Fu Weijun [Department of Urology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Military Postgraduate Medical College, No.28 Fuxing Road, Hai dian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Zhang Binghong [Department of Urology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Military Postgraduate Medical College, No.28 Fuxing Road, Hai dian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Gao Jiangping [Department of Urology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Military Postgraduate Medical College, No.28 Fuxing Road, Hai dian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Hong Baofa [Department of Urology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Military Postgraduate Medical College, No.28 Fuxing Road, Hai dian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Zhang Lei [Department of Urology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Military Postgraduate Medical College, No.28 Fuxing Road, Hai dian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Yang Yong [Department of Urology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Military Postgraduate Medical College, No.28 Fuxing Road, Hai dian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Meng Bo [Biomaterials Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Zhu Ning [Biomaterials Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Cui Fuzhai [Biomaterials Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)
To prevent terrorism during anti-terror war, we developed a reproducible animal model for the induction of a urethral stricture in a war wound rabbit, and to evaluate the feasibility and effect of using a biodegradable urethral stent in the prophylaxis and treatment of urethral strictures in a war wound (or traumatic) rabbit urethral model. The urethral stricture rabbit model was successfully performed by a self-control explosion destructor. New biodegradable urethral stents were placed in the urethras of 20 war wound (traumatic) rabbits, but no stent was used in the 8 rabbits which formed the control group. Follow-up investigation included assessment of procedure success, stent changes, urethrascopy and retrograde urethrography, and histological findings were obtained after sacrifice at 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks after stent placement. The urethral stricture model owing to a war wound (trauma) was tested by tissue reactions and urethroscopy. The length of the urethral strictures was 5-10 mm; the coarctatetion of the urethral lumen was more than 50%. Biodegradable stent placement was technically successful in 20 rabbits. Urethral specimens obtained from the 4 week stent placement group showed diminished inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased thickness of the papillary projections of the epithelium. There was a strong tendency towards regression of the papillary projections and regeneration of urethral mucosa epithelium in the 8 week group. In particular, the injured urethra has recovered completely in the biodegradable stent groups compared with the control group at 12 weeks. The biodegradable urethral stent seems feasible for treating and preventing urethral strictures owing to a war wound (or traumatic) urethra. There are distinct advantages in terms of safe, effective and less-invasive treatment for the reconstruction of post-traumatic urethral strictures.
Bhandari, Prem Singh; Maurya, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Mrinal Kanti
War wounds are devastating with extensive soft tissue and osseous destruction and heavy contamination. War casualties generally reach the reconstructive surgery centre after a delayed period due to additional injuries to the vital organs. This delay in their transfer to a tertiary care centre is responsible for progressive deterioration in wound conditions. In the prevailing circumstances, a majority of war wounds undergo delayed reconstruction, after a series of debridements. In the recent m...
healing/non-healing of wound and donor site • Graft loss • Heterotrophic ossification • Infection • Scar contracture • Durability (i.e. abrasions/ injuries ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0004 TITLE: "Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Leon Nesti CONTRACTING...REPORT DATE January 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 31 Oct 2012- 30 Oct 2016 " Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds ” 5a
Maria Angélica Baron Magalhães
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to verify the effectiveness of the rubber elastic band in the treatment of large wounds of the body wall of rabbits by means of traction of its edges. METHODS: we studied 30 New Zealand rabbits, divided into three groups (n=10: Group 1- healing by secondary intention; Group 2- removal and eutopic repositioning of skin as full thickness skin graft; Group 3- Approximation of wound edges with elastic rubber band. In all animals, we removed a segment of the back skin and subcutaneous tissue down to the fascia, in accordance with an acrylic mold of 8cm long by 12cm wide. All animals were observed for 21 days. RESULTS: two animals of groups 1 and 2 had wound abscess. In Group 2, there was partial or total graft loss in 90% of animals. The complete closure of the wounds was observed in four animals of Group 1, six of Group 2 and eight of Group 3. There was no difference between the scar resistance values of groups 2 and 3, which were higher than those in Group 1. The scars of the three groups were characterized by the presence of mature connective tissue mixed with blood vessels and inflammatory infiltration, predominantly polymorphonuclear. CONCLUSION: the tensile strength of the wound edges with rubber elastic band is as efficient as the skin graft to treat rabbits' large body wounds.
Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Meng, Chengyue; Chinkes, David L; Finnerty, Celeste C; Aarsland, Asle; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N
Propranolol administration has been demonstrated to improve cardiac work, decrease energy expenditure, and attenuate lipolysis in burned patients; however, its effect on wound healing has not been reported. In rabbits, a partial-thickness skin donor site wound was created on the back, and catheters were placed in the carotid artery and jugular vein. A nasogastric feeding tube was placed for enteral feeding. On day 5 after injury, stable isotope tracers were infused to determine protein and DNA kinetics in the wound. Propranolol hydrochloride was injected in 1 group during the tracer infusion to decrease heart rate, and the other group without propranolol injection served as a control. The propranolol infusion decreased heart rate by 21%. The protein fractional synthetic rate in the wound was greater in the propranolol group (8.6 +/- 0.9 vs 6.1 +/- 0.5%/day, P cascades in local wounds were not affected after propranolol treatment. Propranolol infusion increased wound protein synthetic rate and tended to increase wound protein deposition rate, which might be beneficial to wound healing. These changes might reflect a systemic response to the beta-adrenergic blockade.
According to WHO statistics, war injuries are the first surgical cause of death and the first cause of surgical disease in the Africa Region. The International committee of the Red Cross is an impartial, neutral and independent organization whose humanitarian mission includes the assistance to war wounded. During the last ...
Dermal wound transcriptomic responses to Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa versus Klebsiella pneumoniae in a rabbit ear wound model Kai P Leung Pt...with Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp.) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.o.) would indicate host responses associated with the worse healing of P.o. than Kp...responses to injection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa versus Klebsiella pneumoniae in a rabbit ear wound model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER
Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio
The First World War was a huge tragedy for mankind, but, paradoxically, it represented a source of significant progress in a broad series of human activities, including medicine, since it forced physicians to improve their knowledge in the treatment of a large number of wounded soldiers. The use of heavy artillery and machine guns, as well as chemical warfare, caused very serious and life-threatening lesions and wounds. The most frequent causes of death were not mainly related to gunshot wounds, but rather to fractures, tetanus and septic complications of infectious diseases. In the first part of this article, we describe the surgical procedures and medical therapies carried out by Italian physicians during the First World War, with the aim of treating wounded soldiers in this pre-antibiotic era. Antibacterial solutions, such as those of Dakin-Carrel and sodium hypochlorite and boric acid, the tincture of iodine as well as the surgical and dressing approaches and techniques used to remove pus from wounds, such as ignipuncture and thermocautery or lamellar drainage are reported in detail. In the second part of the paper, the organization of the Italian military hospitals network, the systems and tools useful to transport wounded soldiers both in the front lines and in the rear is amply discussed. In addition, the number of soldiers enrolling, and those dying, wounded or missing during the Great War on the Italian front is estimated.
Leone, Joshua M
Since the Vietnam War, graphic novels about war have shifted from simply representing it to portraying avenues for survivors to establish psychological wellness in their lives following traumatic events. While modern diagnostic medicine often looks to science, technology, and medications to treat the psychosomatic damage produced by trauma, my article examines the therapeutic potential of the comics medium with close attention to war comics. Graphic novels draw trauma in a different light: because of the medium's particular combination of words and images in sequence, war comics represent that which is typically unrepresentable, and these books serve as useful tools to promote healing among the psychologically wounded. Graphic narratives, both fictional and non-fictional, illuminate the ways that the unseen wounds of traumatic experience affect public health by compromising the ability of communities, individuals, and survivors to create and maintain meaningful relationships with others.
Dec 2, 2004 ... Historically, on a conventional battlefield, about 70% of the wounded present injuries to the limbs, the remaining 30% have central wounds involving head, chest or abdomen. The longer the delay in transport to hospital facilities, especially with inadequate first aid, the higher the death rate in the central ...
In a war situation, and especially in developing countries, high-technology facilities and skilled orthopaedic surgeons may not be available to deal with these wounds with particularly heavy tissue contamination. The experience of ... importance. Good surgery without physiotherapy often results in a human catastrophe.
Mohamed Yusuf Hassan, Senior Surgeon, Medina Hospital, Mogadishu - Somalia. Marco Baldan, ICRC Regional ... present their experience in the treatment of penetrating abdominal war wounds involving the colon in Medina Hospital. .... can cause high energy transfer resulting in cavitations and huge disruption of the ...
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods: Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results: The unheated honey demonstrated the highest activity on the wound compared to reference ointment silver sulfadiazine, heat-treated honey and sterile saline respectively. Further the present investigation proves that unheated honey is possessing superior wound healing activity than that of heat-treated honey. Conclusions: The result of this study confirms that unheated honey had the best wound healing effect even better than heat-treated honey.
Lin, J H; Chen, J; Xue, D J; Huang, W X; Su, G L
Objective: To explore the influence of different inner dressings in negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on escharectomy wound of full-thickness burn rabbits. Methods: Eighteen Japanese white rabbits were inflicted with full-thickness burn on unilateral back. They were divided into polymer dressing group (PD), biological dressing group (BD), and silver biological dressing group (SBD), according to the random number table, with 6 rabbits in each group. On 3 days post burn, the wounds were performed with escharectomy, and then wounds of rabbits in group PD were covered with polyurethane foam. Wounds of rabbits in group BD were covered with porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and wounds of rabbits in group SBD were covered with silver porcine ADM. Then continuous NPWT was performed on rabbits of the three groups for 7 days. Immediately after surgery and on post surgery day (PSD) 7, general observation of wound was conducted and tissue around the wound was harvested for determination of dry to wet weight ratio. The content of bacteria was counted and the content of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in wound was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fibroblasts in wound were counted after Masson staining and number of microvessels was counted after CD31 antibody immunohistochemical staining. Data were processed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, LSD-t test, paired samples t test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) Immediately after surgery, there was no granulation tissue in basal wound of rabbits in the three groups, with rich blood supply and obvious edema. On PSD 7, much granulation tissue was found in basal wound of rabbits in the three groups, with no or mild edema and no obvious redness and swelling in wound edge. (2) There were no significant differences in dry to wet weight ratios of tissue around the wound among and within the three groups immediately after surgery and on PSD 7 (with F
Kumar, Saurabh; Ghosh, Debaki; Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Dutta, Uttam; Das, Partho; Kundu, Subarna
The effects of spermatheca gland extract of snail (Telescopium telescopium) to promote wound healing were studied in an animal model. The spermatheca gland extract of the snail was used as a topical medicament to treat experimentally created full thickness wounds in 12 rabbits (Oryctologous cuniculus). Wound healing was assessed on the basis of physical, histomorphological, and histochemical changes on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in all measured parameters. These exciting findings suggest that the data should be further tested in animal models to better understand the potential for wound healing in the spermatheca gland extract of the marine snail.
Full Text Available Radiation is an important therapy for cancer with many benefits; however, its side effects, such as impaired wound healing, are a major problem. While many attempts have been made to overcome this particular disadvantage, there are few effective treatments for impaired wound healing in an X-ray-irradiated field. One reason for this deficiency is the lack of experimental models, especially animal models. We have previously reported a mouse model of impaired wound healing in which the irradiation area was restricted to the hindlimbs. In this mouse model, due to the size of the animal, a diameter of five millimeters was considered the largest wound size suitable for the model. In addition, the transplanted cells had to be harvested from other inbred animals. To investigate larger wounds and the impact of autologous specimen delivery, a rabbit model was developed. Rabbits were kept in a special apparatus to shield the body and hindlimbs while the irradiation field was exposed to radiation. Six weeks after irradiation, a 2 x 2 cm, full-thickness skin defect was made inside the irradiation field. Then, the wound area was observed over time. The wound area after irradiation was larger than that without irradiation at all time points. Both angiogenesis and collagen formation were reduced. For further study, as an example of using this model, the effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP was observed. Autologous PRP from peripheral blood (pb-PRP and bone marrow aspirate (bm-PRP was processed and injected into the wounds in the irradiated field. Two weeks later, the wounds treated with bm-PRP were significantly smaller than those treated with phosphate buffer vehicle controls. In contrast, the wounds treated with pb-PRP were not significantly different from the controls. This rabbit model is useful for investigating the mechanism of impaired wound healing in an X-ray-irradiated field.
Djerrou, Zouhir; Maameri, Z; Hamdi-Pacha, Y; Serakta, M; Riachi, F; Djaalab, H; Boukeloua, A
This study aimed to assess the efficiency of the virgin fatty oil of Pistacia lentiscus (PLVFO) for burn wounds healing. It was carried out on 6 adult male New Zealand rabbits. Four burn wounds of deep third degree were made on the back of each animal. The first was not treated and served as control (CRL group); the others were covered immediately after burning procedure by 0.5g of one of the following products: Vaseline gel (VAS group), Madecassol(®) cream 1% (MAD group) or 1ml of PLVFO (PLVFO group). The treatments were repeated once daily until complete healing. For four days post burns, the percentage of wound contraction was assessed. Also, the different healing times were noted. The results showed that both PLVFO and Madecassol(®) significantly accelerated wound healing activity compared to wounds dressed with Vaseline and the untreated wounds. However, the level of wound contraction was significantly higher and the healing time was faster in PLVFO group than those of the MAD group, VAS group and CRL group. The different epithelization periods obtained in days were respectively: 30±3.94 (PLVFO group), 33.5±3.78 (MAD group), 34.66±3.88 (VAS group) and 37.16±3.54 (CRL group). We conclude that Pistacia lentiscus virgin fatty oil promotes significantly (p< 0.05) wound contraction and reduces epithelization period in rabbit model.
Caroline Rocha de Oliveira Lima
Full Text Available In this study, 5% barbatiman and 5% chitosan creams were evaluated as adjuvants in the tissue repair process by secondary intention of rabbit’s skin wounds. Four equidistant wounds were induced in the dorsal skin of 20 adult male rabbits, which were submitted to healing by secondary intention and treated with 5% chitosan cream (QC, n=5, 5% barbatiman cream (BC, n=5, 2% allantoin cream (n=5, and base cream (n=5. The creams were applied with the aid of disposable spatulas after washing the wounds. The wounds were daily analyzed by clinical examination for 21 days and histological analyses were performed on the 3rd, 14th, and 21st day after induction. The microscopic evaluation of the wounds of all groups showed macroscopic features of the healing process at different time intervals. The QC and BC treatments helped in the skin repair process in rabbits when compared to the other two treatments. They induced fibroblast activation and early collagen deposition, and modulated re-epithelialization and neovascularization. Thus, it was concluded that BC and QC are efficient and economically feasible as adjuvants in the healing process of skin wounds in rabbits.
Balanika, Alexia P; Baltas, Christos S
The Homeric epics present the 10-year lasting Trojan War, offering the description of battle wounds and medical care of injuries. Hecamede is referred by the Homer as a battlefield nurse who had knowledge of the treatment of bleeding battle wounds.
Town. While at War Records he compiled the Union of South Africa Roll of Honour 1939-1945. Capt Loraine-. Grews also compiled statistics of the wounded and prisoners of war and since these have never been published, may be of value to researchers and would be a monumental task for a researcher to compile afresh.
Maria Elisa Marin Marques
Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has been extensively studied as a biomaterial for wound treatment, and the heterologous PRP is usefulin the event that obtaining the patient’s own blood is impossible. This study aimed to evaluate and compare wound healing in rabbits and quantify the collagen in experimentally induced wounds in a control group and in a group treated with heterologous PRP gel. We hypothesize that this gelis capable of promoting proper healing with no adverse reactions, increased collagen content. The clinical aspects of coloring, edema, hyperemia, exudation, crust, granulation, pain sensitivity, and retraction index of the wounds were measuredon days 7, 14, and 17 after the injury. Collagen quantification by Picrosirius staining and evaluation under polarized light was performed on the 17th day. Crust was present in both groups at all evaluated time points, with the absence of other clinical signs. The wound contraction rate and collagen quantity did not differ between groups. In conclusion, the suggested hypothesis was partially confirmed; the heterologous PRP gel was unable to increase the amount of collagen and accelerate the wound healing process, however, wound healing was efficient and similar in both groups and there was no local adverse reaction. Thus, despite the scarcity of studies in the literature, the heterologous PRP gel is an effective alternative treatment for wounds in the absence of other sources of PRP.
Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat
Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts.
Murray, Clinton K; Roop, Stuart A; Hospenthal, Duane R; Dooley, David P; Wenner, Kimberly; Hammock, John; Taufen, Neil; Gourdine, Emmett
.... In the spring of 2004, U.S. military casualties who presented to the 31st Combat Support Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, with acute traumatic injuries resulting in open wounds underwent aerobic culture of their wounds to identify...
Full Text Available Graft-assisted healing is an important strategy for treating full-thickness skin wounds. This study evaluated the properties of porcine cholecyst–derived scaffold and its use for treating full-thickness skin wound in rabbit. The physical properties of cholecyst-derived scaffold were congenial for skin-graft application. Compared to a commercially available skin-graft substitute made of porcine small intestinal submucosa, the cholecyst-derived scaffold was rich in natural biomolecules like elastin and glycosaminoglycans. When used as a xenograft, it promoted healing with excess cell proliferation at early phases and acceptable collagen deposition in the later remodelling phases.
Introduction: Vacuum-assisted wound closure therapy has widely been used in various clinical applications with successful results and has considerably increased in popularity over the past decade. The patient who sustained a complex war wound to his perineum has been presented. Methods: After the initial treatment he was discharged from the hospital in which he had been treated for 4 days in Iraq. On the examination, all wounds were deeply contaminated with foreign bodies and also involved significant volume of devitalized tissue. Perineal injury had not only caused a large skin defect but also left a deep wound leading to rectal perforation, so the wound and its borders were quite contaminated and infected by rectal contents. After improving his general condition with medical treatment, he underwent an immediate operation in which first a colostomy was performed and then the wound tract placed between perineum and rectum was sharply and extensively debrided to viable-appearing bleeding tissue to remove the whole necrotic tissues, foreign bodies, cloths, and debris. At the end of the intervention, a negative pressure dressing was applied and used during 12 days and then completed. Results: The wound tract obliterated entirely without permitting any leakage of rectal contents, and wound bed appeared clean, granulated, contracted, and viable enough for definitive closure with flap mobilization. Conclusions: When dealing with this experience presenting an unusual wound that was in a very difficult area of the body for the treatment, perineum, caused from a challenging reason, war injury, and also was complicated with rectal injury, the technique seems to have a significant beneficial effect on the healing of complicated wounds such as in perineal wound and war wound, even if these are at risk of severe infection and progressive tissue necrosis. PMID:20011583
Conclusions: In conclusion, AFM 15% ointment was found to reduce wound healing time without any significant difference with the phenytoin 1% ointment. The authors suggest increased AFM effectiveness in when combined with phenytoin or other effectual plants.
Kato, T; Nakayasu, K; Kanai, A
To analyze corneal wound healing after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). We performed PKP on 20 white rabbit eyes, and applied immunohistochemical techniques. The distribution of type I, III and IV collagens, large proteoglycan, chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and vimentin was determined at postoperative intervals of 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months. By day 3, staining for type IV collagen was observed along the host-graft junction. By day 7, staining for type III collagen, large proteoglycan and chondroitin 6-sulfate had increased in the repair region, and then diminished with increasing postoperative time. Epithelial wound healing required more than one month, whereas the remodeling of Descemet's membrane did not terminate at 3 months after PKP. The data from this study suggest that type III collagen, large proteoglycan and chondroitin 6-sulfate play a crucial role in the corneal wound healing after PKP.
Full Text Available Background. War wounds caused by modern infantry weapons or explosive devices are very often associated with the defects of soft and bone tissue. According to their structure, tissue defects can be simple or complex. In accordance with war surgical doctrine, at the Clinic for Plastic Surgery and Burns of the Military Medical Academy, free flaps were used in the treatment of 108 patients with large tissue defects. With the aim of closing war wounds, covering deep structures, or making the preconditions for reconstruction of deep structures, free flaps were applied in primary, delayed, or secondary term. The main criteria for using free flaps were general condition of the wounded, extent, location, and structure of tissue defects. The aim was also to point out the advantages and disadvantages of the application of free flaps in the treatment of war wounds. Methods. One hundred and eleven microvascular free flaps were applied, both simple and complex, for closing the war wounds with extensive tissue defects. The main criteria for the application of free flaps were: general condition of the wounded, size, localization, and structure of tissue defects. For the extensive defects of the tissue, as well as for severely contaminated wounds latissimus dorsi free flaps were used. For tissue defects of distal parts of the lower extremities, scapular free flaps were preferred. While using free tissue transfer for recompensation of bone defects, free vascularized fibular grafts were applied, and in skin and bone defects complex free osteoseptocutaneous fibular, free osteoseptocutaneous radial forearm, and free skin-bone scapular flaps were used. Results. After free flap transfer 16 (14,4% revisions were performed, and after 8 unsuccessful revisions another free flaps were utilized in 3 (37,5% patients, and cross leg flaps in 5 (62,5% patients. Conclusion. The treatment of war wounds with large tissue defects by the application of free microvascular flaps
Aderounmu, A O; Omonisi, A E; Akingbasote, J A; Makanjuola, M; Bejide, R A; Orafidiya, L O; Adelusola, K A
Calotropis Procera (CP) has been used in the management of toothache, fresh skin burns, gum bleeding as well as others to make it qualify as a medicinal plant. This study was designed to assess its wound-healing property in rabbits and its potentials for anti keloidal activity.Fresh latex of Calotropis were obtained and evaluated phytochemically. Fifteen male rabbits were used and four excisional wounds were created on each rabbit. The rabbits were divided into five groups of three each. Group 1 was the negative control and received no treatment. The wounds of group 2 animals were treated with 2mL of Calotropis latex; group 3 with 2mL honey; and group 4 with a mixture of 1ml honey and 1 mL of the latex. The animals in group 5 were given 2mg triamcinolone intramuscularly. All the groups had their wounds treated daily for 21 days. The wounds' diameters were measured on the day of wound creation, thereafter on days 7, 14 and 21 post wound creation. Biopsies of the wounds were taken on days 3 and 21 and viewed histologically. Phytochemical study of the latex revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins and alkaloids. The wounds were found to be significantly (pCalotropis latex revealed the presence of florid granulation tissues on day 3 while there was a marked reduction in quantity and size of collagen fibres on day 21 post wound creation which was comparable with what was seen for the triamcinolone-treated group.The general effect of Calotropis latex on wound-healing was noted. Likewise it's similarity to that of triamcinolone, an anti-keloidal agent; this makes it a probable candidate for future anti-keloidal study using a suitable model.
Full Text Available John Christoforidis1, Robert Ricketts1, Cedric Pratt1, Jordan Pierce1, Scott Bean1, Michael Wells1, Xiaoli Zhang2, Krista La Perle31College of Medicine, 2Center for Biostatistics, 3College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAPurpose: To investigate the effect of intravitreal pegaptanib, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab on blood-vessel formation during cutaneous wound healing in a rabbit model and to compare this effect to placebo controls.Methods: Forty New Zealand albino rabbits underwent full thickness cutaneous wounds using 6-mm dermatologic punch biopsies. The rabbits were assigned to four groups of ten, each receiving intravitreal injections of pegaptanib, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or no injection (untreated controls. Five rabbits from each group underwent wound harvesting on day 7 and five from each group on day 14. The skin samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE, Masson's trichrome (MT, and CD34 for vascular endothelial cells. Semiquantitative evaluation of HE- and MT-stained slides was performed by one pathologist. Quantitative assessment of mean neovascularization (MNV scores was obtained from five contiguous biopsy margin 400× fields of CD34-stained sections by four independent observers.Results: Week 1 MNV scores in CD-34 stained sections were: untreated controls: 11.51 ± 4.36; bevacizumab: 7.41 ± 2.82 (P = 0.013; ranibizumab: 8.71 ± 4.08 (P = 0.071; and pegaptanib: 10.15 ± 5.59 (P = 0.378. Week 2 MNV data were: untreated controls: 6.14 ± 2.25; bevacizumab: 7.25 ± 2.75 (P = 0.471; ranibizumab: 4.53 ± 3.12 (P = 0.297; and, pegaptanib: 6.35 ± 3.09 (P = 0.892. Interobserver variability using intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.961.Conclusions: At week 1, all three anti-VEGF agents had suppressed MNV scores compared to controls. Although not statistically significant, there was an inhibitory trend, particularly with bevacizumab and ranibizumab. These effects were diminished at 2 weeks
Ma, Xiao-Hua; Li, Jing-Hai; Bi, Hong-Sheng; Zhou, Fang; Li, Yan
To compare effects of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) on the cornea and corneal wound healing and to investigate the possible mechanism of corneal haze and myopic regression histopathologically. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were allocated randomly to correct -4.00 and -8.00 diopters and were operated with PRK on right eyes and LASIK on left eyes. At 10 days and 1, 3, and 6 months, corneal haze was observed, refraction was evaluated, and 3 rabbits were randomly selected for each time point to be enucleated, and corneas to be bisected. One half of each cornea was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, and the other half was evaluated using either light microscopy or immunohistochemical staining for collagen type III, IV, fibronectin (FN) and transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)). Different degrees of corneal haze and myopic regression were observed after PRK: the higher the desired myopic correction, the heavier the haze. Corneal wound healing response was greater and lasted longer after PRK than after LASIK. Various pathological findings such as epithelial hyperplasia, basal membrane reforming and extracellular matrix deposits were found in the ablation zone and repair mechanisms were still active at 6 months after PRK. Whereas after LASIK, the interface between the flap and stromal bed was transparent except for growing epithelial plugs and lightly proliferating stroma coinciding with the flap margins. After both PRK and LASIK, all corneal cell types were consistently positive for TGF-beta(1) antibody during the corneal wound healing time. TGF-beta(1) antibody positivity decreased as the wound healing approached completion. The histopathological changes of corneal haze and myopic regression are as follows: epithelial hyperplasia, basal membrane immaturity, anterior stromal keratocyte increase and activity, new collagen III production and irregular arrangement thereof, and FN deposition in the
Full Text Available Ethnomedicinal report of haemostatic activity of six medicinal plants was validated by a study of the effect of succulent leaf extract of plant parts on the punch wound of rabbit for the first time. It was found that the succulent leave extracts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke, Barleria lupulina Lindl., Blumea lacera Dc., Croton bonplandianum Baill, Glinus lotoides Lin. and Mikania scandens (L Willd. can induce haemostasis in fresh wounds as compared to automatic haemostasis (120.00 ±2.91 seconds. The fresh leave extract of Mikania scandens took 25.00 ±1.87 seconds for haemostatic activity. Artemisia nilagirica (35.00 ± 1.50 seconds, Barleria lupulina (30.00 ±2.34 seconds, Blumea lacera (38.00 ±1.87 seconds, Glinus lotoides (35.00 ±2.29 seconds are having better action than Croton bonplandianum (leaf extract, which took 40.00 ±2.69 seconds time for haemostasis. The latex collected from the wounded small branches of living Croton bonplandianum plant is having highest efficacy in causing haemostasis (10.00 ±1.22 seconds, better than the positive control of Tincture Ferric per Chloride (13.00 ±2.54 seconds. The dermal toxicity study reveals that the application of the fresh plant extract on the skin of rat failed to produce any detrimental effect. The plant extracts collected from succulent plant leaves and particularly the latex collected from the living Croton bonplandianum Baill. plant can be used as haemostatic agents.
Background: Medina Hospital, a Police Hospital in Mogadishu South, Somalia was closed after the civil war broke out in 1991. With the support of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), was reopened as community based hospital in 2000. The authors present their experience in the treatment of penetrating ...
Holmgaard, Rikke; Duffy, Jonas; Warburg, Finn Edgar
INTRODUCTION: To describe the lessons learned from treatment of war casualties at a public hospital in Denmark. METHODS: A retrospective review of soldiers who underwent free flap reconstruction at Rigshospitalet, Denmark, between January 2006 and December 2010. RESULTS: Nine patients were treate...... to reconstruct defects resulting from battlefield trauma. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....
Stimpson, Catharine R.
A historic dialectic exists between the beautiful and the bestial. The bestial destroys the beautiful, but in a bloody miracle, the beautiful emerges from the womb of the bestial, the "terrible beauty" of which the poet W. B. Yeats wrote. The liberal arts, so often thought to dwell in a remote ivory tower, embody this dialectic. Wars and…
Carey, Michael E
Harvey Cushing, perhaps the most important founder of American neurosurgery, was an Army neurosurgeon in France from 1917 to 1918. Over a 3-month period in 1917 he and his team operated on 133 soldiers with a brain wound. The operative mortality rate for their last 45 patients was 29%, considerably lower than the usual postoperative mortality rate of approximately 50% for those with a brain wound. This accomplishment was lauded at the time and eventually, for some, it was Cushing who was responsible for lowering the postoperative mortality rate of brain wounds during World War I. As the decades passed he was eventually credited as the "originator of brain wound care." This report shows that these attributions are misplaced. Cushing merely followed the enlightened surgical precepts of the time developed by Continental (European) surgeons. It also examines Cushing's writings to ascertain how these misperceptions concerning his originality might have been generated.
Campillo, V-E; Langonnet, S; Pierrefeu, A; Chaux-Bodard, A-G
The rabbit is one of the most widely used models for studying bone remodeling or dental implant osseointegration but very few data are available about the rabbit's mandible. The aim of this work was to describe the anatomy of the rabbit mandible and to estimate the available bone volume for experimental studies. First, with a dissection, the morphology of the mandible was described and the mental foramen, the position of the main salivary glands and muscular insertions were located. Then, by X-ray imaging, the position of the inferior alveolar canal, the dental root courses and volume and bone density were described. Finally, with frontal sections of the mandible body, the rabbit's dental and alveolar bone histological structure were assessed. Thus, the relevance of the rabbit mandible as an experimental model for wound healing or surgical therapies was discussed. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira
This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded.
Kılıç, Ciğdem; Güleç Peker, Emine Gülçeri; Acartürk, Füsun; Kılıçaslan, Seda M Sarı; Çoşkun Cevher, Şule
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of local glutathione (GSH) and chitosan applications on the oxidant events and histological changes that occur, during healing processes in rabbits with incisional intraoral mucosal wounds. For this purpose, discs containing glutathione and chitosan (1:1) were prepared and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. New Zealand white rabbits were used in in vivo studies. A standard incision was applied to the oral mucosa of rabbits. The rabbits were divided into four groups, being: an untreated incisional group (n=6), a group treated with discs containing GSH+chitosan (n=6), a group treated with discs containing solely chitosan (n=5) and a group treated with discs containing solely GSH (n=5). The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione and nitric oxide (NOx) in the oral wound tissues were measured on the fifth day after the injury. Histological changes in the wound tissues were also investigated. The tissue MDA levels in the group treated with the disc containing GSH+chitosan were found to be lower than those in the other groups. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of tissue GSH and NOx levels between the group treated with the disc comprising GSH+chitosan and the control group that had untreated incision wounds. According to the histological findings, wound healing in the group treated with the disc containing solely chitosan was found to be better than in the other groups. The results of the experiments showed that the local application to the intraoral incision wounds of chitosan+GSH, and chitosan alone, can be effective in the wound healing processes of soft tissues and dental implants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Evans, Korboi N; Potter, Benjamin K; Brown, Trevor S; Davis, Thomas A; Elster, Eric A; Forsberg, Jonathan A
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication of modern wartime extremity injuries. The biological mechanisms responsible for the development of HO in traumatic wounds remain elusive. The aims of our study were to (1) characterize the expression profile of osteogenesis-related gene transcripts in traumatic war wounds in which HO developed; and (2) determine whether expression at the mRNA level correlated with functional protein expression and HO formation. Biopsy specimens from 54 high-energy penetrating extremity wounds obtained at the initial and final surgical débridements were evaluated. The levels of selected osteogenic-related gene transcripts from RNA extracts were assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. As a result of its key role in osteogenesis, the concentration of BMP-2 in the effluent of 29 wounds also was determined. The transcripts of 13 genes (ALPL [p = 0.006], BMP-2 [p < 0.001], BMP-3 [p = 0.06], COL2A1 [p < 0.001], COLL10A1 [p < 0.001], COL11A1 [p = 0.006], COMP [p = 0.02], CSF2 [p = 0.003], CSF3 [p = 0.012], MMP8 [p < 0.001], MMP9 [p = 0.014], SMAD1 [p = 0.024], and VEGFA [p = 0.017]) were upregulated greater than twofold in wounds in which HO developed compared with wounds in which it did not develop. Gene transcript expression of BMP-2 also correlated directly with functional protein expression in the wounds that formed HO (p = 0.029). Important differences exist in the osteogenic gene expression profile of wounds in which HO developed compared with wounds in which it did not develop. The upregulation of multiple osteogenesis-related gene transcripts indicates the presence of a proosteogenic environment necessary for ectopic bone formation in traumatic wounds. Understanding the osteogenic environment associated with war wounds may allow for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for HO.
Jia, Shengxian; Xie, Ping; Hong, Seok Jong; Galiano, Robert; Singer, Adam; Clark, Richard A F; Mustoe, Thomas A
Curcumin, a spice found in turmeric, is widely used in alternative medicine for its purported anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The goal of this study was to test the curcumin efficacy on rabbit ear wounds under nonischemic, ischemic, and ischemia-reperfusion conditions. Previously described models were utilized in 58 New Zealand White rabbits. Immediately before wounding, rabbits were given intravenous crude or pure curcumin (6 μg/kg, 30 μg/kg, or 60 μg/kg) dissolved in 1% ethanol. Specimens were collected at 7-8 days to evaluate the effects on wound healing and at 28 days to evaluate the effects on hypertrophic scarring. Student's t test was applied to screen difference between any treatment and control group, whereas analysis of variance was applied to further analyze for all treatment groups in aggregate in some specific experiments. Treatment with crude curcumin suggested accelerated wound healing that reached significance for reepithelialization in lower and medium doses and granulation tissue formation in lower dose. Purified curcumin became available and was used for all later experiments. Treatment with pure curcumin suggested accelerated wound healing that reached significance for reepithelialization in lower and medium doses and granulation tissue formation in lower dose. Treatment with pure curcumin significantly promoted nonischemic wound healing in a dose-response fashion compared with controls as judged by increased reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation. Improved wound healing was associated with significant decreases in pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 as well as the chemokine IL-8. Curcumin also significantly reduced hypertrophic scarring. The effects of curcumin were examined under conditions of impaired healing including ischemic and ischemia-reperfusion wound healing, and beneficial effects were also seen, although the dose response was less clear. Systemically administrated pure
Lai, Yu-Hung; Wang, Hwei-Zu; Lin, Chang-Ping; Hong, Show-Jen; Chang, Shun-Jen
The objective was to study the effects of endothelin-1 (ET1) on corneal wound healing after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbit corneas. Following PRK, 18 New Zealand white rabbits were treated with ET1 in the right eyes and with phosphate-buffered salt solution (PBS) in the left eyes. Corneal epithelial wound size, corneal haze and corneal thickness were recorded. Corneal extracellular matrixes, including collagen types 3, 4 and 7, chondroitin sulfate and fibronectin, were investigated using immunohistochemistry study. ET1 increased the rate of healing of corneal epithelial wounds in rabbits. Anti-fibronectin fluorescence was present at week 12 and week 24 in ET1-treated eyes but not in the control eyes. There were no significant differences in corneal haze, corneal thickness and changes in other extracellular matrixes between ET1- and PBS-treated eyes. ET1 can enhance the deposition of fibronectin in corneal stroma and promote corneal epithelial wound healing after PRK. The increase in fibronectin probably explains the increased healing rate of corneal epithelial wounds.
Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of endothelin-1 (ET1 on corneal wound healing after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK in rabbit corneas. Following PRK, 18 New Zealand white rabbits were treated with ET1 in the right eyes and with phosphate-buffered salt solution (PBS in the left eyes. Corneal epithelial wound size, corneal haze and corneal thickness were recorded. Corneal extracellular matrixes, including collagen types 3, 4 and 7, chondroitin sulfate and fibronectin, were investigated using immunohistochemistry study. ET1 increased the rate of healing of corneal epithelial wounds in rabbits. Anti-fibronectin fluorescence was present at week 12 and week 24 in ET1-treated eyes but not in the control eyes. There were no significant differences in corneal haze, corneal thickness and changes in other extracellular matrixes between ET1- and PBS-treated eyes. ET1 can enhance the deposition of fibronectin in corneal stroma and promote corneal epithelial wound healing after PRK. The increase in fibronectin probably explains the increased healing rate of corneal epithelial wounds.
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the macroscopic and histologic effects of pregabalin (PG gabapentin (GB on longitudinal intestinal wound healing in New Zealand rabbits. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups randomly; the control group (n=6, PG group (n=6 and GB group (n=6. All animals were premedicated with xylazine HCI, 5 mg/kg i.m. and general anaesthesia was performed by ketamine HCI 50 mg/kg i.m injection. A 4 cm incision in the caecum through median laparotomy was achieved under aseptic surgery. Intestinal wound was closed with double-sutured. All animals were received parenteral antibiotic treatment for 5 days. PG and GB groups were treated by PG (30 mg/kg, oral, daily and GB (30 mg/kg, oral, daily for 10 days respectively. Control group did not receive any treatment. The animals were euthanized on day 10 and the caecum was examined by laparotomy. Adhesion formation was observed, and tissue samples were taken from suture lines for histologic examination. Cellular infiltration (polymorphonuclear white blood cells and mononuclear cells, accumulation of connective tissue, vascularization and extent of necrosis were evaluated and scored separately for each of mucosal, submucosal, muscular and serosal layers of caecum. Results: Adhesions were more severe in the GB group compared to other groups. No statistically significant differences were detected among the three groups about the wound healing. Conclusion: It was suggested that the use of gabapentinoids had no significant effect on wound healing in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery and further studies with treatment periods longer than 10 days are needed.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the important functions of the cornea is to maintain normal vision by refracting light onto the lens and retina. This property is dependent in part on the ability of the corneal epithelium to undergo continuous renewal. Ocular surface failure which follows a variety of endogenous and exogenous precipitating factors, the most common being: chemical trauma, infection, alkaline burn, inflammation and hereditary conditions, lid or lash abnormalities, tear deficiency or reduced sensation. The core principal underpinning management strategy for ocular surface failure is establishing or promoting new growth of healthy conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. This process is mediated by many proteins that are inducers of corneal cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The current study was performed to investigate the efficacy of umbilical cord serum on alkaline corneal epithelial wound healing in the rabbit model. Materials & Methods: In this study conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2010, thirty two rabbits were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Central corneal alkali wound was formed in one eye of the rabbits by applying a 6-mm round filter paper, soaked in 1 N NaOH, for 60 seconds. Group one of animals received umbilical cord blood serum and group two received Sno*Tear in the eyes. The treatment was dosed 4 times a day with the eye drops, and epithelial wound closure was recorded using slit lamp. The data were analyzed to determine the rate of wound closure. Results: The mean wound radius closure rate was 0.77 mm/day (SD=0.013 for umbilical cord blood serum-treated eyes, 0.73 mm/day (SD=0.018 for artificial tear-treated eyes. Conclusion: This study shows that alkali-injured corneal epithelial wound heal faster when treated with umbilical cord blood serum than with artificial tear in rabbit model.
Eliane Szücs dos Santos
Full Text Available Recent studies have been carried out to evaluate the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP in the cicatrization of wounds; however, the protocols for treatment have been based on a single application of PRP.To evaluate the effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma in gel form on the cicatrization of cutaneous wounds in vivo experimental model, wounds were induced in the dorsal areas of six New Zealand white rabbits with the aid of an 8-mm punch. The right side was used as a control (A and treated with 0.9% NaCl, whereas the left side (B was treated serially with the autologous platelet-rich plasma gel. Lesions were assessed over a 17-day period. At days 0, 10 and 17, the animals were evaluated and morphological and morphometric analyses of the wounds were performed. At day 17, a biopsy was performed for histopathological evaluation. Macroscopically, wounds treated with PRP showed better cicatrization and higher contraction percentages than the control wounds. Regarding the percentage of wound contraction, it was found that the average treated wound with autologous platelet-rich plasma gelwas 95% while withthecontrolwas88%. We concluded that autologous platelet-rich plasma gel is effective and accelerates cicatrization when used serially in short intervals, thus confirming its therapeutic potential in cutaneous lesions and potential as an alternative wound treatment option.
Wollensak, Gregor; Iomdina, Elena; Dittert, Dag-Daniel; Herbst, Hermann
This study was undertaken to investigate the wound healing process of the first 6 weeks after photodynamic cross-linking treatment in the rabbit cornea, using the photosensitizer riboflavin and UVA. After removal of the central epithelium, the right corneas of 8 Chinchilla rabbits were cross-linked with a photosensitizing 0.1% riboflavin solution and UVA light (370 nm; irradiance, 3 mW/cm(2); dose, 5.4 J/cm(2)) for 30 minutes. Two animals were euthanized 3 days, 7 days, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks postoperatively. The corneas of the enucleated eyes were evaluated using 4-microm light microscopic sections with routine stains and avidin-biotin complex immunostaining with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin. By day 3 after treatment, complete apoptotic damage and loss of the endothelial cells and the stromal keratocytes were found in the irradiated area through the entire thickness of the stroma. There was marked stromal edema (850 +/- 66 vs. 332 +/- 43 microm in the untreated controls; P neutrophils. By day 7, the endothelium was already intact again, and keratocyte repopulation of the posterior stroma was noted. By week 4, the keratocyte repopulation of the anterior stroma was observed with some acellular areas between. By week 6, the cytoarchitecture of the cornea seemed normal again. By weeks 4 and 6, alpha-actin-positive keratocytes were identified, especially in the periphery of the irradiated area. After riboflavin/UVA cross-linking of rabbit cornea, a complete cell loss occurs in the irradiation area with an irradiance of 3 mW/cm(2). The cytotoxic damage is repaired by repopulation after approximately 4-6 weeks. A combination of cross-linking with other procedures such as the implantation of intracorneal rings should be performed only after a sufficient time interval of approximately 2 months, allowing cellular regeneration.
heal, physically and mentally. By challenging those soldiers to stick with their treatment and therapy and prepare for the new world that I have...63 His ability to bounce back like this after experiencing devastating war trauma is the holy grail of resiliency. Notes 1
During the cold war, Frank Fenner (protégé of Macfarlane Burnet and René Dubos) and Francis Ratcliffe (associate of A. J. Nicholson and student of Charles Elton) studied mathematically the coevolution of host resistance and parasite virulence when myxomatosis was unleashed on Australia's rabbit population. Later, Robert May called Fenner the "real hero" of disease ecology for his mathematical modeling of the epidemic. While Ratcliffe came from a tradition of animal ecology, Fenner developed an ecological orientation in World War II through his work on malaria control (with Ratcliffe and Ian Mackerras, among others)-that is, through studies of tropical medicine. This makes Fenner at least a partial exception to other senior disease ecologists in the region, most of whom learned their ecology from examining responses to agricultural challenges and animal husbandry problems in settler colonial society. Here I consider the local ecologies of knowledge in southeastern Australia during this period, and describe the particular cold-war intellectual niche that Fenner and Ratcliffe inhabited.
Leung, Kai P.; D’Arpa, Peter; Seth, Akhil K; Geringer, Matthew R.; Jett, Marti; Xu, Wei; Hong, Seok J; Galiano, Robert D.; Chen, Tsute; Mustoe, Thomas A.
Background Bacterial infections of wounds impair healing and worsen scarring. We hypothesized that transcriptome analysis of wounds infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p.) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) would indicate host-responses associated with the worse healing of P.a.- than K.p.-infected wounds. Methods Wounds created on post-operative day (POD) 0 were infected during the inflammatory phase of healing on POD3 and were harvested on POD4 for microarray and transcriptome analysis. Oth...
Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand
The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man found dead by his son in the forest where he had gone to cut wood for winter. Initial examination showed an upper left laterocervical wound compatible with a stab wound. Radiography and autopsy performed the next day showed a piece of metal located in the left part of the occipital bone, associated with a half-ring fracture of the occipital bone and consequent diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Death was attributed to a spinal shock after impact at the cervicocephalic junction. Investigators returned to the scene and found a few more metal elements and also a 20-cm deep and 40-cm wide crater underneath a fire the deceased had set. Army experts concluded that the metal pieces belonged to an ATM 9 antitank rifle grenade used by the U.S. Army during World War II. Death was considered accidental, the deceased having unfortunately set a fire over the grenade.
Miyamoto, Takeshi; Saika, Shizuya; Yamanaka, Akio; Kawashima, Yoshiji; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Ohnishi, Yoshitaka
To compare the wound-healing process in the rabbit cornea after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with the same refractive correction. Department of Ophthalmology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan. Adult albino rabbits (N = 24) were used. One eye of each animal had PRK or LASIK with the same refractive correction. Each animal was killed after an interval of up to 6 months. The expression pattern of corneal stromal injury-related molecules with the 2 treatments were compared. Paraffin sections of the cornea were processed immunohistochemically for alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), collagen type IV [alpha1(IV)](2),alpha2(IV), and heat shock protein (HSP) 47 as well as other HSPs. Sections were also examined after hematoxylin and eosin or periodic acid-Schiff staining. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed the central epithelium to be thick in PRK-treated corneas. The thick epithelium was restricted to the area around the corneal flap edge adhesion in LASIK-treated corneas at 3 months. Periodic acid-Schiff staining showed an absence of or interruption in the epithelial basement membrane in PRK-treated corneas for up to 6 months. Heat shock protein 47 was detected in keratocytes on day 3 but not after that in PRK-treated corneas. There was no difference in the expression of other HSPs. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was expressed in keratocytes repopulated in the central anterior cornea of PRK-treated corneas at 28 days. Keratocytes with immunoreactivity for these 2 proteins were not seen in LASIK-treated corneas. Collagen IV [alpha1(IV)](2),alpha2(IV) was not detected in either group of corneas. The central epithelium became transiently thicker in PRK-treated corneas. Keratocyte responses to laser stromal ablation were more marked in corneas treated with PRK than in those treated with LASIK.
biofilm behavior of mixed-species cultures with dental and periodontal pathogens. PLoS One 5(10): 131–135. 47. Ma H, Bryers JD (2010) Non-invasive method...Comparative Analysis of Single-Species and Polybacterial Wound Biofilms Using a Quantitative, In Vivo, Rabbit Ear Model Akhil K. Seth1*, Matthew R...Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, 2 Microbiology Branch, US Army Dental and Trauma Research Detachment, Institute of Surgical
Hérard, Patrick; Boillot, François; Fakhri, Rasheed M
Hidden infections in a reconstructive surgery program are frequently underestimated. A retrospective study was undertaken of 1,891 civilian war-wounded patients from Iraq, Syria, Yemen and Gaza treated in Amman from August 2006 to January 2016. One thousand three hundred and fifty-three underwent surgical interventions for previous bone injury and had systematic bone cultures. Among patients (167) without any clinical, biological or radiological signs of infection, 46% demonstrated infection based on bone cultures. We conclude that bone culture should become a prerequisite for any reconstruction in such contexts.
Zellem, R T
The American Civil War was a holocaust that illustrated the mid-19th century's unpreparedness for the delivery of medical care to the mass casualties due to both wounds and disease. Several major considerations are offered to explain the soldiers' morbidity. Incomplete understanding of pathophysiology and its management is exemplified by the treatment of the battlefield head injury. Accepting these concepts and the extent of the knowledge of the time, that higher mortality did not occur is in part testimony to the admirable care that was rendered and human resilience in an effort to survive.
Full Text Available Nadyr A Damasceno,1 Nadia C Miguel,2 Marcelo Palis Ventura,3 Miguel Burnier Jr,4 Marcos P Avila,5 Eduardo F Damasceno3 1Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Naval Marcílio Dias, 2Laboratory of Neurohistology and Cell Ultrastructure, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 3Ophthalmology Department, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil; 4Ophthalmology Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Ophthalmology Department, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiania, Brazil Purpose: The aim of study was to evaluate the cross-link using riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA for improving scleral wound healing.Materials and methods: This was an experimental study involving four New Zealand rabbits (eight eyes. Therapy procedure was chosen for the right eye and control procedure for the left one. UVA irradiation of 365 nm with a surface irradiance of 3 mW/cm2 and a photosensitizer of riboflavin drops were applied for 30 minutes on the right eye at 2 mm from the limbus. Sclerotomy incision was performed at 2 mm from the limbus in both right (on the cross-link-treated area and left eye. Then, 30 days after surgery, a morphological analysis and histological staining with hematoxylin–eosin and picrosirius red were performed, and the sclerotomy cicatrization of right and left eyes was compared. The variables investigated were as follows: sclerotomy incision pictures and measurements were made using the ImageJ Software. Scleral thickness was measured (employing the anterior optical coherence tomography and the digital caliper. Collagen fiber density stained with picrosirius red staining was measured using the Image Pro Plus software.Results: The morphological analysis showed that in all samples, the right eye presented sclerotomy closure, and in two eyes, among them, there were no visible edges of the sclerotomies incision. The left eye presented sclerotomy closure and incision edges
Full Text Available Introduction. During the last two decadesthe larval therapy has reemerged as a safe andreliable alternative for the healing of cutaneousulcers that do not respond to the conventionaltreatments.Objective. To evaluate the use of the larvaeof Lucilia sericata as a treatment for infectedwounds with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in ananimal model.Materials and methods. Twelve rabbits wererandomly distributed in 3 groups: the firstgroup was treated with larval therapy; the secondwas treated with antibiotics therapy and to thethird no treatment was applied, therefore wasestablished as a control group. To each animala wound was artificially induced, and then asuspension of P. aeruginosa was inoculated intothe lesion. Finally, every rabbit was evaluateduntil the infection development was recognizedand treatment was set up for the first twogroups according with the protocols mentionedabove. Macroscopic evaluation of the woundswas based on the presence of edema, exudates,bad odor, inflammation around the wound andthe presence of granulation tissue. The healingprocess was evaluated by monitoring histologicalchanges in the dermal tissue.Results. Differences in the time requiredfor wound healing were observed between thefirst group treated with larval therapy (10 daysand the second group treated with conventionalantibiotics therapy (20 days.Conclusion. The L. sericata larva is and efficienttool as a therapy for infected wounds withP. aeruginosa.
Fatahi, Nabi; Nordholm, Lena; Mattsson, Bengt; Hellström, Mikael
To study experiences of war-wounded Kurdish refugees with respect to cross-cultural communication through interpreters. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten men, aged 31-42. Content analysis was used for analysis and interpretation of data. War-wounded Kurdish refugees experienced a number of difficulties regarding communication through interpreters, mainly related to the insufficient language link to the Swedish authorities, particularly health care personnel. In many instances, interpreters were selected based on the immigrant's citizenship rather than mother tongue, leading to a more complex, tri-lingual interpretation situation. Differences in cultural background, fear, suspicion and lack of confidence in interpreters were addressed as other problems by the participants. Interpreter competence and patient confidence in the interpreter are essential for an adequate cross-cultural health communication. Assignment of interpreters should be based on knowledge of the patient's/client's mother tongue, rather than citizenship, and the outcome is improved by a common ethnic and cultural background of interpreter and patient/client. Our study should be considered as a pilot study, and the results should be validated in larger cohorts as well as in other ethnic and language groups. In order to minimize communication misunderstandings, complicated tri-lingual interpretation situations should be avoided. Interpreters should ideally be assigned according to patient's/client's mother tongue rather than citizenship. Interpreters' competence and patient's/client's confidence in interpreter may have significant impact on communication outcome. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dougherty, Paul Joseph; Eidt, Herbert Collins
The advent of the full metal jacketed bullet in the late nineteenth century was thought to cause less severe battlefield wounds. This study compares the wounding characteristics of a reproduction rifle from the American Civil War to one of the Spanish-American War using the wound profile method. A 0.58 caliber rifled musket using Minié balls and a 0.30 caliber Krag-Jorgenson rifle using full metal jacketed bullets were fired into calibrated 10% ordnance gelatin blocks at a distance of 3 meters. Measured parameters included maximum temporary cavity, muzzle velocity, and the permanent track. Maximum temporary cavities were significantly larger using the musket, averaging 121 mm (+/- 5.4) vs. 38.6 mm (+/- 8.8) (p < 0.001). Bullet weights were also significantly larger, totaling 29.7 grams (+/- 1.3) for the musket vs. 14.18 grams (+/- 0.01) for the rifle (p < 0.01). Using grains, bullet weights were 458.3 grains (+/- 20 grains; range 435.2-486.1) vs. 218.8 grains (+/- 0.15; range 218.7-219). Muzzle velocities of the musket were significantly less when compared with the rifle, averaging 944 fps (+/- 116) vs. 1852 fps (+/- 22.5), respectively (p < 0.001). The rifled musket produced more severe wounds when compared to the Krag-Jorgenson rifle, as was clinically apparent to observers at the time of the Spanish-American War.
Ahn, Hee-Bae; Shin, Dong-Min; Roh, Mee-Sook; Jeung, Woo-Jin; Park, Woo-Chan; Rho, Sae-Heun
To evaluate the clinical efficacy and histopathological tolerance of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate versus conventional suture materials for eyelid wound closure in rabbits. We performed an experimental study on 16 eyes of eight New Zealand albino rabbits. Eyelid incisions of 15 mm were done 4mm from the upper eyelid margin in both eyes. The eyes of the rabbits were divided into two groups: eyelid incisions of the right eye were closed by a 2-octyl cyanoacrylate adhesive (group A) and eyelid incisions of the left eye were closed by 7-0 nylon sutures (group B). At 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery, the rabbits were macroscopically examined and then sacrificed. The specimens of their eyelid tissues were stained by a hematoxylin and eosin stain and Masson-trichrome stain, and were observed under microscope. Both eyelid surgical closure methods were found to be equally efficacious in fixing the eyelids of groups A and B, and their clinical efficacy was similar. Histopathological findings of the hematoxylin and eosin stain of group A showed less inflammatory infiltration than group B at 2 weeks. There were no significant histopathological differences between the two groups at 1, 4, and 8 weeks. The degree of fibrosis of the Masson-trichrome stain was similar between the two groups at 8 weeks. The 2-octyl cyanoacrylate adhesive proved to be an effective eyelid closure method and was very well tolerated by the skin surface. 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate could be used as an alternative tissue adhesive for eyelid wound closure along with conventional suture materials. © 2011 The Korean Ophthalmological Society
Ichijima, H; Petroll, W M; Barry, P A; Andrews, P M; Dai, M; Cavanagh, H D; Jester, J V
To compare and contrast the in vivo mechanism of wound healing after mechanical scrape and transcorneal freeze (TCF) injury in a rabbit eye model by examining changes in the cytoskeletal organization of contractile, filamentous actin (f-actin) microfilaments as relates to differences in cell migration or translocation during endothelial repair. Endothelial wound healing after mechanical scrape and transcorneal freeze injury was studied in rabbit eyes using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Central corneal mechanical scrape injury was made using an olive tip cannula, and TCF injury was made using a 3-mm diameter stainless steel probe cooled with liquid nitrogen. Cytoskeletal changes in f-actin stained with phalloidin-FITC were observed during wound healing using LSCM. At 6 hours after mechanical scrape, the leading edge of the migrating sheet showed a decrease in the intensity of phalloidin-FITC staining, suggesting a decrease in cortical f-actin. Migrating endothelial cells in vivo did not appear to develop stress fibers after mechanical scrape, which is consistent with an in vitro cell spreading mechanism of endothelial wound healing. By 24 hours, the denuded area was almost fully resurfaced by migrating endothelial cells. On the other hand, TCF injury produced fibroblastic changes in the endothelial cells with extension and elongation of spindle-shaped endothelial cells at the leading edge by 24 hours after injury. Fibroblastic endothelial cells developed prominent actin stress-fibers, which is consistent with an in vitro cell migration mechanism of endothelial wound healing. Three days after TCF, the wounded area was resurfaced with two cell types: rough, fibroblast-like cells forming a retrocorneal fibrous membrane having prominent f-actin bundles or stress fibers with few cell-cell junctions, and smooth, polygonal-shaped endothelial cells having tight cell junctions with a cortical distribution of f-actin. After 28 days the retrocorneal fibrous
Barhoum, Masad; Tobias, Samuel; Elron, Moshe; Sharon, Aviram; Heija, Tariq; Soustiel, Jean F
As an expected consequence of the civil war in Syria, emergent neurosurgical care for battlefield trauma has been provided for severely head-injured Syrians transferred to Northern Israel. Sixty-six patients suffering from brain injury were brought to the border and then referred to the institution after initial resuscitation. Both the time and type of injury were recorded based on paramedic testimony, forensic material or on details provided by patients. A retrospective analysis of all medical charts and imaging material was performed. Most injuries were combat-related, either caused by blast (13.6%), shrapnel (24.2%), assault (28.8%) or gunshot wound (15.2%). Only a minority of patients (18.2%) suffered from injuries that were not directly caused by weapon. A total of 55 surgical procedures were performed in 46 out of 66 patients, including craniotomies in 40 patients, burr hole alone for placement of intraparenchymal intracranial pressure (ICP) sensor in nine instances and ventricle peritoneal shunt in two patients. Decompressive craniectomy was used only for the treatment of gunshot wound and was performed in eight out of 10 patients. The most common complication consisted in cerebrospinal fluid fistulas (16.7%). Post-operative infections occurred in seven patients (10.6%). Short-term outcomes were favourable in 60.7%, with a mortality rate of 4.5%. The present findings suggest that aggressive surgery and neuro-intensive care measures may lead to good functional results, even in the presence of seemingly devastating injuries in some selected patients.
Full Text Available While Triticum sp. has been shown to act in wound healing, stimulating collagen synthesis by fibroblasts, the use of this plant extract has yet to be assessed in vivo, in commercially viable presentations. This study used rabbits and assessed, on days seven, 14, and 21, the presence or absence of granulation tissue and epithelialization, histopathological structures, and scar quality through the breaking and tension strength. Treatments, performed for 21 days, were aqueous extract of T. aestivum at a concentration of 2mg/mL (group I and 10mg/mL (group II and a nonionic cream (control group. We demonstrate that the formation of granulation tissue was not significantly different between treatments. In the analysis of epithelial tissue, wounds in group II differed from other treatments by day 7. On days 14 and 21 there was no significant clinical difference between groups. In the histopathological evaluation, scar quality and rupture strength did not differ between the groups in the studied period. In the tension strength evaluation, group I differed from the others, presenting a higher tension strength overall. The studied treatments did not differ regarding healing evolution of the skin wounds, but T. aestivum extract, at 2mg/mL, presents better results in the tension strength evaluation.
Improving Vocational Rehabilitation Access and Return to Work and Career Outcomes among African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War, and Vietnam War Era Veterans with Disabilities: A White Paper Series
Moore, Corey L., Ed.: Johnson, Jean E., Ed.; Washington, Andre L., Ed.
The purpose of this monograph is to present documents that discuss issues related to improving access to vocational rehabilitation services and return to work rates of African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War and Vietnam War Era veterans with disabilities. This monograph also includes a review of relevant literature on barriers to employment…
Ilyas Tahirkheli, M Uzair; Ellahi, Irfan; Dar, Muhammad Farooq; Sharif, Arslan
To determine the effect of mechanism of injury on wound healing, and on the viability and success of distally based sural flap when used for the coverage of defects of lower leg, ankle and foot. Descriptive study. Department of Surgery, Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar and Khariyan, from January 2012 to December 2014. Patients with soft tissue defects over the distal leg, ankle and foot were selected by purposive sampling technique and divided into 2 groups of 19 patients each. Group A(road traffic accidents) and group B (war injuries). Sural fascio-cutaneous flap was the reconstructive tool used in all the cases using single technique by the same surgical team; and time for recipient site preparation, size of the defect, graft survival, its healing time and complications, were studied. The mean age of the 38 patients in the study was 28.2 ±13.4 years. There were 36 male and 2 female patients. The most common site of injury encountered was leg (n=20) followed by foot (n=11) and ankle (n=5). Maximum wound size seen in group A was 10 x 12 cm and in group B was 15 x 38 cm. Recovery was uneventful in 17/19 cases of group Awhile 7/19 in group B and with no graft failure. Superficial epidermolysis was seen in 2 and 8 cases in group A and B respectively while edge necrosis of the flap was observed in group B only (n=4). Healing time on average was 2 to 3 weeks in group A, and 4 to 5 weeks in group B. Soft tissue defects of the distal lower extremity as a result of war injuries and road traffic accidents have different dynamics in terms of wound size, time of wound healing, wound complications and functional outcome; but distal based sural flap has promising results in both situations.
Equistum arvense, also called horsetail has been widely used in traditional medicine for wound healing due to having free silica. Also this plant has an important role in enhancing skin elasticity and resistance, and can be effective in restoration of tissue after cell death. The aim of this work was to evaluate histometrically and histopathologically the ability of dried extract ointment of Equistem arvense in enhancing the healing process of full- thickness excisional skin wound in rabbits following topical application, compared with zinc oxide ointment. Under surgical anesthesia, full thickness similar excisional wounds were made on the back of 40 rabbits that were divided into 4 groups of Equistum arvense 20%, zinc oxide ointment, eucerin, and control. A double-blind method was employed throughout the study. All the cases were treated with topical ointments daily for 28 days. Healing process of the wounds were quantified daily and compared using digital photography and image analysis software. Histopathologic examination was performed on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and the wound healing was scored using healing grades I to VI with regard to the wound healing parameters such as oedema, congestion & hemorrhage, fibroplasia, epithelium regeneration, wound contraction, collagen deposition and granulation tissue maturation. The overall out come of the wound recovery for each individual group was calculated, and the results were put under statistical analysis using SPSS software. According to histometric findings, the skin contraction rate in equistum arvense 20% group on treatment period was much higher than that in the other groups. Also, histopathologic results revealed that overall healing rate into group I in the second and third weeks was higher than that in the other groups (p
Full Text Available We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies’ larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species’ fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds.
Góngora, Jennifher; Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A.; Gaona, María A.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.
We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue) was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies' larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species' fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds. PMID:25866825
Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Jigang; Xu, Yanfeng; Han, Yunlin; Jiang, Binbin; Huang, Lan; Zhu, Hua; Xu, Yuhuan; Yang, Weiling; Qin, Chuan
Objective To observe the effects of 630 nm red light and 460 nm blue light emitting diode irradiation on the healing of skin wounds in Japanese big-ear white rabbits. Methods The skin wound model was established with 8 Japanese big-ear white rabbits. Three parts of vulnus in each rabbit were used:two parts of vulnus were irradiated vertically by red and blue LED light,respectively(15 min/time),and the distance between lights and wounds was 15 cm;the 3rd part of the wound was used as a control. On the 21st day of the wounds exposure to light,the number of healing wounds and the percentage of healing area were recorded and the treatment effect of these two light sources was compared. HE staining was used to analyze the newborn tissue structure. Masson staining was used to observe the proliferation of skin collagen fibers. Immuohistochemical staining was used to analyze fibroblast growth factor(FGF),epidermal growth factor(EGF),endothelial growth factor(CD31),proliferating cell nuclear antigen(Ki-67),and inflammatory cytokines(CD68)infiltration in the skin. Results The healing rate in the red light,blue light,and control groups was 50.0%(4/8),25.0%(2/8),and 12.5%(1/8),respectively. Since the 12th day after modeling,the healing area percentage in the red light group was significantly higher than those in the blue light and control groups(Plight group was(2.95±0.34)mm,which was significantly higher than that in control group [(2.52±0.42)mm;F=3.182,P=0.016)]. The average optical density of collagen fibers was 0.15±0.03 in red light group,which was significantly higher than that of the blue light group(0.09±0.01;F=7.316,P=0.012)and control(0.07±0.01;F=7.316,P=0.003). The results of immunohistochemistry showed the expression levels of EGF,FGF,CD31 antigen,and Ki-67 in the red light group were significantly higher than those in the blue light and control groups,whereas the CD68 expression was significantly lower(Plight irradiation can promote the healing of skin wounds
Rafei, Rayane; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Eveillard, Matthieu; Lemarié, Carole; Mallat, Hassan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie
The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been observed worldwide. We describe the first detection of A. baumannii carrying the blaNDM-1 gene in Lebanon, isolated from Syrian patients wounded during the civil war. Four carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated in 2012 in the Tripoli Government Hospital, Lebanon, from civilians wounded during the Syrian war, were analysed. Susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion testing, and resistance to carbapenems was confirmed by Etest. The presence of blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaOXA-143-like, and blaNDM was investigated by PCR. Clonal relationships were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing. All isolates harboured the blaNDM-1 gene and were negative for other tested carbapenemases. They all belonged to the sequence type 85 and formed a single cluster by PFGE. Finally, blaOXA-51-like gene sequencing revealed the presence of the blaOXA-94 variant in all four isolates. These findings show that Syria constitutes a reservoir for NDM-1-producing bacteria. These results also highlight the need for effective measures to stop the threatening spread of such strains. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Behfar, Mehdi; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid
Tendons are frequently targets of injury in sports and work. Whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have beneficial effects on tendon healing is still a matter of debate. This study was conducted to evaluate effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) on tendon healing after experimentally induced acute trauma. Twenty eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to complete transection of deep digital flexor tendons followed by suture placement. Treatment group received intramuscular injection of FM for three days, and controls received placebo. Subsequently, cast immobilization was continued for two weeks. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after surgery and tissue samples were taken. The histological evaluations revealed improved structural characteristics of neotendon formation including fibrillar linearity, fibrillar continuity and neovascularization in treatment group compared to those of controls (p 0.05). Mechanical evaluation revealed significant increase in load-related material properties including ultimate load, yield load, energy absorption and ultimate stress in treatment group compared to those of control group (p 0.05). The present study showed that intramuscular injection of FM resulted in improved structural and mechanical properties of tendon repairs and it could be an effective treatment for acute tendon injuries like severance and laceration. PMID:25568677
Full Text Available Tendons are frequently targets of injury in sports and work. Whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have beneficial effects on tendon healing is still a matter of debate. This study was conducted to evaluate effects of flunixin meglumine (FM on tendon healing after experimentally induced acute trauma. Twenty eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to complete transection of deep digital flexor tendons followed by suture placement. Treatment group received intramuscular injection of FM for three days, and controls received placebo. Subsequently, cast immobilization was continued for two weeks. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after surgery and tissue samples were taken. The histological evaluations revealed improved structural characteristics of neotendon formation including fibrillar linearity, fibrillar continuity and neovascularization in treatment group compared to those of controls (p 0.05. Mechanical evaluation revealed significant increase in load-related material properties including ultimate load, yield load, energy absorption and ultimate stress in treatment group compared to those of control group (p 0.05. The present study showed that intramuscular injection of FM resulted in improved structural and mechanical properties of tendon repairs and it could be an effective treatment for acute tendon injuries like severance and laceration.
Skaik, Sobhi; Abu-Shaban, Nafiz; Abu-Shaban, Nasser; Barbieri, Mario; Barbieri, Maurizio; Giani, Umberto; Manduca, Paola
Abstract Background The amount and identity of metals incorporated into "weapons without fragments" remain undisclosed to health personnel. This poses a long-term risk of assumption and contributes to additional hazards for victims because of increased difficulties with clinical management. We assessed if there was evidence that metals are embedded in "wounds without fragments" of victims of the Israeli military operations in Gaza in 2006 and 2009. Methods Biopsies of "wounds without fragment...
punched out and immediately snap -frozen in liquid nitrogen. Wound samples were homogenized using a Mini-bead beater-8 equipment (Biospec Products, Inc...regulation of wound healing. Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2004; 3: 201–8. 13. Bernard JJ, Gallo RL. Protecting the boundary: the sentinel role of host defense
Xiao, Qiguo; Chen, Yuan; Du, Juan; Wang, Hua; Li, Wei; Liu, Zuguo
To investigate the effects and mechanism of amniotic extraction on corneal healing after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Experimental Study. Thirty-six New Zealand rabbit corneas were performed with PRK models (-10 diopters, 6.5 mm diameter). According to random number table, all eyes were divided into three groups, including treated with amniotic extraction, 0.1% dexamethasone and excipient respectively after operation. Clinical and histopathologic examinations were taken by slit-lamp microscope and light microscope. Corneal epithelium reparation was observed by fluorescent staining. Corneal stroma cell apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Myofibroblast generation was evaluated by immunofluorescence checking the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The number of TUNEL and α-SMA positive cells was analyzed to explore the effects on corneal haze. The haze grading was compared between groups using Kruskal-Wallis H test. Mean values for each experiment were compared between groups using a one-way analysis of variance and LSD-t test.Spearman rank analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between the haze grading and the expression of TUNEL positive cells and α-SMA. The corneas of seventy-two eyes reepithelialized in 6 days after operation. The average epithelium repair time of the AE group was (4.12 ± 0.62) d, the dexamethasone group was (5.25 ± 0.78) d, and the excipient group was (4.96 ± 0.73) d. The progression of reepithelialization was significantly faster in the AE group than the other two groups (F = 14.144, P healing of epithelial cell by interacting with the corneal cell factors, reducing the cell apoptosis, corneal wound healing response and rebuilding the corneal matrix with less myofibroblast, collagen and scar and finally reduce the formation of haze.
Sulfonamide, tablets ------------------ 2 Plasma ----------------------------- 27 Oxygen ---------------------------- 1 Splints ...gastric dilatation. 6. Failure to control pain by morphine, procaine hydrochloride (Novo- cain) nerve block, proper splinting of painful extremity wounds...the left, from the depressed fracture entrance. The patient was comatose on admission. He exhibited palsy of the right seventh nerve and spasticity in
Teicher, Carrie; Foote, Nancy L; Al Ani, Ali M K; Alras, Majd S; Alqassab, Sufyan I; Baron, Emmanuel; Ahmed, Khalid; Herard, Patrick; Fakhri, Rasheed M
The MSF programme in Jordan provides specialized reconstructive surgical care to war-wounded civilians in the region. The short musculoskeletal functional assessment score (SMFA) provides a method for quantitatively assessing functional status following orthopaedic trauma. In June 2010 the Amman team established SMFA as the standard for measuring patients’ functional status. The objective of this retrospective study is to evaluate whether the SMFA scores can be useful for patients with chronic war injuries. All patients with lower limb injuries requiring reconstruction were enrolled in the study. Each patient's SMFA was assessed at admission, at discharge from Amman and during follow-up in home country. In the analysis we compared patients with infected versus non-infected injuries as well as with both high and low admissions dysfunctional index (ADI). Among infected patients, higher ADI correlated with more surgeries and longer hospital stay. Infected patients with ADI >50 required an average of 2.7 surgeries while those with ADI 50 required an average of 1.6 operations compared to 1.5 for those with ADI surgical reconstruction of lower limb injuries would be enormously useful.
Smith, Jennifer M; Fox, Charles J; Brazaitis, Michael P; Via, Kathy; Garcia, Roman; Feuerstein, Irwin M
This article analyzes the use and benefits of the 64-slice CT scanner in determining the 3D relationships of vascular and soft tissue wounds in lower extremity war time injuries. A brief overview of CT scanning is given as well as the techniques used to produce the images needed for diagnosis. The series follows two similar cases of war time injury patients at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. The first case is a 30-year-old active duty male, who presented with multiple trauma from a motor vehicle accident because of an improvised explosive device (IED) blast, sustaining substantial lower extremity injuries. The second case is a 34-year-old active duty male, who presented with multiple trauma blast injuries. Both cases were of interest because the vasculature was found to be very close to the surface of the wound, which put the arteries at risk for rupture and for iatrogenic injury during repeated debridements.
Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus
We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....
Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Dunn, John C; Bader, Julia O; Belmont, Philip J
Previous studies regarding combat wounding have a limited translational capacity due to inclusion of soldiers from all military branches and occupational specialties as well as a lack of information regarding soldiers who died in theater. A search was performed of the Department of Defense Trauma Registry and Armed Forces Medical Examiner data set for the years 2003 to 2011 to identify all injured personnel with the military specialty 19D (cavalry scout). A manual search was conducted for each record identified, and age, rank, location and manner of injury, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and extent of wounding were abstracted. The incidence of injuries by body region and rates for specific types of wounds were determined. Statistically significant associations between rank, location of injury, manner of injury, body region involved, and injury mechanism were assessed using χ2 analysis. Associations between ISS, rank, manner of injury, and survival were evaluated by t test with Satterthwaite correction. A total of 701 casualties were identified with 3,189 distinct injuries. Mean (SD) age of injured personnel was 25.9 (6.0) years. Thirty-five percent of the cohort was composed of soldiers who died in theater. Explosions were the most common mechanism of injury (70%), while 18% of wounds occurred owing to gunshot. Extremity wounds and injuries to the head and neck represented 34% of casualty burden. Thoracic trauma occurred in 16%, and abdominal injuries occurred in 17%. Wounds with a frequency exceeding 5% included skin, extremity, facial, brain, and gastrointestinal injuries. Vascular injury occurred in 4%. Gunshot wounds were a greater cause of injury in Afghanistan (p = 0.001) and resulted in a higher percentage of thoracic injuries (p trauma sustained by combat-specific personnel seems to be different from that experienced by all soldiers deployed to a war zone.
Aras, M; Altaş, M; Yilmaz, A; Serarslan, Y; Yilmaz, N; Yengil, E; Urfali, B
Toward the end of 2010, the Arab spring, the waves of revolutionary demonstrations and protests influenced also Syria, where violent clashes turned into a civil war. Hundreds of thousands of people became refugees. The use of excessive force unfortunately culminated in numerous deaths and injuries in many cities. Being the closest city to Aleppo, Damascus and Homs, the biggest cities of Syria, Antioch/Hatay has been the city where initial emergency treatments were performed. For this reason, we examined and retrospectively analyzed the medical records of the patients treated in the clinics of our hospital due to cranial gunshot wounds during the war. The medical records of 186 patients who were injured in the Syrian War and brought to, followed up and treated in the Neurosurgery Clinic of Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Medicine in Hatay, a Turkish city on the Syrian border, between April 2011 and June 2013. A total of 186 patients were evaluated in a period of more than 2 years. Of all 91.4% of the patients were adults (male/female: 152/18) and 8.6% of them were pediatric patients (male/female: 14/2). The average age of the patients was 31 years, with an age range of between 2 months and 67 years. According to Glasgow coma score (GCS) of the patients at the time of admission, GCS was 3 in 32 patients (17.2%), between 4 and 7 in 70 patients (37.6%), and between 8 and 15 in 84 patients (45.1%). We observed that the patients with GCS of 4-7 had a significantly lower mortality among the 56 patients treated surgically compared with the 14 patients treated medically. Cranial gunshot wounds are responsible for high mortality and morbidity. A multiplicity of factors plays a role on morbidity and mortality. These are the duration of transport, the injury pattern, the velocities of the weapons used, and the Glasgow Coma Scales of the patients at the time of admission. The authors recommend that the patients with cranial gunshot wounds who has GCS of 4-7 should be
Tokajian, Sima; Eisen, Jonathan A; Jospin, Guillaume; Hamze, Monzer; Rafei, Rayane; Salloum, Tamara; Ibrahim, Joe; Coil, David A
We present here the draft genome sequences of multidrug-resistant blaNDM-1-positive Acinetobacter baumannii strains ACMH-6200 and ACMH-6201, isolated in north Lebanon from civilians wounded during the Syrian civil war. The draft genomes were contained in 217 contigs for ACMH-6200 and 83 contigs for ACMH-6201, including a combined 3,997,237 bases for ACMH-6200 and 3,983,110 bases for ACMH-6201, with 39% and 38.9% G+C content, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Tokajian et al.
Arrizabalaga, Jon; García-Reyes, Juan Carlos
In May 1875, in the midst of a bloody civil conflict in Spain known as the Third Carlist War, Nicasio Landa, a medical officer with Military Health, wrote a report requesting authorization for the Spanish Red Cross, of which he was Inspector General, to adopt a new elastic suspension system for stretchers that he had designed, developed and tested. Intended above all for use in farm wagons - still the most widely-used method of transporting the wounded at the time - it was an inexpensive, sturdy mechanism that improved patient comfort and could also be installed in ambulance carriages, railway carriages and hospital ships. An annotated version of the report is included, preceded by a presentation of its contents.
Full Text Available Aim: We aimed at analysing the patients, who underwent surgical treatment in our hospital after having abdominal wounding by firearm in the war at Syria, retrospectively. Material and Method: The files of Syrian patients, who applied to Emergency Service of Harran University Medical Faculty because of gunshot wounds and had operation after being hospitalized in General Surgery Clinic due to abdominal injuries between the years of 2011 and 2014, were analysed retrospectively. Results: 175 Syrian patients, who had abdominal injuries by firearms, underwent operation in our general surgery clinic. 99.4% (n=174 of the patients were male, and 0.6% (n=1 were female. Trauma-admission to hospital times of all cases were %u2265 6 hours. 62.8% (n=110 of the patients had isolated abdominal injuries, and 37.1% (n=65 had two or more system injuries. The frequency of more than one organ injuries in abdominal region was 44.5% (n=78 and the most frequent complication was wound infection (10%. Negative laparoscopy was 2.8% (n=5, support for intensive care was 38.2% (n=67, average duration of intensive care unit stay was 5.57 days and mortality was 9.7% (n=17. Discussion: In our study, it was seen that infectious morbidity and mortality increased for the patients, who applied to our hospital because of abdominal injuries by firearm, particularly the ones with gastrointestinal perforation, if trauma-admission to hospital times were %u2265 6 hours. And this shows us that the early intervention to injuries that perforate gastrointestinal tract was an important factor for decreasing morbidity and mortality.
According to the results, ointment containing a combination of flaxseed oil 2%+Cinnamon hydroalcoholic extract 3% significantly decreased wound area on all days after wounding in comporison with the control (p
Benmoussa, Nadia; Hansen, Kevin; Charlier, Philippe
During the Great War of 1914 to 1918, spectacular progress was made in the field of facial reconstruction. The sheer number and severity of facial lesions inflicted during the fighting obliged French and German surgeons to take a close interest in the treatment of patients wounded in such a manner. As head surgeon of the fifth division "blessés de la face" at the hospital of Val-de-Grace, Hippolyte Morestin was responsible for one of the largest surgical departments specializing in facial surgery and reconstruction during the war. During his time of service, he developed various surgical techniques such as autoplasties using cartilaginous and adipose grafts to reconstruct tissue defects. This study focuses primarily on the adipose graft techniques and their aesthetic outcome used by Morestin during and in the aftermath of World War I. This is a historical descriptive study. Our research is based on documents available at the museum and archives of the Val-de-Grace Army Health Service (hospital activity reports, pre- and postoperative patient photographs, newspaper clippings, documented accounts of ward nurses, wax anatomy models). Thirty-four clinical cases published by Hippolyte Morestin dealing with facial reconstruction during the World War I were studied. Fat was mainly used to fill craniofacial substance losses after carrying out often complex reconstructions. The surgical technique is well documented and subdivided into 3 succeeding procedures. Most of the time, the grafts were of autologous origin but sometimes heterologous samples were used. Although the primary objective was to increase volume, an improved quality of skin healing and better skin flexibility were observed. The fat thus allowed the filling of substance losses, and its positive effects on scarring were noticed even before the regenerative properties of the stem cells present in body fat were discovered. Hippolyte Morestin can be named one of the pioneers of facial reconstruction. A
Revolutionary wars have devastating and far-reaching effects on the health of the populations caught up in them. However, the deaths and injuries produced by weaponry are only part of the story, because diseases resulting from malnutrition and contaminated drinking water account for the majority of medical problems. This essay uses photographs and testimonies of participants to explore health issues during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), as well as incorporating secondary literature on this question. Furthermore, photographic images are not presented as simple (indexical) windows onto the world. Rather, the author attempts to identify the imagemakers and provide explanations that help in imagining the reasons behind the making of the photographs.
Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...
Exactly ten years after its traumatic defeat in the Spanish-American War of 1898, Spain appeared to find some compensation for the loss of its last colonies by undertaking the invasion of Morocco in 1908. The enterprise proved difficult when the forces of Abd-el-Krim defeated the Spanish army in the summer of 1921. This terrible loss was metaphorized as an "open wound" and entered the collective imagination by becoming a theme in novels such as José Díaz Fernández's El blocao (1928), Ramón ...
Estudo comparativo do tratamento de ferimento de colon de coelho com reparo seroso da parede de jejunum e sutura primária Comparative study of colon wound repair using jejunal serosal wall and primary suture, in rabbits
Carlos Edmundo Fontes
Full Text Available Os animais foram submetidos a procedimento operatório sob anestesia geral para a produção de dois ferimentos padronizados em colo não preparado, usando instrumento desenvolvido para esta finalidade. O primeiro ferimento foi produzido a 2 cm do ceco e o segundo 20 cm eqüidistante deste, no sentido caudal. Estes ferimentos foram reparados obedecendo a resultado de sorteio que determinou a técnica a ser usada, se com o lado seroso da parede de jejuno ou por sutura primária. Nas duas técnicas foram usados pontos separados de fio monofilamentar de poliglecaprone 4-0 , sendo que o animal serviu de controle para si mesmo. Realizou-se eutanásia no 7º P.O. para os animais do sub-grupo A e no 30º P.O. para os animais do sub-grupo B para avaliação macroscópica e microscópica. O experimento demonstrou que é viável o uso do lado seroso da parede de jejuno para reparar ferimento em colo não preparado e apresentou resultados com tendências a serem superiores aos da sutura primária , não dual de MaringáThe present research aimed to compare the repair of colon wound using both the jejunal wall and the primary suture . Thirty young rabbits white New Zeland were used, weighing about 3,2 Kg. and were born and raised at the University of Maringá's Experimental farm. The animals were deeply anaesthetized and then submited to a surgery during wich two similar wounds were made in unprepared colon . An instrument created for this purpose was used. The first wound was made 2 cm away from the ceco , and the second one was made 20 cm from the first wound in the caudal location. The wounds were repaired using either the jejunal serosal wall or the primary suture. In both techniques were used separated stitches , made by monofilament poliglecaprone 4-0. The animal was used to control itself. The animals were submited to euthanasia either in the 7th or in 30th day after surgery, at random.Then a macroscopic and microscopic study was made. This research
O.J.F. van Waes (Oscar); J.A. Halm (Jens); J. Vermeulen (J.); McAlister, V.C. (V. C.)
textabstractTreatment strategies for penetrating rectal injuries (PRI) in civilian settings are still not uniformly agreed, in part since high-energy transfer PRI, such as is frequently seen in military settings, are not taken into account. Here, we describe three cases of PRI, treated in a deployed
The author performed the following examination to investigate the effect of decalcified freeze-dried homogeneous bone grafts on the irradiated rabbit mandible. Group I : no-irradiation, bone defect only. Group II : no-irradiation, decalcified freeze-dried homogeneous bone grafts into bone defect. Group III : after irradiation, bone defect only. Group IV. : after irradiation, decalcified freeze-dried homogeneous bone grafts into bone defect. Each defect measured 6 x 3 x 5 mm was made in the inferior border of the rabbit mandible. In Group III and IV, bone defects were made 4 weeks after 36 Gy irradiation. Decalcified freeze-dried homogeneous bones were prepared in the manner described by Urist, et al. and then the crushed bone fragments were implanted into the bone defects. The rabbits were killed at 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Observation was done using H - E stain sections, labelling and microradiography. Group I showed more rapid new bone formation in the bone defects than Group II at 1 and 2 weeks postoperatively, but at 4 and 12 weeks new cortical bones were formed and there was little difference in the healing between Group I and II. In Group III and IV, new bone formation was almost never seen at 1 and 2 weeks. Group III showed thin cortical bone formation which carved into the bone marrow side, but Group IV showed the original shape and thickness of the inferior border at 12 weeks. The author thought that these results suggested the effect of the decalcified freeze-dried homogeneous bone grafts on the irradiated bones.
Full Text Available Exactly ten years after its traumatic defeat in the Spanish-American War of 1898, Spain appeared to find some compensation for the loss of its last colonies by undertaking the invasion of Morocco in 1908. The enterprise proved difficult when the forces of Abd-el-Krim defeated the Spanish army in the summer of 1921. This terrible loss was metaphorized as an "open wound" and entered the collective imagination by becoming a theme in novels such as José Díaz Fernández's El blocao (1928, Ramón Sender's Imán (1930, and Arturo Barea's series La forja de un rebelde (1941-1944. Known as the "Disaster of Annual," the defeat appeared to be almost forgotten until a series of narratives in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries obsessively returned to this particular moment of Spanish history. I focus on how one such narrative, Martínez de Pisón's Una guerra africana (2000, revisits this war as adolescent literature ("novelas juveniles" and within the literary genre of the "novels of the War in Africa," and by so doing, contributes to the articulation of a Spanish collective identity with the historical memory of the feared Moroccan Other.
Gabriella Meier Bürgisser
Full Text Available After tendon rupture repair, two main problems may occur: re-rupture and adhesion formation. Suitable non-murine animal models are needed to study the healing tendon in terms of biomechanical properties and extent of adhesion formation. In this study 24 New Zealand White rabbits received a full transection of the Achilles tendon 2 cm above the calcaneus, sutured with a 4-strand Becker suture. Post-surgical analysis was performed at 3, 6 and 12 weeks. In the 6-week group, animals received a cast either in a 180 deg stretched position during 6 weeks (adhesion provoking immobilization, or were re-casted with a 150 deg position after 3 weeks (adhesion inhibiting immobilization, while in the other groups (3 and 12 weeks a 180 deg position cast was applied for 3 weeks. Adhesion extent was analyzed by histology and ultrasound. Histopathological scoring was performed according to a method by Stoll et al. (2011, and the main biomechanical properties were assessed. Histopathological scores increased as a function of time, but did not reach values of healthy tendons after 12 weeks (only around 15 out of 20 points. Adhesion provoking immobilization led to an adhesion extent of 82.7±9.7%, while adhesion inhibiting immobilization led to 31.9±9.8% after 6 weeks. Biomechanical properties increased over time, however, they did not reach full strength nor elastic modulus at 12 weeks post-operation. Furthermore, the rabbit Achilles tendon model can be modulated in terms of adhesion formation to the surrounding tissue. It clearly shows the different healing stages in terms of histopathology and offers a suitable model regarding biomechanics because it exhibits similar biomechanics as the human flexor tendons of the hand.
Meier Bürgisser, Gabriella; Calcagni, Maurizio; Bachmann, Elias; Fessel, Gion; Snedeker, Jess G.; Giovanoli, Pietro
ABSTRACT After tendon rupture repair, two main problems may occur: re-rupture and adhesion formation. Suitable non-murine animal models are needed to study the healing tendon in terms of biomechanical properties and extent of adhesion formation. In this study 24 New Zealand White rabbits received a full transection of the Achilles tendon 2 cm above the calcaneus, sutured with a 4-strand Becker suture. Post-surgical analysis was performed at 3, 6 and 12 weeks. In the 6-week group, animals received a cast either in a 180 deg stretched position during 6 weeks (adhesion provoking immobilization), or were re-casted with a 150 deg position after 3 weeks (adhesion inhibiting immobilization), while in the other groups (3 and 12 weeks) a 180 deg position cast was applied for 3 weeks. Adhesion extent was analyzed by histology and ultrasound. Histopathological scoring was performed according to a method by Stoll et al. (2011), and the main biomechanical properties were assessed. Histopathological scores increased as a function of time, but did not reach values of healthy tendons after 12 weeks (only around 15 out of 20 points). Adhesion provoking immobilization led to an adhesion extent of 82.7±9.7%, while adhesion inhibiting immobilization led to 31.9±9.8% after 6 weeks. Biomechanical properties increased over time, however, they did not reach full strength nor elastic modulus at 12 weeks post-operation. Furthermore, the rabbit Achilles tendon model can be modulated in terms of adhesion formation to the surrounding tissue. It clearly shows the different healing stages in terms of histopathology and offers a suitable model regarding biomechanics because it exhibits similar biomechanics as the human flexor tendons of the hand. PMID:27635037
Nevine M.F. El Deeb
Jun 20, 2014 ... Abstract Objective: During the wound healing process, lymphatic regeneration in the injured skin has not been fully ... Material and methods: We studied the regeneration of lymphatic vessels in the rat skin incisional wounds (sutured ... lymphatic vessels sprouting in experimental rabbit ear wounds.9The ...
seems as questionable as alchemy . Congress had little choice. It had no authority to tax individuals or to levy duties on trade. The country had no banks... plasma , penicillin and sulfa drugs. air and motor transport of the wounded. and field hospitals tested during World War I also dramatically reduced
A. H. Alawi; T. S. Ali; S. Y. Al Dabbagh
Standard wounds were made in the backs of 18 rabbits. The rabbits were then divided into 6 equal groups. Rabbits of group (1), constituted a control group and their wounds were treated with physiological saline solution. In group (2), the wounds were treated with Cefotaxime at a concentration of 500 mg. Wounds of the third, fourth, and fifth groups were treated with 5%, 3.75%, and 2.5% apple cider vinegar respectively. Wounds of the sixth groups of rabbits were treated with a combination of e...
... wound care center; Diabetic ulcer - wound care center; Surgical wound - wound center; Ischemic ulcer - wound center ... types of non-healing wounds include: Pressure sores Surgical wounds Radiation sores Foot ulcers due to diabetes , poor ...
... particles of which can get trapped in the wound. Treatment A puncture wound must be cleaned properly and ... play a crucial role in preventing them. Puncture Wounds: What You Should Do Seek treatment right away. Get a tetanus shot if needed ( ...
This article analyses the languages of wartime pain as seen in British and American memoirs from the American Civil War to the present. How did the rhetoric of wounding in these war memoirs change over time? One of the central shifts lies in the way that wounded men presented themselves as stoic in spite of severe wounding. From 1939, and in an even more dramatic fashion by the war in Vietnam, physical suffering remained a test of manliness, but the tone was defiant and aggressive rather than stoic or resigned. The article also looks at the role of individual publishers and the introduction of psychological dimensions of wounding in latter memoirs.
This article analyses the languages of wartime pain as seen in British and American memoirs from the American Civil War to the present. How did the rhetoric of wounding in these war memoirs change over time? One of the central shifts lies in the way that wounded men presented themselves as stoic in spite of severe wounding. From 1939, and in an even more dramatic fashion by the war in Vietnam, physical suffering remained a test of manliness, but the tone was defiant and aggressive rather than stoic or resigned. The article also looks at the role of individual publishers and the introduction of psychological dimensions of wounding in latter memoirs. PMID:24489402
Tens of thousands of British men were permanently wounded as a result of war service. Their return home sparked debates about the wounded male body, female accountability for war-injuries, and the ideology, performance, and practice of masculinity. Other historians have shown how ‘broken heroes’ from the First World War were constituted into ‘men’ in four contexts: physical appearance, occupation, sport, and Britishness. This article explores a fifth dimension: sexuality. It explores debates ...
Volpato, Gabriele; Kourková, Pavlína; Zelený, Václav
Over the past decade, there has been growing interest within ethnobiology in the knowledge and practices of migrating people. Within this, scholars have given relatively less attention to displaced people and refugees: to the loss, maintenance, and adaptation of refugees' ethnobiological knowledge, and to its significance for refugees' wellbeing. This study focuses on cosmetics and remedies used to heal skin afflictions that are traditionally used by Sahrawi refugees displaced in South Western Algerian refugee camps. The research methods included a structured survey carried out with 37 refugee households, semi-structured interviews with 77 refugees, 24 retrospective interviews with refugees and other knowledgeable informants, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited. We recorded the use of 55 plant species, nine animal species, and six mineral products used within the three main use categories discussed in this paper: 1) Remedies for health issues that are typical of the desert environment where the Sahrawi once lived as nomads and now live as refugees (e.g. eye afflictions); 2) Remedies for wounds that are influenced by the Sahrawi's recent history of guerrilla warfare; and 3) Cosmetics and products used for body care, decoration and perfuming (e.g. hair care, teeth cleansing, henna use) and for aromatizing the air inside of tents and which are widely used in everyday life and social practices. We discuss the changes that have occurred in the patterns of use and procurement of these products with exile and sedentarization in refugee camps, and conclude that refugees are not simply passive recipients of national and international aid, but rather struggle to maintain and recover their traditional ethnobiological practices in exile. Finally, we suggest further research into the ethnobiological practices and knowledge of displaced populations.
Firmino, Flávia; Almeida, Alessandra Maria Pereira de; Silva, Rita de Jesus Grijó e; Alves, Graziela da Silva; Grandeiro, Daniel da Silva; Penna, Lúcia Helena Garcia
Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant that has been used in wound healing. The objectives of this study were to describe how the scientific production presents the use ofphenytoinas a healing agent and to discuss its applicability in wounds. A literature review and hierarchy analysis of evidence-based practices was performed. Eighteen articles were analyzed that tested the intervention in wounds such as leprosy ulcers, leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, trophic ulcers, war wounds, bu...
Mion, G; Le Masson, J; Granier, C; Hoffmann, C
The objective of this study was to explore whether ketamine prevents or exacerbates acute or post-traumatic stress disorders in military trauma patients. We conducted a retrospective study of a database from the French Military Health Service, including all soldiers surviving a war injury in Afghanistan (2010-2012). The diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder was made by a psychiatrist and patients were analysed according to the presence or absence of this condition. Analysis included the following covariables: age; sex; acute stress disorder; blast injury; associated fatality; brain injury; traumatic amputation; Glasgow coma scale; injury severity score; administered drugs; number of surgical procedures; physical, neurosensory or aesthetic sequelae; and the development chronic pain. Covariables related to post-traumatic and acute stress disorders with a p ≤ 0.10 were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. The data from 450 soldiers were identified; 399 survived, of which 274 were analysed. Among these, 98 (36%) suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder and 89 (32%) had received ketamine. Fifty-four patients (55%) in the post-traumatic stress disorder group received ketamine vs. 35 (20%) in the no PTSD group (p stress disorder and total number of surgical procedures were independently associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. In this retrospective study, ketamine administration was not a risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in the military trauma setting. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
former proxy of South Africa, continued the civil war for another dozen years. The landmines remained. In many towns and villages in Angola the maimed and the wounded are still to be seen. In the northern part of Namibia (then called South West Africa) the bush war (or border war) against SWAPO raged since the 1960s.
Background Over the past decade, there has been growing interest within ethnobiology in the knowledge and practices of migrating people. Within this, scholars have given relatively less attention to displaced people and refugees: to the loss, maintenance, and adaptation of refugees’ ethnobiological knowledge, and to its significance for refugees’ wellbeing. This study focuses on cosmetics and remedies used to heal skin afflictions that are traditionally used by Sahrawi refugees displaced in South Western Algerian refugee camps. Methods The research methods included a structured survey carried out with 37 refugee households, semi-structured interviews with 77 refugees, 24 retrospective interviews with refugees and other knowledgeable informants, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited. Results We recorded the use of 55 plant species, nine animal species, and six mineral products used within the three main use categories discussed in this paper: 1) Remedies for health issues that are typical of the desert environment where the Sahrawi once lived as nomads and now live as refugees (e.g. eye afflictions); 2) Remedies for wounds that are influenced by the Sahrawi’s recent history of guerrilla warfare; and 3) Cosmetics and products used for body care, decoration and perfuming (e.g. hair care, teeth cleansing, henna use) and for aromatizing the air inside of tents and which are widely used in everyday life and social practices. Conclusions We discuss the changes that have occurred in the patterns of use and procurement of these products with exile and sedentarization in refugee camps, and conclude that refugees are not simply passive recipients of national and international aid, but rather struggle to maintain and recover their traditional ethnobiological practices in exile. Finally, we suggest further research into the ethnobiological practices and knowledge of displaced populations. Resumen Sanando las heridas de guerra y perfumando el
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, there has been growing interest within ethnobiology in the knowledge and practices of migrating people. Within this, scholars have given relatively less attention to displaced people and refugees: to the loss, maintenance, and adaptation of refugees’ ethnobiological knowledge, and to its significance for refugees’ wellbeing. This study focuses on cosmetics and remedies used to heal skin afflictions that are traditionally used by Sahrawi refugees displaced in South Western Algerian refugee camps. Methods The research methods included a structured survey carried out with 37 refugee households, semi-structured interviews with 77 refugees, 24 retrospective interviews with refugees and other knowledgeable informants, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited. Results We recorded the use of 55 plant species, nine animal species, and six mineral products used within the three main use categories discussed in this paper: 1 Remedies for health issues that are typical of the desert environment where the Sahrawi once lived as nomads and now live as refugees (e.g. eye afflictions; 2 Remedies for wounds that are influenced by the Sahrawi’s recent history of guerrilla warfare; and 3 Cosmetics and products used for body care, decoration and perfuming (e.g. hair care, teeth cleansing, henna use and for aromatizing the air inside of tents and which are widely used in everyday life and social practices. Conclusions We discuss the changes that have occurred in the patterns of use and procurement of these products with exile and sedentarization in refugee camps, and conclude that refugees are not simply passive recipients of national and international aid, but rather struggle to maintain and recover their traditional ethnobiological practices in exile. Finally, we suggest further research into the ethnobiological practices and knowledge of displaced populations. Resumen Sanando las heridas de
Antecedentes de las curas en ambiente húmedo (CAH: El "método español" de tratamiento de heridas de guerra y el Hospital Sueco-Noruego de Alcoy History of cures in moist enviroment (CME: The "Spanish Method" of wound war treatment and the Swedish-Norwegian hospital in Alcoy
Francisco Enrique Moltó Abad
Full Text Available Durante la Guerra Civil española se instaló en Alcoy un hospital de sangre. Esto fue posible gracias a la solidaridad de los pueblos sueco y noruego. Los escandinavos desplazaron hasta Alcoy personal médico y de enfermería especializado, junto con todo el material necesario para instalar un hospital destinado para atender heridos de guerra. Tras su marcha, se hizo cargo de los servicios quirúrgicos del hospital el Dr. D. Manuel Bastos Ansart, cirujano, traumatólogo, ortopeda militar y toda una autoridad en el tratamiento de heridas de guerra. El Dr. Bastos junto con el Dr. D. Josep Trueta i Raspall fueron los padres del método oclusivo de curas, base y fundamento de las actuales curas en ambiente húmedo. Gracias al "método español" se consiguió evitar infinidad de amputaciones y muertes debidas a las septicemias producidas por heridas de guerra. Este sistema de curas nació como la suma de diferentes técnicas y tratamientos de diversos cirujanos que se fueron acumulando y depurando a lo largo del tiempo. El "método español" consistía en una limpieza exahustiva de la herida y posterior exéresis de todo el tejido desvitalizado, aplicando después un apósito de escayola que se debía mantener sin cambiar el máximo tiempo posible (siempre y cuando el paciente no presentara complicaciones. Acabada la Guerra Civil española, y ya durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, fue el Dr. Trueta quien depuró, sistematizó y divulgó el método entre el bando aliado, siendo aún hoy en día el método de elección de tratamiento de las heridas y fracturas abiertas de guerra.During the Spanish Civil War, a hospital of blood is installed in Alcoy. This was posible thanks to the solidarity of Swedish and Norwegian people. Medical and specialized nursing staff were sent by the Scandinavians, with all the necesary material, to install a hospital to see war wounded. Dr. D. Manuel Bastos Ansart was the surgical chief when the scandinavians left Alcoy. He
penicillin coverage to eliminate the threat of invasive bacteremia by hemolytic streptococcus , presumably produced conditions that insured unimpeded...pyemia, septicemia and erysipelas remained major causes of death in the war wounded (10). Friedrich originated the idea of excising the bacteria...hemolytic streptococcus in 10 to 15% of cases, but after a week in the hospital over 90% of w-unds were infected with this bacteria (12,13), and
necrotizing fasciitis , motor vehicle accidents or other trauma with associated soft tissue avulsion injuries, etc.). Important data on the mechanism of...Rawlins J, Rea S, Wood F. (2012) “Complex chemical burns following a mass casualty plant incident: How optimal planning and organisation can make a
Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xu, Yahao; Hong, Zhipeng; Chen, Jing; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin
Rabbits are often preferred to be experimental animals during the skin research. The visualizing and understanding the full-thickness structure of rabbit skin has significance in biology, medicine, and animal husbandry. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was employed to examine the rabbit skin on the back, which was based on second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence. High-resolution images were achieved from the fresh, unfixed, and unstained tissues, showing detailed microstructure of the skin without the administration of exogenous contrast agents. The morphology and distribution of the main components of epidermis and dermis, such as keratin, collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and hair follicles, can be distinctly identified in MPM images. Since the changes in these components are tightly related to skin diseases and wound healing, the noninvasive nature of MPM enables it become a valuable tool in skin research for detecting and monitoring. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis
Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... of ground war tactics for how we understand political campaigns and what it means to participate in them. He shows how ground wars are waged using resources well beyond those of a given candidate and their staff. These include allied interest groups and civic associations, party-provided technical...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...
... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...
... Arrhythmias Abuse Love and Romance Understanding Other People Wound Healing and Care KidsHealth > For Teens > Wound Healing ... stitches or a hospital stay? Different Types of Wounds Most of us think of wounds happening because ...
War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...
During the years 1939-1945 Finland was involved in the Second World War, divided for her part into three different wars: The Winter War, The Continuation War and The Lappish War. Finland was not occupied and she was spared wholesale bombing. The country suffered most of her casualties through the battles at the front, the majority being men born in 1886-1926. Some 700,000 men and women took part in her defence and almost half of them were wounded or killed. Finland was compelled to build up her health and medical services from scratch for the rehabilitation and care of those wounded in War. During the 1980's the geriatric problems of the war cripples have increased and many new patients are now complaining about their war wounds for the first time. The medical care of war cripples in Finland will cover 70 years; thus 20 years work remains.
Zhu, Gui-Ying; Xu, Bin; Cai, Jing-Long
To observe the anatomy structure of rabbit ear and the effect of different operation methods and post-operative treatments on the formation of hypertrophic scar. The experimental animals were 25 New Zealand white rabbits. 6 pieces of full skin specimens were obtained from each of the ears in 5 rabbits for histological examination. 6 full-thickness skin wounds (d = 8 mm) were made on different sites of ventral side of each ear in the other 20 rabbits. The total number of the wounds was 240. 120 wounds in 10 rabbits were divided into 4 groups randomly to receive different treatments on day 7 postoperatively. No treatment was performed in the other 120 wounds. The wounds healing and the scar formation were observed for six months. The scars were harvested 4 weeks and 8 weeks after operation for pathologic examination and measurement of scar elevation index (SEI). Histological analysis showed that the anatomy structure was different in different sites of the rabbit ear. The best sites for creating hypertrophic scar model were on the medial margin of the middle- and inferior part of ear. The depth of the wound should reach the cartilage membrane of the ear to facilitate the formation of hypertrophic scar. The second strip crust on day 7 postoperatively enhanced the wounds healing and minimized the scar proliferation and hypertrophy. There is a close correlation between the anatomy structure of the ear and the creation of hypertrophic scar animal model. The wound site, the depth of wound and the post-operative treatment will affect the formation of hypertrophic scar. The study can help to improve the successful rate of creating hypertrophic scar animal model.
Namgoong, Sik; Han, Seung-Kyu
In spite of a period of intense economic, social, and political hardship following the Korean War, the Republic of Korea has made great strides in economic growth over the past half century, and also remarkable progress in the medical field. However, wound research has been slow to take off in South Korea. Meanwhile, as is the case in many countries in Western Europe and North America, South Korea is seeing a steady increase in its aged population. The growth in the geriatric population has in turn brought on more cases of chronic wounds. Though South Korea only began to recognize the importance of wound management in the early 2000s, it was fortunate enough to have sophisticated related industries, such as biotechnology and information technology, and brilliant, industrious, and eager wound researchers, contributing to rapid development of the field. The country has particular strengths in research for innovative cell-based treatments and products for managing wounds. Notwithstanding government policy ill-equipped to sufficiently support such advancement, better communication between experts and public officials will no doubt bring forth even more achievements in this very promising field. It is in this context that this article aims to summarize current wound management practices, research, training, product development, and government policies regarding wound management in South Korea as of the year 2017. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.
Lefort, Hugues; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Tabbagh, Xavier; Domanski, Laurent; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre
The First World War because of the use of new weapons, injured more than 3 500 000 people (500 000 in the face), more than diseases (tuberculosis, typhoid fever, etc.) or even weather circumstances. The healing of the war wounds through surgery undertook a significant evolution thanks to the use of asepsis and antiseptics. Mortality go down, opening the way to the physical and psychological rehabilitation of those injured by the war.
such as racism in Home of the Brave and the psychological effects of war on warriors in 12 O’Clock High (1949). These films reflected post-war...emotional wounds he suffered in the war. The veteran created his own outlaw motorcycle club in The Angels from Hell (1968). Other veteran gangs
Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik
The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....
Rabbit incisor teeth are open-rooted and, in healthy animals, grow continuously. Incisor adjustments are often necessary to maintain the health and well-being of rabbits with incisor malocclusion. This column will describe some techniques used to manage incisor malocclusion in the rabbit.
Morfometria de fibroblastos e fibrócitos durante o processo cicatricial na pele de coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco tratados com calêndula Morphometry of fibroblasts and fibrocytes during wound healing in the skin of rabbits of the New Zeland White breed treated with marigold
Leonardo de Oliveira Pagnano
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade cicatrizante da calêndula (Calendula officinalis L. sobre feridas cutâneas experimentais, em 15 coelhos, distribuídos em três grupos denominados: excipiente, calêndula e controle. Cada animal foi submetido à uma incisão cirúrgica de 6cm de comprimento, lateral à coluna vertebral e suturada no padrão U. Os produtos avaliados foram colocados sobre as incisões durante sete dias na quantidade de 0,1ml (loção cremosa não-iônica - grupo excipiente; tintura de calêndula a 5% - grupo calêndula e nos animais do grupo controle não se utilizou nenhum produto. A biópsia de pele foi realizada no 1°, 3°, 5° e 7° dia após a incisão cirúrgica para avaliação morfométrica do processo cicatricial, analisando-se o número de fibroblastos e fibrócitos. A morfometria foi realizada por meio de microscópio óptico adaptado a um sistema computadorizado de análise de imagens. De acordo com os resultados, a calêndula propiciou obtenção dos maiores valores médios das células envolvidas no processo cicatricial, os fibroblastos, deduzindo que a mesma, inferiu uma resposta mais satisfatória na cicatrização em relação aos demais tratamentos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the scarring capability of marigold (Calendula officinalis L. on experimental skin wounds in 15 rabbits, distributed in three groups: excipient, marigold and control. Each animal was subjected to a surgical incision measuring 6cm in length, laterally to the spinal column and sutured in U-shape. Products evaluated were placed on the incisions for 7 days, at a rate of 0.1ml (nonionic creamy lotion - excipient group; 5% marigold extract and no treatment was provided to control animals. Skin biopsy was performed on 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after wounding, for morphometric and cicatricial process evaluations. The morphometry was performed with an optical microscope adapted to a computadorized picture analysis system. The
Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate
Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Thomasy, Sara M; Strøm, Peter; Yañez-Soto, Bernardo; Garland, Shaun P; Sermeno, Jasmyne; Reilly, Christopher M; Murphy, Christopher J
Corneal wound healing is an enormously complex process that requires the simultaneous cellular integration of multiple soluble biochemical cues, as well as cellular responses to the intrinsic chemistry and biophysical attributes associated with the matrix of the wound space. Here, we document how the biomechanics of the corneal stroma are altered through the course of wound repair following keratoablative procedures in rabbits. Further we documented the influence that substrate stiffness has on stromal cell mechanics. Following corneal epithelial debridement, New Zealand white rabbits underwent phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) on the right eye (OD). Wound healing was monitored using advanced imaging modalities. Rabbits were euthanized and corneas were harvested at various time points following PTK. Tissues were characterized for biomechanics with atomic force microscopy and with histology to assess inflammation and fibrosis. Factor analysis was performed to determine any discernable patterns in wound healing parameters. The matrix associated with the wound space was stiffest at 7days post PTK. The greatest number of inflammatory cells were observed 3days after wounding. The highest number of myofibroblasts and the greatest degree of fibrosis occurred 21days after wounding. While all clinical parameters returned to normal values 400days after wounding, the elastic modulus remained greater than pre-surgical values. Factor analysis demonstrated dynamic remodeling of stroma occurs between days 10 and 42 during corneal stromal wound repair. Elastic modulus of the anterior corneal stroma is dramatically altered following PTK and its changes coincide initially with the development of edema and inflammation, and later with formation of stromal haze and population of the wound space with myofibroblasts. Factor analysis demonstrates strongest correlation between elastic modulus, myofibroblasts, fibrosis and stromal haze thickness, and between edema and central corneal
Kim, Injoong; Mogford, Jon E; Witschi, Claudia; Nafissi, Mehdi; Mustoe, Thomas A
Hypertrophic scars result from excessive collagen deposition at sights of healing dermal wounds and can be functionally and cosmetically problematic. Pharmacological regulation of collagen synthesis and deposition is a direct approach to the control of scar tissue formation. We tested the ability of the phenanthrolinone derivative FG-1648 (in 0.5% Carbopol 971 PNF gel, pH 6.5), a prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitor, to reduce hypertrophic scar formation in a rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model. New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two treatment groups (n = 12 wounds per group with an equal number of controls): low-dose group: 0.5% FG-1648; high-dose group: 1% FG-1648. Left ears were used for treatment and right ear for control. Four 7-mm dermal ulcer wounds were made on each ear. The inhibitor was topically applied to the wound at the time of wounding and once daily up to postoperative day 7. Wounds were harvested at postoperative day 28 and scar hypertrophy quantified by measurement of the scar elevation index. All wounds showed complete healing. Treatment of wounds with 1% prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitor decreased the scar elevation index by 26% compared to control wounds (p < 0.01). Wounds treated with 0.5% FG-1648 inhibitor showed no difference in scar elevation compared to control wounds. These results suggest that inhibition of prolyl 4-hydroxylase may be a suitable agent for topical treatment for the prevention of hypertrophic scar tissue.
Van Cuong Nguyen
Full Text Available Three composite sponges were made with 10% of curcumin and by using polymers, namely, chitosan and gelatin with various ratios. The chemical structure and morphology were evaluated by FTIR and SEM. These sponges were evaluated for water absorption capacity, antibacterial activity, in vitro drug release, and in vivo wound healing studies by excision wound model using rabbits. The in vivo study presented a greater wound closure in wounds treated with curcumin-composite sponge than those with composite sponge without curcumin and untreated group. These obtained results showed that combination of curcumin, chitosan and gelatin could improve the wound healing activity in comparison to chitosan, and gelatin without curcumin.
Draenert, Marcelin Oliver
The role of neutral Switzerland during World War I is somewhat mysterious and its diplomatic history has never been fully disclosed. One of the activities might have determined its role: based on its relationship to the International Committee of the Red Cross, wounded multinational prisoners-of-war were interned in Swiss hospitals and Swiss physicians worked in a medical capacity in military hospitals on both sides of the front. The main question is whether the activities of the Swiss authorities reflected a charitable diplomatic role while retaining the country's traditional neutral stance. Supplementary practical questions included: How did Switzerland carry out the exchange of severely wounded prisoners of war? How did Swiss physicians function in the war zones? What were the medical objectives and the ultimate results of wartime surgery in Switzerland? This study is based on archival material from the Swiss Federal Archive in Bern (BAR) and original publications of Swiss and German physicians in professional journals. The search was performed manually in the BAR evaluating the file "Landesverteidigung (national defense)" from 1848 to 2009. Original publications and journals were searched manually in the central libraries of Munich, Heidelberg, Zurich, and Bern. The evaluation of Swiss diplomatic activities confirmed that Switzerland's charitable mission was aimed to enforce its neutral position and that Swiss authorities were able to efficiently manage the resulting problems. The engagement of Swiss surgeons in war surgery contributed to their experience and knowledge and yielded the development of many innovative medical devices and operating procedures, numerous of which are still known today. While maintaining its neutral position, Switzerland was able to deal with the practical problems while gaining innovative medical knowledge still valid today.
Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W
The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.
Zhou, S; Lei, D; Liu, Y; Tan, Y; Gu, X
To make clear the range of firearm wound in the maxillofacial region, the optical repair time and the characteristics of accompanied indirect brain damage, and to offer the principle of emergency treatment and the early repair of war wound. With the aid of the standard Sweden model, 200 dogs were used in the experiment. Varies tissues around the primary canal were harvested chronologically, in different zone and different tissue, for histopathological examination. The necrotic range of various tissues in the maxillofacial region was less than that in the extremities. In the maxillofacial region, there was a significant temporary cavity following the passing of bullet, which caused indirect brain damages. These findings are helpful to the treatment of war wound in the maxillofacial region. Early bone transplantation using microvascular anastomosis in the treatment of gunshot wound in the maxillofacial region is recommendable.
Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.
Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir
Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles. PMID:22851956
Brand, H.S.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.
Oral wounds heal faster and with less scar formation than skin wounds. One of the key factors involved is saliva, which promotes wound healing in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, thus improving the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. In
Ågren, Sven Per Magnus
Wound debridement, the removal of contaminated tissue and senescent cells, is the cornerstone in the care of patients with chronic wounds.......Wound debridement, the removal of contaminated tissue and senescent cells, is the cornerstone in the care of patients with chronic wounds....
Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der e...
Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.
During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice. Atten...
The productive performance of rabbits was evaluated on diets of alfalfa meal and tropical forages. The results showed that rabbits can utilize high forage diets wlth little or no cereal grain. Several tropical legumes (Desmodium distortum, Macrop tilium lathyroides, Clitoria ternata and Cassra tora) have the same feeding ...
Meinert, Lotte; Obika, Julaina; Whyte, Susan Reynolds
After two decades of conflict and internment in camps for Internally Displaced Persons (IDP), the Acholi people have returned to their homes and are trying to heal their wounds after the long war in northern Uganda. Bilateral and multilateral donors, NGOs, cultural organizations, and religious...... institutions are involved in the politically and personally sensitive work of reconciliation. Yet for most people, the actual restoration of peace lies in establishing an everyday life and being able to rebuild relationships with kin, friends and neighbours. In a collaborative project with an installation...
Kara, Cankat; Demir, Turgut; Ozbek, Elvan
The aim of the present study was to assess the histopathological effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on healing of the oral mucosa after soft tissue graft operations. The alterations at the end of healing in normal and LLLT-applied oral mucosa were studied in two healthy adult New Zealand white rabbits by taking specimens for light microscopic inspection. There was no adverse event reported in the study and no post-operative complications, such as swelling, bleeding, or edema, were observed in the rabbits. Complete wound healing was faster in the LLLT-applied rabbit. Compared to the normal rabbit oral mucosa, thickening of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis) was found in the epithelia of the rabbits. A significant increase in the epithelial thickness was found in the samples of rabbits, suggesting increased scar tissue following the wound repair. Additionally, many mitotic figures were present in the epithelia of the LLLT-applied rabbit, indicating epithelial cell hyperplasia. Long and irregular connective tissue protrusions projecting into the undersurface of the epithelium and mononuclear cell infiltrations were noted in the rabbits. The results suggest that LLLT used for soft tissue operations provides better and faster wound healing and that LLLT enhances epithelization.
Cohen, B J; Danon, D; Roth, G S
The closure of bilateral, full-thickness cutaneous wounds made over the back with a sharp paper punch was measured with calipers and assessed histologically in C57BL/6J male mice for 10 days after wounding. Young (6 months) mice exhibited a significantly more rapid rate of wound closure and repair than did mature (15 months) or aged (26 or 27 months) mice. The repair rate in mature and aged mice did not differ. Young mice, injected subcutaneously at the wound sites with rabbit antimouse macrophage serum (RAMMS) 5 min before wounding and on days 1 and 3 after wounding, exhibited slow delayed closure of cutaneous wounds during days 1 to 4 after wounding, similar to that of untreated aged mice. The early closure rate of mice injected with normal rabbit serum or physiological saline was rapid, resembling that of untreated young mice. The results suggest that cutaneous wound repair in mice is another physiological phenomenon whose rate of change is age related, but not necessarily progressive to senescence. The results also imply that macrophage functional decline may contribute to the slowing of wound repair in middle-aged and aged mice compared to young mice.
Cooper, G J; Ryan, J M
It is apparent from review of published papers and books that misunderstanding and confusion exists in the minds of many authors describing the interaction of penetrating missiles with tissues. These misapprehensions may influence the management of wounds by suggesting didactic approaches based upon a preconceived notion of the nature and severity of the wound for different types of projectiles. This review considers the biophysics of penetrating missile wounds, highlights some of the more common misconceptions and seeks to reconcile the conflicting and confusing management doctrines that are promulgated in the literature-differences that arise not only from two scenarios, peace and war, but also from misapprehensions of the wounding process. Wounds of war and of peacetime differ both in the nature of the wound and in the propensity for wound infection. Additionally, the limitations imposed by war dictate the type of management that may be practised and result in procedures that would be considered inappropriate by some in civilian clinical practice. Many of the procedures described in civilian peacetime settings, such as reliance on antibiotics alone for the control of infection in penetrating wounds, or minimal excision and debridement, can yield good results but would herald disaster if transposed to a war setting.
Elijah Zhengyang Cai
Full Text Available BackgroundThe combination of polycaprolactone and hyaluronic acid creates an ideal environment for wound healing. Hyaluronic acid maintains a moist wound environment and accelerates the in-growth of granulation tissue. Polycaprolactone has excellent mechanical strength, limits inflammation and is biocompatible. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of bio-conjugated polycaprolactone membranes (BPM as a wound dressing.Methods16 New Zealand white rabbits were sedated and local anaesthesia was administered. Two 3.0×3.0 cm full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of each rabbit, between the lowest rib and the pelvic bone. The wounds were dressed with either BPM (n=12 or Mepitel (n=12 (control, a polyamide-silicon wound dressing. These were evaluated macroscopically on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th postoperative days for granulation, re-epithelialization, infection, and wound size, and histologically for epidermal and dermal regeneration.ResultsBoth groups showed a comparable extent of granulation and re-epithelialization. No signs of infection were observed. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in wound size between the two groups. BPM (n=6: 8.33 cm2, 4.90 cm2, 3.12 cm2, 1.84 cm2; Mepitel (n=6: 10.29 cm2, 5.53 cm2, 3.63 cm2, 2.02 cm2; at the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th postoperative days. The extents of epidermal and dermal regeneration were comparable between the two groups.ConclusionsBPM is comparable to Mepitel as a safe and efficacious wound dressing.
The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from diabetic rabbits have been compared to those of normal rabbits. Two sets of rabbits were used, normal rabbits and diabetic rabbits. The diabetic rabbits were obtained by inducing diabetes in rabbits using streptozotocin. Chloroquine at a dose of 10 mg/kg was administered to ...
Ipek, Duygu Neval Sayın; Ipek, Polat
Lucilia sericata is one of the factors resulting in facultative traumatic myiasis in animals and humans. L. sericata threatens human health and leads to significant economic losses in animal industry by leading to serious parasitic infestations. A three month old female rabbit was presented to the clinics of the Veterinary Faculty of Dicle University for the treatment of the wound located on the left carpal joint. The examination revealed that the wound was infested with larvae. The microscopic inspection of the larvae collected from the rabbit showed that they were the third instar larvae of L. sericata.
Nematollahi Mahani, Mahnia A.
The Iran-Iraq war began on September 22, 1980 when Iraq attacked the border towns of Iran. The war lasted for eight years. The Iran-Iraq war is the longest conventional battle since World War II. It is estimated that on both sides there is about one million dead and three million wounded, thousands
Fleming, Dan B.; Kaufman, Burton I.
Evaluates the coverage of the Korean War in 12 high school history textbooks. Lists the books, and reviews the coverage of each in the areas of: total coverage and illustrations; Korean war background; causes of the War; the Truman response; waging the War; the Truman-MacArthur controversy; and the results of the War. (GG)
Burt, Sara A; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H M
Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (0, 60, and 23 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source.
This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y
Biedermann, N E; Harvey, N R
The experiences of nurses in war is prolifically described in the North American scholarly literature, and in the Australian nursing literature to a lesser extent. The literature describes the plights and achievements of nurses caring for soldiers and civilians often under the most undesirable of circumstances. A central focus of war time nursing is the resuscitation of critically wounded soldiers. This paper addresses the experiences of the Australian Army nurses who were involved in the triage and resuscitation of critically wounded allied and enemy soldiers in the Vietnam War between 1967 and 1971. As part of a research study to explore and analyse the nature of nursing work in the Vietnam War, seventeen Vietnam veteran nurses were interviewed about their experiences. This paper explores the progression of the triage department in the Australian military hospital in Vung Tau, and it highlights that the majority of the nurses who took part in this study were clinically unprepared, particularly as emergency nurses.
making of combat or war films; the general characteristics and demographics of the soldier; identification and a brief description of historical...of 70 the color from the completed film to give it more of a sepia tone. Spielberg felt that more color glamorizes the war.112 Spielberg openly...receiving a wound. The officers portrayed in these films provided a variety of leadership examples that articulate the characteristics of the officer corps
Proença, Laila Maftoum; Mayer, Jörg
Dietary management can be used with drug therapy for the successful treatment of many diseases. Therapeutic nutrition is well-recognized in dogs and cats and is beginning to increase among other pet species, including rabbits. The nutritional component of some rabbit diseases (eg, urolithiasis) is not completely understood, and the clinician should evaluate the use of prescription diets based on the scientific literature and individual needs. Long-term feeding trials are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of prescription diets in rabbits. Prescription diets are available for selected diseases in rabbits, including diets for immediate-term, short-term, and long-term management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
How cuts heal; How scrapes heal; How puncture wounds heal; How burns heal; How pressure sores heal; How lacerations heal ... For major wounds, follow your doctor's instructions on how to care for your injury. Avoid picking at ...
... closing before the wound underneath fills in. Proper Handwashing It is important to clean your hands before ... 5°F (38°C) or higher. Alternative Names Surgical incision care; Open wound care Images Proper hand ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000738.htm Surgical wound care - closed To use the sharing features on ... made during surgery. It is also called a "surgical wound." Some incisions are small. Others are very long. ...
A. H. Alawi
Full Text Available Standard wounds were made in the backs of 18 rabbits. The rabbits were then divided into 6 equal groups. Rabbits of group (1, constituted a control group and their wounds were treated with physiological saline solution. In group (2, the wounds were treated with Cefotaxime at a concentration of 500 mg. Wounds of the third, fourth, and fifth groups were treated with 5%, 3.75%, and 2.5% apple cider vinegar respectively. Wounds of the sixth groups of rabbits were treated with a combination of equal amounts of Cefotaxime and apple cider vinegar 3.75%. All of the wounds were infected with various isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the time of infected. Wound treatment was done each 48 hours until complete healing. Results of this study indicated that using apple cider vinegar 3.75% gave results similar to those obtained by using the antibiotic (same rates of bacterial reduction. However, using a combination of equal amounts of apple cider vinegar and the antibiotic lead to more rapid and more better healing than using each one of them alone.
Kuz, Julian E
War, considered to be one of the greatest causes of human suffering, often spurs some of the greatest advances in medical treatments. In the United States, the Civil War was a catalyst for the development of trauma management, including general wound management, amputation techniques, triage, and transportation of wounded soldiers. The War, by necessity, also accelerated surgical knowledge and treatment of gunshot wounds of the extremities more than any previous event. The War also served as the impetus for the specialization of surgical skills, hospital systems, and medical data collection. Orthopaedic surgery, at the time of the War, was not as yet a recognized specialty in the United States. However, the Civil War played an important role in the specialty's heritage and the creation of specialty orthopaedic and prosthetic hospitals. Although many discoveries in the area of orthopaedic surgery were not discovered until the 20th century, many basic orthopaedic procedures and techniques were developed during this war that continue to be used today, including Buck's traction, plaster splints, and open treatment of contaminated wounds. The first recorded attempts at open reduction-internal fixation techniques for gunshot fractures occurred during the War. Resection arthroplasties, shell and bone fragment extraction, and various types of amputation were improved because of the large numbers of casualties.
Going hand in hand with training personnel is the need to establish wound care protocols which are totally lacking in developing countries. Negative- pressure wound therapy. This is also known as vacuum dressing, Negative. Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT). It has turned out to be very useful in burn and extensive skin ...
Brand, H.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.
Wounds in the oral cavity heal faster and with less scarring than wounds in other parts of the body. One of the factors implicated in this phenomenon is the presence of saliva, which promotes the healing of oral wounds in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, which improves the survival
The present invention pertains to use of sodium diacetate (NaHAc 2) as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria growing in biofilms. The aspects of the invention include a wound care product comprising sodium diacetate, a kit comprising a wound care product,and a methodof treating an infected wound....
Murali, S; Hardten, D R; DeMartelaere, S; Olevsky, O M; Mindrup, E A; Hecht, M L; Karlstad, R; Chan, C C; Holland, E J
Since the cornea is an avascular tissue, the wound healing process is lengthy, with a need for sutures to stabilize the wound for a long time. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been shown to accelerate wound healing in rat dermal models. Accelerated healing, if unaccompanied by side effects may reduce suture related complications such as astigmatism and infectious keratitis. This study evaluated the effect of PDGF on wound strength in corneal laceration and penetrating keratoplasty models using New Zealand white albino rabbits. Twenty-two rabbits were used in the corneal laceration model and sixteen rabbits in the penetrating keratoplasty model. The treated rabbits received 385 picomoles/drop of PDGF-BB dissolved in balanced salt solution six times on day 1 and three times a day for the remainder of the study. The control rabbits received balanced salt solution in the same dosing schedule. The pressure required to rupture the wound was measured using a pressure transducer. In the laceration model the PDGF treated group had mean (+/- standard deviation) average pressures on day 7 of 360 +/- 102 mm Hg for wound rupture compared to 210 +/- 102 mm Hg in the control group. (p = 0.005). The average pressures in the penetrating keratoplasty model on day 17 were 707 +/- 201 mm Hg for the controls and 1042 +/- 292 mm Hg for the PDGF treated group (p = 0.026). Histopathological evaluation of eyes not subjected to bursting showed increased fibroblasts at the wound junction with an increase in types III and type IV collagen production.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Full Text Available Some important discoveries in the history of rheumatology happened during war periods. It is well known that arthritis associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis, following dysenteric episodes, has been described during the First World War from the German Hans Reiter and, nearly contemporarily, from the French Nöel Fiessinger and Edgar Leroy. Less known is instead the fact that the first cases of sympathetic algoneurodystrophy have been reported by the American Silas Weir Mitchell in soldiers wounded by fire-arms, during the Civil War of Secession. Other war episodes have been crucial for the development of some drugs now abundantly applied to the care of rheumatic diseases. The discovery of therapeutic effects of immunosuppressive agents, in fact, happened as an indirect consequence of the use of poison gas, already during the First World War (mustard gas, but above all after an episode in the port of Bari in 1943, where an American cargo boat was sunk. It had been loaded with a quantity of cylinders containing a nitrogenous mustard, whose diffusion in the environment provoked more than 80 deaths owing to bone marrow aplasia.Moreover, the history of the cortisone shows a strict link to the Second World War, when Germany imported large quantities of bovine adrenal glands from Argentina, with the purpose of producing some gland extracts for the Luftwasse aviators, in order to increase their performance ability.
Although currently still engaged in the longest war in U.S. history, the military is comprised of only 1% of the U.S. population. In the absence of conscription, most Americans are isolated from the experience of combat and limited in their affective connections to war. Despite these limited geographic, psychological, cultural, aesthetic, and affective connections, the costs of war are coming home. Since 2001, more than 7,000 U.S. troops have died; 50,000 were visibly wounded; and more tha...
Full Text Available This study was to create a long-term rabbit model of diabetes mellitus for medical studies of up to one year or longer and to evaluate the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on damage of major organs. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg was given intravenously to 20 young New Zealand White rabbits. Another 12 age-matched normal rabbits were used as controls. Hyperglycemia developed within 48 hours after treatment with alloxan. Insulin was given daily after diabetes developed. All animals gained some body weight, but the gain was much less than the age-matched nondiabetic rabbits. Hyperlipidemia, higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were found in the diabetic animals. Histologically, the pancreas showed marked beta cell damage. The kidneys showed significantly thickened afferent glomerular arterioles with narrowed lumens along with glomerular atrophy. Lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes appeared as vacuoles. Full-thickness skin wound healing was delayed. In summary, with careful management, alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits can be maintained for one year or longer in reasonably good health for diabetic studies.
Cheeke, P R
Recent studies on the nutritional needs of the rabbit were reviewed. Emphasis was placed on fiber utilization by rabbits, digestibility of forage protein, and unique aspects of mineral and vitamin requirements. In spite of the herbivorous nature of rabbits, their ability to digest fiber is low. Indigestible fiber may have a role in preventing enteritis. While lacking the ability to efficiently digest fiber, rabbits do make efficient use of forage protein, in contrast to most other monogastric animals. Differences in serum calcium homeostasis and calcium excretion as compared with other animals were discussed. The interrelationship between vitamin E and selenium appears different in the rabbit compared with other species. The limited information available on rabbit nutrition suggests that rabbits are unusual in their metabolism of several nutrients; because of their wide use in biological research, more extensive information on nutritional and metabolic characteristics of rabbits is needed.
Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…
Due to lack of a blood bank, insufficient number of donors, continuous need in emergency, life threatening situations and following previous positive experiences, a system was set up for immediate auto transfusion in patients with massive haemothorax from penetrating chest war wounds. To reduce the risk of the 2 major ...
Full Text Available Providing medical care to the ill and wounded persons during World War I in Yekaterynoslav is described. The history of the creation of field hospitals, military hospitals, Red Cross hospitals and church-monument to the fallen heroes is presented. The selfless work of military medical personnel is shown. Biographical information about a doctor, public figure Yefim Pavlovskyi is provided.
Caston, Stephanie S
Care of equine wounds in the field can be a challenging endeavor. Many times, wound care is complicated by chronicity or by prior inappropriate care in addition to the great degree of tissue trauma that occurred when the horse was wounded. Recognizing involvement of synovial structures, loss of skin, and damage to bone are critical in the initial examination of wounds and will guide future care. Education of clients is also important in that preparing them for possible outcomes during healing may help improve compliance and proper treatment of wound. Owners and trainers often perform much of the daily care and monitoring of equine wounds and thus can greatly assist or impede the progress. Bandaging is important to management of equine wounds-especially on the limbs-and is sometimes overlooked because of its labor-intensive nature and the desire for a spray, ointment, or salve that will heal the wound. The practitioner that improves and utilizes his or her understanding of the wound-healing process in concert with his or her knowledge of local anatomy will be the one who is best equipped to care for wounds in ambulatory practice.
Sari, Elif; Dincel, Gungor C
The potential of several drugs for full-thickness skin burns has been investigated, but the treatment of such burns remains a challenge in plastic surgery. The present study was designed to determine the effect of systemic and topical administration of piracetam and nimodipine on full-thickness skin burn wound healing. A total of 36 New Zealand male rabbits were divided into six groups. Full-thickness skin burns were produced in all the groups, except the control group. Piracetam was administered systemically (piracetam-IV) and topically (piracetam-C) for 14 days, and nimodipine was administered systemically (nimodipine-IV) and topically (nimodipine-C) over the burn wounds for 14 days. The sham group underwent burn injury but was not administered any drug. After 21 days, gross examination and histopathological analysis were performed and the results were compared statistically. Nimodipine-C and nimodipine-IV had no effect on burn wound healing. However, both piracetam-IV and piracetam-C significantly enhanced the healing of the full-thickness skin burn wounds, although the latter was more effective, useful and practical in burn wound healing. The histopathological features of the wounds in the piracetam-C group were closer to those of the control group than those of the other groups. Piracetam-C rather than piracetam-IV may promote full-thickness burn wound healing in rabbits. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Wen-Hao; Wu, Qi; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jia-Han
To investigate the effect of closed vacuum drainage combined with heparin irrigation in the treatment of scald burns with seawater immersion in rabbits. Twenty New Zealand rabbits were subjected to deep partial-thickness scald burns in 4 regions on the bilateral skin of the spine. The wounds were managed with common dressing (group A), common dressing after seawater immersion (group B), closed vacuum drainage after seawater immersion (group C), or closed vacuum drainage combined with heparin irrigation after seawater immersion (group D). Wound effusion and tissue necrosis were observed at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after the burns. Tissue samples were collected from the wounds for HE staining and immunohistochemistry for VEGF and CD31, and the changes of capillary endothelial cells in the wound were observed using electron microscopy. The water content in the wound tissues was determined, and the wound healing rate was calculated after the injury. Sea water immersion of the wound results in earlier onset of edema and more extensive tissue necrosis in the scalded rabbits. The mean necrotic area in groups C and D was smaller than that in group B early after the burns, and vacuum drainage promoted necrotic tissue elimination and accelerated wound healing. Early after the burns, water content in the tissues increased with time in all the groups and reached the highest level at 3 days, and was significantly lower in groups C and D than in group B. Pathologically, vascular endothelial cell damage at the wound site was worsened after seawater immersion. In group D, the basement membrane damage was milder and the endothelial cell membrane remained intact at the wound site, where new blood vessels occurred at 3 days after the burns, a time earlier than that in the other 3 groups with also the highest vascular density. Closed vacuum drainage combined with heparin irrigation can relieve edema at the scald wound with seawater immersion, improve microcirculation, accelerate the removal
Full Text Available Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant that has been used in wound healing. The objectives of this study were to describe how the scientific production presents the use ofphenytoinas a healing agent and to discuss its applicability in wounds. A literature review and hierarchy analysis of evidence-based practices was performed. Eighteen articles were analyzed that tested the intervention in wounds such as leprosy ulcers, leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, trophic ulcers, war wounds, burns, preparation of recipient graft area, radiodermatitis and post-extraction of melanocytic nevi. Systemic use ofphenytoinin the treatment of fistulas and the hypothesis of topical use in the treatment of vitiligo were found. In conclusion, topical use ofphenytoinis scientifically evidenced. However robust research is needed that supports a protocol for the use ofphenytoinas another option of a healing agent in clinical practice.
Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der, J.J.
Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60?% respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12560-016-9239-3) contains supplementary material, which is avail...
Joanne M. Hackett; Lagali, Neil; Merrett, Kimberley; Edelhauser, Henry; Sun, Yifei; Gan, Lisha; Griffith, May; Fagerholm, Per
Purpose: To evaluate the performance of structurally reinforced, stabilized recombinant human collagen-phosphorylcholine (RHCIII-MPC) hydrogels as corneal substitutes in a rabbit model of severe corneal damage. Methods: One eye each of 12 rabbits received a deep corneal alkali wound. Four corneas were implanted with RHCIII-MPC hydrogels. The other eight control corneas were implanted with either allografts or a simple crosslinked RHCIII hydrogel. In all cases, 6.25 mm diameter, 350 µm thick b...
Burt, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140114432; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.
Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.
Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.
Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.
Uzoagu A. Okonkwo
Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus Type II (DM2 is a growing international health concern with no end in sight. Complications of DM2 involve a myriad of comorbidities including the serious complications of poor wound healing, chronic ulceration, and resultant limb amputation. In skin wound healing, which has definite, orderly phases, diabetes leads to improper function at all stages. While the etiology of chronic, non-healing diabetic wounds is multi-faceted, the progression to a non-healing phenotype is closely linked to poor vascular networks. This review focuses on diabetic wound healing, paying special attention to the aberrations that have been described in the proliferative, remodeling, and maturation phases of wound angiogenesis. Additionally, this review considers therapeutics that may offer promise to better wound healing outcomes.
Cooper, R A; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, M
Following confirmation of the presence of biofilms in chronic wounds, the term biofilm became a buzzword within the wound healing community. For more than a century pathogens have been successfully isolated and identified from wound specimens using techniques that were devised in the nineteenth...... extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Cells within such aggregations (or biofilms) display varying physiological and metabolic properties that are distinct from those of planktonic cells, and which contribute to their persistence. There are many factors that influence healing in wounds and the discovery...... of biofilms in chronic wounds has provided new insight into the reasons why. Increased tolerance of biofilms to antimicrobial agents explains the limited efficacy of antimicrobial agents in chronic wounds and illustrates the need to develop new management strategies. This review aims to explain the nature...
Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.
Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336
Ousey, Karen; Cook, Leanne
A structured approach to wound assessment is required to maintain a good standard of care. This involves a thorough patient assessment, which should be carried out by skilled and competent practitioners, adhering to local and national guidelines (Harding et al, 2008). Inappropriate or inaccurate assessment can lead to delayed wound healing, pain, increased risk of infection, inappropriate use of wound dressings and a reduction in the quality of life for patients.
Full Text Available In principle, this paper presents critics of Freud's concept of death drive and deals with the consequences of its drawing in the theoretical plane. Namely, the death drive is, besides the original pleasure principle, imported into the selfmediation dialectic of subjectivity. By that, as if a scientific foundation and justification had been given to one of the central tendencies in Western European thought: to the idea of original opposition or eternal war. In our time, violence has entered widely into theoretical reality, which is best witnessed by Derida's thought. Nevertheless, the concept of death drive presents only one of the possible lines of the development of psychoanalysis, the line which is fully avoided in papers and praxis of one different psychoanalyst - very much used but not enough acknowledged - Wilhelm Reich. Reich, namely, succeeded in explanation of masochism problem (as one of the main motives for presenting of death drive by inversion of the pleasure principle, and such interpretation gave results in therapy while the concept of death drive had shown itself apsolutely fruitless (unproductive in that field. In that sense, one could say that it is the matter of different ethoi.
Innovation in medicine requires unique partnerships between academic research, biotech or pharmaceutical companies, and health-care providers. While innovation in medicine has greatly increased over the past 100 years, innovation in wound care has been slow, despite the fact that chronic wounds are a global health challenge where there is a need for technical, process and social innovation. While novel partnerships between research and the health-care system have been created, we still have much to learn about wound care and the wound-healing processes.
Ravi K Chittoria
Full Text Available The escalating physiological, psychological, social and financial burdens of wounds and wound care on patients, families and society demand the immediate attention of the health care sector. Many forces are affecting the changes in health care provision for patients with chronic wounds, including managed care, the limited number of wound care therapists, an increasingly ageing and disabled population, regulatory and malpractice issues, and compromised care. The physician is also faced with a number of difficult issues when caring for chronic wound patients because their conditions are time consuming and high risk, represent an unprofitable part of care practice and raise issues of liability. Telemedicine enhances communication with the surgical wound care specialist. Digital image for skin lesions is a safe, accurate and cost-effective referral pathway. The two basic modes of telemedicine applications, store and forward (asynchronous transfer and real-time transmission (synchronous transfer, e.g. video conference, are utilized in the wound care setting. Telemedicine technology in the hands of an experienced physician can streamline management of a problem wound. Although there is always an element of anxiety related to technical change, the evolution of wound care telemedicine technology has demonstrated a predictable maturation process.
Zhao, Ruilong; Liang, Helena; Clarke, Elizabeth; Jackson, Christopher; Xue, Meilang
Non-healing chronic wounds present a major biological, psychological, social, and financial burden on both individual patients and the broader health system. Pathologically extensive inflammation plays a major role in the disruption of the normal healing cascade. The causes of chronic wounds (venous, arterial, pressure, and diabetic ulcers) can be examined through a juxtaposition of normal healing and the rogue inflammatory response created by the common components within chronic wounds (ageing, hypoxia, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and bacterial colonisation). Wound bed care through debridement, dressings, and antibiotics currently form the basic mode of treatment. Despite recent setbacks, pharmaceutical adjuncts form an interesting area of research.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...
Musatov, O V; Zurnadzhan, S A
In 52 rabbits a morphological assessment was made of regeneration of wounds of the liver and kidneys after their plasty with a seromuscle flap of the stomach on the vascular pedicle (26 rabbits), of hepatorhaphy and omentonephroplasty (26 rabbits) within the period from 1 to 360 days and was compared with literature data concerning reparation of the liver and kidney of the rabbit with the application of bio- and polymer materials for covering their wounds. The influence of plastic properties of the materials used on the productivity of the inflammatory-reparative process was established. In suturing the wounds of parenchymatous organs it is necessary to use plastic materials stimulating regeneration. The application of seromuscle flap of the stomach for these purposes improves the inflammatory-reparative process making it more productive as compared with bio- and polymer materials.
Calotropis Procera (CP) has been used in the management of toothache, fresh skin burns, gum bleeding as well as others to make it qualify as a medicinal plant. This study was designed to assess its wound-healing property in rabbits and its potentials for anti keloidal activity.Fresh latex of Calotropis were obtained and ...
Hunt, T K; Linsey, M; Grislis, H; Sonne, M; Jawetz, E
Wound infections were studied in rabbits using two standard inocula (approximately equal to 10-4 and approximately equal to 10-6) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa injected into subcutaneous wound dead space made by implantation of standard wire mesh cylinders. The inoculation was done on the fourth day after implantation of the cylinders in animals kept from the day of implantation in atmospheres of 12%, 21%, or 45% oxygen content. Samples of wound fluid (0.2 ml) were removed for quantitative culture just before inoculation and 3, 7, 14, and 21 days later. No positive cultures resulted from samples taken before inoculation. One uninoculated wound served as a control in each animal. None of these control wounds became infected. Culture counts were significantly highest in the anoxic group and lowest in the hyperoxic group. Established infections were significantly lowest in the hyperoxics and highest in the hypoxics. The percent of wounds showing a significant culture count showed a similar trend. The mechanisms of this effect is not known, but a possible mechanism lies in the relative inability of leucocytes to kill this bacterium under hypoxic conditions.
Barbian, Lenore; Sledzik, Paul S; Reznick, Jeffrey S
The National Museum of Health and Medicine holds a collection of anatomical specimens from nearly 2,000 soldiers injured during the American Civil War. Originally collected as part of a study of trauma and disease during war, these specimens have been museum artifacts for over 140 years. During this time, they have been displayed and utilized in an array of interpretative strategies. They have functioned as medical specimens documenting the effects of gunshot wounds and infection to the human body, as mementos mori symbolizing the refuse of a nation divided by war, and as objects of osteological and forensic interest. The museum's curators recently discovered four of these specimens from soldiers who the poet and essayist Walt Whitman nursed in the wartime hospitals of Washington, DC. Uniting these remains with Whitman's words yields a new interpretation that bears witness to individual histories during a time of unprecedented conflict in American history.
Sugar in its pure form, or incorporated into a paste containing an adhesive hydropolymer (gum), is a non-toxic treatment for a variety of wounds. Not only does it provide a suitable clean environment for angiogenesis to take place, but it will debride the wound surface and reduce odour. The presence of an adhesive hydropolymer seems to prevent hypergranulation, scarring and contraction.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007645.htm Surgical wound infection - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... the organ and space where you had surgery Treatment Antibiotics are used to treat most wound infections. Sometimes, you also may need surgery to ...
As patients are discharged from the acute care setting to the home care setting at a much earlier time in their recovery, surgical wound care will be delivered by patients, family members, and home health care providers rather than by the hospital nurse in a traditional in-patient setting. This trend, which began in the mid-1980s, is expanding to include not just surgical wounds but also surgical complications such as wound dehiscence and traumatic wounds healing by secondary intention. Intensive care nurses are involved in discharge planning from the time the patient is admitted to the ICU. Early planning and teaching regarding wound care, universal precautions, and medical waste disposal have become a vital component of preparing the patient for optimal continuity of care as the transition is made into the community.
Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær
Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...... about war and masculine rationalties; gender relations in social movements of rebellion and national transformation; and masculinity in civil society under conditions of war and post-war....
Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war
economic, and politica ! institutions. And like independence, war shaped the "course taken by the new nation as it faced its future. The consequences...Cruden, The War That Never Ended: The American Ci’,il War (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1973), p. 176. 139 190 NOTES. CHAPTER 2 15. Thonas Weber . The
Lee, Raymond S. H.
Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)
M. S. Al-Badrany
Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.
Areas, J.; Yun, G.C.; Rahmat, J.; Gersten, D.; Goel, R.; Preuss, H.G.
Elevated levels of a specific renal growth factor, renotropin, have been associated with spontaneous hypertension. To examine this association more closely, we have undertaken the development of a better assay system to characterize and purify renotropin. Sera from rabbits prior to operation (control) and at a specified time after unilateral nephrectomy (uni) were examined for renotropic activity. Comparing the effects of uni to control sera in the same rabbit, significant stimulation of 3H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of primary rabbit kidney cultures incubated in D-valine medium to eliminate fibroblast growth was noted: at 3 days postoperatively 73% (n = 13), at 7 days 103% (n = 39), at 10 days 130% (n = 31), at 21 days 101% (n = 24), at 42 days 89% (n = 13). All values were at least P less than 0.01. The stimulatory properties were dose-dependent but reached a plateau at high serum concentrations. Comparing CPM/mg protein in uni/control in different concentrations of sera 7 days postoperatively, uni versus control were 67/44 at 5% v/v, 139/72 at 10% v/v, 261/161 at 20% v/v, and 243/136 at 40% v/v. The renotropic effect of uni sera remained after dialysis in incubation medium and after sera were heated in boiling water for 5 minutes. Renal extracts obtained from growing kidneys 7 days postnephrectomy augmented renotropic activity. Atrial natriuretic factor, ouabain, PGF2 alpha, PGE1, and cAMP did not possess renotropic activity. We conclude that the primary rabbit kidney culture assay for renotropin is highly sensitive and will be an important tool to comprehend the role of renotropin in the pathogenesis of hypertension.
Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad
Full Text Available Objective(s: Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity. Materials and Methods: Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. Results: The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conclusion: Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.
Background: Due to reports that honey accelerates wound healing, an investigation on its role in wound contraction in fresh wounds inflicted on wistar rats was carried out. Method: Twenty adult male wistar rats had 2cm by 2cm square wound inflicted on their right dorsolateral trunk. They were divided into two groups.
Enfermeiras do Exército Brasileiro no transporte aéreo de feridos: um desafio enfrentado na 2a. Gerra Mundial Enfermeras del Ejercito Brasilero en el transporte aereo de heridos: un desafío enfrentado en la 2a. Gerra Mundial Brazilian Army Nurses and transportation of the wounded: a challenge faced during World War II
Margarida Maria Rocha Bernardes
Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded.
When the tissue of skin is break means a wound is happens. To seal it, many choices of wound healing are available. Moist wound dressing can be better optional than the conservative ones. A bioactive agent that being added at the dressing in fact can increase healing rate of wound, moreover can subjugate wound infection caused by the pathogens, and also capable to prevent it. In this review, there are summary of modern moist wound healing, the wound pathogens, and some of sturdy bioactive age...
De Martin, Isabelle; Theoret, Christine L
To describe immunolocalization of TGF-beta receptors (RI and RII) in normal equine skin and in thoracic or limb wounds, healing normally or with exuberant granulation tissue (EGT). Group A: six wounds on one metacarpus and one midthoracic area. Group B: six wounds on both metacarpi, one of which was bandaged to stimulate EGT. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect RI and RII expression in wound margins. Eight horses, randomly assigned to one of two study groups. Neutralizing polyclonal anti-rabbit RI and RII antibodies were used to detect spatial expression of RI and RII in biopsies obtained before wounding, at 12 and 24 hours, and 5, 10 and 14 days after wounding. RI and RII were co-localized in both unwounded and wounded skin. There were no differences in cell types staining positively between tissues obtained from the limb and the thorax, or from normally healing limb wounds and limb wounds with EGT, at any time. Because of increased cellularity within EGT, staining intensity of limb wounds with 'proud flesh' was greater than limb wounds healing normally, and thoracic wounds, during the proliferative phase of repair. Strong expression of RI and RII, particularly in limb wounds with EGT, suggested that signalling for stimulation of matrix proteins is in place to contribute to scarring. This information may help determine the appropriate time for using receptor antagonists to prevent scarring of limb wounds of horses.
Hendrix, Sam M; Baxter, Gary M
Most injuries, including those with significant tissue loss, can be successfully managed with proper therapy. With delayed healing, potential causes for the delay, such as sequestra, foreign bodies, and excessive motion,should be determined and treated to permit complete wound resolution. Horses have the innate ability to heal rapidly; however, minor injuries can quickly turn into complicated wounds, given the severity of the inciting trauma and the less than ideal environment in which the horses are housed. Wound management must focus on a combination of timely surgical and medical intervention to ensure the best potential outcome.
Full Text Available Little is known about the image of the Wound Man, a graphic drawing of a violently wounded figure repeated across a series of European surgical treatises from 1400 onwards. Focusing on the only known English example, preserved in the back of a late fifteenth-century medical miscellany now in the Wellcome Collection, London, this article seeks to unravel the origins and scope of this picture. Considering both the image’s diagrammatic and metaphorical qualities, it presents the Wound Man as a particularly potent site not just of surgical knowledge but of a broader medico-artistic entanglement.
Magdalena El Ghamari
Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".
Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.
Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...
Associations with rabbits and rabbit meat of three different ethnic groups in Stellenbosch, South Africa. LC Hoffman, C Vosloo, P Nkhabutlane, DW Schutte. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Shanks, G Dennis
World War 1 was a key transition point towards scientific medicine. Medical officers incorporated Louis Pasteur's discoveries into their understanding of microorganisms as the cause of infectious diseases, which were therefore susceptible to rational control and treatment measures even in the pre-antibiotic era. Typhoid vaccination led to the successful evasion of the disastrous epidemics of previous wars. The incidence of tetanus was probably decreased by giving millions of doses of horse antitoxin to wounded soldiers. Quinine treated but could not control malaria; its use required mass compulsion. Tuberculosis was not a great military problem during World War 1, although mortality in civilian populations increased substantially. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections remained a matter of aversive conditioning, with invasive antiseptics used in the absence of antibiotics. Pandemic influenza in 1918-19 killed more people than died during the entire war, showing how much remained beyond the capability of the scientists and doctors who fought infectious diseases during World War 1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.
Lu, Huchen; Wang, Lian; Zhong, Wuzhao; Qi, Rongfeng; Li, Ning; You, Wanchun; Su, Xingfeng; Zhuang, Zong; Cheng, Huilin; Shi, Jixin
Bullet-induced brain wounds are common among military personnel in war zones and among civilians with gun accidents or crime-related gun injuries. The goal of this study was to develop a nonfatal porcine model of penetrating craniocerebral gunshot wound (PCGW) by firing a projectile in live swine to induce PCGW in such a realistic manner as to reconstruct their physical characteristics. We established a nonfatal porcine model of PCGW based on a custom-designed experimental gun that emulates the shooting of a 5.56-mm NATO standard rifle at 800 m (317 m/s; 200.9 J). Commercial swine (n = 20) were subjected to a ballistic wound to the bilateral frontal lobe, and four swine were used as controls. Surviving swine were used in subsequent first-aid, management, and monitoring experiments for neurosurgeons. Various physiological variables were measured continuously. After computed tomography (CT) scanning and three-dimensional CT reconstructions, all pigs underwent primary lifesaving emergency interventions, including emergency decompressive craniotomies and hemorrhage control. In our nonfatal porcine model of PCGW, injuries were comparable in their morphology to real gunshot wounds, as evidenced by analysis of wound characteristics and CT scan images. The survival rates of the pigs were 100% within 2 h, 95% within 6 h, 85% within 12 h, and 85% within 24 h (P pigs. This model makes possible the laboratory reproduction of real ballistic wounds in a live large animal model that is close to humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Although beneficial effects of wound infestation with maggots had been known for many centuries, it was not until dr Zacharias recognized medical importance of maggots during the American Civil War. He intentionally introduced maggots into the wound for its debridement. Baer successfully used maggots in treatment of osteomyelitis in 4 children in the 1930'. After many successes in the 1930' maggots therapy had become limited to intractable wounds after introducing sulphonamides and mass-production of Flemming's penicillin. Present use of maggots came in the 1980' when better methods of sterilization both eggs and maggot were developed and clinical efficiency of antibiotics used for wound treatment decreased dramatically. Today maggots' therapy became less treatment of last resort but of first choice in leg ulcers, carbuncules, pressure ulcers and infected traumatic wounds. Its beneficial effect was noted in diabetic foot and in destroying malignant tissue as well. Easiness in application, safety, near no side effects and often exceptional efficiency in wound debridement makes maggots therapy the first line therapeutic tool in both hospital and out-patient surgery. Clinical experience has demonstrated that maggot therapy may reduce costs of treatment considerably by shortening hospital stay and decrease usage of antibiotics.
Marković-Savić Olivera S.
Full Text Available The paper discusses how war veterans perceive themselves and how they answer the question 'Who am I?'. War veterans face many challenges in the process of re-socialization from a state of war and war traumatization to a peacetime society. There are several reasons why their re-socialization is a slow process: the first one is that a war engagement is in itself a highly stressful situation which carries traumas of different degrees, the other reason is the changed system of values in relation to war engagement. Namely, at the time they went to war, they had a strong social support, but at the time of their return and today this support is lost to the point of judgment. And the third reason which limits their re-socialization is the situation of social transition they found on their return from war, which specifically means that a large percentage of the population in general, and thus the war veterans after returning from the war, lost their jobs, creating a large social group of 'transition losers'. Such a condition often generates an identity crisis. This set of socio-cultural circumstances together with the ontological insecurity carried by war trauma generate an identity crisis, which is manifested among the respondents in nihilistic answers when responding to questions about their own personality. Studying the identity of war veterans, it was found that a strong attachment to the veteran identity is dominant. In fact, this paper discusses the different ways in which this attachment is refracted in the personality and identity of subjects, from negative attitudes to the pride in belonging to a group of war veterans and personal fulfillment in the activism in associations of war participants.
Forsberg, Jonathan A; Potter, Benjamin K; Polfer, Elizabeth M; Safford, Shawn D; Elster, Eric A
After a decade of war in Iraq and Afghanistan, we have observed an increase in combat-related injury survival and a paradoxical increase in injury severity, mainly because of the effects of blasts. These severe injuries have a devastating effect on each patient's immune system resulting in massive upregulation of the systemic inflammatory response. By examining inflammatory mediators, preliminary data suggest that it may be possible to correlate complications such as wound failure and heterotopic ossification (HO) with distinct systemic and local inflammatory profiles, but this is a relatively new topic. We asked whether systemic or local markers of inflammation could be used as an objective means, independent of demographic and subjective factors, to estimate the likelihood of (1) HO and/or (2) wound failure (defined as wounds requiring surgical débridement after definitive closure, or wounds that were not closed or covered within 21 days of injury) in patients sustaining combat wounds. Two hundred combat wounded active-duty service members who sustained high-energy extremity injuries were prospectively enrolled between 2008 and 2012. Of these 200 patients, 189 had adequate followups to determine the presence or absence of HO, and 191 had adequate followups to determine the presence or absence of wound failure. In addition to injury-specific and demographic data, we quantified 24 cytokines and chemokines during each débridement. Patients were followed clinically for 6 weeks, and radiographs were obtained 3 months after definitive wound closure. Associations were investigated between these markers and wound failure or HO, while controlling for known confounders. The presence of an amputation (p wound surface area (p = 0.001; OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.002-1.009), serum interleukin (IL)-3 (p = 0.002; OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.5-4.5), serum IL-12p70 (p = 0.01; OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.81), effluent IL-3 (p = 0.02; OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), and effluent IL-13 (p = 0.006; OR, 0
Çelikel, Adnan; Karbeyaz, Kenan; Kararslan, Bekir; Arslan, M Mustafa; Zeren, Cem
In war areas a lot of children die as well as adults. According to UNICEF, almost 2 million children have died in the wars took place in the last 10 years. In this study, we aimed to evaluate demographical data and injury characteristics of Syrian children who were wounded in Syria Civil War and died while being treated in Turkey. Postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 985 forensic deaths from Hatay -a Syrian neighborhood city of Turkey-between January 2012 and August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 763 Syrian people who were wounded in the war and died while being treated in Turkey, 140 cases (18.3%) who were younger than 18 years of age were taken into the scope of this study. Among those cases 77.9% (n = 109) were male and 22.1% were female. Median ages of female cases are 14 (min-max: 2-18) and median age of female cases are 9 (min-max: 1-18). Frequency distribution is highest between 13 and 18 years of age (n: 71, 50.7%). In 70% (n: 98) of cases, cause of death is bombing and shrapnel injuries, 13.6% (19) of them were killed by gunshot wounds. According to injury sites most of the injuries were reported to be on multiple body parts (54.3%, n: 76) and only head and neck injuries (%30). Cause of death was intracranial bleeding and cerebral parenchymal injury in most of the cases (n: 66, %47.1) followed by vascular damage with external bleeding (n: 15, %10.7) and internal organ damage with internal bleeding (n: 15, %10.7). The cases had very high level Abbreviated Injury Scales and Injury Severity Sores. In conclusion, a lot of children have died in the Civil War of Syria. Their average abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score values reported very high. Children that we evaluated were mostly died of head and neck injuries predominantly caused by bombing attacks and Autopsies of them revealed fatal intracranial hemorrhages and parenchymal injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights
Abu-Sittah, Ghassan S; Baroud, Joe; Hakim, Christopher; Wakil, Cynthia
The aim of this paper is to share the authors' experience in the management of complicated facial war injuries using free tissue transfer. A discussion on the most commonly encountered pitfalls in management during the acute and complicated settings is presented in an effort to raise insight on facial war wound complications. Two patients of complicated facial war injuries are presented to exemplify the pitfalls in acute and chronic management of the mandibular region in the first patient and the orbito-maxillary region in the second. The examples demonstrate free tissue transfer for early as well as late definitive reconstructions. A reconstruction algorithm or consensus regarding the optimal management plan of complicated facial war injuries is not attainable. The main principles of treatment, however, remain to decrease bacterial burden by adequate aggressive debridement followed by revisit sessions, remove of all infected hardware followed by replacement with external bony fixation if necessary and reviving the affected area by coverage with well-vascularized tissues and bone. The later is feasible via local, regional, or distant tissue transfer depending on the extent of injury, surgeon's experience, and time and personnel available. Free tissue transfer has revolutionized the management of complicated facial war injuries associated with soft tissue or bone loss as it has allowed the introduction of well-vascularized tissues into a hostile wound environment. The end result is a reduced infection rate, faster recovery time, and better functional outcome compared with when loco-regional soft tissue coverage or bone grafting is used. When soft tissue or bone loss is present, free tissue transfer should be the first management plan if time and personnel are available. The ultimate treatment of a complicated war wound remains prevention by accurate initial management.
... 2009:chap 39. Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...
... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Prevent Bite Wounds Page Content Article Body Each year, ... bite Swollen glands that occur above the bite Prevention of Bites and Infections To prevent bites and ...
Efimenko, N A; Samokhvalov, L M
The surgical experience gained during the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) is a basis of the modern Russian military surgery, which allows providing any options for surgical care to the wounded. The article describes the main achievements of the military surgeons in our country during the Great Patriotic War, which helped the Soviet (Russian) military field surgery to achieve a leading position in the world of military medicine. The role of the united martial medical doctrine, three editions of "Guidelines for the military surgery", the qualified surgical assistance as a mean that helped to deliver surgical care to the wounded, the introduction of specialized medical care, technology development of medical triage, as well as the origins of the tactics of a multi-stage surgical treatment of combat trauma and special treatment of minimally wounded during the war. The problems in establishing registers of combat injuries. and training military surgeons are analysed.
Pilny, Anthony A; Hess, Laurie
In all species of mammals, the stages of wound healing are the same, and both host factors and wound characteristics affect how wounds heal. The basic principles of wound care in ferrets, such as lavage, bandaging, and surgical closure, are similar to those in other species; however, knowledge of ferrets' anatomy and pathophysiology, as well as skin conditions commonly seen in ferrets, will help ensure proper wound healing.
East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...
Stojadinovic, Alexander; Elster, Eric; Potter, Benjamin K; Davis, Thomas A; Tadaki, Doug K; Brown, Trevor S; Ahlers, Stephen; Attinger, Christopher E; Andersen, Romney C; Burris, David; Centeno, Jose; Champion, Hunter; Crumbley, David R; Denobile, John; Duga, Michael; Dunne, James R; Eberhardt, John; Ennis, William J; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Hawksworth, Jason; Helling, Thomas S; Lazarus, Gerald S; Milner, Stephen M; Mullick, Florabel G; Owner, Christopher R; Pasquina, Paul F; Patel, Chirag R; Peoples, George E; Nissan, Aviram; Ring, Michael; Sandberg, Glenn D; Schaden, Wolfgang; Schultz, Gregory S; Scofield, Tom; Shawen, Scott B; Sheppard, Forest R; Stannard, James P; Weina, Peter J; Zenilman, Jonathan M
The Combat Wound Initiative (CWI) program is a collaborative, multidisciplinary, and interservice public-private partnership that provides personalized, state-of-the-art, and complex wound care via targeted clinical and translational research. The CWI uses a bench-to-bedside approach to translational research, including the rapid development of a human extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) study in complex wounds after establishing the potential efficacy, biologic mechanisms, and safety of this treatment modality in a murine model. Additional clinical trials include the prospective use of clinical data, serum and wound biomarkers, and wound gene expression profiles to predict wound healing/failure and additional clinical patient outcomes following combat-related trauma. These clinical research data are analyzed using machine-based learning algorithms to develop predictive treatment models to guide clinical decision-making. Future CWI directions include additional clinical trials and study centers and the refinement and deployment of our genetically driven, personalized medicine initiative to provide patient-specific care across multiple medical disciplines, with an emphasis on combat casualty care.
Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.
One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing
Huang, Na; Lin, Jiali; Li, Sidong; Deng, Yifeng; Kong, Songzhi; Hong, Pengzhi; Yang, Ping; Liao, Mingneng; Hu, Zhang
A new type of wound healing agent was developed using two marine biomaterials (squid ink polysaccharide and chitosan) as carriers and calcium chloride as an initiator for coagulation. Based on central composite design-response surface methodology, comprehensive evaluation of appearance quality for composite sponges and water absorbency were used as evaluation indices to identify the optimized preparation conditions and further evaluate the performance of the squid ink polysaccharide-chitosan sponge (SIP-CS). The optimized formulation of SIP-CS was as follows: chitosan concentration, 2.29%; squid ink polysaccharide concentration, 0.55%; and calcium chloride concentration, 2.82%, at a volume ratio of 15:5:2. SIP-CS was conducive to sticking on the wound, characterized by the spongy property, strong absorptivity, and tackiness. Rabbit ear arterial, hepatic, and femoral artery hemorrhage experiments indicated that, compared with chitosan dressings and absorbable gelatin, the hemostatic times were shorter and the bleeding volume was smaller. Furthermore, SIP-CS absorbed a large amount of hemocytes, leading to rapid hemostasis. The healing areas and wound pathological sections in scalded New Zealand rabbits indicated that SIP-CS promoted wound healing more rapidly than chitosan and better than commercially available burn cream. Thus, SIP-CS is a good wound healing agent for rapid hemostasis, promoting burn/scalded skin healing, and protecting from wound infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bruske, Jr, James S
The United States Coast Guard, with the assistance of the United States Navy, has been engaged in interdicting drugs in the maritime environment since Richard Nixon declared the War on Drugs thirty-seven years ago...
More than 3000 nurses from Australia served with the Australian Army Nursing Service or the British nursing services during World War I. These nurses served in various theatres of war including Egypt, France, India, Greece, Italy and England. They worked in numerous roles including as a surgical team nurse close to the front working under fire; nursing on hospital ships carrying the sick and wounded; or managing hospital wards overrun with patients whilst dealing with a lack of hospital necessities. The skills and roles needed to be a military nurse significantly differed to the skills required to nurse in Australia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M
White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.
Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.
A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012
Wu, Zhengzheng; Tang, Yan; Fang, Hongdou; Su, Zhongchun; Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongliang; Zhang, Peng; Wei, Xing
There is no effective therapy for the treatment of deep and large area skin wounds. Decellularized scaffolds can be prepared from animal tissues and represent a promising biomaterial for investigation in tissue regeneration studies. In this study, MTT assay showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) increased NIH3T3 cell proliferation in a bell-shaped dose response, and the maximum cell proliferation was achieved at a concentration of 25 ng/ml. Decellularized scaffolds were prepared from pig peritoneum by a series of physical and chemical treatments. Hyaluronic acid (HA) increased EGF adsorption to the scaffolds. Decellularized scaffolds containing HA sustained the release of EGF compared to no HA. Rabbits contain relatively large skin surface and are less expensive and easy to be taken care, so that a rabbit wound healing model was use in this study. Four full-thickness skin wounds were created in each rabbit for evaluation of the effects of the scaffolds on the skin regeneration. Wounds covered with scaffolds containing either 1 or 3 μg/ml EGF were significantly smaller than with vaseline oil gauzes or with scaffolds alone, and the wounds covered with scaffolds containing 1 μg/ml EGF recovered best among all four wounds. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining confirmed these results by demonstrating that significantly thicker dermis layers were also observed in the wounds covered by the decellularized scaffolds containing HA and either 1 or 3 μg/ml EGF than with vaseline oil gauzes or with scaffolds alone. In addition, the scaffolds containing HA and 1 μg/ml EGF gave thicker dermis layers than HA and 3 μg/ml EGF and showed the regeneration of skin appendages on day 28 post-transplantation. These results demonstrated that decellularized scaffolds containing HA and EGF could provide a promising way for the treatment of human skin injuries.
Price, Patricia; Fogh, Karsten; Glynn, Chris
Chronic wound pain is not well understood and the literature is limited. Six of 10 patients venous leg ulcer experience pain with their ulcer, and similar trends are observed for other chronic wounds. Chronic wound pain can lead to depression and the feeling of constant tiredness. Pain related...... to the wound should be handled as one of the main priorities in chronic wound management together with addressing the cause. Management of pain in chronic wounds depends on proper assessment, reporting and documenting patient experiences of pain. Assessment should be based on six critical dimensions...... document persistent wound pain and not to develop a treatment and monitoring strategy to improve the lives of persons with chronic wounds. Unless wound pain is optimally managed, patient suffering and costs to health care systems will increase. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr...
and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims.......This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...
Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien
Between 1914 and 1918, war strain appeared under a number of guises and affected, to varying extents, the majority of French soldiers. The most frequent form of war strain was war psychoneurosis, but war strain also induced more paroxystic disorders, such as acute episodes of terror, self-mutilation, induced illnesses and even suicide. Fear was the constant companion of soldiers of the Great War: soldiers were either able to tame it or overwhelmed by an uncontrollable fear. Nonetheless, over the course of the war, some aspects of fear were recognised as syndromes. The French health service poorly anticipated the major consequences of war strain, as with many other types of injuries. After the establishment of wartime neuropsychiatric centres, two main medical stances emerged: listening to soldiers empathetically on the one hand and applying more repressive management on the other. For many physicians, the psychological consequences of this first modern war were synonymous with malingering or cowardice in the face of duty. The stance of French military physicians in relation to their command was not unequivocal and remained ambivalent, swaying between medico-military collusion and empathy towards soldiers experiencing psychological distress. The ubiquity of suspected malingering modified the already porous borders between neuropsychiatric disorders and disobedience. Several war psychoneurotic soldiers were sentenced by councils of war for deserting their posts in the face of the enemy and were shot. Many soldiers suspected of self-mutilation or suffering from induced illnesses were also sentenced and executed without an expert assessment of their wound or their psychological state. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.
Liguori, Paul A; Peters, Kim L; Bowers, Jolene M
The optimal wound therapy for healing infected wounds post surgery or surgical debridement has not been established. Negative pressure wound therapy and acoustic pressure wound therapy are advanced wound-healing modalities that apply forms of mechanical pressure to wound tissue in an effort to promote healing by stimulating cellular proliferation. Using a combination of negative pressure wound therapy and acoustic pressure wound therapy was evaluated in a series of six patients with large, infected surgical wounds presenting with moderate to large amounts of serosanguineous drainage. After concurrent treatment with both modalities (range: 4 to 12 weeks), wound volume was reduced by 99% to 100% in all wounds except one wound for which depth at end of treatment was not measurable due to hypergranulation. Similarly, wound surface area was reduced by 82% to 100%, with the exception of the hypergranular wound, which decreased in size by 60%. Serosanguineous wound drainage was reduced in four wounds and remained unchanged in two wounds.
Sirkka, T; Apell, S P
Wound healing is an intricate process that involves many types of cells, reaction pathways as well as chemical, physical and electrical cues. Since biochemical reactions and physiological events are pH-dependent we study here pH as an important major characteristic of the wound healing process in the presence of endogenous and exogenous electric fields. Our model gives the spatial pH distribution in a wound. In particular we isolate a number of dimensionless quantities which sets the length, energy and time scales governing the wound healing process and which can be experimentally tested. Most interesting finding is that wound pH depends on actual wound size.
Full Text Available Background and aim of this clinical case presentation is to reveal the importance of early nerve injury diagnosis and surgical treatment in war wounded patients. Methods. The author treated patients in Amman Charity Hospital were among different plastic surgery cases where limb nerve injuries with nerve grafting indication. The presented case was treated with autologus sural nerve graft. Results were evaluated at 3 months after the surgery and revealed detectable nerve conductibility at the Electromiography test. In conclusion, in cases with delayed nerve repair surgical treatment in war wounded patients, the vascularised nerve graft can be a better solution for nerve defect surgical treatment.
Galeano, C; Leung, C Y; Robitaille, R; Roy-Chabot, T
The aim of this study was to verify the validity and reliability of analgesia elicited by acupuncture stimulation in rabbits. Ninety-five experiments were performed using 21 adult animals. The reaction time of the avoidance response elicited by noxious heat stimulation on the snout, and the presence or absence of the start response elicited by pin-prick and clamping of the skin were studied. Bilateral electric acupuncture stimulation in the area of Tsu-san-li and Shang-chu-hsu points in the hind legs was used. The animals were either held in a soft bag, loosely attached by cords, or suspended in a hammock; the eyes were either free of blindfolded. On the basis of operational behavioral measurements, it was found that acupuncture stimulation did not produce analgesia in undisturbed, placid animals. However, during agitated or fighting periods and the immobility reflex-like state, sometimes associated with acupuncture maneuvers, long reaction times were observed. Pin-pricking and clamping stimulation of the skin were not reliable methods of noxious stimulation in the rabbit.
Magdalena El Ghamari
The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occas...
Paris Diderot University - Paris 7 “The war transformed love”, wrote Blaise Cendrars, who himself lived through this dramatic experience. But what else? How did men and women experience the Great War, not only in their affective, romantic and sexual relationships, but more generally in everything forging their relationships: family life, intimacy, the public and the private spheres, work, writing, images, the body and the soul? A poilu's postcard, 1916 The war was first the triumph of the or...
Abou-Okeil, A; Sheta, A M; Amr, A; Ali, Marwa A
Nonwoven viscose fabric was treated with chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) using pad-dry method, using different concentrations of chitosan and PVA. Increasing the amount of PVA leads to increasing of air permeability. Water permeability increased by increasing the amount of PVA to 2 ml (10% solution) then decreased by any increase of the quantity of PVA solution. Roughness increased with increasing the amount of 10% PVA solution. It is shown that roughness, water and air permeability increased with increasing the chitosan concentration. Antibacterial properties was increased with increasing PVA/or chitosan concentration. The chitosan/PVA treated nonwoven viscose fabric was immersed in a solution of Ag nanoparticles. The chitosan/PVA/Ag nanoparticles treated nonwoven fabrics were used as wound dressings on French white Bouscat rabbits, with age ranged from 1 to 2 years. A complete healing was achieved using wound dressing consists of nonwoven viscose fabric treated with chitosan/PVA/Ag nanoparticles after 21 days. The histopathological examination confirmed the complete re-epithelialization and averagely thick epidermis formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger
This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....
Liang Liang [Department of Ophthalmology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan 430014 (China); Xu Xiaoding; Zhang Xianzheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Polymers of Ministry of Education and Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Feng Mei; Peng Chong; Jiang Fagang [Department of Ophthalmology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)
A novel biocompatible hydrogel was prepared based on the supramolecular self-assembly of a peptide containing a bioactive RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) sequence and a hydrophobic N-fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl (FMOC) tail. When the self-assembled peptide hydrogel was administered after the filtering surgery of rabbit eyes, the level of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA as well as the mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was significantly lower than that of the control eyes during the 21 postoperative days. The filtration bleb and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images showed that a patent bleb and a filtration fistula could be found in the surgical site of a rabbit eye during the whole experimental period. Histological analysis further evidenced that the filtering surgical wound healing was a normal healing process without scar formation. This new approach, making use of a self-assembled peptide hydrogel to normalize filtering surgical wound healing, may have potential for glaucoma filtering surgery.
Grimmett, Richard F
.... One issue concerns the division of war powers between the President and Congress, whether the use of armed forces falls within the purview of the congressional power to declare war and the War Powers Resolution (WPR...
The development of molecular biology and other new biotechnologies helps us to recognize the wound healing and non-healing wound of skin in the past 30 years. This review mainly focuses on the molecular biology of many cytokines (including growth factors) and other molecular factors such as extracellular matrix (ECM) on wound healing. The molecular biology in cell movement such as epidermal cells in wound healing was also discussed. Moreover many common chronic wounds such as pressure ulcers, leg ulcers, diabetic foot wounds, venous stasis ulcers, etc. usually deteriorate into non-healing wounds. Therefore the molecular biology such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and other molecular factors in diabetes non-healing wounds were also reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek
Ophthalmic diseases are common in rabbits and rodents. Fast and definitive diagnosis is imperative for successful treatment of ocular diseases. Ophthalmic examination in rabbits and rodents can be challenging. Oculoscopy offers great magnification for the examination of the ocular structures in such animals, including the evaluation of cornea, anterior eye chamber, limbus, iris, lens, and retina. To date, oculoscopy has been described only sporadically and/or under experimental conditions. This article describes the oculoscopy technique, normal and abnormal ocular findings, and the most common eye disorders diagnosed with the aid of endoscopy in rabbits and rodents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
"How wide and varied is the experience of the battlefield and how fertile the blood of warriors in raising good surgeons" Sir Clifford Allbutt (1898). With these sentiments of the medical lessons learned in war and conflict, with the background of the poem of "In Flanders Field", written by a doctor who had South African War connections, reasons (the Somme and third Ypres battles) will be given that this was indeed a "GREAT WAR" as the world history, weapons, strategy, tactics and wounding patterns had changed dramatically. These changes are still affecting all at present, as eventually the Second World War came from it, as well as the Cold "Third World" War. In this war most casualties were caused by bomb fragments and the figures were enormous. It was the war of massive troop movements (railroads), the Schlieffen plan, trench warfare, artillery, the machine guns, end of cavalry and the initiation of tanks, air warfare/reconnaissance and gas/chemical warfare. The surgical experiences of previous wars were obsolete. Urgent rethinking of surgical principles and protocols had to be devised, with the death rates of dying due to wounds, sepsis and tetanus exceeding 60 percent of all casualties. Abdominal wounds were treated conservatively, but soon there came advances in resuscitation, anaesthetics, aggressive wound and exploratory surgery, orthopaedics, plastic and reconstructive surgery, physiology, wound pathology and microbiology. All sides concentrated on ambulance stations, field hospitals and then rapid transfer to bigger referral and base hospitals. It seems that lessons learned where indeed exchanged (? by the Red Cross to all combatant medical personal). Even to the present day, frameworks of this are still used effectively (Vietnam War, Falklands War and our recent border wars). The lessons are well learned and the Torch is ours to hold up high! Copyright© Authors.
Schultz, Sarah J
.... Combat now spans both war and "not war" in the new "military operation other than war", and the process of the military government has been completely replaced by the new "civil administration...
Morton, Laurel M; Phillips, Tania J
Wounds are an excellent example of how the field of dermatology represents a cross-section of many medical disciplines. For instance, wounds may be caused by trauma, vascular insufficiency, and underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and rheumatologic and inflammatory disease. This continuing medical education article provides an overview of wound healing and the pathophysiology of chronic wounds and reviews the broad differential diagnosis of chronic wounds. It also describes the initial steps necessary in evaluating a chronic wound and determining its underlying etiology. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
V K Tiwari
Full Text Available Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock while whole blood loss is the cause of shock in other acute wounds. Even though the burn wounds are sterile in the beginning in comparison to most of other wounds, yet, the death in extensive burns is mainly because of wound infection and septicemia, because of the immunocompromised status of the burn patients. Eschar and blister are specific for burn wounds requiring a specific treatment protocol. Antimicrobial creams and other dressing agents used for traumatic wounds are ineffective in deep burns with eschar. The subeschar plane harbours the micro-organisms and many of these agents are not able to penetrate the eschar. Even after complete epithelisation of burn wound, remodelling phase is prolonged. It may take years for scar maturation in burns. This article emphasizes on how the pathophysiology, healing and management of a burn wound is different from that of other wounds.
Inoue, Yuji; Hasegawa, Minoru; Maekawa, Takeo; Le Pavoux, Andres; Asano, Yoshihide; Abe, Masatoshi; Ishii, Takayuki; Ito, Takaaki; Isei, Taiki; Imafuku, Shinichi; Irisawa, Ryokichi; Ohtsuka, Masaki; Ohtsuka, Mikio; Ogawa, Fumihide; Kadono, Takafumi; Kodera, Masanari; Kawakami, Tamihiro; Kawaguchi, Masakazu; Kukino, Ryuichi; Kono, Takeshi; Sakai, Keisuke; Takahara, Masakazu; Tanioka, Miki; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Akira; Hayashi, Masahiro; Fujimoto, Manabu; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Koma; Madokoro, Naoki; Yamasaki, Osamu; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Tachibana, Takao; Ihn, Hironobu
The Japanese Dermatological Association determined to prepare the Wound/Burn Guidelines focusing on treatments, catering to needs for the clinical practice of dermatology. Among these guidelines, "Wounds in General" was intended to explain knowledge necessary "to heal wounds" without specifying particular disorders. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Samokhvalov, I M; Badalov, V I; Reva, V A; Golovko, K P; Petrov, A N; Kaznacheev, M V; Rozov, A I
A goal of this study is to review perspective technologies of surgical care to the wounded on the basis of an analysis of the experience in medical support in local armed conflicts and a study of the achievements of modern trauma surgery. The study is based on the analysis of personal experience, results of scientific researches being carried out in the Military Medical Academy and a comparison review of available papers and works in the field of our study. Perspective technologies of surgical care to the wounded are strongly dependent on the pre-hospital care: high technologies in personal medical equipment, special disposable devices used in case of life-threatening consequences of injuries and traumas during emergency medical care and advanced trauma management. The main innovation of the last ten years in war surgery is considered to be damage control surgery. Wide application of abbreviated surgical operations (the first phase of damage control surgery) makes the use of remote surgery (telesurgery) for treatment of the wounded more practicable. Increasing effectiveness of military surgeon education is based on the use of all possible achievements in education and information technologies. Feedback in surgical care to the wounded is supplied with analysis of its results in the medical Register of the wounded military.
We report the medical experience during a 3 week stay in the ICRC hospital of Kabul as anaesthesist. 170 war wounded patients had been treated following clear and simple rools of war surgery. The anaesthetic management and the important role of Ketamin is explained.
NEGATIVE PRESSURE WOUND THERAPY (NPWT) FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF LAPAROSTOMY WOUNDS: ... Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is one of the new additions to the armamentarium of laparostomy wound management to achieve the above (8). ... However, second day post operatively she.
War is a stressful social condition that can be considered a form of child abuse. The holocaust experience, Vietnam, and World War II have all had significant effects on children's emotions and behavior. Problems that arise from these traumatic events are explored. (DF)
.... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...
Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W
... and Prevention, the International Rescue Committee, and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, can reduce the impact of war and contribute to its prevention. The participation of respected and trustworthy intermediaries and the willingness of parties to communicate with each other are two key elements in preventing...
The Journal of State Government, 1990
All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…
Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...
Fockens, M. Matthijs; Alberts, Victor P.; Bemelman, Frederike J.; van der Pant, Karlijn A. M. I.; Idu, Mirza M.
Wound morbidity is an important surgical complication after kidney transplant. To assess risk factors for postoperative wound complications and the impact of such complications on outcomes of kidney transplant. Retrospectively, 108 consecutive kidney transplant patients between January 2010 and
Madei, W; Klieser, H P
The provision of neurosurgical managing care in the German field hospital during the IFOR- and SFOR-mission in the former Yugoslavia is a novum within the NATO. Penetrating head trauma is by far the most common type of central nervous system trauma observed in a military combat setting. There is a distinct advantage realized by early intervention following penetrating head trauma with increased intracranial pressure. As well as the experience of Ernst von Bergmann a hundred years ago during the Prussian-Austrian-War as the reports of the operation Desert Storm confirm the advantage of an early neurosurgical intervention of gunshot wounds of the head. The decision of the German Armed Forces to provide forward-located neurosurgical maintenance is justified and will lead to major reduction of time between injury and surgery. In the future neurosurgical managing care in combat settings will be supplemented and improved by peer-to-peer networks through the World Wide Web.
Asensio, J A; Petrone, P; Pérez-Alonso, A; Verde, J M; Martin, M J; Sánchez, W; Smith, S; Marini, C P
Man's inhumanity for man still knows no boundaries, as we continue as a species as a whole to engage in war. According to Kohn's Dictionary of Wars , of over 3,700 years of recorded history, there have been a total of 3,010 wars. One is hard pressed to actually find a period of time in which here has not been an active conflict in the globe. The world has experienced two world wars: WWI (1914-1918) and WWII (1939-1945). The total number of military casualties in WWI was over 37 million, while WWII so far, has been the deadliest military conflict in history with over 60 million people killed accounting for slightly over 2.5% of the world's population. The purpose of this study is to review contemporary wars and their contributions to vascular injury management. It is precisely wartime contributions that have led to the more precise identification and management of these injuries resulting in countless lives and extremities saved. However, surgeons dealing with vascular injuries have faced a tough and arduous road. Their journey was initiated by surgical mavericks which undaunted, pressed on against all odds guided by William Stewart Halsted's classic statement in 1912: "One of the chief fascinations in surgery is the management of wounded vessels." Contemporary wars of the XX-XXI centuries gave birth, defined and advanced the field of vascular injury management.
Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.
Full Text Available In the traditional representation of war the protagonist is always the man, the soldier, portrayed in his full virility, strength and justified aggressiveness. In every public discourse on war women are presented as the personification of something to be protected and even the country itself, the homeland, that is in danger of being invaded by the enemy. However this stereotype is far from portraying the full range of women’s activity in war. In many cases throughout history, from the mythical Antigone to the forgotten heroism of resistance of women against Nazi-German occupation in the Second World War, women have taken action both to save human lives and to preserve the values of their communities that war threatens to destroy. Avoiding an essentialist and reductive interpretation that identifies tout court women with peace, this issue explores women’s wartime experiences.
Tervo, K; Latvala, T; Suomalainen, V P; Tervo, T; Immonen, I
Posterior perforating eye injury carries a high risk of visual loss due to the formation of intravireal and epiretinal scar tissue. Intraocular scar formation in patients with retinal detachment has been shown to be associated with elevated intravitreal FN levels. The extracellular matrix glycoproteins fibronectin (FN) and tenascin (TN) have been located in epiretinal scar membranes. As both FN and TN are also involved in healing of cutaneous and corneal wounds, we undertook to study their expression in rabbit perforating scleral wounds with vitreous incarceration. A perforating scleral wound was produced and sutured without removal of vitreous from the wound in 18 pigmented rabbits. The rabbits were killed at various times (1 h to 21 days) after the operation, and the indirect immunohistochemical method was used for demonstration of FN and TN. Monoclonal mouse hybridoma antibodies 52 DH1 and 100 EB2, recognizing the cellular form of FN (cFN) and TN, respectively, were used. During the first post-operative week immunoreaction for glycoproteins, both the locally produced cFN and TN, were observed at the scar tissue containing the prolabed vitreous and the adjacent sclera. Subsequently, the reaction gradually shifted to the vitreal side of the wound, and 3 weeks after the operation it was almost completely restricted to a separated mass of vitreous beneath the scar. The expression of cFN and TN in the scleral scar and vitreous is indicative of their local synthesis. The shift of the expression of those proteins to the vitreal side of the wound with time suggests that the scarring process in the vitreous is delayed compared to the sclera.
Devriendt, Nausikaa; de Rooster, Hilde
When traumatic wounds are quickly and accurately treated, morbidity and costs can be significantly decreased. Several factors, such as time delay between injury and treatment, the degree of contamination, extension and depth of the wound, and the mechanism of injury, influence the treatment and prognosis and stress the importance of a patient-specific approach. Although all traumatic wounds are contaminated, antibiotic therapy is seldom required if correct wound management is installed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... a Voice in Health Care Decisions Wound Drainage Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Wound Drainage Culture Print A A A What's in this article? ... Have Questions What It Is A wound drainage culture is a test to detect germs such as ...
The understanding of acute and chronic wound pathophysiology has progressed considerably over the past decades. Unfortunately, improvement in clinical practice has not followed suit, although new trends and developments have improved the outcome of wound treatment in many ways. This review focuses...... on promising clinical development in major wound problems in general and on postoperative infections in particular Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Semenov, F V; Leonov, G K
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the influence of retinoid-based pharmaceutical products on the process of regeneration of the tissues surrounding an open osteal wound under the experimental conditions. The experiments were carried out using 20 'Sovetskaya shinshilla' rabbits (12 males and 8 females). The animals with the modelled open osteal wound underwent daily treatment by the placement of the dressings impregnated with a mixture of dioxo-methyltetrahydropyrimidine and chloramphenicol ointments supplemented by 0.05% retinoic acid (1:1:1). The rabbits of the control group were treated using the dressings impregnated only with a mixture of dioxo-methyltetrahydropyrimidine and chloramphenicol ointments containing no retinoic acid. The study has demonstrated that the application of the retinoid-based medications for the treatment of the open osteal wound resulted in the well apparent positive dynamics of the wound process in comparison with that in the control animals. It is concluded that the data obtained give evidence that retinoid-based preparations can be used as an adjuvant treatment for the acceleration and promotion of the wound healing process in the trepanation cavity following sanation surgery on the middle ear.
Sen, Chandan K; Gordillo, Gayle M; Roy, Sashwati; Kirsner, Robert; Lambert, Lynn; Hunt, Thomas K; Gottrup, Finn; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T
ABSTRACT In the United States, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. An estimated excess of US$25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing health care costs, an aging population and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes and obesity worldwide. The annual wound care products market is projected to reach $15.3 billion by 2010. Chronic wounds are rarely seen in individuals who are otherwise healthy. In fact, chronic wound patients frequently suffer from "highly branded" diseases such as diabetes and obesity. This seems to have overshadowed the significance of wounds per se as a major health problem. For example, NIH's Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT; http://report.nih.gov/), directed at providing access to estimates of funding for various disease conditions does list several rare diseases but does not list wounds. Forty million inpatient surgical procedures were performed in the United States in 2000, followed closely by 31.5 million outpatient surgeries. The need for post-surgical wound care is sharply on the rise. Emergency wound care in an acute setting has major significance not only in a war setting but also in homeland preparedness against natural disasters as well as against terrorism attacks. An additional burden of wound healing is the problem of skin scarring, a $12 billion annual market. The immense economic and social impact of wounds in our society calls for allocation of a higher level of attention and resources to understand biological mechanisms underlying cutaneous wound complications.
... clean towel. Let the wound air dry. After Effects Being shot by a gun is traumatic. You may feel shock, fear for your safety, depression, or anger as a result. These are completely normal feelings for someone who has been through a traumatic event . These feelings are not signs of weakness. You ...
Adams, Erica J.
As many as 9 in 10 justice-involved youth are affected by traumatic childhood experiences. According to "Healing Invisible Wounds: Why Investing in Trauma-Informed Care for Children Makes Sense," between 75 and 93 percent of youth currently incarcerated in the justice system have had at least one traumatic experience, including sexual…
This 30 second public service announcement is about how to avoid a wound infection after a disaster. Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 10/25/2017.
Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma. Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 1/28/2016.
Marcus Castro Ferreira
Full Text Available Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treatment is unavoidable, because the extent of skin and subcutaneous tissue loss requires reconstruction with grafts and flaps. New technologies, such as the negative pressure device, should be introduced. A brief review is provided of the major groups of complex wounds-diabetic wounds, pressure sores, chronic venous ulcers, post-infection soft-tissue gangrenes, and ulcers resulting from vasculitis.Ferida complexa é uma nova definição para identificar aquelas feridas crônicas e algumas agudas já bem conhecidas e que desafiam equipes médicas e de enfermagem. São difíceis de serem resolvidas usando tratamentos convencionais e simples curativos. Têm atualmente grande impacto sócio-econômico. Esta revisão procura atrair atenção da comunidade de profissionais de saúde para estas feridas, sugerindo que devam ser tratadas por equipe multidisciplinar em centro hospitalar especializado. Na maioria dos casos o tratamento cirúrgico deve ser indicado, uma vez que a perda de pele e tecido subcutâneo é extensa, necessitando de reconstrução com enxertos e retalhos. Nova tecnologia, como uso da terapia por pressão negativa foi introduzido. Breves comentários sobre os principais grupos de feridas complexas: pé diabético, úlceras por pressão, úlceras venosas, síndrome de Fournier e vasculites.
Samokhvalov, I M; Badalov, V I; Goncharov, A V; Alisov, P G; Severin, V G; Panov, V V; Kolos, P G
The organization of surgical care for the wounded in various local wars and armed conflict has its own characteristics, the study of which is necessary to optimize the planning of medical evacuation support of troops. It is based on the concept on an early specialized surgical care. The paper discusses the problematic issues of medical care to the wounded in past peacekeeping operations, and analyze features of specialized surgical care.
Hyldig, Nana; Birke-Sorensen, Hanne; Kruse, Marie
Aim: Postoperative wound complications make many surgical procedures unnecessarily complex, particularly in high-risk patients. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy is well recognized in the management of open wounds. In recent years, it has been introduced as well in the management of closed surgical...... incisions to reduce postoperative wound complications, though the evidence base to support this intervention is limited. The aim of this study was to assess if Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) reduces postoperative complications when applied on closed surgical incisions. Method: A systematic review...
Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Vries, M. de; Bergen, L.F.J.M. van; Galama, J.M.D.; Keyser, A.J.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der
Since the end of the American Civil War, unexplained symptoms in military personnel arising after a war or peace mission have frequently been described. The pattern of symptoms is highly similar for all of the various war syndromes although the conditions of each war or peace mission are widely
Shaw, J; Hughes, C M; Lagan, K M; Bell, P M
use of phenytoin on burns and war wounds. Overall it would appear that studies investigating the effect of topical phenytoin on wound healing are of moderate methodological quality, and these suggest that there may be a positive effect on wound healing in a variety of wounds.
This volume brings together a group of interdisciplinary experts who demonstrate that Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes is a text of continuing relevance and value for exploring ancient, contemporary and comparative issues of war and its attendant trauma. The volume features contributions from...... an international cast of experts, as well as a conversation with a retired U.S. Army Lt. Col., giving her perspectives on the blending of reality and fiction in Aeschylus’ war tragedies and on the potential of Greek tragedy to speak to contemporary veterans. This book is a fascinating resource for anyone...... interested in Aeschylus, Greek tragedy and its reception, and war literature....
The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability...
Jackson, Matthew O.; Morelli, Massimo
We examine how countries' incentives to go to war depend on the "political bias" of their pivotal decision makers. This bias is measured by a decision maker’s risk/ reward ratio from a war compared to that of the country at large. If there is no political bias, then there are mutually acceptable transfers from one country to the other that will avoid a war in the presence of commitment or enforceability of peace treaties. There are cases with a strong enough bias on the part of one or both co...
Fries, C A; Ayalew, Y; Penn-Barwell, J G; Porter, K; Jeffery, S L A; Midwinter, M J
Recent conflicts have been characterised by the use of improvised explosive devices causing devastating injuries, including heavily contaminated wounds requiring meticulous surgical debridement. After being rendered surgical clean, these wounds are dressed and the patient transferred back to the UK for on-going treatment. A dressing that would prevent wounds from becoming colonised during transit would be desirable. The aim of this study was to establish whether using nanocrystalline silver dressings, as an adjunct to the initial debridement, would positively affect wound microbiology and wound healing compared to standard plain gauze dressings. Patients were prospectively randomised to receive either silver dressings, in a nanocrystalline preparation (Acticoat™), or standard of care dressings (plain gauze) following their initial debridement in the field hospital. On repatriation to the UK microbiological swabs were taken from the dressing and the wound, and an odour score recorded. Wounds were followed prospectively and time to wound healing was recorded. Additionally, patient demographic data were recorded, as well as the mechanism of injury and Injury Severity Score. 76 patients were recruited to the trial between February 2010 and February 2012. 39 received current dressings and 37 received the trial dressings. Eleven patients were not swabbed. There was no difference (p=0.1384, Fishers) in the primary outcome measure of wound colonisation between the treatment arm (14/33) and the control arm (20/32). Similarly time to wound healing was not statistically different (p=0.5009, Mann-Whitney). Wounds in the control group were scored as being significantly more malodorous (p=0.002, Mann-Whitney) than those in the treatment arm. This is the first randomised controlled trial to report results from an active theatre of war. Performing research under these conditions poses additional challenges to military clinicians. Meticulous debridement of wounds remains the
Konstantopoulos, Aris; Liu, Yu-Chi; Teo, Ericia Pei Wen; Lwin, Nyein Chan; Yam, Gary Hin Fai; Mehta, Jodhbir S.
Background Presbyopic inlays have mostly been implanted under a corneal flap. Implantation in a pocket has advantages including less postoperative dry eye and neurotrophic effect, and better biomechanical corneal stability. This study investigated the effect of different pocket and flocket dimensions on corneal stability and refractive power after Raindrop? implantation, and the associated wound healing response. Methodology Ten New Zealand White rabbits had bilateral pocket Raindrop? implant...
The paper focusses its attention to the medical work of the British Military hospitals stationed in Macedonia during the First World War, the surgical work carried out under very heavy conditions in improvised operating theatres as well as the treatment of the wounded and sick solders brought from the battlefields on the Macedonian Front.
the Global War on Terrorism began in 2001, IEDs accounted for 3,404 killed in action ( KIA ) and 35,045 wounded in action (WIA).2 Individual services...artillery that does this; it is the motor -transport community share the same school in Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Traditionally throughout OIF and
Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S
Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...
Valerio, Ian L; Masters, Zachary; Seavey, Jonathan G; Balazs, George C; Ipsen, Derek; Tintle, Scott M
To assess the outcomes of treatment with a dermal regeneration template (DRT) in a cohort of combat casualties with severe upper extremity injuries. Records of all active duty military patients treated with DRT at our institution between November 2009 and July 2013 were screened. Inclusion criteria were upper extremity open wounds sustained during combat, requiring split-thickness or full-thickness skin grafting for closure. The primary outcome measure was wound healing after the first attempt at definitive treatment (defined as the first application of split-thickness or full-thickness skin graft). Independent variables collected included time from injury to arrival at our facility, mechanism of injury, wound infection, tobacco use, location of wound, number of operative debridements, and patient demographics. A total of 60 patients with 69 wounds met the inclusion criteria. Most wounds were to the wrist or forearm (54%) or fingers (19%). All wounds were heavily contaminated, requiring a mean of 2.5 operative debridements before DRT placement. All wounds treated with full-thickness skin grafting after DRT healed completely without further complication. Split-thickness skin grafting was successful in 96% of patients. DRT wound dressings are a helpful adjunct in the treatment of contaminated war wounds to the upper extremity. Therapeutic IV. Copyright Â© 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhan, Q; Burrows, R; Cintron, C
To identify the cell types responsible for type XII collagen synthesis in normal and healing rabbit cornea, a partial cDNA sequence of rabbit type XII collagen, obtained from an adult rabbit cornea cDNA library, was used to develop highly specific oligonucleotide probes for Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. Approximately 2000 bases of a type XII collagen 2.2 kb cDNA clone were sequenced. Comparative sequence analysis of the bases showed a 74% identity with chick alpha 1 (XII) chain of type XII collagen. The deduced amino acid sequence indicated a 72% identity with chick type XII collagen. Northern blot analysis showed that cultures of cornea stromal and endothelial cells each contain two RNA species, greater than 10 kb, that hybridize to rabbit type XII collagen oligonucleotide probes. Although normal stromal cells failed to show type XII collagen mRNA, normal endothelial cells contain mRNA for this collagen. These results indicate that endothelium of normal rabbit cornea has a potential to synthesize type XII collagen. During corneal wound healing, both endothelium-derived and stroma-derived cells in the developing scar tissue contained type XII mRNA. In view of the known presence of type XII collagen in corneal stromas from chick and mouse, the distribution of mRNA in normal cornea is puzzling.
Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein
This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s........ Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...
Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.
Daniel J. Freeman
.... This Note draws upon the complete set of judicial opinions assessing authorizations for the use of military force in order to propose context-specific canons for interpreting war powers statutes...
Full Text Available Melting graft wound syndrome is characterized by progressive epidermal loss from a previously well-taken skin graft, healed burn, or donor site. It may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. We report a 23-year-old flame-burned patient with second- to third-degree burns involving more than 70% of the total body surface area, whose condition was complicated with septic shock. The patient presented with erosions and ulcers occurring on previously well-taken skin graft recipient sites over both legs and progressive epidermal loss on donor sites over the back. The patient's presentation was compatible with the diagnosis of melting graft wound syndrome, and we successfully treated the patient with debridement and supportive treatment.
Zheng, R; Jin, X; Yang, B; Li, B; Li, L; Xu, Z; Zhu, H
To investigate the effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) eye drops on corneal wound healing. Twenty-four white rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups, 6 rabbits 12 eyes each. Anterior keratectomy of 8 mm in diameter and 1/3 cornea in thickness was performed on each eye. Each of the following concentrations of rhEGF: 1, 10, 100 microg/ml eye drops or normal saline (control) was applied four times daily for a week respectively for one group. The wound area was determined by computer imaging analysis. The mean epithelial healing rate of rhEGF 1, 10, 100 microg/ml groups was 9.31, 9.96, 9.31 mm(2)/day respectively, significantly greater than 8.11 mm(2)/day of the control group. The action of rhEGF of 10 microg/ml was somewhat better than that of 1 or 100 microg/ml, and no significant difference was noticed among the three rhEGF groups. Moderate inflammation and corneal neovascularization were induced in the rhEGF 100 microg/ml treated group. rhEGF 1 - 10 microg/ml can accelerate corneal wound healing in the rabbit with no adverse side-effects. It may be used to treat serious corneal trauma and ulcer clinically.
During the First World War soldiers suffered from a wide range of debilitating nervous complaints as a result of the stresses and strains of modern warfare. These complaints--widely known as shell shock--were the subject of much medical-military debate during the war and became emblematic of the war and its sufferings afterwards. One hundred years after the war the diagnosis of PTSD has not resolved the issues initially raised by First World War shell shock. The stigma of mental illness remains strong and it is still difficult to commemorate and remember the mental wounds of war in a culture which tend to glory or glamorise military heroes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fight The current conflict has roots in both Yemen’s history and the Sunni-Shia conflict. However, it has become a bloody , multi-faceted war. The...Iran: Ayatollah Khomeini.” Iran Chamber Society, accessed 15 February 2016, http://www.iranchamber.com/history/rkhomeini/ayatollah_khomeini.php...Studies Institute, US Army War College, Jun 2014, accessed 15 Feb 2016 via https://www.ciaonet.org/attachments/26548/uploads, 21-5, 66 2Iran Chamber
Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær
The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....
generalized. Clinically, the like- controlled Pseudomonas burn wound infection in most lihood of septicemia appears to increase as the area of patients (2,4...31 patients, dida, Coccidiodes, Phycomyces, and Rhizopus . In 69 of pneumonia was the primary septic process in 27 (20 of these 75 patients (92%), the...carried out as described above and appropriate systemic anti- to which the invading organisms were sensitive and fungal agents are employed to control
Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and
Zhou, Lei; Beuerman, Roger W; Barathi, Amutha; Tan, Donald
The aim of this study was to develop a fast and reliable analytical procedure for the display of the protein components of tears that can be used to differentiate the status of the ocular surface. Using this new procedure, we analyzed the tear protein components following a corneal wound in the rabbit. Calibrated 10-microL glass, fire-polished capillary micropipettes were used to collect tears from New Zealand White rabbits prior to and daily for 9 days following a unilateral 6-mm diameter centrally placed anterior keratectomy. Tear proteins were eluted by a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) column and the tear protein profile was monitored by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry positive total ion current (TIC) chromatography. Tear proteins were reliably separated into 17 peaks, each of which contained one or a number of protein components. The molecular weight of each protein component was determined by on-line ESI. Major tear protein components, lactoferrin, lysozyme (minimally detectable in rabbit tears), albumin, lipocalin, lipophilin and beta2-microglobulin, were tentatively identified by this method. Based on the mass spectrometric data, beta2-microglobulin was found to be glycosylated with N-acetylhexosamine. ESI-positive TIC chromatograms and mass spectra revealed comparative differences in the tear protein spectra after corneal wounding. One day after wounding, rabbit lysozyme with a molecular weight of 14,717 Da was found to be 8-fold higher in the tears of wounded eyes when compared with tears from unwounded eyes. It dropped back to normal 3 days after wounding. The expression of an unidentified tear protein with the molecular weight of 16,060 Da was also elevated after corneal wounding and returned to normal level by day 5. In this study, LC/ESI-MS was developed as a fast, reproducible and simple method for the identification and analysis of many of the protein components of the tears. Importantly, this
Thomasy, Sara M; Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Winkler, Moritz; Reilly, Christopher M; Sadeli, Adeline R; Russell, Paul; Jester, James V; Murphy, Christopher J
The rabbit is commonly used to evaluate new corneal prosthetics and study corneal wound healing. Knowledge of the stiffness of the rabbit cornea would better inform the design and fabrication of keratoprosthetics and substrates with relevant mechanical properties for in vitro investigations of corneal cellular behavior. This study determined the elastic modulus of the rabbit corneal epithelium, anterior basement membrane (ABM), anterior and posterior stroma, Descemet's membrane (DM) and endothelium using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, three-dimensional collagen fiber organization of the rabbit cornea was determined using nonlinear optical high-resolution macroscopy. The elastic modulus as determined by AFM for each corneal layer was: epithelium, 0.57 ± 0.29 kPa (mean ± SD); ABM, 4.5 ± 1.2 kPa, anterior stroma, 1.1 ± 0.6 kPa; posterior stroma, 0.38 ± 0.22 kPa; DM, 11.7 ± 7.4 kPa; and endothelium, 4.1 ± 1.7 kPa. The biophysical properties, including the elastic modulus, are unique for each layer of the rabbit cornea and are dramatically softer in comparison to the corresponding regions of the human cornea. Collagen fiber organization is also dramatically different between the two species, with markedly less intertwining observed in the rabbit vs. human cornea. Given that the substratum stiffness considerably alters the corneal cell behavior, keratoprosthetics that incorporate mechanical properties simulating the native human cornea may not elicit optimal cellular performance in rabbit corneas that have dramatically different elastic moduli. These data should allow for the design of substrates that better mimic the biomechanical properties of the corneal cellular environment. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chanussot-Deprez, Caroline; Contreras-Ruiz, José
Telemedical wound care is one of the applications of teledermatology. We present our experience using telemedicine in the successful assessment and treatment of three patients with hard-to-heal ulcers. Three patients were seen at the PEMEX General Hospital in Veracruz, Mexico. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with hypertension, morbid obesity, chronic venous insufficiency, recurrent erysipelas, leg ulcers and lymphoedema. There was one ulcer on his left lower leg (20 x 10 cm) and one on his right leg (9 x 7 cm). The second patient was a 73-year-old woman with class III obesity and ulcers in her right leg, secondary to surgical debridement of bullous erysipelas. The third patient was a 51-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis with one ulcer on each leg and chronic lymphostasis. Photographs with a digital camera were taken and sent weekly via email to a wound care specialist in Mexico City. The photographs allowed the expert to diagnose and evaluate the chronic wounds periodically. In the present cases, telemedicine allowed us to have a rapid evaluation, diagnosis and treatment. The images were of enough quality to be useful and small enough to be sent via regular email to the remote physician who immediately gave his feedback. The expert was confident to give therapeutic recommendations in this way, and we considered this method to be very cost-effective, saving the patient and the health care system, especially in transportation.
Hugeux, P; Barouti, H
Just as the concept of war itself, the concept of the war victim is progressive, necessitating legal, economic, social, sanitary, ethical and political adaptations. In France, the laws of 1919, effective from 2nd August 1914, brought radical reform as laws of public solidarity, which guaranteed by the nation, the support of invalids of the most savage war in history. The collective nature of this new social risk obliged the state to replace a purely financial compensation by a solution of rehabilitation. The "Office National des Mutilés et Réformés", created in March 1916, was put in charge of the organisation of professional reeducation. The "war invalids" category was being transform a logic of assistance into one of social action. Later, the legislative structure made extensions, enlarging the beneficiaries in the "war victim" category. The "Service de Santé des Armées" in its basic mission of support to the armed forces covers many areas. The "Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre" administration disposes of specific instruments, such as the "Institution Nationale des Invalides", the "Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur l'Appareillage des Handicapés", the "Office National des Anciens Combatants". These joint actions, added to the ones of very influential autonomous associations, contribute to give handicapped war victims an honourable citizenship.
Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.
Increased hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages was seen in four of the rabbits. The reports by the histopathologist are included in Appendix A...hypoplasia in the spleens of all five rabbits and varying levels of increased U I I Page 21 hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages in four of the...99 and 443. Increased hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages was noted in 5/6 rabbits and was especially prominent in rabbit #99. I
Szaflik, J; Fryczkowski, A W; Liberek, I; Czubak, M; Brix, M; Broniek, G; Fryczkowski, P
To check post penetrating keratoplasty (PK) corneal wound healing characteristics after epidermal growth factor (EGF) application and to compare it with controls. The PK was performed in the group of 72 young, healthy New Zealand rabbits (36 females and 36 males). Slit-lamp examination, tonometry and corneal topography by Tomey's corneal modeling system (TMS-1) were carried out before and after surgery. The PK was performed in both eyes. Half of animals were used as a bilateral donor for the other half, with a rule: right eye cornea to the right eye and left eye cornea to the left eye. As a result, after completed surgery 36 rabbits had bilateral grafts. The animals were divided into 3 equal groups (12 in each). Two drops of the human recombined EGF dissolved in the saline solution with concentration varied from 500 to 1500 ng in each drop were applied to the right eye according to schedule. The left eye was used as a control and did not receive EGF. Time of observation varied from 24 hours to 6 months. The tensinometry and the histopathologic study--light and electron microscopy were performed to determine corneal scarring. The wound healing pattern after PK was characteristic and constant in each group. The corneal wound healing significantly accelerated in the EGF treated group of rabbits compared with the controls (p times/day, after two weeks of application we noted increase of the wound strength up to 600 folds, comparing with controls. Well-organized scar was histologically seen on the 21st post-surgery day. The post-operative corneal astigmatism was less expressed in the eyes treated with EGF comparing to controls. These preliminary results of our experimental study indicated accelerated effect on the corneal wound healing after PK with topical, low dose hrEGF application. Clinical observation of utilization of similar low doses of the hrEGF after PK--is in progress.
González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco
We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, social burdens including war casualties are often distributed unequally across groups of individuals, communities, and states. The purpose of this report was to examine the association between war deaths and per capita income in the 50 states and District of Columbia during the Vietnam and Iraq wars. Methods The numbers of deaths by the home state of record for each conflict were obtained from Department of Defense records on the Internet as were key variables including age at death, gender, race, branch of service, rank, circumstances of death, home state of record and the ratio of wounded to dead. In addition, we obtained state per capita income and state population for the relevant times. Results Characteristics of decedents in the 2 conflicts were very similar with young, white enlisted men accounting for the majority of deaths. However, in the Iraq war, women accounted for a 2.4% of casualties. Also of note was the higher ratio of wounded to dead in Iraq. At the level of the state, the correlation between the ratio of deaths per 100,000 and per capita income was -0.51 (p Conclusion For military service members serving in the Vietnam and Iraq conflicts, there were many more women who died in the latter war. Whether war deaths resulted in lower per capita income cannot be determined from these cross sectional data; we simply note a strong association between per capita income and war casualty rates for both wars.
the rate of surgical wound infection and wound exudate post-caesarean and that wound infection had a negative impact on quality of life one month after surgery. Alongside the clinical trial, a trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrated that the treatment is cost-effective in a high......Women with a pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 giving birth by caesarean section are at high risk of surgical wound infection compared with women with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) is one strategy to reduce the rate of surgical wound...... infection. However, the treatment is relatively costly compared to standard postoperative dressings and thus it was important to consider the rationale for using iNPWT before introducing the treatment in a clinical setting. This thesis assesses the current evidence of whether iNPWT reduces post...
Ramesh k Sharma
Full Text Available Management of perineal wounds can be very frustrating as these invariably get contaminated from the ano-genital tracts. Moreover, the apparent skin defect may be associated with a significant three dimensional dead space in the pelvic region. Such wounds are likely to become chronic and recalcitrant if appropriate wound management is not instituted in a timely manner. These wounds usually result after tumor excision, following trauma or as a result of infective pathologies like hideradenitis suppurativa or following thermal burns. Many options are available for management of perineal wounds and these have been discussed with illustrative case examples. A review of literature has been done for listing commonly instituted options for management of the wounds in perineum.
Full Text Available Aim. To provide a retrospective analysis of our results and experience in primary surgical treatment of subjects with war liver injuries. Methods. From July 1991 to December 1999, 204 subjects with war liver injuries were treated. A total of 82.8% of the injured were with the liver injuries combined with the injuries of other organs. In 93.7%, the injuries were caused by fragments of explosive devices or bullets of various calibers. In 140 (68.6% of the injured there were minor lesions (grade I to II, treated with simple repair or drainage. There were complex injuries of the liver (grade III-V in 64 (31.4% of the injured. Those injuries required complex repair (hepatorrhaphy, hepatotomy, resection debridement, resection, packing alone. The technique of perihepatic packing and planned reoperation had a crucial and life-saving role when severe bleeding was present. Routine peritoneal drainage was applied in all of the injured. Primary management of 74.0% of the injured was performed in war hospitals. Results. After primary treatment, 72 (35.3% of the injured were with postoperative complications. Reoperation was done in 66 injured. Total mortality rate in 204 injured was 18.1%. All the deceased had significant combined injuries. Mortality rates due to the liver injury of the grade III, IV and V were 16.6%, 70.0% and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusion. Complex liver injuries caused very high mortality rate and the management of the injured was delicate under war circumstances (if the injured reached the hospital alive. Our experience under war circumstances and with war surgeons of limited knowledge of the liver surgery and war surgery, confirmed that it was necessary to apply compressive abdominal packing alone or in combination with other techniques for hemostasis in the treatment of liver injuries grade III-V, resuscitation and rapid transportation to specialized hospitals.
Reid, Fiona; Van Everbroeck, Christine
During the First World War combatants of all armies were prey to nervous disorders or psychological breakdown. These war neuroses were a response to the highly-industrialised nature of the warfare as well as to the fatigue engendered over four years of intense conflict. Yet while fear and mental breakdown were universal, national responses varied. A comparison of British and Belgian shell shock indicates that men suffered in very similar ways but that symptoms met with rather different responses: in Britain treatment and diagnostic regimes stressed the importance of class difference and shell shock was often linked to cowardice. These issues were not of overriding importance in the Belgian army. In the longer term shell shock became, and remained, a topic of political and social concern in Britain whereas in Belgium men suffering from kloppe (extreme fear) tended to be forgotten and the topic has not excited much popular interest or scholarly attention. Yet despite these differences one overarching theme remains clear, namely that despite the extensive experience of war neuroses during and after the First World War, there still remains a fierce stigma about the mental wounds of war.
Lorentzen, H F; Gottrup, F
Agreement in describing a chronic leg ulcer is pivotal in identifying and treating impediments to the healing process. Six nurses and one doctor without special experience with wound healing registered wound related diagnoses for a five month period. On average each patient was seen by three observers yielding 270 registrations. Agreement beyond chance (global kappa) showed poor to moderate agreement. Agreement was best for the yellow or malodorous wound and lowest for cellulitis, hypergranulation and peripheral pulses. This emphasizes the importance of allocating wound treatment to specialist departments with access to paraclinical investigations.
Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret
Disorders of the reproductive tract are common in rabbits. Conditions are different in rabbits that are farmed for their meat or fur and those that are kept as pets. Farmed rabbits suffer from infections and diseases associated with pregnancy. Congenital abnormalities are more likely to be recognized and treated in pet rabbits. Pet rabbits suffer from age-related changes to their genital tract (hyperplasia, neoplasia, or hernias). Neutering is an important part of prevention and treatment of reproductive disorders. Knowledge of normal male and female reproductive anatomy is essential to prevent complications. These are described and illustrated. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João
Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
designed to bring about an early decision rather than being bogged down in a costly war of attrition. Among Chinese combatants, cultural references to World War I abounded. One officer described a period of relative peace as reminiscent of All Quiet on the Western Front. A young pilot found inspiration......Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier...
Wever, Peter C; Hodges, A J
Sydney Domville Rowland was a bacteriologist and staff member at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine when the First World War broke out in 1914. Following a request to the Director of the Lister Institute to staff and equip a mobile field laboratory as quickly as possible, Rowland was appointed to take charge of No. 1 Mobile Laboratory and took up a temporary commission at the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps. On 9 October 1914, Rowland set out for the European mainland and was subsequently attached to General Headquarters in Saint-Omer, France (October 1914-June 1915), No. 10 Casualty Clearing Station in Lijssenthoek, Belgium (June 1915-February 1916, during which period he was promoted Major), and No. 26 General Hospital in Étaples, France (February 1916-March 1917). His research focused on gas gangrene, typhoid fever, trench fever, wound infection and cerebrospinal fever. In February of 1917, while engaged in identifying meningococcal carriers, Rowland contracted cerebrospinal meningitis to which he succumbed at age 44 on 6 March 1917. His untimely death might have been caused by laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease, especially since Rowland's work with Neisseria meningitidis isolates had extended beyond routine laboratory techniques and included risk procedures like immunisation of rabbits with pathogenic strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Currently, microbiology laboratory workers who are routinely exposed to N. meningitidis isolates are recognised as a population at increased risk for meningococcal disease, for which reason recommended preventive measures include vaccination and handling of isolates within a class II biosafety cabinet. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Ahn, Hee-Seop; Han, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, Changsun; Myoung, Jinjong; Choi, In-Soo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes severe hepatitis in pregnant women, with associated poor fetal outcomes. To study HEV viral pathogenesis, pregnant rabbits were infected with low- and high-dose rabbit HEV at 2 weeks gestation. HEV was identified in the serum, feces, and liver tissue of infected rabbits, and dose-dependent fetal mortality rates ranging from 67% to 80% were observed. The aspartate transaminase (AST)/alanine transaminase ratio was significantly higher (P rabbits than low-dose infected and negative control rabbits 14 days post infection (dpi). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly higher in low-dose (P rabbits (P rabbits produced significantly more interferon-γ (IFN-γ; P rabbits at 7 and 14 dpi. High levels of AST, TNF-α, and IFN-γ may substantially influence adverse fetal outcomes in pregnant rabbits infected with high-dose HEV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ge, Ping Jiang; French, Lesley C; Ohno, Tsunehisa; Zealear, David L; Rousseau, Bernard
We describe a method for eliciting phonation in an in vivo rabbit preparation using low-frequency, bipolar pulsed stimulation of the cricothyroid muscles with airflow delivered to the glottis. Ten New Zealand White breeder rabbits weighing 3 to 5 kg were used in this study. The cricothyroid muscles were isolated bilaterally, and separate pairs of anode-cathode hooked-wire electrodes were inserted into each muscle. A Grass S-88 stimulator and 2 constant-current PSIU6 isolation units were used to deliver bipolar square wave pulses to each cricothyroid muscle, with airflow delivered to the glottis through a cuffed endotracheal tube. Phonation was evoked with a 50-Hz, 4-mA stimulus train of 1-ms pulses delivered to each cricothyroid muscle. The pulse trains were on for 2 seconds and were repeated every 5 seconds over a period of 180 minutes. Airflow was delivered at 143 cm3/s, producing phonation measuring 71 to 85 dB sound pressure level. Evoked phonation is feasible in rabbits by use of bipolar stimulation of the cricothyroid muscles with airflow delivered to the glottis. The in vivo rabbit preparation described may provide a useful small animal option for studies of evoked phonation. From the level and consistency of the adduction observed, we hypothesize that current spreading to the underlying adductor muscles and nerves resulted in neural pathway involvement beyond discrete activation of the cricothyroid muscle, providing sufficient approximation of the vocal folds for phonation.
A. V. Bagaeva
Full Text Available The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.
Jia, Yimei; Zhao, Guodong; Jia, Jicheng
Genus Aloe has been traditionally utilized for medicinal purpose for decades. Compared with Aloe vera gel, the qualitative assessment for the therapeutic effects of the other two Aloe species, Aloe ferox Miller and Aloe arborescens Miller, for their topical wound healing was less addressed. Therefore, the aim of present study is to provide the positive evidence for Aloe ferox Miller and Aloe arborescens Miller supporting their therapeutic properties for topical treatment of skin wounds. Two types of the whole-leaf juice prepared from either Aloe ferox Miller or Aloe arborescens Miller were used in this study. Incision wound healing was investigated using both the rat and rabbit model. The wound closure rate with and without the topical administration of the whole-leaf juice were monitored. The changes in wound characteristics were traced and wound severity was scored on different days. The anti-microorganism actions of each whole-leaf juice preparation were evaluated by measuring their inhibition growth effects on four bacterial strains and three fungal spores. The toxic influence owing to topical application of Aloe whole-leaf juice on intact and damaged skin was also assessed. Our results indicated that the two types of whole-leaf juice preparations exhibit the therapeutic properties, including facilitation of the healing process, selective inhibition of the microbial growth and zero side-effect on the skin, during the observation period. It is concluded that both of Aloe whole-leaf juice preparations have the positive potential for skin medicinal application.
Fry, Douglas P
An emerging evolutionary perspective suggests that nature and human nature are less "red in tooth and claw" than generally acknowledged by a competition-based view of the biological world. War is not always present in human societies. Peace systems, defined as groups of neighboring societies that do not make war on each other, exist on different continents. A comparison of three peace systems--the Upper Xingu River basin tribes of Brazil, the Iroquois Confederacy of upper New York State, and the European Union--highlight six features hypothesized to be important in the creation and maintenance of intersocietal peace: (i) an overarching social identity, (ii) interconnections among subgroups, (iii) interdependence, (iv) nonwarring values, (v) symbolism and ceremonies that reinforce peace, and (vi) superordinate institutions for conflict management. The existence of peace systems demonstrates that it is possible to create social systems free of war.
Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....
This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes.
The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states to ...... the link between the Vietnam War, the Afghanistan War, the Iraq War, and the background for the financial crisis that began in 2008.......The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...
Shapiro, Charles S.
Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)
Siler, Carl S.
Examines a unit approach to World War II that emphasizes totalitarianism, the military conduct of the war, and the Holocaust. Advocates using a variety of teaching strategies, methods, and materials. Includes several examples of innovative materials and activities. (MJP)
Strain, G M; Snider, T G; Tedford, B L; Cohn, G H
Human loxoscelism was modeled in albino rabbits by injection of brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) venom, and the effects of daily or twice-daily hyperbaric oxygen treatment on wound healing were investigated. Lesions similar to those seen in humans were produced in rabbits by intradermal injection of 200 microliters of a venom extract (0.21 microgram protein per microliter), including edema and erythema, ischemia and cyanosis in the first 12 hr, extensive purpura by 24 hr, and crateriform ulcer formation by day four, with induration and eschar formation. Hyperbaric oxygen treatments, consisting of two atmospheres absolute (2 ATA) for 60 min, were applied daily (n = 8) or twice daily (n = 8), while control animals (n = 8) received no treatment. Treatments were initiated 72 hr after venom injection (day 3) to duplicate typical clinical treatment delays, and were administered for seven consecutive days. No significant effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on lesion healing were seen as measured by lesion area. However, histologic evaluation of wound tissue collected at euthanasia on day 24 showed clear differences between rabbits receiving twice-daily treatments and those receiving daily or no treatment. The former showed complete re-epithelization or slight ulceration, while the latter usually had necrotic cavities extending into the dermis, with myonecrosis and inflammatory cell accumulation. Thus, no superficial differences were seen between groups, but twice-daily treatments resulted in enhanced recovery at the histologic level.
Widespread starvation resulting from changes in climate in the aftermath of a large-scale nuclear war could kill far more people than would the bombs themselves. That prediction was made in a recent study by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), an a rm of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). “Noncombatant and combatant countries alike” would risk mass starvation; SCOPE predicted that all told, 2.5 billion people could die as a result of crop failures and breakdowns in food distribution after a nuclear war.
Hyldig, Nana; Vinter, Christina Anne; Bille, Camilla
Background: Obese women undergoing caesarean section are at increased risk of surgical wound complications, which may lead to delayed recovery, pain, reduced quality of life, and increased health care cost. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of incisional Negative Pressure Wound...
Nutritionist Infectious disease specialist Administrator Physical and occupational therapist Nurse practitioner Wound clinic manager...of high AKA amputations with accompanying fungal infections – Need for local therapy • Wound VAC™ Instill® therapy • Dakin’s irrigation solution
Boggs, Thomas R.; Morris, Roger S.
In reviewing the literature, no description of a lipemia occurring in relation to simple hemorrhage was found, so that the observation of the phenomenon here recorded would seem to be new. Very high percentages of fat have been found in the blood of diabetics. Fischer's case showed 18.1 per cent total ether extract. Of this very little was free fat (0.0018 gm. potassium hydroxide per gram of fat); iodine absorption was 60.6 per cent.; cholesterin, 2.6 per cent. Chatin's case, cited by Fischer, showed 1.2 per cent. cholesterin, 66.5 per cent. olein, 32.2 per cent. margarin in the fat. Neisser and Derlin in the ether extract of blood from a patient with diabetic coma found 19.7 per cent. fat, with melting point of from 39° to 41° C.; iodine absorption was 53.6 per cent. Javal in a similar case found 25.4 per cent. of fat in ether extract of dry serum (perhaps by Soxhlet method); 21 per cent. of the fat was lecithin. Bleibtreu produced alimentary lipemia in geese by feeding barley and butter. Ether extract of serum showed 6 per cent. of fat. The serum was milky with invisible droplets. Iodine absorption was 57 to 58 per cent. The fat was quite different, chemically, from the fat in the food. Lipemia disappeared a few days after discontinuing the forced feeding. Our experiments suggest, by analogy, the possible occurrence of lipemia in human anemias. In this connection it is of interest to note that we have recently demonstrated a moderate lipemia in a case of marked secondary anemia from hemorrhoids. The emaciation in such cases, as contrasted with the well-recognized conservation of the fat in pernicious anemia, suggests in human pathology a still further analogy which we now have under investigation. The fat in our lipemic rabbits differs from fats described above in its insolubility, as well as in its "constants." The change after precipitation of calcium from the serum suggests that the fat may be present in the serum as a protein-calcium-lecithin combination
Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on ‘new wars’. It argues that ‘new wars’ should be understood not as an empirical category but rather as a way of elucidating the logic of contemporary war that can offer both a research strategy and a guide to policy. It addresses four components of the debate: whether new wars are ‘new’; whether new wars are war or crime; whether the data supports the claims about new wars; and whether new wars are ‘post-Clausewitzean’. It argues that the obsession with the ‘newness’ of wars misses the point about the logic of new wars; that there is a blurring of war and crime but it is important to address the political elements of new wars; that, although the data should be used with caution, it does seem to offer support for some elements of the new war thesis; and that the argument is indeed post-Clausewitzean because new wars are not ‘contests of wills’ but more similar to a mutual enterprise. It concludes that the debate has greatly enriched the overall argument.
The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on…
The aim of this contribution is to analyse the incidence and treatment of war neurosis in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. First, the scientific papers published on war neurosis during and after the war are examined. Then the work of Gregorio Bermann (1894-1972), a member of the International Brigades who organized the frontline Neuropsychiatric Service at the Hospital de Chamartín de La Rosa (Madrid), is analysed. Las neurosis en la guerra, published in 1941, which recounts Bermann's personal experience in the care of war neurosis in Spain, is also discussed.
Welch, Tasha; Coe, Jason B; Niel, Lee; McCobb, Emily
Pet owners' knowledge of pet care has been shown to affect the human-animal relationship and the welfare of companion animals. With rabbits being the third most common companion animal in many regions, and evidence of owners' lack of awareness for the standards of care required to care for companion rabbits, it is important to understand the knowledge level of rabbit owners and determine how companion rabbits are being cared for. The purpose of this study was to survey rabbit owners in order to explore factors associated with their knowledge of rabbit care, and the neuter status of their companion rabbit. Current rabbit owners (n=2890) completed an online survey investigating acquisition of their companion rabbit, husbandry and care of their current rabbit, neuter status of their rabbit, owners' knowledge of rabbit care and owners' attachment to their current rabbit. An approximation of logistic regression modeling revealed increasing attachment (powners, the current study suggests acquisition sources, veterinarians, and companion-animal professionals can have an important role in the development of companion-rabbit owners' knowledge of rabbit care and in promoting the importance of neutering companion rabbits. Efforts to develop accessible resources to assist with educating companion-rabbit owners is important to ensuring successful rabbit-owner relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lipsky, Benjamin A; Dryden, Matthew; Gottrup, Finn
BACKGROUND: With the growing global problem of antibiotic resistance it is crucial that clinicians use antibiotics wisely, which largely means following the principles of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). Treatment of various types of wounds is one of the more common reasons for prescribing...... antibiotics. OBJECTIVES: This guidance document is aimed at providing clinicians an understanding of: the basic principles of why AMS is important in caring for patients with infected wounds; who should be involved in AMS; and how to conduct AMS for patients with infected wounds. METHODS: We assembled a group...... of experts in infectious diseases/clinical microbiology (from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy) and wound management (from the European Wound Management Association) who, after thoroughly reviewing the available literature and holding teleconferences, jointly produced this guidance document...
Johnston, Benjamin R; Ha, Austin Y; Kwan, Daniel
In this article, we outline the important role the surgeon plays in the management of chronic wounds. Debridement and washout are required for grossly infected wounds and necrotizing soft tissue infections. Cutaneous cancers such as squamous cell carcinomas may contribute to chronic wounds and vice versa; if diagnosed, these should be treated with wide local excision. Arterial, venous, and even lymphatic flows can be restored in select cases to enhance delivery of nutrients and removal of metabolic waste and promote wound healing. In cases where vital structures, such as bones, joints, tendons, and nerves, are exposed, vascularized tissue transfers are often required. These tissue transfers can be local or remote, the latter of which necessitates anastomoses of arteries and veins. Pressure sores are managed by relieving pressure, treating acute trauma or infection, and using rotation fasciocutaneous flaps. Lastly, the surgeon must always consider the possibility of osteomyelitis and retained foreign body as etiology for chronic wounds.
Fontana, A; Rosenheck, R
Three hypotheses regarding symptoms of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychiatric distress were tested: that symptoms are more severe the more severe the traumatic exposure, regardless of the war in question; that symptoms are less severe the older the veterans' age; and that symptom levels differ across sociocultural cohorts. A total of 5,138 war zone veterans who were seeking treatment from specialized Veterans Affairs outpatient clinical teams made up the sample: 320 World War II, 199 Korean War, and 4,619 Vietnam War veterans. All hypotheses were supported significantly. The similarity of relationships between traumatic exposure and symptoms across wars testifies to the generality of these experiences. Furthermore, the results suggest the operation of significant effects due both to aging and to cohort differences in sociocultural attitudes toward the stigma of mental illness and the popularity of the wars.
Cai, Hong; Gu, Ying; Zeng, Jing; Li, Shao-ran; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Ying; Shi, Dong-wen; Zhang, Lu-yong
Background and Objective: Hypertrophic scar is a pathological scar that grows aberrantly by excessive deposition of collagens in the dermis. It is known that photodynamic therapy (PDT) contributes to a variety of diseases, however, the use of inhibiting scar formation has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of HMME-PDT (Photodynamic therapy induced by Hematoporphyrin Monomethyl Ether) with different parameters on hypertrophic scar in rabbit ear. Materials and Methods: After the placement of 7-mm diameter dermal wounds on each ear, the acute model of dermal hypertrophic scar in the New Zealand white rabbits was established. Scar wounds were randomly separated into 2 groups: the experimental group received HMME-PDT with different parameters, and the control group received no special treatment. Specimens were harvested from scar wounds on postoperative day 28. Scar and hypertrophic index (HI) were observed by haematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: Compared with the control group, scar formation was inhibited by HMME-PDT in the experimental group with parameters as follows: photosensitizer dose 10mg/kg, power density 20mw/cm2, fluence 5J/cm2, meanwhile, HI was decreased significantly. Conclusion: HMME-PDT may play a role in inhibiting hypertrophic scarring in rabbit ear. The biological effect is determined by the dose of photosensitizer, interval between the injection of photosensitizer and irradiation, power density and energy fluence.
Hsu, Jui-Tse; Ho, Te-Wei; Shih, Hsueh-Fu; Chang, Chun-Che; Lai, Feipei; Wu, Jin-Ming
With the growing demand for more efficient wound care after surgery, there is a necessity to develop a machine learning based image analysis approach to reduce the burden for health care professionals. The aim of this study was to propose a novel approach to recognize wound infection on the postsurgical site. Firstly, we proposed an optimal clustering method based on unimodal-rosin threshold algorithm to extract the feature points from a potential wound area into clusters for regions of interest (ROI). Each ROI was regarded as a suture site of the wound area. The automatic infection interpretation based on the support vector machine is available to assist physicians doing decision-making in clinical practice. According to clinical physicians' judgment criteria and the international guidelines for wound infection interpretation, we defined infection detector modules as the following: (1) Swelling Detector, (2) Blood Region Detector, (3) Infected Detector, and (4) Tissue Necrosis Detector. To validate the capability of the proposed system, a retrospective study using the confirmation wound pictures that were used for diagnosis by surgical physicians as the gold standard was conducted to verify the classification models. Currently, through cross validation of 42 wound images, our classifiers achieved 95.23% accuracy, 93.33% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 100% positive predictive value. We believe this ability could help medical practitioners in decision making in clinical practice.
Carvalho, Brendan; Clark, David J; Yeomans, David; Angst, Martin S
We describe a methodology by which we are able to collect and measure biochemical inflammatory and nociceptive mediators at the surgical wound site. Collecting site-specific biochemical markers is important to understand the relationship between levels in serum and surgical wound, determine any associations between mediator release, pain, analgesic use and other outcomes of interest, and evaluate the effect of systemic and peripheral drug administration on surgical wound biochemistry. This methodology has been applied to healthy women undergoing elective cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia. We have measured wound exudate and serum mediators at the same time intervals as patient's pain scores and analgesics consumption for up to 48 hours post-cesarean delivery. Using this methodology we have been able to detect various biochemical mediators including nerve growth factor (NGF), prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2) substance P, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1 and MIP-1β. Studies applying this human surgical wound bioassay have found no correlations between wound and serum cytokine concentrations or their time-release profile (J Pain. 2008; 9(7):650-7).(1) We also documented the utility of the technique to identify drug-mediated changes in wound cytokine content.
Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Peress, Lilia; Cantu, Concepcion; Olsen, Randall J; Jenkins, Leslie; Cabrera, Fernando J; Tasciotti, Ennio; Weiner, Bradley K; Dunkin, Brian J
Surgical energy has been widely implemented because of ease of use, effective hemostasis, and surgical dissection. Studies demonstrate its use to be an independent risk factor for postoperative wound infection. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most common bacteria found in postoperative mesh infection. No reports are available on the sequelae of surgical energy use for open ventral hernia repair (oVHR) with mesh. We hypothesized that increasing amounts of surgical energy will result in higher infectious burden after oVHR with composite multifilament polyester mesh (Parietex™ PCO). New Zealand rabbits underwent bridging oVHR with Parietex™ PCO and were divided into three surgical treatment groups: (1) scalpel alone, (2) 120 J of energy, and (3) 600 J of energy. The bioprosthesis was then inoculated with 105 colony-forming units of MRSA. Rabbits were survived for 7 days with daily physical examination. Complete blood count, basci metabolic panel, and blood cultures were performed on postoperative days one, four, and seven. Surviving rabbits were killed, and meshes explanted for MRSA colony counts. Rabbits receiving the most surgical energy developed signs and symptoms of severe sepsis and wound necrosis within 24 h. In comparison, rabbits receiving no surgical energy had significantly less MRSA recovered from explanted mesh, significantly less bacteremia, and fewer adhesions. Increased use of surgical energy promoted greater colonization, exaggerated septic response to bacterial contamination, and more severe adhesions. In the absence of devitalized tissue, rabbits can effectively limit bacterial contamination. These findings support the surgical principles of proper tissue handling and highlight the detrimental effects of indiscriminant surgical energy usage, thus emphasizing the importance of programs such as Fundamental Use of Surgical Energy.
in the future. The “extreme 20th century” will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be narrated as more extreme, and its temporal bindings become easier to observe. The much celebrated “revolutions in military affairs” will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away...
Davis, William C.
Analyzes the rise of photography during the Civil War period, and discusses current photographic technology. Examines photography entrepreneurs, and expounds on notable individuals in photography. Describes types of photographs taken, problems encountered in gathering pictures, and popular responses to photography. Concentrates on Civil War…
of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...
Brigitte M Holzner
Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.
Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…
governments and terrorists, warlords, separatists, and in and among nations’ populations. Mary Kaldor echoes this 4 view, arguing that states are...19-20. 7 Mary Kaldor , “Elaborating the ‘New War’ Thesis,” in Isabelle Duyvesteyn and Jan Angstrom, eds., Rethinking the Nature of War (New York
the unremitting pressures of conflict; and the fundamental nature of war, including the psychological aspects of battle, where soldiers are engaged...this regard edmund burke was particularly perceptive in his understanding of the baleful influence that second- and third-order effects could
Full Text Available John B Christoforidis,1 Jillian Wang,2 Angela Jiang,2 James Willard,5 Cedric Pratt,2 Mahmoud Abdel-Rasoul,3 Sashwati Roy,4 Heather Powell51Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 3Center for Biostatistics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 4Center Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 5Department of Materials Science, College of Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAPurpose: To investigate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab and ranibizumab on wound tension and by histopathology during cutaneous wound healing in a rabbit model and to compare this effect to placebo intravitreal saline controls 1 and 2 weeks following intravitreal injection.Methods: A total of 120 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups each consisting of 40 rabbits. Each group received intravitreal injections of bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or normal saline. Immediately afterwards, each rabbit underwent four 6 mm full-thickness dermatologic punch biopsies. Twenty rabbits from each agent group underwent wound harvesting on day 7 or day 14. The skin samples were stained for CD34 for vascular endothelial cells on day 7, and maximal wound tensile load was measured on days 7 and 14. Quantitative assessment of mean neovascularization (MNV scores was obtained from 10 contiguous biopsy margin 400× fields of CD34-stained sections by two independent observers.Results: Wound tension reading means (N with standard error and adjusted P-values on day 7 were: saline placebos, 7.46 ± 0.87; bevacizumab, 4.50 ± 0.88 (P = 0.041; and ranibizumab, 4.67 ± 0.84 (P = 0.025. On day 14 these were: saline placebos, 7.34 ± 0.55; bevacizumab, 6.05 ± 0.54 (P = 0.18; and ranibizumab 7.99 ± 0.54 (P = 0.40. MNV scores in CD34 stained sections were
Zimmer, Markus M; Frank, Johannes; Barker, John H; Becker, Hans
Until the end of World War II, oily extracts from the European mole cricket, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa Linné, were used for treating nonhealing wounds and burns. In traditional Chinese medicine, extracts from the Chinese mole cricket, Gryllotalpa africana Beauvois, have been used to treat boils, abscesses, and ulcers successfully for over two centuries and are still being used today. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to measure the effect mole cricket extracts have on wound epithelialization and neovascularization, and second, to identify the active compounds in the Chinese and German mole cricket extracts. For the first aim, the hairless mouse ear wound model was used. The findings showed that wounds treated with the mole cricket extracts epithelialized significantly faster than control wounds 12.7+/-0.9 and 13.2+/-1.4 days vs. 16.3+/-2.2 days (mean+/-SD, p<0.05), respectively. While the rate of wound neovascularization was significantly increased in the first 3 days postwounding from that point on, the rate in treated wounds was the same as in controls. To identify the active compounds in the mole cricket extracts, the extracts were fractionated and tested in a foreskin basal keratinocyte cell culture assay. In this assay, the migration of keratinocytes is similar to skin cell migration or reepithelialization in a healing wound. Using this method, we found the active compound in the mole cricket extracts to be linoleic acid methyl ester. All other fatty acid structures that were isolated were found to be inactive.
Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguileraa, Luis Eduardo
Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40 days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40 d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.
Valentine, Kovalchuk P; Viacheslav, Kondratiuk M
Microbiology of modern war wounds is unique for each military conflict. Climatic and geographical features of the theater of war, contemporary warfare as well as wound management affect the microbial flora of wounds. This study was designed to determine time-specific microbial flora of combat wounds of upper and lower extremities obtained during the war in eastern Ukraine. The patients enrolled in study had combat wounds of upper or lower extremities which were treated in the Military Medical Clinical Center of Central Region. The wounds were swab-cultured and measured at each surgical debridement. The recovered microorganisms were identified and their antimicrobial resistance profiles were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Forty-nine patients with battle-field wounds were enrolled in the study from July to November 2014; all patients were male with a mean Injury Severity Score and arrival APACHE II scores of 16.2 ± 10.7 and 7.4 ± 4.2 respectively. Among 128 swab cultures, 100 swab cultures were positive. Swab cultures were obtained from 57 wounds of 49 patients. The results of the test showed that 87.7% of all positive swab cultures contained a single-organism while the rest of the swab-culture results showed polymicrobial growth. Among the isolated microorganisms 65% (76 strains) were Gram-negative rods, 22.2% (26 strains) of Gram-positive cocci, followed by Gram-positive rods (12.8%, 15 strains). We found that epidemiology of wound infection changes with the time after injury. The most common bacterial isolates cultured during the first week were Gram-positive microbes with low pathogenicity. The number of Gram-negative rods increased during the wound healing process. The incidence of Gram-positive microorganisms' growth fell after the first week and increased after third week. During wound healing, bacterial microflora of wounds changes with increasing number of Gram-negative rods with predominance of Acinetobacter species. Predominant microorganisms in
Regina TC. Tandelilin
Full Text Available The bone defect due to tooth extraction contributes the most cases reported in the aspects of oral surgery. The defect can be preventively managed by adding powder bone matrix intended for augmentation which eventually induces the formation of new bones. This hard tissue wound healing is preceded by the presence of collagen fibers. The aim of this study was to determine the density of collagen fiber in the alveolus mandibular bone of rabbit which was augmented using powder demineralized bone matrix (DBM post incisivus extraction. Twenty four male rabbits aged 2.5–3 months weighed 900–1,100 grams were randomly divided into two groups. The treated rabbits were augmented with DBM after the incisivus extraction on mandible. The mucosa was then sutured. On the other hand, the controlled rabbits received similar treatments with those of the treated rabbits except there was no augmentation of DBM. Decapitation of treated and controlled rabbits was made on day 5, 7, 10, and 14 days post surgery, each with three rabbits. Mandibles were cut, decalcified, and imbedded in paraffin block. The staining was done using Mallory. Significant differences in the density of collagen were noted on day 10 and 14 post surgery, indicating that powder demineralized bone matrix successfully induced the stimulation of collagen.
van Bergen, Leo
Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.
Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is caused by a calicivirus (RHDV) that kills 90% of infected adult European rabbits within 3 days. Remarkably, young rabbits are resistant to RHD. We induced immunosuppression in young rabbits by treatment with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and challenged the animals with RHDV by intramuscular injection. All of these young rabbits died within 3 days of infection due to fulminant hepatitis, presenting a large number of RHDV-positive dead or apoptotic hepatocytes, and a significant seric increase in cytokines, features that are similar to those of naïve adult rabbits infected by RHDV. We conclude that MPA-induced immunosuppression abrogates the resistance of young rabbits to RHD, indicating that there are differences in the innate immune system between young and adult rabbits that contribute to their distinct resistance/susceptibility to RHDV infection. PMID:24490832
Arianne Pontes Oriá
Full Text Available Spheres of different types of material are used for the replacement of lost volume after removal of the eye bulb or its content to prevent contraction of the orbital cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scope of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA used as intraocular implant in eviscerated rabbit eye. Twelve New Zealand rabbits underwent unilateral evisceration of the left eye, with subsequent implantation of PMMA sphere 12 mm in diameter. Clinical evaluation was performed daily during the first 15 days after surgery and every 15 days until the end of the study period (180 days. For the histopathological analysis, three animals per trial underwent enucleation at 15, 45, 90 and 180 days after evisceration. There was no wound dehiscence, signs of infection or implant extrusion in any animal throughout the study period. Histological examination revealed the formation of fibrovascular tissue around the implants. The PMMA behaved as inert and non-integrable.
During the American Civil War, military surgery developed rapidly and underwent great expansion. The same happened in military journalism and in photography and through these media came epic stories of the famous hospitals and the surgeons, who were completely committed to the care of the wounded. Dental surgery and maxillofacial surgery expanded despite clear organisational deficiencies within the two armies and the fact that both specialties were still in their early stages. This article considers some of the important and distinguished figures in the two disciplines.
Ma, H. X.; Zheng, L.; Liu, Y. B.; Zhao, C. Y.; Harrison, T. J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Sun, S. H.; Zhang, J. G.; Wang, Y. C.
BACKGROUND: A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. METHODS: Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly in...
Serrano, J; Cattin, M; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M; Beck, D; Hoffmann, J; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S; Terpstra, W W; Zweig, M
The White Rabbit (WR) project started off to provide a sequencing and synchronisation solution for the needs of CERN and GSI. Since then, many other users have adopted it to solve problems in the domain of distributed hard realtime systems. The paper discusses the current performance of WR hardware, along with present and foreseen applications. It also describes current efforts to standardise WR under IEEE 1588 and recent developments on reliability of timely data distribution, finishing with an outline of future plans.
Gribovskaia, G A
At the beginning of the First World War professor and surgeon S.R. Mitotvortsev was appointed as a Chief Expert - Surgeon of the Western Front, there in Lyublyana he faced with difficulties such as organization of health care delivery and treatment of wounded soldiers. In the following, organized by Mirotvortsev team served in Novaya Aleksandriya, Ivan-Gorod, Radom and other towns of the Western Front. This team was named as "Collecting dressing station of professor S.R.Mirotvortsev".
North Agricultural Zone of Enugu State. It determined rabbit management and breeding practices of respondents, roles of households in rabbit production and constraints associated with rabbit production in the area. Multistage sampling technique ...
Dougherty, Paul J; Najibi, Soheil; Silverton, Craig; Vaidya, Rahul
The extremities are the most common anatomic location for gunshot wounds. Because of the prevalence of gunshot injuries, it is important that orthopaedic surgeons are knowledgeable about caring for them. The most common injuries seen with gunshot wounds are those of the soft tissues. Nonsurgical management of patients who have gunshot wounds with minimal soft-tissue disruption has been successfully accomplished in emergency departments for several years; this includes extremity wounds without nerve, intra-articular, or vascular injury. Stable, nonarticular fractures of an extremity have also been successfully treated with either minimal surgical or nonsurgical methods in the emergency department. Indications for surgical treatment include unstable fractures, intra-articular injuries, a significant soft-tissue injury (especially with skin loss), vascular injury, and/or a large or expanding hematoma.
Fong, I W; Chiu, B.; Viira, E; Fong, M W; Jang, D.; Mahony, J
A rabbit model was established for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection that may be helpful to understand the pathogenesis of disease in humans. Twelve, pathogen-free, 1-month-old New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with 1.0 x 10(7) to 5.0 x 10(7) CFU of purified C. pneumoniae (ATCC strain VR 1310) via the nasopharynx (1 rabbit died immediately postinoculation, and 11 were available for study). Five controls were inoculated with the carrier buffer. Ten of the 11 study rabbits demonstrated ser...
of wound infection will be helpful in the control of wound infection and selection of empiric antimicrobial therapy as an infection control ... the skin (1). The exposed subcutaneous tissues provides a favourable substratum for a wide variety of microorganisms to contaminate and colonize, and .... Ayton M. Wound care. Wounds ...
We investigated the effect of fibronectin on epithelial migration onto the stroma in cultured rabbit cornea. Rabbit plasma fibronectin was purified by affinity chromatography using gelatin-Sepharose 4B, and its purity was confirmed by SDS polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Antibody against rabbit plasma fibronectin raised in guinea pigs formed a single precipitin line against rabbit plasma and purified rabbit plasma fibronectin by Ouchterlony double diffusion test. When rabbit cornea wa...
Adam J. Mellott
Full Text Available Negative pressure wound therapy has greatly advanced the field of wound healing for nearly two decades, by providing a robust surgical adjunct technique for accelerating wound closure in acute and chronic wounds. However, the application of negative pressure wound therapy in maxillofacial applications has been relatively under utilized as a result of the physical articulations and contours of the head and neck that make it challenging to obtain an airtight seal for different negative pressure wound therapy systems. Adapting negative pressure wound therapies for maxillofacial applications could yield significant enhancement of wound closure in maxillofacial applications. The current review summarizes the basic science underlying negative pressure wound therapy, as well as specific maxillofacial procedures that could benefit from negative pressure wound therapy.
Kruse, Carla R; Nuutila, Kristo; Lee, Cameron Cy
The skin wound microenvironment can be divided into two main components that influence healing: the external wound microenvironment, which is outside the wound surface; and the internal wound microenvironment, underneath the surface, to which the cells within the wound are exposed. Treatment...... and carbon dioxide), pH, and anti-microbial treatment on the wound. These factors are well described in the literature and can be modified with treatment methods available in the clinic. Understanding the roles of these factors in wound pathophysiology is of central importance in wound treatment...... methods that directly alter the features of the external wound microenvironment indirectly affect the internal wound microenvironment due to the exchange between the two compartments. In this review, we focus on the effects of temperature, pressure (positive and negative), hydration, gases (oxygen...
Ma, Hongxia; Zheng, Lin; Liu, Yunbo; Zhao, Chenyan; Harrison, Tim J.; Ma, Yuyuan; Sun, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingang; Wang, Youchun
Background A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77–79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. Methods Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. Findings Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents), with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. Conclusions These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis. PMID:20161794
Ma, Hongxia; Zheng, Lin; Liu, Yunbo; Zhao, Chenyan; Harrison, Tim J; Ma, Yuyuan; Sun, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingang; Wang, Youchun
A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents), with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. METHODS: Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. FINDINGS: Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents, with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis.
Full Text Available A best evidence topic was written according to the structured protocol. The three part question addressed was: [In patients undergoing closure of surgical wounds with sutures] does [keeping the wound dry for the first 48 h after closure] [reduce the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs]? 4 relevant papers were culled from the literature and appraised. The authors, date, country, population, study type, main outcomes, key results and study weaknesses were tabulated. Current NICE guidelines recommend cleaning surgical wounds with sterile saline only for the first 48 h following skin closure. We found no evidence that washing wounds with tap water during this period increases the incidence of SSIs compared to keeping them dry. Further randomised controlled trials will enable the construction of conclusive systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
Full Text Available The article reflects the results from the author’s research project on traditional and modern games of children in Bulgaria. Based on the life stories, interviews, media reports and other sources of information an ethnological reading of the memories of respondents during the Second World War and its impact on aspects of everyday culture, as is children’s play, will be made. Trough different types of narratives (anthropological, ethnographic, film and literary the author represents the children’s play of war as a reflection of the reality in which the children live and at the same time as one of the most vivid examples of how important the peace is for the comprehensive development of the human personality.
Yu, Kun; Lu, Fei; Li, Qing; Zou, Yini; Xiao, Yang; Lu, Bitao; Liu, Jiawei; Dai, Fangying; Wu, Dayang; Lan, Guangqian
Silk fibroin materials have shown some success in wound dressing applications; however, their use for this purpose remains limited by a complex production process and wasted sericin. In the present study, Bombyx mori cocoon materials are used because the protective function of the silkworm cocoon resembles the manner in which the skin protects the human body. A series of silkworm cocoon sol-gel film (SCSF) wound dressings are prepared by immersion in a CaCl2-ethanol-H2O solution for different treatment times. The accelerated wound-healing capabilities of SCSFs are systematically evaluated. Among them, the SCSF sample immersed for 90min exhibits stronger biocompatibility and antibacterial performance compared to other SCSFs. SCSF-90 also exhibits excellent transparency, a high swelling ratio, and good extensibility. Furthermore, in vivo experiments indicate that SCSF-90 can significantly accelerate the healing rate of wounds in New Zealand white rabbits, compared to the standard Mepitel® dressing, and histological examinations reveal that SCSF-90 aided in the successful reconstruction of intact and thickened epidermis. These results demonstrate that the proposed approach may be utilized in the design of antibacterial materials with promising applications in wound dressing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
corrup- tion, and build a pure Islamic state. The actual resul t was oppression, austeri ty, and the decay of basic government funct ions. Women ...were forced to wear the al l -conceal ing burkha and soccer - stadium executions and amputat ions terrorized ci t izens. Al though the Tal iban in 2001... Bull -s Eye War: Pinpoint Bombing Shifts Role of GI Joe” Washington Post, Dec. 2, 2001. 27 Jumper, remarks at AFA’s February 2002 symposium in Orlando
The article reflects the results from the author’s research project on traditional and modern games of children in Bulgaria. Based on the life stories, interviews, media reports and other sources of information an ethnological reading of the memories of respondents during the Second World War and its impact on aspects of everyday culture, as is children’s play, will be made. Trough different types of narratives (anthropological, ethnographic, film and literary) the author represents the child...
history before Hitler: leaving foreign wars aside, deaths through internal repressive measures conducted for ideological reasons amounted in Soviet Russia ... history have suggested keys to an understanding of the individual and social forces behind conflict. Their views have seldom stood the test of reality...who feared damage to his trade initiative), it later surfaced and served as a basis for a history of Muscovy written by Milton. A useful reminder for
Works of art or history books showing human faces or female forms were destroyed. The animals in the Kabul Zoo were tortured or killed by Taliban...agronomists to help Afghan agriculture and animal husbandry enter the 21st century. In terms of reconstruction and development, the coalition, rein...in 114 Understanding War in Afghanistan Kabul that is linked into the provinces and districts and able to perform the basic security and welfare
Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny
During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions.
Basic theoretical bases As a chronic wound is called a secondarily healing wound which despite adequate therapy does not tend to heal for a period of 6-9 weeks. The cause of the chronic wound occurrence and its transformation into an acute wound can be infection, influence of associated diseases, skin top layer microtraumatization or skin necrosis cavity. Among the most frequent types of chronic wounds there are aligned venous ulcerations, arterial rodent ulcers, decubitus ulcers and neuropat...
Halim, A. S.; Khoo, T L; Mat Saad, A. Z.
Wound bed preparation has been performed for over two decades, and the concept is well accepted. The ′TIME′ acronym, consisting of tissue debridement, i nfection or inflammation, moisture balance and edge effect, has assisted clinicians systematically in wound assessment and management. While the focus has usually been concentrated around the wound, the evolving concept of wound bed preparation promotes the treatment of the patient as a whole. This article discusses wound bed preparation and ...
Carl von Clausewitz was both an avid analyst of small wars and people’s war and, during the wars of liberation, a practitioner of small war. While Clausewitz scholars have increasingly recognised the centrality of small wars for Clausewitz’s thought, the sources and inspirations of his writings on small wars have remained understudied. This article contextualises Clausewitz’s thought on small wars and people’s war in the tradition of German philosophical and aesthetic discourses around 1800. ...
This paper discusses the effects of modern war on children in the 20th century, focusing on direct and indirect effects of World War II, Vietnam War, war in Afghanistan, conflicts in Africa and in Central America, and Persian Gulf War. The paper notes the devastating effects on children of disruption of education and other public services in…
Watkins, PeterJ; Watkins, Valerie J
The contribution of nurses to the morale of wounded and dying young men during World War 1 was immense. Alice Welford came from the small North Yorkshire village of Crathorne, joined the Queen Alexandra Imperial Military Nursing Service in 1915 and spent the following two and one half years in nursing casualties from some of the fiercest battles of the war including Gallipoli and Salonika. She kept an autograph book inscribed by wounded and dying soldiers, with poignant verses and humorous drawings showing love, wit and tragedy. Despite the dreadful conditions, kindness and compassion brought them comfort and raised their morale - a critical message for today, and Alice's gift to us from World War I.
Full Text Available The use of boiled potato peel (PP in dressing of various skin conditions was studied. A total of 11 patients were selected, which included resistant wounds of pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and leg ulcers. An autoclaved PP dressing with a thin layer of antiseptic cream was applied at 25 sites. It was covered with multilayered gauze and the dressing was secured firmly with either a roller bandage or with an adhesive tape. Complete epithelization was seen at 20 sites (80%, near complete epithelization at one site. There was no satisfactory response at three sites and at one site the result could not be evaluated. The mean duration of healing was one week for superficial wounds and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound healing process by providing and maintaining a moist environment. The PP dressing is easy to prepare, apply as well as remove. It is a comfortable dressing and is also cost effective.
Dissemond, J; Kröger, K; Storck, M; Risse, A; Engels, P
Chronic wounds are an increasing problem in our ageing population and can arise in many different ways. Over the past decades it has become evident that sufficient oxygen supply is an essential factor of appropriate wound healing. Sustained oxygen deficit has a detrimental impact on wound healing, especially for patients with chronic wounds. This has been proven for wounds associated with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and diabetic foot ulcers (particularly in combination with PAOD). However, this is still under debate for other primary diseases. In the past few years several different new therapeutic approaches for topical oxygen therapies have been developed to support wound healing. These tend to fall into one of four categories: (1) delivery of pure oxygen either under pressurised or (2) ambient condition, (3) chemical release of oxygen via an enzymatic reaction or (4) increase of oxygen by facilitated diffusion using oxygen binding and releasing molecules. In this review article, the available therapeutic topical oxygen-delivering approaches and their impact on wound healing are presented and critically discussed. A summary of clinical data, daily treatment recommendations and practicability is provided. J. Dissemond received an honorarium for lectures, advisory boards and/or clinical studies from the following companies: 3M, B. Braun, BSN, Coloplast, Convatec, Draco, Hartmann, KCI, Lohmann&Rauscher, Medoderm, Merz, Sastomed, Systagenix, UCB-Pharma, Urgo. K. Kröger received an honorarium for lectures, advisory boards and/or clinical studies from the following companies: Bayer, Sanofi, GSK, Hartmann, Sastomed, UCB-Pharma, Urgo. M. Storck received an honorarium for lectures for the following companies: KCI, Systagenix, and UCB-Pharma. A. Risse received an honorarium for lectures, advisory boards and/or clinical studies from the following companies: Bracco, Coloplast, Draco, Lilly Deutschland, NovoNordisk, Sastomed, Urgo. P. Engels received an
Nikita A. Smirnov
Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the
consist of a checklist of principles of war. There existed the Art of War (not the Science) and the works of ancient, medieval , and nineteenth...third chapter of the thesis presents the transformation of the concept of the principles of war in the twentieth century. The canonizing of Napoleonic...This maelstrom of opinions, lacking in basic principles and clear laws round which they could be crystallized, was bound to be intellectually
Soto-Miranda, Miguel A; Suami, Hiroo; Chang, David W
Little is known about the anatomy of the lymphatic system in the rabbit with regard to relationships between the lymphatic vessel and lymph node. According to our previous studies in human cadavers and canines, the superficial lymphatic system could be divided into lymphatic territories. The aim of this study was to completely map the superficial lymphatic system in the rabbit. We used our microinjection technique and histological analysis for dissecting studies and recently developed indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography for demonstrating dynamic lymph flow in living rabbits. Real-time ICG fluorescent lymphography was performed in two living New Zealand White rabbits, and direct dye microinjection of the lymphatic vessels was performed in eight dead rabbits. To assess the relationships between the vascular and lymphatic systems in rabbits, we performed radiocontrast injection into arteries in two dead rabbits prior to the lymphatic injection. The ICG fluorescent lymphography revealed eight lymphatic territories in the preauricular, submandibular, root of the lateral neck, axillary, lumbar, inguinal, root of the tail, and popliteal regions. We injected blue acrylic dye into every lymphatic vessel 0.1 mm in diameter or larger. We then dissected and chased the stained lymphatic vessels proximally until the vessels connected to the first tier lymph node. This procedure was repeated throughout the body until all the relationships between the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes were defined. The lymphatic system of the rabbit could be defined as eight lymphatic territories, each with its own lymphatic vessels and lymph node. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Summary: The precise mechanism by which ketamine induces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle is not clear. The goal of this study was to further characterize the vascular actions of ketamine in rabbit aortic smooth muscles. Ring segments (2mm) of rabbit aortae were suspended in 20ml organ baths containing ...
Künzel, Frank; Grinninger, Petra; Shibly, Sarina; Hassan, Jasmin; Tichy, Alexander; Berghold, Petra; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea
Although the incidence of uterine disorders in pet rabbits is high there are only a few retrospective studies and case reports on genital tract disease in female rabbits. Uterine disorders were assessed in 50 pet rabbits. In 31 pet rabbits with suspected clinical uterine disease, medical records were further reviewed regarding clinical signs, diagnostic workup, treatment as well as the outcome itself. Uterine adenocarcinoma (54%) was most frequently diagnosed, followed by endometrial hyperplasia (26%). Serosanguineous vaginal discharge was the predominant clinical sign observed by the rabbit owners. In approximately 50% of the rabbits with suspected uterine disorders, abdominal palpation revealed enlarged and/or irregular masses in the caudoventral abdomen indicating uterine lesions. Out of 23 rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy, four were either euthanized or died shortly after surgery because they were clinically unstable. Overall, 80% of the ovariohysterectomized animals were still alive 6 mo after surgery. In female pet rabbits that are not breeding, either ovariohysterectomy should be performed at an early age or routine checks including ultrasonography of the abdomen are recommended on a regular basis.
Meredith, Anna L
This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morisse, J P; Maurice, R
Rabbit production in Europe is concentrated largely in the "Latin" countries of Italy, France and Spain, in which animal protectionist attitudes are considered moderate. However, in the case of rabbits, the intensification of husbandry necessitates strict observance of physiological, behavioural and health requirements, in view of the very special needs of the species and the sensitivity of rabbits to environmental conditions. Rabbits are described as anxious, timid and emotional, with unusual arrangements for reproduction (induced ovulation) and digestion (caecotrophy). Therefore, these animals could not be reared intensively until the completion of extensive research, which has been conducted over the past twenty years, into the environmental and nutritional needs of rabbits, and the selection of lines having a calm temperament and maternal aptitude. This research was required to meet the welfare needs of this species. These concepts are perfectly integrated into the current operation of intensive units, and should not be brought into question on the basis of fragmentary observations by some researchers who would wish to see a return to rearing on litter. A discussion of rabbit welfare conducted in 1992 by specialists of the German branch of the World Rabbit Science Association approved modern methods of keeping rabbits on wire grids, provided that some changes were made to current procedures.
Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Comparative study of single infections of domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Nigerian isolates of Trypanosoma brucei (Gboko strain), and Trypanosoma congolense (Binchi ... Eighteen rabbits of 10-14 weeks old weighing between 600-1200 grams were used for the study.
Ohanian, Lee E
During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...
Djenić, Nebojša; Višnjić, Milan; Dragović, Saša; Bojanić, Vladmila; Bojanić, Zoran; Djurdjević, Dragan; Djindjić, Boris; Kostov, Miloš
Gunshot wounds caused by the automatic rifle M70AB2 (AK-47) 7.62 mm, after the primary surgical management, were closed with delayed primary suture during the next four to seven days. This period coincides with the fibroblastic phase of wound healing. Fibrin glue is used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for the local dosed release of antibiotics. Antibiotics addition to fibrin glue resulted in continuous diffusion into the surrounding next 4 to 7 days. The aim of this study was to create the preconditions for gunshot wounds closing without complications by the application of fibrin glue with antibiotics 24 h after primary surgical treatment. A total of 14 pigs were wounded in the gluteofemoral region by the bullet M67, initial velocity of 720 m/s. All wounded animals were surgically treated according to the principles of the war-surgery doctrine. Seven wounds were closed with primary delayed suture four days after the primary surgical treatment (traditional approach). Fibrin glue with antibiotics was introduced in seven wounds during the primary surgical treatment and primary delayed suture was done after 24 h. The macroscopic appearance and the clinical assessment of the wound were done during the primary surgical treatment and during its revision after 24 h, as well as histopathological findings at the days 4 and 7 after wounding. Gunshot wounds caused by the automatic rifle M70AB2 (AK-47) 7.62 mm, and treated with fibrin glue with antibiotics after primary surgical management, were closed with primary delayed suture after 24 h. In further wound evolution there were no complications. Uncomplicated soft-tissue wounds caused by an automatic M70AB2 rifle may be closed primarily with delayed suture without the risk of developing complications if on revision, 24 h after primary surgery, there were no present necrotic tissues, hematoma, and any signs of infection when fibrin glue with antibiotics (ceftriaxone and clindamycin) was applied. The use of this method
Objective: Various treatment options exist for wound healing; however, clinical assessment of the patient and the wound environment must be considered before determining an optimal wound treatment plan. Negative pressure wound therapy alone and/or with an instilled topical solution can be effective in adjunctive management of acute and chronic wounds. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has also been shown to contribute to the wound-healing process. A pilot evaluation using a multistep approach of adju...
Maurya, Sanjay; Bhandari, Prem Singh
Significance: Wounds sustained in a combat trauma often result in a composite tissue loss. Combat injuries, due to high energy transfer to tissues, lead to trauma at multiple anatomical sites. An early wound cover is associated with lower rate of infections and a faster wound healing. The concept of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in the management of combat-related wounds has evolved from the civilian trauma and the wounds from nontraumatic etiologies.
Feng Mei; Wu Ying; Zhu Jing; Wu Xiaoling
Introduction: This study was performed to observe the efficacy of a modified surgical wound dressing applied as part of decannulation wound care after tracheotomy. Methods: Eighty-four patients were randomly allocated into a traditional care group, a surgical wound dressing group, and a modified surgical wound dressing group. Each group comprised 28 patients. The following outcomes were observed and analyzed: infection rate, wound closure time, dressing change frequency, cost of wound care...
Zhu, X Q; Xu, Y H; Liao, C X; Liu, W G; Cheng, K K; Chen, J X
Nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) was used as a noninvasive and label-free tool to detect and quantify the extent of the cartilage recovery. Two cartilage injury models were established in the outer ears of rabbits that created a different extent of cartilage recovery based on the presence or absence of the perichondrium. High-resolution NLOM images were used to measure cartilage repair, specifically through spectral analysis and image texture. In contrast to a wound lacking a perichondrium, wounds with intact perichondria demonstrated significantly larger TPEF signals from cells and matrix, coarser texture indicating the more deposition of type I collagen. Spectral analysis of cells and matrix can reveal the matrix properties and cell growth. In addition, texture analysis of NLOM images showed significant differences in the distribution of cells and matrix of repaired tissues with or without perichondrium. Specifically, the decay length of autocorrelation coefficient based on TPEF images is 11.2 ± 1.1 in Wound 2 (with perichondrium) and 7.5 ± 2.0 in Wound 1 (without perichondrium), indicating coarser image texture and faster growth of cells in repaired tissues with perichondrium (p cartilage repair, with potential applications in clinical medicine. NLOM can capture macromolecular details and distinguish between different extents of cartilage repair without the need for labelling agents. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.
Dobbelaere, Philippe; Esmaili, Kyumars Sheykh
Publish/subscribe is a distributed interaction paradigm well adapted to the deployment of scalable and loosely coupled systems. Apache Kafka and RabbitMQ are two popular open-source and commercially-supported pub/sub systems that have been around for almost a decade and have seen wide adoption. Given the popularity of these two systems and the fact that both are branded as pub/sub systems, two frequently asked questions in the relevant online forums are: how do they compare against each other...
S L Rajasekhar Karna
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of wounds in clinical settings are major complications whose outcomes are influenced by host responses that are not completely understood. Herein we evaluated transcriptomic changes of wounds as they counter P. aeruginosa infection-first active infection, and then chronic biofilm infection. We used the dermal full-thickness, rabbit ear excisional wound model. We studied the wound response: towards acute infection at 2, 6, and 24 hrs after inoculating 106 bacteria into day-3 wounds; and, towards more chronic biofilm infection of wounds similarly infected for 24 hrs but then treated with topical antibiotic to coerce biofilm growth and evaluated at day 5 and 9 post-infection. The wounds were analyzed for bacterial counts, expression of P. aeruginosa virulence and biofilm-synthesis genes, biofilm morphology, infiltrating immune cells, re-epithelialization, and genome-wide gene expression (RNA-Seq transcriptome. This analysis revealed that 2 hrs after bacterial inoculation into day-3 wounds, the down-regulated genes (infected vs. non-infected of the wound edge were nearly all non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, comprised of snoRNA, miRNA, and RNU6 pseudogenes, and their down-regulation preceded a general down-regulation of skin-enriched coding gene expression. As the active infection intensified, ncRNAs remained overrepresented among down-regulated genes; however, at 6 and 24 hrs they changed to a different set, which overlapped between these times, and excluded RNU6 pseudogenes but included snRNA components of the major and minor spliceosomes. Additionally, the raw counts of multiple types of differentially-expressed ncRNAs increased on post-wounding day 3 in control wounds, but infection suppressed this increase. After 5 and 9 days, these ncRNA counts in control wounds decreased, whereas they increased in the infected, healing-impaired wounds. These data suggest a sequential and coordinated change in the levels of transcripts
Chen, Tsute; Qian, Li-Wu; Fourcaudot, Andrea B.; Yamane, Kazuyoshi; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J.; You, Tao; Leung, Kai P.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of wounds in clinical settings are major complications whose outcomes are influenced by host responses that are not completely understood. Herein we evaluated transcriptomic changes of wounds as they counter P. aeruginosa infection—first active infection, and then chronic biofilm infection. We used the dermal full-thickness, rabbit ear excisional wound model. We studied the wound response: towards acute infection at 2, 6, and 24 hrs after inoculating 106 bacteria into day-3 wounds; and, towards more chronic biofilm infection of wounds similarly infected for 24 hrs but then treated with topical antibiotic to coerce biofilm growth and evaluated at day 5 and 9 post-infection. The wounds were analyzed for bacterial counts, expression of P. aeruginosa virulence and biofilm-synthesis genes, biofilm morphology, infiltrating immune cells, re-epithelialization, and genome-wide gene expression (RNA-Seq transcriptome). This analysis revealed that 2 hrs after bacterial inoculation into day-3 wounds, the down-regulated genes (infected vs. non-infected) of the wound edge were nearly all non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), comprised of snoRNA, miRNA, and RNU6 pseudogenes, and their down-regulation preceded a general down-regulation of skin-enriched coding gene expression. As the active infection intensified, ncRNAs remained overrepresented among down-regulated genes; however, at 6 and 24 hrs they changed to a different set, which overlapped between these times, and excluded RNU6 pseudogenes but included snRNA components of the major and minor spliceosomes. Additionally, the raw counts of multiple types of differentially-expressed ncRNAs increased on post-wounding day 3 in control wounds, but infection suppressed this increase. After 5 and 9 days, these ncRNA counts in control wounds decreased, whereas they increased in the infected, healing-impaired wounds. These data suggest a sequential and coordinated change in the levels of transcripts of multiple
Karna, S L Rajasekhar; D'Arpa, Peter; Chen, Tsute; Qian, Li-Wu; Fourcaudot, Andrea B; Yamane, Kazuyoshi; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J; You, Tao; Leung, Kai P
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of wounds in clinical settings are major complications whose outcomes are influenced by host responses that are not completely understood. Herein we evaluated transcriptomic changes of wounds as they counter P. aeruginosa infection-first active infection, and then chronic biofilm infection. We used the dermal full-thickness, rabbit ear excisional wound model. We studied the wound response: towards acute infection at 2, 6, and 24 hrs after inoculating 106 bacteria into day-3 wounds; and, towards more chronic biofilm infection of wounds similarly infected for 24 hrs but then treated with topical antibiotic to coerce biofilm growth and evaluated at day 5 and 9 post-infection. The wounds were analyzed for bacterial counts, expression of P. aeruginosa virulence and biofilm-synthesis genes, biofilm morphology, infiltrating immune cells, re-epithelialization, and genome-wide gene expression (RNA-Seq transcriptome). This analysis revealed that 2 hrs after bacterial inoculation into day-3 wounds, the down-regulated genes (infected vs. non-infected) of the wound edge were nearly all non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), comprised of snoRNA, miRNA, and RNU6 pseudogenes, and their down-regulation preceded a general down-regulation of skin-enriched coding gene expression. As the active infection intensified, ncRNAs remained overrepresented among down-regulated genes; however, at 6 and 24 hrs they changed to a different set, which overlapped between these times, and excluded RNU6 pseudogenes but included snRNA components of the major and minor spliceosomes. Additionally, the raw counts of multiple types of differentially-expressed ncRNAs increased on post-wounding day 3 in control wounds, but infection suppressed this increase. After 5 and 9 days, these ncRNA counts in control wounds decreased, whereas they increased in the infected, healing-impaired wounds. These data suggest a sequential and coordinated change in the levels of transcripts of multiple
Mandić-Gajić, Gordana; Špirić, Željko
Art therapy and drawings may serve as alternative means of expression and release from trauma among veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The retrospective clinical study of drawings of war veterans was performed. A total of 89 war veterans met the Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) PTSD criteria and were consecutively admitted to the Day Hospital during 5 years. Art group therapy as part of integrative treatment was performed once a week. The group was open and heterogeneous. Qualitative analysis of drawings content and group protocols were obtained. The drawings were made by free associations. War related themes were explored and descriptive statistics were applied. The most frequent type of common themes of combat stress presented battle and witnessing wounded and killed combatants. Less frequent were themes of graves, destroyed cities and broken trees. The veterans preferred black and red colors with association to death, blood, wounds and destroyed objects. Drawing could provide a unique, complex, visual illustration of war traumatic experiences and memories of posttraumatic stress disorder veterans. Art group discussion might enhance war veterans’ verbal expression due to group support in safe setting. As adjuvant psychotherapy, art group therapy could enrich awareness and the ability of clinicians to treat hard posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms related to uncovered war trauma.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Art therapy and drawings may serve as alternative means of expression and release from trauma among veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Methods. The retrospective clinical study of drawings of war veterans was performed. A total of 89 war veterans met the Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV PTSD criteria and were consecutively admitted to the Day Hospital during 5 years. Art group therapy as part of integrative treatment was performed once a week. The group was open and heterogeneous. Qualitative analysis of drawings content and group protocols were obtained. The drawings were made by free associations. War related themes were explored and descriptive statistics were applied. Results. The most frequent type of common themes of combat stress presented battle and witnessing wounded and killed combatants. Less frequent were themes of graves, destroyed cities and broken trees. The veterans preferred black and red colors with association to death, blood, wounds and destroyed objects. Conclusion. Drawing could provide a unique, complex, visual illustration of war traumatic experiences and memories of posttraumatic stress disorder veterans. Art group discussion might enhance war veterans’ verbal expression due to group support in safe setting. As adjuvant psychotherapy, art group therapy could enrich awareness and the ability of clinicians to treat hard posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms related to uncovered war trauma.
Broussard, Karen C; Powers, Jennifer Gloeckner
Appropriate wound dressing selection is guided by an understanding of wound dressing properties and an ability to match the level of drainage and depth of a wound. Wounds should be assessed for necrosis and infection, which need to be addressed prior to selecting an ideal dressing. Moisture-retentive dressings include films, hydrogels, hydrocolloids, foams, alginates, and hydrofibers and are useful in a variety of clinical settings. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressings can be useful in wounds that are superficially infected or are at higher risk for infection. For refractory wounds that need more growth stimulation, tissue-engineered dressings have become a viable option in the past few decades, especially those that have been approved for burns, venous ulcers, and diabetic ulcers. As wounds heal, the ideal dressing type may change, depending on the amount of exudate and depth of the wound; thus success in wound dressing selection hinges on recognition of the changing healing environment.
Full Text Available Objective: Due to the ongoing civil war in Syria, numerous vascular injured patients are admitted to our hospital with gunshot wounds. In this study, patients who admitted our hospital, diagnosed with vascular trauma due to gunshot were evaluated with the respect of injury site, additional injuries, surgical interventions and outcomes. Methods: The study included 58 patients wounded in Syrian war and admitted to our hospital between 01.01.2012 and 01.09.2014. Results= There were 5.1% (n=3 female and 94.9% (n=55 male patients. Age range is 5-75 years and the average of age was identified as 28.61. In 12.1% (n=7 of patients with extensive tissue defects of the muscle-nerve-bone injury has been identified, despite the vascular interventions in these patients, 8.6% (n=5 of patients, the limb has been amputated. Totally 15.5% (n=9 of 58 operated patients died. Two patients died because of major vascular injury with intra-abdominal organ injuries. In one patient; infection induced sepsis and multi organ failure was detected. Six patients were lost due to hypovolemic shock as a result of late arriving. Conclusion: In patients admitted with gunshot vascular injury arrival time, the presence of additional injuries and the location of injury affect mortality rates.
Abedini, Fereydoon; Ahmadi, Abdollah; Yavari, Akram; Hosseini, Vahid; Mousavi, Sarah
The study aims to perform a comparative assessment of two types of burn wound treatment. To do the assessment, patients with partial thickness burn wounds with total body surface area nylon wound dressing or silver sulfadiazine cream. Efficacy of treatment, use of analgesics, number of wound dressing change, wound infection and final hospitalisation cost were evaluated. The study showed silver nylon wound dressing significantly reduced length of hospital stay, analgesic use, wound infection and inflammation compared with silver sulfadiazine. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.
Jaryszak, Eric M; Shah, Rahul K; Amling, June; Peña, Maria T
To determine the incidence and to describe wound complications and associated risk factors of pediatric tracheotomy. Retrospective case series. Freestanding tertiary care academic pediatric hospital. Sixty-five consecutive children undergoing tracheotomy over 15 months. Postoperative wound complications objectively and independently documented by an advanced practice nurse specializing in tracheotomy care. Secondary outcome measures included comorbidities, mortality rates, and wound status after subsequent examinations and management. The mean (SEM) patient age at tracheotomy was 45 (8.7) months (median age, 9.1 months). The most common indication for tracheotomy was pulmonary disease (36.9%), followed by neurologic impairment and laryngeal abnormalities. There were 19 patients (29%) with and 46 patients (71%) without wound complications. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in age (P = .68) or weight (P = .55); however, infants younger than 12 months had an increased complication rate (39% vs. 17%, P = .04). The type of tracheotomy tube was predictive of postoperative wound complications (P = .02). All patients with wounds received aggressive local wound care. Five of 13 patients had complete resolution of stomal wounds, whereas 8 patients had persistent wound issues. There were 5 non-wound-related mortalities. With attempts to classify tracheotomy wound breakdowns as reportable events, including never events, increasing emphasis is being placed on posttracheotomy care. This study demonstrates that wound breakdown in pediatric tracheotomy patients is common. These complications can be mitigated, although not prevented completely, with aggressive wound surveillance and specialized wound care.
Kekonen, Atte; Bergelin, Mikael; Eriksson, Jan-Erik; Vaalasti, Annikki; Ylänen, Heimo; Viik, Jari
Our group has developed a bipolar bioimpedance measurement-based method for determining the state of wound healing. The objective of this study was to assess the capability of the method. To assess the performance of the method, we arranged a follow-up study of four acute wounds. The wounds were measured using the method and photographed throughout the healing process. Initially the bioimpedance of the wounds was significantly lower than the impedance of the undamaged skin, used as a baseline. Gradually, as healing progressed, the wound impedance increased and finally reached the impedance of the undamaged skin. The clinical appearance of the wounds examined in this study corresponded well with the parameters derived from the bioimpedance data. Hard-to-heal wounds are a significant and growing socioeconomic burden, especially in the developed countries, due to aging populations and to the increasing prevalence of various lifestyle related diseases. The assessment and the monitoring of chronic wounds are mainly based on visual inspection by medical professionals. The dressings covering the wound must be removed before assessment; this may disturb the wound healing process and significantly increases the work effort of the medical staff. There is a need for an objective and quantitative method for determining the status of a wound without removing the wound dressings. This study provided evidence of the capability of the bioimpedance based method for assessing the wound status. In the future measurements with the method should be extended to concern hard-to-heal wounds.
of the Canadian Corps revealed that the Corps’ excellent performance during the war – especially in the later years – resulted from its...of the Canadian Corps revealed that the Corps’ excellent performance during the war—particularly in the later years— resulted from its transformation...adaptation cost over 230,000 dead and wounded.4 Learning organization theory provides a method to illustrate how the Canadian Corps dealt with the challenges
Hong, Seok Jong; Xu, Wei; Leung, Kai P.; Mustoe, Thomas A.; Galiano, Robert D.
Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in various tissues and can proliferate extensively in vitro. MSCs have been used in preclinical animal studies and clinical trials in many fields. Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) have several advantages compared to other MSCs for use in cell-based treatments because they are easy to isolate with relative abundance. However, quantitative approaches for wound repair using ASCs have been limited because of lack of animal models which allow for quantification. Here, we addressed the effect of topically delivered ASCs in wound repair by quantitative analysis using the rabbit ear model. We characterized rabbit ASCs, and analyzed their multipotency in comparison to bone marrow derived-MSCs (BM-MSCs) and dermal fibroblasts (DFs) in vitro. Topically delivered ASCs increased granulation tissue formation in wounds when compared to saline controls, whereas BM-MSCs or DFs did not. These studies suggest that ASCs and BM-MSCs are not identical, though they have similar surface markers. We found that topically delivered ASCs are engrafted and proliferate in the wounds. We showed that transplanted ASCs exhibited activated fibroblast phenotype, increased endothelial cell recruitment, and enhanced macrophage recruitment in vivo. PMID:23383253
Moore, Zena E H; Cowman, Seamus
Pressure ulcers (also called pressure sores, bed sores and decubitus ulcers) are areas of tissue damage that occur in the elderly, malnourished or acutely ill, who cannot reposition themselves. Pressure ulcers impose a significant financial burden on health care systems and negatively affect quality of life. Wound cleansing is considered an important component of pressure ulcer care. This systematic review seeks to answer the following question: what is the effect of wound cleansing solutions and wound cleansing techniques on the rate of healing of pressure ulcers? For this third update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 3 January 2013); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12); Ovid MEDLINE (2010 to November Week 3 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations December 31, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (2010 to 2012 Week 52); and EBSCO CINAHL (2010 to 21 December 2012). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing wound cleansing with no wound cleansing, or different wound cleansing solutions, or different cleansing techniques, were eligible for inclusion if they reported an objective measure of pressure ulcer healing. Two review authors extracted data independently and resolved disagreements through discussion. A structured narrative summary of the included studies was conducted. For dichotomous outcomes, risk ratio (RR), plus 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated; for continuous outcomes, mean difference (MD), plus 95% CI were calculated. Meta analysis was not conducted because of the small number of diverse RCTs identified. Two review authors independently assessed each included study using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. One additional eligible study was identified from the updated searches, one study was added to the table of excluded studies. A total of three studies (169 participants) met the inclusion criteria for the
Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.
Anri Sala’s film 1395 Days Without Red (2011) provides a kind of reenactment of an accidental day during the 1992-95 siege of Sarajevo. Shot in today’s Sarajevo, the film revisits and embodies some of the widely circulated images of the siege, such as inhabitants sprinting across so-called Sniper...... Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...
In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....
against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland, Inherent Vice and Bleeding Edge. A number of these conflicts as well as others – both colonial and post-colonial – show up in V. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only...... – from Dominus Blicero to Gottfried, from Tyrone Slothrop to Clive Mossmoon – it identifies a variety of battle stations and triangulation points in relation to which Pynchon’s fictional conflicts may be mapped: from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic...
Full Text Available There were two issues of silver 50-para, 1- and 2-dinar coins minted in the Parisian minting house marked with the year 1915 and bearing the image of King Petar I Karadjordjevic. Minted during the I World War, these two issues of silver coins only differed in that the first one had the specified name of the engraver (Schwarte, whereas the second issue had the engraver's name left out. These coins were used as the official legal tender until 28 June 1931.
Beam, Joel W
Vermeulen H, van Hattem JM, Storm-Versloot MN, Ubbink DT. Topical silver for treating infected wounds. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007(1);CD005486. What is the clinical evidence base for silver dressings in the management of contaminated and infected acute and chronic wounds? Investigations were identified by Cochrane Wounds Group Specialized Register (2006), CENTRAL (2006), MEDLINE (2002-2006), EMBASE (2002-2006), CINAHL (2002-2006), and digital dissertations (2006) searches. Product manufacturers were contacted to identify additional eligible studies. The search terms included wound infection, surgical wound infection, ulcer, wound healing, and silver. Each study fulfilled the following criteria: (1) The study was a randomized controlled trial of human participants that compared dressings containing silver with any dressings without silver, dressings with other antiseptics, or dressings with different dosages of silver. (2) The participants were aged 18 years and older with contaminated and infected open wounds of any cause. (3) The study had to evaluate the effectiveness of the dressings using an objective measure of healing. No language or publication status restrictions were imposed, and participants could be recruited in any care setting. Studies were excluded if the wounds were ostomies (surgically formed passages). Study quality assessment was conducted independently by 3 authors using the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement and Dutch Cochrane Centre protocols. Characteristics of the study, participants, interventions, and outcome measures were extracted by one author and verified by a second using a standard form. The principal outcome measure was healing (time to complete healing, rate of change in wound area and volume, number and proportion of wounds healed within trial period). Secondary measures were adverse events (eg, pain, maceration, erythema), dressing leakage, and wound odor. Based on the unique comparisons in the studies, a meta
Satinoff, E.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Williams, B. A.
New Zealand white rabbit pups aged 12 to 72 hr were divided into three groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas polysaccharide, a saline vehicle alone, and no treatment, respectively. The animals injected with pyrogen and maintained at an ambient temperature of 32 C for 2 hr did not develop fever. When placed in a thermally graded alleyway, the animals injected with pyrogen selected gradient positions that represented significantly higher temperatures than controls injected with saline. Further stay at selected positions for 5 min caused a considerable increase in the rectal temperature of the pyrogen-injected pups but not that of controls. The results support the hypothesis that newborn rabbits will develop a fever by behavioral means after a single injection of an exogenous pyrogen if the opportunity for thermoregulatory behavior is present. No fever develops if the pups must rely solely on internal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The behavioral system for producing a fever is mature at birth, but an adequate system of internal reflexes does not appear to develop for some days.
Tandler, Suzanne; Stephen-Haynes, Jackie
This article defines fungating wounds and considers the underlying cause, location and presentation. The clinical challenges presented by fungating wounds are discussed, with reference to evidence-based care delivery. This includes wound assessment, cleansing, debridement and management of malodour, infection, bleeding and exudate. Guidance on the use of wound management dressings is considered in relation to symptom management. The importance of clinical decision-making and educational preparation in the delivery of evidenced-based care for those with fungating wounds is emphasised. A conclusion is made that the clinician can support the patient with a fungating wound by the delivery of evidenced-based care.
Munsterman, Amelia S; Hanson, R Reid
Bullet wounds in horses can cause a wide array of injuries, determined by the type of projectile, the energy of the bullet on entry, and the type of tissue the bullet encounters. Treatment includes identification of all structures involved, debridement of the permanent cavity, and establishing adequate drainage. Bullet wounds should be treated as contaminated, and broad-spectrum antibiotics, including those with an anaerobic spectrum, are indicated. Although musculoskeletal injuries resulting from gunshots are most common in horses, they carry a good prognosis for survival and return to function. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonvetera...
Robelen, Erik W.
Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…
van Dijk, R.
Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the
Powers, Janet M.
This article explores literature taught in three different courses and the peace education approaches used for each, including epics in literature courses, Vietnam War literature, and literature of anger and hope. The author recommends the teaching of war literature as an essential part of a peace education curriculum. Devastating events such as…
Loewen, James W.
William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…
acrimonious polemic with the Soviet Union has resulted in a hardening Soviet position toward aid to China. In fact, by late 1964, Soviet deliveries of...the Chinese position on nuclear war. The central issue in the Sino-Soviet polemic regarding nuclear war does not stem from any difference of opinion
A visibilidade da atuação de uma enfermeira do Exército Brasileiro a um ferido na 2ª Guerra Mundial Análisis Fotográfico de la asistencia prestada por una enfermera del Ejército Brasileño a un herido en la 2ª Guerra Mundial The visibility of the care given by a Brazilian Army nurse to a wounded soldier during World War II
Margarida Maria Rocha Bernardes
performance of a Brazilian Army nurse engaged in the Força Expedicionária Brasileira - FEB (Brazilian Expeditionary Force during the Second World War. Primary source: a photograph taken at the time, along with the oral testimony of nineteen agents. This mode of gathering data resulted in the creation of a new method of research, which we named Oral-Photographic Analysis. The photo was picked in the Brazilian Army's iconographic collection, located at the Comando Militar do Leste (Eastern Military Command, in Rio de Janeiro. Secondary sources: literature on the socio-historical context of the period. We used Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, power and cultural capital. The results showed that, in order to face such challenge and care for the wounded, the volunteer nurses had to acquire new habitus through mandatory training given by the military.
van Bergen, Leo; de Mare, Heidi; Meijman, Frans J
For centuries pictures of the dead and wounded have been part and parcel of war communications. Often the intentions were clear, ranging from medical instructions to anti-war protests. The public's response could coincide with or diverge from the publisher's intention. Following the invention of photography in the nineteenth century, and the subsequent claim of realism, the veracity of medical war images became more complex. Analysing and understanding such photographs have become an ethical obligation with democratic implications. We performed a multidisciplinary analysis of War Surgery (2008), a book containing harsh, full-colour photographs of mutilated soldiers from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Our analysis shows that, within the medical context, this book is a major step forward in medical war communication and documentation. In the military context the book can be conceived as an attempt to put matters right given the enormous sacrifice some individuals have suffered. For the public, the relationship between the 'reality' and 'truth' of such photographs is ambiguous, because only looking at the photographs without reading the medical context is limiting. If the observer is not familiar with medical practice, it is difficult for him to fully assess, signify and acknowledge the value and relevance of this book. We therefore assert the importance of the role of professionals and those in the humanities in particular in educating the public and initiating debate.
Adele Nunziante Cesàro
Full Text Available In a psychodynamic framework, the authors reflect upon the transmission of the BRCA1/2 genes’ mutation. This mutation exposes carrier women to the risk of developing, during their lives, a form of breast and/or ovarian cancer. This illness has already affected different women of their family causing wounds inscribed in soma and in psyche. These wounds are significant in woman’s decision making of prevention strategies. It is very hard to care wounds inscribed in one’s own history that became a threat for femininity. The authors use women’s narration as material to be analysed in order to highlight the meanings linked to the mutation between identity, group and generational dimensions.
Triller, Ciril; Huljev, Dubravko; Smrke, Dragica Maja
Chronic and acute infected wounds can pose a major clinical problem because of associated complications and slow healing. In addition to classic preparations for wound treatment, an array of modern dressings for chronic wound care are currently available on the market. These dressings are intended for the wounds due to intralesional physiological, pathophysiological and pathological causes and which failed to heal as expected upon the use of standard procedures. Classic materials such as gauze and bandage are now considered obsolete and of just historical relevance because modern materials employed in wound treatment, such as moisture, warmth and appropriate pH are known to ensure optimal conditions for wound healing. Modern wound dressings absorb wound discharge, reduce bacterial contamination, while protecting wound surrounding from secondary infection and preventing transfer of infection from the surrounding area onto the wound surface. The use of modern wound dressings is only justified when the cause of wound development has been established or chronic wound due to the underlying disease has been diagnosed. Wound dressing is chosen according to wound characteristics and by experience. We believe that the main advantages of modern wound dressings versus classic materials include more efficient wound cleaning, simpler placement of the dressing, reduced pain to touch, decreased sticking to the wound surface, and increased capacity of absorbing wound exudate. Modern wound dressings accelerate the formation of granulation tissue, reduce the length of possible hospital stay and facilitate personnel work. Thus, the overall cost of treatment is reduced, although the price of modern wound dressings is higher than that of classic materials. All types of modern wound dressings, their characteristics and indications for use are described.
Full Text Available There are a wide variety of dressing techniques and materials available for management of both acute wounds and chronic non-healing wounds. The primary objective in both the cases is to achieve a healed closed wound. However, in a chronic wound the dressing may be required for preparing the wound bed for further operative procedures such as skin grafting. An ideal dressing material should not only accelerate wound healing but also reduce loss of protein, electrolytes and fluid from the wound, and help to minimize pain and infection. The present dictum is to promote the concept of moist wound healing. This is in sharp contrast to the earlier practice of exposure method of wound management wherein the wound was allowed to dry. It can be quite a challenge for any physician to choose an appropriate dressing material when faced with a wound. Since wound care is undergoing a constant change and new products are being introduced into the market frequently, one needs to keep abreast of their effect on wound healing. This article emphasizes on the importance of assessment of the wound bed, the amount of drainage, depth of damage, presence of infection and location of wound. These characteristics will help any clinician decide on which product to use and where,in order to get optimal wound healing. However, there are no ′magical dressings′. Dressings are one important aspect that promotes wound healing apart from treating the underlying cause and other supportive measures like nutrition and systemic antibiotics need to be given equal attention.
Full Text Available Wound healing and reduction of its recovery time is one of the most important issues in medicine. Wound is defined as disruption of anatomy and function of normal skin. This injury could be the result of physical elements such as surgical incision, hit or pressure cut of the skin and gunshot wound. Chemical or caustic burn is another category of wound causes that can be induced by acid or base contact irritation. Healing is a process of cellular and extracellular matrix interactions that occur in the damaged tissue. Wound healing consists of several stages including hemostasis, inflammatory phase, proliferative phase and new tissue formation which reconstructs by new collagen formation. Wounds are divided into acute and chronic types based on their healing time. Acute wounds have sudden onset and in normal individuals usually have healing process of less than 4 weeks without any residual side effects. In contrast, chronic wounds have gradual onset. Their inflammatory phase is prolonged and the healing process is stopped due to some background factors like diabetes, ischemia or local pressure. If the healing process lasts more than 4 weeks it will be classified as chronic wound. Despite major advances in the treatment of wounds, still finding effective modalities for healing wounds in the shortest possible time with the fewest side effects is a current challenge. In this review different phases of wound healing and clinical types of wound such as venous leg ulcer, diabetic foot ulcer and pressure ulcer are discussed. Also acute wound models (i.e burn wounds or incisional wound and chronic wound models (such as venous leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcer, pressure ulcers or bedsore in laboratory animals are presented. This summary can be considered as a preliminary step to facilitate designing of more targeted and applied research in this area.
Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.
Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.
Davis, R Scott; Connelly, Linda K
The mission of the en route caregiver is to provide critical care in military helicopters for wounded Warriors. This care minimizes the effects of the wounds and injuries, and improves morbidity and mortality. This article will focus on the history of Army Nursing en route care. From World War II through Vietnam, and continuing through the War on Terrorism in Iraq and Afghanistan, Army nurses served in providing en route care in military airplanes and helicopters for patients being transported to higher echelons of care. From aid stations on the battlefield to forward surgical teams which provide life, limb, and eyesight saving care, to the next higher level of care in combat support hospitals, these missions require specialized nursing skills to safely care for the high acuity patients. Before the en route care concept existed, there was not a program to train nurses in these critical skills. There was also a void of information about patient outcomes associated with the nursing assessment and care provided during helicopter medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) of such unstable patients, and the consequent impact on the patient's condition after transport. The role of critical care nurses has proven to be essential and irreplaceable in providing full-spectrum care to casualties of war, in particular, the postsurgical patients transferred from one surgical facility to another in theatre. However, we have only recently developed the concepts over the required skill set, training, equipment, functionality, evidenced-based care, and sustainability of nursing in the en route care role. Much of the work to quantify and qualify nursing care has been done by individuals and individual units whose lessons-learned have only recently been captured.
Eardley, Will G P; Martin, Kevin R; Taylor, Chris; Kirkman, Emrys; Clasper, Jon C; Watts, Sarah A
Extent of tissue trauma and contamination determine outcome in extremity injury. In contrast to fracture, osteomyelitis, and closed muscle injury studies, there are limited small animal models of extremity muscle trauma and contamination. To address this we developed a model of contaminated muscle injury in rabbits. Twenty-eight anesthetized New Zealand White rabbits underwent open controlled injury of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU). Twenty-two animals had subsequent contamination of the injured muscle with Staphylococcus aureus. All animals were sacrificed at 48 hours and the level of muscle injury and contamination determined by quantitative histological and microbiological analysis. A 1-kg mass dropped 300 mm onto the mobilized FCU resulted in localized necrosis of the muscle belly. Delivery of a mean challenge of 3.71 × 10(6) cfu/100 µL S aureus by droplet spread onto the injured muscle produced a muscle contamination of 8.79 × 10(6) cfu/g at 48 hours. Ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes demonstrated clinically significant activation. All animals had normal body temperature and hematological parameters throughout and blood and urinalysis culture at autopsy were negative for organisms. This model allows reproducible muscle injury and contamination with the organism ubiquitous to extremity wound infection at a level sufficient to allow quantitative assessment of subsequent wound care interventions without incurring systemic involvement.
The Cold War never became the global World War III. It was a war that never broke out. Nevertheless, in some countries like for instance Denmark it is commemorated as exactly that: a war. This is particularly apparent at museums and heritage sites, where the narrative and mnemonic frame works used...... and activated in the representations stem from cultural memories of the Second World War. In the proccesses of establishing this Cold War cultural memory as a war memory, it has become part of a transcultural passion for memories of traumatic pasts, but the Cold War as cultural memory is a counter-factual war...... memory. Because the war never broke out, it is a malleable and usable past with a great potential for contestation – and counter-factuality. In Denmark, the Cold War has, moreover, become part of a fierce competition between rivaling memory communities, preventing a common commemoration culture...
Akkucuk, Seckin; Aydogan, A; Yetim, I; Ugur, M; Oruc, C; Kilic, E; Paltaci, I; Kaplan, A; Temiz, M
The civil war in Syria began on 15 March 2011, and many of the injured were treated in the neighbouring country of Turkey. This study reports the surgical outcomes of this war, in a tertiary centre in Turkey. 159 patients with civilian war injuries in Syria who were admitted to the General Surgery Department in the Research and Training Hospital of the Medical School of Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey, between 2011 and 2012 were analysed regarding the age, sex, injury type, history of previous surgery for the injury, types of abdominal injuries (solid or luminal organ), the status of isolated abdominal injuries or multiple injuries, mortality, length of hospital stay and injury severity scoring. The median age of the patients was 30.05 (18-66 years) years. Most of the injuries were gunshot wounds (99 of 116 patients, 85.3%). Primary and previously operated patients were transferred to our clinic in a median time of 6.28±4.44 h and 58.11±44.08 h, respectively. Most of the patients had intestinal injuries; although a limited number of patients with colorectal injuries were treated with primary repair, stoma was the major surgical option due to the gross peritoneal contamination secondary to prolonged transport time. Two women and 21 men died. The major cause of death was multiorgan failure secondary to sepsis (18 patients). In the case of civil war in the bordering countries, it is recommended that precautions are taken, such as transformation of nearby civilian hospitals into military ones and employment of experienced trauma surgeons in these hospitals to provide effective medical care. Damage control procedures can avoid fatalities especially before the lethal triad of physiological demise occurs. Rapid transport of the wounded to the nearest medical centre is the key point in countries neighbouring a civil war. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Pasquier, P; de Rudnicki, S; Donat, N; Auroy, Y; Merat, S
Since March 2003, military operations in Iraq "Operation Iraqi Freedom" (OIF) and in Afghanistan "Operation Enduring Freedom" (OEF), have made many wounded and killed in action (KIA). This article proposes to highlight the specific epidemiology of combat casualties, met in these both non-conventional and asymmetric conflicts. Personal protective equipments, Kevlar helmet and body armor, proved their efficiency in changing features of war injuries. Health Force Services organized trauma care system in different levels, with three main objectives: immediate basic medical care in battalion aid station, forward surgery and early aeromedical evacuation. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR), a war injury registry, provides medical data, analyzed from the combat theater to the military hospital in United States. This analysis concluded that during modern conflicts, most injuries are caused by explosive devices; injuries are more severe and interestingly more specifically the head region and extremities than the trunk. Hemorrhage is the first cause of death, leading to the concept of avoidable death. Specific databases focused on mechanisms and severity of injuries, diagnostic and treatment difficulties, outcomes can guide research programs to improve war injuries prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ramasamy, Arul; Eardley, W G P; Edwards, D S; Clasper, J C; Stewart, M P M
The First World War (1914-1918) was the first truly industrial conflict in human history. Never before had rifle fire and artillery barrage been employed on a global scale. It was a conflict that over 4 years would leave over 750,000 British troops dead with a further 1.6 million injured, the majority with orthopaedic injuries. Against this backdrop, the skills of the orthopaedic surgeon were brought to the fore. Many of those techniques and systems form the foundation of modern orthopaedic trauma management. On the centenary of 'the War to end all Wars', we review the significant advances in wound management, fracture treatment, nerve injury and rehabilitation that were developed during that conflict. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Sergei A. Nekrylov
Full Text Available The article deals with the participation of the teaching staff and professors of Tomsk Imperial University in the organizing of medical aid to the wounded in the World War I. Moreover, they actively took part in the fulfillment of the defense orders for the battlefront, producing of medical drugs and development of asphyxiant gases countermeasures. The paper reconstructs the history of Tomsk University contribution to the struggle against Germany during the First World War on the basis of the existing scientific literature, documental materials, including the ones introduced into the research use for the first time and the periodical media. The article is devoted to those, who are interested in the history of the World War I and in the history of higher education and science in Russia, as well.
Khalimov, Iu Sh; Tkachuk, N A; Zhekalov, A N
The system of providing therapeutic care within a united system of staged treatment of wounded and sick and evacuation was established during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 and helped to return 90,6% of casualties to duty. In terms of local wars and armed conflicts the most important task of military field therapy is to improve the provision of therapeutic support through regional and territorial principles, echeloning of forces and facilities, optimization of allocation of medical institutions in accordance with their capabilities, evacuation routes, etc. The organization of therapeutic assistance should be guided primarily by the size and structure of sanitary losses. In modern local wars cannot exclude the occurrence of massive sanitary losses with limited use of weapons of mass destruction, as a result of failure (with a conventional weapon or as a result of sabotage) of nuclear power plants, chemical plants, and transport containers containing toxic chemicals.
Nicholson, Leila J; Mahar, Jackie E; Strive, Tanja; Zheng, Tao; Holmes, Edward C; Ward, Vernon K; Duckworth, Janine A
The Czech v351 strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV1) is used in Australia and New Zealand as a biological control agent for rabbits, which are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in these countries. However, nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses (RCVs) can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with effective rabbit biocontrol. Antibodies that cross-reacted against RHDV antigens were found in wild rabbits before the release of RHDV1 in New Zealand in 1997, suggesting that nonpathogenic RCVs were already present in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of nonpathogenic RCV in New Zealand and describe its geographical distribution. RCV and RHDV antibody assays were used to screen serum samples from 350 wild rabbits from 14 locations in New Zealand. The serological survey indicated that both RCV and RHDV are widespread in New Zealand wild rabbits, with antibodies detected in 10 out of 14 and 12 out of 14 populations, respectively. Two closely related RCV strains were identified in the duodenal tissue from a New Zealand wild rabbit (RCV Gore-425A and RCV Gore-425B). Both variants are most closely related to Australian RCV strains, but with 88% nucleotide identity, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the New Zealand RCV strains fall within the genetic diversity of the Australian RCV isolates, indicating a relatively recent movement of RCVs between Australia and New Zealand. IMPORTANCE Wild rabbits are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in Australia and New Zealand. Although RHDV1 is used as a biological control agent, some nonpathogenic RCVs can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with its effectiveness for rabbit control. The presence of nonpathogenic RCVs in New Zealand wild rabbits has been long hypothesized, but earlier attempts to isolate a New Zealand
Hamed A Mohammed
Full Text Available Promising approaches of the Egyptian governmental as well as non-governmental society to rabbit industry to overcome the unemployment of youth in the society required more efforts from scientific institutes to help in development of such industry. Epidemiological studies are of outmost importance to highlight disease nature and to help in meantime implement of successful preventive and control measures. The aim of this paper is to review the situation of rabbit diseases of economic impact in Egypt (1952 to 2013. The review will highlight the viral infection of rabbit hemorrhagic disease, bacterial disease of colibacillosis, clostridiosis, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, staphylococcosis and listeriosis and parasitic infection of coccidiosis and mange.
... Disease Transmission in Pet Shelters Protect Your Pets Emergency Wound Care After a Natural Disaster Language: English ( ... Tweet Share Compartir Print-and-Go Fact Sheet Emergency Wound Care After a Natural Disaster [NOTE: Health ...
Peng, Henry T; Shek, Pang N
Wound sealants provide an excellent alternative for closing surgical and non-surgical wounds, as well as stopping external bleeding for prehospital trauma injuries. Numerous biomaterials have been investigated to address specific requirements for their use as suitable wound sealants. This article focuses on the development of new wound sealant biomaterials and recent advances in the surgical applications of wound sealants. In the past 5 years, many new sealant materials had been reported, including keratin, mussel-adhesive proteins, dendrimers and in situ-forming hydrogels. Fibrin sealants remain the most clinically studied for a variety of surgical procedures, while clinical experience with wound sealants for orthopedic surgery is limited. Both liquid and solid wound sealants have been developed and found effective by possessing strong adhesive properties. Biocompatible and biodegradable wound sealants hold much promise in eventually replacing sutures in most surgical procedures.
Reger, Mark A; Smolenski, Derek J; Skopp, Nancy A; Metzger-Abamukong, Melinda J; Kang, Han K; Bullman, Tim A; Gahm, Gregory A
The association between suicide and combat injuries sustained during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan was examined. A retrospective population-based cohort design was conducted using official military records to identify combat injuries (October 7, 2001, to December 31, 2007). Those who were injured during combat had higher crude suicide rates than those who deployed and were not injured (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.50; confidence interval [CI] = 1.06, 2.12), or never deployed (IRR = 1.46; CI = 1.04, 2.06). After adjusting for demographics, these findings were no longer statistically significant. Although our data did not support an elevated suicide risk among wounded service members, additional research is needed to examine the impact of injury severity. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Cui, Xin; Bai, Ji; He, Xiangge; Zhang, Yi
Use immunohistochemical staining and Western Blot analysis to observe and compare the accurate dynamic changes of type I, III, V, VI collagen in the wound healing processes of the rabbit cornea which underwent LASEK or PRK to investigate the possible mechanism of corneal haze and myopic regression. New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 8 groups: normal control group (n=6), 1 day, 7 days, 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 month groups (n=14). Every rabbit underwent LASEK in one eye while the other one with PRK. We use immunohistochemical staining and Western Blot analysis to compare the wound healing process of dynamic change of the type I, III, V and VI collagen in rabbit cornea of every time point. The results were analysised with data analysis software. Immunohistochemical staining and Western Blot analysis showed that after LASEK, the cornea wound healing with type I and III collagen were much faster than PRK, and the wound response was also much weaker. Whereas for type V and VI collagen, their dynamic changes were resemble between LASEK and PRK, they both reached the peak value after 3 months since the surgery, but LASEK group returned to normal earlier than PRK. The value of these two types of collagen after PRK were higher than LASEK. The changes of these four types of collagen may offer us at least partial explaination to the difference between formation between corneal haze and refractive regression. There were significant differences between LASEK and PRK on type I, III, V and VI collagens or the time of reacting, reaching apex and returning to normal . LASEK had slighter intensity of reaction. The results indicate that there is excessive aggradation of collagens after PRK, it may be the histological foundation of obvious haze and myopia regression.
When Austria joined the Geneva Convention the "Patriotischer Hilfsverein" (Patriotic Aid Society) which was founded for the concerns of wounded soldiers, was named "Austrian Society of the Red Cross". It had to stand its first big test in 1912 in the first Balkan war; military surgeons and bacteriologists were deployed to all warring states. The cholera dominated under the infectious diseases among the various forces and the civilian populations. Upon request of the Bulgarian king renowned bacteriologists of the University of Vienna were dispatched. Their work presented the first action of bacteriology for disease control on theatres of war. The great success of the surgical and hygienic measures initiated in 1912 a reform of the Austrian Red Cross. In 1913 Austria made a detailed application to the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to extend the Geneva Convention to war epidemics. The Committee forwarded and recommended this application to all member states, however, the outbreak of the First World War then prevented its resolution.
Zarchi, Kian; Martinussen, Torben; Jemec, Gregor B E
Skin wounds are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Data are, however, not readily available for benchmarking, to allow prognostic evaluation, and to suggest when involvement of wound-healing experts is indicated. We, therefore, conducted an observational cohort study to investigate wound healing and all-cause mortality associated with different types of skin wounds. Consecutive skin wound patients who received wound care by home-care nurses from January 2010 to December 2011 in a district in Eastern Denmark were included in this study. Patients were followed until wound healing, death, or the end of follow-up on December 2012. In total, 958 consecutive patients received wound care by home-care nurses, corresponding to a 1-year prevalence of 1.2% of the total population in the district. During the study, wound healing was achieved in 511 (53.3%), whereas 90 (9.4%) died. During the first 3 weeks of therapy, healing was most likely to occur in surgical wounds (surgical vs. other wounds: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 2.21, 95% confidence interval 1.50-3.23), while from 3 weeks to 3 months of therapy, cancer wounds, and pressure ulcers were least likely to heal (cancer vs. other wounds: AHR 0.12, 0.03-0.50; pressure vs. other wounds: AHR 0.44, 0.27-0.74). Cancer wounds and pressure ulcers were further associated with a three times increased probability of mortality compared with other wounds (cancer vs. other wounds: AHR 3.19, 1.35-7.50; pressure vs. other wounds: AHR 2.91, 1.56-5.42). In summary, the wound type was found to be a significant predictor of healing and mortality with cancer wounds and pressure ulcers being associated with poor prognosis. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.
Osada, H; Minai, M; Yoshida, T; Satoh, K
Following surgery on fallopian tubes, the development of adhesions is a natural consequence of wound healing and may result in infertility. Using a rabbit model, we evaluated the anti-adhesive properties of a sponge-like equine collagen sheet (TachoComb), which is coated on one side with human fibrinogen and bovine thrombin. TachoComb is applied by affixing the sheet over the area of perforation or bleeding and acts as a haemostatic agent, capable of sealing perforations to prevent leakage. In our rabbit model, adhesions were induced by mechanical and chemical irritants during laparotomy. After a 1-month recovery period, adhesions were lysed using microsurgical techniques and TachoComb, or physiological saline applied. Evaluation of adhesion reformation was determined after a minimum of 10 days. TachoComb significantly reduced the area of adhesion reformation compared with rabbits treated using physiological saline only. Our study demonstrated that TachoComb is effective not only as a haemostatic agent, but is also capable of reducing adhesion reformation.
Kavuzlu, Ali; Tatar, Emel Çadallı; Karagöz, Tuğba; Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Tatar, İlkan; Bayır, Ömer; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan
Defects in mucosal healing after sinonasal surgery cause infection, scar formation causing obstruction, relapse of the disease within a shorter period and revision surgery. The present study aimed to create a functional ciliated epithelium using a stem cell and stem cell sheet of adipose tissue origin and to show such regeneration ultra-structurally on experimentally injured rabbit nasal epithelium. This was an experimental animal study and basic research. A total of 18 white New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups. The medial wall of the maxillary sinus of the subjects was peeled off bilaterally. No additional procedure was applied to the subjects in Group 1. In Group 2, adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell was implanted on the wound edges of the subjects. In Group 3, a stem cell sheet of three layers was laid onto the defect area. All subjects were killed after 3 weeks. The presence of the stem cell stained with bromo-deoxyuridine was assessed with a light microscope, whereas cilia density, ciliated orientation and cilia structure were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. Ciliary densities in Group 2 and Group 3 were statistically superior compared to the control group (p stem cell increased the healing of the injured maxillary sinus mucosa of the rabbits in terms of cilia presence, density and morphology regardless of the implementation technique. Level of evidence NA.
Full Text Available RAM11 is a mouse monoclonal anti-rabbit macrophage antibody recognizing connective tissue and vascular macrophages. Our previous report showed that RAM11 reacted with basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia of rabbit skin, oral mucosa and esophagus. The aim of the present study was to follow the appearance of RAM11 immunoreactivity in basal cells of regenerating oral epithelium in rabbits. No RAM11 immunostaining was observed in the regenerating epithelium examined on days 1 and 3 of wound healing. A weak immunofluorescence first appeared on day 7 in single basal cells and 32% of RAM11- positive basal cells were observed on day 14. These findings indicate that expression of the antigen recognized by RAM11 antibody is a transient event in the differentiation of oral keratinocytes which not always occurs during epithelial repair, although it is a constant feature of epithelial turnover in mature epithelium. Therefore this antigen can be regarded as basal cell marker only in mature stratified squamous epithelia.
Wang, T H; Hung, P T; Ho, T C
We performed sclerostomy using THC:YAG laser (thulium, holmium, chromium doped YAG crystal) and subconjunctival injection of mitomycin soon after the filtering process in rabbits to observe the lowering effect of intraocular pressure(IOP) and filtering bleb formation. A 1-mm conjunctiva wound was made 12 mm away from the sclerostomy site to allow the entry of the optic probe for delivering energy. Forty-eight rabbits were divided into 3 groups. After sclerostomy, Group I received 0.2 ml normal saline subconjunctival injection and Group II and III received 0.2 ml mitomycin injection of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml respectively. One eye of each rabbit was randomly selected for the experiment while the fellow eye served as control. The bleb lasted 1.4 +/- 0.5 days (or 1 to 2 days) in Group I, 8.5 +/- 4.5 days (or 4 to 17 days) in Group II and 15.4 +/- 10.9 days (or 4 to 37 days) in Group III. The IOP lowering effect was significantly enhanced in Group III. The postoperative complication was minimal corneal punctate erosion in the mitomycin group, but all of them, however, resolved within one week. The results demonstrated that mitomycin is effective in prolonging the filtering effect produced by the THC:YAG laser.
Maurya, Sanjay; Bhandari, Prem Singh
Significance: Wounds sustained in a combat trauma often result in a composite tissue loss. Combat injuries, due to high energy transfer to tissues, lead to trauma at multiple anatomical sites. An early wound cover is associated with lower rate of infections and a faster wound healing. The concept of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in the management of combat-related wounds has evolved from the civilian trauma and the wounds from nontraumatic etiologies. Recent Advances: Encouraged by the results of NPWT in noncombat-related wounds, the military surgeons during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom used this novel method in a large percentage of combat wounds, with gratifying results. The mechanism of NPWT in wound healing is multifactorial and often complex reconstructive procedure can be avoided in a combat trauma setting. Critical Issues: Wounds sustained in military trauma are heavily contaminated with dirt, patient clothing, and frequently associated with extensive soft tissue loss and osseous destruction. Delay in evacuation during an ongoing conflict carries the risk of systemic infection. Early debridement is indicated followed by delayed closure of wounds. NPWT helps to provide temporary wound cover during the interim period of debridement and wound closure. Future Directions: Future area of research in combat wounds is related to abdominal trauma with loss of abdominal wall. The concept of negative pressure incisional management system in patients with a high risk of wound breakdown following surgery is under review, and may be of relevance in combat wounds. PMID:27679749
Ubbink, Dirk T; Lindeboom, Robert; Eskes, Anne M; Brull, Huub; Legemate, Dink A; Vermeulen, Hester
It is important for caregivers and patients to know which wounds are at risk of prolonged wound healing to enable timely communication and treatment. Available prognostic models predict wound healing in chronic ulcers, but not in acute wounds, that is, originating after trauma or surgery. We
Ubbink, Dirk T.; Lindeboom, Robert; Eskes, Anne M.; Brull, Huub; Legemate, Dink A.; Vermeulen, Hester
It is important for caregivers and patients to know which wounds are at risk of prolonged wound healing to enable timely communication and treatment. Available prognostic models predict wound healing in chronic ulcers, but not in acute wounds, that is, originating after trauma or surgery. We
Alexander Muriel Restrepo
Full Text Available On the basis of the difference between M. Foucault and Th. Hobbes regarding war as a principle and foundation of power, the article shows the importance of this conceptual difference for contemporary political analyses. Foucault argues that in modern Western societies, the political community and, more specifically, politics itself, has been the space of a war waged by other means. By extension, this thesis entails the inversion of von Clausewitz’s principle, namely, that war is the continuation of politics by other means.
Pensalfini, Marco; Haertel, Eric; Hopf, Raoul; Wietecha, Mateusz; Werner, Sabine; Mazza, Edoardo
A multiscale mechanics approach to the characterization of murine excisional wounds subjected to uniaxial tensile loading is presented. Local strain analysis at a physiological level of tension uncovers the presence of two distinct regions within the wound: i) a very compliant peripheral cushion and ii) a core area undergoing modest deformation. Microstructural visualizations of stretched wound specimens show negligible engagement of the collagen located in the center of a 7-day old wound; fibers remain coiled despite the applied tension, confirming the existence of a mechanically isolated wound core. The compliant cushion located at the wound periphery appears to protect the newly-formed tissue from excessive deformation during the phase of new tissue formation. The early remodeling phase (day 14) is characterized by a restored mechanical connection between far field and wound center. The latter remains less deformable, a characteristic possibly required for cell activities during tissue remodeling. The distribution of fibrillary collagens at these two time points corresponds well to the identified heterogeneity of mechanical properties of the wound region. This novel approach provides new insight into the mechanical properties of wounded skin and will be applicable to the analysis of compound-treated wounds or wounds in genetically modified tissue. Biophysical characterization of healing wounds is crucial to assess the recovery of the skin barrier function and the associated mechanobiological processes. For the first time, we performed highly resolved local deformation analysis to identify mechanical characteristics of the wound and its periphery. Our results reveal the presence of a compliant cushion surrounding a stiffer wound core; we refer to this heterogeneous mechanical behavior as "mechanical fingerprint" of the wound. The mechanical response is shown to progress towards that of the intact skin as healing takes place. Histology and multiphoton microscopy
Wang, T H; Hung, P T; Ho, T C
Subconjunctival fibrosis is one of the major causes of most bleb failures. To inhibit the wound-healing process and to achieve a better intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect as well as bleb formation, we performed a sclerostomy using a THC:YAG laser (thulium, holmium, and chromium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet crystal) and a subconjunctival injection of mitomy-cin-C given 24 h or 5 days before a filtering operation or soon after the filtering process in rabbits. A 1-mm conjunctiva wound was made 12 mm away from the sclerostomy site to allow for entry of an optic probe for delivering energy. Forty-eight rabbits were divided into four groups. Group I received a subconjunctival injection of 0.2 ml of 0.2 mg/ml of mitomycin-C 24 h before the operation. The same dosage of mitomycin-C was given to Group II 5 days before the operation and to Group III immediately following the operation. Group IV served as a control, and only 0.2 ml of normal saline solution was given 24 h preoperatively. One eye of each rabbit was randomly selected for the experiment, while the other eye served as a control. The bleb lasted 30.9 $pM 15.7 days in Group I, 16.0 $pM 6.4 days in Group II, 15.5 $pM 6.5 days in Group III, and 2.3 $pM 0.7 days in Group IV. The IOP lowering effect was parallel to bleb formation. The results demonstrate that a subconjunctival mitomycin-C injection given 24 h before a filtering operation is more effective in prolonging the filtering effect produced by the THC:YAG laser than one given postoperatively.
Cho, Soon Young; Kim, Man Soo; Oh, Su Ja; Chung, Sung Kun
To evaluate changes in mean keratometry and to compare wound repair with corneal lamellar grafts in rabbit eyes using human synthetic tissue adhesives and 10-0 nylon. Corneal grafts were made using a 6.0-mm-diameter trephine and blades in the eyes of 15 New Zealand white rabbits. Human fibrin tissue adhesive (Tisseel) was used in group 1, human fibrin tissue adhesive (Beriplast P) was used in group 2, polyethylene glycol adhesive (Coseal) was used in group 3, and 8 bite sutures with 10-0 nylon were used in group 4 (control) for lamellar keratoplasty. Four bite sutures were made with 10-0 nylon in groups 1, 2, and 3. Slit-lamp microscopy and keratometry were performed at 3 days and 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the surgery. Histopathologic and electromicroscopic examinations were performed 4 weeks after the surgery. No inflammation or corneal toxicity was seen in groups 1 and 2. Histologically, a few inflammatory cells were seen in groups 3 and 4. Groups 1, 2, and 3 showed no statistically significant changes in mean keratometry at 4 weeks postoperatively compared with preoperative mean keratometry (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P = 0.178, 0.208, and 0.889, respectively). The control group showed significant changes in mean keratometry at 4 weeks postoperatively (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P = 0.018). Human fibrin tissue adhesives were well tolerated in rabbit eyes, with no apparent corneal toxicity. Polyethylene glycol adhesive showed more inflammation and insufficient wound repair compared with human fibrin tissue adhesives. Therefore, human fibrin tissue adhesives can be used as an alternative to sutures in lamellar keratoplasty.
A study was conducted at two veterinary surgeries to investigate the common aerobic bacteria associated with dog bite wounds in dogs, and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibilities. From each wound, two swabs were collected for bacterial culture and cytology. A total of 50 wounds from 50 dogs were examined, with ...
Ruszymah, Bt Hj Idrus; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy; Manan, Nur Azeanty Bt Abdul; Fong, Ooi Sew; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Saim, Aminuddin Bin
Centella asiatica is a traditional herbal medicine that has been shown to have pharmacological effect on skin wound healing, and could be potential therapeutic agent for corneal epithelial wound healing. This study was done to evaluate the effects of Centella asiatica on the proliferation and migration of rabbit corneal epithelial (RCE) cells in the in vitro wound healing model. RCE cells were cultured with or without supplementation of Centella asiatica aqueous extract. Viability and proliferation of the RCE cells was determined by MTT assay and cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. In vitro re-epithelization was studied by scratch assay and migration rate was evaluated quantitatively by image analyzer. Expression of corneal specific differentiation markers, CK12 and connexin 43, were studied via RT-PCR. It was found that supplementation of Centella asiatica did not show any significant effect on the RCE cells proliferation at the concentration up to 500ppm, while at the concentration of 1000ppm significantly inhibited RCE cells proliferation (pCentella asiatica aqueous extract did not alter the expression of differentiation markers and cell cycle. In conclusion, supplementation of Centella asiatica aqueous extract at low concentrations could be useful to promote corneal epithelium wound healing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ardisa U. Pradita
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Green tea leaf (Camellia sinensis is one of herbal plants that is used for traditional medicine. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG in green tea is the most potential polyphenol component and has the strongest biological activity. It is known that EGCG has potential effect on wound healing. Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of adding green tea EGCG into periodontal dressing on the number of fibroblasts after gingival artificial wound in animal model. Methods: Gingival artifical wound model was performed using 2mm punch biopsy on 24 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The animals were divided into two groups. Periodontal dressing with EGCG and without EGCG was applied to the experimental and control group, respectively. Decapitation period was scheduled at day 3, 5, and 7 after treatment. Histological analysis to count the number of fibroblasts was performed. Results: Number of fibroblasts was significantly increased in time over the experimental group treated with EGCG periodontal dressing compared to control (p<0.05. Conclusion: EGCG periodontal dressing could increase the number of fibroblast, therefore having role in wound healing after periodontal surgery in animal model.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i3.197
Hu, Zhang; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Chunxia; Li, Sidong; Hong, Pengzhi
Burns can cause tremendous economic problems associated with irreparable harm to patients and their families. To characterize marine collagen peptides (MCPs) from the skin of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ), molecular weight distribution and amino acid composition of MCPs were determined, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze the chemical structure. Meanwhile, to evaluate the wound healing activity, in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out. The results showed that MCPs prepared from the skin of Nile tilapia by composite enzymatic hydrolysis were composed of polypeptides with different molecular weights and the contents of polypeptides with molecular weights of less than 5 kDa accounted for 99.14%. From the amino acid composition, the majority of residues, accounting for over 58% of the total residues in MCPs, were hydrophilic. FTIR indicated that the main molecular conformations inside MCPs were random coil. In vitro scratch assay showed that there were significant effects on the scratch closure by the treatment of MCPs with the concentration of 50.0 μg/mL. In the experiments of deep partial-thickness scald wound in rabbits, MCPs could enhance the process of wound healing. Therefore, MCPs from the skin of Nile tilapia ( O. niloticus ) have promising applications in wound care.
Complex wounds pose a considerable burden to patients and the health-care system. The development of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has revolutionised the treatment of these wounds. NPWT helps create a favourable wound healing environment by removing infectious material, decreasing oedema and promoting perfusion and granulation tissue formation. Additionally, NPWT has been reported to help reduce time to wound closure and length of hospital stay. Modifications of this foundation of wound care have added intermittent instillation with a dwell time to NPWT (NPWTi-d). This new system offers more comprehensive wound care through automated wound irrigation, allowing more control over the wound environment and the opportunity to deliver topical wound solutions directly to the affected tissues. A comparison between the two therapies, NPWT and NPWTi-d, is described, and two real-world applications of NPWTi-d are presented.
arteriography if angioplasty , stenting , or bypass are considered. Contrast angiography, although still considered the gold standard  of pre-inter...disease Medications (corticosteroids, immunosuppressants etc.) Cigarette smoking Stress ( mechanical /emotional) Inadequate/inappropriate wound care...the process of recanalization valves are damaged, yielding essentially open tubes . Five years after a significant DVT, 40% to 70% of pa- tients
BACKGROUND: Skin stretching harnesses the same viscoelastic properties of the skin as expansion, with the difference that the forces are applied externally and not internally. An improvised system for wound closure is presented. METHOD: The system is assembled using silicone vascular loops used as
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Collagen: Benefits in wound Healing. As substrate for haemostasis. As chemotactic to cellular elements. As scaffold for transition to mature collagen production & alignment. Resistant to degradation. As template for cellular attachment, migration and proliferation.
Maquart, F X; Monboisse, J C
Extracellular matrix has been known for a long time as an architectural support for the tissues. Many recent data, however, have shown that extracellular matrix macromolecules (collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and connective tissue glycoproteins) are able to regulate many important cell functions, such as proliferation, migration, protein synthesis or degradation, apoptosis, etc., making them able to play an important role in the wound repair process. Not only the intact macromolecules but some of their specific domains, that we called "Matrikines", are also able to regulate many cell activities. In this article, we will summarize main findings showing the effects of extracellular matrix macromolecules and matrikines on connective tissue and epithelial cells, particularly in skin, and their potential implication in the wound healing process. These examples show that extracellular matrix macromolecules or some of their specific domains may play a major role in wound healing. Better knowledge of these interactions may suggest new therapeutic targets in wound healing defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Starr, Jerold M., Ed.
This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…
Dodd, Arleen; And Others
War play is play with a toy that initiates violence or play that involves the imitation of war. War play can involve: (1) the use of toys based on television cartoon shows to imitate the action in the cartoons; (2) play with replicas of war paraphernalia or manipulatives shaped into guns; and (3) dramatic play. The negative effects on children…
later. Although the Spanish Civil War is little covered in American classrooms , its carnage rivals that of the U.S. Civil War: 500,000 deaths, of...October 2003), Spanish Civil War. 3 Felipe Ribeiro de Meneses, Franco and the Spanish Civil War (New York: Routledge, 2001). 4 University of
based on estimates arrived at in Chamberlain, Australians in the South African war, pp 79, 88-9. The standard works on the ... American war, was a consequence of this. As war in South Africa loomed in mid-1899 the ... 1899 the uitlander cause enjoyed a quiet sympathy in many families. As the war broke out, hundreds of ...
Australia's South African war 1899-19021. DR CRAIG WILCOX. Australian WarMemorial historian o/the Anglo-Boer War, Sydney, Australia. Around twenty thousand Australians fought in the great war between the. British empire and the republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. Those. Australians constituted ...
Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.
The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…
Schott, Robin May
In this essay, Robin May Schott criticizes leading proponents of just war theory and introduces the notion of justifiable but illegitimate violence. Instead of legitimating some wars as just, it is better to acknowledge that both the situation of war and moral judgments about war are ambiguous...
April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre...... and tactical function as a military stronghold that played a central role in the political strategies of the ruling European elite. Even as a threat of force, a castle had the potential to structure a conflict or to structure the rule of a region. This role of castles in medieval warfare has long been...... considered to be a topic primarily for a narrow circle of specialists in military history and archaeologists interested in loop-holes and mining technique. However, the picture has been changing, and both historians and archaeologists have started to recognize the critical relevance of strongholds, castles...
Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.
Full Text Available Political elites in Bamako articulate different understandings of the war in northern Mali, though share the same view on the restoration of Malian sovereignty. Those visions are deeply rooted in an assessment of the past failed peace agreements with Tuareg groups, a focus on social and ethnic differentiations that emphasize the role of Kidal and the will to avoid major reforms in dealing with key issues such as the efficiency of the political system, the role of Islam in the Malian polity and the complicated relations between Bamako and its neighbours. The status of AQIM in the current crisis, contrary to the international narrative, is downplayed while other armed groups, in particular the MNLA, are seen as the real, and, often, only threat.
, both political and military, war between the two forms, the post-napoleonic, Fichtean notion of nationality (1807-8) and the historical notion of imperium. “Nationality” entered the political semantics witch such a force and shook the existing political order of empires to the ground because of its...... households and fragments of earlier political empires, such as the Danish Realm (rigsfællesskab) with Greenland, The Faroe Islands and the Danish State, poses the important question: how did the replacement and re-formation of the European political system happen? I argue, that we can observe a semantic...... and apply appropriate forms of response. To unravel the two complex cases of political ‘management’ of the rise of german nationality, I have to open up the semantic complex of “crown”, “state”, “kingdom”, prince and government, as they are used in governmental, internal communications, dispatches...
Daugbjerg, Mads; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund
This introduction sets the frame for the section’s four articles, all themed on contemporary developments in Denmark in the wake of the country’s involvement in the ‘coalition’ wars of recent decades. During this period, Danish governments have adopted a so-called ‘activist’ foreign policy, a key...... pacifism and a strong foreign policy tradition of non-involvement. We outline this Danish road from ‘adaptation’ to ‘activism’, arguing for a need for a critical, qualitatively based research focus on the social and cultural repercussions of this peculiar ‘military moment’ in Denmark. The four articles...... that make up the themed section are written on the basis of ethnographic case studies that seek to contribute to such a wider discussion....
de Almeida, André Martinho
The rabbit is an important species as both a production animal and as a model organism in physiology, pharmaceutical, and numerous other studies. Similar to other species, the rabbit skeletal muscle proteome has been characterized, first using 2DE mapping and more recently using high-throughput shotgun proteomics. This article is a commentary on "Shotgun proteomics analysis of the sarcoplasmic reticulum preparations from rabbit skeletal muscle" (Z. Liu et al., Proteomics, 2013, 13, 2335-2338). Herein, we present the reasons why the manuscript is of high relevance to three major fields: farm animal, rabbit, and muscle/meat proteomics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
M. S. ULLAH, M. AHMAD, N. AHMAD, M. Z. KHAN1 AND I. AHMAD
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the fetotoxic effects of cypermethrin (CY in female rabbits with low and high doses. For this purpose, 32 adult female rabbits were divided in to four equal groups A, B, C and D. Rabbits of groups A, B and C were treated with different levels of CY at the dose rate of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally, while the group D served as a control and was given equal volume of normal saline intraperitoneally. The clinical signs exhibited by the rabbits treated with CY included salivation, licking of different body parts, muscular tremors, ataxia and convulsions. There was a significant difference in the numbers of CL and number of fetuses which mean the early embryonic death and post implantation loses at the high dose. There were microscopic changes in the ovaries and uteri of animals treated with CY.
Suh, Hyunsuk; Lee, A-Young; Park, Eun Jung; Hong, Joon Pio
Background Closed incisional wound surgery frequently leaves dead space under the repaired skin, which results in delayed healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on incisional wounds with dead space after primary closure by evaluating the fluid volume through the suction drain, blood flow of the skin, tensile strength, and histology of the wounds. Methods Bilateral 25-cm-long incisional wounds with dead space were created on the ...
Obesity is the most commonly identified risk factor for development of wound infection after median sternotomy. In these patients in the postoperative period, due to overweight, an enormous mechanical stress is exercised on the wound. This leads to an interruption of the continuity of the skin wound and facilitates penetration of the skin flora into the deep wound layers. This increases the risk of patients developing a wound infection (Gardlund A mechanism). A new method for the preventi...
Adkins, Carrie L
Statistics from various resources report that many patients in home healthcare settings have wounds. These vary from surgical, pressure, neuropathic, trauma, stasis, and venous wounds. These require the assessment, knowledge, and expertise of a clinician to assist them with wound care management. The purpose of this article is to identify and categorize types of wound care products appropriate for the various types of wounds that clinicians care for and manage in the home.
Full Text Available Wound healing represents a complex biological repair process. Established 2D monolayers and wounding techniques investigate cell migration, but do not represent coordinated multi-cellular systems. We aim to use wound surface area measurements obtained from image acquisition and planimetry systems to establish our wounding technique and in vitro organotypic tissue. These systems will be used in our future wound healing treatment studies to assess the rate of wound closure in response to wound healing treatment with light therapy (photobiomodulation. The image acquisition and planimetry systems were developed, calibrated, and verified to measure wound surface area in vitro. The system consists of a recording system (Sony DSC HX60, 20.4 M Pixel, 1/2.3″ CMOS sensor and calibrated with 1mm scale paper. Macro photography with an optical zoom magnification of 2:1 achieves sufficient resolution to evaluate the 3mm wound size and healing growth. The camera system was leveled with an aluminum construction to ensure constant distance and orientation of the images. The JPG-format images were processed with a planimetry system in MATLAB. Edge detection enables definition of the wounded area. Wound area can be calculated with surface integrals. To separate the wounded area from the background, the image was filtered in several steps. Agar models, injured through several test persons with different levels of experience, were used as pilot data to test the planimetry software. These image acquisition and planimetry systems support the development of our wound healing research. The reproducibility of our wounding technique can be assessed by the variability in initial wound surface area. Also, wound healing treatment effects can be assessed by the change in rate of wound closure. These techniques represent the foundations of our wound model, wounding technique, and analysis systems in our ongoing studies in wound healing and therapy.
War is hazardous for your health: photographs and testimonies about death, wounds, disease and medical care during the Mexican Revolution Guerra é prejudicial à sua saúde: fotografias e testemunhos sobre morte, ferimentos, doenças e cuidados médicos durante a Revolução Mexicana
Full Text Available Revolutionary wars have devastating and far-reaching effects on the health of the populations caught up in them. However, the deaths and injuries produced by weaponry are only part of the story, because diseases resulting from malnutrition and contaminated drinking water account for the majority of medical problems. This essay uses photographs and testimonies of participants to explore health issues during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920, as well as incorporating secondary literature on this question. Furthermore, photographic images are not presented as simple (indexical windows onto the world. Rather, the author attempts to identify the imagemakers and provide explanations that help in imagining the reasons behind the making of the photographs.Revoluções armadas têm efeitos devastadores e de longo alcance sobre a saúde das populações envolvidas. No entanto, mortes e ferimentos produzidos por armas são apenas parte da história, pois doenças resultantes de má nutrição e contaminação da água potável são responsáveis pela maior parte dos problemas médicos. O artigo utiliza fotografias e testemunhos de participantes para investigar questões de saúde durante a Revolução Mexicana (1910-1920, incorporando também literatura secundária sobre a questão. As imagens fotográficas não são apresentadas simplesmente como janelas (indexadores para o mundo. Tenta-se identificar os autores das imagens e construir explanações que ajudem a imaginar as razões por que cada fotografia foi tirada.
Full Text Available Burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity including prolonged hospitalization, disfigurement, and disability. Currently there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved burn therapeutics. A clinical distinction of burn injuries from other acute wounds is the event of the so-called secondary burn wound progression within the first week of the injury, in which a burn expands horizontally and vertically from its initial boundary to a larger area. Therefore, an effective therapeutics for burns should show dual abilities to prevent the burn wound progression and thereafter promote burn wound healing. Herein we report that topically applied F-5 fragment of heat shock protein-90α is a dual functional agent to promote burn wound healing in pigs. First, F-5 prevents burn wound progression by protecting the surrounding cells from undergoing heat-induced caspase 3 activation and apoptosis with increased Akt activation. Accordingly, F-5–treated burn and excision wounds show a marked decline in inflammation. Thereafter, F-5 accelerates burn wound healing by stimulating the keratinocyte migration-led reepithelialization, leading to wound closure. This study addresses a topical agent that is capable of preventing burn wound progression and accelerating burn wound healing.
Bhatia, Ayesha; O'Brien, Kathryn; Chen, Mei; Wong, Alex; Garner, Warren; Woodley, David T; Li, Wei
Burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity including prolonged hospitalization, disfigurement, and disability. Currently there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved burn therapeutics. A clinical distinction of burn injuries from other acute wounds is the event of the so-called secondary burn wound progression within the first week of the injury, in which a burn expands horizontally and vertically from its initial boundary to a larger area. Therefore, an effective therapeutics for burns should show dual abilities to prevent the burn wound progression and thereafter promote burn wound healing. Herein we report that topically applied F-5 fragment of heat shock protein-90α is a dual functional agent to promote burn wound healing in pigs. First, F-5 prevents burn wound progression by protecting the surrounding cells from undergoing heat-induced caspase 3 activation and apoptosis with increased Akt activation. Accordingly, F-5-treated burn and excision wounds show a marked decline in inflammation. Thereafter, F-5 accelerates burn wound healing by stimulating the keratinocyte migration-led reepithelialization, leading to wound closure. This study addresses a topical agent that is capable of preventing burn wound progression and accelerating burn wound healing.
Bhatia, Ayesha; O’Brien, Kathryn; Chen, Mei; Wong, Alex; Garner, Warren; Woodley, David T.; Li, Wei
Burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity including prolonged hospitalization, disfigurement, and disability. Currently there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved burn therapeutics. A clinical distinction of burn injuries from other acute wounds is the event of the so-called secondary burn wound progression within the first week of the injury, in which a burn expands horizontally and vertically from its initial boundary to a larger area. Therefore, an effective therapeutics for burns should show dual abilities to prevent the burn wound progression and thereafter promote burn wound healing. Herein we report that topically applied F-5 fragment of heat shock protein-90α is a dual functional agent to promote burn wound healing in pigs. First, F-5 prevents burn wound progression by protecting the surrounding cells from undergoing heat-induced caspase 3 activation and apoptosis with increased Akt activation. Accordingly, F-5–treated burn and excision wounds show a marked decline in inflammation. Thereafter, F-5 accelerates burn wound healing by stimulating the keratinocyte migration-led reepithelialization, leading to wound closure. This study addresses a topical agent that is capable of preventing burn wound progression and accelerating burn wound healing. PMID:27382602
was soldier and prisoner of war from age 15-17, would not write a “Der Krieg der Gesellschaft”. Yet the attempt to narrow this lacuna is indeed a heavy burden and a difficult task, in which, firstly, it is methodologically decisive to get the basic distinctions right about a second order observation of war....... Conflict is basically a problem of essentially contested communication. Once this historical self-reference was established around the 17th century, war, thirdly, became delimited by its structural couplings to religion, mass media (propaganda), finance, welfare for victims and veterans, law, politics...
Echevarria, II, Antulio J
... as such. With that in mind, this monograph offers a brief examination of four common types of wars of ideas, and uses that as a basis for analyzing how the United States and its allies and strategic partners...