusion forcings. We identify two different critical limits of seawater intrusion under groundwater exploitation and/or climatic stress: a limit of well intrusion, at which intruded seawater reaches key locations of groundwater pumping, and a tipping point of complete seawater intrusion up to the prevailing groundwater divide of a coastal aquifer. Either limit can be reached, and ultimately crossed, under intensive aquifer exploitation and/or climate-driven change. We show that seawater intrusion vulnerability for different aquifer cases can be directly compared in terms of normalized intrusion performance curves. The site-specific assessments show that (a) the intruding seawater currently seriously threatens the Nile Delta aquifer, (b) in the Israel Coastal aquifer the sharp interface toe approaches the well location and (c) the Cyprus Akrotiri aquifer is currently somewhat less threatened by increased seawater intrusion.

  15. A Privacy-Preserving Framework for Collaborative Intrusion Detection Networks Through Fog Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Xie, Lin; Li, Wenjuan

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, cyber threats (e.g., intrusions) are distributed across various networks with the dispersed networking resources. Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) have already become an essential solution to defend against a large amount of attacks. With the development of cloud computing, a modern IDS...

  16. Online Adaboost-Based Parameterized Methods for Dynamic Distributed Network Intrusion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Gao, Jun; Wang, Yanguo; Wu, Ou; Maybank, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Current network intrusion detection systems lack adaptability to the frequently changing network environments. Furthermore, intrusion detection in the new distributed architectures is now a major requirement. In this paper, we propose two online Adaboost-based intrusion detection algorithms. In the first algorithm, a traditional online Adaboost process is used where decision stumps are used as weak classifiers. In the second algorithm, an improved online Adaboost process is proposed, and online Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) are used as weak classifiers. We further propose a distributed intrusion detection framework, in which a local parameterized detection model is constructed in each node using the online Adaboost algorithm. A global detection model is constructed in each node by combining the local parametric models using a small number of samples in the node. This combination is achieved using an algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) and support vector machines. The global model in each node is used to detect intrusions. Experimental results show that the improved online Adaboost process with GMMs obtains a higher detection rate and a lower false alarm rate than the traditional online Adaboost process that uses decision stumps. Both the algorithms outperform existing intrusion detection algorithms. It is also shown that our PSO, and SVM-based algorithm effectively combines the local detection models into the global model in each node; the global model in a node can handle the intrusion types that are found in other nodes, without sharing the samples of these intrusion types.

  17. Evaluation of of μ-controller PIR Intrusion Detector | Eludire | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When there is intrusion, a piezo speaker beeps and also a visual indicator with light emitting diode blinks to indicate intrusion. For security, cost effectiveness and access control to certain areas of homes, offices and industries this system is a better replacement to human surveillance needed around our valuable goods and ...

  18. Evidence of a sewer vapor transport pathway at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of sewer lines as preferential pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Although the importance of sewer lines for volatile organic compound (VOC) transport has been documented at a small number of sites with vapor intrusion, sewer lines are not routinely sampl...

  19. A study on the intrusion model by physical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Yul; Kim, Yoo Sung; Hyun, Hye Ja [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    In physical modeling, the actual phenomena of seismic wave propagation are directly measured like field survey and furthermore the structure and physical properties of subsurface can be known. So the measured datasets from physical modeling can be very desirable as input data to test the efficiency of various inversion algorithms. An underground structure formed by intrusion, which can be often seen in seismic section for oil exploration, is investigated by physical modeling. The model is characterized by various types of layer boundaries with steep dip angle. Therefore, this physical modeling data are very available not only to interpret seismic sections for oil exploration as a case history, but also to develop data processing techniques and estimate the capability of software such as migration, full waveform inversion. (author). 5 refs., 18 figs.

  20. Advanced inspection technology for non intrusive inspection (NII) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamir Mohamed Daud

    2003-01-01

    In the current economic environment, plants and facilities are under pressure to introduced cost saving as well as profit maximising measures. Among the many changes in the way things are run is a move towards Risk Based Inspection (RBI), with an emphasis on longer operating periods between shutdowns as well as to utilise components to their maximum capability. Underpinning and RBI program requires good data from an effective online inspections program, which would not require the shutdown of critical components. One methodology of online inspection is known as Non Intrusive Inspection (NII), an inspection philosophy with the objective of replacing internal inspection of a vessel by doing Non Destructive Testing (NDT) and inspections externally. To this end, a variety of advanced NDT techniques are needed to provide accurate online measurements. (Author)

  1. Non-intrusive Quality Analysis of Monitoring Data

    CERN Document Server

    Brightwell, M; Suwalska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Any large-scale operational system running over a variety of devices requires a monitoring mechanism to assess the health of the overall system. The Technical Infrastructure Monitoring System (TIM) at CERN is one such system, and monitors a wide variety of devices and their properties, such as electricity supplies, device temperatures, liquid flows etc. Without adequate quality assurance, the data collected from such devices leads to false-positives and false-negatives, reducing the effectiveness of the monitoring system. The quality must, however, be measured in a non-intrusive way, so that the critical path of the data flow is not affected by the quality computation. The quality computation should also scale to large volumes of incoming data. To address these challenges, we develop a new statistical module, which monitors the data collected by TIM and reports its quality to the operators. The statistical module uses Oracle RDBMS as the underlying store, and builds hierarchical summaries on the basic events ...

  2. Fusion of Heterogeneous Intrusion Detection Systems for Network Attack Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Kaliappan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU, there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate.

  3. Hybrid Intrusion Detection System for DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Cepheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS attacks are one of the major threats and possibly the hardest security problem for today’s Internet. In this paper we propose a hybrid detection system, referred to as hybrid intrusion detection system (H-IDS, for detection of DDoS attacks. Our proposed detection system makes use of both anomaly-based and signature-based detection methods separately but in an integrated fashion and combines the outcomes of both detectors to enhance the overall detection accuracy. We apply two distinct datasets to our proposed system in order to test the detection performance of H-IDS and conclude that the proposed hybrid system gives better results than the systems based on nonhybrid detection.

  4. Messaging Attacks on Android: Vulnerabilities and Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodor Hamandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Android is the leading mobile operating system in number of users worldwide. On the security side, Android has had significant challenges despite the efforts of the Android designers to provide a secure environment for apps. In this paper, we present numerous attacks targeting the messaging framework of the Android system. Our focus is on SMS, USSD, and the evolution of their associated security in Android and accordingly the development of related attacks. Also, we shed light on the Android elements that are responsible for these attacks. Furthermore, we present the architecture of an intrusion detection system (IDS that promises to thwart SMS messaging attacks. Our IDS shows a detection rate of 87.50% with zero false positives.

  5. CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY - NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea DUMITRU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical Information Infrastructure security will always be difficult to ensure, just because of the features that make it irreplaceable tor other critical infrastructures normal operation. It is decentralized, interconnected interdependent, controlled by multiple actors (mainly private and incorporating diverse types of technologies. It is almost axiomatic that the disruption of the Critical Information Infrastructure affects systems located much farther away, and the cyber problems have direct consequences on the real world. Indeed the Internet can be used as a multiplier in order to amplify the effects of an attack on some critical infrastructures. Security challenges increase with the technological progress. One of the last lines of defense which comes to complete the overall security scheme of the Critical Information Infrastructure is represented by the Network Intrusion Detection Systems.

  6. Non-Intrusive Optical Diagnostic Methods for Flowfield Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibi, Bagher M.; Terrell, Charles A.; Spraggins, Darrell; Lee, Ja. H.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1997-01-01

    Non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques such as Electron Beam Fluorescence (EBF), Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF), and Focusing Schlieren (FS) have been setup for high-speed flow characterization and large flowfield visualization, respectively. Fluorescence emission from the First Negative band of N2(+) with the (0,0) vibration transition (at lambda =391.44 nm) was obtained using the EBF technique and a quenching rate of N2(+)* molecules by argon gas was reported. A very high sensitivity FS system was built and applied in the High-Speed Flow Generator (HFG) at NASA LaRC. A LIF system is available at the Advanced Propulsion Laboratory (APL) on campus and a plume exhaust velocity measurement, measuring the Doppler shift from lambda = 728.7 nm of argon gas, is under way.

  7. Intrusion Prevention and Detection in Grid Computing - The ALICE Case

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00416173; Kebschull, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Grids allow users flexible on-demand usage of computing resources through remote communication networks. A remarkable example of a Grid in High Energy Physics (HEP) research is used in the ALICE experiment at European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. Physicists can submit jobs used to process the huge amount of particle collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Grids face complex security challenges. They are interesting targets for attackers seeking for huge computational resources. Since users can execute arbitrary code in the worker nodes on the Grid sites, special care should be put in this environment. Automatic tools to harden and monitor this scenario are required. Currently, there is no integrated solution for such requirement. This paper describes a new security framework to allow execution of job payloads in a sandboxed context. It also allows process behavior monitoring to detect intrusions, even when new attack methods or zero day vulnerabilities are exploited, by a Machin...

  8. INTRUSION DETECTION PREVENTION SYSTEM (IDPS PADA LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didit Suhartono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini berjudul “Intrusion Detection Prevention System Local Area Network (LAN” yang bertujuan untuk memproteksi jaringan dari usaha- usaha penyusupan yang dilakukan oleh seorang intruder. Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah menggunakan metode kerangka pikir sebagai acuan dari tahap- tahap penelitian yang penulis lakukan. IDS difungsikan sebagai pendeteksi adanya serangan sesuai rule yang ada kemudian pesan peringatan disimpan dalam database dan dikirim via sms kepada seorang network administrator, sedangkan Firewall digunakan sebagai packet filtering dengan cara menentukan security policy yang dinilai penting. Hasilnya adalah ketika IDS memberikanpesan peringatan ketika ada serangan, seorang network administrator dapat memblok adanya serangan tersebut dengan cara manual dengan firewall, ataupun firewall akan memblok sendiri serangan tersebut sesuai dengan security policy yang diterapkan oleh network adminisrator sebelumnya

  9. ACUTE EFFECTS OF A RESISTED DYNAMIC WARM-UP PROTOCOL ON JUMPING PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilli, M; Yildiz, S; Saglam, T; Camur, MH

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic changes when resistance is applied in horizontal and vertical directions, produced by using different percentages of body weight, caused by jumping movements during a dynamic warm-up. The group of subjects consisted of 35 voluntary male athletes (19 basketball and 16 volleyball players; age: 23.4 ± 1.4 years, training experience: 9.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 177.2 ± 5.7 cm, body weight: 69.9 ± 6.9 kg) studying Physical Education, who had a jump training background and who were training for 2 hours, on 4 days in a week. A dynamic warm-up protocol containing seven specific resistance movements with specific resistance corresponding to different percentages of body weight (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%) was applied randomly on non consecutive days. Effects of different warm-up protocols were assessed by pre-/post- exercise changes in jump height in the countermovement jump (CMJ) and the squat jump (SJ) measured using a force platform and changes in hip and knee joint angles at the end of the eccentric phase measured using a video camera. A significant increase in jump height was observed in the dynamic resistance warm-up conducted with different percentages of body weight (p 0.05). In jump movements before and after the warm-up, while no significant difference between the vertical ground reaction forces applied by athletes was observed (p > 0.05), in some cases of resistance, a significant reduction was observed in hip and knee joint angles (p jumping movements, as well as an increase in jump height values. As a result, dynamic warm-up exercises could be applicable in cases of resistance corresponding to 6-10% of body weight applied in horizontal and vertical directions in order to increase the jump performance acutely. PMID:25435670

  10. Forecasting deflation, intrusion and eruption at inflating volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Stephen; Cortés, Joaquín A.

    2018-01-01

    A principal goal of volcanology is to successfully forecast the start of volcanic eruptions. This paper introduces a general forecasting method, which relies on a stream of monitoring data and a statistical description of a given threshold criterion for an eruption to start. Specifically we investigate the timing of intrusive and eruptive events at inflating volcanoes. The gradual inflation of the ground surface is a well-known phenomenon at many volcanoes and is attributable to pressurised magma accumulating within a shallow chamber. Inflation usually culminates in a rapid deflation event caused by magma escaping from the chamber to produce a shallow intrusion and, in some cases, a volcanic eruption. We show that the ground elevation during 15 inflation periods at Krafla volcano, Iceland, increased with time towards a limiting value by following a decaying exponential with characteristic timescale τ. The available data for Krafla, Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes show that the duration of inflation (t*) is approximately equal to τ. The distribution of t* / τ values follows a log-logistic distribution in which the central 60% of the data lie between 0.99 deflation event starting during a specified time interval to be estimated. The time window in which there is a specified probability of deflation starting can also be forecast, and forecasts can be updated after each new deformation measurement. The method provides stronger forecasts than one based on the distribution of repose times alone and is transferable to other types of monitoring data and/or other patterns of pre-eruptive unrest.

  11. Using isotopes for global warming observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namata, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper, based on a literature review, discusses the main aspects of using isotopic techniques to obtain information about global warming. The rapid increase concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) in the atmosphere will result in global warming by the greenhouse effect, and the isotopic techniques constitute an efficient tool to explain this complex environmental phenomenon. (author)

  12. Mitigation of global warming through renewable biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, R.S.; Wuehlisch, George von

    2013-01-01

    Rising level of atmospheric CO 2 and consequent global warming is evident. Global surface temperature have already increased by 0.8 °C over the 20th century and is projected to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during the twenty-first century. The global warming will continue till atmospheric concentrations of the major greenhouse gases are stabilized. Among them, CO 2 is mainly responsible and is expected to account for about 60% of the warming over the next century. This study reviews advances on causes and consequences of global climate change and its impact on nature and society. Renewable biomass has tremendous potential to mitigate the global warming. Renewable biomass is expected to play a multifunctional role including food production, source of energy and fodder, biodiversity conservation, yield of goods and services to the society as well as mitigation of the impact of climate change. The review highlights the different management and research strategies in forestry, agriculture, agroforestry and grasslands to mitigate the global warming. -- Highlights: ► Rising level of atmospheric CO 2 and consequent global warming is evident. ► CO 2 is mainly responsible for global warming. ► Global temperature is predicted to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during 21st century. ► Renewable biomass has great potential to mitigate the global warming

  13. Strategies for mitigation of global warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed.......The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed....

  14. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Bill

    1994-01-01

    A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)

  15. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  16. National Security Implications of Global Warming Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Although numerous historical examples demonstrate how actual climate change has contributed to the rise and fall of powers, global warming , in and of...become convinced that global warming is universally bad and humans are the primary cause, political leaders may develop ill-advised policies restricting

  17. Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…

  18. Global Warming: How Much and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanouette, William

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)

  19. Catching a Cold When It's Warm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this issue Catching a Cold When It’s Warm What’s the Deal with Summertime Sniffles? En español ... more unfair than catching a cold when it’s warm? How can cold symptoms arise when it’s not ...

  20. Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this…