Sample records for war union soldiers

  1. The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War (United States)


    14 Revolution, is an excellent account of social, economic, and political factors in colonial America that influenced the concept of the citizen ...THE MYTH OF THE CITIZEN -SOLDIER: RHODE ISLAND PROVINCIAL SOLDIERS IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR A thesis presented to the...From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War

  2. Theory to Strategy: War Insight for the Strategic Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fregoso, Luis A


    .... These Strategic Soldiers and their respective leaders must not only be aware of their potential influence in a war environment, they must learn how to harness this ability in support of their nation's war strategy...

  3. Soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard


    War, armies and soldiers were omnipresent in the ancient Greek society, and thus these phenomena are equally present in the worlds of ancient Greek comedy. However, the comic outlook on war differs from Old to New Comedy. While the citizen soldier remains the norm, but mainly at periphery of Old...... comedy, the independent mercenary becomes a central character of New Comedy. Thus the comic view on soldiers reflects the martial attitudes and ideologies of contemporary society....

  4. Could rebel child soldiers prolong civil wars?


    Haer, Roos; Böhmelt, Tobias


    While we know why rebels may recruit children for their cause, our understanding of the consequences of child soldiering by non-state armed groups remains limited. The following research contributes to addressing this by examining how rebels’ child recruitment practice affects the duration of internal armed conflicts. We advance the argument that child soldiering increases the strength of rebel organizations vis-a-vis the government. This, in turn, lowers the capability asymmetry between thes...

  5. Czech Soldiers during the Great War (1914-1918)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Ladislav


    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2016), s. 71-83 ISSN 0354-6497 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : first world war * Austria-Hungary * Czech soldiers * eastern (Russian) front * southwest (Italian) front * Czechoslovak legionnaries * Czechoslovakia Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  6. Norwich University: Citizen Soldiers in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coakley, Shawn


    .... This paper examines the contributions of Norwich University and its graduates to the Union Army during the Civil War to determine the extent to which Partridge's system of education may have contributed to their success.

  7. The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa's Contemporary Wars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woguwale, Jasom


    .... The purpose of this paper titled, "The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa's Contemporary Wars," is to examine the practice of using children as soldiers by various...

  8. Injury patterns of soldiers in the second Lebanon war. (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Hirschhorn, Gil; Marom, Ophir Cohen; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor


    In the second Lebanon war in 2006, the Israeli Defense Forces fought against well-prepared and well-equipped paramilitary forces. The conflict took place near the Israeli border and major Israeli medical centers. Good data records were maintained throughout the campaign, allowing accurate analysis of injury characteristics. This study is an in-depth analysis of injury mechanisms, severity, and anatomic locations. Data regarding all injured soldiers were collected from all care points up to the definitive care hospitals and were cross-referenced. In addition, trauma branch physicians and nurses interviewed medical teams to validate data accuracy. Injuries were analyzed using Injury Severity Score (ISS) (when precise anatomic data were available) and multiple injury patterns scoring for all. A total of 833 soldiers sustained combat-related injury during the study period, including 119 fatalities (14.3%). Although most soldiers (361) sustained injury only to one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) region, the average number of regions per soldier was 2.0 but was 1.5 for survivors versus 4.2 for fatalities. Current war injury classifications have limitations that hinder valid comparisons between campaigns and settings. In addition, limitation on full autopsy in war fatalities further hinders data use. To partly compensate for those limitations, we have looked at the correlation between fatality rates and number of involved anatomic regions and found it to be strong. We have also found high fatality rates in some "combined" injuries such as head and chest injuries (71%) or in the abdomen and an extremity (75%). The use of multiinjury patterns analysis may help understand fatality rates and improve the utility of war injury analysis. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  9. The Black Soldier in World War I. (United States)

    Bodle, Walter S., Ed.


    A poster from the National Archives that intermediate grade and secondary social studies teachers can use to teach students about race relations in the military during World War I is presented. Background information concerning the ill treatment given blacks and teaching activities are also included. (RM)

  10. The Bluebirds: World War I Soldiers' Experiences of Occupational Therapy. (United States)

    Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie

    More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. From Rampart to Chamber House: Soldiers, Statesmen and the Dialogue of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Redman, Edwin H


    .... Huntington, and Eliot Cohen. Clausewitz maintains that, because war is an extension of policy, both dialog and action must be two-way, even to the extent that the soldier become a statesman during war...

  12. Revolting Soldiers: The Origins of Education in the Armies of the Empire in World War I. (United States)

    Boshier, Roger


    Explores the circumstances surrounding the creation of education schemes in the armies of the British Empire. Discusses attitudes toward war and toward the soldier's role in the early 1900s, attitudes of the soldiers toward war, the University of Vimy Ridge, the Canadian Khaki University, the Oatlands program, and education for the New Zealand…

  13. For soldier and state: dual loyalty and World War One. (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo


    Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.

  14. Slaves, Contrabands, and Freedmen: Union Policy in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Michelle


    This study examines Union slave policy in the Civil War. Prior to the initiation of hostilities, President Abraham Lincoln stated that the conflict between the states was over the preservation of the Union, and not over slavery...

  15. Slaves, Contrabands, and Freedmen: Union Policy in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Michelle


    This study examines Union slave policy in the Civil War. Prior to the initiation of hostilities, President Abraham Lincoln stated that the conflict between the states was over the preservation of the Union, and not over...

  16. Reading at the Front: Books and Soldiers in the First World War (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Marcella P.


    This paper focuses on the reading and educational practices of common soldiers during the First World War. It argues that the question of how war libraries were imagined and constructed by civilians needs to be framed in the larger context of pre-war Edwardian debates surrounding the "value of books" in society. Indeed, it was within…

  17. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War]. (United States)

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus


    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.

  18. [A historical medical study of post-traumatic stress disorders in World War I soldiers]. (United States)

    Lemke, S


    The concept of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was to be verified considering World War I soldiers suffering from psychiatric and neurologic diseases. According to hypotheses, relevant circumstances of the case history and significance of the direct military action had to be examined. In 2002, medical histories dating from 1914 to 1921 of male soldiers in Jena, Germany, were analyzed. Statistical examination carried out by means of the chi2 test revealed mental illness more frequently in soldiers with relevant family anamnesis, previous psychiatric treatment, or degree of voluntariness than in soldiers not so characterized. The accumulation of mental illnesses was lower in soldiers involved in military actions or directly with firing weapons than in soldiers never involved in battles. These results are in accord with historical but not current literature on PTSD. The author is of the opinion that psychiatric anamnesis is not given enough consideration in the concept of PTSD.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cady Alpert


    Full Text Available The Civil War is still the bloodiest of all wars in which the United States has fought. The number of men who died and the reduction in the labor force had profound effects on the economy for years. In this paper we examine the methods used by the Union Government to procure a fighting force. We argue that institutional failure by the Union Government to raise and put into battle a sufficient number of men in the early years of the war prolonged the inevitable. Had the North either raised the wages of soldiers or created an effective draft, which for various institutional reasons it did not do until late in the war, fewer lives would have been lost and the war would have come to an end sooner.

  20. Looking for ‘Home’? New Zealand Soldiers Visiting London during the First World War


    Maguire, Anna


    For colonial troops from the British Empire, the military mobilizations of the First World War created the opportunity to visit the imperial metropolis – London – leaving the war behind. This article explores the experience and encounters of New Zealand's soldiers in London during the First World War and the ambiguity of their identity and belonging in a city that could be positioned as ‘home’. Using diaries, letters, newspapers and oral testimonies, the article builds on the work of Felicity...

  1. War-related experiences of former child soldiers in northern Uganda: comparison with non-recruited youths. (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Schryver, Maarten de; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse


    Armed conflict imposes huge hardship on young people living in war zones. This study assessed former child soldiers' experience and perception of stress in common war events during the armed conflict in northern Uganda and compares it with their non-recruited counterparts. To investigate whether child soldiers experienced more severe exposure to war events, and explore how war might affect youths differently, depending on the co-occurrence of these events. The study was undertaken in four northern Ugandan districts in 22 secondary schools with a sample size of 981 youths, about half of whom had been child soldiers. The participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and stressful war events which was analyzed using descriptive statistics, a probabilistic index and correlation network analysis. Former child soldiers had significantly greater experience of war events than their non-recruited counterparts. The violence of war is more central in their experience and perception of stress, whereas the scarcity of resources and poor living conditions are most central for non-recruited participants. The extent to which a war event, such as separation from the family, is perceived as stressful depends on the experience and perception of other stressful war events, such as confrontation with war violence for former child soldiers and life in an Internally Displaced Persons' camp for non-recruited participants. The network approach permitted demonstration of the many ways in which war-affected youths encounter and appraise stressful war events. War events might function as moderators or mediators of the effect that other war events exert on the lives and well-being of young people living in war zones. This demands comprehensive and individualized assessment.

  2. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II


    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, P; Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J; Maercker, Andreas


    Objectives: To examine posttraumatic growth and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence, trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. Participants: 103 former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years, 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Measurement: Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth ...

  3. Intestinal parasites in First World War German soldiers from "Kilianstollen", Carspach, France. (United States)

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin


    Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named "Kilianstollen" in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach.

  4. Rehabilitation and restoration: orthopaedics and disabled soldiers in Germany and Britain in the First World War. (United States)

    Anderson, Julie; Perry, Heather R


    This article offers a comparative analysis of the evolution of orthopaedics and rehabilitation within German and British military medicine during the Great War. In it, we reveal how the field of orthopaedics became integral to military medicine by tracing the evolution of the discipline and its practitioners in each nation during the war. In doing so, however, we document not only when and why both medical specialists and military officials realized that maintaining their respective national fighting forces depended upon the efficient rehabilitation of wounded soldiers, but also how these rehabilitative practices and goals reflected the particularities of the military context, civilian society and social structure of each nation. Thus, while our comparison reveals a number of similarities in the orthopaedic developments within each nation as a response to the Great War, we also reveal significant national differences in war-time medical goals, rehabilitation treatments and soldierly 'medical experiences'. Moreover, as we demonstrate, a social and cultural re-conceptualization of the disabled body accompanied the medical advancements developed for him; however, this re-conceptualization was not the same in each nation. Thus, what our article reveals is that although the guns of August fell silent in 1918, the war's medical experiences lingered long thereafter shaping the future of disability medicine in both nations.

  5. Combat Multipliers: African-American Soldiers in Four Wars (United States)


    historical record should also be commended. Reginal G. Clemmons Major General, U.S. Army Commandant, National War College Washington, DC May 2003 ii...Adjutant and Inspector General Maurice Grivot had approved and endorsed, respectively, the raising of the Native Guards in May 1861, they never

  6. Respiratory symptoms necessitating spirometry among soldiers with Iraq/Afghanistan war lung injury. (United States)

    Szema, Anthony M; Salihi, Walid; Savary, Khalil; Chen, John J


    New-onset asthma rates are higher among US soldiers deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan than stateside, but overall respiratory symptom and spirometry rates among soldiers returning from Iraq/Afghanistan have not yet been addressed. We determined these rates in soldiers deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan versus troops stationed elsewhere. Retrospective review of active-duty soldiers (2004 to 2010) registered at Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northport, New York, with Long Island/New York City zip codes. Subjects were examined by physicians or physicians' assistants. We counted number of spirometries, which required respiratory symptoms, and the provider was required to submit a diagnosis as part of the request process. Twenty-five percent of 7151 troops went to Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 1816) and 75% went elsewhere (n = 5335), with more smokers in the Iraq/Afghanistan group (16.1% vs 3.3%). Rates of symptoms and spirometry were 14.5% and 1.8%, for Iraq/Afghanistan, versus troops deployed elsewhere, respectively (P Afghanistan war lung injury is common and rates of symptoms leading to a diagnosis requiring spirometry are high. (C)2011The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

  7. 5-HTTLPR genotype potentiates the effects of war zone stressors on the emergence of PTSD, depressive and anxiety symptoms in soldiers deployed to iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telch, Michael J.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Rosenfield, David; Lee, Han Joo; Reijntjes, Albert; Ferrell, Robert E.; Hariri, Ahmad R.


    Exposure to war zone stressors is common, yet only a minority of soldiers experience clinically meaningful disturbance in psychological function. Identification of biomarkers that predict vulnerability to war zone stressors is critical for developing more effective treatment and prevention

  8. War experiences and psychotic symptoms among former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the mediating role of post-war hardships – the WAYS Study (United States)

    Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy; Otim, Balaam Nyeko; Opio, George; Ovuga, Emilio; Meiser-Stedman, Richard


    Psychotic symptoms have been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and war experiences. However, the relationships between types of war experiences, the onset and course of psychotic symptoms, and post-war hardships in child soldiers have not been investigated. This study assessed whether various types of war experiences contribute to psychotic symptoms differently and whether post-war hardships mediated the relationship between war experiences and later psychotic symptoms. In an ongoing longitudinal cohort study (the War-Affected Youths Survey), 539 (61% male) former child soldiers were assessed for psychotic symptoms, post-war hardships, and previous war experiences. Regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of different types of war experiences on psychotic symptoms and the mediating role of post-war hardships in the relations between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms. The findings yielded ‘witnessing violence’, ‘deaths and bereavement’, ‘involvement in hostilities’, and ‘sexual abuse’ as types of war experiences that significantly and independently predict psychotic symptoms. Exposure to war experiences was related to psychotic symptoms through post-war hardships (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.10, 0.25]) accounting for 50% of the variance in their relationship. The direct relation between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms attenuated but remained significant (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.12, 0.26]). Types of war experiences should be considered when evaluating risks for psychotic symptoms in the course of providing emergency humanitarian services in post-conflict settings. Interventions should consider post-war hardships as key determinants of psychotic symptoms among war-affected youths. PMID:24718435

  9. Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers. (United States)

    Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B


    We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939-1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio-a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males-and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank.

  10. "In war, not everyone's a soldier." A Review of This War of Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ecenbarger


    Full Text Available This article works to critically engage This War of Mine as a radically different style of war game that is rarely seen today. War games often glorify what it means to be in battle and have the player, essentially, saving their country or the world. This War of Mine, on the other hand, puts the player in the role of a survivor, someone simply trying to make it through the turmoil. This article examines the ways in which the game creates empathy for the avatar through aesthetic and narrative devices.

  11. Guilt, Shame and Compassionate Imagery in War: Traumatized German Soldiers with PTSD, a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alliger-Horn


    Full Text Available Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop compassionate imagery between their CURRENT SELF (today and their TRAUMATIZED SELF (back then. Method: The sample comprised 24 male German soldiers diagnosed with PTSD who were examined on the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS and two additional measures: the Emotional Distress Inventory (EIBE and the Quality of Interaction between the CURRENT SELF and the TRAUMATIZED SELF (QUI-HD: Qualität der Interaktion zwischen HEUTIGEN ICH und DAMALIGEN ICH at pre- and post-treatment and again at follow-up. The treatment used was imagery rescripting and reprocessing therapy (IRRT. Results: Eighteen of the 24 soldiers showed significant improvement in their PTSD symptoms at post-treatment and at follow-up (on their reliable change index. A significant change in trauma-associated guilt and shame emerged when compassionate imagery was developed towards one’s TRAUMATIZED SELF. The degree and intensity of the guilt and shame felt at the beginning of treatment and the degree of compassionate imagery developed toward the TRAUMATIZED SELF were predictors for change on the PDS scores. Conclusions: For soldiers suffering from specific war-related trauma involving PTSD, the use of self-nurturing, compassionate imagery that fosters reconciling with the traumatized part of the self can effectively diminish trauma-related symptoms, especially when guilt and shame are central emotions.

  12. Training of the American Soldier During World War I and World War II. (United States)


    smallpox, chicken pox , meningitis, typhoid, diptheria and other diseases resulted in the deaths of between 17,000 to 19,000 men during the course of...lessons of previous wars in both periods. The Spanish-American War and the United States’ incursion into Mexico provided valuable experience in

  13. 78 FR 18777 - Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument (United States)


    ... father's military service as a Union soldier during the Civil War, and he heeded his father's advice by... appropriation; however, the monument shall be the dominant reservation. Warning is hereby given to all...

  14. How to Dispel the Fog over the Past? Post-War Children, Their Fathers-Soldiers and Consequences of the Second World War


    Ekaterina S. Lyubomirova


    The article is devoted to the new aspects in the study of the history of post-war Germany, revealed in the book written by Sabine Bode «Post-war children - born in the 1950s, and their fathers-soldiers». It discusses the contribution made by Bode in the study of mental and psycho-emotional consequences of the Second World War and the «exclusion of the past», which is reflected in the fate of the post-war children and continues to have an impact on the socio-political life of the Federal Repub...

  15. Two war-torn soldiers: combat-related trauma through an intersubjective lens. (United States)

    Carr, Russell B


    The author, himself an Iraq war veteran, presents a contemporary psychodynamic understanding, known as intersubjective therapy, of combat-related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). At the onset of this case example, the patient was highly suicidal and his PTSD symptoms had not responded to a first-line treatment: manualized cognitive processing therapy. Robert Stolorow's intersubjective, psychodynamic approach to traumatic emotional experiences was then selected for treatment, and illustrates how combat in Afghanistan shattered this soldier's world and self experience. Therapeutic action arises from this intersubjective perspective by providing a relational home so that unendurable emotions can be borne, processed, and integrated to achieve a more constant and individualized sense of self. Being a two-person model of therapy, the author also describes how his work with this traumatized soldier affected him, ultimately contributing to his own sense of authentic existing. The author discusses the need for therapists to recognize and acknowledge to traumatized patients their shared finitude and the ubiquity of trauma. In the Postscript, the patient describes what he felt was therapeutic and contrasts this to his previous experiences with manualized cognitive processing therapy.

  16. Shadow Soldiering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya

    The thesis is an inquiry into what is at stake for a surplus population of militia soldiers in the aftermaths of the civil war in Sierra Leone. The analysis takes its point of departure in how militarised networks are transformed and gradualy morph into new constellations of soldiering. The central......, or in the margins of official political economies. Rather, shadow soldiering is a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly central in the context of security outsourcing and militarisation in a global economy....

  17. Incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries during the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians. (United States)

    Levin, Liran; Zadik, Yehuda; Peleg, Kobi; Bigman, Galya; Givon, Adi; Lin, Shaul


    To analyze the incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries in the Second Lebanon War, that occurred during the summer of 2006, among Israeli soldiers and civilians. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israel National Trauma Registry during the Second Lebanon War. Data refer to all general hospitals throughout the country. Data were analyzed according to the etiology of the injury, severity of trauma using the Injury Severity Score, trauma location, and duration of hospital stay. Cases with multiple injuries that included maxillofacial injuries were separated and further analyzed according to the above parameters. Patients with only dental injuries and superficial facial soft tissue lacerations were excluded because they were referred to the military dental clinics and not to general hospitals. Maxillofacial injuries were found in 36 (6.4%) of the 565 wounded. Patients with maxillofacial injuries ranged in age from 20 to 44 years (mean age, 25.5 +/- 5.7 years). Greater than 50% of the injuries required more than 3 hospitalization days. Mortality rate of the maxillofacial injured was 2.8%. Most of the maxillofacial injuries (33; 91.7%) were combined with other organ injuries; 9 (25%) patients also had dental injuries. In the Second Lebanon War, the incidence and severity of true maxillofacial injuries, without dental injuries alone, were relatively low compared with previous reports of other conflicts. However, because most injuries involved multiple organs, special attention is required when planning and providing emergency, as well as secondary and tertiary medical care to war wounded.

  18. Challenges faced by former child soldiers in the aftermath of war in Uganda. (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; De Schryver, Maarten; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse


    Warfare takes a profound toll of all layers of society, creating multiple and multilevel challenges that impinge on the psychosocial well-being of affected individuals. This study aims to assess the scope and salience of challenges confronting former child soldiers and at identifying additional challenges they face compared to non-recruited young people in war-affected northern Uganda. The study was carried out with a stratified random sample of northern Ugandan adolescents (n = 1,008), of whom a third had formerly been recruited (n = 330). The mixed-method comparison design consisted of a constrained free listing task to determine the challenges; a free sorting task to categorize them into clusters; and statistical analysis of their prevalence among formerly recruited youth and of how they compare with those of nonrecruited youth. Altogether, 237 challenges were identified and clustered into 15 categories, showing that formerly recruited participants mainly identified "emotional" and "training and skills"-related challenges. Compared with nonrecruited counterparts, they reported significantly more "emotional" and fewer "social and relational" challenges, with the exception of stigmatization. Overall, there was similarity between the challenges reported by both groups. The challenges confronting formerly recruited youths reach well beyond the effects of direct war exposure and emerge mainly from multiple influence spheres surrounding them. These challenges are largely shared in common with nonrecruited youths. This multidimensional and collective character of challenges calls for comprehensive psychosocial interventions through which healing the psychological wounds of war is complemented by mending the war-affected surroundings at all levels and in all life areas. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A report of 3 soldiers returned to full duty after lumbar radiofrequency facet denervation in a theater of war. (United States)

    Dragovich, Anthony; Trainer, Robert J


    To provide the advanced interventional procedure of zygapophysial joint neurotomy to soldiers meeting the diagnostic criteria in a combat environment and thus reduce medical evacuations of soldiers from a theater of war. Retrospective chart review was performed on three consecutive soldiers who received neuroablation of the lumbar ZP joint. Patients received single MBB with 1 cc of 1% lidocaine at the b/l L3-L5 levels considered diagnostic if >50% analgesia was achieved concordant with duration of anesthetic.   All procedures were co-performed by the two authors at the Ibn Sina hospital in Baghdad, Iraq over a 3-month period. Three consecutive patients with >50% pain relief from diagnostic medial branch blocks were treated with radiofrequency ablation of the bilateral L3-L4 medial branch nerves and L5 posterior primary ramus. Sensory test stimulation at 50 Hz and motor stimulation at 2 Hz were performed at each level. The nerves were then lesioned at 80° Centigrade for 90 seconds after injection of lidocaine and methylprednisolone. Procedure was considered successful if patients were able to wear body armour without significant discomfort (at least 1 hour/day). Medical evacuation from Iraq was prevented and all soldiers returned to rigorous combat duties including the wearing of body armour daily. We believe to be the first to report on the use of RF nerve ablation in a war time setting and with this functional outcome. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Citizens, Soldiers, and War: Comparing American Societal-Military Relationships with the Use of Forces Abroad, 1975-2014 (United States)


    connection is the same as a smaller gap. Both manners of speech seek to explain the convergence or divergence between a society and its military...the Military Establishment,” 100-122. 23 Morris Janowitz, The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait (New York: Free Press, 1960...indications of discomfort between non-military citizens and some of the service members who have been fighting in the Global War on Terror. Although it is

  1. How to Dispel the Fog over the Past? Post-War Children, Their Fathers-Soldiers and Consequences of the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Lyubomirova


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the new aspects in the study of the history of post-war Germany, revealed in the book written by Sabine Bode «Post-war children - born in the 1950s, and their fathers-soldiers». It discusses the contribution made by Bode in the study of mental and psycho-emotional consequences of the Second World War and the «exclusion of the past», which is reflected in the fate of the post-war children and continues to have an impact on the socio-political life of the Federal Republic of Germany up to the present day. Nevertheless the article criticizes an excessive preoccupation of the monograph with the descriptions of the individual biographies to the detriment of analysis.

  2. Medical Aid for Russian Soldiers During the First World War (on the Materials of Tsaritsyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepkova Elena


    Full Text Available he article discusses the activity of medical institutions in Tsaritsyn, Saratov province, on assisting the wounded during the First World War. The author emphasizes that the problem of evacuating the wounded on the territory of the Saratov province were primarily associated with the irrational distribution of medical beds between the rear and front hospitals. The additional complications arose due to the lack of transport for evacuation and insufficient length of railways. The considerable distance from the front contributed to quite successful organization of medical aid to the wounded, despite the lack of qualified medical staff and the necessary medical equipment. The article contains the data on the number of medical institutions in the city and on the organization of hospitals and infirmaries functioning in Tsaritsyn during the war. The care quality in Tsaritsyn infirmaries was at a high level, as evidenced by a significant percentage of recovery of the wounded and sick. Emerging issues were often dealt with by means of different charitable organizations, primarily the Tsaritsyn Red Cross Society. Its initial task was to provide medical equipment for the hospitals. However, the activity of the Tsaritsyn Red Cross Society is not limited thereto, and the city was provided with modern medical equipment, including X-ray room. In the future, it gave a great impetus to the development of the health system in Tsaritsyn. The author emphasizes the special role of the big industrialists, merchants and patrons of Tsaritsyn, who made large donations to the Ladies’ Committee and the Committee of the Red Cross, thus contributing to the support of charitable organizations of the city during the war. The author concludes that in the provincial cities, including Tsaritsyn, the conditions for the rehabilitation of a large number of wounded and sick soldiers were created in a short time period. The charitable organizations and individuals established

  3. union defence forces : statistics of the wounded and prisoners of war ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNION DEFENCE FORCES : STATISTICS OF THE. WOUNDED AND PRISONERS OF WAR DURING. THE SECOND WORLD WAR 1939-1945. Compiled by Captain J.E. Loraine-Grews. In 1943, after active service as ROMS of Die Middellandse Regiment in the Western Desert during which he escaped capture at Tobruk ...

  4. Group Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy with Former Child Soldiers and Other War-Affected Boys in the DR Congo: A Randomised Controlled Trial (United States)

    McMullen, John; O'Callaghan, Paul; Shannon, Ciaran; Black, Alastair; Eakin, John


    Background: The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been home to the world's deadliest conflict since World War II and is reported to have the largest number of child soldiers in the world. Despite evidence of the debilitating impact of war, no group-based mental health or psychosocial intervention has been evaluated in a randomised controlled…

  5. [The psychology of being unaccounted for, based on the example of children of missing German soldiers from World War II]. (United States)

    Orlowski, Henning V; Klauer, Thomas; Freyberger, Harald J; Seidler, Günter H; Kuwert, Philipp


    Despite today's extensive research on the psychosocial consequences of World War II, the group of wives and children whose husbands or fathers went "missing in action" during the Second World War, has yet to be studied systematically in Germany. The present review article shows the special role the wives, and in particular the children, of missing German soldiers played in society and discusses the impact of their loved ones being unaccounted has had on the mental health of this group. An overview of current research on the psychosocial status of the war generation is given following a short historical introduction to the theme. Subsequently, we discuss the legal and social situation of the families of missing German soldiers during the postwar decades. Finally, two psychological concepts drawn from the US research show that specific disorders, such as complicated grief or "boundary ambiguity," can occur in the relatives of missing persons and blur the line between hope and grief occurring as a result of ambiguous loss. The psychosocial impact of having a relative go missing has hardly been noticed in the German research tradition after World War II. Particularly in light of the age structure of those directly affected and the experiences of transgenerational transmission this neglected psychosocial research subject urgently needs further scientific investigation, inasmuch as the age of the family members still allows it.

  6. 5-HTTLPR genotype potentiates the effects of war zone stressors on the emergence of PTSD, depressive and anxiety symptoms in soldiers deployed to iraq. (United States)

    Telch, Michael J; Beevers, Christopher G; Rosenfield, David; Lee, Han-Joo; Reijntjes, Albert; Ferrell, Robert E; Hariri, Ahmad R


    Exposure to war zone stressors is common, yet only a minority of soldiers experience clinically meaningful disturbance in psychological function. Identification of biomarkers that predict vulnerability to war zone stressors is critical for developing more effective treatment and prevention strategies not only in soldiers but also in civilians who are exposed to trauma. We investigated the role of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype in predicting the emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive and anxiety symptoms as a function of war zone stressors. A prospective cohort of 133 U.S. Army soldiers with no prior history of deployment to a war zone, who were scheduled to deploy to Iraq, was recruited. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations between 5-HTTLPR genotype, level of war zone stressors, and reported symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety while deployed to Iraq. Level of war zone stressors was associated with symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety. Consistent with its effects on stress responsiveness, 5-HTTLPR genotype moderated the relationship between level of war zone stressors and symptoms of emotional disturbance. Specifically, soldiers carrying one or two low functioning alleles (S or LG ) reported heightened symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety in response to increased levels of exposure to war zone stressors, relative to soldiers homozygous for the high functioning allele (LA ). These data suggest that 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates individual sensitivity to war zone stressors and the expression of emotional disturbance including PTSD symptoms. Replication of this association along with identification of other genetic moderators of risk can inform the development of biomarkers that can predict relative resilience vs. vulnerability to stress. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  7. Mediators of the relation between war experiences and suicidal ideation among former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the WAYS study. (United States)

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Lekhutlile, Tlholego Molemane; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Ovuga, Emilio


    Globally, suicide is a public health burden especially in the aftermath of war. Understanding the processes that define the path from previous war experiences (WE) to current suicidal ideation (SI) is crucial for defining opportunities for interventions. We assessed the extent to which different types of previous WE predict current SI and whether post-war hardships and depression mediate the relations between WE and SI among former child soldiers (FCS) in Northern Uganda. We performed cross-sectional analyses with a sample of 539 FCS (61% male) participating in an on-going longitudinal study. The influence of various types of previous WE on current SI and mediation by post-war hardships and depression were assessed by regression analyses. The following types of war experiences: "witnessing violence", "direct personal harm", "deaths", "Involvement in hostilities", "sexual abuse" and "general war experiences" significantly predicted current SI in a univariable analyses whereas "direct personal harm", "involvement in hostilities", and "sexual abuse" independently predicted current SI in a multivariable analyses. General WE were linked to SI (β = 0.18 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.25)) through post-war hardships (accounting for 69% of the variance in their relationship) and through depression/anxiety (β = 0.17 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.22)) accounting for 65% of the variance in their relationship. The direct relationship between previous WE and current SI reduced but remained marginally significant (β = .08, CI: (.01, .17) for depression/anxiety but not for post-war hardships (β = .09, CI: (-.03, .20). Types of WE should be examined when assessing risks for SI. Interventions to reduce SI should aim to alleviate post-war hardships and treat depression/anxiety.

  8. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II. (United States)

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, Philipp; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald J; Maercker, Andreas


    To examine posttraumatic growth (PTG) and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence (SOC), trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Cross-sectional. University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. One hundred three former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years in which 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Social Acknowledgment Questionnaire (SAQ), and SOC Scale. Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed by the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Number of traumas, recognition by significant others, and general disapproval as facets of social acknowledgment as a survivor, and meaningfulness as a dimension of SOC correlated significantly with PTG. In a multiple hierarchical regression analysis, recognition as a survivor by significant others (SAQ) and meaningfulness (SOC) remained the only significant predictors of PTG. Social acknowledgment as a survivor by significant others and the belief that the world is meaningful are among the most important factors contributing to PTG. Further research should investigate whether treatments of PTSD in people who experienced war traumas recently or many years ago might benefit from a focus on the belief system and the role of family and social support.

  9. War experiences, general functioning and barriers to care among former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the WAYS study. (United States)

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Jones, Peter; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Abbott, Rosemary; Ayella-Ataro, Paul Stephen; Amone, Jackson; Ovuga, Emilio


    Exposure to war is associated with considerable risks for long-term mental health problems (MHP) and poor functioning. Yet little is known about functioning and mental health service (MHS) use among former child soldiers (FCS). We assessed whether different categories of war experiences predict functioning and perceived need for, sources of and barriers to MHS among FCS. Data were drawn from an on-going War-affected Youths (WAYS) cohort study of FCS in Uganda. Participants completed questionnaires about war experiences, functioning and perceived need for, sources of and barriers to MHS. Regression analyses and parametric tests were used to assess between-group differences. Deaths, material losses, threat to loved ones and sexual abuse significantly predicted poor functioning. FCS who received MHS function better than those who did not. Females reported more emotional and behavioural problems and needed MHS more than males. FCS who function poorly indicated more barriers to MHS than those who function well. Stigma, fear of family break-up and lack of health workers were identified as barriers to MHS. Various war experiences affect functioning differently. A significant need for MHS exists amidst barriers to MHS. Nevertheless, FCS are interested in receiving MHS and believe it would benefit them. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  10. Efforts to Promote Reintegration and Rehabilitation of Traumatized Former Child Soldiers: Reintegration of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone: The Role of Caregivers and Their Awareness of the Violence Adolescents Experienced During the War. (United States)

    Borisova, Ivelina I; Betancourt, Theresa S; Willett, John B


    This article explores the role of caregivers in the reintegration of former child soldiers from Sierra Leone. Using data on 282 youth and their respective caregivers, our aim is to focus on the caregiver-child relationship after reintegration. We investigate the extent to which caregivers know about child soldiers' experiences of direct and indirect violence, as well as involvement in war activities. We further examine variables that might shape the degree of caregiver knowledge of child's war experiences. Finally, we examine if caregiver knowledge of war experiences is associated with child's psychosocial outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of developing thoughtful programs that consider the needs of the child in the context of the family and caregivers with whom he or she is reunified.

  11. The Nordic Trade Union Movement and Transnational Anti-Communist Networks in the Early Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Dino


    Dino Knudsen investigates how the American trade union movement, including figures such as Jay Lovestone and Irving Brown, established anti-Communist networks among the Nordic Non-Communist Left during the early Cold War. What were the implications of these networks, in the context of the Marshall...

  12. The reality of war: wounded and fallen Norwegian soldiers in Afghanistan. (United States)

    Bjerkan, Geir; Iversen, Petter; Asak, Håkon; Pillgram-Larsen, Johan; Rolandsen, Bent-Åge


    Norway has been contributing military forces to Afghanistan since 2001. The following is an overview of all combat-related injuries and deaths among Norwegian soldiers in the period from 2002 to 2010. All medical records for Norwegian military personnel in Afghanistan in the period to January 2011 were reviewed and those who fell or were injured during combat were identified. The mechanism and anatomical region of the injury were registered and an injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS) and probability of survival score were calculated. Deaths were classified according to military trauma terminology and were additionally assessed as either "non-survivable" or "potentially survivable". There were 45 injury incidents with nine deaths among 42 soldiers. The injury mechanism behind seven of the deaths was an improvised explosive device (IED). All injuries resulting in deaths were "non-survivable". Seven soldiers were severely injured. The mechanisms were bullet wounds, IED, splinters from grenades and landmine explosions. Twenty nine incidents involving 28 soldiers resulted in minor injuries. The most frequent mechanism was ricochet or splinter injury from shooting or an exploding grenade. The majority of conflict-related injuries in Afghanistan were due to explosions. The mechanism and anatomical distribution of the injuries was the same among Norwegian soldiers as among allies. The deaths were due to extensive injuries that were non-survivable.

  13. Incidence and severity of ocular and adnexal injuries during the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians. (United States)

    Barak, Adiel; Elhalel, Amir; Pikkel, Joseph; Krauss, Eli; Miller, Benjamin


    To analyze the incidence and severity of ocular and adnexal injuries in the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians. Retrospective cohort study. All patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the Second Lebanon War (July-August, 2006). Retrieval of all data relevant to ocular and adnexal injuries sustained during the study period, and differentiation between those associated with combat/terrorist and other events. Analysis of data according to the severity of trauma , anatomical location of the injury, and whether the patients were military personnel or civilians. A total of 69 war-related ocular trauma patients (58 military personnel and 11 civilians) were registered during the 34 days of war. The injuries involved the anterior segment injury (n = 25), posterior segment (n = 29) and the periocular region (n = 15, all severe). Twenty-seven of the patients had open-globe injuries, of which 18 involved intraocular foreign bodies, and 27 patients had closed-globe injuries. The rate of ocular injuries was 7% among all registered wounded military personnel and 1.2% among all injured civilians. The incidence and severity of ocular and adnexal injuries among military personnel during the Second Lebanon War were consistent with previous reports from American sources of ocular injuries sustained in Iraq and Afghanistan. The rates of ocular injury associated with wartime events sustained by civilians has not been investigated before, and it was relatively low, probably as a result of stringent government-mandated building regulations for passive defense that are discussed.

  14. State propaganda and mental disorders: the issue of psychiatric casualties among Japanese soldiers during the Asia-Pacific War. (United States)

    Matsumura, Janice


    This article explores the politics of Japanese wartime medical policy, demonstrating how state propaganda about the people and their armed forces influenced authoritative views on health and what might endanger it. By focusing on the obstacles faced by psychiatrists trying to promote more official concern for mental health issues, it challenges the validity of figures indicating a low incidence of psychological trauma among the country's soldiers. Civilian psychiatrists had to contend with the threat of censorship and arrest for even discussing war-induced mental disorders; at the same time, army psychiatrists as military insiders were pressured to convince their patients that their conditions were not serious and did not merit compensation. While discussing the neglected topic of Japanese psychiatric casualties, an attempt is made to provide a comparative approach by referring to the state of military psychiatry in other national settings.

  15. Guilt, Shame and Compassionate Imagery in War: Traumatized German Soldiers with PTSD, a Pilot Study


    Alliger-Horn, Christina; Zimmermann, Peter Lutz; Schmucker, Mervyn


    Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop...

  16. Civil Wars, Child Soldiers and Post Conflict Peace Building in West

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The collapse of the cold war and the attendant eruption of violence and civil wars in parts of the ... conscription of children, etc, from schools, orphanages, refugee camps, etc, and (ii) ... Chapter two deserves two observations. First, except for a ...

  17. Cracking the code: a decode strategy for the international business machines punch cards of Korean war soldiers. (United States)

    Mitsunaga, Erin M


    During the Korean War, International Business Machines (IBM) punch cards were created for every individual involved in military combat. Each card contained all pertinent personal information about the individual and was utilized to keep track of all soldiers involved. However, at present, all of the information known about these punch cards reveals only their format and their significance; there is little to no information on how these cards were created or how to interpret the information contained without the aid of the computer system used during the war. Today, it is believed there is no one available to explain this computerized system, nor do the original computers exist. This decode strategy is the result of an attempt to decipher the information on these cards through the use of all available medical and dental records for each individual examined. By cross-referencing the relevant personal information with the known format of the cards, a basic guess-and-check method was utilized. After examining hundreds of IBM punch cards, however, it has become clear that the punch card method of recording information was not infallible. In some cases, there are gaps of information on cards where there are data recorded on personal records; in others, information is punched incorrectly onto the cards, perhaps as the result of a transcription error. Taken all together, it is clear that the information contained on each individual's card should be taken solely as another form of personal documentation.

  18. Past horrors, present struggles: the role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Gilman, Stephen E; Williams, David R; Ellis, B Heidi


    Upon returning to their communities, children formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups--commonly referred to as child soldiers--often confront significant community stigma. Much research on the reintegration and rehabilitation of child soldiers has focused on exposure to past war-related violence and mental health outcomes, yet no empirical work has yet examined the role that post-conflict stigma plays in shaping long-term psychosocial adjustment. Two waves of data are used in this paper from the first prospective study of male and female former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. We examined the role of stigma (manifest in discrimination as well as lower levels of community and family acceptance) in the relationship between war-related experiences and psychosocial adjustment (depression, anxiety, hostility and adaptive behaviors). Former child soldiers differ from one another with regard to their post-war experiences, and these differences profoundly shape their psychosocial adjustment over time. Consistent with social stress theory, we observed that post-conflict factors such as stigma can play an important role in shaping psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers. We found that discrimination was inversely associated with family and community acceptance. Additionally, higher levels of family acceptance were associated with decreased hostility, while improvements in community acceptance were associated with adaptive attitudes and behaviors. We found that post-conflict experiences of discrimination largely explained the relationship between past involvement in wounding/killing others and subsequent increases in hostility. Stigma similarly mediated the relationship between surviving rape and depression. However, surviving rape continued to demonstrate independent effects on increases in anxiety, hostility and adaptive/prosocial behaviors after adjusting for other variables. These findings point to the complexity of psychosocial adjustment and

  19. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968 (United States)

    Fraser, Erica L.


    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  20. Soldiers Magazine | Telling the Soldier's story (United States)

    Soldier, fight in the Korean War and serve as a intelligence agent during the Cold War. 14 April 2016 professionals vying for Best Medic bragging rights. 14 October 2016 The U.S. Army's Hispanic-American Medal of possible On Women's Equality Day, learn about 19 ways U.S. Army women helped make the 19th Amendment

  1. Silhouettes of War: Technologies of U.S. Soldiering and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Behm


    Full Text Available This paper forwards a theory of silhouetting in relation to technological augmenta-tion in U.S. Military uniforms and suggests that the increasing utilization of metamaterials, nanotechnology, and surveillance technologies operates under a rhetoric of invisibility that complicates the technologies' visible destruction. Methodologically, the paper attends to three general technological developments in the evolution of the U.S. Army uniform: the design of the new Army Combat Uniform (ACU; the technological advances in the uniform, including embedded wearables, biometric identification devices, and 3D combat enhancement systems; and the bio-networking, GPS, and digital communication arrays that physically link digital uniforms to a larger geopolitical network of U.S. military strategy and surveillance. Throughout, the work traces the aforementioned theory of silhouet-ting in relation to select sociopolitical consequences of linking digitally enhanced soldiers into a transnational grid of surveillance.

  2. The "Small Change" of Soldiering? Peace Operations as Preparation for Future Wars (United States)


    the 112 Raymond Aron, Main Currents in Sociological Thought 2: Pareto, Weber, Durkheim (Middlesex, U.K.: Penguin Books, 1967), 219, 247-48; Max...Great War. West Point, NY: United States Military Academy, 1977. Aron, Raymond. Main Currents in Sociological Thought 2: Pareto, Weber, Durkheim

  3. Past horrors, present struggles: The role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone☆ (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Gilman, Stephen E.; Williams, David R.; Ellis, B. Heidi


    Upon returning to their communities, children formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups–commonly referred to as child soldiers–often confront significant community stigma. Much research on the reintegration and rehabilitation of child soldiers has focused on exposure to past war-related violence and mental health outcomes, yet no empirical work has yet examined the role that post-conflict stigma plays in shaping long-term psychosocial adjustment. Two waves of data are used in this paper from the first prospective study of male and female former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. We examined the role of stigma (manifest in discrimination as well as lower levels of community and family acceptance) in the relationship between war-related experiences and psychosocial adjustment (depression, anxiety, hostility and adaptive behaviors). Former child soldiers differ from one another with regard to their post-war experiences, and these differences profoundly shape their psychosocial adjustment over time. Consistent with social stress theory, we observed that post-conflict factors such as stigma can play an important role in shaping psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers. We found that discrimination was inversely associated with family and community acceptance. Additionally, higher levels of family acceptance were associated with decreased hostility, while improvements in community acceptance were associated with adaptive attitudes and behaviors. We found that post-conflict experiences of discrimination largely explained the relationship between past involvement in wounding/killing others and subsequent increases in hostility. Stigma similarly mediated the relationship between surviving rape and depression. However, surviving rape continued to demonstrate independent effects on increases in anxiety, hostility and adaptive/prosocial behaviors after adjusting for other variables. These findings point to the complexity of psychosocial adjustment and

  4. The Revolutionary United Front and Child Soldiers during Sierra Leone’s Civil War (United States)


    the Pan African Union to coalesce and start the RUF. With support from Libyan agents seeking to create instability throughout Africa for...led to this outcome. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to start by thanking my thesis committee without which I could not have completed this...brutality of the conflict and contributed to the severity of atrocities. Child abductions, limb amputations, cannibalism, forced sexual slavery , rape

  5. Modern pentathlon and the First World War: when athletes and soldiers met to practise martial manliness. (United States)

    Heck, Sandra


    In the nationalistic atmosphere of the early twentieth century, a nurturing medium for sports practising martial manliness abounded throughout Europe. This framework supported the invention of a new multi-disciplinary sport, aided by Baron Pierre de Coubertin himself: modern pentathlon. Though the idea of a new form of pentathlon was already born in 1894, it took 30 years, until Paris 1924, to establish modern pentathlon within the Olympic Games. This study is concerned with the reasons for that delay. It will be assessed whether the active military preparations around the First World War and the contemporary image of masculinity had a decisive influence on the early history of modern pentathlon. By including historical documents from the IOC archives in Lausanne, Switzerland, the research office for military history in Potsdam, Germany, and the LA84 Foundation in Los Angeles, USA, as well as literature on gender, military sport and Olympic history, this study offers an entirely new view on the early history of a sport that was born in an atmosphere of glorifying manliness and apparent militarism. The history of modern pentathlon thereby provides a particularly appropriate area for the analysis of connections between sport, militarism and masculinity. It was not by chance that the implementation of a combined sport, which included besides swimming and running the three military disciplines of shooting, fencing and horse riding, arose in a pre-war context. Though in 1912 the Great War had not yet begun, the awareness of an upcoming battle was rising and led to a higher attention to Coubertin's almost forgotten assumption of a new sport. In 1924 the advantages were finally admitted on two sides: the army recruited modern pentathletes as future military officers; the sports community appointed skilled officers as successful competitors. Thus the lobby for an Olympic recognition of modern pentathlon was found.

  6. Betwixt and Between: Yup’ik Combat Soldiers and the Burden of Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Green


    Full Text Available Eric Hobsbawm, the noted British historian, in his masterful account of modernity writ large, suggests that the 20th century was the most violent in human history, highlighting crucial connections between capitalist expansion and bellicosity. Over the course of the twentieth century, and in particular over the past 60 years, the United States has indisputably become the global master of war. A military budget and a weapons arsenal that dwarfs those of all other countries, alongside its repeated incursions into other sovereign nations, are alone sufficient to earn the title.

  7. The use of child soldiers in war with special reference to Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Harendra de Silva, D G


    Throughout history, the involvement of children in military operations has been extensively documented. The issue of child conscription is multi-faceted, with very few medical but more sociological aspects, including terrorism, politics, economics, history, culture and religion amongst other factors. Many United Nations Instruments as well as the International Criminal Court have documented that child conscription is detrimental to a child's development, violates Child Rights, and is a war crime. Efforts by international bodies to address conscription as child abuse have failed since the process is undertaken by groups rather than individuals, and because the law has no access to the perpetrators. The background to a conflict in Sri Lanka and various ethno-religious and political factors are discussed. The role of the diaspora community, the internet and various fund-raising mechanisms for war are discussed. The history of child conscription and studies examining reasons and the tasks assigned to them as conscripts as well as abusive aspects, especially in relation to emotional abuse, neglect and physical harm, are discussed. Documentation of conscription as child abuse needing a definition including a new definition of 'suicide by proxy' is stressed. The importance of culture and history, and the manipulation of the idealistic mind are discussed in the context of 'setting the stage' for child conscription. The toy weapon industry and the real arms industry, especially small arms, are important in maintaining conflicts, especially in the developing world. The conflicts of interests of members of the UN Security Council and the 'peace-keepers' of the world is discussed.

  8. Surveillance of Food- and Smear-Transmitted Pathogens in European Soldiers with Diarrhea on Deployment in the Tropics: Experience from the European Union Training Mission (EUTM Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Frickmann


    Full Text Available Introduction. Since 2013, European soldiers have been deployed on the European Union Training Mission (EUTM in Mali. From the beginning, diarrhea has been among the most “urgent” concerns. Diarrhea surveillance based on deployable real-time PCR equipment was conducted between December 2013 and August 2014. Material and Methods. In total, 53 stool samples were obtained from 51 soldiers with acute diarrhea. Multiplex PCR panels comprised enteroinvasive bacteria, diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC, and EIEC, enteropathogenic viruses, and protozoa. Noroviruses were characterized by sequencing. Cultural screening for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL with subsequent repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR typing was performed. Clinical information was assessed. Results. Positive PCR results for diarrhea-associated pathogens were detected in 43/53 samples, comprising EPEC (n=21, ETEC (n=19, EAEC (n=15, Norovirus (n=10, Shigella spp./EIEC (n=6, Cryptosporidium parvum (n=3, Giardia duodenalis (n=2, Salmonella spp. (n=1, Astrovirus (n=1, Rotavirus (n=1, and Sapovirus (n=1. ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae were grown from 13 out of 48 samples. Simultaneous infections with several enteropathogenic agents were observed in 23 instances. Symptoms were mild to moderate. There were hints of autochthonous transmission. Conclusions. Multiplex real-time PCR proved to be suitable for diarrhea surveillance on deployment. Etiological attribution is challenging in cases of detection of multiple pathogens.

  9. Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Health Problems Among Active and Reserve Component Soldiers Returning From the Iraq War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, CHarles S; Auchterlonie, Jennifer L; Hoge, Charles W


    Described the Department of Defense's (DoDs) screening efforts to identify mental health concerns among soldiers and Marines as they return from Iraq and Afghanistan using the Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA...

  10. History at the intersection of disability and public health: the case of John Galsworthy and disabled soldiers of the First World War. (United States)

    Reznick, Jeffrey S


    The author presented an earlier version of this historical article to the Disability Section of the American Public Health Association (November 2009). It is part of his ongoing research in the social and cultural history of medicine as the field intersects with the history of disability, veterans, and public health, as well as current issues that touch all of these areas. This article introduces readers to perspectives on disability held by the British novelist John Galsworthy (1867-1933), which he developed primarily through his philanthropic support for and his compositions about rehabilitation programs for British and American soldiers disabled in the First World War (1914-1918). Readers will learn that Galsworthy's perspectives are as much about his identity as an individual with disabilities as they are about men disabled in the "war to end all wars." The rediscovery of Galsworthy's experiences and words more than 90 years after the end of World War I reveals how history is present today at the intersection of disability and public health. Indeed, the story of Galsworthy ultimately seeking to forget his own experiences during the "Great War," as well as the very physical and psychological disability caused by that conflict, can inspire public health professionals and disability rights advocates today to remember-indeed, to advocate for-men and women who served in battle and have returned home to realize renewed health and social participation despite permanent physical and psychological wounds. Readers will note that language used throughout this article to describe disability is period-specific and therefore not keeping with current conventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Transformation of Mental Health Care for U.S. Soldiers and Families During the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars: Where Science and Politics Intersect. (United States)

    Hoge, Charles W; Ivany, Christopher G; Brusher, Edward A; Brown, Millard D; Shero, John C; Adler, Amy B; Warner, Christopher H; Orman, David T


    The cumulative strain of 14 years of war on service members, veterans, and their families, together with continuing global threats and the unique stresses of military service, are likely to be felt for years to come. Scientific as well as political factors have influenced how the military has addressed the mental health needs resulting from these wars. Two important differences between mental health care delivered during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars and previous wars are the degree to which research has directly informed care and the consolidated management of services. The U.S. Army Medical Command implemented programmatic changes to ensure delivery of high-quality standardized mental health services, including centralized workload management; consolidation of psychiatry, psychology, psychiatric nursing, and social work services under integrated behavioral health departments; creation of satellite mental health clinics embedded within brigade work areas; incorporation of mental health providers into primary care; routine mental health screening throughout soldiers' careers; standardization of clinical outcome measures; and improved services for family members. This transformation has been accompanied by reduction in psychiatric hospitalizations and improved continuity of care. Challenges remain, however, including continued underutilization of services by those most in need, problems with treatment of substance use disorders, overuse of opioid medications, concerns with the structure of care for chronic postdeployment (including postconcussion) symptoms, and ongoing questions concerning the causes of historically high suicide rates, efficacy of resilience training initiatives, and research priorities. It is critical to ensure that remaining gaps are addressed and that knowledge gained during these wars is retained and further evolved.

  12. Picture Book Soldiers: Men and Messages. (United States)

    Desai, Christina M.


    Examines children's picture books about soldiers and war, including fiction, folktales, and historical fiction, analyzing their implicit and explicit messages about war and the military, and evaluating them for gender stereotyping. Finds that the soldiers conform almost uniformly to an exaggerated male stereotype. Shows different value judgments…

  13. Haunted by ghosts: prevalence, predictors and outcomes of spirit possession experiences among former child soldiers and war-affected civilians in Northern Uganda. (United States)

    Neuner, Frank; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer-Kaiser, Elisabeth; Odenwald, Michael; Elbert, Thomas; Ertl, Verena


    Phenomena of spirit possession have been documented in many cultures. Some authors have argued that spirit possession is a type of psychopathology, and should be included as a category in diagnostic manuals of mental disorders. However, there are hardly any quantitative studies that report the prevalence of spirit possession on a population level and that provide evidence for its validity as a psychopathological entity. In an epidemiological study that was carried out in 2007 and 2008 with N = 1113 youths and young adults aged between 12 and 25 years in war-affected regions of Northern Uganda we examined the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of cen, a local variant of spirit possession. Randomly selected participants were interviewed using a scale of cen, measures of psychopathology (PTSD and depression) as well as indicators of functional outcome on different levels, including suicide risk, daily activities, perceived discrimination, physical complaints and aggression. We found that cen was more common among former child soldiers then among subjects without a history of abduction. Cen was related to extreme levels of traumatic events and uniquely predicted functional outcome even when the effects of PTSD and depression were controlled for. Our findings show that a long-lasting war that is accompanied by the proliferation of spiritual and magical beliefs and propaganda can lead to high levels of harmful spirit possession. In addition, we provide evidence for the incremental validity of spirit possession as a trauma-related psychological disorder in this context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W


    ... them to be combat multipliers for future conflicts. The thesis identifies trends in African Americans' military service from the Revolutionary War through their actions along the Mexican border during the first decade of the 20th century...

  15. Women in WAR and peace – reflections on gender and the role of female soldiers in MINUSMA, MALI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke

    Active involvement of women is key to sustainable and inclusive peace. Despite efforts to increase the deployment of female soldiers, the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali (MINUSMA) remains dominated by men. A focus on the operational relevance of gender integration and building...... on existing capacities in the mission will be small, yet realistic, steps forward. This paper discusses mechanisms within the mission that have been established to raise gender awareness, based on fieldwork conducted by me in MINUSMA in June 2016, together with post.doc Signe Cold-Ravnkilde and Peter Albrecht...

  16. BOOK REVIEW - International Law and Child Soldiers by Gus Waschefort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie Robinson


    . Particular attention is paid to an analysis of this war crime as formulated under the Rome Statute and the scope for prosecution by the International Criminal Court. An interesting argument is further developed for the Court as a deterrent to the use and recruitment of child soldiers. Little attention is paid to the criminal responsibility of child soldiers. This is to be expected, though, as the focus of the book is indeed aimed at the effectiveness of international instruments. The relevance of the mechanisms established by the United Nations and African Union to prevent child soldiering is discussed in Chapter Six. The United Nations mechanisms represent the core of the international communities’ response to child soldiering. The chapter consequently analyses the United Nations mechanisms and pays attention to the improvement of such mechanisms. A descriptive account of mechanisms established by the AU is also presented. These mechanisms have never been used in response to child soldiering but do have the potential to contribute to the prevention of the use and recruitment of child soldiers. Chapter Seven contains a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In this chapter the conclusions reached in the previous chapters of the book are measured against the de facto situation in that country in order to establish the accuracy of those conclusions in relation to a real situation. In conclusion, this book is a sine qua non for studies of children in International Law. It enriches the reader’s understanding of the various international instruments containing proscriptive norms to prohibit the use and recruitment of child soldiers, and the excellent reference materials which are provided will definitely play an instrumental role in the research of both students and academics.

  17. A retrospective study of ketamine administration and the development of acute or post-traumatic stress disorder in 274 war-wounded soldiers. (United States)

    Mion, G; Le Masson, J; Granier, C; Hoffmann, C


    The objective of this study was to explore whether ketamine prevents or exacerbates acute or post-traumatic stress disorders in military trauma patients. We conducted a retrospective study of a database from the French Military Health Service, including all soldiers surviving a war injury in Afghanistan (2010-2012). The diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder was made by a psychiatrist and patients were analysed according to the presence or absence of this condition. Analysis included the following covariables: age; sex; acute stress disorder; blast injury; associated fatality; brain injury; traumatic amputation; Glasgow coma scale; injury severity score; administered drugs; number of surgical procedures; physical, neurosensory or aesthetic sequelae; and the development chronic pain. Covariables related to post-traumatic and acute stress disorders with a p ≤ 0.10 were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. The data from 450 soldiers were identified; 399 survived, of which 274 were analysed. Among these, 98 (36%) suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder and 89 (32%) had received ketamine. Fifty-four patients (55%) in the post-traumatic stress disorder group received ketamine vs. 35 (20%) in the no PTSD group (p stress disorder and total number of surgical procedures were independently associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. In this retrospective study, ketamine administration was not a risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in the military trauma setting. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. From prowar soldier to antiwar activist: Change and continuity in the narratives of political conversion among Iraq War veterans (United States)

    David Flores


    This study examines conversion narratives of Iraq War military veterans who have become antiwar political activists. I examine how antiwar veterans construct and emplot prewar, wartime, and postwar narrative periods to shape and reclaim their moral identities as patriots fighting for a just cause, and how through a communal antiwar story they work to both...

  19. Factors Influencing the Use of Child Soldiers in Armed Conflicts: Perspectives on Liberia and a Way Forward for Future Wars (United States)


    Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair Michael E . Weaver, M.A. , Member Roger J. Linder, M.A. , Member Sean N. Kalic...survival during armed conflicts. In the context of the Coerced 136 Vera Achvarina and Simon F...African Union, the African Charter on the Rights of the Child, Economic 236 Ibid. 237 Henry E

  20. The Peacock versus the louse (pediculus humanus corporis): one soldier's contribution to combating trench fever in the First World War. (United States)

    Peacock, A; Pearson, W


    Trench fever became a major worry for the Allied High Command during the First World War because of its debilitating effects on troop performance. The causes of the fever were not previously known, but entomological research identified the body louse (pediculus humanus corporis) as the carrier, and the Royal Army Medical Corps developed effective methods of control through disinfestation. These were markedly influenced by the researches of a young entomologist, Alexander David Peacock, which were conducted under campaign conditions. Peacock subsequently occupied a Chair of Zoology at St. Andrews University for 30 years.

  1. The Union Defence Force Between the Two World Wars, 1919-1940


    Ian Van der Waag


    South Africa was ill prepared for the Second World War. Her war potential was limited and Hitler is reputed to have laughed when the South African declaration came on 6 September 1939. The Permanent and Active Citizen Forces were under strength: the first comprised only 350 officers and some five thousand men. There were a further 122 000 men in the Commandos, of whom only 18 000 were reasonably equipped, and, being rurally based and overwhelmingly Afrikaans, many of these men did not support...

  2. Gendered spaces, gendered pages: Union women in Civil War nurse narratives. (United States)

    Telford, Jennifer Casavant; Long, Thomas Lawrence


    This interdisciplinary analysis joins literary and culture studies with history using Daphne Spain's theory of gendered spaces. Specifically, we examine the reconfiguration of the spaces of military medical work and of book publishing that produced popular literary representations of those medical spaces. As a social historian of nursing and a scholar of American literature and culture, we argue that the examination of Civil War narratives by or about Northern female nurses surveys a landscape in which women penetrated the masculine spaces of the military hospital and the literary spaces of the wartime narrative. In so doing, these women transformed these spaces into places acknowledging and even relying upon what had been traditionally considered male domains. Like many historiographical papers written about nurses and the impact of their practice over time, this work is relevant to those practicing nursing today, specifically those issues related to professional authority and professional autonomy.

  3. The Civil War Diet


    Brennan, Matthew Philip


    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  4. Mitterrand and the Great European Design—From the Cold War to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro


    Full Text Available François Mitterrand had a leading role in directing the course for the European integration process. While he orchestrated the economic integration of Europe, he remained deeply opposed to further political integration within the Communities. This article researches Mitterrand’s rationale for his clear focus on economic affairs and develops his vision for the institutional setting of the European Union (EU. The focus of the article is allocated to four different perspectives that reflect the four pillars of Mitterrand’s European policy: the common currency, the establishment of a closely integrated and small Western European based EU, the development of the Social Europe and of a free trade area between Europe and Africa. It is argued that although EU institutions have been established based on Mitterrand’s design, today’s reality deviates from the conditions on which his plan was based. For Mitterrand, the ideal EU involved a deep-rooted Western Europe with France at its core and a loose association with Central and Eastern Europe. His perception resembles the current discussions of multi-speed Europe and the determination of France and Germany to proceed to the next stage of the integration process. Importantly, Mitterrand’s print can still be recognised in the EU’s social policy included in the treaties, yet still far from being implemented. Notably, like all of the French Presidents, Mitterrand developed a design for Africa in which an extensive free trade area between Europe and former French colonies were to be established. In this proposal, Germany was to be assigned the part of the economic engine behind the actualisation of the proposal, while France was to carry out the role of a required middle man of the transactions. To further assure France’s political predominance over the Communities, Mitterrand designed a common currency for a small number of homogenous Western-European states.

  5. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus


    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at:

  6. History of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union, 1941-1945. Volume 6. Results of the Great Patriotic War, (United States)


    Iraq, Iceland, Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Lebanon, Mexico , Netherlands, Nicaragua, New Zealand, Syria, Uruguay, Chile, Ecuador, Ethiopia 4. The number...Great Patriotic War), a collection of docu- ments. Yaroslavl’ Book Publishers, 1960. ALBANIA Banca Nazionale d’Albania. Ufficio studi. Economia albanese

  7. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib


    : Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary......In this article I primarily analyse observational war documentaries in order to deal with how this particular form of documentary contribute to our understanding of how it is to be at war as a soldier or as a civilian in a war zone. I analyse two very different observational war documentaries...... biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...

  8. Suicide and War: The Mediating Effects of Negative Mood, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Social Support among Army National Guard Soldiers (United States)

    Griffith, James


    The mediating effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, negative mood, and social support on the relationship of war experiences to suicidality were examined. The research literature suggested a sequence among study scales representing these constructs, which was then tested on survey data obtained from a sample of National Guard…

  9. Policy Failures in the Graveyard of Empires: How Policymakers Let the Soldiers Down in the British, the Soviet, and the American Wars in Afghanistan (United States)


    Afghanistan’s history and its socio -cultural environment, the study critically analyzes the negative impact of policy failures - acts of both omission as well...wars in Afghanistan. Set in the context of Afghanistan’s history and its socio -cultural environment, the study critically analyzes the negative... franchise and Westminster democracy. 83 Rubin, The Fragmentation of Afghanistan, 28

  10. Messaging, Missions, and Mindsets: The Unintended Consequences of National Messaging and Policy when Translated into Operations and Soldier Actions in the Second World War (United States)


    abundant, and nearly every American had regular 6 access to radios and the cinema . For the first time, messages could reach nearly everyone in...still required for full support. On December 7th, 1941, the Japanese provided it.42 On December 11th, 1941, Hitler declared war on the U.S., without...Soviet, and anti-gypsy indoctrinating propaganda. Nazi public festivals and theater, contextually similar to the American cinema experience


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    “This is how wars are fought now: by children, traumatized, hopped-up on drugs and wielding AK-47s. Children ... existence perceived as endless oppressive reigns of varied proportions (World War. II, Apartheid, the Berlin Wall ... UK, and what is the currency of a child soldier “a long way gone” in the streets of. South Africa?

  12. Diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (dlco) in chemical lung injuries due to the use of mustard gas in the poisoned soldiers of Iran-Iraq war 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhi, H.; Ganji, F.


    To assess the Mustard gas exposure effects on pulmonary system, particularly on diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (DLCO) and simple spirometry. Sixty-five sulfur mustard- poisoned soldiers from Mostazafan and Janbazan organization were referred to our center in 2005. Complete history, physical examination, chest X ray, Echocardiography, Arterial blood gas, high - resolution computerized tomography, diffusion capacity for lung carbon monoxide and spirometry of these were performed and compared this result with normal value. The mean value of indices in studied injured subjects was: Spirometry: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) = 70.4, Forced vital capacity (FVC) = 66.5, EFE 25-75=81.1, FEV1/FVC=101.9, Flow 25% = 28.7, Flow 50%= 72.9, Flow 75%= 100.1, Sample volume: Functional residual capacity of lungs (FRC) = 131.5, residual volume (RV) = 157.3, RV/TLC= 169.1, Total lung capacity (TLC) = 91.3, KCO= 131.6, TLCO= 116.3. No significant correlation was observed between TLCO values with HRCT, echocardiography, ABG and spirometry values (P>0.05). We recommend TLCO and RV/TLV tests to assess severity of Injuries as there is no a suitable criterion to measure the real consequences of mustard gas on affected combatants. and Biological markers are also needed to determine cause effect relations. (author)

  13. Chasing the Gray Ghost: Blazer’s Independent Union Scouts and the Shenandoah Valley Guerilla War of 1864 (United States)


    well trained and educated for employment in all forms ofwarfare."z After years ofpreparing for 1 L I conventional war on the presumption superior...far. He sent two ofhis best Rangers, John Puryear and Charley McDough, back to Kabletown with orders to keep an eye out for any signs of Blazer and...military education , Captain Blazer was unbound from the restraints and constraints of conventional military science and allowed to apply the true art

  14. Use of Fat Grafts in Facial Reconstruction on the Wounded Soldiers From the First World War (WWI) by Hippolyte Morestin (1869-1919). (United States)

    Benmoussa, Nadia; Hansen, Kevin; Charlier, Philippe


    During the Great War of 1914 to 1918, spectacular progress was made in the field of facial reconstruction. The sheer number and severity of facial lesions inflicted during the fighting obliged French and German surgeons to take a close interest in the treatment of patients wounded in such a manner. As head surgeon of the fifth division "blessés de la face" at the hospital of Val-de-Grace, Hippolyte Morestin was responsible for one of the largest surgical departments specializing in facial surgery and reconstruction during the war. During his time of service, he developed various surgical techniques such as autoplasties using cartilaginous and adipose grafts to reconstruct tissue defects. This study focuses primarily on the adipose graft techniques and their aesthetic outcome used by Morestin during and in the aftermath of World War I. This is a historical descriptive study. Our research is based on documents available at the museum and archives of the Val-de-Grace Army Health Service (hospital activity reports, pre- and postoperative patient photographs, newspaper clippings, documented accounts of ward nurses, wax anatomy models). Thirty-four clinical cases published by Hippolyte Morestin dealing with facial reconstruction during the World War I were studied. Fat was mainly used to fill craniofacial substance losses after carrying out often complex reconstructions. The surgical technique is well documented and subdivided into 3 succeeding procedures. Most of the time, the grafts were of autologous origin but sometimes heterologous samples were used. Although the primary objective was to increase volume, an improved quality of skin healing and better skin flexibility were observed. The fat thus allowed the filling of substance losses, and its positive effects on scarring were noticed even before the regenerative properties of the stem cells present in body fat were discovered. Hippolyte Morestin can be named one of the pioneers of facial reconstruction. A

  15. Star wars and strategic defense initiatives: work activity and health symptoms of unionized bank tellers during work reorganization. (United States)

    Seifert, A M; Messing, K; Dumais, L


    Work activity and health symptoms of bank tellers whose work was undergoing reorganization were examined during a university-union study of the health effects of work in women's traditional jobs. Data were gathered through collective and individual interviews, analysis of work activity, and a questionnaire administered to 305 tellers. Employees worked in a standing posture over 80 percent of the time. More than two-thirds frequently suffered pain in back, legs, and feet. The average teller had been involved in 3.7 robberies as a direct victim and six as a witness. Work required feats of memory and concentration. In order to meet job demands, tellers engaged in supportive activities and teamwork. The introduction of individualized objectives threatened the employees' ability to collaborate and induced distress. More than twice as many tellers as other female workers in Québec experience psychological distress (Ilfeld scale), related to: robbery during the past two years (odds ratio = 1.7; confidence interval = 1.0-2.9); difficult relations with superiors (O.R. = 2.6; C.I. = 1.3-5.3); and full-time work (O.R. = 2.3; C.I. = 1.3-3.9). Diverse methods enriched the analysis, and union participation allowed the proposal of concrete correction measures.

  16. EL CUERPO DEL HÉROE: EL DESCUBRIMIENTO DEL BUSTO DE UN SOLDADO CAÍDO EN LA GUERRA DE MALVINAS / The Hero's Body: the Unveiling of the Bust of a Soldier Fallen in the Malvinas War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marina Panizo


    Full Text Available En este artículo veremos de qué manera el descubrimiento del busto del soldado caído en la Guerra de Malvinas, Elbio Aaujo, expresa un marco simbólico de interpretación de la muerte en la guerra de un grupo particular, y deviene para los familiares en un escenario de dramatización de la muerte que por la falta del cuerpo no pudo enfrentarse a través de sus formas habituales. Observaré al ritual desde el punto de vista de la performance, ya que nos permite ver de qué manera estamos refiriéndonos a experiencias vivenciadas en escenarios determinados, a través de los cuales es habitada la muerte de una persona, y significada de una manera particular. Así, veremos que a través del descubrimiento del busto, se sustituye la presencia del cuerpo ausente por otra materialidad y la puesta en escena actúa no sólo como un canal de comunicación a través del cual los deudos expresan al resto de la sociedad sus experiencias y los sentidos dados a la muerte en la guerra, sino que deviene también, para los familiares involucrados, en una práctica transformadora en cuanto a la reflexividad que propone sobre la condición social del muerto. Abstract In this paper we will show how the unveiling of the bust of Elbio Aaujo, a soldier fallen in the Malvinas War, expresses the symbolic framework for interpretation of death in battle of a particular group, at the same time becoming for his relatives the stage for dramatization of a death that could not be dealt with in the usual manner due to the lack of a body. We will deal with the ritual from the point of view of performance, since it allows us to see the ways experiences are lived in specific scenes, through which the death of a person is inhabited and signified in a particular way. Therefore, we will show that through the unveiling of the bust, the lack of the body is replaced by a different materiality and that the performance acts not only as a communication channel through which the bereaved

  17. Yaacov Ro´i, Boris Morozov, eds, The Soviet Union and the June 1967 Six Day War


    Rey, Marie-Pierre


    L’ouvrage coordonné par Yaacov Ro´i et Boris Morozov réunit neuf contributions qui, émanant de chercheurs américains, russes et israéliens et toutes fondées sur des archives depuis peu accessibles, éclaire de manière nouvelle et convaincante la question de l’engagement et du rôle de l’Union soviétique durant la guerre des Six Jours. Cinq articles présentés dans le volume traitent directement de l’attitude soviétique à l’heure du conflit. Le premier, rédigé par Yaacov Ro´i, traite de l’engagem...

  18. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war. (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien


    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.

  19. Child Soldiers: Are U.S. Military Members Prepared to Deal with the Threat? (United States)


    killing child soldiers. Additional attention should also be invested into identifying interventions that would decrease the negative stigma of mental...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CHILD SOLDIERS: ARE U.S. MILITARY MEMBERS PREPARED TO DEAL WITH THE THREAT? by Judith Hughes, LtCol, USAF A...COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Child Soldiers: Are U.S. Military Members Prepared to Deal with the Threat? 5a. CONTRACT

  20. A Joint Project of the Soviet Union and the USA on the Eve of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmár Zoltán


    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe la colaboración mantenida por los Estados Unidos de América y la Unión Soviética para solucionar el problema de la creación del Estado de Israel. Se describen los mecanismos diplomáticos, las iniciativas tomadas y los efectos de las mismas en la dinámica de la cuestión palestina. La resolución de la ONU fechada el 29 de noviembre de 1947 contenía párrafos sobre la creación de ambos Estados pero al no presionar ambas supervivencias por la opción de un Estado independiente palestino junto con otro israelí se perdió la posibilidad de asegurar la estabilidad de Oriente Medio en un largo plazo.__________________ABSTRACT:In this article is described the collaboration supported by the United States of America and the Soviet Union to solve the problem of the creation of Israel's State. There are described the diplomatic mechanisms, the taken initiatives and the effects of the same ones in the dynamics of the Palestinian question. The UN resolution dated 29th November 1947 contained passages about the creation of both states within ten months but as superpowers did not press for the creation of the independent Palestinian state along with the independent Jewish state the possibility of securing longterm stability for the Middle East was lost.

  1. Reintegration of National Guard Soldiers with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (United States)


    Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current wars in Iraq...veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current...returning veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). These veterans’ coping skills have

  2. Gas Warfare in World War I. (United States)

    Flintham, A. J.


    The effectiveness of gas warfare during World War I was increased by the lack of a basic understanding of the behavior of gases on the part of the soldiers. This was a result of deficiencies in science education. (BB)

  3. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn


    the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased...

  4. The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim. (United States)

    Penslar, Derek


    The story of German-Jewish soldiers and veterans of World War I illustrates how, under circumstances of inclusion (even if incomplete) rather than vicious persecution, Jewish suffering in wartime, and with it the forms of collective memory and strategies for commemoration of the dead, could closely parallel, even intersect with, the suffering of Germans as a whole. To be sure, the points of intersection were accompanied by points of deflection. Even when Jews served, fought, suffered and died as German soldiers, their interpretations of the war experience, and their communities’ postwar memory and commemorative practices, differed from those of other Germans. In many ways, however, German-Jewish veterans suffered the aftermath of the war as did other Germans; they shared the prevailing fury over war guilt and reparations, and they retained a strong pride in their military service, a pride through which they interpreted the events of 1933–1945.

  5. The Missing Soldier in the Drug War (United States)


    further, Robert Maginnis of the Family Research Council states, “Giving heroin to addicts is unethical and can result in euthanasia. Instead of...formidable foe we’ve faced since slavery . Someone is selling death to us, and we’re letting it happen. The only reason drugs are sold on the

  6. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2 (United States)


    Union officer become Supreme Court Justice, spoke of the Civil War’s psychic effect on those who had fought. Determined to act greatly, Holmes and his...than psychic and hardiy limited to those who, like himself, had served in the Union armies. Institutions as well as individuals had emerged from the match unemployed workers with vacant jobs. 39 If by the close of 1918, the government reacted to possible strikes with threatened removal of a

  7. Patents for Soldiers (United States)


    PATENTS FOR SOLDIERS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment...COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUNE 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Patents for Soldiers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. of an innovative idea; that is, a patent . A Soldier’s pursuit of patents provides the Army with tangible and intangible benefits. There are on

  8. Teaching World War I from Multiple Perspectives. (United States)

    Foster, Stuart J.; Rosch, Richard


    Outlines a multicultural approach to World War I that emphasizes the truly international character of the war, in which many soldiers and support workers from European colonies were compelled to participate. Discusses the fighting in East Africa and Asia, as well as, the contributions of the Indian Expeditionary Forces. (MJP)

  9. Currency union entries and trade


    Nitsch, Volker


    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  10. War of Images and Images of War: Rape and Sacrifice in the Iraq War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Rial


    Full Text Available This article addresses one of the great issues about which global media remains silent: the rape of Muslim women by U.S. soldiers in Iraq. Contemporary mediascape is prolix. But some silences remain, such as the issue of rape during war. With an anthropological approach to the meaning of war and through the analysis of images, the article focuses on the participation of women in this male space.

  11. Children and war. (United States)

    Pearn, J


    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  12. The Surrender of Tobruk in 1942: Press reports and soldiers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The British and South African papers began to demand answers from politicians and military leaders for this shocking and unexpected catastrophe. The press ... Keywords: Prisoners of war (POWs), World War II, Union Defence Force, Erwin Rommel, Auchinleck, Ritchie, HB Klopper, South Africa, Eighth Army, Gazala ...

  13. Neuropsychiatric Disturbances, Self-Mutilation and Malingering in the French Armies during World War I: War Strain or Cowardice? (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien


    Between 1914 and 1918, war strain appeared under a number of guises and affected, to varying extents, the majority of French soldiers. The most frequent form of war strain was war psychoneurosis, but war strain also induced more paroxystic disorders, such as acute episodes of terror, self-mutilation, induced illnesses and even suicide. Fear was the constant companion of soldiers of the Great War: soldiers were either able to tame it or overwhelmed by an uncontrollable fear. Nonetheless, over the course of the war, some aspects of fear were recognised as syndromes. The French health service poorly anticipated the major consequences of war strain, as with many other types of injuries. After the establishment of wartime neuropsychiatric centres, two main medical stances emerged: listening to soldiers empathetically on the one hand and applying more repressive management on the other. For many physicians, the psychological consequences of this first modern war were synonymous with malingering or cowardice in the face of duty. The stance of French military physicians in relation to their command was not unequivocal and remained ambivalent, swaying between medico-military collusion and empathy towards soldiers experiencing psychological distress. The ubiquity of suspected malingering modified the already porous borders between neuropsychiatric disorders and disobedience. Several war psychoneurotic soldiers were sentenced by councils of war for deserting their posts in the face of the enemy and were shot. Many soldiers suspected of self-mutilation or suffering from induced illnesses were also sentenced and executed without an expert assessment of their wound or their psychological state. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. A statistical campaign: Florence Nightingale and Harriet Martineau’s 'England and her Soldiers'


    Iris Veysey


    This essay is an account of the making of England and her Soldiers (1859) by Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. The book is a literary account of the Crimean War, written by Martineau and based on Nightingale’s statistical studies of mortality during the conflict. Nightingale was passionate about statistics and healthcare. Whilst working as a nurse in the Crimea, she witnessed thousands of soldiers die of infectious diseases that might have been prevented with proper sanitation. Afte...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А Ю Безугольный


    Full Text Available Under combat conditions, it is mutual understanding between a commander and a soldier by means of a simple language communication which becomes the cornerstone. The absence or lack of such communication may lead to excessive losses and hinder the execution of combat missions. The author for the fi rst time addresses the problem of mass conscription of soldiers from the Union and Autonomous republics of the USSR, who understood the spoken Russian speech very little or didn’t understand it at all. The author aims to fi nd out the degree of effi ciency of solving the problem of the Russian language in the ranks of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army (RKKA, undertaken by the Soviet leadership in the prewar years.The author has found that in order to overcome this problem, there were taken actions in two directions. On the one hand, there was training of youth of pre-military age due to the introduction in 1938 of the mandatory teaching of the Russian language in national schools. On the other hand, there was training of recruits due to the introduction in 1939 of a three-month course for the soldiers of non-Russian nationalities. The work in these two directions failed to give the desired result in a short time due to the lack of teachers, unifi ed curricula, textbooks and books in dozens of languages of the USSR peoples. The author comes to the conclusion that the emergency measures taken by the government and the military command in the prewar years proved to be ineffective due to the complexity and large scale of the problem. In turn, the unresolved language issue lowered the level of com-bat readiness of the RKKA in the war.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sacrificed at the altar of soldiers' constitutional rights to form and join trade unions .... includes a rights-based culture, a rise in individualism, a change in the acceptance of ... military leadership with the military unions that poses the greatest threat to civil– ... 10 European Organisation of Military Associations, available at ...

  17. Watch Out for the Children: Army Policy and Child Soldiers (United States)


    Arbor, MI: Fairfax Press, 1960), 63. 17 Emmy E . Werner, Reluctant Witnesses: Children’s Voices from the Civil War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998...Soldiers: From Violence to Protection (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006), 20–21. 71 Vera Achvarina and Simon F. Reich, “No Place to Hide...Conflict: Law, Policy and Practice (Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2005), 23. 86 Tanya Zayed and Svenja Vollmer, E -Learning

  18. A Historical Survey of Military Health Services: The Crimean War and Florence Nigtingale


    Unal Demirtas; Gultekin Ozturk; Aslan Ozden


    During the Crimean War freezing cold and contagious diseases was more important than the Russian soldiers for the allied armies. Typhus, scorbut, cholera and malaria prepare the dead of a large number of soldiers. According to the resources, the contagious diseases led to death more than ten times of the military actions. That and #8217;s why, The European armies understood the importance of the treatment diseases in the war and the Crimean War became the beginning point in military health co...

  19. The Lauramann Howe Russell Papers: a Window into Critical Care Medicine during the American Civil War. (United States)

    Gorbaty, Benjamin


    The Civil War influenced all aspects of American society and culture, including the field of medicine and critical care. Union physician Lauramann Howe Russell's letter to his daughter, Ellen Howe, written on October 19, 1862, illustrates the changes in hospital construction, gender roles in healthcare and medical treatments which revolutionized healthcare during the Civil War. This letter offers a glimpse of the medical care of wounded soldiers during the early years of the Civil War. In describing his conversion hospital, he reveals the precursor to the new hospital construction which would greatly influence hospital design for decades to come. His description of women volunteers hints at the evolving role and growing importance of women in healthcare. Finally, the advancements in surgical and medical practice which developed during the Civil War are embodied in Russell's descriptions of his patients. His letter freezes a moment in medical history, bridging the gap between archaic medical practice and modern critical care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in mental health services utilization and stigma in US soldiers from 2002 to 2011. (United States)

    Quartana, Phillip J; Wilk, Joshua E; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Bray, Robert M; Rae Olmsted, Kristine L; Brown, Janice M; Williams, Jason; Kim, Paul Y; Clarke-Walper, Kristina; Hoge, Charles W


    We characterized trends in mental health services utilization and stigma over the course of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars among active-component US soldiers. We evaluated trends in mental health services utilization and stigma using US Army data from the Health-Related Behavior (HRB) surveys from 2002, 2005, and 2008 (n = 12,835) and the Land Combat Study (LCS) surveys administered to soldiers annually from 2003 to 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 22,627). HRB and LCS data suggested increased mental health services utilization and decreased stigma in US soldiers between 2002 and 2011. These trends were evident in soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or PTSD and MDD. Despite the improving trends, more than half of soldiers with mental health problems did not report seeking care. Mental health services utilization increased and stigma decreased over the course of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although promising, these findings indicate that a significant proportion of US soldiers meeting criteria for PTSD or MDD do not utilize mental health services, and stigma remains a pervasive problem requiring further attention.

  1. Gesturing beyond the Frame: Transnational Trauma and US War Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. H. Lahti


    Full Text Available The convergent boundary between the fields of trauma theory and US war fiction has resulted in a narrow focus on the subjectivity of the American soldier in war fiction, which partly conditions American war fiction's privileging of the soldier-author. However, this focus on American soldiers does not adequately account for the essentially interactive nature of war trauma, and it elides the experiences of nurses and noncombatants on all sides of the battle while also obscuring women's distinctive war experiences, even when the fiction itself sometimes includes these dimensions. In this essay, Lahti argues that a transnational method can counter these imbalances in trauma theory and in studies of US war fiction. She engages Tim O'Brien's highly influential The Things They Carried from a transnational perspective by interrogating the text's figuring of the survivor author and focusing on critically neglected scenes of interaction between the American soldiers and Vietnamese civilians. In order to discern the way these scenes reveal the text's own struggle with its national US frame, she elaborates a methodology of close reading characters' bodily gestures to foreground the way that fiction offers a glimpse into war as a relational event, always involving two or more participants. In the case of The Things They Carried, this approach brings into view a heretofore unnoticed pattern of mimicry between the American characters and Vietnamese characters that reshapes our scholarly understanding of the text's representation of war trauma.

  2. Clausewitz, nonlinearity, and the unpredictability of war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerchen, A.


    Despite the frequent invocations of his name in recent years, especially during the Gulf War, there is something deeply perplexing about the work of Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831). In particular, his unfinished magnum opus On War seems to offer a theory of war, at the same time that is perversely denies many of the fundamental preconditions of theory as such - simplification, generalization and prediction, among others. The book continues to draw the attention of both soldiers and theorists of war, although soldiers often find the ideas of Clausewitz too philosophical to appear practical, while analysts usually find his thoughts too empirical to seem elegant. Members of both groups sense that there is too much truth in what he writes to ignore him. Yet, as the German historian Hans Rothfels has bluntly put it, Clausewitz is an author 'more quoted than actually read.' 84 refs

  3. Killing in Combat: Utilizing a Christian Perspective, When is a Soldier Justified in Taking a Life? (United States)


    Vietnam War combat veterans suffering from PTSD, has to say concerning subjects such as grief, guilt , honor, suffering, and healing while investigating...Gray, who served as an intelligence 11 officer in World War I, offers his thoughts on death and killing while discussing the guilt Soldiers so...battlefield (1959, 104). Gray also discusses the need for hating one’s enemy while having pride in the number of kills on the battlefield as a necessity

  4. Health promotion research in active duty army soldiers: The road to a fit and ready force. (United States)

    McCarthy, Mary S; Elshaw, Evelyn B; Szekely, Barbara M; Pflugeisen, Bethann

    In the last decade the Military Health System has changed its paradigm to focus on health promotion and disease prevention. This paper reviews a decade of research exploring the effects of military life on nutritional status and bone health of Army soldiers. Descriptive and experimental approaches have assessed occupational demands on soldiers in variable environments that require optimal nutrition status and physical health. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the military has risen dramatically and the implications for health, readiness, productivity, and cost demands attention. The related nutritional deficits such as suboptimal vitamin D status likely contribute to musculoskeletal injuries which have a greater impact on the performance and readiness of soldiers than any other medical condition in peacetime or conflict. The greatest challenge in our system for health is optimizing the performance of all soldiers while minimizing health risks and long-term disability resulting from occupational hazards, particularly those inherent to war. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Convincing American Women to Join in the Efforts to Win World War I: A Lesson Plan. (United States)

    Sunal, Cynthia S.; Haas, Mary E.


    Asserts that World War I, unlike previous wars, was not fought by small groups of professional soldiers, but with large groups of citizens, including women. Presents a lesson plan using poster and postcards that examines methods used by the U.S. government to rally women to join the war effort. (CFR)

  6. Recent Cold War Studies (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn


    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  7. [German nurses during the First World War]. (United States)

    Wagner, Franz


    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  8. War time experiences of triage and resuscitation: Australian Army nurses in the Vietnam War, 1967-1971. (United States)

    Biedermann, N E; Harvey, N R


    The experiences of nurses in war is prolifically described in the North American scholarly literature, and in the Australian nursing literature to a lesser extent. The literature describes the plights and achievements of nurses caring for soldiers and civilians often under the most undesirable of circumstances. A central focus of war time nursing is the resuscitation of critically wounded soldiers. This paper addresses the experiences of the Australian Army nurses who were involved in the triage and resuscitation of critically wounded allied and enemy soldiers in the Vietnam War between 1967 and 1971. As part of a research study to explore and analyse the nature of nursing work in the Vietnam War, seventeen Vietnam veteran nurses were interviewed about their experiences. This paper explores the progression of the triage department in the Australian military hospital in Vung Tau, and it highlights that the majority of the nurses who took part in this study were clinically unprepared, particularly as emergency nurses.

  9. 17. The Thirty Years War


    Blamires, David


    Without any question the period of the Thirty Years War, from 1618 to 1648, was one of the most horrifying in the history of Germany. Not only were huge numbers of soldiers killed in battle in virtually every part of the Holy Roman Empire, but even greater numbers of the civilian population died in the conflict or through starvation or disease. Houses, churches, villages and towns were burnt and destroyed, and by the end of the war the population had been reduced from about sixteen millions t...

  10. Soldier Survey Data Book (United States)


    programs and policies and to increase the knowledge base needed for informed decisionmaking. Data for the soldier survey were collected in on-site...Subsequent analyses will be prepared in the form of reports and other materials designed to meet the needs of Army program and policy staff and other...743 * -C Mm C mm l W G gi’ 4.18L. 1 mmI 2In m -P 6- C-4 , 4. C14 u Cc 3 4.1 41 4.1 - C I-D 6. 1 +5 4.1 4-- C-4 RO C4 r ’ C-4, CD 0 f33 Es *i C5 W CNCD

  11. The Missing Men: World War I and Female Labor Participation


    Gay, Victor; Boehnke, Jörn


    We explore the effect of military fatalities from World War I on female labor participation in post-war France. We build a unique dataset containing individual level information for all 1.3 million fallen soldiers, and find that the tightness of the marriage market along with negative income shocks generated by the scarcity of men induced many young single women and older widows to enter the labor force permanently after the war, especially in the industrial sector. These findings are robust ...

  12. The Effects of War on Syrian Refugees' Academic Achievement (United States)

    Ulum, Ömer Gökhan; Kara, Ömer Tugrul


    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the effects of war on Syrian students' academic success. No one can deny the fact that wars have direct and indirect effects on children. Besides, no one can deny the fact that not only soldiers are targets in wars, but also children, women, and even old people are, who altogether make a society.…

  13. Necessary Evil: The Importance of Destruction and Occupation in War (United States)


    world wars, the Cold War, and many other military conflicts. As the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle said, “We make war so that we may live in...of ashes—the result of systematic burning at the hands of 1 Aristotle . Nichomachean Ethics...the defeated nation and stew in the rhetoric of how wrongly they had been treated. The small number of occupation soldiers physically present

  14. Critique of the War Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    was soldier and prisoner of war from age 15-17, would not write a “Der Krieg der Gesellschaft”. Yet the attempt to narrow this lacuna is indeed a heavy burden and a difficult task, in which, firstly, it is methodologically decisive to get the basic distinctions right about a second order observation of war......, and in social theory and sociology as well, there is a missing link in the lack of a sociology of war. A number of German systems theoreticians use Luhmann’s theory to fulfil that gap (Gertrud Brücher; Krysztof Matuszek; Rasmus Beckmann; Barbara Kuchler; Tobias Kohl; Klaus Dammann) Luhmann (born 1927), who...... as a conflict system – to be distinct from a military organisational system. This, I do initially with a reconceptualization of Carl von Clausewitz’ form analysis and self-description of war from Vom Kriege (1832). The central point, then, is to observe the self-reference of war, or how war became war about war...

  15. Children exposed to war/terrorism. (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A


    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  16. Revival of the Moral Traditions in Red Army During the Great Patriotic War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene G. Guzhva


    Full Text Available On the eve of the 70th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War, it is important to analyze the moral factors that contributed to the uplift in the Red Army and the manifestation of mass heroism to defend the Fatherland. During the ordeal, when the fate of the country hung in the balance, the Soviet leadership was forced to revert to the heroic pages of national history and raise the patriotic spirit and the offensive of the armed forces on the front and high productivity at home. Since the 40s of the 19th century in the Russian army it was considered a holy tradition to start the evening roll call from the heroes. During the Great Patriotic War, the tradition was revived. Thus, according to the order of People's Commissar of Defense of the September 8,1943 the hero of the Soviet Union Alexander Matrosov was enlisted in the lists of the 1st company of 254-th Guards Rifle Regiment. Thus, the traditions of the Russian army, revived during the Great Patriotic War, testifies to their eternal spiritual values in matters of moral and patriotic education of servicemen of the Russian armed forces. This historical and pedagogical analysis is of great importance for the spiritual, moral and patriotic education of youth and soldiers of the Russian army at the present stage of development of society.

  17. Research on deployed Danish soldiers: why is knowledge derived from a small, Nordic country relevant for other countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Andersen, Soren Bo


    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the Danish military has deployed more than 40,000 soldiers to war zones, especially to the Balkans, Iraq, and Afghanistan. To the war in Afghanistan alone, the Danish Defense has to date deployed 9,918 unique soldiers with a total of 18,015 deployments. The total...... focusing on the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in this sample will be presented, and the relevance and generalizability of these findings to military populations from other countries will be discussed....

  18. Efforts to Promote Reintegration and Rehabilitation of Traumatized Former Child Soldiers (United States)

    Borisova, Ivelina I.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Willett, John B.


    This article explores the role of caregivers in the reintegration of former child soldiers from Sierra Leone. Using data on 282 youth and their respective caregivers, our aim is to focus on the caregiver–child relationship after reintegration. We investigate the extent to which caregivers know about child soldiers' experiences of direct and indirect violence, as well as involvement in war activities. We further examine variables that might shape the degree of caregiver knowledge of child's war experiences. Finally, we examine if caregiver knowledge of war experiences is associated with child's psychosocial outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of developing thoughtful programs that consider the needs of the child in the context of the family and caregivers with whom he or she is reunified. PMID:29249893

  19. Emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide and its association with later symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety in soldiers deployed to Iraq. (United States)

    Telch, Michael J; Rosenfield, David; Lee, Han-Joo; Pai, Anushka


    The identification of modifiable predeployment vulnerability factors that increase the risk of combat stress reactions among soldiers once deployed to a war zone offers significant potential for the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other combat-related stress disorders. Adults with anxiety disorders display heightened emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide (CO(2)); however, data investigating prospective linkages between emotional reactivity to CO(2) and susceptibility to war-zone stress reactions are lacking. To investigate the association of soldiers' predeployment emotional reactivity to 35% CO(2) challenge with several indices of subsequent war-zone stress symptoms assessed monthly while deployed in Iraq. Prospective cohort study of 158 soldiers with no history of deployment to a war zone were recruited from the Texas Combat Stress Risk Study between April 2, 2007, and August 28, 2009. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate the association between emotional reactivity to 35% CO(2) challenge (assessed before deployment) and soldiers' reported symptoms of general anxiety/stress, PTSD, and depression while deployed to Iraq. Growth curves of PTSD, depression, and general anxiety/stress symptoms showed a significant curvilinear relationship during the 16-month deployment period. War-zone stressors reported in theater were associated with symptoms of general anxiety/stress, PTSD, and depression. Consistent with the prediction, soldiers' emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% CO(2)-enriched air before deployment significantly potentiated the effects of war-zone stressors on the subsequent development of PTSD symptoms and general anxiety/stress symptoms but not on the development of depression, even after accounting for the effects of trait anxiety and the presence of past or current Axis I mental disorders. Soldiers' emotional reactivity to a 35% CO(2) challenge may serve as a vulnerability

  20. British Widows of the South African War and the Origins of War Widows' Pensions. (United States)

    Riedi, Eliza


    The South African War of 1899-1902 cost the lives of 22,000 British and colonial soldiers and created almost 5,000 British war widows. It was in this context that the first state pensions for the widows of rank and file soldiers were introduced in 1901. Triggered by unexpectedly high casualty rates and widespread dissatisfaction with charitable provision, the introduction of state pensions also reflected changing public attitudes towards soldiers and their dependants in the context of an imperial war. Dismissed in the historiography as insignificant because of its low rates and restrictive eligibility clauses, the 1901 scheme in fact delivered pensions to the majority of war widows and made the Edwardian state their most important source of financial support. This article, after discussing the social and political context in which widows' pensions were developed, analyses the economics of the scheme and how key eligibility rules were formulated, before investigating significant changes in the scheme to 1920, the point at which Boer War widows were finally granted full maintenance. Strongly influenced by the practices of Victorian armed forces charities and by contemporary ideologies of gender and class, the South African War pension regulations created precedents which would continue to shape pensions for military widows to the end of the twentieth century.

  1. [Scientific, pedagogical, and surgical work of professor V.F.Voyno-Yasenetsky during the Great Patriotic War]. (United States)

    Kosachev, I D; Gladkikh, P F; Iakovlev, A E


    The article is devoted to activities in the period 1941-1945. Krasnoyarsk and Tambov, a professor of surgery Valentine Feliksovich Voyno-Yasenetsky (Archbishop Luka)--doctor of medical sciences, laureate of the State (Stalin) Prize of the USSR, who made a significant contribution to the success of modern surgical science. A brilliant scholar and successor of the ideas of the outstanding scientist and surgeon Nikolai Pirogov, as in the Great Patriotic War surgeon and consultant evacuation hospitals, along with leading surgeons in the Soviet Union had a significant impact on the results of treatment of wounded soldiers and officers, thereby affecting the development of military field surgery. In our country it is rightfully considered the founder of contaminated surgery.

  2. Nuclear war effects studied (United States)

    Widespread starvation resulting from changes in climate in the aftermath of a large-scale nuclear war could kill far more people than would the bombs themselves. That prediction was made in a recent study by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), an a rm of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). “Noncombatant and combatant countries alike” would risk mass starvation; SCOPE predicted that all told, 2.5 billion people could die as a result of crop failures and breakdowns in food distribution after a nuclear war.

  3. On park design : looking beyond the wars


    Oneka, M.


    The present book opens with an account of a buffalo hunt in the company of soldiers in one of the national parks in Uganda. One buffalo was hit close to the heart but fled away as if it was not fatally wounded. The soldiers seeing it flee, fired more rounds of ammunition at it until, with limbs broken, the buffalo fell down. This account is used to demonstrate some of the ravages of wars on parks. It is argued that most parks around the world are destined to perish because of defec...

  4. A Lyrical War: Gallipoli War through Poetry in Anzac Diaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Çelikel


    Full Text Available During the First World War, Dardanelles witnessed one of the fiercest clashes in history between the British and the Turkish forces. This eight-month-war caused the settlement of British army that included Australian and New Zealand Army Corps known as Anzacs on particularly the Gallipoli Peninsula. The Australian and New Zealander soldiers and officers constantly kept diaries and wrote letters that in a sense recorded history from the personal perspective contributing to history with individual observation. If Anzac diaries kept during the Gallipoli clashes in 1915 function as secondary historical sources, they also do function as reminiscences of military officers who found consolation in expressing themselves lyrically during harsh conflicts. Some Anzac officers quote poems in their diaries and some write their own poetry to cope with the violence of war using the aestheticism of poetry. Their poems, on the other hand, remain not only as the lyrical reflections of a deadly reality but also as even more painful portrayals of war. This paper aims to read poems either quoted or written in the diaries of Anzac soldiers and officers in order to analyse the emotional effects of war on individuals. The poems will be analysed through the perspective of cultural landscape and question the influence of landscape on the perception of war in the minds of the Anzacs. From the new historicist perspective, the diaries bearing poetry will be read not as the sources of historical information but as the texts that use history as the material for poetry. The paper will also question whether or not the individual observations change the perception of official history that does not become the main impulse behind the writing of poetry but turns merely into one of its sources.

  5. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.


    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  6. Neurology in the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B


    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Soldiering Shaky Grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya


    lives’. In recent years, however, there has been an increasing demand for military labour not just locally, but also regionally and globally. Based on long-term fieldwork in Sierra Leone, this presentation addresses how ex-militias come to operate as providers of global security as a consequence......In Sierra Leone, the large population of militarily skilled young men that became available in the aftermath of the civil war is considered a major threat to security. As a result, the internationally-steered peace process targeted the demobilisation and reintegration of ex-militias into ‘civilian...... of this demand. With point of departure in the recruitment of Sierra Leonean ex-militias for mercenary missions in Guinea and for private security contracting in Iraq, the paper discusses the linkages and discrepancies between local and global security provision, and the ambiguities that characterises...

  8. Three Generations, Three Wars: African American Veterans. (United States)

    Black, Helen K


    This article emerged from pilot research exploring experiences of war and suffering among African American veterans who served in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Men's experiences as soldiers reflected both racism and the social change that occurred in the Unites States while they served. We used techniques of narrative elicitation, conducting qualitative, ethnographic interviews with each of five veterans in his home. Interviews focused on unique and shared experiences as an African American man and a soldier. Three important themes emerged: (a) Expectations related to War--Although men viewed service to country as an expected part of life, they also expected equal treatment in war, which did not occur; (b) Suffering as an African American--Informants interpreted experiences of suffering in war as related to the lower status of African American servicemen; and (c) Perception of present identity--Each man was honed by the sum of his experiences, including those of combat, racism, and postwar opportunities and obstacles. From 40 to 70 years after the wars were fought, there are few scholarly narrative studies on African American veterans, despite the fact that Korean War Veterans are entering old-old age and few World War II Veterans are alive. The value of pilot research that offers narratives of unheard voices is significant; larger studies can interview more African American veterans to advance knowledge that might soon be lost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  9. Forms of Consolidation of Provincial Society in the Conditions of World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Litvinova


    Full Text Available On the basis of for the first time the massif of new archival material introduced into scientific circulation in article the problem of consolidation of society of the Lower Volga province in the years of great tests of World War I is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the practices used by local charitable committees and non-governmental organizations created in that period in Tsaritsyn. In particular, it analyzes the activities of local branches of the committees of the Grand Duchess Elizabeth, to assist the families of soldiers and Grand Duchess Tatiana – to support refugee families. The article was first introduced into scientific circulation new archival sources on the issue of the functioning of national non-governmental organizations based in the city of Lithuanian, Latvian, Polish and Jewish refugees who were engaged in assisting their fellow countrymen, to move from front-line areas in the new place of residence, in Tsaritsyn. The questions of organizational character connected with difficulties of official registration of the public unions by the provincial authorities are specified; severity of rules of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, when carrying out public monetary collecting by societies from the population. On the basis of concrete historical material, revealed new tricks and techniques used by charitable institutions for admission donations from citizens, as well as forms of voluntary activity themselves representatives of provincial society, to assist the families of the soldiers called to the front, wounded, children, refugees. The microanalysis of some unique historical sources which are of interest both for researchers of the region, and for experts of the "culture of the back" direction of times of World War I is carried out.

  10. The new military medical ethics: legacies of the Gulf Wars and the War on Terror. (United States)

    Miles, Steven H


    United States military medical ethics evolved during its involvement in two recent wars, Gulf War I (1990-1991) and the War on Terror (2001-). Norms of conduct for military clinicians with regard to the treatment of prisoners of war and the administration of non-therapeutic bioactive agents to soldiers were set aside because of the sense of being in a 'new kind of war'. Concurrently, the use of radioactive metal in weaponry and the ability to measure the health consequences of trade embargos on vulnerable civilians occasioned new concerns about the health effects of war on soldiers, their offspring, and civilians living on battlefields. Civilian medical societies and medical ethicists fitfully engaged the evolving nature of the medical ethics issues and policy changes during these wars. Medical codes of professionalism have not been substantively updated and procedures for accountability for new kinds of abuses of medical ethics are not established. Looking to the future, medicine and medical ethics have not articulated a vision for an ongoing military-civilian dialogue to ensure that standards of medical ethics do not evolve simply in accord with military exigency. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Innominate artery war injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Radoje


    Full Text Available Aim. A case is reported of successfully surgically treated explosive war injury to the innominate artery. Case report. A 26 - year-old soldier was injured in combat by a fragment of mortar shell. In the field hospital, the wound gauze packing was applied, followed by orotracheal intubation and thoracic drainage. The soldier was admitted to MMA six hours later. Physical examination, on admission, revealed huge swelling of the neck, the absence of pulse in the right arm and the right common carotid artery. Chest x-ray revealed hemopneumothorax of the right side and the foreign metal body in the projection of the right sternoclavicular joint. Due to the suspicion of large vessel injury, a median sternotomy was immediately performed. Surgery revealed disrupted bifurcation of the right innominate artery, so the ligation was performed. Aortography was performed postoperatively, followed by the reconstruction of innominate bifurcation with synthetic grafts. Control aortography showed good graft patency, and the patient was discharged from the hospital in good general condition with palpable pulses and mild anisocoria as a sole neurological sequela. Conclusion. A rare and life-threatening injury was successfully managed, mainly due to the rational treatment carried out in the field hospital that helped the injured to survive and arrive to the institution capable of performing the most sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  12. The moral division of labor and obligations of citizens at war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    Contemporary just war thinking has focused primarily on the roles of three agents in war: governments, soldiers and civilians considered as potential non-combatant victims of military attack: what are the responsibilities, permissions, rights and obligations of these? Relatively little has been s...

  13. On the Border: The Contested Children of the Second World War (United States)

    Ericsson, Kjersti; Simonsen, Eva


    This article conceptualizes Second World War children of German soldiers and native women in Norway as "border children", who became symbolic bearers of deep societal conflicts. The authors demonstrate that this position had painful consequences in the personal experiences of the children, experiences that were shared with war children…

  14. Making Good on a Promise: The Education of Civil War Orphans in Pennsylvania, 1863-1893 (United States)

    Bair, Sarah D.


    During and after the American Civil War, individual state governments, faced with numerous economic demands, struggled to meet the needs of soldiers and their families. Among other pressing questions, they had to decide what to do with the massive number of dependent children orphaned by the war. In order to protect children, it became more…

  15. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarcoo David


    Full Text Available Abstract Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS. If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.

  16. Mental Health among Former Child Soldiers and Never-Abducted Children in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughetta Moscardino


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems in former Ugandan child soldiers in comparison with civilian children living in the same conflict setting. Participants included 133 former child soldiers and 101 never-abducted children in northern Uganda, who were interviewed about exposure to traumatic war-related experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems. Results indicated that former child soldiers had experienced significantly more war-related traumatic events than nonabducted children, with 39.3% of girls having been forced to engage in sexual contact. Total scores on measures of PTSD symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems were significantly higher among child soldiers compared to their never-abducted peers. Girls reported significantly more emotional and behavioral difficulties than boys. In never-abducted children, more mental health problems were associated with experiencing physical harm, witnessing the killings of other people, and being forced to engage in sexual contact.

  17. Politics Under Conditions of War: the effect of the War Measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    They share a common interest in war as an agent of social change and .... complaints about the manipulation of elections for union officials, ballot rigging, ... powers, including wage and price control, distribution under licence, the provision of.

  18. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States. (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E


    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  19. Documented family violence and risk of suicide attempt among U.S. Army soldiers. (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Stein, Murray B; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Naifeh, James A; Fullerton, Carol S; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Kessler, Ronald C


    Suicide attempt (SA) rates in the U.S. Army increased substantially during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. This study examined associations of family violence (FV) history with SA risk among soldiers. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), we identified person-month records of active duty, Regular Army, enlisted soldiers with medically documented SAs from 2004 to 2009 (n = 9650) and a sample of control person-months (n = 153,528). Logistic regression analyses examined associations of FV with SA, adjusting for socio-demographics, service-related characteristics, and prior mental health diagnosis. Odds of SA were higher in soldiers with a FV history and increased as the number of FV events increased. Soldiers experiencing past-month FV were almost five times as likely to attempt suicide as those with no FV history. Odds of SA were elevated for both perpetrators and those who were exclusively victims. Male perpetrators had higher odds of SA than male victims, whereas female perpetrators and female victims did not differ in SA risk. A discrete-time hazard function indicated that SA risk was highest in the initial months following the first FV event. FV is an important consideration in understanding risk of SA among soldiers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. War on!


    Simon , Jonathan


    Abstract 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which...

  1. Training Dismounted Soldiers in Virtual Environments: Enhancing Configuration Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Witmer, Bob


    ...) has conducted research in using virtual environments (VE) to train dismounted soldiers. While showing that some dismounted soldiers skills can be trained in VE, the research has also identified problems in using VE for soldier training...

  2. Predicting domestic and community violence by soldiers living in a conflict region. (United States)

    Nandi, Corina; Elbert, Thomas; Bambonye, Manassé; Weierstall, Roland; Reichert, Manfred; Zeller, Anja; Crombach, Anselm


    Past research revealed war trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as potential predictors for domestic and community violence in crisis regions and among soldiers in different armed conflicts. The impact of family violence and other adversities experienced in childhood as well as of a combat-enhanced appeal for aggressive behavior (appetitive aggression) remains to be specified. In the present study, the authors separately predicted violence against children, intimate partner violence and community violence in 381 Burundian soldiers returning from foreign deployment and living in a post- conflict region. Using path analysis, they aimed to disentangle the independent contributions and pathways of the following variables: Exposure to war trauma and childhood familial violence, PTSD and depression symptom severity, and appetitive aggression. Childhood familial violence had an independent effect on all contexts of violence and was the only significant predictor for violence against the soldiers' own children. Intimate partner violence was additionally predicted by depression symptom severity, while community violence was additionally predicted by PTSD symptom severity and appetitive aggression. Besides war-related mental ill-health and appetitive aggression, violent experiences during childhood development must not be overlooked as a factor fueling the cycle of violence in conflict regions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Defining War for the 21st Century (United States)


    a soldier in an Iraqi home using a small mag-light to inspect a dresser drawer while a clearly terrified woman and her son crouch nearby. This, to...definition of war and the way it is understood, in other words, have a cultural dimension. Cross cultur- al wars, which are the kind the United States is most...or informal ones.14 This worked when the antagonists understood and accepted the rules. It was less effec- tive in cross cultural conflicts or ones

  4. Historical and Experimental Evidence of Sexual Selection for War Heroism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, H.; Leunissen, J.L.M.; van Vugt, M.


    We report three studies which test a sexual selection hypothesis for male war heroism. Based on evolutionary theories of mate choice we hypothesize that men signal their fitness through displaying heroism in combat. First, we report the results of an archival study on US-American soldiers who fought

  5. Iroquois in Blue: From Reservation to Civil War Battlefield. (United States)

    Hauptman, Laurence M.


    Uses excerpts from letters and personal narratives to present the experiences of Iroquois soldiers in the Civil War. Describes initial U.S. resistance to Indian enlistment, Iroquois eagerness to enlist, heroic deeds, and conditions of starvation, filth, and disease in Confederate prisons. (SV)

  6. Mud, Blood, and Bullet Holes: Teaching History with War Letters (United States)

    Carroll, Andrew


    From handwritten letters of the American Revolution to typed emails from Iraq and Afghanistan, correspondence from U.S. troops offers students deep insight into the specific conflicts and experiences of soldiers. Over 100,000 correspondences have been donated to the Legacy Project, a national initiative launched in 1998 to preserve war letters by…

  7. Using a Simulation and Literature To Teach the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.


    Addresses teaching about the Vietnam War. Focuses on selecting literature and how to implement the "mines and booby traps simulation," which demonstrates the experience of an infantry soldier. Describes follow-up activities to the simulation, the connections students made between the simulation and literature, and the importance of simulation…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Chike Okoye

    lasting ... As a young nation, Biafra had its own crop of technocrats, politicians, soldiers, scientists, writers ... ultimate line, „the effects of tragedy on the emotions of the audience‟, are all in line with the symbiotic ..... War is a human phenomenon.

  9. Behavior Therapy for Fears Brought On By War Experiences (United States)

    Kipper, David A.


    Desensitization therapy was offered to Israeli soldiers suffering from fears developed as a result of their participation in the Yom Kippur War. Two kinds of in vivo desensitization procedures used were: (a) an individual self-administered in vivo desensitization and (b) in vivo desensitization in dyads. Advantages of these procedures discussed.…

  10. Fighting for peace: Veterans and military families in the anti-Iraq War movement [Book Review (United States)

    David Flores


    A young man or woman joins the military. He or she goes to war. Soldiers are trained and expected to follow orders and support the war effort. Likewise, military families are expected to support the military and, therefore, also support the war. As C. Wright Mills put it, “In the military world, debate is no more at a premium than persuasion: one obeys and one...

  11. Soldier motivation – different or similar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Recent research in military sociology has shown that in addition to their strong peer motivation modern soldiers are oriented toward contributing to society. It has not, however, been tested how soldier motivation differs from the motivation of other citizens in this respect. In this paper......, by means of public service motivation, a concept developed within the public administration literature, we compare soldier and civilian motivation. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of whether and how Danish combat soldiers differs from other Danes in regard to public service motivation? Using...... surveys with similar questions, we find that soldiers are more normatively motivated to contribute to society than other citizens (higher commitment to the public interest), while their affectively based motivation is lower (lower compassion). This points towards a potential problem in regard...

  12. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: global delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness. (United States)

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda


    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach. The platform needed to be agile, provide powerful real-time reporting, and have the capacity to quickly transform to meet emerging requirements. Existing organizational applications, such as "Single Sign-On," and authoritative data sources were exploited to the maximum extent possible. Development of the "Soldier Fitness Tracker" is the most recent, and possibly the best, demonstration of the potential benefits possible when existing organizational capabilities are married to new, innovative applications. Combining the capabilities of the extant applications with the newly developed applications expedited development, eliminated redundant data collection, resulted in the exceeding of program objectives, and produced a comfortable experience for the end user, all in less than six months. This is a model for future technology integration. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. First World War and Mental Health: a retrospective comparative study of veterans admitted to a psychiatric hospital between 1915 and 1918. (United States)

    Lagonia, Paolo; Aloi, Matteo; Magliocco, Fabio; Cerminara, Gregorio; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Luciano, Mario; Fiorillo, Andrea; De Fazio, Pasquale


    The association between mental illness and war has been repeatedly investigated. Higher levels of depressive symptoms and an increased suicidal risk have been found in veterans. In this study we investigated the mental health conditions among Italian soldiers during the “Great War”, who were hospitalized in a mental health hospital in Italy. The study sample consists of 498 soldiers who were admitted during the World War I between 1915 and 1918, and 498 civilian patients admitted in two different periods (1898-1914, 1919- 1932). Psychiatric diagnoses have been recorded retrospectively by a detailed examination of clinical records. Socio-demographic informations, diagnosis at first admission, number of admissions, and deployment in war zones were collected. A logistic regression analysis was performed, the diagnosis of depression was considered as dependent variable while clinical and demographic variables as independent predictors. Soldiers deployed in war zones were more likely to have a diagnosis of depression compared to those not serving on the frontline. The logistic regression analysis showed that the diagnosis of depression is predicted by being a soldier and being deployed in a war area. Our data confirm that soldiers engaged in war are at higher risk of developing depression compared to non-deployed soldiers.

  14. Psychological Trauma and the Legacies of the First World War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This transnational, interdisciplinary study of traumatic neurosis moves beyond the existing histories of medical theory, welfare, and symptomatology. The essays explore the personal traumas of soldiers and civilians in the wake of the First World War; they also discuss how memory and representati......This transnational, interdisciplinary study of traumatic neurosis moves beyond the existing histories of medical theory, welfare, and symptomatology. The essays explore the personal traumas of soldiers and civilians in the wake of the First World War; they also discuss how memory...... and representations of trauma are transmitted between patients, doctors and families across generations. The book argues that so far the traumatic effects of the war have been substantially underestimated. Trauma was shaped by gender, politics, and personality. To uncover the varied forms of trauma ignored by medical...

  15. One hundred years of lessons about the impact of war on mental health; two steps forward, one step back. (United States)

    McFarlane, Alexander C


    This paper outlines the substantial stigmatization of soldiers who suffered psychiatric disorders during World War I, and how there was little acceptance of the enduring impact of prolonged combat exposure once the war ended. Recent decades of research highlight the delayed impact of combat exposure and its long-term neurobiological consequences. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  16. Civil War


    Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel


    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...

  17. Authenticity and War Junkies: Making the Iraq War Real in Films and TV Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold


    ), and Paul Greengrass’s Green Zone (2010). The films break from tradition by dismissing both the mythic heroism that pervades World War 2 films and the disillusionment of many Vietnam War films. A shared trait in the films and TV-series is a striving for authenticity and a tendency associated with this......This article examines some of the important changes in the films (and TV-series) about the Iraq War. Focus will be on the combat films: Brian De Palma’s Redacted (2007), Nick Broomfield’s Battle for Haditha (2007), HBO’s mini-series Generation Kill (2008), Kathryn Bigelow’s The Hurt Locker (2008......: the depiction of American soldiers as war junkies. What has become of the noble intentions, the ideas of freedom and democracy, once linked with the US military? Without judging, the films depict the new generation of American soldiers, raised in a historical vacuum, young men who see war as just another...

  18. [The treatment of wounds during World War I]. (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio


    The First World War was a huge tragedy for mankind, but, paradoxically, it represented a source of significant progress in a broad series of human activities, including medicine, since it forced physicians to improve their knowledge in the treatment of a large number of wounded soldiers. The use of heavy artillery and machine guns, as well as chemical warfare, caused very serious and life-threatening lesions and wounds. The most frequent causes of death were not mainly related to gunshot wounds, but rather to fractures, tetanus and septic complications of infectious diseases. In the first part of this article, we describe the surgical procedures and medical therapies carried out by Italian physicians during the First World War, with the aim of treating wounded soldiers in this pre-antibiotic era. Antibacterial solutions, such as those of Dakin-Carrel and sodium hypochlorite and boric acid, the tincture of iodine as well as the surgical and dressing approaches and techniques used to remove pus from wounds, such as ignipuncture and thermocautery or lamellar drainage are reported in detail. In the second part of the paper, the organization of the Italian military hospitals network, the systems and tools useful to transport wounded soldiers both in the front lines and in the rear is amply discussed. In addition, the number of soldiers enrolling, and those dying, wounded or missing during the Great War on the Italian front is estimated.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  20. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers. (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W


    Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments.

  1. A comparison between two methods of measuring total fat in the Iranian soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rahmani


    Full Text Available Background: Constant checkup and control of body fat mass is an important parameter for the health and efficiency of individuals in any society. This parameter is especially crucial in army soldiers since physical fitness is a key role in reaching high physical performance, health, and survival in war. Objective: This study was designed to compare two methods of measuring fat, the method of circumference-based military equations (CBEs to estimate body fat mass compared to the method of skinfold thickness-based equation (SBE in Iranian soldiers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 246 Iranian soldiers were recruited in Tehran (2016. Height, waist, and neck circumference were measured and the total body fat mass was calculated using CBEs. Then, the results of using Pierson’s correlation and Bland-Altman methods were compared with Jackson and Pollock’s skinfold thickness measurement. Findings: The total body fat mass of the soldiers using CBEs was 18.94±6.30% and using Jakson and Pollock’s skinfold thickness formula was 17.43±4.45%. The correlation between the two methods was r=0.984 and SEE was 1.1% (P<0.001. Conclusion: The more body fat makes the error waist circumference greater. The error is so much that don’t use this method to measure fat.

  2. The Social Welfare of Soldiers' Families in Yenisei Province (1914–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya M. Dolidovich


    Full Text Available Authors examine the question of the types, scale, efficiency of public aid and social support of soldiers' families in Yenisei province during the First World War. Particular attention is paid to the activities of cities and urban guardianship organizations that have paid to families of the mobilized amount exceeding the amount of state benefits. It is shown that in the rural guardianship organizations did not have more money. They failed to organize labor help with the agricultural work. Soldiers' families reduced tillage, many of them wanted to move to the provincial center. Siberian city were not a major commercial and industrial centers, their budgets have been modest. Siberia had no zemstvo institutions, therefore, the city suffered heavy costs for the solution of many other problems caused by wartime (the organization of assistance to refugees and the injured, the fight against the high cost and lack of, the development of cooperatives, and others, they were making regular payments for all-Russian charitable societies. The flow of donations to urban guardianship and charitable organizations has decreased dramatically in 1916, and the number in need has increased significantly, the municipal government began to curtail payments to soldiers' families. The discontent of the soldiers' wives resulted in the pogroms of malls and attacks against members of municipal self-government bodies of Minusinsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kansk in 1916–1917.

  3. Mechanism of injury and microbiological flora of the geographical location are essential for the prognosis in soldiers with serious warfare injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Mik; Rose-Larsen, Katrine; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob


    Denmark has been engaged in the Afghanistan war and as a result, Rigshospitalet has received a number of multi-traumatized Danish soldiers. Lesions sustained in armed conflict differ from their civilian counterparts and knowledge of the pathophysiology related to these types of lesions is essential...

  4. The Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, A.


    William T. R. Fox's pre-nuclear age analysis provides an excellent starting point for the authors' discussion of the role of nuclear weapons in Soviet security policy. By pointing to some of the non-nuclear, more properly geopolitical sources of peace in East-West relations, Fox's forceful analysis serves as a reminder to approach the authors' study with caution. Too often, there has been a tendency to reduce the etiology of war and peace in East-West relations to its nuclear aspect without proper regard for other, primarily geopolitical, components which provide the all-important context in which nuclear weapons work their indisputable deterrent effect. Two geopolitical sources for the relative peace in post-war East-West relations have been the inability of either the Soviet Union or the United states to employ direct military force in politically significant terms against the vital interests of the other; and an abiding preference, on the part of both, for a divided Germany within a divided Europe. Any other plausible alternative, of course, would almost certainly have involved a united Germany and the related likelihood that it would either gravitate to one or the other alliance or, itself, would constitute the third leg of an intrinsically unstable tri-polar relationship. This paper reports that the prevailing inclination to analyze East-West security as a direct function of nuclear deterrence (witness the Western consternation about INF and denuclearization, and the proliferation of think-tank study groups on post-nuclear security) begs the probability that there are in fact a variety of deeply rooted structures of stability in East-West relations and so exaggerates the delicacy of the existing security order in Europe. to an extent, this follows form the general acceptance of deterrence theory in the West, especially in the United States, and the undoubtedly singular character and role of nuclear weapons in that order

  5. Whatever happened to the soldiers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Dorthe Varning; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Refshauge, Anne Dahl


    Nature-assisted therapy (NAT) has become more common and recognized in both practice and research. The literature often describes how NAT gradually emerged in the UK and the US offering rehabilitation of soldiers suffering from traumatic experiences after active service in WW I and WW II. The main...... the systematic analysis of the qualitative case studies. This review found that a large amount of projects offering NAT to veterans suffering from PTSD exist in many parts of the world and they present no adverse negative results. Recommendations for future practice and research are posed....... and status of practice and research concerning NAT for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The systematic review included a seven-step literature search. Relevant data sources were scrutinized in order to retrieve literature meeting the predefined inclusion criteria. Due to the limited...

  6. Book Review: Odintsov, M. I. Confessional Policy in the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War in 1941-1945 [Text] / M. I. Odintsov, A. S. Kochetova. – M. : Scientific & Political Book : Political Encyclopedia, 2014. – 317 p. – (History of Stalinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim N. Yakunin


    Full Text Available The book contains the information about the status and activities of churches and religious groups in the Soviet Union before and during the Great Patriotic War in 1941–1945. The causes which led to the change in the policy of the Soviet government against the religious organizations are identified, the analysis of the activities of the Soviet state on creating a new system of state-church relations, the main stages of its development are represented. The activity of the newly created authorities on “Religious Affairs” – the Council for Russian Orthodox Church and the Religious Affairs Council is revealed. The authors show a response to the change in the statechurch relations in the center and different strata of Soviet society and also the ratio of official policy and propaganda with a specific embodiment of the state church policy. M.I. Odintsov and A.S. Kochetova analyze the situation and activity of religious organizations in the occupied territories of the USSR. The plans and main directions of the Nazi policy towards religion and religious organizations in the occupied territories of the USSR, directives of the political and military leadership of Nazi Germany are studied. The authors compare the religious policies of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union and show their similarities and differences, emphasizing that the last ones were most clearly expressed from the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. The book features a wide source base. The documentation of 6 major Russian archives was used for solving the research problem.

  7. A Study of How Letters to the Editor Published in "The Stars and Stripes" Newspaper between March 1, 1918, and November 15, 1918, Reflected the Morale of the Troops during World War I (United States)

    Hatch, Vicky Ann


    This dissertation is a qualitative historical study that examines the state of morale of World War I soldiers as reflected in letters to the editor published in "The Stars and Stripes" newspaper between March 1, 1918, and November 15, 1918. The narrative includes extensive use of the actual words published in the soldiers' letters in order to…

  8. Soldier Flexible Personal Digital Assistant Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Mark; Woytowich, Jason; Carlson, Marc


    The main goal of the Soldier Flexible Personal Digital Assistant Program was to develop prototypes of a novel flexible display technology device for demonstration in a laboratory setting and use in Future Force Warrior (FFW) demonstrations...

  9. Immersive Simulation Training for the Dismounted Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knerr, Bruce W


    ... R&D organizations during the period 1997 - 2005. The major findings are organized around the topics of training effectiveness, Soldier task performance, and advantages and disadvantages of immersive...

  10. Support of USARIEM Postpartum Soldier Research Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dettori, Joseph


    It is estimated approximately 9% of Army women are pregnant at any one time. Shortly after delivery, postpartum soldiers are expected to return to full duty, meet body fat standards and pass the APFT...

  11. Cultural Adaptation of Second Language Soldiers. (United States)


    Micronesian), Operations Sergeant; SSG Willie Maxwell, Field First Sergeant; SGT Tipo Toomalatai (Western Samoan), Platoon Sergeant, and SSG Alfredo Taitague...Rican), ESL Instructor and Ms. Norma Garrett (Puerto Rican), ESL Instructor, BSEP Program, Ft Jackson, SC, 16 Jun 81. NARRATIVE Ms. Padilla and Ms...psychiatric disor- de .’s in the Puerto Rican population at large and among Puerto Rican soldiers. Compare these with the US population and Anglo soldiers. 9. Mr

  12. Soldier Readiness: Insights from Qualitative Interviews (United States)


    domains interact and influence performance. From January to May 2016, the research team conducted three qualitative studies with Soldiers including... Research Questions UNCLASSIFIED 9 • From January to May 2016, the research team conducted a series of qualitative studies with Soldiers from the 82nd...that the Army’s current approach for providing these types of training is not always ideal. Specifically, the train-the-trainer method or use of

  13. Administrative management of the soldier with seizures. (United States)

    Gunderson, C H


    Based on improvement in our understanding of the prognosis of young adults with new onset seizures, and cumulative experience with the rules in effect for the last 30 years, a substantial change in the regulations affecting the fitness and profiling of these soldiers has been made. In general, these liberalize retention and profiling, set limits on the duration of trials of duty, provide for fitness determinations in soldiers with pseudo-seizures, and specify when neurologic consultation is required.

  14. Dardanel Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet EYİCİL


    Full Text Available The reason for the opening of the Dardanel Front was to establish a link between allies and Russia and to push The Ottoman Empire out of the war. In order to reach this cause, upon Churchill’s suggestion, the English War Commitee met on 28 January 1915 and decided to attack the Dardanels on February 19. The allies fleet tried to pass the Dardanels several times but they failed. Their biggest attack for the Straits took place on 18 March, which was failed and the fleet lost one third of its power. After the failure on the sea to pass the Straits the allies landed on Gallipoli to invade İstanbul. Landing took place from April 1 to December 22 the wars on lands lasted more than 8 months, during which Turkish army fought heroic battles. Fierce battles took place on Kabatepe, Seddülbahir, Alçıtepe, Kilitbahir, Anafartalar, Arıburnu. Upon failure on the land the allies started to withdraw from this front on 8 January 1915. The Dardanels wars which was lost by the allies caused the First World War to continue two more years. Tsarist regime was collapsed in Russia and its place Bolshevik regime came. The Turks put aside bad results of the Balkan Wars and became again a heroic nation. Because of his successes Mustafa Kemal became a genious commander. Most importantly Dardanels wars gave its honours to the Turkish army

  15. Peculiarities of Social Insurance of Workers of the Middle Volga Steamship Line During the Post-War Restoration Period (1945-1946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomanenko Olesya Aleksandrovna


    Full Text Available During the post-war restoration the work on social insurance in river transport was intensified. It were trade unions including councils of social insurance that dealt with social problems in the Volga Steamship Lines. Trade unions exercised control over the budget of social insurance, over labor safety, etc. In the Middle Volga Steamship Line (SVRP 15 councils for social insurance functioned. They included 140 insurance agents. Their task was to decrease incidence, traumatism, and also to improve the conditions of work and life of river transport workers. Tasks of councils of a social insurance included systematic supervision over a sanitary condition of shops and territories of the industrial enterprises of the steamship line. Financial support was allocated to families of veterans with many children and families in need. Insurance delegates together with a doctor of the health center in workshops registered workers needing additional food for health reasons. Insurance delegates gave social help to patients at home and in hospital. After the end of the war comprehensive plans of improving actions were put through. Financial and food position of river transport workers improved. However in 1946 in SVRP there was a small growth of incidence again. Those who needed treatment, and also the best workers were provided with permits in sanatorium. Managements of Volga Steamship lines showed care of children of river transport workers. During thewinter period camps were decorated with New Year trees, in summer – rest was arranged. On the accounting of the trade-union organizations of the Middle Volga basin families of the lost soldiers, the military personnel, disabled veterans and demobilized consisted. As for labor protection, that, despite increase in allocations for safety measures and labor protection in 1946 at the SVRP enterprises occurred increase in accidents. So, all efforts were directed on further improvement of financial and social

  16. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja


    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  17. Children and war: risk, resilience, and recovery. (United States)

    Werner, Emmy E


    This article reviews and reflects on studies that have explored the effects of war on children around the world. Most are cross-sectional and based on self-reports. They describe a range of mental health problems, related to dose effects and to the negative impact of being a victim or witness of violent acts, threats to and loss of loved ones, prolonged parental absence, and forced displacement. The more recent the exposure to war, and the older the child, the higher was the likelihood of reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Especially vulnerable to long-term emotional distress were child soldiers, children who were raped, and children who had been forcibly displaced. In adulthood, war-traumatized children displayed significantly increased risks for a wide range of medical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases. Among protective factors that moderated the impact of war-related adversities in children were a strong bond between the primary caregiver and the child, the social support of teachers and peers, and a shared sense of values. Among the few documented intervention studies for children of war, school-based interventions, implemented by teachers or locally trained paraprofessionals, proved to be a feasible and low-cost alternative to individual or group therapy. More longitudinal research with multiple informants is needed to document the trajectories of risk and resilience in war-affected children, to assess their long-term development and mental health, and to identify effective treatment approaches.

  18. Wars in the history of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson


    Full Text Available Some important discoveries in the history of rheumatology happened during war periods. It is well known that arthritis associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis, following dysenteric episodes, has been described during the First World War from the German Hans Reiter and, nearly contemporarily, from the French Nöel Fiessinger and Edgar Leroy. Less known is instead the fact that the first cases of sympathetic algoneurodystrophy have been reported by the American Silas Weir Mitchell in soldiers wounded by fire-arms, during the Civil War of Secession. Other war episodes have been crucial for the development of some drugs now abundantly applied to the care of rheumatic diseases. The discovery of therapeutic effects of immunosuppressive agents, in fact, happened as an indirect consequence of the use of poison gas, already during the First World War (mustard gas, but above all after an episode in the port of Bari in 1943, where an American cargo boat was sunk. It had been loaded with a quantity of cylinders containing a nitrogenous mustard, whose diffusion in the environment provoked more than 80 deaths owing to bone marrow aplasia.Moreover, the history of the cortisone shows a strict link to the Second World War, when Germany imported large quantities of bovine adrenal glands from Argentina, with the purpose of producing some gland extracts for the Luftwasse aviators, in order to increase their performance ability.

  19. Possible consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Speeches of Soviet and foreign scientists at the Second Section of 2d All-UNION conference of scientists on problems of peace and prevention of nuclear war related to possible consequences of nuclear war have been considered. It is noted that production of a large amount of aerosol particles, dust, smoke and combustion products due to forest-fires, fires in cities, which change considerably atmosphere properties, will be the greatest effect of nuclear strike from the point of view of global consequencies. ''Nuclear winter'', photosynthesis suppression, plant bioproductivity weakening, long-term climate changes, ozone layer disturbance, mass and irreversible degeneration of all biosphere on the whole are great consequencies of nuclear conflict. Attention is paid to medical service, industrial accidents, radioactive fallouts consequence of radiation and other harmful factors for people in nuclear war

  20. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II


    During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.

  1. A statistical campaign: Florence Nightingale and Harriet Martineau’s 'England and her Soldiers'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Veysey


    Full Text Available This essay is an account of the making of England and her Soldiers (1859 by Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. The book is a literary account of the Crimean War, written by Martineau and based on Nightingale’s statistical studies of mortality during the conflict. Nightingale was passionate about statistics and healthcare. Whilst working as a nurse in the Crimea, she witnessed thousands of soldiers die of infectious diseases that might have been prevented with proper sanitation. After the war, she launched a campaign to convince the British government to make permanent reforms to military healthcare, compiling a dataset on mortality in the Crimea. She worked with the government’s Royal Commission investigating healthcare during the war, but also worked privately with Martineau to publicise her findings. Martineau and Nightingale grasped that the lay reader was more receptive to statistical information in a literary format than in dense statistical reports. As such, Nightingale’s data was interwoven with Martineau’s text. The pair illustrated their book with Nightingale’s ‘Rose Diagram’, a statistical graphic which simply illustrated the rate of mortality.

  2. The relationship between the First World War and neurology: 100 years of "Shell Shock". (United States)

    Pedroso, José Luiz; Linden, Stefanie C; Barsottini, Orlando G; Maranhão, Péricles; Lees, Andrew J


    The First World War was a global war, beginning on 28 July 1914, until 11 November 1918. Soon after the beginning of the war, there was an "epidemic" of neurological conversion symptoms. Soldiers on both sides started to present in large numbers with neurological symptoms, such as dizziness, tremor, paraplegia, tinnitus, amnesia, weakness, headache and mutism of psychosomatic origin. This condition was known as shell shock, or "war neurosis". Because medically unexplained symptoms remain a major challenge, and considering the close relationship of symptoms described in shell shock with clinical neurology, we should study their history in order to improve future care.

  3. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.


    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available During the pacific war, about 80 to 200 thousand women were mobilized by the Japanese imperial army to sexually serve its soldiers, in one of world’s largest cases of human trafficking. Most of the victims, euphemistically known as "comfort women", came from Korea, Japan's colony at the time, and was attracted by false promises of employment or simply kidnapped by Japanese troops. Taken to military brothels throughout the pacific, they were subjected to repeated rape and beatings. Some of them, as young as age 12, were daily forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers, 10, 30, 50 times a day. The few women who survived and were able to return home at the end of the war continued to suffer for their past, through psychological trauma and social ostracism. They remained silent about their experience because of fear and shame. These women would have like to live in peace, being wives, mothers, sisters, grandmothers ... but this choice was denied to all. None received any compensation from the Japanese government official, who continues to evade its legal and moral responsibilities regarding war crime. Sixty-eight years later, they are still waiting for justice.

  5. The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education (United States)

    Karp, Alexander


    This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

  6. Wladimir Krzyzanowski, 123 Polish Hero of the Civil War in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIYUK T.G.


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the young Polish revolutionist Wladimir Krzyzanowski who emigrated from Great Poland to the US after failed uprising in 1846 against Prussia in order to avoid possible arrest. He went to Hamburg, Germany and sailed from there to the United States.W. Krzyzanowski managed to become a successful and prosperous businessman and politician, and he was lucky in his personal life, he married a girl with a name and a significant dowry. He considered slavery not only anachronistic, but also a disgrace to the young state, and at the same time, he admired American democracy and American people. In Washington he recruited the company of Polish immigrants which became one of the first companies of Union Soldiers. Krzyzanowski then moved his company to New York and enlisted more immigrants and soon became a Colonel of the 58th Infantry Division, listed in the official Army Register as the “Polish Legion”. He participated in the Civil War battles of Cross-Keys, Bull Run, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. “Polish Legion”, led by Krzyzanowski, made himself famous in the main battle at Gettysburg. Subsequently, the memorial of granite was erected to legion in the immediate vicinity of the city.The author’s attention was attracted by the eccentric personality of the Pole, known in Poland and in America. In her work she explores Krzyzanowski’s life and service to the American people

  7. Les femmes américaines et la guerre du Vietnam : mise en place et utilisation d’un processus de mimétisme American Women, the Vietnam War and Mimetism:  Constructing and Developing an Unconscious Imitation of the Soldier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Boudet-Brugal


    Full Text Available By and large, women have been maintained at a “reasonable” distance from the war. Their historic identity has mainly been that of mother, and therefore that of those who do not make war. They are not to belong to this sphere; it is to remain masculine, a men’s world. The Vietnam War (1964-1973 is no exception to the rule. This characteristic may be even more visible in the context of Vietnam given the power granted to authenticity: “having been there” has been essential. However, it seems that, just as Vietnam was a confused war, the border between genders has been sometimes blurred as well. We have thus found that some women have constructed and developed a strange process, a(n (unconscious strategy, in order to enter the world of war while not “having been there” really, while not knowing physically what war is and was. If “Vietnam is the land of [their] imagination”, as Barbara Sonneborn put it (Regret to inform, 1999, mimetism has allowed them to fill out the blanks, to uncover and discover their man’s reality, to “see what it was he saw […] to be in the field with him”, says Gail Gilberg (Snake’s Daugher, 1997. I will therefore expose and study this phenomenon that appears in various women’s stories, written or told, by themselves or others, through their own narrative styles and speeches. In doing so, I intend to examine whether the use of this mechanism reinforces the traditional representations of men and women in war: Does it allow a re-writing of these excluded female voices, while putting forward the specificities of women’s experiences in war? Does it grant women a voice and a visible presence? Considering that “societies are, in some sense, the sum total of the war stories” (Jean B. Elshtain, it seems interesting to examine to what extent this strategy allows the American women to find their place in the story of the Vietnam war, in a very specific way.

  8. Friendship in War: Camaraderie and Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Prevention. (United States)

    Nevarez, Michael D; Yee, Hannah M; Waldinger, Robert J


    Aspects of social support during combat deployment, such as unit cohesion, have been shown to affect later posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development among veterans. We utilized a longitudinal database to assess how relationship quality with fellow soldiers in World War II (WWII) might be linked with postwar PTSD symptoms. Data were available on 101 men who experienced combat exposure in WWII, documented through postwar assessment. Upon study entry (1939 to 1942), data were collected on the quality of participants' early childhood relationships and their emotional adjustment during college. Data on WWII experiences were collected in 1946. Relationship quality with fellow soldiers in WWII was examined as a moderator of the link between combat exposure and postwar PTSD symptoms. Prewar emotional adjustment was examined as a mediator between quality of childhood relationships and subsequent quality of relationships quality with fellow soldiers during war. Better quality relationships with fellow soldiers attenuated (i.e., moderated) the link between combat exposure severity and PTSD symptom count, explaining a significant percent of the variance, R 2 = .19, p war. These findings have implications for PTSD risk factor screening prior to deployment, and underscore the importance of interpersonal support among soldiers during deployment. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. Foreign War Prisoners in the Astrakhan Province in the Years of the First World War and the Russian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena G. Timofeeva


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of various aspects of military captivity, which became a mass phenomenon (“mass experience” in the years of the First World War and the revolutionary events in Russia and which influenced both the individual fate of war prisoners and different sides of the development of society. The article presents data on the number of war prisoners located in the years of war and revolution on the territory of the Astrakhan province, their categories and ethnic composition. The majority of war prisoners were soldiers of the German, Austro-Hungarian armies. The largest number of war prisoners on the territory of the province was recorded in May 1918. On the basis of documentary material, most of which is first introduced in the scientific use, the war prisoners’ accommodation, provision of clothing, food, medical care is researched. The placement of the contingent of war prisoners and their number depended on the needs of the region in labour force. War prisoners were sent to work on the municipal facilities in the provincial center and district towns, were attached to joint-stock and private enterprises, worked as doctors and paramedics in hospitals. The situation of war prisoners fully depended on socio-economic and political situation in the country. The problems of supply of war prisoners with clothing and food aggravated with the economic and political crisis in the country as well as rising prices and were common to all categories of population who needed support. The deterioration of living conditions led to increase in diseases, epidemics and deaths among the prisoners. Local authorities made efforts to supply war prisoners with food and provide with higher wages and hospitals. After the events of February 1917 there were hopes for mitigation of the regime of war prisoners, but visible improvement did not follow and the weakening supervision of war prisoners resulted in the growth of prison breaks.

  10. Influence of World Wars on the Development of International Law on War Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Sergey


    Full Text Available The Regulations on laws and customs of land warfare of 1907 that existed during World War I did not protect war prisoners. The tragic experience forced us to return tothe problem of protection of the rights of the victims of war. The Geneva Convention on the war prisoners of 1929 was the first document of international law in which the status of war prisoners was determined in detail. The Soviet Union did not join the states which had signed the Convention, and during the World War II it was guided by its national legislation confirmed by the Soviet Government on July 1, 1941. On the whole, the items of the Regulations on War Prisoners adopted in 1941 corresponded to the Geneva Convention. But non-recognition of the international convention provided the heads of fascist Germany with the reason for inhuman treatment of the Soviet captives. Serious consequences of war compelled the world community to pay the closest attention to the issues of military captivity again. On August 12, 1949 in Geneva the Soviet Union joined the new Convention on prisoners.

  11. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz


    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  12. User Evaluation of a Soldier Flexible Display Personal Digital Assistant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampson, James B; Boynton, Angela C; Mitchell, K. B; Magnifico, Dennis S; DuPont, Frederick J


    The U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center and U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Human Research and Engineering Directorate conducted an evaluation of a Soldier Flexible Display Personal Digital Assistant...

  13. Miloš Crnjanski's metahistorical projection of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejević Danica T.


    Full Text Available The Great War triggered the establishment of the Serbian literary avant-garde, which was determined against tradition, history, and conventional aesthetics. With a completely new expression, writers of the literary avant-garde articulated the change of consciousness about the world, metamorphosis of the narrative structure of the text, and the modernization of the novelistic form. In the context of the European literature, as well as the Anglo-American, the return of the soldiers from the war was the prominent topic in the works of the so-called 'Lost generation' (Gertrude Stein, E. Hemingway and S. Fitzgerald. The themes of war also occupied writers such as W. Faulkner, T. Wolfe and H. Miller. The greatest poet of the Serbian literature between the two world wars, Miloš Crnjanski, presented the suprahistorical projection of the war and considered the return of the soldiers to be the saddest event in a man's life. The first Serbian modern, lyrical novel, 'Journal of Čarnojević' (Dnevnik o Čarnojeviću, gives a metaphysical picture of history and intimately understood picture of the wartime world, nation and being. This paper follows Crnjanski's views on history and war through the main character, Petar Rajić, and his counterpart of sorts, Čarnojević. Poetics of this modernistic text rests on the fictionalization of fact, metaphorization of war and aestheticization of history. As a resigned pacifist and disappointed melancholic, Rajić perceives the war completely anti-traditionally in comparison to a hero of a classical history novel. Visualization of events and the relativization of war and chronotope in the lyrical discourse of Miloš Crnjanski allow history to disperse into poetry, into the essence of being and the ontological plane of this metahistorical novel.

  14. Racialized Bodies and Phantom Limb Citizenship: The Case of the Filipino World War II Veterans


    Valiente-Neighbours, Jimiliz Maramba


    The United States recruited more than half a million Filipino soldiers and guerrillas in the Philippines during World War II with the promise of American citizenship in return for their wartime service. Even after the official victory of the United States and its allies in 1945, the United States government continued to recruit Filipinos to serve under the American flag for post-war reconstruction and the development of American military bases in the Pacific. But in February 1946, the United ...

  15. The History of MIS-Y: U.S. Strategic Interrogation During World War II (United States)


    27Ian Dear, Escape and Evasion, (London, UK: Arms and Armour Press, 1997), 11. 28Lloyd R. Shoemaker, The Escape Factory (New York: St. Martin’s...soldiers are beginning to understand that they are the underdogs carrying the weight of the bureaucracy. 11. Building up the Nazi Gangster Ideal. In...and Evasion: Prisoner of War Breakouts and the Routes to Safety in World War Two. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1997. DeForest, Orrin, and David

  16. Anthropometry and Range of Motion of the Encumbered Soldier (United States)


    claims of the encumbered dismounted Soldier. Soldiers are required to wear multiple layers of clothing and protective equipment in addition to mission...depth (i.e., bulk) measurements related to Soldier CIE that had a significant decrement on the Soldiers’ range of motion for many body movements...bulk) measurements related to Soldier CIE that had a significant decrement on the Soldiers’ range of motion for many body movements. The

  17. [Burn injuries to military personnel during the Six Day War]. (United States)

    Dreyfuss, U Y


    About 2500 soldiers were injured during the Six Day War (June 1967) of whom 115 suffered from burns. In 34 of them 15% or more of their body surface was involved and 11 died. Typical features of these burn cases were supplementary injuries, a high rate of infection, and long periods of hospitalization. Prophylactic antibiotics were not useful. The general condition of many deteriorated during the first week after injury, indicating the importance of treating severe burns in specialized facilities.

  18. Role Reversal Protest in Nigeria: Soldiers Still the Boss? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today's world is used to all sorts of inter-group violent conflicts, but definitely not the type in the post military Nigeria where soldiers and policemen fatally combat each other; soldiers claiming superiority over policemen who, in turn, want to seize every opportunity to act that in a democracy, they, no longer the soldiers, are ...

  19. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.


    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  20. Reforms to the European Union Financial Supervisory and Regulatory Architecture and Their Implications for Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Darvas (Zsolt); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk); N. Véron (Nicolas)


    textabstractEuropean Union (EU) countries offer a unique experience of financial regulatory and supervisory integration, complementing various other European integration efforts following the Second World War. Financial regulatory and supervisory integration was a very slow process before 2008,

  1. Dual-hormone stress reactivity predicts downstream war-zone stress-evoked PTSD. (United States)

    Josephs, Robert A; Cobb, Adam R; Lancaster, Cynthia L; Lee, Han-Joo; Telch, Michael J


    The crucial role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) in stress-related homeostasis suggests dysregulated HPA involvement in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet most studies examining linkages between HPA axis measures and PTSD have yielded null findings. One untested explanation for this inconsistency is a failure to account for simultaneous adrenal and gonadal influence. Here we tested the singular and interactive effects of cortisol (C R ) and testosterone (T R ) reactivity as moderators of war-zone stress evoked PTSD emergence in the war-zone. U.S. soldiers (N=120) scheduled for deployment to Iraq completed pre-deployment measures of C R and T R stress reactivity to a CO 2 inhalation challenge. Once deployed, monthly assessments of exposure to traumatic war-zone stressors and PTSD symptoms were collected via a web-based assessment system. Cortisol hypo-reactivity potentiated the pathogenic impact of war-zone stressors only in soldiers for whom the CO 2 challenge did not elevate testosterone, suggesting that the dual hormone stress reactivity profile of blunted cortisol and testosterone may confer increased risk for PTSD emergence by potentiating the pathogenic effects of war-zone stressors. Findings underscore the utility of assessing both HPA and HPG stress reactivity when assessing PTSD vulnerability and may help inform efforts for enhanced soldier screening and inoculation to war-zone stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Alberic Pont, the great war and the "broken faces"]. (United States)

    Sigaux, N; Amiel, M; Piotrovitch d'Orlik, S; Breton, P


    The First World War and the number of facial injuries made specialized trauma centers necessary. Alberic Pont was trained both in medicine and dentistry. He founded in Lyon one of the first French specialized wards, which received more than 7000 soldiers overall. Through his charisma, his skills, his creativity and his generosity, he must be considered as a symbol among the pioneers of maxillo-facial surgery, which was then at its early stage. The centenary of World War I is the occasion to shed light on this man who dedicated his career to those who were renamed "broken faces". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Example of human individual identification from World War II gravesite. (United States)

    Ossowski, Andrzej; Kuś, Marta; Brzeziński, Piotr; Prüffer, Jakub; Piątek, Jarosław; Zielińska, Grażyna; Bykowska, Milena; Jałowińska, Katarzyna; Torgaszev, Anton; Skoryukov, Antoliy; Parafiniuk, Mirosław


    This paper presents the procedure elaborated by our team which was applied to the mode of identification of Red Army soldiers who were taken as prisoners by the German Army during World War II and deceased in captivity. In the course of our search the unmarked burial of ten Soviet prisoners of war was found. Historical, anthropological and genetic research conducted by us led to the personal identification of nine of them, including two by means of DNA analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students (United States)

    Dewberry, David R.


    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions…

  5. Historical Development of War Stress Reaction Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Nahit Ozmenler


    Full Text Available The battles that have come to this day had spectacular psychologic and psychiatric effects. Battle stres reactions in historical development phase has been mentioned with such different names as nostalgia, shell shock, soldier’s heart, Da Costra Syndrome, old sergeant syndrome, agent orange effect and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD due to the symptoms coming into prominence. On the othere hand they do tend to show similarities (palpilation, stomach complaints, rhomatizmal aches, neurological and psychiatric symptoms, etc. in the context of symptoms and findigs. During the historical phase, the transition of methods have also infliuenced the prominent clinical characteristics of the war stress syndromes. The symptoms that arose during the gulf War have exhibited neither similarities nor explainable characteristics with previous war stress reactions of the past. Therefore, in the context of diagnostics systems, there is no clarity about where it should be incorporated. The inability to find any satisfactory organic pathology in war stress reactions have been the unchanging characteristic of the illness. In collaboration with the increasing mortality and morbidity that arise in wars it is not only an important factor but the resistance of patients, who had been effected, to amelioration is continuing to be an important concern which preoccupies governments, military authorities and doctors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 63-70

  6. Microtubule Abnormalities Underlying Gulf War Illness in Neurons from Human-Induced Pluripotent Cells (United States)


    cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), originating from GW...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0433 TITLE: Microtubule Abnormalities Underlying Gulf War Illness in Neurons from Human- Induced Pluripotent Cells ...A simple blood sample is taken from the soldier, and then transduced, using reliable established methods , to make the cells pluripotent .

  7. War Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders


    This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare as a profou......This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare...

  8. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  9. Informal and Formal Supports for Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Vindevogel


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential contribution of informal community initiatives and formal interventions in support of former child soldiers' resilience in the wake of armed conflict. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a stratified random sample of 330 formerly recruited and 677 nonrecruited young people was consulted about their perspective on desirable support for former child soldiers provided by close support figures, communities, humanitarian organizations, and governments. Data analysis occurred by conducting qualitative thematic analysis and statistical chi-square analysis to explore clusters, similarities, and variations in reported support across the different “agents,” hereby comparing the perspectives of formerly recruited and non-recruited participants. The results indicated that formerly recruited and non-recruited participants had comparable perspectives that call for the contribution of various informal and formal support systems to former child soldiers' human capacities and the communal sociocultural fabric of war-affected societies. This highlights the importance of community-based, collective, and comprehensive support of formerly recruited young people and their surroundings in the aftermath of armed conflict.

  10. Informal and Formal Supports for Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Wessells, Michael; De Schryver, Maarten; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse


    This study aimed to evaluate the potential contribution of informal community initiatives and formal interventions in support of former child soldiers' resilience in the wake of armed conflict. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a stratified random sample of 330 formerly recruited and 677 nonrecruited young people was consulted about their perspective on desirable support for former child soldiers provided by close support figures, communities, humanitarian organizations, and governments. Data analysis occurred by conducting qualitative thematic analysis and statistical chi-square analysis to explore clusters, similarities, and variations in reported support across the different “agents,” hereby comparing the perspectives of formerly recruited and non-recruited participants. The results indicated that formerly recruited and non-recruited participants had comparable perspectives that call for the contribution of various informal and formal support systems to former child soldiers' human capacities and the communal sociocultural fabric of war-affected societies. This highlights the importance of community-based, collective, and comprehensive support of formerly recruited young people and their surroundings in the aftermath of armed conflict. PMID:23346023

  11. Credit Union Headquarters (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. NCUA, backed of the full faith...

  12. Captivity of the Great War on the Eastern Front: Traditions of «Belle Epoque» and Tendencies of «Total War»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Сергеевна Нагорная


    Full Text Available Taking the example of the prisoners of war during the First World War, the article analyses the continuity and the discontinuity in the process of the «totalization of acts of war» around which discussions among Western military historians are not likely to calm down any time soon. The simultaneity and the linkage of new tendencies and traditional structures are examined in the example of some important aspects of the German system of captivity: international law, national propaganda, maintenance of officers and soldiers in the camps to which up to now not enough attention has been paid.

  13. Nuclear famine: The indirect effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Harwell, C.C.


    The indirect effects of a nuclear war, especially as mediated by disruption in food availability, could be much more extensive than the direct effects. Furthermore, this risk is especially severe for noncombatant countries - for the 4 billion or so humans expected to survive the immediate period after a nuclear war relatively physically unharmed. Thus, a fundamentally different picture of the post-nuclear-war world results, where a large-scale nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union would probably result in more eventual fatalities in India than in the United States and the Soviet Union combined, and more people would die on the African continent than in all of Europe. Rather than reflecting images of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a modern nuclear war would, for most of the people of the world, much more resemble current images of Ethiopia and the Sudan

  14. Understanding human behavior in times of war. (United States)

    Vetter, Stefan


    The Third Geneva Convention reflects on the values of humanism, declaring the rights of humaneness, honor, and protection before torture and final discharge of war prisoners after the end of a war. These days, the occurrences in Baghdad Central Detention Center (formerly known as Abu Ghraib Prison), the actions of British soldiers in Basra, and the inflamed public discussion of whether torture might be an appropriate method to obtain crucial information from terrorists put the Third Geneva Convention back in the spotlight. The aforementioned occurrences raise questions regarding the psychological mass phenomena that make us vulnerable to think and to act against our education, habits, and beliefs. Only an understanding of these phenomena will help us to act against behavior we condemn. This article is an attempt to show how cognition of societies and individuals slowly changes during longer conflicts. Furthermore, it tries to summarize the possibilities we have to confront these tendencies.

  15. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert


    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  16. Public commemorations of Danish soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund


    , recent experiences in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere have implied renegotiations and reconstructions of the national ‘we’. In this article, I examine how this is reflected in the emergent memorial landscape by focusing on one national monument, two grassroots memorials, and 20 individual tombstones...... generation’ inevitably implies. Assembling different kinds of memorials that represent different positions of authority and power in the same analysis, I argue, provides a unique insight into how Denmark’s recent military adventures are ascribed meaning, contested, and negotiated.......This article takes a point of departure in Denmark’s decision to use the armed forces as a tool of foreign policy, even when this implies deployment to regions where combat and casualties must be expected. Since war, combat, and violence contradict traditional self-understandings of being Danish...

  17. Users and Union Catalogues (United States)

    Hartley, R. J.; Booth, Helen


    Union catalogues have had an important place in libraries for many years. Their use has been little investigated. Recent interest in the relative merits of physical and virtual union catalogues and a recent collaborative project between a physical and several virtual union catalogues in the United Kingdom led to the opportunity to study how users…

  18. Outbreak of beriberi among African Union troops in Mogadishu, Somalia. (United States)

    Watson, John T; El Bushra, Hassan; Lebo, Emmaculate J; Bwire, Godfrey; Kiyengo, James; Emukule, Gideon; Omballa, Victor; Tole, John; Zuberi, Muvunyi; Breiman, Robert F; Katz, Mark A


    In July 2009, WHO and partners were notified of a large outbreak of unknown illness, including deaths, among African Union (AU) soldiers in Mogadishu. Illnesses were characterized by peripheral edema, dyspnea, palpitations, and fever. Our objectives were to determine the cause of the outbreak, and to design and recommend control strategies. The illness was defined as acute onset of lower limb edema, with dyspnea, chest pain, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or headache. Investigations in Nairobi and Mogadishu included clinical, epidemiologic, environmental, and laboratory studies. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for illness. From April 26, 2009 to May 1, 2010, 241 AU soldiers had lower limb edema and at least one additional symptom; four patients died. At least 52 soldiers were airlifted to hospitals in Kenya and Uganda. Four of 31 hospitalized patients in Kenya had right-sided heart failure with pulmonary hypertension. Initial laboratory investigations did not reveal hematologic, metabolic, infectious or toxicological abnormalities. Illness was associated with exclusive consumption of food provided to troops (not eating locally acquired foods) and a high level of insecurity (e.g., being exposed to enemy fire on a daily basis). Because the syndrome was clinically compatible with wet beriberi, thiamine was administered to ill soldiers, resulting in rapid and dramatic resolution. Blood samples taken from 16 cases prior to treatment showed increased levels of erythrocyte transketolase activation coefficient, consistent with thiamine deficiency. With mass thiamine supplementation for healthy troops, the number of subsequent beriberi cases decreased with no further deaths reported. An outbreak of wet beriberi caused by thiamine deficiency due to restricted diet occurred among soldiers in a modern, well-equipped army. Vigilance to ensure adequate micronutrient intake must be a priority in populations completely dependent upon

  19. “All Quiet on the French Front”: The First World War Centenary in France and the Challenges of Republican Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Varley


    Full Text Available The 2014 centenary commemorations of the First World War in France were described by many commentators as being marked by a level of consensus that stood in marked contrast with the broader political environment and the divisive memories of the Second World War. Yet despite shared desires to honour the poilu as a symbol of the sacrifices of all French soldiers, this article argues that the appearance of consensus masks deeper tensions between memories of the First World War and the ideas and values underpinning the French Republic. During the war and the period thereafter, myths of the nation in arms served to legitimise the mobilisation and immense sacrifices of the French people. The wars of the French Revolution had established the notion of the responsibility of the French people to defend their country, creating a close connection between military service, citizenship and membership of the nation. However, these ideas were challenged by memories of the mutinies of 1917 and of the punishment of those who had disobeyed orders. Having long been excluded from official commemorations, in 2014 the French government sought to rehabilitate the memory of the soldiers shot as an example for committing acts of disobedience, espionage and criminal offences. The memory of these soldiers fuelled disagreements over how far soldiers had willingly consented to fight and sacrifice their lives. Indeed, claims that soldiers had been unwilling “victims” undermined myths of the “Sacred Union” of 1914 and the very foundations of republican concepts of the nation.

  20. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René


    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  1. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders


    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  2. Rutherford's war (United States)

    Campbell, John


    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  3. War Termination (United States)


    Hills seemed especially urgent. An economic depression hit the country in 1873 followed by the discovery of gold in the Black Hills the next year...University of Oklahoma Press, 1994). 84 Endnotes 1. John S. Gray, “ Centennial Campaign: The Sioux War of 1876,” (n.p.: The Old Army Press, 1976) p. 211

  4. The Iraq war: official and unofficial history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Garcia Bonfin


    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the motivations and the soldiers who fought in the war in Iraq started in March 2003. The attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the foreign policy of the United States, the years of relative peace conquered at the end of the cold war is over, Americans now had a new enemy, political Islam. Soon after the attacks, the Bush Administration (2001-2009 tried to relate Islamic fighters belonging to Al-Qaeda with the regime of Saddam Hussein, in a clear attempt to justify an invasion on Iraq internally. Externally, the American Government, along with the Briton, claimed that the Iraqis had weapons of mass destruction, which inflicted the UN resolutions imposed on the Iraqi Government during the years 1990. However, neither the inspections and subsequently the invasion were able to find such weapons. What if you saw after the invasion was the huge profit obtained by private military and oil companies. In the research was analyzed as if formed the Middle East, the Empire of the United States on a global scale, the report of the Chief Inspector of UNMOVIC, the UN agency responsible for weapons inspections in Iraq, and the letters of soldiers who fought in Iraq. In historiography, as in what if notes is that there were three present interests in the war in Iraq, economic order first, with the possibility of profit of the private military companies and the opportunity to extract oil; second related to foreign policy, which had the interest in rearranging geopolitics of the region; and third of domestic politics, to which there was an increase in the popularity of the Bush administration, with the war on Terror.

  5. Technophilic hubris and espionage styles during the Cold War. (United States)

    Macrakis, Kristie


    During the Cold War the United States developed an espionage style that reflected its love affair with technology (technophilia) whereas the Soviet Union and the East Bloc continued a tradition of using humans to collect intelligence. This essay places the origins and development of these espionage styles during the Cold War in historical and social context, and assesses their strengths and weaknesses by drawing on examples from particular cases. While the United States won the Cold War, the East Bloc won the spy wars because of a more effective espionage style. I conclude with some reflections on the uses of history for future policy, and suggest areas for further study.

  6. The Factors of Soldier’s Load (United States)


    turtles . My ruck weighed 120 pounds. American Airborne Soldier Grenada, 1983 One of the tenets of Army doctrine in Field Manual 100-5 QIp.r.aition•. is...from a lack of the appropriate physical conditioning in some units; and the more nebulous problem of insufficient logistical challenges built into

  7. Soviet Union, Military Affairs. (United States)


    gardens, and in the vineyard ’.s and in the pastures of their "Pakhtako’r" kolkhoz. I gave birth to a dream—to become an officer. Back in the eighth...These dodgers, who prefer fancy pastry at home to the soldier’s dried crust, have always been around, of course. Every family has its black sheep , as

  8. Sergei and the “Divinely Appointed” Stalin: Theology and Ecclesiology in Church-State Relations in the Soviet Union in the Lead-up to the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Boer


    Full Text Available In contrast to the tendency to focus on political and social reasons for the rapprochement between the Soviet government and the Russian Orthodox Church, between Stalin and the later patriarch Sergei, this article deals with theological and ecclesiological sensibilities. One would expect such reasons from the side of the church but I also argue that they were important for Stalin’s considerations and acts. His deep awareness and intimate knowledge of the church, and active involvement and concrete proposals in the long interaction between church and state, were as important as those of Sergei. The article begins with a reconsideration of Stalin’s period of theological study, which influenced him deeply and provided with him unique insights into the nature of the church. After this period, an intriguing path unfolds, through key categories of Stalin’s thought thought and his effort—which was strongly opposed – to include the article on religious freedom in the 1936 constitution, let alone the definition of socialism (in contrast to communism in terms of two biblical verses in the very same constitution. At the same time, the statements and actions of Sergei, already from 1927, were also part of the narrative, so the analysis moves between church and state until the meeting in 1943. All of this is crucial material for understanding developments in the period officially known as the Cold War.

  9. How Satisfied are Soldiers with their Ballistic Helmets? A Comparison of Soldiers' Opinions about the Advanced Combat Helmet and the Personal Armor System for Ground Troops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivins, Brian J; Schwab, Karen; Crowley, John S; McEntire, B. J; Trumble, Christopher C; Brown, Fred H; Warden, Deborah L


    .... These factors affect Soldiers' decisions about helmet use; therefore, rigorous research about Soldiers' real-life experiences with helmets is critical to assessing a helmet's overall protective efficacy...

  10. Einstein Critical-Slowing-Down is Siegel CyberWar Denial-of-Access Queuing/Pinning/ Jamming/Aikido Via Siegel DIGIT-Physics BEC ``Intersection''-BECOME-UNION Barabasi Network/GRAPH-Physics BEC: Strutt/Rayleigh-Siegel Percolation GLOBALITY-to-LOCALITY Phase-Transition Critical-Phenomenon (United States)

    Buick, Otto; Falcon, Pat; Alexander, G.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig


    Einstein[Dover(03)] critical-slowing-down(CSD)[Pais, Subtle in The Lord; Life & Sci. of Albert Einstein(81)] is Siegel CyberWar denial-of-access(DOA) operations-research queuing theory/pinning/jamming/.../Read [Aikido, Aikibojitsu & Natural-Law(90)]/Aikido(!!!) phase-transition critical-phenomenon via Siegel DIGIT-Physics (Newcomb[Am.J.Math. 4,39(1881)]-{Planck[(1901)]-Einstein[(1905)])-Poincare[Calcul Probabilités(12)-p.313]-Weyl [Goett.Nachr.(14); Math.Ann.77,313 (16)]-{Bose[(24)-Einstein[(25)]-Fermi[(27)]-Dirac[(1927)]}-``Benford''[Proc.Am.Phil.Soc. 78,4,551 (38)]-Kac[Maths.Stat.-Reasoning(55)]-Raimi[Sci.Am. 221,109 (69)...]-Jech[preprint, PSU(95)]-Hill[Proc.AMS 123,3,887(95)]-Browne[NYT(8/98)]-Antonoff-Smith-Siegel[AMS Joint-Mtg.,S.-D.(02)] algebraic-inversion to yield ONLY BOSE-EINSTEIN QUANTUM-statistics (BEQS) with ZERO-digit Bose-Einstein CONDENSATION(BEC) ``INTERSECTION''-BECOME-UNION to Barabasi[PRL 876,5632(01); Rev.Mod.Phys.74,47(02)...] Network /Net/GRAPH(!!!)-physics BEC: Strutt/Rayleigh(1881)-Polya(21)-``Anderson''(58)-Siegel[J.Non-crystalline-Sol.40,453(80)

  11. Drones and the Threshold for Waging War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio


    If drones make waging war easier, the reason why they do so may not be the one commonly assumed within the philosophical debate – namely, the promised reduction in casualties on either side – but a more complicated one. One that has little to do with the concern for one’s own soldiers or, for tha......If drones make waging war easier, the reason why they do so may not be the one commonly assumed within the philosophical debate – namely, the promised reduction in casualties on either side – but a more complicated one. One that has little to do with the concern for one’s own soldiers or......, for that matter, the enemy, but rather one that is embedded in the political intricacies of international relations and domestic politics. This article will utilize the example of the Obama Administration’s drone policies to illustrate this argument. This analysis is also meant to have a wider methodological...... significance; that philosophy can make an important contribution in analyzing drone warfare. However, philosophy will not help to simplify realities and provide easy solutions....

  12. Backache amongst soldiers: a prospective analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, S.; Rehman, A.U.; Janjua, S.H.; Tarrar, A.M.


    Objective: To investigate the occupational predispositions of low back pain in soldiers Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Bahawalpur, from June 2009 to Jan 2010. Patients and Methods: A questionnaire was developed to investigate the occupation-related issues in soldiers reporting with low backache in surgical OPD at CMH Bahawalpur. It included personal and occupational factors. The body mass index was also calculated. Of the 107 male soldiers assessed, 90 were enrolled into the study. The statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis of the data using SPSS 17.0. Results: Of all the soldiers evaluated (n=90), 32 (35.6%) were clerks/computer operators, 21 (23.1%) were drivers and 14(15.6%) were signal men. All were males (100%) and the average BMI was 24.8 kg/m2. The 69 (76.7%) patients who had backache had prolonged working hours (average 10.8 hours per day), 68 (75.6%) patients used to sleep over tape/nawar bed and only 12 (13.3%) had been sleeping on mattresses. The onset of pain was sudden in 58 (64.4%) patients. 27 (23.3%) had developed acute backache after prolonged sitting, 21 (30%) after lifting heavy objects. The pain was exaggerated by doing morning physical training 82 (91.1%), prolonged sitting 61 (67.8%) and standing with rifle 24 (26.7%). Conclusion: The prevalence of low back pain in sedentary occupation or soldiers on sitting jobs was higher 69 (76%). The number of working hours on these occupations was associated with occurrence as well as aggravation of low back pain. (author)

  13. Fighting the "Damnable Triumph" of Feminism: Battles between Teachers' Unions in Interwar Britain (United States)

    Wilson, Dolly Smith


    The interwar decades saw a bitter recruiting war between the NUT (National Union of Teachers), the National Union of Women Teachers (NUWT), and the National Association of Schoolmasters (NAS), which like the NUWT broke away from the NUT in the early 1920s. The NAS opposed the NUT's official policy shift to support equal pay for male and female…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Mujiyati


    Full Text Available United States and the Soviet Union is a country on the part of allies who emerged as the winner during World War II. However, after reaching the Allied victory in the situation soon changed, man has become an opponent. United States and the Soviet Union are competing to expand the influence and power. To compete the United States strive continuously strengthen itself both in the economic and military by establishing a defense pact and aid agencies in the field of economy. During the Cold War the two are not fighting directly in one of the countries of the former Soviet Union and the United States. However, if understood, teradinya the Korean War and the Vietnam War is a result of tensions between the two countries and is a direct warfare conducted by the United States and the Soviet Union. Cold War ended in conflict with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as the winner of the country.

  15. World Wars at Home: U.S. Response to World War II Propaganda. (United States)

    Nagy, Alex


    Focuses on how the United States Post Office reacted to the massive influx of political propaganda, primarily from the Soviet Union, immediately prior to and during World War II. Describes how the Post Office played an active role in stopping and burning some 50 tons of incoming material. (RS)

  16. Perpetual War?


    Clark, General Wesley; Mann, Michael


    Michael Mann documents the increasing substitution of war for diplomacy by US policy elites. In part, the substitution has come about because of ideological change but also because the "Military-Industrial-Congressional Complex" maintains a high level of military spending due to the fact that most congressional districts receive some form of military expenditure from bases to munitions production. General Wesley Clark considers foreign policy under the Bush administration. He argues ...

  17. Currency wars?


    Gros, Daniel


    Treball final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs academic 2015-2016 A currency war (also known as the competitive depreciation or a policy of impoverish the neighbor) occurs when a country wants to obtain a competitive advantage which improve its trade balancethrough a series of changes in its currency. With these currency movements exports become cheaper for foreigners while imports become more expensive for residents in the own nation. These advantages produce strong...

  18. The Clash of Empires in Africa: The First World War in the British and German Colonies


    Steinbach, Daniel


    Exhibited at the second Glucksman Memorial Symposium on June 13th 2007 From its very beginnings the First World War was a global war. The most severe fighting outside Europe took place in the tropical German colonies of the Cameroons and German East Africa (present-day Tanzania), as well as in the deserts of German Southwest Africa (present-day Namibia). The main burden of the war was carried on the shoulders of the Africans who either were enlisted as regular soldiers or forced into servi...

  19. Globalizing Contemporary War


    Melissa Zisler


    There are a plethora of social problems present throughout theworld in which America has deemed a type of ‘war.’ Some of theseunconventional wars include: The War on Poverty presented in 1964; The War on Drugs announced in 1971; The War on Cancer commencing in1971; The War Against Illiteracy beginning in the 1970s; and afterSeptember 11, 2001 The War on Terror was announced (Raz, 2008).These contemporary ‘wars’ have transformed the meaning of the word‘war.’ Labeling these missions ‘wars,’ pre...

  20. Death from 1918 pandemic influenza during the First World War: a perspective from personal and anecdotal evidence. (United States)

    Wever, Peter C; van Bergen, Leo


    The Meuse-Argonne offensive, a decisive battle during the First World War, is the largest frontline commitment in American military history involving 1.2 million U.S. troops. With over 26,000 deaths among American soldiers, the offensive is considered "America's deadliest battle". The Meuse-Argonne offensive coincided with the highly fatal second wave of the influenza pandemic in 1918. In Europe and in U.S. Army training camps, 1918 pandemic influenza killed around 45,000 American soldiers making it questionable which battle should be regarded "America's deadliest". The origin of the influenza pandemic has been inextricably linked with the men who occupied the military camps and trenches during the First World War. The disease had a profound impact, both for the military apparatus and for the individual soldier. It struck all the armies and might have claimed toward 100 000 fatalities among soldiers overall during the conflict while rendering millions ineffective. Yet, it remains unclear whether 1918 pandemic influenza had an impact on the course of the First World War. Still, even until this day, virological and bacteriological analysis of preserved archived remains of soldiers that succumbed to 1918 pandemic influenza has important implications for preparedness for future pandemics. These aspects are reviewed here in a context of citations, images, and documents illustrating the tragic events of 1918. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich


    Full Text Available The article covers a relevant historical and cultural problem of elaboration and maintenance of monuments of the military glory of 1812. The author considers various architectural and sculptural monuments illustrating heroic events of Patriotic war of 1812, built in the two Russian capitals - Moscow and Saint Petersburg in different historical periods, and also in primordial Russian towns, such as Smolensk, Vyazma, and Maloyaroslavets. Architectural and composition-related features of this or that monument erected against the background of historic events of the war of 1812 are analyzed in detail. The author demonstrates the links between architecture and sculpture within the framework of town-planning solutions implemented in the pieces that have found their places in the towns enlisted above. The value of symbols of the Victory and Glory of the Russian army and the Russian people is marked. The names of the most famous heroes of this war, starting from a field marshal and ending with a soldier are inscribed. By addressing the historical and cultural heritage of Russia, the author informs readers about the most significant events of the war. The author mentions an acute problem of the modernity, that is, preservation and restoration of monuments, and shares his view point. The value of the historic and cultural heritage of Russia for military and patriotic education is emphasized. The article is prepared within the framework of the year of the Russian history.

  2. Optical correction and quality of vision of the French soldiers stationed in the Republic of Djibouti in 2009. (United States)

    Vignal, Rodolphe; Ollivier, Lénaïck


    To ensure vision readiness on the battlefield, the French military has been providing its soldiers with eyewear since World War I. A military refractive surgery program was initiated in 2008. A prospective questionnaire-based investigation on optical correction and quality of vision among active duty members with visual deficiencies stationed in Djibouti, Africa, was conducted in 2009. It revealed that 59.3% of the soldiers were wearing spectacles, 21.2% were wearing contact lenses--despite official recommendations--and 8.5% had undergone refractive surgery. Satisfaction rates were high with refractive surgery and contact lenses; 33.6% of eyeglass wearers were planning to have surgery. Eye dryness and night vision disturbances were the most reported symptoms following surgery. Military optical devices were under-prescribed before deployment. This suggests that additional and more effective studies on the use of military optical devices should be performed and policy supporting refractive surgery in military populations should be strengthened.

  3. Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers--systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research. (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E; Rubin-Smith, Julia E; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A


    This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age reintegration in CAAFAG. Abduction, age of conscription, exposure to violence, gender, and community stigma were associated with increased internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Family acceptance, social support, and educational/economic opportunities were associated with improved psychosocial adjustment. Research on the social reintegration and psychosocial adjustment of former child soldiers is nascent. A number of gaps in the available literature warrant future study. Recommendations to bolster the evidence base on psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers and other war-affected youth include more studies comprising longitudinal study designs, and validated cross-cultural instruments for assessing mental health, as well as more integrated community-based approaches to study design and research monitoring. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. American Sammys and French Poilus in the Great War: sport, masculinities and vulnerability. (United States)

    Terret, Thierry


    The violence and duration of fighting throughout the Great War created an intense feeling of vulnerability among the men engaged in battle, which challenged their perception of manliness. When the Americans joined the war in 1917, the balance between the two opposing armies was modified and the psychological crises of French soldiers brought to an end. The confidence shown by the American soldiers and their first successes on the battlefield changed the way the French Poilus perceived their new allies. From scepticism to admiration, Frenchmen's feelings extended beyond the fighting. Indeed, by living with American soldiers in the trenches and camps behind the front, French soldiers discovered a new culture where games and sport played a major role and contributed to building manliness. The Foyers Franco-Americains du Soldat (Franco-American hostels for soldiers) provided an ideal place for the cultural transfer of a model of masculinity from Sammys to Poilus. The foyers were managed by the American YMCA and eventually reached the number of 1,500 in France during the war. These hostels afforded soldiers numerous opportunities to develop cultural and sports practices, by bringing together Americans and Frenchmen. Mainly based on the archives of the American Expeditionary Forces, the YMCA and the French Army, the paper argues that the Foyers du Soldat brought to light a new model of masculinity based on sport, which challenged the Frenchmen's vision. It aims to show the rapid transformation of masculine identity within a context of extreme vulnerability and confirms the changes in representations of men in French society at this time.

  5. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite


    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...... in adverse institutional contexts, can be effective when they reinvent their repertoires of contention, through political action or campaigning along global value chains....

  6. Ant tending influences soldier production in a social aphid. (United States)

    Shingleton, A W; Foster, W A


    The aphid Pseudoregma sundanica (Van der Goot) (Homoptera: Aphididae) has two defence strategies. It is obligatorily tended by various species of ant and also produces sterile soldiers. We investigated how they allocate their investment in these two strategies. We measured the size, number of soldiers, number and species of tending ant, and number and species of predators in P. sundanica populations. We found that the level of ant tending correlated negatively with soldier investment in P. sundanica. The species of tending ant also influenced soldier investment. We excluded ants from aphid populations and recorded changes in population size and structure over four weeks. Ant exclusion led to population decline and extinction. At the same time, surviving populations showed a significant increase in soldier investment. The data demonstrate that social aphids can adjust their investment in soldiers in direct response to environmental change.

  7. The Russian Chursh Abroad and Vietnam war according to emigre ecclesiastical periodicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anashkin Dmitrii


    Full Text Available Soon after the end of World War II, there arose in the world two opposing systems, between which there began an intense conflict. One manifestation of this confl ict was the outbreak of local wars in different parts of the world. The most violent was certainly the war in Vietnam. For the Russian Church Abroad, which comprised the most conservative elements of the Russian emigration, the war in Vietnam was a war with the evil power of this world: communism. In this war the United States protected not only its own interests but also those of the entire free world against the God-fighters who had seized their homeland, Russia. It was precisely communism that the Russian Church Abroad opposed, not the Vietnamese people, towards whom it was very sympathetic. The church press reported enthusiastically about the heroism of American soldiers, particularly those of Russian heritage serving in the American armed forces. At the same time, it noted various problems among the American soldiers in Vietnam, particularly the widespread use of narcotics. The various anti-war demonstrations were regarded by the Church Abroad as a capitulation of the free world in the face of evil. The peace talks in Indochina were likewise regarded negatively. At the same time, this intense anticommunism had its negative sides, making any objective analysis of events very diffi cult, which in turn led to one-sided views.

  8. Into the open – or hidden away? – The construction of war children as a social category in post-war Norway and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Simonsen


    Full Text Available After World War II two groups of children fathered by foreign soldiers were assigned special political functions in the building of a future peaceful Europe. In Norway, the children of German soldiers and Norwegian women and in West Germany, the children of African-American soldiers and German women were constructed as specific categories to be handled in certain ways by state authorities. The Norwegian government, after heated debates, decided that the children were allowed to stay and to be silently and discreetly assimilated into society. In West Germany however, the children begotten to African-Americans came to serve as objects in a national public campaign for international recognition as a democratic state. The two cases demonstrate how social politics for children may serve political purposes, rather than being in the interest of the child.

  9. [Importance of medical treatment in second echelon during war in Croatia, example--war surgical hospital in Garesnica]. (United States)

    Gverić, Tugomir; Huljev, Dubravko; Zdilar, Boris; Kolak, Toni; Barisic, Jadranko; Ahmetasovic, Snjezana Gveric; Trajbar, Dubravka; Lojo, Nermin; Sever, Marko


    At beginning of 1991, the increasing necessity of emergency surgical treatment of wounded persons in Croatia led to the formation of mobile surgical teams. However, this system was abandoned due to many problems and echelon health division was formed. One of the war surgical hospitals (second echelon) was the War Surgical Hospital Garesnica. In this study, materials of the Croatian War Veterans Ministry, Ministry of Defense, Garesnica War Surgical Hospital and Garesnica Defense Office archive were used. We analyzed the number and localization of wounds, and describe the organization, work and results of the War Surgical Hospital in Garesnica. During the work of the War Surgical Hospital in Garesnica, 909 surgical examinations were performed, 521 wounded were surgically treated (45% civilians and 55% soldiers), 331 wounded were operated on, 5 lethal outcomes were recorded, 68% of wounds were localized on the extremities, 19% on the thorax and abdomen, and 13% on the head end neck. In this article the organization and work of the War Surgical Hospital in Garesnica is described, which had a major role in providing emergency medical care to people wounded in west Slavonia.

  10. Smog wars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gospodarek, M.P.


    International discussions of transboundary pollution, which have not been able to find a way to effect the agreed-upon principle that no nation should have to suffer another nation's pollution, parallel the smog wars across state boundaries. The states, however, can blame the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as each other because of relaxed and unevenly applied standards. Several EPA decisions are cited to illustrate tensions between states and the alienation of the environmental lobby. Of particular concern are the application of smog and ozone standards in rural areas and the effect of offset policy on industrial development.

  11. Soldier of Franco, Soldier of Christ: Roy Campbell and Spain in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patriotic stand alongside Britain during World War II; his admiration for Franco and the Spanish National Movement with his active participation in the war against Hitler; or the latter with his defence of fascism as the most efficient of revolutions?

  12. The United States Civil War Causal Agent for Irish Assimilation and Acceptance in US Society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillespie, William


    The American Civil War was a cornerstone event for the Irish in America. Their participation proved their duty to Union and Confederate causes, increased their acceptance in American society, and hastened assimilation...

  13. Examining the Seven-Flag "Chieu Hoi" Pass: A Primary Document from the American War in Viet Nam (United States)

    Engelmann, Ted


    During the Viet Nam war, U.S. military helicopters dropped "Chieu Hoi" (safe conduct) passes over suspected enemy locations to encourage enemy soldiers to surrender. This article presents a classroom activity that encourages students to examine a "Chieu Hoi" pass as a primary historical document, identify its various elements,…

  14. US Army Soldiers With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. (United States)

    Choi, Y Sammy; Cucura, Jon


    US Army soldiers diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were previously considered unfit for duty. For highly motivated soldiers, current advanced technologies allow the possibility of not only retention on active duty, but military deployment. We present our experience at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, taking care of soldiers newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Through intensive diabetes education, extensive military and physical training, optimization of diabetes technology, and remote real-time monitoring, soldiers are able to continue to serve their country in the most specialized roles.

  15. Canadian Military Nurse Deaths in the First World War. (United States)

    Dodd, Dianne


    This paper examines the lives of sixty-one Canadian Nursing Sisters who served during the First World War, and whose deaths were attributed, more or less equally, to three categories: general illness, Spanish Influenza, and killed in action. The response by Canadian Army Medical Corps (CAMC) physicians to the loss of these early female officers who were, in fact, Canada's first female war casualties, suggests a gendered construction of illness at work in the CAMC. While nurses tried to prove themselves good soldiers, military physicians were quick to attribute their illnesses and deaths to horrific war conditions deemed unsuitable for women. This gendered response is particularly evident in how CAMC physicians invoked a causal role for neurasthenia or shell shock for the nurses' poor health. The health profile of these women also suggests that some of these deaths might have occurred had these women stayed in Canada, and it encourages future comparative research into death rates among physicians and orderlies.

  16. Romanian Orthodox Priests on the World War I Fronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Cotan


    Full Text Available Unlike the World War II which brought a series of ideologies, such as Nazism and communism as reasons of outbreak, the World War I used religious themes in its propagandistic message, namely the idea to defend the homeland and faith. Religion was present in the propaganda promoted on the fronts of the Great War, and the military clergy – Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox – supported it. The military clergy have morally supported the soldiers in the trenches, most of them coming from the peasantry and labor still attached to the Christian values. This study is trying to present the efforts of the Romanian military priests enrolled in the Austro-Hungarian and Romanian armies for spiritually helping the Romanian militaries.

  17. Postwar environment and long-term mental health problems in former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the WAYS study. (United States)

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Stochl, Jan; Ovuga, Emilio; Abbott, Rosemary; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Croudace, Tim J; Jones, Peter B


    War experiences (WE) and postwar environments (PWE) are associated with mental ill-health. The present study aims to investigate the pathways from WE and PWE to mental ill-health and to define opportunities for intervention through analysis of the war-affected youths study (WAYS) cohort study. WAYS is an ongoing study of a large cohort of former child soldiers being conducted in Uganda. Mental health problems, subjective WE and PWE contexts were assessed by local adaptations of internationally developed measures for use with former child soldiers at least 6 years after the end of the war. Structural equation modeling was used to test two mediation hypotheses: (1) the 'trauma model' in which WE directly influence long-term mental health and (2) the 'psychosocial path' in which WE influence long-term mental health through PWE stressors. WE were linked to depression/anxiety (β=0.15 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.30)) through PWE (accounting for 44% of the variance in the relationship between these variables) and to conduct problems (β=0.23 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.43); (accounting for 89% of the variance, ie, near complete mediation)). The direct relation between WE and depression/anxiety attenuated but remained statistically significant. For conduct problems, the direct relationship was no longer significant after accounting for PWE. PWE are a key determinant of continued mental health problems in former child soldiers. Interventions to reduce long-term mental problems should address both PWE stressors (psychosocial model) and specialised mental healthcare (trauma model) and consider both models of intervention as complementary.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana


    Full Text Available The financial crisis showed that banks were not able to face the loss, because there is no framework for a resolution, so that it intervened with money from taxpayers. So, it has been highlighted the need to update the regulations applicable to the banking sector. Creating a single supervisory mechanism in the fall of 2014 was a time reference point to achieve a banking union in Europe. Banking Union is one of the four foundations for a genuine Economic and Monetary Union. The paper’s purpose is to analyze the Banking Union structure, based on three pillars: (i The Single Supervisory Mechanism - the transfer of the main responsibility regarding banking supervision from national to European level, (ii The Single Resolution Mechanism - introduction of common provisions to ensure legal support required to manage bank failures problem, (iii The Deposit Guarantee Schemes - harmonization of deposit guarantee rules. These measures were adopted at European Union level to ensure the stability of the European banking system and to prevent future crises. Because countries that are not part of the euro area are not required to join the Banking Union, the dilemma of these countries lies in the decision to join the Banking Union quickly or to wait. It is the case of Romania, also, so, this paper analyze the opportunity of Romania's accession to the Banking Union before adopting the euro. There are analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the Banking Union, showing that, in the context of single currency introduction, Romania's participation is required. So far, there are reduced debates regarding the need, advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the European Banking Union, the top representatives of the National Bank of Romania being among the few who expressed their views in public and published papers on the subject.

  19. Hardships and personal strategies of Vietnam War nurses. (United States)

    Scannell-Desch, E A


    This study describes hardships faced in Vietnam and personal strategies used to deal with these hardships as defined by 24 female military nurses who served during the war. Purposive sampling was used, and data were generated using four core questions and in-depth interviews. The research methodology was phenomenology, incorporating data analysis procedures of Colaizzi, Lincoln and Guba, and Van Manen. Eight hardship and nine personal strategy themes were identified. This study found that caring for young, severely injured, and disfigured soldiers was a significant hardship and that nurses struggled with the moral dilemmas inherent in mass casualty situations, triage policies, and the practice of returning recovered soldiers to combat. Most nurses relied on personally proven and familiar strategies to reduce or buffer the effects of emotional hardships, whereas some discovered and used new strategies.

  20. The first world war drives rehabilitation toward the modern concepts of disability and participation. (United States)

    Bonfiglioli Stagni, S; Tomba, P; Viganò, A; Zati, A; Benedetti, M G


    The First World War produced a huge number of disabled soldiers. During the war, surgeons realized that it was not enough to merely treat the limbs of the wounded soldiers; it was also necessary to train them to use their remaining abilities to their greatest capacity. Governments at the same time realized that such a high number of veterans created a financial burden, by entitling disabled veterans to full healthcare, raising the issues of social welfare. Both in the US and Europe, programs of rehabilitation were instituted, providing injured soldiers with long-term medical care and vocational training aimed at restituting soldier's independence for a speedy return to work. In Italy at the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, one of the most renowned Hospitals for the treatment of orthopedic deformities, Putti set up a technologically advanced Orthopedic Workshop, and a Rehabilitation House. The so called "reconstruction programs" addressed all aspects of rehabilitation (including physiotherapy, curative workshops and vocational therapy), seeing disability in terms of function. The experience gained in the treatment of war victims markedly enriched rehabilitation techniques, but overall the First World War helped engender the concept of rehabilitative programs to assist disabled veterans reintegrate in the workplace, thus laying the foundations of the modern concept of participation at a social level. In the centenary of Italy's entry into the First World War, it is worth underlining just how much hindsight affords us a new perspective on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. It reminds us that rehabilitation is not merely the role of medicine, but forms part of a multifaceted approach involving societal roles and expectations, regardless of the psychological and physical impairments suffered by the individuals concerned.

  1. Images of the Second World War in Austrian Literature after 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Müller


    Full Text Available The author examines selected examples of post-1945 Austrian literature, asking what pictures of the Second World War they imparted and what role they played when, certainly from 1948 on, a certain image of history began to take shape in Austria against the background of the Cold War. This image involved a fade-out in particular of the racist nature of the war, and it had a collectively exonerating and distorting impact. Attention is paid to the stories and novels of former participants in the war and National Socialists, such as, for example, Erich Landgrebe, Erich Kern, Hans Gustl Kernmayr, Kurt Ziesel. A contrast is seen in the anti-war novel, Letzte Ausfahrt (Last Exit (1952 by the former soldier Herbert Zand, who turns against the dominant image of history, as well as in Ingeborg Bachmann's use of war memories as a topic. The texts are read as a reservoir of selective memory: on the one hand they are critical, individual counter-memories and on the other hand, they make a positive contribution to the formation of the aforesaid collective image. One may say that a war of perception was fought around the Second World War; it was undoubtedly won in the immediate post-war years by those literary works that legitimized or at least trivialized the war. The critical voices of Herbert Zand, Gerhard Fritsch, and Ingeborg Bachmann were unfortunately the quieter ones and were not particularly successful in their time.

  2. Vietnam: Historians at War (United States)

    Moyar, Mark


    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  3. Wilfred Own Re-Visited: A Psychoanalytic Reading of War, Memory, and Crisis of Identity in Wilfred Owen’s Poem Mental Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Güneş


    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon the psychoanalytic reading of Wilfred Owen’s poem Mental Cases. In so doing, first, the paper examines how the disturbing experiences and feelings of a tragic event such as a war, torture, rape or murder, which the surviving  victims, civilians and veteran soldiers store in the realm of their unconscious in the Freudian sense, start annoying their feelings after a while. That is, these memories of the past event continuously come later on in life under the troubling influence of recurring flashbacks of the traumatic events, nightmares, irritability, anxiety, and social withdrawal. Eventually these undesirable traumatic past experiences and memories repressed in the unconscious obviously causes individuals to have a kind of psychological disorder which powerfully affects their daily behaviour, life and identity. Secondly, the paper explores this relationship between conscious and unconscious aspect of life, along with the perception of identity, in Owen’s poem Mental Cases, in which the shell-shocked, war-torn veteran soldiers, who experienced and witnessed the shock of World War I and the death of their fellow soldiers, constantly remember the soldiers and innocent civilians who were brutally killed or whom they brutally killed in World War I. Now, these veteran soldiers call back those unhappy times, along with the death of soldiers and civilians, and then suffer in their psyche with a sense of guilt and disappointment: that is, recalling their shocking traumatic war experiences and their killing of many innocent people apparently cripple their vision of life and shatter their identities in the present. Through his representation of these veteran soldiers in such a way, Owen, as in his other poems, artistically and forcefully shows his own reaction, anger and dissatisfaction about the war and its distressing outcome in Mental Cases. Finally, the paper also examines how Owen’s critical view of war and its traumatic

  4. The Remembrance of World War One and the Austrian Federation of Jewish War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Lamprecht


    Full Text Available This paper discusses discourses and activities of memory of the Austrian “Federation of Jewish War Veterans” (Bund jüdischer Frontsoldaten/BJF, based primarily on the analysis of the journal “Jewish Front” (Jüdische Front as well as on archival sources. A remarkable increase in anti-Semitic activities as well as acts of violence committed by the National Socialists led former Jewish soldiers of the Austrian army to found the BJF in 1932. The aim of the BJF was to defend the Austrian Jewry against anti-Semitic accusations as well as to strengthen their Jewish self-consciousness by focusing on the remembrance of the Jewish military service during the Great War and an idealized and exaggerated war experience. To reach their objectives, the BJF was organized hierarchically and militarily. The members wore uniforms, and the BJF organized military inspections, spread propaganda via the journal “Jewish Front” and initiated the erection of Jewish war memorials in several Austrian cities. Due to the fact that the BJF wanted to unify the Austrian Jewry under its leadership, it claimed to be above all party lines and propagandized a common Austrian Jewish identity.

  5. 'The gut war': Functional somatic disorders in the UK during the Second World War. (United States)

    Jones, Edgar


    Hospital admission and mortality statistics suggested that peptic ulcer reached a peak prevalence in the mid-1950s. During the Second World War, against this background of serious and common pathology, an epidemic of dyspepsia afflicted both service personnel and civilians alike. In the absence of reliable diagnostic techniques, physicians struggled to distinguish between life-threatening illness and mild, temporary disorders. This article explores the context in which non-ulcer stomach conditions flourished. At a time when fear was considered defeatist and overt psychological disorder attracted stigma, both soldiers and civilians exposed to frightening events may have unconsciously translated their distress into gastrointestinal disorders. While the nature of army food was initially identified as the cause of duodenal ulcer in servicemen, the pre-war idea that conscientious and anxious individuals were at high risk gathered support and fed into post-war beliefs that this was a stress-related illness. Diet continued to be employed as a means of management at a time when the nation was preoccupied by food because of the constraints imposed by rationing. The peptic ulcer phenomenon set much of the medical agenda for the war years and conflicted with the commonly held view that the British people had never been healthier.

  6. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm


    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  7. [Russian physicians during first months of the Great War (to 100th anniversary of the beginning of the First World War)]. (United States)

    Gribovskaia, G A


    At the beginning of the First World War professor and surgeon S.R. Mitotvortsev was appointed as a Chief Expert - Surgeon of the Western Front, there in Lyublyana he faced with difficulties such as organization of health care delivery and treatment of wounded soldiers. In the following, organized by Mirotvortsev team served in Novaya Aleksandriya, Ivan-Gorod, Radom and other towns of the Western Front. This team was named as "Collecting dressing station of professor S.R.Mirotvortsev".

  8. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA and tyramine (TA, as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes.

  9. Perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Objective: To determine the perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers of Sobi ... Methodology: A cross-sectional survey of 334 male soldiers using multistage sampling ..... gender equality and involvement of religious leaders ... unusual in Nigeria for women to use contraceptives .... United Arab Emirates.

  10. Global Deployment of Reserve Soldiers: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, Wendy; Healy-Morrow, Isabel


    ...? Is there an overlap in organizational cultures, or does military leadership need to provide special attention for these unique soldiers? The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a deeper understanding of the overlap between civilian and military organizational culture can improve the psychological preparedness of Reserve Force soldiers who are mobilized for full-time military operations.

  11. Hold Your Fire!: Preventing Fratricide in the Dismounted Soldier Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Jong, J.L. de; Hiemstra, H.; Schutte, K.; Marvelde, A. te; Norden, W. van; Spaans, M.


    Since WWI, an estimated 15% of all soldiers killed in combat are attributed to fratricide, and recent military operations show no decline. A substantial amount concerns fratricide incidents between dismounted soldiers. However, most techniques introduced to prevent fratricide focus on inter-vehicle

  12. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale


    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; colonial wars in V.; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various...... culture wars – hippies against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland and Inherent Vice; and the war on terror in Bleeding Edge. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only political or military but also social...... and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order; from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic missiles of the cold war, the irregular engagements of terrorism and counter-terrorism, and the digitalized fall-out of cyber-warfare....

  13. The Fifth Army War College: Preparing Strategic Leaders to Win in a Complex World (United States)


    turn of the century, signed the order. 16 The Root Reform Era between the Spanish -American War and World War I “saw vast changes in the entire... municipal governments, labor unions, media organizations, and other offices whiles visiting New York City each year. 39 Additionally, the College began to

  14. Learning about Each Other: Two Teachers Negotiate Race, Class, and Gender in the Civil War South (United States)

    Breitborde, Mary-Lou


    The Civil War ended slavery but not the pernicious inequality of power and status that still characterizes relations between black and white America. As soon as they could, with the help of presidents bent on appeasement and the benign neglect of northerners who had fought the war to preserve the union but not necessarily to invite former slaves…

  15. Rethinking Little Rock: The Cold War Politics of School Integration in the United States (United States)

    Dejong-Lambert, William


    Though the impact of the cold war on the civil rights movement continued long after the desegregation crisis in Little Rock, the timing of the events in Arkansas, particularly the events at Central High School, constituted a unique moment in the history of the cold war. Up until the fall of 1957, the Soviet Union had been perceived as less…

  16. South Africa and the Korean War, the politics of involvement | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa and the Korean War, the politics of involvement. ... Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ... The Union of South Africa's military involvement in the Korean War was an exercise in political maneuvering as opposed to one of any great military significance.1 South Africa's new right wing ...

  17. A categorical view toward diagnosis and classification of war-related psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhari SA


    Full Text Available Documented war experiences have provided early descriptions of different group of psychiatric features. A combat soldier with palpitation and chest pains was felt to have a functional cardiac disturbance, called soldier's heart. Anxiety and other symptoms indicating increased arousal were called shell shock and were thought to be related to lesions in the central nervous system (CNS. Describing analytically war events could operate with an enormous emotional intensity breaking through the ego defences and flooding it with an uncontrollable anxiety. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD delineates a syndrome developing after a discrete traumatic event in a stress setting. Diagnostic conceptualization which tie PTSD to stress and trauma invariably involve two different approaches from two different theoretical bases: the concepts dealing with trauma on the one hand (which could effect on CNS and those dealing with stress-response theory on the other. Author emphasizes on viewing the patients who complain of war psychiatric effects in three categories: (1 Non PTSD diagnoses that the patient ought to be treated accordingly (2 Traumatic neurosis which has overwhelming war stress related emotional aspects and is occurred in predisposed individuals. This category is suggested to be classified as post war stress disorder specifically, to be differentiated from other post traumatic psychiatric categories. (3 Author also suggests the third category as post traumatic war stress syndrome which is thought to have organic origin. Symptoms such as hyperacusis, hyperirritability, tinnitus and particular type of head aches which are mostly refractory to treatment confirm the hypothesis.

  18. 'His nerves gave way': Shell shock, history and the memory of the First World War in Britain. (United States)

    Reid, Fiona


    During the First World War soldiers suffered from a wide range of debilitating nervous complaints as a result of the stresses and strains of modern warfare. These complaints--widely known as shell shock--were the subject of much medical-military debate during the war and became emblematic of the war and its sufferings afterwards. One hundred years after the war the diagnosis of PTSD has not resolved the issues initially raised by First World War shell shock. The stigma of mental illness remains strong and it is still difficult to commemorate and remember the mental wounds of war in a culture which tend to glory or glamorise military heroes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Romanian Economy during the Great War 1914-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Stefan


    Full Text Available Years of neutrality Were Essentially the worsening fiscal period for most of the residents, cashing any type of Authorities rigorously tax. By carrying out a national loan Liberal government managed to reduce the debt to the National Bank HE had. Entry Will the current war exacerbated the decline of the Romanian economy due to this unfortunate campaign year outcome of the first part of the war. In terms of economic recovery Even with economic growth potential of Romania after the union prewar production levels and exports in various fields Will Be Achieved in 1921 and 1924 Which Will Contribute to the deepening economic crisis after the war

  20. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez


    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  1. Trade Union Organisers in Trade Union Organising Strategies: building workplace unionism or reinforcing bureaucracy


    Looker, Gerard


    This thesis considers the role of union full time officers in union organising strategies. Two decades of promoting union organising influenced by models developed by the AFL-CIO, has failed to arrest the decline of UK trade unions let alone produce evidence of renewal. Focusing mainly on one region in the UKs largest public sector trade union, Unison, the research provides for a detailed account of how organising strategies affect union work, presenting thick and deep data from full time off...

  2. Stress fractures of the femora in soldiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurman, K.O.A.; Somer, K.; Lamminen, A.


    Amongst 936 stress fractures found in soldiers, there were 58 in the femora (6%); of these 31 were in the neck and 27 in the shaft. Two were bilateral, and two patients had other stress fractures. Three displacements were found in the necks. In the shaft, 20 fractures were proximal, four were in the middle third and three in the distal third. In the latter group, it is necessary to differentiate from a sarcoma. CT is a new aid in this respect. Sport in highly motivated individuals appears to contribute particularly to fractures of the shaft. The symptoms from these fractures are relatively mild. (orig.) [de

  3. Stress fractures of the femora in soldiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meurman, K O.A.; Somer, K; Lamminen, A


    Amongst 936 stress fractures found in soldiers, there were 58 in the femora (6%); of these 31 were in the neck and 27 in the shaft. Two were bilateral, and two patients had other stress fractures. Three displacements were found in the necks. In the shaft, 20 fractures were proximal, four were in the middle third and three in the distal third. In the latter group, it is necessary to differentiate from a sarcoma. CT is a new aid in this respect. Sport in highly motivated individuals appears to contribute particularly to fractures of the shaft. The symptoms from these fractures are relatively mild.

  4. South Africa mobilises: the first five months of the war | Samson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When war broke out in August 1914, the Union of South Africa found itself unprepared for what lay ahead. When the Imperial garrison left the Union during September 1914, supplies, equipment and a working knowledge of British military procedures reduced considerably. South Africa was, in effect, left starting from scratch.

  5. The guiltless guilty: trauma-related guilt and psychopathology in former Ugandan child soldiers. (United States)

    Klasen, Fionna; Reissmann, Sina; Voss, Catharina; Okello, James


    Child soldiers often experience complex trauma as victims and perpetrators, and feelings of guilt may affect their psychological health. The relationship between the children's traumatic experiences as victims or perpetrators, their perception of themselves as victim or perpetrator, guilt and psychopathology were investigated: of the 330 former child soldiers interviewed, 50.8 % perceived themselves as victims and 19.1 % as perpetrators. On psychopathology measures, scores within the clinical range were 33 % for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 36.4 % for major depressive disorder (MDD), and 26.1 % for externalizing problems. Low socio-economic status, traumatic experience as perpetrator, and guilt were significant predictors of PTSD. Significant predictors of MDD were low socio-economic status, traumatic experiences as victim, and guilt. A greater number of traumatic experiences as perpetrator and guilt were associated with externalizing problems. The current paper underscores the significance of guilt following traumatic experiences and has implications for the development of clinical interventions for war-affected children.

  6. "The Service I Rendered Was Just as True": African American Soldiers and Veterans as Activist Patients. (United States)

    Adler, Jessica L


    In this article, I examine how African American soldiers and veterans experienced and shaped federally sponsored health care during and after World War I. Building on studies of the struggles of Black leaders and health care providers to win professional and public health advancement in the 1920s and 1930s, and of advocates to mobilize for health care rights in the mid-20th century, I focus primarily on the experiences and activism of patients in the interwar years. Private and government correspondence, congressional testimony, and reports from Black newspapers reveal that African American soldiers and veterans communicated directly with policymakers and bureaucrats regarding unequal treatment, assuming roles as "policy actors" who viewed health and medical care as "politics by other means." In the process, they drew attention to the paradoxes inherent in expanding government entitlements in the era of Jim Crow, and helped shape a veterans' health system that emerged in the 1920s and remained in place for the following century. They also laid the groundwork for the system's precedent-setting desegregation, referred to by advocates of the time as "a shining example to the rest of the country."

  7. Using Barbaric Methods in South Africa: The British Concentration Camp Policy during the Anglo-Boer War


    James Robbins Jewell


    The Boer War, which is frequently referred to as Britain's Vietnam or Afghanistan, was marked by gross miscalculations on the part of both British military and political leaders. In their efforts to subdue the Boers, Britain used more troops, spent more money, and buried more soldiers than anytime between the Napoleonic wars and World War I - a century during which it had been busy expanding its empire. Despite the miscalculations, lapses in judgement, and blatant stupidity demonstrated throu...

  8. Echoes of the Great War: The recordings of African prisoners in the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Hoffmann


    Full Text Available Apart from army registers, some (often anonymous photographs and the files of anthropometric examination, the involvement of thousands of African soldiers in WWI and their presence in POW camps in Europe seems to have left few traces in European archives. Vis-à-vis a mass of autobiographic texts on the Great War, written by Europeans and Americans, there are very few published accounts of African soldiers that would allow for their historical experiences and views to be included in historiographies of WWI. A collection of sound recordings produced with African prisoners of war in German camps by a group of German linguists, musicologists and anthropologists between 1915-18 offers a notable documentation of their presence. Yet, similar to the anthropometric registration, these recordings were not designed to accommodate the soldiers’ accounts, but to create a collection of language recordings. If these cannot be considered as ‘authentic voices from the past’ and unmediated accounts of WWI, how do we understand and theorise these hitherto untranslated voice recordings, their form and content? This essay understands the recordings not as ‘voices’ but as echoes, that is, as mediated, often effaced reverberations of accounts of the self and the war. The notion of echo in this essay grapples with issues of extraction, attenuation, limitation, distance and distortion, or outright effacement, that is the result of the form and the mediation of those speech acts, the belatedness of listening to them, as well as, the gaps in meaning and intelligibility the recordings entail. By conceptualising the recorded voices and their translation as echoes, I seek to understand the status of the recordings, the effects of this linguistic practice and gain a sense of the situation in the camps, so as to position these subaltern articulations in their mediated, distorted form as part of the colonial archive.

  9. Chronic daily headache in U.S. soldiers after concussion. (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Flynn, Frederick G; Erickson, Jay C


    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of, and factors associated with, chronic daily headache (CDH) in U.S. soldiers after a deployment-related concussion. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted with a cohort of 978 U.S. soldiers who screened positive for a deployment-related concussion upon returning from Iraq or Afghanistan. All soldiers underwent a clinical evaluation at the Madigan Traumatic Brain Injury Program that included a history, physical examination, 13-item self-administered headache questionnaire, and a battery of cognitive and psychological assessments. Soldiers with CDH, defined as headaches occurring on 15 or more days per month for the previous 3 months, were compared to soldiers with episodic headaches occurring less than 15 days per month. One hundred ninety-six of 978 soldiers (20%) with a history of deployment-related concussion met criteria for CDH and 761 (78%) had episodic headache. Soldiers with CDH had a median of 27 headache days per month, and 46/196 (23%) reported headaches occurring every day. One hundred seven out of 196 (55%) soldiers with CDH had onset of headaches within 1 week of head trauma and thereby met the time criterion for posttraumatic headache (PTHA) compared to 253/761 (33%) soldiers with episodic headache. Ninety-seven out of 196 (49%) soldiers with CDH used abortive medications to treat headache on 15 or more days per month for the previous 3 months. One hundred thirty out of 196 (66%) soldiers with CDH had headaches meeting criteria for migraine compared to 49% of soldiers with episodic headache. The number of concussions, blast exposures, and concussions with loss of consciousness was not significantly different between soldiers with and without CDH. Cognitive performance was also similar for soldiers with and without CDH. Soldiers with CDH had significantly higher average scores on the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist compared to soldiers with episodic headaches. Forty

  10. Uptake of heavy metals and arsenic in black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae grown on seaweed-enriched media. (United States)

    Biancarosa, Irene; Liland, Nina S; Biemans, Daan; Araujo, Pedro; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan; Amlund, Heidi


    The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is one of the most promising insect species for use in animal feed. However, studies investigating feed and food safety aspects of using black soldier fly as feed are scarce. In this study, we fed black soldier fly larvae feeding media enriched with seaweed, which contains naturally high concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential transfer of such undesirable substances from the feeding media to the larvae. The larvae accumulated cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic. Concentrations of these elements in the larvae increased when more seaweed was added to the feeding media. The highest retention was seen for cadmium (up to 93%) and the lowest for total arsenic (up to 22%). When seaweed inclusion exceeded 20% in the media, this resulted in larval concentrations of cadmium and total arsenic above the current European Union maximum levels for these elements in complete feed. Our results confirm that insect larvae can accumulate heavy metals and arsenic when present in the feeding media. A broader understanding of the occurrence of these undesirable substances in processed larvae products is needed to assess feed and food safety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. [Georg Friedrich Nicolai: war physician against war]. (United States)

    van Bergen, L


    Georg Friedrich Nicolai was a German professor and heart specialist who was one of the few who protested against the war at the beginning of World War I. As a result, he lost his job and was convicted. After the war, right-wing nationalist students and lack of support from his university superiors made it impossible for him to teach. He left Germany in 1922, never to return. In his book, Die Biologie des Krieges (The Biology of War), which was published in neutral Switzerland in 1917, he contradicted the social Darwinist idea - supported by many physicians as well - that war strengthened humanity, people and races, physically and mentally. On the contrary, he argued, war is biologically counterproductive.

  12. "Commissioned by God": Mother Bickerdyke during the Civil War. (United States)

    Sartin, Jeffrey S


    Mary Ann Bickerdyke, nurse, herbalist, and humanitarian, stood out as a singular figure during the American Civil War and afterward. She advocated nutrition and herbal medicines at a time when "heroic," if futile, treatments were often the rule. Her compassion toward ill soldiers was legendary and provided her with the nickname "Mother." Nevertheless, she did not hesitate to stand up to the bureaucratic and occasionally incompetent physician administrators who opposed her. Working in an arena typically off limits for women, she exceeded the bounds proscribed for her sex during the 19th century as a naturopathic physician, humanitarian, and social reformer.

  13. Ukrainians in German Armed Forces During the Second World War


    Khromeychuk, Olesya


    During the Second World War large numbers of inhabitants of central, eastern and southern Europe joined the German Armed Forces. Among them were around 250,000 soldiers who identified themselves as Ukrainian. They served in the Wehrmacht, as well as the Waffen SS; a considerable number of them also served in the auxiliary police. They were motivated to join the German Armed Forces by a combination of different factors. This paper aims to shed some light on the broad range of circumstances tha...

  14. the rise and fall of Union War Histories

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Official support for such an undertaking was first provided by Major General A.I.. Brink ... of Military Intelligence, and Captain I.A.I. Agar-Hamilton was ... to Deputy Director of Military Intelligence. 26 Sep ... disadvantage of the official history.

  15. The Cold War and the Historiography of the Soviet Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalinovsky, A.M.


    The article engages with the dynamic nature of International History: the interplay between domestic and foreign policy, the role of technology, the link between political economy and international relations are only some examples of potential new subjects of enquiry for historians. The author

  16. Decision-Making under Stress: World War II and Beyond. (United States)

    Johns, Robert


    Provides a teaching plan which helps students imaginatively take the roles of leaders in the United States during World War II so that they might more completely understand such difficult decisions as allying with the Soviet Union, relocating Japanese-Americans, and dropping the atomic bomb. Provides a statement of goals and objectives, required…

  17. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim


    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  18. Early identification of posttraumatic stress following military deployment: Application of machine learning methods to a prospective study of Danish soldiers. (United States)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Statnikov, Alexander; Andersen, Søren B; Madsen, Trine; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R


    Pre-deployment identification of soldiers at risk for long-term posttraumatic stress psychopathology after home coming is important to guide decisions about deployment. Early post-deployment identification can direct early interventions to those in need and thereby prevents the development of chronic psychopathology. Both hold significant public health benefits given large numbers of deployed soldiers, but has so far not been achieved. Here, we aim to assess the potential for pre- and early post-deployment prediction of resilience or posttraumatic stress development in soldiers by application of machine learning (ML) methods. ML feature selection and prediction algorithms were applied to a prospective cohort of 561 Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 to identify unique risk indicators and forecast long-term posttraumatic stress responses. Robust pre- and early postdeployment risk indicators were identified, and included individual PTSD symptoms as well as total level of PTSD symptoms, previous trauma and treatment, negative emotions, and thought suppression. The predictive performance of these risk indicators combined was assessed by cross-validation. Together, these indicators forecasted long term posttraumatic stress responses with high accuracy (pre-deployment: AUC = 0.84 (95% CI = 0.81-0.87), post-deployment: AUC = 0.88 (95% CI = 0.85-0.91)). This study utilized a previously collected data set and was therefore not designed to exhaust the potential of ML methods. Further, the study relied solely on self-reported measures. Pre-deployment and early post-deployment identification of risk for long-term posttraumatic psychopathology are feasible and could greatly reduce the public health costs of war. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. American War Narratives: An Analytic Study and Linkage to National Will (United States)


    and forms the war narrative that would ultimately serve as the motivation for the American people to engage in the worthy, and thus desirable...the British had to pay for their service. This reinforced a perception at the time that the British soldiers lacked motivation . This was seen in common...patriotism geared towards attaining revenge. For example, theater audiences would emotionally react by weeping and stamping their feet and then cheer

  20. From War to Classroom: PTSD and Depression in Formerly Abducted Youth in Uganda


    Winkler, Nina; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schalinski, Inga; Ovuga, Emilio; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas


    Background: Trained local screeners assessed the mental-health status of male and female students in Northern Ugandan schools. The study aimed to disclose potential differences in mental health-related impairment in two groups, former child soldiers (n = 354) and other war-affected youth (n = 489), as well as to separate factors predicting mental suffering in learners.Methods: Participants were randomly selected. We used the Post-Traumatic Diagnostic Scale to assess symptoms of post-traumatic...

  1. Analysis of the 35th Division’s Application of Operational Art During World War I (United States)


    and a bias against the National Guard. This study focuses on how the division’s application of the elements of operational art influenced the...1636. Citizen soldiers, regular members of the citizenry with civilian professions as their primary occupation, that are not part of the active...local militias to protect the citizens and resources. After the Civil War, there was an effort to formalize and standardize the nation’s militias. The

  2. The Russian-European Union Competition in Ukraine (United States)


    of Germany’s brief triumph during the Great War. The 1918 treaty of Brest -Litovsk created for the first time an independent Ukraine, designed to be a...6North Atlantic Treaty Organization, “Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation signed in Paris ...institution now known as the European Union originated as the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951. Interest in expanding economic cooperation

  3. Technological Areas to Improve Soldier Decisiveness: Insights From the Soldier-System Design Perspective (United States)


    input several sets of words or concepts and return novel concepts or ideas. While being driven largely by the advertising industry , these base...Soldiers fitted with ballistic and laser-protective eyewear that contains or is itself a screen on which images and information can be projected. Images...visible through the eyewear would be augmented by imagery created by the UAV surveillance platforms described previously. In addition to augmenting

  4. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru


    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  5. Africa's Surrogate Wars: The Most Significant Challenge to African Stability and U.S. Security Interests in Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Herman J


    .... The author discusses these surrogate wars and questions why the African Union and the international aid organizations, such as the World Bank, ignore these immoral and essentially criminal acts...

  6. Death and bereavement in the First World War: the Australian experience. (United States)

    Jalland, Pat


    The First World War was a turning point in the cultural history of death and bereavement in Australia. The mass deaths of some 60,000 soldiers overseas led to communal rituals of mourning for the war dead and minimal public expressions of private grief. The mass slaughter of so many young men and the interminable grief of so many families devalued the deaths of civilians at home and helped to create a new cultural model of suppressed and privatised grieving which deeply constrained the next two generations. Emotional and expressive grieving became less common, mourning ritual was minimised and sorrow became a private matter. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. [Mineral springs on the north-east of Caucasus and its role in the treatment of soldiers of the Russian army in XIX--beginning XX c]. (United States)

    Akhmadov, T Z; Poddubnyĭ, M V


    The article is concerned to the history of formation of sanitary-treatment stations on the North Caucasus, in Chechnya (Goryachevodsky and Mikhailovsky mineral springs) till 1917 year. The basis of the article are archive documents, scientific papers of contemporaries and official documents. Goryachevodsky and Mikhailovsky mineral springs were more than 70 years the one the best recreative base of the Caucasian standing army including the caucasian cossack troop. The sanitary-treatment stations were of great importance during the active military actions with Hill people within the territory of Chechnya and Dagestan, during the Crimean War (1853-1856), The Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 and the First World War (1914-1918), when the amount of the wounded and ill soldiers increased.

  8. Mental health care in the Lebanon War, 1982. (United States)

    Noy, S; Levy, R; Solomon, Z


    Lessons in mental health care learned from the October 1973 War were applied in the Lebanon War 1982. A three-echelon system of management was followed according to the practices prevalent in Western armies. The clinical pictures were essentially similar to those observed in other wars. Combat stress reactions (CSR) comprised 15 to 20% of the total casualties during the active phase of the war; the rate of late reactions was 30 to 40% of the total CSR. Treatment on the battlefield was more effective than treatment following airlift to the rear, in returning soldiers to their units. The role of stress in causing CSR, and the importance of leadership and cohesion in its prevention were evident. The important lessons learned from the Lebanon War are discussed and include: 1) the need for a broad definition of CSR; 2) the importance of forward unit intervention; 3) the necessity of mobility and divisibility of mental health treatment units; 4) fighting units should not be dispersed immediately after combat; and 5) the management of stress reactions to be the responsibility not only of the mental health services, but of all sections of the medical corps, both in treatment and prevention.

  9. Guns, culture and moors : racial stereotypes and the cultural impact of the Moroccan participation in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuma, al A.


    The presence of tens of thousands of Moroccan soldiers in Spain during its Civil War was an encounter between two culturally different people. This thesis researches the impact of the racial stereotypes the Spaniards had about the Moroccans on how the Moroccans were treated in the Spanish Army, how

  10. Are unions an anachronism? (United States)

    Schrank, R


    The labor movement in the United States has its roots deep in the soil of worker discontent over grueling working conditions, low pay, and indifference of bosses, who profited from others' sweaty labor. As more and more grubby jobs are replaced by technological innovations, as work becomes more abstract and everyone wears a white shirt, and as managers schooled in motivation theory and humane ideals of participation replace the owner-bosses of yesterday, what role will the unions have left to play? The author of this article, who has been in both the labor force and management, explores what the changes in the labor market will be in the future and what these changes will mean for labor-management relations. He does not conclude that there is no role for unions-only that it will be very different and that to survive unions will have to tackle new issues in the workplace. That adaptation will affect management's stance as well.

  11. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.


    This book addresses the ecological, agricultural, and human effects of nuclear war. The topics covered include: Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war; Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects on nuclear war; Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems; Potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity; Food availability after nuclear war; and Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  12. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James


    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  13. The Influence of Combat Experience on Psychologically Healthy Soldiers' Attentiveness to Environmental Threats. (United States)

    Ranes, Bethany; Long, Chris P; Traynham, Stephanie; Hayes, Amanda


    In contrast to previous research that has primarily examined how psychological disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], anxiety) are affected by and affect individuals' threat perceptions, this study examines the relationship between combat experience and threat-monitoring in psychologically healthy Soldiers. Existing research has established how prolonged or intense experiences with war-related stressors can lead individuals to undergo an unconscious fear-conditioning process that affects the circuitry of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex regions of the brain. We predict that the intensity of one's combat experience positively influences Soldiers' attention to environmental threats. Participants included U. S. Army Soldiers with a score of 50 or below on the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. Participants completed the Combat Exposure Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The experimental prediction task we employed assesses the expectation of an intrusively loud white noise sound that occurred on three variable patterns in a pseudorandomized order. Each tone pattern was used 20 times over a total of 60 trials. The experimental prediction task included two neutral tones (700 and 1,300 Hz) that were presented in a repeated pattern along with a 100-dB burst of white noise (0.5-second duration). In each trial, one of three possible tone combinations was presented. To assess their attentiveness to threats, participants were asked to continuously rate their expectancy of the burst of white noise using a visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 100. VAS ratings were collected at controlled points throughout the task. None of the participants reported scores on any of the diagnostic surveys that met standards for clinical significance. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to assess the overall effect of the three prediction conditions on participants' VAS ratings. There was a significant

  14. Winston Churchill And The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro


    Full Text Available Given Winston Churchill’s influence and achievement as a writer, historian, adventurer, soldier, artist, and politician, his participation in the European integration process is crucial to understanding the entire scope of the project in its origins. Churchill was a fundamental voice promoting the Franco-British Union, a promoter of the European Communities, and an active participant of the Congress of Europe, embryo of the Council of Europe. This article analyzes Churchill’s view of European integration through his political speeches, in particular those delivered in Zurich and in The Hague, his ideas about the League of Nations and the United Nations, his understanding of the British Empire, and the special relations between the UK and the USA. His participation in the process of uniting Europe in its early stages provides us with essential information about the original plans for the creation of a united Europe and understanding the traditional British approach to the EU, including the current position of the conservative government led by Cameron.

  15. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany]. (United States)

    Zito, Dima


    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  16. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent


    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  17. Britain's exploitation of Occupied Germany for scientific and technical intelligence on the Soviet Union


    Maddrell, John Paul


    At the beginning of the Cold War, the gathering of intelligence on the Soviet Union's current and future military capability seemed a near-impossibility. Soviet high-level communications were secure against decryption. Agent networks in the USSR were very difficult to establish and of uncertain reliability. Aerial reconnaissance of warrelated targets in the Soviet Union was risky and could only be occasional. But valuable intelligence was gathered in the years 1945-55 on the US...

  18. Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives. (United States)

    Reutter, S


    The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has. PMID:10585902

  19. A British Second World War veteran with disseminated strongyloidiasis. (United States)

    Gill, G V; Beeching, N J; Khoo, S; Bailey, J W; Partridge, S; Blundell, J W; Luksza, A R


    A case is described of a 78-year-old British veteran of the Second World War (1939-45) who was stationed in Southeast Asia and who developed a recurrent pneumonia with blood eosinophilia. He was treated with steroids, and eventually died with a severe Pseudomonas pneumonia. Just prior to death, larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were identified in his sputum, and a specific serum ELISA test was later positive. At autopsy no other organs were involved, but bronchoalveolar carcinoma was found. Longstanding (57 years) chronic strongyloidiasis in a veteran who served in Southeast Asia but who was not a prisoner of war is very unusual. The pattern of dissemination was also not that of a true hyperinfection syndrome, and the case demonstrates the continued need for diagnostic vigilance amongst former soldiers who were based in the Far East.

  20. Soldier's Expectancies, Implications for Recruitment and Job Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelooven, Renier


    .... Also expectancies about a job influence attrition and job satisfaction. This paper uses results of several studies to describe the image of the soldiers job and its effects on recruitment, early attrition and job satisfaction.

  1. Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending a rehabilitative service ... school in northern Uganda with a case of mass psychotic behavior. ... Methods: Data on post-traumatic stress disorder, depressed mood, physical ...

  2. Computer Backgrounds of Soldiers in Army Units: FY00

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fober, Gene


    .... Soldiers from four Army installations were given a survey that examined their experiences with computers, self-perceptions of their skill, and an objective test of their ability to identify Windows-based icons...

  3. The Computer Backgrounds of Soldiers in Army Units: FY01

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Harnam


    A multi-year research effort was instituted in FY99 to examine soldiers' experiences with computers, self- perceptions of their computer skill, and their ability to identify frequently used, Windows-based icons...

  4. Research Review: Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers – a systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A.


    Aims and scope This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age reintegration in CAAFAG. Abduction, age of conscription, exposure to violence, gender, and community stigma were associated with increased internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Family acceptance, social support, and educational/economic opportunities were associated with improved psychosocial adjustment. Conclusions Research on the social reintegration and psychosocial adjustment of former child soldiers is nascent. A number of gaps in the available literature warrant future study. Recommendations to bolster the evidence base on psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers and other war-affected youth include more studies comprising longitudinal study designs, and validated cross-cultural instruments for assessing mental health, as well as more integrated community-based approaches to study design and research monitoring. PMID:23061830

  5. From World War to Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle


    The development of media attitudes to the Soviet Union from an alliance-loyalty attitude to division of aiitudes into support for and oppositon to and fear of the Soviet Union. A third voice accepted Soviet claims that they sought peace and cooperation with the West....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available War causes and conduct have fascinated war planners, war executors and scholars for a long time because little attention has been given to how wars are ended. This oversight is apparent not only in historical accounts of warfare but, more importantly, in contemporary analyses and doctrinal formulations of deterrence and overall defense policies. Just as historians have focused on how wars begin and are fought, military analysts and planners have concentrated on influencing the initiation and conduct of warfare rather than on analyzing the process and requirements for terminating warfare on acceptable terms and at acceptable costs. Conflict termination is the formal end of fighting, not the end of conflict. Despite the volumes of research and literature on the subject, belligerents mismanage war termination. The major objective of wartime strategy is defeating enemy arms as quickly as possible with the least cost in friendly casualties. As long as hostilities endure, diplomacy is subordinated to military requirements. War termination planning, as it is currently accomplished, takes the form of civil affair planning on the details of how the vanquished will be managed following the capitulation of the enemy and cessation of hostilities. We argue that Kenya Defence Forces (KDF prudently terminated its war with the terrorists group Al-Shabaab that merged with Al-Qaeda when they agreed to be integrated into the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM which is backed up by the United Nations.

  7. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  8. The rhetoric of conflict and conflict by rhetoric: Ireland and the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wessels


    Full Text Available This article investigates the historical context of Irish involvement in the Anglo- Boer War, but focuses on the literary products - mainly popular ballads and partisan historiography - of this involvement. Irish soldiers participated on both sides of the war, not so much because of identification with South African issues as because it afforded them the opportunity of fighting Irish fights on a displaced battle-field. The war thus presages the explosion of Irish/British strife in 1916 and the subsequent Irish Civil War by more than a decade. As in most wars, the struggle was conducted by the pen and by the sword and the popular Irish verse of the time reveals the sentiments of fervent Irish imperialists, defending the causes of Empire, fervent Irish nationalists espousing the Boer cause, as well as movingly suggesting the dilemma of the majority of Irish combatants, fighting for England while sympathizing with the Boers.

  9. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance


    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.


    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...

  10. Improving Employment Prospects for Soldiers Leaving the Regular Army (United States)


    difficulties in the civilian job market . Furthermore, since 2012, the Army has been reducing its active component end strength; this has increased the number... online versions of the surveys to collect data on civilian occupations. Making the surveys available to soldiers online and integrating them into the...civilian occupation matches by MOS and pay grade. An online format could even help gen- erate job recommendations for individual soldiers based on

  11. Training Capability Data for Dismounted Soldier Training System (United States)


    Virtual Squad Training System ( VSTS ). Like some of its predecessors, VSTS included a combination of man-wearable, tethered, and desktop interfaces...Simulator Bayonet w/Omni Directional Treadmill TRAC-WSMR Soldier Station Soldier Visualization Station V-IMTS SVS2-DI, DAGGERS, ASWETS VSTS Dismounted...Simulation, VSTS – Virtual Squad Training System 4 and microphone. The VSMM utilizes radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and hand sensors to

  12. Teaming Up with Unions. (United States)

    Geber, Beverly


    The author discusses the concept, first encouraged by Irving Bluestone of the United Auto Workers, that union and management personnel should work together to achieve company goals. The history of this cooperative effort movement within the United Auto Workers is described. (CH)

  13. Perspectives and expectations of union member and non- union member teachers on teacher unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer FİDAN


    Full Text Available Unions, which can be regarded as one of the constitutive elements of democracy, are the pressure groups in political and social fields. Unions were born out of industrial confrontations and expanded into the field of public services over time, and thus teachers – who are also public employees-, also obtained the right to establish and affiliate to unions. In this research the views of union member and non-union member teachers on the most important functions and operational effectiveness of unions, teachers’ expectations from unions and teachers’ evaluation of the solidarity, competition and cooperation between unions were determined and the perspectives of teachers on unionization were revealed. qualitative research design was used. The data needed were collected through semi-structured interviews from volunteering union member and non-union member teachers who were working in the primary and secondary schools in Ankara province and who were selected through “maximum variation sampling approach”. The data were then analyzed by using the content analysis technique. In conclusion, it was found that political ideology was the most important reason for membership of teachers’ unions. Protection and development of personal rights was found to be the most important function of teacher unions and unions were thought to be insufficient in performing those functions.

  14. Parasitic diseases as the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953). (United States)

    Huh, Sun


    To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea.

  15. War in European history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M.


    War history as a modern historic discipline is by far no longer a mere history of arms technique or a chronicle of battles. It deals with the change of warfare, shows how the wars of the various ages had determined society, and vice versay investigates the influence of social, economic, and -concerning mentality-historical changes on war. With this survey, which covers the period between the Middle Ages and the recent past, the author has presented a small masterpiece of the history of war. A book like this is particularly important and instructive in a time when all depends on the preventing of wars. (orig.) [de

  16. The memory and historiography of the First World War in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ferrari


    Full Text Available The memory and historiography of the First World War in Italy may be divided into four broad periods. During the immediate post-war period (1918-1922 debate mainly focused on such issues as the Italian defeat at Caporetto in 1917, the human and material costs of the war, and the peace treaty. In the subsequent decades (1922-1960, fascism was presented as the heir of the war, which became a fundamental element of its nationalist identity as well as part of the rituals of the regime. This nationalistic and fascist interpretation of the conflict then survived in many respects until the start of the 1960s. Perspectives on the war were subsequently revised over the next twenty years (1960-1980. The new cultural tendencies of these decades produced a history of the conflict from below, which encompassed the experiences of Italian soldiers, who were often seen as victims of the military machine. The historiography focused on their opposition to the war, including cases of indiscipline and mental breakdown. In more recent times (1980-2014 these trends have continued, and new studies have emerged, but many aspects of the war, including the home front and the international context (including Italy’s enemies are still relatively neglected. Moreover, although there is a keen public interest in the First World War in north-east Italy, which was the theatre of operations, the period 1915-1918 is probably part of a faraway past for most Italians.

  17. Architect of Union Victory? Montgomery Meigs, Jomini, and Union Success in the American Civil War (United States)


    Floyd, ultimately caused Captain Meigs to be “exiled” to the Tortugas in Florida.20 16 Russell F...Washington for the Tortugas late in 1860. There was a great deal of unrest as he travelled through the south to Florida. As he was settling into Fort

  18. A Methodology for Measuring the Physiological Strain of Enhanced Soldiers: The 1998 Soldier Combat System Enhancement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amos, Denys


    ... or enhanced capabilities conducting routine operations in the tropics. Core temperature, mean skin temperature and heart rate are appropriate measures for evaluating the physiological burden of soldier combat system enhancements...

  19. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari


    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  20. The Great Bravery of Croatian Soldier by Giuseppe Maria Mitelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Premerl


    Full Text Available The article approaches the iconography of two etchings with Croatian subject matter made by the Bolognese etcher Giuseppe Maria Mitelli in 1684. In the focus is the etching Great Bravery of Croatian soldier (Gran prodezza di soldato croatto. The author concludes, interpreting the explanatory text below the etching, that it depicts an event of the so-called Great Turkish War (1683-1699. The depicted hero belonged to the Croatian Regiment commanded by general James Leslie, and the depicted heroic act occurred, in all probability, during the battle of Virovitica in 1684. Also, the author points out to a model for Mitelli's etching as well as to the literary image of the simultaneous decapitation of both a horseman and a horse in the Croatian literature. In the same year, Mitelli also made the portrait of the Zagreb bishop and the politician Martin Borković. The existence of both etchings is associated with the Illyrian-Hungarian College in Bologna, governed by the Zagreb cathedral Chapter. L'articolo indaga l'iconografia di due incisioni con soggetto croato realizzate dall'incisore bolognese Giuseppe Maria Mitelli nel 1684. Il focus del saggio è l'incisione Gran prodezza di soldato croatto. Interpretando il testo esplicativo sotto l'acquaforte, l'autore ritiene che essa raffiguri un evento della cosiddetta Grande Guerra Turca (1683-1699. L'eroe raffigurato apparteneva al reggimento croato comandato dal generale James Leslie e l'atto eroico raffigurato avvenne, con ogni probabilità, durante la battaglia di Virovitica nel 1684. L'autore individua inoltre un modello per l'incisione di Mitelli e un riferimento a una fonte nella letteratura croata ove compare la decapitazione simultanea di un cavaliere e di un cavallo. Nello stesso anno Mitelli fece anche il ritratto del vescovo di Zagabria e del politico Martin Borković. L'esistenza di entrambe le acqueforti è associata al Collegio illirico-ungarico di Bologna, governato dal Capitolo della

  1. The Development of Trade Unionism. (United States)

    Parker, Ronald W.


    Traces the growth and evolution of the British labor union movement, troubles between the national officials and the local shop stewards, class differences and conflict between the artisans and laborers, violence between unions, and eventual transition to peaceful constitutionalism. (MF)

  2. Croatian children's experience of war is not reflected in the size and placement of emotive topics in their drawings. (United States)

    Jolley, R P; Vulic-Prtoric, A


    The claim that topics in children's drawings convey the children's emotional attitude towards those topics was investigated. The influence of an emotional topic (neutral man, friendly and enemy soldier) and trauma group (child with father or father killed in war) was examined on the size of the topics and their placement relative to a self-portrait drawing. Sixty Croatian children drew a man, followed on a separate page by either (a) a Croatian soldier, (b) an enemy soldier or (c) a second drawing of a man. The child's self-portrait drawing was placed on each page. There were no significant main or interaction effects on size or placement of topic. There are unlikely to be reliable features of drawings that portray the child's emotional attitude towards the topic drawn.

  3. Walter B. Cannon's World War I experience: treatment of traumatic shock then and now. (United States)

    Ryan, Kathy L


    Walter B. Cannon (1871-1945), perhaps America's preeminent physiologist, volunteered for service with the Army Expeditionary Force (AEF) during World War I. He initially served with Base Hospital No. 5, a unit made up of Harvard clinicians, before moving forward to the front lines to serve at a casualty clearing station run by the British. During his time there, he performed research on wounded soldiers to understand the nature and causes of traumatic shock. Subsequently, Cannon performed animal experimentation on the causes of traumatic shock in the London laboratory of Dr. William Bayliss before being assigned to the AEF Central Medical Laboratory in Dijon, France, where he continued his experimental studies. During this time, he also developed and taught a curriculum on resuscitation of wounded soldiers to medical providers. Although primarily a researcher and teacher, Cannon also performed clinical duties throughout the war, serving with distinction under fire. After the war, Cannon wrote a monograph entitled Traumatic Shock (New York: Appleton, 1923), which encapsulated the knowledge that had been gained during the war, both from direct observation of wounded soldiers, as well as laboratory experimentation on the causes and treatment of traumatic shock. In his monograph, Cannon elucidates a number of principles concerning hemorrhagic shock that were later forgotten, only to be "rediscovered" during the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. This paper summarizes Cannon's wartime experiences and the knowledge gained concerning traumatic shock during World War I, with a comparison of current combat casualty care practices and knowledge to that which Cannon and his colleagues understood a century ago.

  4. Soldiers suicides risk factors in the Serbian Army Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedić Gordana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analyses of suicide risk factors enable to undertake appropriate preventive measures within the Suicide Prevention Program in Military Environment, which was fully applied in 2003 in the Serbian Army Forces. The aim of our study was to identify the most important suicide risk factors in soldiers within the period from 1998 to 2007. Methods. Analysis of suicide risk factors was carried out on the basis of data obtained by psychological suicide autopsy. The control group was matched with adapted soldiers by socio-demographic factors. A descriptive statistical analysis was used. Comparison of groups of soldiers was done by the t-test and Pearson's χ2-test. Results. A total of 35 soldiers aged 22-49 years (21.76 ± 1.76 years on average committed suicide within the period 1999-2007, the 2/3 within, and 1/3 out of a military compound. More than one half soldiers committed suicide after transferring to a different post. Soldiers who committed suicide had come from uncompleted, dysfunctional families (p < 0.05. In comparison with the adapted soldiers, in premilitary period they had more interpersonal problems with their comrades (p < 0.001 and problems with law (p < 0.05. During military service, alcohol consumption was less presented; they used to have fewer separation problems (p < 0.05 and to be rarely awarded (p < 0.001 in comparison with the adapted soldiers. A soldier who committed suicide was emotionally and socially immature persons. The commonest motives for suicide were: decreased capacity of adaptation to military service, actual psychic disturbance, emotional interruption, fear of environment judgment, actual family problems, but in the one fifth, motive stayed unrecognized. Conclusion. Suicide risk factors in soldiers are primary in their immature personality organization, its relation with family and military environment factors which, in coexistence with actual life accidents, result in suicide as a consequence. A

  5. Owning the Environment: Stealth Soldier - Research Outline (United States)


    mythology (e.g., Dunningam and Nofi, 1995). The wooden horse, with a concealed squad of 30 Greek warriors, had been brought to the city of Troy as a...sneak through the passage of Chencang (decoy). The most well-known act of deception in the ancient times was the Trojan horse described in Greek ...war trophy and led to the destruction of Troy after a fruitless 10-year siege of the city by the Greek army. Another ancient example of similar

  6. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra eUmilta'


    Full Text Available Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors were tested in order to assess participants’ ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing

  7. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone. (United States)

    Umiltà, Maria Allessandra; Wood, Rachel; Loffredo, Francesca; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio


    Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors) were tested in order to assess participants' ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing in later life.

  8. Union Directions - Army Response. (United States)


    reflects the long-held belief in the Army that employee participation in decisions that affect their worklife is healthy and desirable. Although some...pluralistic society, checks and balances are as important for the economy as for the government. Business executives who salivate at the thought of vanishing...Unions. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1976. 37. National Federation of Federal Employees. NFFE’s Guide to Quality of Worklife Programs. No. G-21

  9. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele


    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  10. About Courage in the Romanian Military Press - Săptămâna Războiului/The Week of the War (2 November 1914 - 14 August 1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fănel Teodoraşcu


    Full Text Available Courage is one of the virtues that cannot be missed at a soldier. Where it does not exist, courage must be formed. An important role in the process of forming courage is the woman. In this paper, our focus is on Săptămâna Războiului/The Week of the War. In all the 95 issues of the journal, one can easily see the admiration of the editors of the Săptămâna Războiului/The Week of the War for the French army. The German combatants, on the other hand, were put in a totally different light. Despite the efforts made by some publications to form and strengthen the courage of the Romanian soldiers, Romania entered into the World War I without being prepared for it.

  11. Strategy for terminating a nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, C.C.


    Avoiding a nuclear war, or ending one if avoidance fails, is an important but relatively unexplored aspect of nuclear doctrine. Dr. Abt examines the feasibility of antagonists agreeing to exclude their open cities from nuclear targeting and to replace strategic bombardment with retaliatory invasion to create less of a hair-trigger deterrent. Critical net assessments by US strategists and the effects of such a strategy on the Soviet Union and the US allies are considered, along with problems implementation might pose. The author contends that both deterrence and the potential for limiting damage are strengthened by prewar plans for a nuclear ceasefire and stalemate short of holocaust.

  12. Towards a war-free world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, J.


    The world is committed through the Non-proliferation Treaty, not only to ultimate goal of complete nuclear disarmament bur also to complete disarmament with respect to to conventional arms. The way to a sane and war-free world will be long and difficult, the European Union is one step along this road. The START, NPT and CTB treaties are also important steps. Education is also needed to build up the concept of the world as a single community, and here are the almost miraculous achievements of modern information technology which is of great help

  13. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna


    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  14. Depleted uranium internal contamination of US soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during operation Iraqi freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaf Durakovic; Isaac Zimmerman; Axel Gerdes


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the concentration and precise isotopic composition and ratios of four uranium isotopes ( 234 U, 235 U, 236 U, and 238 U) in the urine of United States soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during the second Gulf War. Methods: Seven active duty US soldiers deployed as military police unit 442 presenting with non-specific symptoms of intractable headaches, excessive fatigue, intermittent fevers, musculoskeletal pains, respiratory impairment, affect changes, urinary tract symptoms, and neurological alterations were clinically evaluated. Each soldier signed a consent form to participate in our study. The collection of 24-hour urine samples of each subject was performed under controlled conditions. The urine samples were personally carried to the laboratory of the Institute of Geochemistry, JW Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany. Each sample was analyzed in duplicate by multicollector inductively coupled plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Control samples consisting of an internal urine standard were also analyzed by the same procedure. The analytical methodology included pre-concentration of the urine samples using evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, uranium purification by ion-exchange chromatography, and analysis by mass spectrometry. The final analysis of the specimens was performed by using a double-focusing Thermo Finnigan Neptune multicollector ICP-MS equipped with retarding potential quadrupole lens and a secondary electron multiplier for ion counting. Results: The mean concentration of total uranium was 3.6±1.3 ng/L. The average 238 U/ 235 U ratio was 146.2±10.2. The ratio of 238 U/ 235 U, being considered as the single most important parameter in determining the quantitative state of depletion of the natural uranium ratio, demonstrates a significant internal contamination with depleted uranium in four soldiers. The 234 U/ 238 U ratio was 6.5 x 10 -5 ±5.7 x 10 -6 . The 236 U/ 238 U ratio was

  15. Kilts, tanks, and aeroplanes: Scotland, cinema, and the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Archibald


    Full Text Available This article charts commercial cinema’s role in promoting the war effort in Scotland during the First World War, outlining three aspects of the relationship between cinema and the war as observed in Scottish non-fiction short films produced between 1914 and 1918. The existing practice of local topical filmmaking, made or commissioned by cinema managers, created a particular form of engagement between cinema and war that was substantially different from the national newsreels or official films. The article offers an analysis of surviving short ‘topicals’ produced and exhibited in Scotland, which combine images of local military marches with kilted soldiers and enthusiastic onlookers and were designed to lure the assembled crowds back into the cinema to see themselves onscreen. Synthesising textual analysis with a historical account of the films’ production context, the article examines the films’ reliance on the romanticised militarism of the Highland soldier and the novelty appeal of mobilisation and armament, sidelining the growing industrial unrest and anti-war activities that led to the birth of the term ‘Red Clydeside’. The article then explores how, following the British state’s embracing of film propaganda post-1916, local cinema companies such as Green’s Film Service produced films in direct support of the war effort, for example Patriotic Porkers (1918, for the Ministry of Food. Through their production and exhibition practice exhibitors mediated the international conflict to present it to local audiences as an appealing spectacle, but also mobilised cinema’s position in Scottish communities to advance ideological and practical aspects of the war effort, including recruitment, refugee support, and fundraising.

  16. Civil war, social integration and mental health in Croatia. (United States)

    Kunovich, R M; Hodson, R


    Research has shown that social relationships are generally beneficial for mental health (Thoits 1995). However, few scholars have examined this association after the occurrence of a significant shock to the social system as a whole. The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between social integration and war-related distress in Croatia immediately following the recent civil war. Does social integration decrease war-related distress? Does social integration buffer the effect of traumatic events on war-related distress? We analyze these questions using nationally representative survey data collected in Croatia in 1996. Results suggest that social integration has both positive and negative direct effects on distress. Being a member of informal organizations, such as sports clubs, and participating in social activities are beneficial for mental health. On the other hand, being a member of some formal organizations, such as church organizations and unions, is detrimental to mental health. There is little support for the idea that social integration buffers the effect of traumatic events on distress. Only one of thirty-six possible interactions is significant and supports the buffer hypothesis. Frequent participation in social activities buffers the effect of experiencing violence on war-related distress. Also, some forms of social integration appear to aggravate the effect of traumatic events on war-related distress. In sum, social integration does affect war-related distress after a system shock, but in complex and sometimes unexpected ways.

  17. Predictors of posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression in active soldiers and former combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Nandi


    Full Text Available Background: During the period between 1993 and 2005, the people of Burundi were trapped within a violent civil war. In post-conflict regions, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were found to be widespread. At the same time, combatants often reported having perceived committing violence as exciting and appealing, an experience referred to as appetitive aggression. Both of these phenomena hamper the building of a functional and peaceful society. Objective: This study aims to investigate the factors that are associated with the level of PTSD and appetitive aggression in former and still active combatants. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 948 male Burundians: 556 active soldiers and 392 ex-combatants. PTSD symptom severity was assessed using the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview, while appetitive aggression was assessed using the Appetitive Aggression Scale. Results: Linear regression analyses revealed that the number of traumatic events, childhood maltreatment, and their interaction predicted PTSD symptom severity, whereas self-committed violence did not. The number of traumatic events and self-committed violence were associated with appetitive aggression. Childhood maltreatment alone was not associated with appetitive aggression; however, its interaction with self-committed violence did predict appetitive aggression. When controlling for predictors, ex-combatants reported a higher degree of PTSD symptomatology, whereas active soldiers reported a higher degree of appetitive aggression. Conclusion: We conclude that childhood maltreatment is an additional, significant risk factor that exacerbates the psychological consequences of violent conflicts. Self-committed violence may not necessarily engender trauma-related disorders, but is highly related to appetitive aggression.

  18. Provenancing of unidentified World War II casualties: Application of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis in tooth enamel. (United States)

    Font, Laura; Jonker, Geert; van Aalderen, Patric A; Schiltmans, Els F; Davies, Gareth R


    In 2010 and 2012 two sets of unidentified human remains of two World War II soldiers were recovered in the area where the 1944-1945 Kapelsche Veer bridgehead battle took place in The Netherlands. Soldiers of four Allied nations: British Royal Marine Commandos, Free Norwegian Commandos, Free Poles and Canadians, fought against the German Army in this battle. The identification of these two casualties could not be achieved using dental record information of DNA analysis. The dental records of Missing in Action soldiers of the Allied nations did not match with the dental records of the two casualties. A DNA profile was determined for the casualty found in 2010, but no match was found. Due to the lack of information on the identification of the casualties provided by routine methods, an isotope study was conducted in teeth from the soldiers to constrain their provenance. The isotope study concluded that the tooth enamel isotope composition for both casualties matched with an origin from the United Kingdom. For one of the casualties a probable origin from the United Kingdom was confirmed, after the isotope study was conducted, by the recognition of a characteristic belt buckle derived from a Royal Marine money belt, only issued to British Royal Marines, found with the remains of the soldier. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Nation and the Soldier in German Civil-Military Relations, 1800-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brumley, Donald W


    .... The abdication of the monarchy in 1918 forced the professional soldier to look for a substitute sovereign who would insure the survival of the privileged role of the soldier in republican state and society...

  20. The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child soldiers. ... applied an unvarying standard of prevention in response to every occurrence ... encourage both domestic political transition and a changed understanding of

  1. Empowerment or endurance? War wives' experiences of independence during and after the Second World War in Germany, 1939-1948. (United States)

    Vaizey, Hester


    As German men were conscripted into the armed forces during the Second World War, more and more wives were left to manage their families alone. At the same time more women than ever entered paid employment to fill the gaps in the market left by their soldier husbands. Scholars working in the field have made much of the dislocation to gender roles prompted by the Second World War. This article questions whether women's wartime experiences changed their views on being confined to the home. Ultimately, this article argues, women wanted to return to a sense of normality at the end of the war. In the aftermath of defeat, in which mere survival rather than speculation about potentially improved models of the family set-up were paramount, "normality" was most obviously represented by prewar gender roles. Women were hoping for normalization, not only in the public sphere in the sense of a flourishing economy, but also in the private sphere with the return of the men and a resumption of the old role divisions. It was therefore not only conservative politicians who wished to preserve prewar structures within the home - so too did women themselves. The re-emergence of the traditional family model in the wake of the Second World War was thus as much the result of popular aspirations "from below" as of government policies imposed "from above".

  2. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger


    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  3. Arms Diffusion and War


    Bas, Muhammet Ali; Coe, A. J.


    The authors present a model of the relationship between the spread of new military technologies and the occurrence of war. A new technology could shift the balance of power, causing anticipatory war as one side tries to prevent the other from obtaining it. When one side already has it, war is more likely when the shift in power is large, likely, and durable. When neither side has it, war is more likely when the expected shift is asymmetric (e.g., one side is more likely to get it) and when th...

  4. Terminating America's wars : the Gulf War and Kosovo


    Musser, William G.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis asks two questions: 1) What factors have contributed to the termination of recent United States wars? and 2) How can elements of national power be applied successfully to terminate the future wars of the United States? To answer these questions, this thesis offers a model of war termination and applies it to cases of war termination, in the Gulf War and in Kosovo. These case studies indicate that termination of future wars ...

  5. External and Internal Impact on Soviet Memorial Landscape Development by THE World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Cherkasski


    Full Text Available The World War II led to serious casualties and left deep scars / wounds of memory. As the victory over occupation regime was glorified, honored and starting from 1965 was widely celebrated at national level, there was a great gap between official and personal memory of war. Monuments are one of the forms of living examples of the past and thus are reliable sources for the study of different epochs and Zeitgeist / spirit of time and their changes. This article considers the development of Soviet memorial landscape by the World War II starting from the war termination to the Soviet Union collapse. Special attention is attached to internal political and international views / interpretations and development with respect to victims of war. In other words, the process of different groups of war victims exclusion and inclusion in Soviet collective memory under the influence of internal political and foreign political interests symbiosis. And, as a result, resultant attitude towards memorial places.

  6. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graben, E.K.


    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic

  7. End of World War II: Truth and Lie of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Bahdanovich


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the main events of the last period of the World War II. A special attention is paid to the feat of the Soviet Armed Forces, that defeated the Kwantun Army in August 1945 and precipitated an unconditional capitulation of Japan and brought freedom to the peoples of Asia. The paper also reveals tragic consequences of atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The authors emphasize a key role of the Soviet Union in victorious completion of the World War II.

  8. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo


    Katharin Hermenau; Tobias Hecker; Anna Maedl; Maggie Schauer; Thomas Elbert


    Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression.Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants i...

  9. European Union, 2017


    Malone Margaret Mary


    The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017). At the same time, he cautioned...

  10. Diplomatic History of the Great Patriotic War and the New World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Borisov


    Full Text Available From ancient times, war was called "the creator of all things". And winners created the postwar world order. The article reveals the backstage, the diplomatic history of the Great Patriotic War, which make the picture of the main events of the war, that culminated in victory May 1945 in the capital of the defeated Third Reich, complete. The decisive role of the Soviet Union and its armed forces in the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies was the strong foundation on which to build the strategy and tactics of Soviet diplomacy during the war. It was implemented in the course of negotiations with the Western Allies - the United States and Britain, led by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill. World history teaches, large and small wars have been fought on Earth for centuries for specific political interests. In this context, the Second World War has been a shining example not only to curb the aggressor states, the liberation of peoples from the Nazi tyranny, but also an attempt by the victor to organize a new, better postwar world order to guarantee a durable and lasting peace based on the cooperation of the allied states. But the allies in the war did not become allies in the organization of the postwar world. Their collaboration briefly survived the end of hostilities and was overshadowed start turning to the Cold War. It was largely due to the US desire to realize their material advantages to the detriment of the Soviet Union after the war and build a system that would be a one-sided expression of the interests of Washington. Americans, especially after the death of President Roosevelt, and during his successor Truman understood international cooperation as an assertion of its global leadership while ignoring the interests of the Soviet Union, which bore the brunt of the war.

  11. Former child soldiers' problems and needs: Congolese experiences. (United States)

    Johannessen, Steinar; Holgersen, Helge


    With this article, we explore how staff working at transit centers and vocational training centers in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo experienced the problems and needs of former child soldiers. We argued that the staff's experience of the children's daily lives and their understanding of the sociocultural context of the conflict make their perspective a valuable source of information when trying to understand the phenomenon of child soldiering. Additionally, we reasoned that how the staff frame these children's problems influences how they attempt to aid the children. We conducted 11 semistructured interviews and analyzed these using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. We clustered our findings around six themes: unfavorable contextual factors, acting as if still in the army, addiction, symptoms of psychopathology, social rejection, and reintegration needs. The overarching message we observed was that the informants experienced that former child soldiers require help to be transformed into civilians who participate proactively in their society.

  12. War, Literature and Democracy


    COMPAGNON, Antoine


    —“Tell me, you writing chap, you’ll be writing later about soldiers, you’ll be speaking of us, eh?” —“Why yes, sonny, I shall talk about you, and about the boys, and about our life”. “Tell me, then—he indicates with a nod the papers on which I have been making notes. With hovering pencil I watch and listen to him. He has a question to put to me. —“Tell me, then, though you needn’t if you don’t want—there’s something I want to ask you. This is it; if you make the common soldiers talk in your b...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa Florea (Ionescu


    Full Text Available The idea of European unity dates back to antiquity, the time when the Roman Empire alsopursued such a goal. Attempts to unify European countries have appeared constantly in history, but theirsuccessful culmination crystallized only after the Second World War.Basically, the two wars have led to the downfall of Europe and the loss of its centenary political andmilitary position. The experience of these wars has led the states to initiate a defense mechanism of peace,security and international cooperation - resulted in creating an organization of universal jurisdiction -TheLeague of Nations. However, the successor of this organization, The United Nations - was one thatmanaged thorough its collective security system represented by the Security Council, to ensure andmaintain universal / global peace until now (Stelian Scăunaş, 2005.The creation of the European Union is based on four founding treaties: The Treaty establishingThe European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC - adopted in Paris on April 18, 1951, entered into forcein 1952 - treaty concluded for a period of 50 years and that has terminated in 2002, The Treatyestablishing the European Economic Community (EEC, The Treaty establishing the European AtomicEnergy Community (EAEC or EURATOM, both signed in Rome on March 25, 1947 and entered into forcein 1958 as the Treaties of Rome, and The Treaty on the European Union, which was adopted at Maastrichton 7th of February 1992 and entered into force in 1993. To these institution treaties we can add themodifying treaties of the founding treaties, including: The Merger Treaty - adopted in Brussels on 8 April1965, entered into force in 1967; The Single European Act - signed in Luxembourg and Hague in 1986,entered into force in 1987; The Amsterdam Treaty - signed on October 2, 1997, entered into force in 1999,The Treaty of Nice - signed on February 26, 2001, entered into force in 2003, The Lisbon Treaty signed in2007 and entered into force on December 1st

  14. Exoskeleton for Soldier Enhancement Systems Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.F.


    The development of a successful exoskeleton for human performance augmentation (EHPA) will require a multi-disciplinary systems approach based upon sound biomechanics, power generation and actuation systems, controls technology, and operator interfaces. The ability to integrate key components into a system that enhances performance without impeding operator mobility is essential. The purpose of this study and report are to address the issue of feasibility of building a fieldable EHPA. Previous efforts, while demonstrating progress and enhancing knowledge, have not approached the level required for a fully functional, fieldable system. It is doubtless that the technologies required for a successful exoskeleton have advanced, and some of them significantly. The question to be addressed in this report is have they advanced to the point of making a system feasible in the next three to five years? In this study, the key technologies required to successfully build an exoskeleton have been examined. The primary focus has been on the key technologies of power sources, actuators, and controls. Power sources, including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, and hybrid sources have been investigated and compared with respect to the exoskeleton application. Both conventional and non-conventional actuator technologies that could impact EHPA have been assessed. In addition to the current state of the art of actuators, the potential for near-term improvements using non-conventional actuators has also been addressed. Controls strategies, and their implication to the design approach, and the exoskeleton to soldier interface have also been investigated. In addition to these key subsystems and technologies, this report addresses technical concepts and issues relating to an integrated design. A recommended approach, based on the results of the study is also presented.

  15. Muzzle flash localization for the dismounted soldier (United States)

    Kennedy Scott, Will


    The ability to accurately and rapidly know the precise location of enemy fire would be a substantial capability enhancement to the dismounted soldier. Acoustic gun-shot detections systems can provide an approximate bearing but it is desired to precisely know the location (direction and range) of enemy fire; for example to know from `which window' the fire is coming from. Funded by the UK MOD (via Roke Manor Research) QinetiQ is developing an imaging solution built around an InGaAs camera. This paper presents work that QinetiQ has undertaken on the Muzzle Flash Locator system. Key technical challenges that have been overcome are explained and discussed in this paper. They include; the design of the optical sensor and processing hardware to meet low size, weight and power requirements; the algorithm approach required to maintain sensitivity whilst rejecting false alarms from sources such as close passing insects and sun glint from scene objects; and operation on the move. This work shows that such a sensor can provide sufficient sensitivity to detect muzzle flash events to militarily significant ranges and that such a system can be combined with an acoustic gunshot detection system to minimize the false alarm rate. The muzzle flash sensor developed in this work operates in real-time and has a field of view of approximately 29° (horizontal) by 12° (vertical) with a pixel resolution of 0.13°. The work has demonstrated that extension to a sensor with realistic angular rotation rate is feasible.

  16. Post-Cold War Russia/West Relations: U.S. Foreign Policy Initiatives, Sources of Friction, and Prospects for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lasica, Kristen


    .... With the fall of the Soviet Union, the West found itself in a period of global transition during which they had an opportunity to redefine the post-Cold War security arena and secure enduring peace...

  17. Epistemologies of Discomfort: What Military-Family Anti-War Activists Can Teach Us About Knoweldge of Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari Stone-Mediatore


    Full Text Available This paper extends feminist critiques of epistemic authority by examining their particular relevance in contexts of institutionalized violence. By reading feminist criticism of "experts" together with theories of institutionalized violence, I argue that typical expert modes of thinking are incapable of rigorous knowledge of institutionalized violence because such knowledge requires a distinctive kind of thinking-within-discomfort for which conventionally trained experts are ill-suited. I turn to a newly active group of epistemic agents-anti-war relatives of soldiers-to examine the role that undervalued epistemic traits can play in knowledge of war and other forms of structural violence.

  18. Charitable activities in Tsaritsyn during the World War I (on materials of periodicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana A. Karagodina


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the charitable activities carried out in the city of Tsaritsyn during the World War I. As a method of research used analysis of materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals published in the city in time of war. The main source of analysis is the issues of the newspaper «Tsaritsyno Bulletin» for the period from July 1914 to February 1917. The analysis allowed to identify the most priority directions of charitable aid, carried out in Tsaritsyn in the war. Also, the article discusses the activities of public organizations and associations, involved in the provision of charitable assistance to the sick and wounded soldiers, their wives and children, refugees. In particular, the reports of the Ladies' Committee of Tsaritsyn and the Tsaritsyn branch of the Russian Red Cross Society are analyzed and the features of the activity of these organizations are revealed.

  19. Thucydides: Theorist of War (United States)


    Karl Marx trumpeted in the nineteenth century and that contributed to the ruthless and mur- derous civil wars characterizing so much of the blood...occurs, in 431 bC, greece is teetering on the brink of a long-awaited war between athens and sparta. the thebans decide to capitalize on that fact to

  20. Paying for Hitler's War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim


    Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...

  1. America's Holy War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, John


    .... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...

  2. In Time of War. (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton


    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  3. World War II Homefront. (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel


    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  4. War and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W


    ... and Prevention, the International Rescue Committee, and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, can reduce the impact of war and contribute to its prevention. The participation of respected and trustworthy intermediaries and the willingness of parties to communicate with each other are two key elements in preventing...

  5. A View of War and Soldiering in the Carey Novels of Ronald Welch (United States)

    Barnes, Clive


    Ronald Welch's novels featuring the military adventures of the young men of the Carey family were first published between 1954 and 1976 and have recently been reissued. They were uniquely representative of historical military adventure for children in the Britain of this period; and were the last example of a vigorous century-old genre in…

  6. Post Cold War transformation of the medical function in support of the deployed soldier. (United States)

    Vekerdi, Zoltan


    This article summarises the changes that resulted in, and still act towards, final implementation of a separate medical function in operational medical support. This article is not intended to represent an historical account, but to provide concise supplemental material for decision makers to position medical under the commander, which enables medical staff to support and care for the troops and which can be used in the best possible way as an image forming factor for the force. The aim of this article is to clearly articulate the necessity for independence of the medical and logistic functions, while recognising the need for continued close coordination.

  7. Does Current Army Physical Fitness Training Doctrine Adequately Prepare Soldiers for War? (United States)


    longer 7 adequate to sustain the activity. Anaerobic activities include sprinting, soccer , and basketball. Balance: The ability to maintain...deep muscles, and joint articulations. The common push-up requires the interaction of 21 different muscles to execute one repetition. The overhead press...aerobically break down glycogen, carbohydrates , and fats to produce energy. The more regularly the individual conducts cardio-respiratory training

  8. The Spare Image in an Unsparing World: Framing the soldier in an indeterminate war

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasgupta, S.


    Jacques Rancière’s notion of aesthetics is inextricably linked to the concept of "sense." Recently (Rancière 2009) the concept of play in aesthetics has been elaborated on by developing the multiple meanings of sense. Sense, in its double meaning of sensate apprehension and the faculty of

  9. Critique of War Reason. A Perspective on Self-referential Systems, 11th-21st Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorm Harste


    Full Text Available This paper is a summary of my 700-page very academic thesis, in Danish, to be published by Aarhus University Press (AUP. A shorter booklet based on it was published by AUP too (November 2014, 250 pages and so were a number of shorter articles in English, French and German. In Luhmann’s systems theory and in sociology at large there is a missing link consisting in the lack of a sociology of war. A number of German systems theoreticians use Luhmann’s theory to fill that gap. Yet Luhmann (born 1927, who was a soldier and a prisoner of war from age 15-17, would not write a “Der Krieg der Gesellschaft”. The attempt to narrow this lacuna is indeed a heavy burden and a difficult task, in which it is decisive firstly to get the basic distinctions right about a second order observation of war as a conflict system – to be distinct from a military organisational system. This, I do by beginning with a reconceptualization of Carl von Clausewitz’ form analysis and self-description of war from Vom Kriege (1832. The central point is to observe the self-reference of war, or how war became war about war. Conflict is basically a problem of essentially contested communication. Once this historical self-reference established around the 17th century was in place, war became delimited by its structural couplings to religion, mass media (propaganda, finance, welfare for victims and veterans, law, politics and other functional systems. The costs of war increased, reconstituted and transformed modern society in a way that has formed a range of risks and – of course – neglected blind spots.

  10. War Remembered, Revolution Forgotten: Recasting the Sino-North Korean Alliance in China’s Post-Socialist Media State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ma


    Full Text Available From October 1950 to July 1953, the nascent Chinese state entered into a strategic alliance with North Korea; hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers shed blood on the Korean peninsula in defense of the socialist homeland and advancing Communist internationalism. But since the end of the Korean War, China has moved from revolutionary idealism and political radicalism in Mao’s era to the current post-socialist pragmatism and materialism. As the ideological winds shift, China’s contemporary propaganda apparatus must redefine the Korean War in order to reconcile the complexity of the war and wartime alliance with contemporary political concerns and popular views. By focusing on a documentary film, The Unforgettable Victory, produced by China’s leading state-run film studio in 2013, this article explores the ways in which the official media of the post-socialist era presents the past revolutionary war. The new film celebrates the splendid valor of Chinese soldiers, civilians’ heroic sacrifices, and the war’s nationalist legacy; however, it purposefully forgets the revolutionary fervor and internationalist sentiments that once forged the Sino–North Korean alliance and empowered wartime mobilization. This article examines the process of remembering and forgetting, and reveals government propaganda’s latest efforts to demobilize contemporary viewers while infusing the past revolutionary war with ideological clarity and political certainty in post-socialist China.

  11. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel


    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  12. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  13. Official Union Time Tracking System (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Official Union Time Tracking System captures the reporting and accounting of the representational activity for all American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)...

  14. “What We Want Is for the Whites and Soldiers to Leave.” Yaquis and Mexicans in Times of Revolution (1910-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Cárdenas García


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between the Yaqui people and Mexican revolutionaries. This relationship was complex and strained, partly due to the long and cruel war that preceded the revolution and partly because it involved collective, non-homogenous actors. Madero and many of his fellow revolutionaries recognized  the justice of Yaqui demands  and the injustice of Porfirian policies, but were unable to find a peaceful solution to the problem as they couldn’t accept the central demand of the Yaquis: the departure of soldiers and white settlers from their territory. in the end, the revolutionaries generally continued prior policies, that is, a mixture of war, colonization and military occupation. And though they were increasingly unorganized and divided, part of the Yaqui people continued to resist these policies.

  15. [Образ Другого : страны Балтии и Советский Союз перед Второй мировой войной = Images of the Other : Baltic States and Soviet Union before the World War II ] / Tõnu Tannberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tannberg, Tõnu, 1961-


    Arvustus: Образ Другого : страны Балтии и Советский Союз перед Второй мировой войной = Images of the Other : Baltic States and Soviet Union before the World War II. Hrsg. von Райнхард Крумм, Денис Ханов, Никита Ломагин. Verlag РОССПЕН. Москва 2012

  16. European Union, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Margaret Mary


    Full Text Available The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017. At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.

  17. Enemy recognition is linked to soldier size in a polymorphic stingless bee. (United States)

    Grüter, Christoph; Segers, Francisca H I D; Santos, Luana L G; Hammel, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Uwe; Nascimento, Fabio S


    Many ant and termite colonies are defended by soldiers with powerful mandibles or chemical weaponry. Recently, it was reported that several stingless bee species also have soldiers for colony defence. These soldiers are larger than foragers, but otherwise lack obvious morphological adaptations for defence. Thus, how these soldiers improve colony fitness is not well understood. Robbing is common in stingless bees and we hypothesized that increased body size improves the ability to recognize intruders based on chemosensory cues. We studied the Neotropical species Tetragonisca angustula and found that large soldiers were better than small soldiers at recognizing potential intruders. Larger soldiers also had more olfactory pore plates on their antennae, which is likely to increase their chemosensory sensitivity. Our results suggest that improved enemy recognition might select for increased guard size in stingless bees. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Streamflow characteristics and trends along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.


    Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.

  19. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization (United States)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared


    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  20. Child Soldiers in Africa: Solutions to a Complex Dilemma | Kalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the dilemma of using child soldiers in violent conflicts throughout Africa and on ways of resolving it in the future. The first section briefly examines some important domestic and international aspects and dimensions of the problem. Then, attention is shifted to particular individual countries on the ...

  1. Conference on soldiers, civilians and environment protection against contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The military and civil aspects of radiation protection have been discussed. The special emphasize has been done on contamination monitoring of environment, soldier radiological protection during hypothetical warfare, radiological health hazard assessment, post Chernobyl contamination control of environment and food products in Poland, dose equivalent estimation and radiometric control equipment used in military and civil service

  2. Child Soldiers - Lessons Learned on Prevention, Demobilization, and Reintegration


    Verhey, Beth


    As highlighted in the seminal UN study on the "Impact of armed conflict on children," an increased involvement of recent decades, stands as one of the most egregious child rights violations. Yet, a new study "Child soldiers: preventing, demobilizing, and reintegrating," demonstrates that children, and youth involved in armed conflict can re-engage positive social relations, and productive ...

  3. The role of silence in Burundian former child soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; de Jong, J.


    Conscription of children into the armed forces continues to be a worldwide problem. Understanding the transition from being a child soldier to becoming a civilian adult is crucial in understanding the longitudinal and social effects of childhood trauma. This study examined the community and family

  4. Professional Employees Turn to Unions (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis


    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  5. Is Union Job Dissatisfaction Real? (United States)

    Hersch, Joni; Stone, Joe A.


    A comparison of data from a Eugene, Oregon, worker survey with data from the Quality of Employment Survey found that union job dissatisfaction arises from factors independent of wages and working conditions. Union perspectives of working conditions do not accurately reflect objective measures of conditions. The dissatisfaction expressed has real…

  6. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian


    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions with a ...

  7. Toward a More Perfect Union (United States)

    Schachter, Ron


    This article explores school districts such as New Haven (Connecticut) Public Schools, whose local union is an American Federation of Teachers (AFT) affiliate and where a shared concern for students has trumped the often adversarial union-management relationship. The author discusses what makes the successful contract negotiations headed by David…

  8. Aeschylus and War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume brings together a group of interdisciplinary experts who demonstrate that Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes is a text of continuing relevance and value for exploring ancient, contemporary and comparative issues of war and its attendant trauma. The volume features contributions from...... an international cast of experts, as well as a conversation with a retired U.S. Army Lt. Col., giving her perspectives on the blending of reality and fiction in Aeschylus’ war tragedies and on the potential of Greek tragedy to speak to contemporary veterans. This book is a fascinating resource for anyone...... interested in Aeschylus, Greek tragedy and its reception, and war literature....

  9. Revisiting and renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig


    Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...... included within humanity. Conversely, focusing on how these techniques are being questioned within the work, I will discuss the resistance potential of what I will refer to as practices of subjectivization. Eventually, I will seek to position the “war-critical” strategy of the work within a broader context...... of the late modern war paradigm....

  10. How empathy, egocentrism, Kohlberg's moral development, and Erikson's psychosocial development are related to attitudes toward war. (United States)

    Westman, A S; Lewandowski, L M


    In this exploratory study 91 students took a questionnaire which measured their feelings of oneness with all humanity, their egocentrism, level of moral development according to Kohlberg, psychosocial development according to Erikson, and their attitude toward war, diplomacy, the Gulf war, civilians and soldiers in the Gulf area, etc. The hypothesis that empathy with humankind leads to concern about those involved and opposition to war was supported. These individuals were more likely to endorse values expressed in Kohlberg's Level 6. Students endorsing Level 4, law-and-order mortality, especially if they had no friends overseas and used no news source other than the usual U.S. mass media, were more likely to be pro-war, believe President Bush and the military briefings, and opposite reliance on diplomacy. If people had experienced war, they were more frequently against it. However, hardship experienced, lack of egocentrism, believing in a greater good for a greater number of people (Kohlberg's Level 5), and Erikson's psychosocial development were not associated with students' orientation toward war. Further research is suggested.

  11. From Goya to Afghanistan--an essay on the ratio and ethics of medical war pictures. (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo; de Mare, Heidi; Meijman, Frans J


    For centuries pictures of the dead and wounded have been part and parcel of war communications. Often the intentions were clear, ranging from medical instructions to anti-war protests. The public's response could coincide with or diverge from the publisher's intention. Following the invention of photography in the nineteenth century, and the subsequent claim of realism, the veracity of medical war images became more complex. Analysing and understanding such photographs have become an ethical obligation with democratic implications. We performed a multidisciplinary analysis of War Surgery (2008), a book containing harsh, full-colour photographs of mutilated soldiers from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Our analysis shows that, within the medical context, this book is a major step forward in medical war communication and documentation. In the military context the book can be conceived as an attempt to put matters right given the enormous sacrifice some individuals have suffered. For the public, the relationship between the 'reality' and 'truth' of such photographs is ambiguous, because only looking at the photographs without reading the medical context is limiting. If the observer is not familiar with medical practice, it is difficult for him to fully assess, signify and acknowledge the value and relevance of this book. We therefore assert the importance of the role of professionals and those in the humanities in particular in educating the public and initiating debate.

  12. Aspects of Romania's Economic Efforts in the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gheorghe


    Full Text Available Romania's participation in the Second World War was caused by loss of an area ofapproximately 1/3 of the national territory and has 6 million inhabitants, for the three neighbors of theRomanian state, that the Soviet Union, Hungary and Bulgaria will bethe reason fundamental ofRomania's participation in military operations on both fronts, east and west of the Second World War.Although Romania's war economic effort, amounted to the enormous amount of 1,200,000,000dollars in 1938 currency, a situationan honorable fourth place in the hierarchy of the United Nationsthat led the fight against Germany, co-belligerent status, the country justly deserved our will berefused for political reasons known only to the Great Powers. Of all the states, are in a situationsomewhat similar to that of Romania, no one made an effort not so much military or economic indefeating Germany.

  13. The medical response to trench nephritis in World War One. (United States)

    Atenstaedt, R L


    Around the 90-year anniversary of the Battle of the Somme, it is important to remember the international effort that went into responding to the new diseases, which appeared during the First World War, such as trench nephritis. This condition arose among soldiers in spring 1915, characterized by breathlessness, swelling of the face or legs, headache, sore throat, and the presence of albumin and renal casts in urine. It was speedily investigated by the military-medical authorities. There was debate over whether it was new condition or streptococcal nephritis, and the experts agreed that it was a new condition. The major etiologies proposed were infection, exposure, and diet (including poisons). Research pointed to the origin of the disease as being infective rather than toxic, but no definite cause was discovered. A number of labels were given to the disease, including war nephritis. However, trench nephritis was the one used most widely. Trench nephritis was a serious problem for the Allies, leading to 35 000 casualties in the British and 2000 in the American forces. There were also hundreds of deaths. The condition was treated in line with pre-war regimens designed for acute nephritis. No significant preventative methods were implemented for trench nephritis, as there was no consensus regarding causation. The medical response to trench nephritis was largely ineffective, with medical commentators recognizing that there had been a lack of medical progress.

  14. My byli na etikh voinakh : Svidetel’stva Uchastnikov Sobytii 1989-2000 [We were in those wars : Witnesses of survivors of military conflicts of 1989-2000], Sankt-Petersburg, Zvezda (with the support of Soros Foundation « Open Society ». Comp. by Ia. A. Gordin, V.A. Grigor’ev, 2003, 319 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Regamey


    Full Text Available This book includes diaries and reports of eight participants (mostly Russian officers of different "post-Soviet wars", beginning with Nagorny Karabakh and ending with the war still going on in Chechnya. The contributions have been collected on the web site, where there can be found literary texts as well.In charge of the defense of the USSR which will soon not exist, Soviet soldiers in Nagorny Karabakh appear as helpless witnesses of a war fuelled by Moscow decisions. They ar...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The central paradigm of the Cold War was a battle of ideas, not a military, economic or political battle. This article analyses the contribution of intellectuals and artists to the propaganda war during the 20th century. It is argued that culture proved to be a very effective weapon back then. Left-wing intellectuals who were contrary to the Soviet Union project forged a novel no-communist thinking that, being supported by the US intelligent services, succeeded in the creation of a new Worldwide cultural paradigm in the context of the Cultural Cold War.

  16. G. Kurt Piehler, ed. The United States in World War II: A Documentary Reader.


    Gratale, Joseph Michael


    The Second World War commenced in 1939 when Germany’s Nazi regime invaded the nation-state of Poland.  The violation of Polish sovereignty by both Germany and the Soviet Union compelled the British and the French to stand alongside their Polish allies as was stipulated in pre-existing treaty obligations.  In spite of Nazi-Soviet cooperation in Poland, war between the two ultimately came to fruition in 1941 when Hitler initiated Operation Barbarossa.  With all major powers involved in the war,...

  17. Diplomatic History of the Great Patriotic War and the New World Order


    Alexander Y. Borisov


    From ancient times, war was called "the creator of all things". And winners created the postwar world order. The article reveals the backstage, the diplomatic history of the Great Patriotic War, which make the picture of the main events of the war, that culminated in victory May 1945 in the capital of the defeated Third Reich, complete. The decisive role of the Soviet Union and its armed forces in the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies was the strong foundation on which to build the strate...

  18. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein


    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  19. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries, African decision makers nonetheless began to reconsider the role and place of military ..... challenged the war—fighting paradigm for armed forces or the 2003 Gulf ..... Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. Evans ...

  20. Children of War. (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Roger


    Reflects upon two attributes common to children from many countries who have known nothing but war--the absence of revenge and the belief in God. Considers how they differ from the older generation in these respects. (CMG)

  1. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini


    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  2. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  3. A Historical Survey of Military Health Services: The Crimean War and Florence Nigtingale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Demirtas


    Full Text Available During the Crimean War freezing cold and contagious diseases was more important than the Russian soldiers for the allied armies. Typhus, scorbut, cholera and malaria prepare the dead of a large number of soldiers. According to the resources, the contagious diseases led to death more than ten times of the military actions. That and #8217;s why, The European armies understood the importance of the treatment diseases in the war and the Crimean War became the beginning point in military health concept development. Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 volunteers provide clean bedding, improve ventilation and sewage disposal, and reorganize everyday sanitary procedures at British barracks in Istanbul. She was an early theorist of sanitation and one of the founders of the modern nursing profession. Nightingale worked to improve sanitation, nutrition, and activity of patients at hospitals. Death rates were reduced dramatically with the introduction of such measures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 1-6

  4. From Shell Shock to Shellac: The Great War, Blindness, and Britain's Talking Book Library. (United States)

    Rubery, Matthew


    Britain's Talking Book Service began as a way of providing reading material to soldiers blinded during the First World War. This account traces the talking book's development from the initial experiments after the War to its debut and reception among blind soldiers and civilians in the 1930s. It has been put together using archives held by the Royal National Institute of Blind People (before its Royal Charter, the NIB) and Blind Veterans UK (formerly St. Dunstan's), the two organizations responsible for Britain's Talking Book Service. The essay's first section reconstructs the search for an alternative way of reading that would benefit people with vision impairments. The next part demonstrates the talking book's impact on the lives of people with disabilities, recovering the voices of blind readers left out of most histories of books, literacy, and reading practices in the twentieth century. The final section reconstructs a debate over the value of recorded books, showing that disputes over their legitimacy are as old as recorded books themselves. In sum, this essay confronts the central issue raised by the convergence of books, media, and disability in the War's aftermath: can a book talk?

  5. British prisoners-of-war: from resilience to psychological vulnerability: reality or perception. (United States)

    Jones, Edgar; Wessely, Simon


    In contemporary culture, soldiers held as prisoners-of-war (POWs) or as hostages are considered at significant risk of mental illness, in particular post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This assumption contrasts with the psychiatric orthodoxy of the First World War when it was concluded in both Britain and Germany that POWs were protected against 'war neurosis'. Although 'barbed wire disease' was identified during time of captivity, post-release effects were not recognized. The repatriation of 'protected' POWs in 1943 prompted a reassessment of the psychological impact of imprisonment when servicemen of previous good character began to behave aberrantly. Rehabilitation programmes were designed to enable soldiers to re-adapt to service or civilian roles. Difficulties of adjustment were cast in social and cognitive terms, and corrective measures were occupational and educational. Psychiatric disorders found in POWs were explained in terms of a pre-conflict predisposition to, or a history of, mental illness. However, retrospective studies of veteran POWs have found a high prevalence of PTSD. A change in attitudes is explored in relation to the advance of medical terminology into the territory of emotions and the attribution of pathological processes to self-recovering mental states. The reclassification of the effects of imprisonment implies that diagnoses in military psychiatry are culturally determined and can be understood only if they are placed in a context that includes changing beliefs about mental illness, the formal development of the psychiatric profession and the immediate needs of the armed forces.

  6. Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance: Translating State-of-the-Science Soldier Research for Operational Utility. (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Sharp, Marilyn A


    The Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance (ICSPP) was held on August 18-21, 2014 in Boston, MA, where it had a record attendance of 374 registrants from 27 countries. The Congress included 8 invited keynote lectures, 12 symposia, 1 featured science session, more than 200 oral and poster free communication sessions, 8 thematic poster sessions, and a Warfighter Readiness Roundtable. Collectively, the presentations focused on a fundamental premise that soldiers are the center of warfighting capability, and the human service member is the prime resource and key enabler of all warfighting systems. The intent of the ICSPP series is to focus on the soldier-the individual service member. As we move forward with focus placed on the human dimension of soldiering, the key to our scientific success and what will prove to be transformative will be the extent to which we can operationalize and disseminate our scientific knowledge for the benefit of our soldiers on the ground. The Congress fostered important scientific exchange, and dialog centered on improving military physical performance and readiness. As countries around the globe respond to current and emerging threats to their national security, it is increasingly clear that we must ensure optimal human performance of our military personnel. By taking advantage of the science and applications of physical fitness and injury prevention research, we can leverage our increased understanding for the optimal application of physical readiness processes while minimizing the injury risk potential. We believe that the continued scientific and evidence-based dialog across international partners will prove to be transformative in identifying the most effective strategies for human performance optimization in the 21st century. Innovation, leveraging current state-of-the-science, and international partnerships were all key themes throughout the Congress. From the ICSPP scientific program, it was clear that there

  7. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  8. Maslow, Needs, and War (United States)


    for individual‟s remains equally true for groups and nations.ŗ Abraham H. Maslow did groundbreaking work on a hierarchy of needs; he identified five...Penguin Press, 1991), 48. 3 Ibid, 49. 4 Abraham H. Maslow , Motivation and Personality, Second Edition. (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 35-58. 5... Maslow , Needs, and War by Lieutenant Colonel John P. Baker United States Air Force United States Army War College

  9. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær


    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  10. Social Trust and Children Born of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu Bogdan


    Full Text Available This paper considers two assumptions commonly used in analyzing the formation of social trust. They stress the importance of early socialization, on one hand, and of life events, on the other. We consider birth as a major life event for anyone and focus on the situation of Children Born of War. This group, even if lesser visible in some societies, has the peculiar characteristic to be born and socialized in very specific conditions. Typically, these people are the offspring of foreign soldiers, and local women. They may bear stigma, might be marginalized in family, school and society, and might develop a low level of generalized trust even if they may have lived all life in a culture rich in social trust. We explore at theoretical level their case, bring in a few statistics, and suggest a research direction that may be fruitful in learning about both such hidden populations and about social trust. In the end, we argue upon the importance of the topic for post-conflict societies.

  11. Leo Szilard Award Lecture: Unwinding the Cold War (United States)

    Neff, Thomas


    Two generations of scientists in the US and the Soviet Union spent their lives in the shadow of the cold war, building the scientific and technical infrastructure and shaping the institutional and policy structures that maintained a stable "balance of terror." The cold war is now over, but the lethal products of it, and the decaying institutions and policies that perpetuated it, are probably more dangerous than ever. At the same time, the loss of cold war imperatives means fewer government resources and less policy attention to the problems of reversing the cold war. Moreover, solving these problems will require that the forces and talents of economics and business be integrated with the technical skill and imagination of physical scientists. Science fundamentally involves skills of problem definition and problem-solving. Both American and Russian scientists and engineers must expand their tool kits and the scope of their imaginations if they are to undo the dangerous legacy of the cold war and find productive new roles in a post-cold war world. This address is intended to illustrate how this can be done, using the past five years' experience in developing and implementing the agreement between the U.S. and Russia to motivate, finance, and institutionalize the destruction of approximately 20,000 Russian nuclear weapons through the commercially-driven recovery and destruction of 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium from those weapons. Such approaches can have benefits much broader than the destruction of weapons, if we can recognize the opportunities and pursue them wisely. Unfortunately, there is a basic lack of imagination and will, one that is further frustrated by bureaucratic inertia and the parochial interests of cold war institutions. The irony is that Russia is more ready to change than the US, but it is the US that is, in principle but perhaps not in practice, most able to help lead the world out of the cold war era.

  12. Treatment seeking for posttraumatic stress in Israel Defense Forces veterans deployed in the Second Lebanon War (2006) and "Operation Cast Lead" in the Gaza Strip (2009): a comparative study. (United States)

    Levi, Ofir; Lubin, Gadi


    The goal of the study was to determine the long-term prevalence of combat-related treatment seeking and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Israel's veterans deployed to the Second Lebanon War (2006) and "Operation Cast Lead" in the Gaza Strip (2009). The prevalence of treatment seeking and DSM-IV-TR diagnoses among Israel Defense Force (IDF) veterans was assessed using seven and five year's surveillance and records. The whereabouts and combat exposure of veterans during the war was determined based on the IDF's Operations Directorate records. Overall prevalence of treatment seeking was 1.32% and 0.38% in the Second Lebanon War and "Operation Cast Lead", respectively. The prevalence of treatment-seeking veterans from the Second Lebanon War and in "Operation Cast Lead" was significantly higher in soldiers deployed to high combat-exposure zones (2.19% and 3.1%, respectively), relative to low combat-exposure zones (0.24% and 0.06%, respectively), and relative to soldiers deployed elsewhere (0.26% and 0.02%, respectively). PTSD prevalence was similar among treatment-seeking veterans deployed in high combat-exposure zones in both combats. There is a gap of anywhere between 3% and 11% between treatment seeking by IDF veterans following war deployment and the actual prevalence of PTSD in this soldier population.

  13. Union, federation or

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uffe Ostergård


    Full Text Available In the 1960s, the Nordic states demonstrated their incapacity and lack of interest in supporting Nordic culture and language. Today, the need is greater than it’s ever been since the two Nordic multinational states of Denmark and Sweden were separated into national states in 1809 and 1814. This separation process, at least in relation to Denmark, will not come to an end until the Faeroe Islands and Greenland have determined their political futures. The Nordic region is fascinating, multifaceted, and a worthy task for wise Europeans in the area we should perhaps call “Northern Europe” rather than the ideologically charged “Norden”. But there is little reason to conceive of the Nordic countries, or Norden, as constituting an exceptional region or a permanent alliance in the EU. We are European countries, for good or ill. And as the other EU member states become relatively smaller and more closely aligned while maintaining or accentuating their distinctive national characteristics, the special relationship between the Nordic countries will probably become less significant, provided that the European project does not disintegrate due to the financial crisis and the problems associated with the euro. Regardless of what lies ahead, the Nordic countries started down their separate paths in 1814, when the Oldenburgian state became the biggest European loser in the Napoleonic wars only a few years after 1809, when Sweden had for a short period been reduced to a small state in danger of being carved up by its neighbors.

  14. From Star Wars to 'turf wars'. (United States)


    Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.

  15. Strategic stability in the Cold War. Lessons for continuing challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, D.S.


    Extending from roughly the end of the Second World War to the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989-1991, the Cold War period witnessed - among other upheavals - significant conflicts in East Asia and the Middle East, the end of European colonial empires in Africa and Asia, and a remarkable competition between the United States and the Soviet Union across virtually every aspect of endeavor, from economic and cultural activities to military, nuclear, and space capabilities. In this era of great instability scores of new states gained their independence, some great powers lost stature and influence in comparative terms, and millions of people perished in civil and interstate wars and at the hands of repressive governments. Yet it was during this period that the phrase 'strategic stability' gained currency both as an objective and as an apt way of describing four dominant features of the period. First, the United States and the Soviet Union never went to war, although there were several occasions when some observers saw war as a genuine possibility, including the Berlin and Cuban crises, the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the 'war scare' of the early 1980's. Second, neither these powers nor any others detonated nuclear weapons to inflict damage on an enemy, though they relied on them for deterrence, alliance cohesion, and other purposes. Third, the configuration of political alignments in Europe and Northeast Asia was remarkably stable from the mid-1950's to the end of the Cold War in 1989-1991. Fourth, the proliferation of nuclear-weapon states was contained to a much lower level than feared by some observers in the 1950's and 1960's. This paper concentrates on the first of the four elements of strategic stability in the Cold War listed above - the fact that the two superpowers did not engage in a direct 'hot war' with each other. It raises the question, to what extent did U.S. analytical models concerning &apos

  16. Strategic stability in the Cold War. Lessons for continuing challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yost, D.S.


    Extending from roughly the end of the Second World War to the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989-1991, the Cold War period witnessed - among other upheavals - significant conflicts in East Asia and the Middle East, the end of European colonial empires in Africa and Asia, and a remarkable competition between the United States and the Soviet Union across virtually every aspect of endeavor, from economic and cultural activities to military, nuclear, and space capabilities. In this era of great instability scores of new states gained their independence, some great powers lost stature and influence in comparative terms, and millions of people perished in civil and interstate wars and at the hands of repressive governments. Yet it was during this period that the phrase 'strategic stability' gained currency both as an objective and as an apt way of describing four dominant features of the period. First, the United States and the Soviet Union never went to war, although there were several occasions when some observers saw war as a genuine possibility, including the Berlin and Cuban crises, the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the 'war scare' of the early 1980's. Second, neither these powers nor any others detonated nuclear weapons to inflict damage on an enemy, though they relied on them for deterrence, alliance cohesion, and other purposes. Third, the configuration of political alignments in Europe and Northeast Asia was remarkably stable from the mid-1950's to the end of the Cold War in 1989-1991. Fourth, the proliferation of nuclear-weapon states was contained to a much lower level than feared by some observers in the 1950's and 1960's. This paper concentrates on the first of the four elements of strategic stability in the Cold War listed above - the fact that the two superpowers did not engage in a direct 'hot war' with each other. It raises the question, to what extent did U.S. analytical models concerning 'crisis stability', 'first-strike stability', and 'arms race

  17. The Energy Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auverlot, Dominique; Beeeker, Etienne; Hossie, Gaelle; Bettzuege, Marc Oliver; Helm, Dieter; Roques, Fabien


    A synthesis of contributions is firstly proposed in this collective publication. In this synthesis, the authors describes the crisis faced by European energy (economic crisis, closure of some thermal power plants due to a lack of profitability, increase of electricity prices, low CO 2 quota prices resulting in a greater use of coal, an ageing refinery system, dependence on the Russian gas for some countries), identify four principles which could be used as guidelines for the European policy (responsibility, solidarity, economic rationality, resilience), define seven recommendations as objectives of a European energy policy. Then, the contributions address the following topics: security of electricity supply, security of European Union's gas supply called into question again, reforming the ETS market to strengthen the credibility of the European climate policy, a necessary evolution of the European energy and climate policy, the issue of a definition of a European energy policy as a dogma or a strategy, the challenge for building up a sustainable and consistent European energy and climate policy

  18. Context matters: community characteristics and mental health among war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Brennan, Robert T


    Worldwide, over one billion children and adolescents live in war-affected settings. At present, only limited research has investigated linkages between disrupted social ecology and adverse mental health outcomes among war-affected youth. In this study, we examine three community-level characteristics - social disorder and collective efficacy within the community, as reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma as reported by youth - in relation to externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms among male and female former child soldiers in postconflict Sierra Leone. A total of 243 former child soldiers (30% female, mean age at baseline: 16.6 years) and their primary caregivers participated in interviews in 2004 and 2008, as part of a larger prospective cohort study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. Two-point growth models were estimated to examine the relationship between community-level characteristics and externalizing and internalizing outcomes across the time points. Both social disorder within the community, reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma, reported by youth, positively covaried with youths' externalizing and internalizing scores - indicating that higher levels of each at baseline and follow-up were associated with higher levels of mental health problems at both time points (p mental health outcomes was nonsignificant (p > .05). This study offers a rare glimpse into the role that the postconflict social context plays in shaping the mental health among former child soldiers. Results indicate that both social disorder and perceived stigma within the community demonstrate an important relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescent ex-combatants. Moreover, these relationships persisted over a 4-year period of follow-up. These results underscore the importance of the postconflict social environment and the need to develop postconflict interventions that address community-level processes in addition to the needs

  19. Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis among Israel Defense Force Soldiers: 20 Years Experience at the Hadassah Medical Centers. (United States)

    Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf


    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.

  20. Danish experience with free flaps in war wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Rikke; Duffy, Jonas; Warburg, Finn Edgar


    of 11). Flap-loss occurred in one patient, presumably due to leakage at the anastomotic site, which necessitated another free flap procedure. All patients received rehabilitation services following discharge from the inpatient unit, including prosthetic fitting. The mean follow-up time was 26 months....... CONCLUSIONS: This report is the first to detail the reconstructive procedures in soldiers treated at a public hospital in Denmark. The treatment of war casualties has not only been a challenge to the surgeons tasked with managing these devastating injuries, but also to Danish healthcare in general....... The outcome of multidisciplinary treatment, combining the expertise of various specialties, is highly encouraging. The rate of complications was low, and the aesthetic appearance of the reconstructed limbs and the functional recovery were satisfactory. We therefore recommend the use of free flaps...

  1. The Hungarian Participants of the American War of Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Kunec


    Full Text Available Thousands of soldiers coming from different parts of Europe have participated in the American War of Independence. While the British crown received support from the German mercenaries, the secessionists Americans were helped by a special unit of the French army and by other volunteers from the territory of the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Sweden, and Poland. Less known are the issues of participation of troops from the Kingdom of Hungary who fought for American freedom. The following article brings information on the four foreigner fighters who arrived on the American battlefield: Maurice August Benyovszky, Baron Francisc Seraph Benyovszky, Mihály Kováts of Fabricy and Jean Ladislau Poleretzy. Having the spirit of adventure as a main characteristic, the four characters are the protagonists of some exciting stories, with ups and downs, with twists and unexpected denouement.

  2. The State of the Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This special issue of Angles marks the three hundredth anniversary of the Union of the two kingdoms of Scotland and England. The nature and development of the relations between the constituent parts of the United Kingdom is a fascinating topic also to outside observers, and some of the contributi...... of the contributions to this volume deal with the Union in a comparative European context. Both Scottish nationalism and Scottish unionism are analysed, and Anglo-Scottish relations are looked at from historical, sociological, linguistic and literary angles...

  3. The Case of Hirose Akira: The Ethical Predicament of a Japanese Buddhist Youth during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Terasawa


    Full Text Available The Japanese Buddhist clergy’s collaboration with the Japanese war machine during the Fifteen Year War (1931–1945 is notorious. Yet the struggles of ordinary lay Buddhist youths during World War II remain less publicized. This article examines the case of a young Shinshū Buddhist soldier, Hirose Akira, 廣瀬明 (1919–1947, and scrutinizes the diary he kept between 1939 and 1946. Mobilized between February 1942 and January 1945, Hirose became increasingly disillusioned, especially when he witnessed injustices and the officers’ thoughtlessness in ordering junior soldiers to make sacrifices while enjoying their privileges. His diary reveals an early skepticism toward the Japanese embrace of expansionism and the hypocrisy of its justifications for the war of aggression waged against China and Asia as a whole. Independently from the battle’s fate, by 1944 Hirose considered that Japan was already defeated because of what he saw as “her own people’s ego and selfishness.”

  4. Forms of War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail:; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)


    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  5. Forms of War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Bartelt, D.


    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate

  6. Agostino Gemelli and the scientific study of courage in the First World War. (United States)

    Patriarca, Carlo; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo


    Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) is known as the founder of the Catholic University in Italy. Franciscan monk and doctor he had a central role in promoting studies on human behavior, thanks to his solid scientific training as a student of Camillo Golgi at the University of Pavia. His research activities during the years of the First World War involved studying the motivation, courage and psychological adaptation of the soldiers, engaged in trench warfare, laying the foundations of modern studies of behavior and trauma. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.


    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  8. Go spy out the land: intelligence preparations for World War I in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As World War I approached, the potential for conflict drove the principal future protagonists, England and Germany, to seek detailed information on their anticipated enemies, not just in Europe, but wherever their nations' interests crossed paths. After 1910, the Union of South Africa turned its eyes to the northwest to keep ...

  9. Cold War Arms Control Motivations and Techniques - A Guide for the Future?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Elmer


    .... This paper provides a brief historical account of some of the arms control agreements between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, examines their major motivations to enter into negotiations, and illustrates some successful negotiation techniques. The author hypothesizes on the utility of this Cold War arms control experience as a useful guide for arms control in a single superpower world.

  10. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Natalia


    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to…

  11. The American-Israeli Relationship Relevance in a Post-Cold War Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Michael


    .... This relationship has been critical during the period of cold war politics from 1948-1989. However, since the breakup of the Soviet Union, this relationship has been the basis for much of the intensified hatred aimed at the U.S...

  12. The Battle for the History Books: Who Won the Cold War? (United States)

    Meyerson, Adam


    Discusses liberal and conservative foreign policy contributions to the end of the Cold War, as marked by the rapid liberalization of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Emphasizes that the collapse of the Soviet empire occurred at the end of a decade of sustained conservative government in every major country of the Western world. (FMW)

  13. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellar, Ronald


    .... Intergovernmentalism in the European Community has evolved into an economic form of supranationalism with the persona change form Community to Union after ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993...

  14. Public Sector Unions and Privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse


    Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employees...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...... to substantially and significantly less privatization through the voucher market. By comparison, the estimated relationship between the relative number of public workers and privatization does not reach statistical significance. Features of the voucher market and qualitative evidence suggest that the union...

  15. Brexit and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly


    When on 23 June 2016 a majority voted in favour of the United Kingdom (UK) leaving the European Union (EU), it generated a host of unknowns. Prior to the referendum, scholars had already started to anticipate the implications of a potential Brexit from different perspectives, including considering...... lie and suggesting where Britain’s exit will leave the greatest strategic vacuums. The subsequent analysis centres on the actors that will likely win and lose from the UK’s exit from the Union....

  16. Coordination in the European Union


    Martin Feldstein


    This paper examines the sources of current conflict within the EU and the EMU. The topics discussed include the recent ECB policy of bond buying (the OMT policy), the attempts to advance the "European Project" of stronger political union (the fiscal compact, the banking union, and the proposals for budget supervision). Contrary to the claims of the European leadership, the progress that has been made has been by individual countries and not by coordinated action. The special problems of Franc...

  17. The Attitude to War Prisoners in the USSR in the Initial Period of Captivity (on the Materials of Stalingrad and the Stalingrad Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Polyakov


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the attitude of soldiers and officers of the Red Army, local population and authorities to the prisoners of war in Stalingrad. The historical sources verified by V.G. Polyakov are represented by the official documents from the Archive of Federal Security Service of Russia in the Volgograd region, memories of the Soviet and German parties involved in the events. These materials allow assessing the condition of war prisoners of Stalingrad in military camps. After the victory in the battle on the Volga tens of thousands of enemy soldiers of different nationalities were captured: Germans, Romanians, Italians and Poles. Their survival depended not only on the policy of the Soviet Command, but also on the specific actions of servants at distribution points and camps. The methodology proposed by M.P. Nazarova made it possible to determine the complex causes of high mortality of war prisoners at the initial stage of their captivity: grave malnutrition and diseases, cruel treatment, lack of food and water, difficulties of reception, transportation, accommodation and medical care. Stalingrad was heavily damaged, and there was a lack of resources for the organization of military camps. The sources of personal origin, reviewed by E.P. Vorobyev, reveal the change for the better attitude of both camp administration and residents to former soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht. The compassion and help let many war prisoners survive. Many years later they retained vivid memories of the most tragic period in their life. Today the study of the fate of war prisoners in Stalingrad and in the Stalingrad region is an important aspect of preserving the historical memory about the events of World War II both in Russia and abroad.

  18. The Soviet Union and Soviet citizens in Finnish magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Saarinen


    Full Text Available The focus of this article’s is to study Finnish popular journalism in 1970s and 1980s. A magazine studied in this article is Hymy (Smile, and it has been estimated that in the beginning of 1970s approximately the whole literary population of Finland read it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the different images Hymy created and published of the Soviet Union and the Soviet citizens. The central research question analyzes what kinds of issues Hymy published about the Soviet Union and its citizens before 1991. This study gives special attention to the reasons why the articles were written in the first place, and secondly, what was the nature of their content.        Hymy published 224 articles on the Soviet Union. The articles were mostly written in the spirit of criticism – not in the spirit of “friendship of the peoples” that was the official political stance of Finland toward the Soviet Union. Magazines had to be aware of the official Finnish political rhetoric concerning the relationship with the Soviet Union. Hymy as a popular magazine found a way to evade the official mandate. In Hymy, people were able to read anti-Soviet sentiments without any censoring. Therefore, Hymy not only provided its readers views and beliefs that expressed the popular beliefs and values, but also sympathized with them. The Cold War era in the 1970s and 1980s was still a post-traumatic period for Finns. The magazine Hymy was an important channel to publish stories on painful, embarrassing, and tragic subjects.

  19. The Fukushima War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, Philippe


    We know that henceforth there will be a 'before' and an 'after' Fukushima, just as there is a before and an after Hiroshima-Nagasaki. However, these two nuclear-related events are quite different in nature, and the characteristics they do share are not those we might expect. Although atomic fission is the common denominator, the consequences of their respective origins diverge - an industrial accident for Fukushima, military attacks for Hiroshima-Nagasaki - even (paradoxically, as we shall see) with respect to radioactivity. Yet their catastrophic proportions and geopolitical implications draw them together. Represented in Japan by well-known numbers that refer to the dates on which they occurred - 3.11 for March 11, 2011; 8.6 and 8.9 for August 6 and 9, 1945 - Fukushima and Hiroshima-Nagasaki are geopolitical markers, each having both a temporal and a spatial dimension. In other words, to quote the late Pierre Gentelle, these are major spatial events generating widespread repercussions, both locally and globally, and affecting political action and ideological discourse in a number of countries. Their geography is fully fledged in that it comprises a physical and geophysical dimension, thus reflecting natural phenomena, nature itself, and the individualized perception that everyone has of it - scientists, individuals, and populations alike. This is also about war. An actual war that ended with Hiroshima and Nagasaki. And a war now being fought against the invisible enemy of radiation at Fukushima and in other areas of Japan, with the country's 'hot spots' (hotto supoto), 'evacuation zones' (hinan kuiki), and other such 'exclusion zones' (haijo kuiki). A war with devastated landscape, theoretically unaffected hinterland, and a division of the land dictated by emerging battlefields; and with its front lines and a population caught in the crossfire or forced to leave. In this war against radiation, the 2011 US military (Japan's occupiers in 1945) limited Operation

  20. Education, sex and leisure: ideology, discipline and the construction of race among South African servicemen during the Second World War. (United States)

    Roos, Neil


    During the Second World War (1939-1945), South African military authorities employed various regimes to mould white South African soldiers as citizens of a particular type. These coincided broadly with traditions of racial statehood identified by David Goldberg, and included attempts at ideological control – through the liberal Army Education Scheme, a compulsory adult education project – as well as disciplinary interventions, which concentrated on soldiers' sexuality. The ways that ordinary soldiers responded to these divergent discourses reminds us that whiteness in a racial state was elaborated not just from above, but also below. This observation raises some cautionary points for the writing of 'post-social' history, and just as it demands that ordinary servicemen's actions, experiences and ideologies need to be related to the state and other modes of power, it reaffirms Geoff Eley's appeal for a 'new history of society'.Lines of investigation that explore attempts to educate, discipline and control white soldiers begin to challenge some of the conventional periodizations of SA history, particularly the notion that South Africa's 1940s represented an optimistic 'world of possibilities'.

  1. The Role of Public Organizations of Kursk Province in Provision of Assistance to the Front Line in the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor A. Gavrikov


    Full Text Available The First World War caused great changes in the everyday life of the Russian province. It was forced to adapt to the wartime and the shortage of resources. The current situation promoted local authorities to establish and develop charity committees and public organizations, which rendered assistance to the Kursk Province in complex circumstances. The charitable work, organized by local authorities enabled to render material assistance to the front line and lift the spirit of the Russian soldiers.

  2. Mental health care use by soldiers conducting counterinsurgency operations. (United States)

    Applewhite, Larry; Keller, Nathan; Borah, Adam


    Counterinsurgency (COIN) has become the cornerstone of the military's strategy to combat terrorist threats. COIN operations are complex and often expose soldiers to unfamiliar stressors as they fight the enemy while developing and maintaining rapport with the local populace. Utilizing a retrospective record review protocol, we examined 282 mental health files of soldiers assigned to a brigade combat team that operated from a large forward operating base in Iraq during the counterinsurgency campaign. Most reported sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, irritability, and conflict with supervisors related to either operational stress, exposure to direct combat, or home front concerns. Most received brief individual supportive therapy or attended solution-focused group counseling emphasizing life skills training, post-traumatic stress treatment, women's support, or relationship skills. Psychopharmacologic treatment was an essential adjunct to the counseling program. Results indicate that supporting a COIN deployment requires a comprehensive mental health program that can respond to a wide range of mental health problems.

  3. A new soldier beetle from Eocene Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Fanti


    Full Text Available The family Cantharidae is a worldwide distributed group of flattened and soft-bodied beetles displaying aposematic colouration. These beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles, have an extensive fossil record dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. The majority of fossil material, referred to Cantharidae, is known from amber inclusions. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new soldier beetle Kuskaella macroptera gen. et sp. nov. from the Baltic amber. It is characterised by pronotum of the male parallel-sided in basal third and abruptly narrowed towards apex, and of the female gradually and steadily narrowing from the basal margin to the apex; globular head; unequal maxillary palpomeres with the last segment elongated-globular and pointed; long elytra slightly surpassing the last abdominal segment. This finding is the first described species of both sexes preserved in a single amber piece.

  4. Asthma and psychiatric disorders in male army recruits and soldiers. (United States)

    Lev-Tzion, Raffi; Friedman, Tal; Shochat, Tzippy; Gazala, Eliyahu; Wohl, Yonit


    Numerous studies have shown an association between asthma and mental disorders. While elevated rates of asthma have been noted among psychiatric patients with anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, several studies have found elevated rates of mental disorders among asthma patients. Such studies, however, have generally relied upon questionnaires and assessment by non-specialist physicians to diagnose mental disorders and asthma. To examine a possible association between asthma and psychiatric diagnoses in Israeli military recruits and soldiers. In this cross-sectional study we compared the prevalence of mental diagnoses in asthmatic recruits and soldiers with that in non-asthmatic recruits and soldiers. A total of 195,903 recruits and soldiers were examined by Israel Defense Forces recruiting offices and fitness boards. Diagnoses of asthma were based on a pulmonologist's diagnosis, including spirometry at rest and exercise testing as indicated; diagnoses of mental disorders were based on examination by a psychiatrist. The prevalence of asthma was found to be 7.8% (current) and 9.8% (lifetime). The prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4%. Current asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of any mental disorder (OR = 1.20, 95% Cl = 1.15-1.26), and specifically with mood and anxiety disorders (1.31, 1.19-1.46), introvert personality disorders (1.20, 1.12-1.28) and adjustment disorder (1.43, 1.26-1.62). Lifetime asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of the same disorders, but the association was not as powerful. The results validate the previously documented association between asthma and mental disorders, using a sample of unprecedented size and improved methodology. A multidisciplinary approach to asthma that incorporates mental health professionals in the treatment of poorly controlled asthma and perhaps of asthma in general is recommended.

  5. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team: Military Transitions for Soldier Fuel Cells (United States)


    Fuel Cell (DMFC) (PEO Soldier) Samsung: 20W DMFC (CRADA) General Atomics & Jadoo: 50W Ammonia Borane Fueled PEMFC Current Fuel Cell Team Efforts...Continued Ardica: 20W Wearable PEMFC operating on Chemical Hydrides Spectrum Brands w/ Rayovac: Hydrogen Generators and Alkaline Fuel Cells for AA...100W Ammonia Borane fueled PEMFC Ultralife: 150W sodium borohydride fueled PEMFC Protonex: 250W RMFC and Power Manager (ARO) NanoDynamics: 250W SOFC

  6. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airbourne Soldiers (United States)


    testing results of over 400 Soldiers, the Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) was developed and validated (AUG 08-MAR 09- PHASE 3) for implementation...0.075 kg per kg body mass. Resistance often increases to 1.0 kg x body mass or higher (up to 1.3 kg) when testing power and sprint athletes. An...Arkray LactatePro blood lactate test meter Purpose: Examine cardiorespiratory endurance (VO2max) Background: The development of overuse injuries has

  7. A Review of the Soldier’s Equipment Burden (United States)


    allow heavy items to be packed close to the soldier’s natural centre of mass . The Infantryman, with such a large equipment burden, is in effect...COM Centre of Mass COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf CPL Corporal DARPA Defense Advanced Research Project Agency DMO Defence Materiel...Eighteen soldiers had customised their packs, either the issued packs or their own. The most common customisation was the addition of an external

  8. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airborne Soldiers (United States)


    assessments consisting of strength, cardiorespiratory, anaerobic, and body composition tests. Isokinetic strength testing 10 was performed on the...a meter or more. Moreover, the maximum VGRF experienced during landing tasks performed in the field could be much greater than the standardized... isokinetic strength. Subjects were assigned to groups based on the DoD’s standard for body fat (Group 1: ≤18% BF; Group 2 >18% BF). Soldiers who met

  9. Distress Levels among Parents of Active Duty Soldiers during Wartime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Bitton


    Full Text Available Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents’ experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study’s goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014.Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5 and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers.Results: Parents’ depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers’ parents’ distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers’ parents.

  10. Ethics and the Military Profession. Values and the Professional Soldier (United States)


    endangered? A genuine relativist would have to forego such action. And what about the egoist? Egoism is the claim that self-interest is the focus of all...may not have made a careful study of egoism and may hold other moral views inconsistent with the egoist position. This would be true of the...professional soldier who thinks he accepts egoism ; without reconciling it to his commitment to military values. Because so much of what any person routinely

  11. The United States Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: A Critical Look (United States)


    Psychoanalysis Professor Stephen Soldz, stated “ the problems identified with CSF are legion. It is time for the Army to step back from uncritically...Frederick J. Gellert Department of Command, Leadership and Management Project Adviser This manuscript is submitted in partial fulfillment of the ...organization and at every level within the Army, MRTs serve as the principal advisor to the leadership regarding CSF and as a resource for Soldiers

  12. Non-Deployable Soldiers: Understanding the Army’s Challenge (United States)


    Effects ( MFE ) specialties. As reflected in table 3, most Soldiers opted for DEIP within 90 days of LAD or after deployment.86 Unit Type from LAD...Eligible Takers Take % BCTs ៊ / Dep 14935 5163 34.6% 91-180 6663 1246 18.7% 181+ 841 89 10.6% Total 22439 6498 29.0% MFE ៊ / Dep 8352 2232 26.7% 91...MEDPROS Medical Protection System MFE Maneuver, Fires, and Effects MILPER Military Personnel [message] MMC Medical Management

  13. Understanding and Managing the Career Continuance of Enlisted Soldiers (United States)


    presented. Although this presentation would be informative, it would use comedy and action movie clips to maintain the interest of the recruits...a history of Family members serving in the military. Additionally, Soldiers may join the Army due to a lack of alternative job options, as a way to...joining, pre-existing behavioral or emotional difficulties, physical injuries or problems, family history of service, and ability to adjust to Army

  14. Analysis of posttraumatic stress disorders in Polish soldiers who returned from stabilization mission in Iraq


    Skotnicka, Justyna


    Aims. The aim of the survey was to establish whether PTSD is present among Polish soldiers returning from a one-year deployment to Iraq and an analysis of its individual symptoms. Methods. Sixty soldiers were examined, including 30 who returned from the Iraqi mission and 30 who remained in Poland. Five analysing devices were used: (IPSA), (STAI), (BDI), a PTSD questionnaire and a socio-demographical form. Results: A significant number of soldiers experienced a traumatic event during th...

  15. Singing about Soldiers in German Schools, from 1890 to 1945 (United States)

    Kennedy, Katharine


    A crucial historical intersection of war and education asks how schooling contributed to convincing people to fight and to sacrifice their own lives, and those of their loved ones, in wars. This article addresses this question by asking how primary schools, in one country, namely Germany, over several tumultuous generations, used songs to teach…

  16. Sociality in Parasitic Flatworms: When Do Soldiers Matter? (United States)

    Garcia-Vedrenne, A. E.


    Although not traditionally recognized as such, trematode infections in molluscan first intermediate hosts comprise colonies. When two trematode species simultaneously infect a snail host, one generally kills the other. Thus, there can be strong selective pressure for established trematode colonies to protect and defend against new infections. Recent findings demonstrate that some trematode species have a reproductive division of labor involving a reproductive and a soldier caste. Reproductives are larger and filled with offspring, while soldiers lack developing embryos, and are specialized for inter-trematode antagonism. This reproductive division of labor has now been documented for intramolluscan stages of fourteen trematode species from different geographic regions and host species. Further, literature descriptions of the life history of several species suggest that this phenomenon is widespread, although there are important intra- and inter-specific differences in colony structure. It has been predicted that trematode soldier castes would most likely evolve in taxa that are typically dominant in interspecific hierarchies, in situations of invasion risk, and among trematodes that infect longer lived hosts. Here I address these hypotheses and present the extent of evidence for trematode social organization.

  17. Soldier Health Habits and the Metabolically Optimized Brain. (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E; Breivik, Torbjorn J; Carter, Robert; Leyk, Dieter; Opstad, Per Kristian; Taverniers, John; Trousselard, Marion


    Human performance enhancement was the subject of a NATO workshop that considered the direct benefits of individual soldier health and fitness habits to brain health and performance. Some of the important health and fitness include physical activity and purposeful exercise, nutritional intake, sleep and rest behaviors, psychological outlook and mindfulness, and other physiologically based systemic challenges such as thermal exposure. These influences were considered in an integrated framework with insights contributed by each of five participating NATO member countries using representative research to highlight relevant interrelationships. Key conclusions are that (1) understanding the neurobiological bases and consequences of personal health behaviors is a priority for soldier performance research, and this also involves long-term brain health consequences to veterans and (2) health and fitness habits have been underappreciated as reliably effective performance enhancers and these should be preferred targets in the development of scientifically based recommendations for soldier brain health and performance. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance. (United States)

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E


    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  19. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bagaeva


    Full Text Available The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  20. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars


    A. V. Bagaeva


    The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.