WorldWideScience

Sample records for war ii combined

  1. Combining individual memory & collective memory? : Classics Illustrated’s representation of World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribbens, Kees

    WWII is widely remembered and represented. Keeping the memories of this international conflict alive, both within academic and popular history writing, occurred largely within various national frameworks. On the one hand, in the immediate post-war world many stories appeared about the great events

  2. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  3. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…

  4. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  5. Neurosurgical notes: World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, J L

    2000-03-01

    This concerns my activities as a neurosurgeon in the European Theater of Operations and the North African, Tunisian campaign, during World War II. Action during the Battle of the Bulge came later. Our mobile tent hospital, the 9th Evacuation Hospital, was similar to that depicted in the television show M*A*S*H. To lend flavor to these comments, I have referred to medical and surgical matters in other units as well as our own, mentioned global aspects of the war, and included vignettes of life off-duty. The story begins after induction into the Army Medical Corps as a volunteer in July 1942 and ends with honorable discharge in April 1946.

  6. Arsenal Workers During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-01-01

    During World War II, Arsenal workers from Huntsville, Alabama. and surrounding areas responded to the call for civilian defense workers. This February 20, 1945 photo shows workers filling colored smoke grenades that were used for signaling. (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  7. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  9. Interrogation: World War II, Vietnam, and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    War II, he soft ened them with gift s of magazines, cig- arettes, and chocolates . He broke through their reserve with humor. And he spoke to them in...of their time and how they solved their problems. We can learn by analogy , not by example, for our circumstances will always be diff erent than...battlefi eld were generally a homo- geneous group of enemy soldiers. Yet, this is a new form of war, not at all like Desert Storm nor even analogous

  10. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War...

  11. Winning the War: A Historical Analysis of the FFA during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Connors, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States' participation in World War II affected millions of men, women, and children, both at home and around the world. The war effort also affected the Future Farmers of America (FFA). FFA members, agriculture teachers, and national FFA officers all volunteered to serve their country during the war. Local FFA chapters and individual…

  12. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    customs. War, they have also asserted, draws two related political dangers in its train. An ambitious President (or one of his successful generals ) might... general questions about war’s intluence upon the economy. political institutions, and society’s constituent groups. This book takes a preliminary step... millennial task. As a consequence. political theorists and statesmen re- placed clergymen as the leaders of American thought, and politics supplanted

  13. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  14. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  15. Middle East in World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Yurtaev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the role and importance of the region of the Middle East and North African theater of operations during World War II, not only the battles occured in the region are analyzed, but also the diplomatic efforts of the allies, related to the region. Author shows the role of the North African theater of operations in the context of other battles, parses the Allied landing operation called «Torch». Particular attention is given to the Conference of the three Allied leaders during World War II - Stalin (USSR, Roosevelt (USA and Churchill (UK, which was held in Tehran on November 28 - December 1, 1943. The author focuses on the psychological aspects of the conference, emphasizing that it was in the nature of the meeting of equal members of one family. The article also dismantled symbolic importance of presenting to the people of Stalingrad, on behalf of King George VI and the English people specially made sword on November 29, 1943 in the conference hall of the Soviet embassy in Tehran. According to the analysis, the author emphasizes the special importance of the region of the Middle East as a place to search for compromises on the way to the future world order.

  16. 20 CFR 404.1343 - When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. 404.1343 Section 404.1343 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. The limits...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World...

  18. [Comparative characteristic of the formation of stereotype of aging in participants of current war conflicts and World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakymets', V M

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out to examine participants of current war conflicts and World War II in order to compare the development of the formation of stereotype of old age. It was established that participants of World War II have higher level of the formation of pessimistic stereotype of old age than participants of current war conflicts have.

  19. Health effects of war stress on Norwegian World War II resistance groups: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Ellinor F

    2003-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which adverse long-term health effects of World War II stress exposure were present in 3 groups of resistance veterans. The groups had been exposed to different types of war stressors: concentration camp incarceration, resistance participation within the illegal press, and a secret military organization. With the differences in war stressors as a basis, we assumed that those incarcerated in a concentration camp would display more adverse health effect compared to the resistance veterans. The findings point to a relationship between the severity of war stressors and postwar health in all 3 groups.

  20. 20 CFR 404.1310 - Who is a World War II veteran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is a World War II veteran. 404.1310... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1310 Who is a World War II veteran. You are a World War II veteran if you were in the...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  2. Brazilian Participation in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    cooperate with the United States and list what the country would require concerning finance , equipment, and training from the United States.27...6Seitenfus, XVIII. 7Ibid., 11. 8Ibid., 26. 9Rui G. Granzieira, “Engagements of War and Economic Planning in Brazil 1942- 1955” Entreprises Et...Engagements of War and Economic Planning In Brazil, 1942-1955.” Entreprises Et Histoire, no. 19, 1988. McCann, Frank D. “Brazil, The United

  3. Combined Operations in the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-24

    Research Cfice, 1952. Ministry of National Defense , Republic of Korea . The History of United Nations Forces in the Korean War. Volume VI, Seou 1: 1977. ,-,h...committed to repelling the North Korean and Chinese armies from the Republic of Korea (ROK). The Korean War was not anticipated and neither was the extent...Coaal: tior War Early on 25 June Iz)50 the North Korean People- Army =_NKPA launched an overwhelming invasion into the Repu’Tli,: cf Korea . Pres-.i,ent

  4. [War trauma and PTSD among German war survivors. A comparison of former soldiers and women of World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, C; Weierstall, R; Huth, S; Knecht, J; Elbert, T

    2014-03-01

    Stressful war experiences can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. To what extent were the soldiers and young women of World War II affected by PTSD symptoms over the course of their lives? Do these men and women differ in the traumatic experiences and PTSD symptom severity? To investigate these questions 52 male and 20 female Germans aged 81-95 years were recruited through newspaper advertisements and notices and interviewed regarding war experiences and PTSD symptoms. Of the men 2% and 7% met the criteria for current and lifetime PTSD diagnoses, respectively, as compared to 10% and 30% of the women, respectively. Using multiple linear regression a dose-response relationship between the number of trauma types experienced and PTSD symptom severity could be demonstrated. The slope of the regression curve was steeper for women than for men. When controlling for the number of different traumatic experiences women reported a significantly higher severity of PTSD symptoms than men. It is presumed that this difference in severity of symptoms can be attributed to qualitative differences in the type of traumatic stress factors during the war. The present study provides evidence that even today people continue to be affected by PTSD symptoms due to events which occurred during World War II; therefore, during patient contact with this age group the war experiences specific to each individual need to be considered as potential moderators of symptoms.

  5. Japanese Americans During World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Peter; Masugi, Ken

    1986-01-01

    The arguments in favor of and against monetary redress for survivors of America's wartime internment camps are presented. Pro-redress arguments emphasize the injustices done the victims. Anti-redress arguments focus on the duties for citizenship and the reasonable actions politicians might have concluded were necessary to win the war. (PS)

  6. The effect of war on children: the children of Europe after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, L; Bryan, B

    2002-06-01

    In war, children are inevitably innocent victims. In the carnage that was World War II, more children were killed or orphaned than at any other time in history. This article gives a brief history of the place of children within the conflagration, then describes the effects of war on the children. We concentrate on postwar life, placing children in the context of the environment in which they were living at the time. Our article outlines the work carried out by relief agencies and how Europe began to rebuild itself, how the children were fed and made healthy, and how, where possible, they were reunited with their families. We report briefly on the physical and psychological damage children suffered, both during the war and in its aftermath. History such as this is relevant to nurses in the 21st century, as it provides insight upon which nursing care for both our present ageing population and for children of the future can be based.

  7. Nurses across borders: displaced Russian and Soviet nurses after World War I and World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Russian and Soviet nurse refugees faced myriad challenges attempting to become registered nurses in North America and elsewhere after the World War II. By drawing primarily on International Council of Nurses refugee files, a picture can be pieced together of the fate that befell many of those women who left Russia and later the Soviet Union because of revolution and war in the years after 1917. The history of first (after World War I) and second (after World War II) wave émigré nurses, integrated into the broader historical narrative, reveals that professional identity was just as important to these women as national identity. This became especially so after World War II, when Russian and Soviet refugee nurses resettled in the West. Individual accounts become interwoven on an international canvas that brings together a wide range of personal experiences from women based in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. The commonality of experience among Russian nurses as they attempted to establish their professional identities highlights, through the prism of Russia, the importance of the history of the displaced nurse experience in the wider context of international migration history.

  8. World Wars at Home: U.S. Response to World War II Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on how the United States Post Office reacted to the massive influx of political propaganda, primarily from the Soviet Union, immediately prior to and during World War II. Describes how the Post Office played an active role in stopping and burning some 50 tons of incoming material. (RS)

  9. World Wars at Home: U.S. Response to World War II Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on how the United States Post Office reacted to the massive influx of political propaganda, primarily from the Soviet Union, immediately prior to and during World War II. Describes how the Post Office played an active role in stopping and burning some 50 tons of incoming material. (RS)

  10. 20 CFR 404.1320 - Who is a post-World War II veteran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is a post-World War II veteran. 404.1320... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1320 Who is a post-World War II veteran. You are a post-World War II veteran if...

  11. Higher Education and World War II. IHE Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Cameron

    The January 1994 issue of "The Annals" of the American Academy of Political and Social Science provides an overview of thought and discussion concerning the role of colleges and universities during World War II and in the postwar era. Edited by T. R. McConnell and Malcolm Willey, the issue contained articles by educators, most of whom became more…

  12. The Netherlands and World War II, Jews and suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, W.C.; Luijkx, R.; van Tubergen, F.; Sher, L.; Vilens, A.

    2009-01-01

    World War II in the Netherlands lasted from May 1940 to May 1945. Suicide numbers peaked in these months, in the first case because of suicide by Jews, and in the second case because of suicide by collaborators with the German occupier. Suicide rates for Jews were higher in 1942 than in 1940 and

  13. France: demographic change and family policy since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, L; Thery, I

    1988-09-01

    Major demographic trends and changes in family policy in France since World War II are analyzed, with a focus on fertility and marriage patterns (including divorce). The effects of political and economic factors on family policy and legislation since 1945 are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources.

  14. World War II Spy Kit: "The Great Nazi Intelligence Coup."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, David

    This instructional packet is designed to introduce students to primary source material by having them participate in an historical "what might have been." Students engage in critical thinking and document analysis, and through the process learn about Operation OVERLORD and World War II in general. This spy kit centers on Operation…

  15. Propaganda in Warner Brothers World War II Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machowski, James Stanley; Brown, James William

    To examine the role of the animated cartoon in propaganda associated with World War II, 194 of 262 cartoons produced for theatrical release by Warner Brothers, Inc., from 1939 to 1946 were analyzed. Propaganda content was determined by the number and nature of symbols used and the cartoon's "attitudes" toward these symbols. An analysis…

  16. China's Propaganda in the United States during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kuo-jen

    Drawing data from a variety of sources, a study was undertaken to place China's propaganda activities in the United States during World War II into a historical perspective. Results showed that China's propaganda efforts consisted of official and unofficial activities and activities directed toward overseas Chinese. The official activities were…

  17. The Rise of Conservatism since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dan T.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rise of the conservatism movement in the United States since World War II. States that laissez-faire capitalism and the rise of communism contributed to the popularity of conservatism in the United States. Focuses on the role of U.S. Presidents, such as Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. (CMK)

  18. The Netherlands and World War II, Jews and suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, W.C.; Luijkx, R.; van Tubergen, F.; Sher, L.; Vilens, A.

    2009-01-01

    World War II in the Netherlands lasted from May 1940 to May 1945. Suicide numbers peaked in these months, in the first case because of suicide by Jews, and in the second case because of suicide by collaborators with the German occupier. Suicide rates for Jews were higher in 1942 than in 1940 and eve

  19. 20 CFR 404.1322 - Post-World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Post-World War II service included. 404.1322... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1322 Post-World War II service included. Your service was in the active service...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1323 - Post-World War II service excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active...

  1. The Changing Face of War in Textbooks: Depictions of World War II and Vietnam, 1970-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy

    2014-01-01

    How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…

  2. The Changing Face of War in Textbooks: Depictions of World War II and Vietnam, 1970-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy

    2014-01-01

    How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…

  3. Experimentation on prisoners by the Japanese during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdwood, Ronald H

    1985-08-24

    Girdwood, president of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, recounts his experience in assessing and treating newly released Allied prisoners in the Far East during World War II. Although he had been posted to various locales and had interviewed many prison camp survivors, he had not heard direct accounts of germ warfare experiments allegedly performed by the Japanese on American, British, and Australian prisoners until they were reported on a British television program, Unit 731, on 13 August 1985. While poor medical care, abuse, and malnutrition were known, information about biological warfare disclosed on the television program was evidently not known to British, Indian, or Australian authorities until the war's end.

  4. The war against bacteria: how were sulphonamide drugs used by Britain during World War II?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Diana

    2012-06-01

    Penicillin is often considered one of the greatest discoveries of 20th century medicine. However, the revolution in therapeutics brought about by sulphonamides also had a profound effect on British medicine, particularly during World War II (WWII). Sulphonamides were used to successfully treat many infections which later yielded to penicillin and so their role deserves wider acknowledgement. The sulphonamides, a pre-war German discovery, were widely used clinically. However, the revolution brought about by the drugs has been either neglected or obscured by penicillin, resulting in less research on their use in Britain during WWII. By examining Medical Research Council records, particularly war memorandums, as well as medical journals, archives and newspaper reports, this paper hopes to highlight the importance of the sulphonamides and demonstrate their critical role in the medical war effort and their importance in both the public and more particularly, the medical, sectors. It will present evidence to show that sulphonamides gained importance due to the increased prevalence of infection which compromised the health of servicemen during WWII. The frequency of these infections led to an increase in demand and production. However, the sulphonamides were soon surpassed by penicillin, which had fewer side-effects and could treat syphilis and sulphonamide-resistant infections. Nevertheless, despite these limitations, the sulphonamides drugs were arguably more important in revolutionising medicine than penicillin, as they achieved the first real success in the war against bacteria.

  5. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  6. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  7. Mental health, citizenship, and the memory of World War II in the Netherlands (1945-85).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Harry

    2014-03-01

    After World War II, Dutch psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals articulated ideals of democratic citizenship. Framed in terms of self-development, citizenship took on a broad meaning, not just in terms of political rights and obligations, but also in the context of material, social, psychological and moral conditions that individuals should meet in order to develop themselves and be able to act according to those rights and obligations in a responsible way. In the post-war period of reconstruction (1945-65), as well as between 1965 and 1985, the link between mental health and ideals of citizenship was coloured by the public memory of World War II and the German occupation, albeit in completely different, even opposite ways. The memory of the war, and especially the public consideration of its victims, changed drastically in the mid-1960s, and the mental health sector played a crucial role in bringing this change about. The widespread attention to the mental effects of the war that surfaced in the late 1960s after a period of 20 years of public silence should be seen against the backdrop of the combination of democratization and the emancipation of emotions.

  8. 20 CFR 408.216 - Are you a World War II veteran?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are you a World War II veteran? 408.216 Section 408.216 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Military Service § 408.216 Are you a World War...

  9. Some Possible Effects of World War II on the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Murry R.

    1986-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of professional literature, curriculum guides, textbook advertisements, and newspaper articles from World War II era in order to assess response of social studies educators to crisis of World War II and effect of the war on the social studies curriculum. Concludes that rapid curriculum change resulted in response to the…

  10. World War II mythologies and the prewar reconstruction of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Beeny, Tara Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation interrogates the positionality of postconflict reconstruction efforts in Iraq within the broader discourse of the liberal peace and liberal reconstruction. It examines how U.S. policymakers planned and articulated the reconstruction of Iraq in relationship to historical examples, specifically the cases of West Germany and Japan. It questions how U.S. policymakers understood and utilized the examples of post-World War II reconstruction and the effect those examples had on the...

  11. Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II. The first view shows Slayton (on right) beside a Douglas A-26 bomber in the Pacific Theater of Operations during the summer of 1945, probably on Okinawa. The second man is 1st. Lt. Ed Steinman (28359); This view shows Slayton as an eighteen-year-old U.S. Army Air Force cadet at Victoria Field, Vernon, Texas in the autumn of 1942.

  12. War, Nation, Memory: International Perspectives on World War II in School History Textbooks. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Keith A., Ed.; Foster, Stuart J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The Second World War stands as the most devastating and destructive global conflict in human history. More than 60 nations representing 1.7 billion people or three quarters of the world's population were consumed by its horror. Not surprisingly, therefore, World War II stands as a landmark episode in history education throughout the world and its…

  13. International Context during and after World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Protopopov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the international context of the Soviet Union and today's Russia during and after the World War II. Relations between the allies (the USSR, the US and the UK shortly after the end of World War II «gave a crack». Particular attention is paid to the development of the American nuclear program in an international context and objectives of the nuclear bombing of Japan, the expansion of NATO. The author concludes that the problem of military and economic development in the post-war period were largely dictated by the difficult international situation at that time. The Soviet Union was forced not only to establish a peaceful life, but also to take steps to create its own nuclear weapons and their means of delivery, strengthening the country's defense. After the troubled times of the second half of the 1980s and 1990s, in the XXI century Russia again began to strengthen its international position. The author proves the need for a consistent foreign policy.

  14. The Battle of Moscow - Turning Point of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V M Falin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the Battle of Moscow in October- December, 1941. Author analyzes the causes of the failure of German army, who tries to encircle and capture Moscow, the events taking place on the outskirts of Moscow, German troops attempts to encircle Moscow. The author presents data on the speech by Adolf Hitler in Berlin on October 5, 1941, in which he acknowledged the failure of the Blitzkrieg and the Battle for Moscow and its suburbs. The researcher uses the documents of the Wehrmacht High Command, which stated that after the Battle of Moscow, German troops could not on any further stage of the war to restore the quality and morale of the armed forces, with whom Reich rushed to a campaign for world domination. The author, a prominent public and political figure of the USSR, also relies on personal recollections, interviews with prominent generals of World War II, including I. Konev.

  15. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...

  16. The din of gunfire: Rethinking the role of sound in World War II newsreels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Shpolberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available French film historian Laurent Véray has famously called World War I ‘the first media war of the twentieth century’. Newsreels, which first appeared in 1910, brought the war to movie theaters across Europe and the U.S., screening combat for those on the ‘home front’. However, while the audience could see the action it could not hear it – sometimes only live music would accompany the movements of the troops. The arrival of sound newsreels in 1929 radically transformed moviegoers’ experiences of the news, and, by necessity, of armed conflict. Drawing on examples of World War II newsreels from British Pathé’s archive that was recently made available online, this article seeks to delineate the logic governing the combination of voice-over commentary, music, sound effects, and field-recorded sound, and argues that it can be traced directly to the treatment of sound in the ‘Great War’ fiction films of the preceding decade.

  17. Preserving the Memories of World War II: An Intergenerational Interview Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percoco, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the National World War II Memorial was established in 2007 to serve, in part, as an organization devoted to educating young people and visitors to the memorial in an effort to ensure that the lessons, legacy, and sacrifices of World War II not be forgotten. After 32 years of teaching history at West Springfield High School in…

  18. 5 CFR 831.304 - Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II. 831.304 Section 831.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay is...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1059 - Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a) In...

  20. Vascular Surgery in World War II: The Shift to Repairing Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Justin; Cherry, Kenneth J; Rich, Norman M

    2016-03-01

    Vascular surgery in World War II has long been defined by DeBakey and Simeone's classic 1946 article describing arterial repair as exceedingly rare. They argued ligation was and should be the standard surgical response to arterial trauma in war. We returned to and analyzed the original records of World War II military medical units housed in the National Archives and other repositories in addition to consulting published accounts to determine the American practice of vascular surgery in World War II. This research demonstrates a clear shift from ligation to arterial repair occurring among American military surgeons in the last 6 months of the war in the European Theater of Operations. These conclusions not only highlight the role of war as a catalyst for surgical change but also point to the dangers of inaccurate history in stymieing such advances.

  1. War and Marriage: Assortative Mating and the World War II GI Bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew F; McCarthy, T J; Moulton, Jeremy G; Page, Marianne E; Patel, Ankur J

    2015-10-01

    World War II and its subsequent GI Bill have been widely credited with playing a transformative role in American society, but there have been few quantitative analyses of these historical events' broad social effects. We exploit between-cohort variation in the probability of military service to investigate how WWII and the GI Bill altered the structure of marriage, and find that it had important spillover effects beyond its direct effect on men's educational attainment. Our results suggest that the additional education received by returning veterans caused them to "sort" into wives with significantly higher levels of education. This suggests an important mechanism by which socioeconomic status may be passed on to the next generation.

  2. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  3. Early Tests of Piagetian Theory Through World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beins, Bernard C

    2016-01-01

    Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed. Nonetheless, the theory ultimately gained traction to become the bedrock of developmental psychology. Reasons for its persistence may include a possible lack of awareness by psychologists about the lack of empirical support, its breadth and complexity, and a lack of a viable alternate theory. As a result, the theory still exerts influence in psychology even though its dominance has diminished.

  4. Media and nationalism in Baja California during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Gruel Sández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to explain some journalistic representations of the Northern Territory of Baja California. The body of documents that pertain this article, will document different versions of the past of the peninsula, from the nature of political discourse. Bajacalifornians will appear represented by journalists, struggling to eliminate an image of an isolated, uninhabited place filled with U.S. citizens. The editorial portrayal of the Tijuana, Mexicali and Mexico City press will be analyzed in context with the regional, national and international conflicts. Public opinion was a ground where the people of Baja California negotiated the nationalism, as the rest of the world collapsed with World War ii.

  5. Venous envy: the post-World War II debate over IV nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, M

    1999-09-01

    After World War II, a debate ensued over whether nurses should perform intravenous (IV) therapy. The debate was resolved by permitting nurses to do venipunctures as physicians' agents and by recirculating the familiar tautology: if nurses were already doing venipunctures, they must be simple enough for nurses to do. The vein was a portal of entry for nurses, but one with limited access. What was ultimately ceded to nurses was not full jurisdiction over a domain of nursing practice, but rather a limited settlement in a domain of medical practice. The debate over IV therapy demonstrated how technology, in combination with ideology, can both create and destroy nursing jurisdictions.

  6. 20 CFR 408.420 - What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What evidence of World War II military... SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Military Service § 408.420 What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us? (a) Kinds of evidence you can give us....

  7. Thanks, but no thanks: how denial of osteopathic service in World War I and World War II shaped the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Osteopathic physicians were denied the same rights and privileges that were granted to allopathic physicians by the US government regarding voluntary and compulsory service in World War I and World War II. Even after changes to the examination process allowed osteopathic physicians to take the examinations required to obtain commission as a physician in the army, osteopathic physicians' service was still rejected. The US government's decision to ban DOs from serving in the war was a blessing in disguise that led to tremendous changes in osteopathic medicine, education, and public acceptance of osteopathic physicians. Using primary documents from military officials, congressional hearings, and archived publications of the American Osteopathic Association, the author recounts the battle osteopathic physicians fought to serve their country during war and the challenges they faced while obtaining both legal and social equality in the eyes of the government and the public.

  8. The Childhood Experience of Being a War Orphan: A Study of the Effects of Father Loss on Women Whose Fathers Were Killed in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon Estill

    2010-01-01

    Asking the research question, "What is the lived experience of women whose fathers died in World War II?" led to awareness of the unexplored impact of war loss on children. It was hypothesized that this research would show that women who experienced father-loss due to war would share commonality in certain areas. Areas of exploration including…

  9. Crossroads. Life Changing Stories from the Second World War: A (Transmedia) Storytelling Approach to World War II Heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvi, Licia; Hover, Moniek

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCrossroads is the name of the concept that narratively connects several WWII-related cultural institutions in Brabant. We were initially looking for ways to connect 4 otherwise very diverse World War II-related institutions (in fact, 3 museums and a commemoration centre) and we found it

  10. Teaching about World War II: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents nine documents from the ERIC database dealing with teaching about World War II. Includes articles addressing the lessons of Pearl Harbor, the Holocaust, the wartime internment of Japanese Americans, industry's response to the war, and the moral lessons of Nazism. (SG)

  11. Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Christine

    During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…

  12. World War II Mobilization in Men's Work Lives: Continuity or Disruption for the Middle Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechter, Aimée R; Elder, Glen H

    2004-11-01

    The labor needs of World War II fueled a growing demand for both military and war industry personnel. This longitudinal study investigates mobilization into these competing activities and their work life effects among men from the middle class. Hazard estimates show significant differences in wartime activities across occupations, apart from other deferment criteria. By war's end, critical employment, in contrast to military service, is positively associated with supervisory responsibility for younger men and with occupation change. This empoloyment does not predict postwar career advancement up to the 1970s. By comparison, men who were officers had a "pipeline" to advancement after the war, whereas other service men fared worse than nonveterans.

  13. OPERATION ODESSA: THE FLIGHT OF NAZI WAR CRIMINALS TO LATIN AMERICA AFTER WORLD WAR II AND THE NAZI HUNTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Eduardo Meinerz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze why Latin America, especially Argentina, was the region of the world that harbored the most Nazi war criminals—for example, Josef Mengele, Adolf Eichmann and Klaus Barbie—after World War II. It also aims to analyze how this fact has set the tone for the appearance of literary works about the fantastic adventures of “Nazi hunters” seeking the whereabouts of those individuals. For this purpose, in the first part of the article we will address Nazis’ escape to Latin America. Next, we analyze some literary works by authors who called themselves Nazi hunters.

  14. The Effects of Japan's Apology for World War II Atrocities on Regional Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cathey, Emily A

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the impact of atrocities that Japan committed against its neighbors during and prior to World War II on Japan's relationships with its neighbors, China and the Republic of Korea...

  15. World War II (1939-1945 Oceanographic Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Levitus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We document the geographical and temporal distributions of oceanographic vertical profile observations made during World War II (1939-1945 that are included in the " World Ocean Database " (WOD. The WOD is a product of the NOAA/National Oceanographic Data Center, USA and its co-located ICSU World Data Center for Oceanography. The WOD is the largest collection of ocean profile data available internationally without restriction. All data shown in this paper are available online without restriction and at no cost. The WOD is built upon the international exchange of oceanographic data with contributions of data received from many countries. Most of the data shown in this paper and the data within the WOD in which these data reside in a uniform format were gathered under the auspices of the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE committee of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC of UNESCO and the ICSU (International Council of Science World Data Center system, which is now part of the ICSU World Data System. The WOD contains 112,714 ocean station data casts and 45,003 mechanical bathythermograph profiles for 1939-1945

  16. World War II soldier salutes the US Flag during a Veteran's Day ceremony to dedicate a memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    World War II soldier salutes the US Flag during a Veteran's Day ceremony to dedicate a memorial to 'Smoky, Yorkie Doodle Dandy and Dogs of All Wars' in the Rocky River Reservation, Lakewood, Ohio. November 11, 2005

  17. Historical perspective on neurosurgery in Germany after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmann, Hartmut; Vitzthum, Hans-Ekkehart

    2008-11-01

    AFTER THE COLLAPSE of the Third Reich, the specialty of neurosurgery in Germany, although well developed in the late 1930s, had to start anew, and for decades to come, had to deal with the physical and political consequences of World War II. Because of the division of the country, neurosurgery developed separately in the two independent states. In West Germany, the evolution was promoted by a few personalities who represented different schools according to their own training: these "surgical neurologists" emphasized the neurological basis of neurosurgery and were represented by Traugott Riechert and the students of Otfrid Foerster, such as Arist Stender and Hans Kuhlendahl. In contrast, the "neurological surgeons" stressed their origins in general surgery. Their main proponent was Wilhelm Tönnis, who gained particular merit for promoting neurosurgical teaching, the development of new neurosurgical units, and the recognition of neurosurgery as an autonomous specialty. In East Germany, progress was delayed by a weak economy and a repressive political system. Yet several excellent neurosurgeons won international recognition, predominantly Georg Merrem, who came from the school of Fedor Krause. Following a worldwide trend, the number of neurosurgical units in West Germany increased dramatically from 18 in 1950 to 85 in 1988. In 2006, in the unified nation, 1200 certified neurosurgeons in 138 hospital departments and 75 private practices served 82 million people. Since its founding in 1949, the German Neurosurgical Society has promoted the idea of reconciliation and has focused on international collaboration in both science and education. This idea, shared by other European nations, eventually gave rise to the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies. At present, escalating costs in the health sector pose a problem to neurosurgical services and have led to reconsiderations about their structure and financing.

  18. Cryptanalysis in World War II--and Mathematics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Hilton describes the team of cryptanalysts who tried to decipher German and Japanese codes during the Second World War. The work of Turing, essentially developing the computer, is reported, as well as inferences about pure and applied mathematics. (MNS)

  19. 46 CFR 32.20-1 - Equipment installations on vessels during World War II-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II... installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL. Boilers, pressure vessels, machinery, piping, electrical... the termination of title V of the Second War Powers Act, as extended (sec. 501, 56 Stat. 180, 50...

  20. Out of a clear blue sky? FOM, the bomb and the boost in Dutch physics funding after World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeneveld, F.; van Dongen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One

  1. Out of a Clear Blue Sky? FOM, The Bomb, and The Boost in Dutch Physics Funding after World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeneveld, F; van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One

  2. Out of a clear blue sky? FOM, the bomb and the boost in Dutch physics funding after World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeneveld, F.; van Dongen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One

  3. Out of a Clear Blue Sky? FOM, The Bomb, and The Boost in Dutch Physics Funding after World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeneveld, F; van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One

  4. My Wartime Self: Meaning Construction in Narratives of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B. Wiest

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are all storytellers. We tell stories in a variety of settings, to a variety of audiences, and for a variety of reasons. We tell structured stories about personal experiences—narratives—as a means of understanding the past, constructing identities, and communicating ourselves to others. Drawing on social psychological literature on narratives, identities, and autobiographical memories, this study examines the construction, recitation, and evaluation of 28 World War II veterans’ narratives. Findings indicate cultural influences in the ways these veterans constructed their war stories, the ways they constructed meanings about their war experiences, and the ways they constructed their identities in relation to those experiences.

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury Studies in Britain during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the wartime urgency to understand, prevent, and treat patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during World War II (WWII), clinicians and basic scientists in Great Britain collaborated on research projects that included accident investigations, epidemiologic studies, and development of animal and physical models. Very quickly, investigators from different disciplines shared information and ideas that not only led to new insights into the mechanisms of TBI but also provided very practical approaches for preventing or ameliorating at least some forms of TBI. Neurosurgeon Hugh Cairns (1896-1952) conducted a series of influential studies on the prevention and treatment of head injuries that led to recognition of a high rate of fatal TBI among motorcycle riders and subsequently to demonstrations of the utility of helmets in lowering head injury incidence and case fatality. Neurologists Derek Denny-Brown (1901-1981) and (William) Ritchie Russell (1903-1980) developed an animal model of TBI that demonstrated the fundamental importance of sudden acceleration (i.e., jerking) of the head in causing concussion and forced a distinction between head injury associated with sudden acceleration/deceleration and that associated with crush or compression. Physicist A.H.S. Holbourn (1907-1962) used theoretical arguments and simple physical models to illustrate the importance of shear stress in TBI. The work of these British neurological clinicians and scientists during WWII had a strong influence on subsequent clinical and experimental studies of TBI and also eventually resulted in effective (albeit controversial) public health campaigns and legislation in several countries to prevent head injuries among motorcycle riders and others through the use of protective helmets. Collectively, these studies accelerated our understanding of TBI and had subsequent important implications for both military and civilian populations. As a result of the wartime urgency to understand

  6. Reproductive behavior following evacuation to foster care duringWorld War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Santavirta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family disruption and separation form parents during childhood may have long-lasting effects on the child. Previous literature documents associations between separation from parents and cognitive ability, educational attainment, and health, but little is known about effects on subsequent reproductive behavior. Objective: We evaluate the associations between unaccompanied evacuation to foster care and subsequent marriage and fertility behavior by comparing Finnish children who were evacuated to Swedish foster families during World War II to their non-evacuated siblings. Methods: In total, some 49,000 children were evacuated for a period ranging from months to years. We analyze a nationally representative sample of 2,009 evacuees born in 1933-1944 by combining data collected from war time government records with 1950 and 1971 censuses and 1971-2011 population registers. Results: Comparison of evacuated and nonevacuated same-sex siblings suggests no associations between evacuation and the probability of ever marrying, timing of first birth, and completed family size, although some associations are found in na¨ıve means comparisons. This difference in results across models is suggestive of negative selection of evacuee families. Conclusions: We do not find consistent evidence of any causal effect of family disruption on family formation and reproductive behavior. The results are sensitive to controlling for unobserved selection and suggest that some of the adverse outcomes documented in earlier literature could change if selection was accounted for.

  7. The role of the media in influencing public attitudes to penicillin during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Penicillin's trajectory towards becoming an effective antibacterial chemotherapeutic agent took place during World War II. Its strategic military value was immediately recognised by the Allies, and mass production was undertaken with the prime objective of meeting the needs of the armed forces. News of its development came to be widely reported on in the media and is examined here. These reports frequently combined accounts of penicillin's prodigious clinical effectiveness with the fact that it was to remain unavailable to the civilian population essentially until the war had ended. More penicillin was to be made available to the civilian population in the United States than in Britain, but the sense that it was severely rationed remained as high. It was in response to this that the idea of "homemade penicillin" was hatched. News of this was also widely promulgated by both the British and American media. Although the numbers treated with penicillin produced in this way was never to be significant, knowledge of the existence of such endeavours may have served to assuage in some measure the feelings of frustration felt by the civilian population at penicillin's non-availability.

  8. Occupational Pursuits: The Army and World War II Occupation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    so “power-statesmen [can]…return to their pleasant little game of international penny -ante.”74 Wallace and Ickes played key roles in postwar planning...FDR would put off deciding the issue until it was too late to do anything to change course .99 At a Cabinet meeting in late October, the issue dominated...answer this. He cited two examples, during the Civil War and in the Philippines after the Spanish -American War, where “we paid a heavy price for

  9. The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory: Contributions to World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, G. Edgar

    2010-01-01

    The war contributions of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in Cambridge, MA, were recorded in 169 Technical Reports, most of which were sent to the Office of the Quartermaster General. Earlier reports were sent to the National Research Council and the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Many of the reports from 1941 and later dealt with…

  10. Providing for the Casualties of War: The American Experience Through World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Freud sug- gested that this may be an inherent trait, that “conflicts of interest between man and man are resolved, in principle, by the recourse to...violence” (Einstein and Freud , 1931– 1932). Although people have not been able to overcome their essential proclivity to make war on one another over... Freud and the advent of psychoanalysis captured the popular imagination,33 but the vast majority of the 2,295 members of the American Psychiatric

  11. Radiology in World War II (Medical Department, United States Army)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    of opinion as the war progressed. They included: 102 RADIOLOGY FJiuG-z 33.-Moderately advanced pulmon - ary tuberculosis detected in routine roent...therapy of cancer , like its surgical management, had become so complex that, unless the disease was treated with skill far above the average, therapeutic...efforts directed toward it could be wasted. To control cancer with X-rays produced by the equipment available to Army hospitals, except the equipment

  12. The "Chugakuryoko" and Hogan's Heroes: The Experience Gap between U.S. and Japanese Students' Knowledge of World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwell, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Based on his own teaching experiences and findings, the author discusses the experience gap between U.S. and Japanese students' knowledge of World War II. He compares and contrasts how the subject of World War II is taught in the United States versus Japan. While it takes teacher effort to enrich the history experiences of U.S. students, the…

  13. Literature and History--A Focus on the Era of the Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, John; Sandmann, Alexa

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography and suggested teaching activities for units on the Great Depression and World War II. The materials support inquiry into the causes of the Great Depression and World War II and how these events transformed U.S. society. The annotated bibliography includes novels, memoirs, biographies, and political studies. (MJP)

  14. The "Chugakuryoko" and Hogan's Heroes: The Experience Gap between U.S. and Japanese Students' Knowledge of World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwell, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Based on his own teaching experiences and findings, the author discusses the experience gap between U.S. and Japanese students' knowledge of World War II. He compares and contrasts how the subject of World War II is taught in the United States versus Japan. While it takes teacher effort to enrich the history experiences of U.S. students, the…

  15. 8 CFR 329.5 - Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. 329.5 Section 329.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (a) A person desiring to naturalize...

  16. A lovely war: male to female cross-dressing and Canadian military entertainment in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the Canadian military entertainment units during World War II (WWII), specifically those formed by the Navy, Army and Air Force from talent found amongst their own personnel. These entertainment units toured extensively in Canada, the United Kingdom and Europe with the goal of increasing the morale of combat troops while encouraging the enlistment of Canada's domestic populations in the war effort generally and the armed forces specifically. By focusing on male to female cross-dressing in the performances of these entertainment units and their pre-WWII antecedents, it will become clear that the nature and importance of the representation of femininity within the virtually all-male milieu that existed near the battlefront changed over time in response to the demands of the audiences. Until the second half of WWII, soldier audiences were generally unwilling to form any ideological links between cross-dressing and homosexuality. Female impersonators were the key cast members in troop shows during the Great War, but eventually fell out of favor in the last years of WWII after women were recruited in large numbers into the Canadian military and thus its entertainment infrastructure. With women then on the military stage, men who persisted in female impersonation were decreasingly popular with audiences, ultimately under growing suspicion of being homosexuals and gradually removed from the productions.

  17. Everything for the Lulz: Historical Memes and World War II Memory on Lurkomor’e

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makhortykh, M.

    2015-01-01

    The article explores interactions between digital media and cultural memory in post-Soviet countries by focusing on internet memes related to World War II. It introduces the concept of historical internet memes, which are groups of digital content units associated with a historical event or a

  18. U.S. Warrior Studies: Air Interdiction in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    transcript was published as Air Superiority in World War II and Korea (Washington: Office of Air Force History, 1983). A second interview was...you saý the situatiobi ig -right," what spec; icatly do you mecan ’? Vogt: ’I he tactical situation The weather hijs right. The eneimy Was Po’w

  19. Mustard gas and American race-based human experimentation in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    This essay examines the risks of racialized science as revealed in the American mustard gas experiments of World War II. In a climate of contested beliefs over the existence and meanings of racial differences, medical researchers examined the bodies of Japanese American, African American, and Puerto Rican soldiers for evidence of how they differed from whites.

  20. World War II in Ukrainian School History Textbooks: Mapping the Discourse of the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, Lina

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the conceptualisation of a textbook as a site of memory, a discourse and a genre. This paper investigates the semantic and linguistic elements of the discourse of World War II in Ukrainian school history textbooks for the 11th grade, centring on the following distinct key themes: the…

  1. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  2. Poetry and World War II: Creating Community through Content-Area Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Elizabeth E. G.; Nixon, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    Two educators and a classroom of fifth grade students integrated poetry writing into social studies curriculum focusing on World War II. Several strategies and approaches to writing poetry are highlighted including list poems, writing from photographs and artifacts, and two voice poems. The study culminated in a poetry reading and the creation of…

  3. Role Playing: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Noel C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a role playing exercise can be used to teach students in a college level history course about the use of the atomic bomb in World War II. Information is presented on general use of role playing in history courses, objectives, questions to consider about use of the atomic bomb, and course evaluation. For journal availability, see so…

  4. Baseball and World War II: A Study of the Landis-Roosevelt Correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percoco, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan using original documents of the wartime correspondence between President Franklin Roosevelt and baseball commissioner Kenesaw Landis. Explores the status of baseball during World War II to determine the importance of sports in U.S. culture. Includes background information and copies of the correspondence. (DK)

  5. Image Making and Personal Narratives with Japanese-American Survivors of World War II Internment Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Carleen; Kuwada, Kali; Potter, Penelope; Cameron, Danielle; Hoshino, Janice

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the verbal and art making responses of Japanese-American elders who experienced the trauma of internment during World War II. Six Nisei (second generation Japanese-Americans) were asked to recall memories of their experiences during and immediately following internment; 3 of the participants also created art images…

  6. Treatment of Japanese-American Internment During World War II in U.S. History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masato

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the treatment of Japanese-American internment during World War II in high school United States history textbooks. Four reasons highlight the selection of this topic for study. First, this historical event was selected because a little over a year ago was the 60th anniversary of President Franklin D.…

  7. Black Press Commentary on the Japanese Internment during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, James Phillip

    A study examined contemporary reactions of the Black American press to the relocation and internment of the Japanese and Japanese Americans during World War II. Noting that the Black American press has been an activist press since its inception in 1827, it was hypothesized that Black newspapers would editorialize against the internment of Japanese…

  8. The World War II Homefront: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as popular music from 1941-1945, propaganda directed towards women, and learning about Japanese American internment. (CMK)

  9. Enduring Lessons of Justice from the World War II Japanese American Internment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Roberts, Teresa A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1942, less than four months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent United States entry into World War II , nearly 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry living along the west coast of the United States were ordered to evacuate their homes and sent to internment camps. The evacuees, separated from their extended families, former…

  10. Mr. Yamamoto and Japanese Americans in New Jersey during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Relates the use of a period "Life" magazine article to teach students about the internment of Japanese-American citizens during World War II. Recounts how the article about local prejudice prompted students to critically examine the policy of internment. Provides excerpts from the article and subsequent letters to the editors. (DSK)

  11. The Depression and World War II as Seen through Country Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sheldon

    1985-01-01

    The social upheaval of the Great Depression and the U.S. reaction to World War II are analyzed to demonstrate how country music songs, artists, and composers can help students gain historical insights. Songs appropriate for studying these two topics in U.S. history are listed. (RM)

  12. Changing eating habits on the home front: Lost lessons from World War II research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.

    2002-01-01

    Programs intended to improve nutrition often fall short of expectations. One exception, however, occurred during the rationing years of World War II, when U.S. citizens were encouraged to incorporate protein-rich organ meats into their protein-deficient diets. Unfortunately,, most of tire insights r

  13. German Eagle vs. Russian Bear: A World War II Russian Front Boardgame Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatney, Louis R.

    This board game encourages junior and senior high school student analysis of the German campaign against the USSR and gauges student decision-making skills. The World War II Russo-German Front is simulated in a standard board game format. A key element of the game is its analysis and results form. Using this form compels students to analyze and…

  14. Powers of Persuasion--Poster Art of World War II. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Guns, tanks, and bombs were the principal weapons of World War II, but there were other, more subtle forms of warfare. Words, posters, and films waged a constant battle for the hearts and minds of the U.S. citizenry as military weapons engaged the enemy. Persuading the U.S. public became a wartime industry, almost as important as the manufacturing…

  15. The World War II Homefront: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as popular music from 1941-1945, propaganda directed towards women, and learning about Japanese American internment. (CMK)

  16. The Development of Secondary Education in Japan After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Shinjo; Hishimura, Yikihiko

    1983-01-01

    The basic pattern of contemporary secondary education in Japan, laid down immediately after World War II according to the American model of comprehensive high schools with elected school boards, has given way to a structure more in keeping with Japanese needs. However, coeducation has taken firm root in Japanese secondary schools. Major policy…

  17. Poetry and World War II: Creating Community through Content-Area Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Elizabeth E. G.; Nixon, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    Two educators and a classroom of fifth grade students integrated poetry writing into social studies curriculum focusing on World War II. Several strategies and approaches to writing poetry are highlighted including list poems, writing from photographs and artifacts, and two voice poems. The study culminated in a poetry reading and the creation of…

  18. Everything for the Lulz: Historical Memes and World War II Memory on Lurkomor’e

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makhortykh, M.

    2015-01-01

    The article explores interactions between digital media and cultural memory in post-Soviet countries by focusing on internet memes related to World War II. It introduces the concept of historical internet memes, which are groups of digital content units associated with a historical event or a person

  19. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  20. Desert Warfare: German Experiences in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    Accesion F Vr by NTIS CRA&M Major General Alfred Toppe U.-!annou;,ced L Ju st; fica lion By ........................ Di:,t ibution Avaiabii!y Code., Avail...British transportation in the Mediter - ranean. It is said that shortly after his arrival, he sighed: "Now it is clear to me that in conducting a war...Comnmand during the period froin February 19-1 to May 1943. a. kebruary-AMay 1941 The transportation of troops and supplies across the Mediter

  1. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  2. Late sequelae of retained foreign bodies after world war II missile injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Thermann, Florian; Behrmann, Curd; Spielmann, Rolf-Peter; Kornhuber, Malte

    2012-09-01

    A number of people injured during the second world war harbour foreign bodies such as grenade splinters or bullets in some part of the body. Most of these metal fragments remain clinically silent. Some of them, however, may cause delayed complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of delayed complications associated with foreign bodies after world war II injuries. 159 patients with retained foreign bodies after world war II injuries were retrospectively identified radiologically in our data bases in the time interval from 1997 to 2009. Diverse delayed complications secondary to the metal objects were diagnosed in 3 cases (2%): one patient with grenade splinter migration into the choledochal duct, one case with pseudotumoural tissue reaction, and one patient with late osteomyelitis. The time from injury to clinical presentation varied from 56 to 61 years. PubMed and Medline were screened for additional cases with delayed sequelae after foreign body acquisition during the 2nd world war. A 30 year search period from 1980 up to date was selected. 15 cases were identified here. Our study demonstrates that health consequences of the 2nd world war extend into the present time, and therefore physicians should be aware of the presence of hidden foreign bodies and their different possible late reactions.

  3. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945.

  4. Romania’s economic contribution to making a Long World War II shorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan GHEORGHE

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s participation in World War II was brought about by political reasons and strategic needs that resulted from the internationalpolitical situation at the middle of the twentieth century. One can hardly say that Romania did not do its best to avoid becoming involved in the war.From September 1939 to June 1941, the foreign policy laid focus on non-belligerency and neutrality. But eventually Romania was drawn in, too,right after the series of unfortunate events in the summer of 1940

  5. Neurosurgery in Würzburg until World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, H; Collmann, H

    2012-01-01

    The institution of German neurosurgery as an autonomous surgical specialty, starting in Würzburg in 1934, is closely linked to the names of Fritz König and Wilhelm Tönnis. They were acting at a time when the global economic crisis and a consolidating Nazi dictatorship caused a cascade of alarming changes in political and social life. On the one hand it is fascinating to see how the restless work and energy of Tönnis managed to build up the first independent neurosurgical unit in Germany and to tighten efficient international connections all over the world within a few years. On the other hand-from a present-day perspective-it is difficult to understand how his strive towards a specialist's success, in contrast to that of Otfrid Foerster, was barely affected by the threatening political development, until the Second World War stopped his plans and ideas for many years.

  6. Understanding Optimal Decision-making in War-gaming II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    at NPS. • Assumptions – Results of experimentation with available subject pool will be sufficient to provide insight into study issues . Methodology...Accomplished Goals Study 1 • 34 Officers completed: • Map Task. • Convoy Task. • Covariate Measures. • Synchronization of decision and EEG data...Large amounts of individual variability. Mean Total Damage Score (all participants). 8 October 2014 ODM II B-6 ODM II, Preliminary EEG results The

  7. Music for the injured soldier: a contribution of American women's military bands during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jill M

    2007-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the contributions of women's military bands in the United States to the reconditioning of the injured American troops during World War II. Primary and secondary sources revealed that these bands welcomed home hospital ships, performed for convalescing soldiers in hospitals, and provided music for hospital dances. While each of the bands investigated served in similar capacities, only one, the 403rd Women's Army Corps (WAC) Band, was stationed at a hospital. While entertainment by women's bands was an important part of the Army Reconditioning Program for the injured, the study also revealed a working partnership that developed between these musicians and the medical community. Sixty years after the war, band members believe their performances in hospitals were the most important contribution of their service. Some historians have concluded that music used in military hospitals during the war was the impetus for the music therapy profession.

  8. Crossroads. Life Changing Stories from the Second World War: A (Transmedia Storytelling Approach to World War II Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Calvi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crossroads is the name of the concept that narratively connects several WWII-related cultural institutions in Brabant. We were initially looking for ways to connect 4 otherwise very diverse World War II-related institutions (in fact, 3 museums and a commemoration centre and we found it in this overarching paradigm. Crossroads does not require museums to share their collection items. It offers them instead a tool to build and offer visitors a cohesive experience related to WWII heritage.  This experience is characterized by the specific focus into their WWII stories using storytelling that they can adopt. This paper will highlight the creative process that brought to the development of this concept and will discuss examples of the resulting transmedia narratives.

  9. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof.

  10. Rape in World War II film: comparing narrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzadevych, Tetyana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show how the filmmaker’s genre of choice shapes the main discourse of the film. The author compares Helke Sander’s documentary Liberators Take Liberties (1991-1992 and Max Farberbock’s narrative feature A Woman in Berlin (2008 both dealing with the dramatic effect of the end of WWII, in particular with the instances of German women having been raped by the Allied troops, a theme first publicized in the anonymous diary A Woman in Berlin (1953. There is a clear connection between the book and the two films, but if Sander focuses on the rape itself and on the extraordinary female experience of war, Farberbock is more concerned with cross-national revenge. The author looks closer at the genre elements, particularly at the genres of the diary, the (feminist documentary, and the narrative film. Then, the author draws some parallels between the Helke Sander film and the diary A Woman of Berlin and discusses the documentaries within the feminist framework inspired by Sander’s accomplishments.

  11. The decline in BMI among Japanese women after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka

    2015-07-01

    The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II.

  12. Fragmented testament: letters written by World War II resisters before their execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Anne; Lefer, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Psychoanalysis does not always take moral greatness as a given, a fact attributed by Horney to Freud's view of psychology as a natural science. The French psychiatrist Henri Baruk, however, attempts to bridge the gap between normative and empirical considerations by proposing a model based on the Biblical concept of tsedek, a Hebrew term for altruism coupled with a strong sense of justice. Those who possessed these qualities, Baruk argued, had a more highly developed sense of Self and Other. Consistent with Baruk's model, we argue that moral greatness may be defined as a high degree of moral consciousness combined with courage. Character qualities of World War II resisters, as revealed in a review of over 200 letters written to family and friends immediately before their execution, indicate a strong sense of Self and Other and an equilibrium between a sense of duty and an affective impulse. These qualities are seen in letters written by those engaged in a broad spectrum of resistance activity. The interpersonal quality of these letters; the concern for the suffering that their deaths will cause others; the efforts to reassure those left behind and even to impart useful information and instructions; and the gratitude expressed for large and small favors, all suggest that altruism is a marker for moral greatness, and that it is present even in those whose resistance activity might not at first be classified as altruistic.

  13. Teaching about the Moral Lessons of World War II and How to Integrate This into the Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. K.; Liuban, T. N.

    2011-01-01

    The Ninth of May 2010 marks the sixty-fifth anniversary of the Day of Victory in the Great War for the Fatherland (World War II). Although so much time has passed, the moral asset of this historical event remains large. The Russian people perceive this victory as a heroic symbol of the whole Fatherland, and its results and consequences are…

  14. Putting Their Lives on the Line: Personal Narrative as Political Discourse among Japanese Petitioners in American World War II Internment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Gail Y.

    2011-01-01

    One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…

  15. World War II never ended in my house: interviews of 12 Office of Strategic Services veterans of wartime espionage on the 50th anniversary of WW II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Susan

    2006-07-01

    The author conducted sociological interviews of 12 OSS spies (7 male, 5 female) who were operatives in France during World War II (WW II). The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) existed from 1941 to 1945 and was later renamed the CIA in 1947. This paper includes family studies of six close relatives of OSS vets and observation of 400 OSS veterans at the 50th anniversary of WW II. Three of the 12 OSS veterans who had been tortured by the Gestapo still suffered from PTSD-startle symptoms after 50 years; those three also suffered massive strokes in later life. The majority of OSS vets, regardless of gender, exhibited "war excitement" when talking about the war 50 years later. Most saw the war as the highpoint of their lives. War excitement needs more careful study within PTSD circles.

  16. Unknown history of Slovenian librarianship: Celje Public Library during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjetka Šelih

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate and present the activities of the Public Library in Celje during German occupation during World War II. The research is based on a survey of archival sources – relevant documents are available in Celje Historical Arcives (Zgodovinski arhiv Celje – ZAC. The article is divided in two parts, the first one presenting the condition of librarianship in Nazi Germany in general, and the second one focusing on a case study: the conditions of librarianship in occupied Slovenian city of Celje. The city was an important administrative, commercial, industrial, traffic and educational centre in the area of Styria during the occupation. Its library operated according to standards and models applied to libraries in Germany. This was reflected in the overall library operation: selection and processing of material, layout, employee selection and work with users. Public libraries were founded by individual municipalities or groups of municipalities, which took care of the operation of libraries. Special government advisory centres (Staatliche Volksbuechereistelle provided library’s additional materials. Consequently, libraries played an important role in dissemination of the German language and culture in new border areas, which was regarded as their major aim. War conditions did not deter users from visiting libraries and employee complaints about the lack of financial means were not recorded. Towards the end of the war only the lack of paper was noticed. Key words: Public libraries, World War II, occupation, German librarianship, Celje

  17. Thickening the Fog: The Truncation of Air Intelligence Since World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    II, each of the branches of the German military, the policy, the railway, civilians, and the Nazi Party were using their own variations of Enigma ... Enigma . Within the transportation campaign, ULTRA provided indications of the effects that Allied bombing was having on the operational capabilities and...target of ULTRA was the German Enigma machine, used throughout Germany to secure a majority of their communications. “By the beginning of World War

  18. The Last Act: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

    This text was to have been the script for the National Air and Space Museum's exhibition of the Enola Gay, focusing on the end of World War II and the decision of the United States to use of the atomic bomb. The Enola Gay was a B-29 aircraft that carried the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945. The atomic bomb brought a…

  19. Setting the Theater: US Sustainment Operations in the Pacific during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    of Victory (New York: Random House , 2013), 329. 45 Eccles, Logistics in the National Defense, 17. 46 Ibid, 22. 47 Logistics in World War II...1942.66 Meanwhile, MacArthur relocated to Melbourne , Australia to set up the Southwest Pacific Area (SWPA) headquarters and took control of US and Allied...1942, US port operations were designated at Darwin, Townsville, Brisbane, Melbourne , Adelaide, Cairns, and Sydney.84 Airfields in Australia were in the

  20. WOMEN POST OFFICE WORKERS IN BRITAIN: THE LONG STRUGGLE FOR GENDER EQUALITY AND THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF WORLD WAR II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark James Crowley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Britain during the Second World War, the Post Office constituted the single largest employer of women. Historically, the Post Office, like many other employers, had discriminated against women. During World War I, shortages of male labor had resulted in some opportunities for women at the Post Office, but the improvement had neither been comprehensive nor enduring. Unlike World War I, World War II, however, proved to a real turning point in the Post Office's personnel practices. By the end of the Second World War, while the Post Office still did not treat women workers completely equally (persisting, for instance, in gender-biased pay practices, management nevertheless had made strides in their treatment and perception of women workers. Post Office executives increasingly perceived women on the payroll not as temporary wartime employees, but as permanent employees, who would be just as essential peacetime as in war.

  1. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    thus diverting it from the city of Hilo , bardment) Wing, 16 Jun 1952-. 27 Dec 1935. Patrols over the Pacific, 8 STATIoNS. Camp Kelly, Tex, 16 Jun...to Guatemala, 7-12 Feb Camp Williams, Wis, 22 Jun 1942; Seda - 1938. Air defense for the Panama Canal, lia, Mo, 1o Sep 1942; Del Valle, Tex, 19 1922...Redesignated 26th At- STATIONS. Daniel Field, Ga, 1 Feb 1942; Harding Field, La, 8 Mar 1942; Camp Williams, Wis, 22 Jun 1942; Seda - lia, Mo, ii Sep 1942

  2. Understanding the Influence of Parkinson Disease on Adolf Hitler's Decision-Making during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline.

  3. Innovation in the Desert: 9th Air Force Tactical Aviation Logistics in Northwest Africa during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    INNOVATION IN THE DESERT: 9TH AIR FORCE TACTICAL AVIATION LOGISTICS IN NORTHWEST AFRICA DURING WORLD WAR II A thesis...From - To) AUG 2016 – JUN 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Innovation in the Desert: 9th Air Force Tactical Aviation Logistics in Northwest Africa...logistics,” historians have largely overlooked the study of air logistics during World War II. This is especially true of tactical aviation logistics

  4. WORLD WAR II THROUGH THE EYES OF TURKISH NOVELISTS / TÜRK ROMANCISININ GÖZÜYLE II. DÜNYA SAVASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Alev SINAR UĞURLU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available World War II started actually on 1st September1939 with the invasion of Poland by Germany, thenspread to almost the three fourths of the world with thepartaking of the states in the war such as England,France, Russia, Italy, Japan, and ended on 9th August1945 with the atomic bomb dropped by the USA onNagazaki. Due to the importance of its strategic location,Turkey was desired to partake in the war, but theRepublic of Turkey, adopting the principle “Peace athome, peace in the world”, refused to enter the war onthe condition that its territorial integrity would not bethreatened, and managed not to partake in this war byresisting to pressures made. However, although it did notenter the war, Turkey had to put up with great difficultiesduring those years, and there appeared an extremelynegative picture especially economically. Turkish writersregarded World War II as material for literature as theydid any other political and social events affecting thecountry deeply and considered it their duty to hand onthis historical period to next generations. The novelsmentioning World War II dealt with not only the state ofTurkey managing to stay “out of the stage” during thiswar, but also the situations of the states partaking in thewar such as Poland, Yugoslavia, England, France,Germany, Switzerland, Norway, and Russia and thepeople living in these countries.

  5. The Invasion of Iran by the Allies during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Erkan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When the Nazi Germany attacked the Soviets at the beginning of World War II, the USA, the UK and the Soviet Union took part on the same side and were called the Allies. In order to convey the military aid to the Soviets through Iran, the USA and the UK invaded Iran with the Soviets and dethroned Ahmad Reza Shah, who felt sympathy for Germany. By signing a treaty in 1942, they pledged to evacuate their troops from Iran six months after the war ended. They published a declaration that they would protect Iran’s territorial integrity as well as they repeated these decisions during the conference they made in Tehran in 1943. However; despite these decisions, a hidden rivalry began between the USSR and the West in Iran. The rivalry became very clear towards the end of the war. The Soviets wouldn’t withdraw from Iran. Additionally, they endeavored to divide Iran. The Iran crisis of 1946 between the West and the Soviets formed the start of the Cold War according to some people. As a country, Iran was highly affected by this process.

  6. Demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American troops of World War II: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.

  7. THE FAILURE OF COLLECTIVE SECURITY IN THE POST WORLD WARS I AND II INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEPH C. EBEGBULEM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The League of Nations and the United Nations Organization were two post-World War (World War I and World War II organizations established for the maintenance of peace and security in the international system. One of the cardinal objectives of these organizations was the promotion of a Collective Security System which was considered as vital in the pursuit of global peace and security. In other words, Collective Security is an institutional mechanism established to address a comprehensive list of major threats to peace and security around the world. With the escalation of conflicts and wars in different parts of the world, there is therefore the need for collective responses at global, regional and national levels in conflict situations. The achievement of collective security in the international system would be based on the principle that any attack on any member of the United Nations would be considered as an attack on all the members. After a panoramic discourse of the meaning and nature of Collective Security, the paper also examines the problems of collective security in the international system; its failure under the League of Nations and the United Nations. The paper concludes that the weaknesses inherent in the system do not make it unuseful as it is a relevant factor in the maintenance of international peace and security.

  8. World War II, tantalum, and the evolution of modern cranioplasty technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Patrick; Kshettry, Varun R; Benzel, Edward C

    2014-04-01

    Cranioplasty is a unique procedure with a rich history. Since ancient times, a diverse array of materials from coconut shells to gold plates has been used for the repair of cranial defects. More recently, World War II greatly increased the demand for cranioplasty procedures and renewed interest in the search for a suitable synthetic material for cranioprostheses. Experimental evidence revealed that tantalum was biologically inert to acid and oxidative stresses. In fact, the observation that tantalum did not absorb acid resulted in the metal being named after Tantalus, the Greek mythological figure who was condemned to a pool of water in the Underworld that would recede when he tried to take a drink. In clinical use, malleability facilitated a single-stage cosmetic repair of cranial defects. Tantalum became the preferred cranioplasty material for more than 1000 procedures performed during World War II. In fact, its use was rapidly adopted in the civilian population. During World War II and the heyday of tantalum cranioplasty, there was a rapid evolution in prosthesis implantation and fixation techniques significantly shaping how cranioplasties are performed today. Several years after the war, acrylic emerged as the cranioplasty material of choice. It had several clear advantages over its metallic counterparts. Titanium, which was less radiopaque and had a more optimal thermal conductivity profile (less thermally conductive), eventually supplanted tantalum as the most common metallic cranioplasty material. While tantalum cranioplasty was popular for only a decade, it represented a significant breakthrough in synthetic cranioplasty. The experiences of wartime neurosurgeons with tantalum cranioplasty played a pivotal role in the evolution of modern cranioplasty techniques and ultimately led to a heightened understanding of the necessary attributes of an ideal synthetic cranioplasty material. Indeed, the history of tantalum cranioplasty serves as a model for innovative

  9. Transnational Debts: The Cultural Memory of Navajo Code Talkers in World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Däwes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Even 70 years after it ended, World War II continues to endure in the global imagination. In the United States, images of the “Good War” prevail, and memories of the soldiers have been widely translated into displays of national heroism and glorification. At the same time, the celebratory narrative of national unity and democratic triumph is undercut by the counter-histories and experiences of the 44,000 Native American soldiers who served in this war. Their experiences and memories—in oral histories, interviews, as well as in fiction and film—challenge the narrative of a glorious nation in unison, especially in light of the historical conflicts between American nationalism and Native American political sovereignty. This paper investigates the specific memorial debt owed to the Navajo Code Talkers of World War II. Focusing on John Woo’s film Windtalkers (2002, Joseph Bruchac’s novel Code Talker (2005, and Chester Nez’s memoir Code Talker (2011, I will inquire into the field of tension between tribal, national, and transnational identities and explore the ways in which these tensions are negotiated at different sites of commemoration, especially in contrast to the distorted, consumer-oriented memory produced by the Hollywood industry. Through codes of orality, communal identity, and historicity, I argue, counter-strategies of narrating and remembering World War II not only decisively shape a revisionist writing of recent history and enrich the multicultural narrative of ‘America’ by Indigenous voices, but they also substantially contribute to current debates about transnational American identities.

  10. Men’s Appraisals of Their Military Experiences in World War II: A 40-Year Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settersten, Richard A.; Day, Jack; Elder, Glen H.; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Using data on veterans from the longitudinal Harvard Study of Adult Development (N=241), we focused on subjective aspects of military service. We examined how veterans of World War II appraised specific dimensions of military service directly after the war and over 40 years later, as well as the role of military service in their life course. In addition to examining change in appraisals, we examined how postwar appraisals of service mediated the effects of objective aspects of service, and how postwar psychological adjustment and health mediated the effects of postwar appraisals, on later-life appraisals. Men’s appraisals at both time points were generally, but not highly, positive, and revealed remarkable consistency over four decades. Postwar appraisals strongly predicted later-life appraisals and mediated the effects of objective service variables. The effects of postwar appraisals were not carried forward through psychological adjustment or midlife health. Better adjustment, however, was negatively related to later-life appraisals. Results reinforce the idea that how men perceive their military experiences may be more important in predicting outcomes than the experiences themselves. Results are discussed in light of the sample characteristics, the historical context of World War II, and the complexities of appraisal and retrospection. PMID:23284272

  11. Men's Appraisals of Their Military Experiences in World War II: A 40-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settersten, Richard A; Day, Jack; Elder, Glen H; Waldinger, Robert J

    2012-07-01

    Using data on veterans from the longitudinal Harvard Study of Adult Development (N=241), we focused on subjective aspects of military service. We examined how veterans of World War II appraised specific dimensions of military service directly after the war and over 40 years later, as well as the role of military service in their life course. In addition to examining change in appraisals, we examined how postwar appraisals of service mediated the effects of objective aspects of service, and how postwar psychological adjustment and health mediated the effects of postwar appraisals, on later-life appraisals. Men's appraisals at both time points were generally, but not highly, positive, and revealed remarkable consistency over four decades. Postwar appraisals strongly predicted later-life appraisals and mediated the effects of objective service variables. The effects of postwar appraisals were not carried forward through psychological adjustment or midlife health. Better adjustment, however, was negatively related to later-life appraisals. Results reinforce the idea that how men perceive their military experiences may be more important in predicting outcomes than the experiences themselves. Results are discussed in light of the sample characteristics, the historical context of World War II, and the complexities of appraisal and retrospection.

  12. Trauma and post-traumatic stress symptoms in former German child soldiers of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwert, Philipp; Spitzer, Carsten; Rosenthal, Jenny; Freyberger, Harald J

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the amount of trauma impact and significant post-traumatic stress symptoms, which can indicate a possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in a sample of former German child soldiers of World War II. 103 participants were recruited through the press, then administered a modified Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Subjects reported a high degree of trauma exposure, with 4.9% reporting significant post-traumatic stress symptoms after WW II, and 1.9% reporting that these symptoms persist to the present. In line with other studies on child soldiers in actual conflict settings, our data document a high degree of trauma exposure during war. Surprisingly, the prevalence of significant post-traumatic stress symptoms indicating a possible PTSD was low compared to other groups of aging, long-term survivors of war trauma. Despite some limitations our data highlight the need for further studies to identify resilience and coping factors in traumatized child soldiers.

  13. Governing the grapevine: the study of rumor during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Cathy

    2007-02-01

    Throughout the early 1940s, a host of rumors relating to the Second World War began to circulate, leading the government to establish various committees and undertake multiple projects intended to counteract rumors that were believed to threaten civilian morale and compromise national security. Simultaneously, social scientists also began taking measures to study and combat rumor. Such efforts included the institution of several community groups, deemed "rumor clinics," that aimed to decrease the prevalence of wartime rumor by educating the general public. This article outlines the rise and fall of rumor clinics, focusing specifically on the shifting boundaries and the mounting tensions between the United States government and social scientists in the study of rumor during World War II.

  14. Burns and frostbite in the Red Army during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Vladimir; Biryukov, Alexey; Chmyrev, Igor; Tarasenko, Mikhail; Kabanov, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    The start of World War II (WWII) led to the deployment of combat troops in several continents. Destruction and many casualties among both the military and civilians became an inevitable consequence. A large amount of people injured were in need of life-saving treatment and a speedy return to duty. Intensive studies of the specific issues of diagnosis and treatment of thermal injury were conducted in the Soviet Union before the war. The first special units for patients with burn injuries were created, and the first specialists received their first clinical experience. The contributions of famous Soviet scientists in the development of the treatment of burns and frostbite in WWII are studied in this article. The structure of thermal injuries among military personnel and the results of their treatment are shown. Treatment, classification and quantity frostbite in the structure of sanitary losses during the WWII are studied in this article.

  15. Marking Time: Women and Nazi Propaganda Art during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara McCloskey

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available "Marking Time" considers the relative scarcity of woman's image in Nazi propaganda posters during World War II. This scarcity departs from the ubiquity of women in paintings and sculptures of the same period. In the fine arts, woman served to solidify the "Nazi myth" and its claim to the timeless time of an Aryan order simultaneously achieved and yet to come. Looking at poster art and using Ernst Bloch's notion of the nonsynchronous, this essay explores the extent to which women as signifiers of the modern – and thus as markers of time – threatened to expose the limits of this Nazi myth especially as the regime's war effort ground to its catastrophic end.

  16. Farm Hall and the German atomic project of World War II a dramatic history

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David C

    2017-01-01

    This gripping book brings back to life the events surrounding the internment of ten German Nuclear Scientists immediately after World War II. It is also an "eye-witness" account of the dawning of the nuclear age, with the dialogue and narrative spanning the period before, during and after atomic bombs were dropped on Japan at the end of the war. This pivotal historical episode is conveyed, along with the emotions as well as the facts, through drama, historical narrative, and photographs of the captive German nuclear scientists - who included Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn, and Max von Laue. The unique story that unfolds in the play is based on secretly recorded transcripts of the scientists’ actual conversations at Farm Hall, together with related documents and photographs.

  17. German Emergency Care in Neurosurgery and Military Neurology during World War II, 1939-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    A critical analysis of the historical involvement of neurology and neurosurgery in military emergency care services enables us to better contextualize and appreciate the development of modern neurology at large. Wartime neurosurgery and civil brain science during the German Nazi period tightly coalesced in examining the specific injury types, which military neurosurgeons such as Wilhelm Toennis, Klaus Joachim Zuelch, and Georg Merrem encountered and treated based on their neurophysiological understanding gained from earlier peacetime research. Collaborative associations with Dr. Toennis in particular proved to be highly beneficial to other military neurologists and neurosurgeons during World War II and beyond. This article also discusses the prewar developments and considers the fate of German neurosurgeons and military neurologists after the war. The envisaged dynamic concepts of fast action, reaction, and recycling, which contemporary physicians had intensively studied in the preceding scientific experiments in their neurophysiological laboratories, had already been introduced into neurological surgery during the interwar period. In retrospect, World War II emergency rescue units greatly strengthened military operations through an active process of 'recycling' indispensable army personnel. Neurosurgical emergency chains thereby introduced another decisive step in the modernization of warfare, in that they increased the momentum of military mobility in the field. Notwithstanding the violence of warfare and the often inhumane ways in which such knowledge in the field of emergency neurology was gained, the protagonists among the group of experts in military neurology and neurosurgery strongly contributed to the postwar clinical neuroscience community in Germany. In differing political pretexts, this became visible in both East Germany and West Germany after the war, while the specific military and political conditions under which this knowledge of emergency medicine

  18. Responses to occupational and environmental exposures in the U.S. military--World War II to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Erin E

    2011-07-01

    Since the Civil War, a proportion of U.S. service members continues to return from war with new health problems and continues to reference battlefield exposures as the cause. Hence, one of the most pressing public health debates in military policy, the determination of causality and linking of battlefield exposures to health outcomes in veterans, continues. The advances in military environmental and occupational epidemiologic research and Department of Defense policy concerning battlefield exposures are summarized and examples from World War II through the first Gulf War are provided. The limitations associated with the unique battlefield environment, multiple environmental exposures, and the inherent stresses of war, beget challenges for researchers responsible for determining causality. In light of these difficulties, six strategies for addressing environmental exposures and their possible impact on veterans were recommended by the Institute of Medicine post Operation Desert Storm. These strategies, along with their respective progress and remaining gaps, are addressed.

  19. Child protection and adult depression: evaluating the long-term consequences of evacuating children to foster care during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, Nina; Santavirta, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    This paper combined data collected from war time government records with survey data including background characteristics, such as factors that affected eligibility, to examine the adult depression outcomes of individuals who were evacuated from Finland to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II. Using war time government records and survey data for a random sample of 723 exposed individuals and 1321 matched unexposed individuals, the authors conducted least squares adjusted means comparison to examine the association between evacuation and adult depression (Beck Depression Inventory). The random sample was representative for the whole population of evacuees who returned to their biological families after World War II. The authors found no statistically significant difference in depressive symptoms during late adulthood between the two groups; for example, the exposed group had a 0.41 percentage points lower average Beck Depression Inventory score than the unexposed group (p = 0.907). This study provides no support for family disruption during early childhood because of the onset of sudden shocks elevating depressive symptoms during late adulthood. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. REVIEW OF GERMANY S WAR OF OIL DURING WORLD WAR II%德国在二战中的石油战述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞媛媛

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes Germany' s sources of oil during World War II, the major factors affecting its oil supply in the early days of the war and the constraints on German military operations due to its lack of oil sup- ply and so on. It also elaborates the important role oil plays during the war in a country.%分析了二战中德国石油的来源、战争初期影响其石油供应的主要因素、石油供应不足对德国军事行动的制约等,论述了石油在国家战争行为中的重要作用。

  1. American Physicists, Nuclear Weapons in World War II, and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2005-06-01

    Social responsibility in science has a centuries-long history, but it was such a minor thread that most scientists were unaware of the concept. Even toward the conclusion of the Manhattan Project, which produced the first nuclear weapons, only a handful of its participants had some reservations about use of a weapon of mass destruction. But the explosions over Hiroshima and Nagasaki not only made society more aware of the importance of science, they made scientists more aware of their responsibility to society. I describe the development of the concept of social responsibility and its appearance among American scientists both before and after the end of World War II.

  2. Image compression evaluation for digital cinema: the case of Star Wars: Episode II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuelle, David L.

    2003-05-01

    A program of evaluation of compression algorithms proposed for use in a digital cinema application is described and the results presented in general form. The work was intended to aid in the selection of a compression system to be used for the digital cinema release of Star Wars: Episode II, in May 2002. An additional goal was to provide feedback to the algorithm proponents on what parameters and performance levels the feature film industry is looking for in digital cinema compression. The primary conclusion of the test program is that any of the current digital cinema compression proponents will work for digital cinema distribution to today's theaters.

  3. [Brazilian Army nurses and transportation of the wounded: a challenge faced during World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded.

  4. Microcosms of democracy: imagining the city neighborhood in World War II-era America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This essay sketches the rise of a Popular Front-inflected vision of the U.S. city neighborhood's meaning and worth, a communitarian ideal that reached its zenith during World War II before receding in the face of cold-war anxieties, postwar suburbanization, and trepidation over creeping blight. During the war years, numerous progressives interpreted the ethnic-accented urban neighborhood as place where national values became most concrete, casting it as a uniquely American rebuff to the fascist drive for purity. Elaborations appeared in the popular press's celebratory cadences, in writings by educators and social scientists such as Rachel DuBois and Louis Wirth, and in novels, plays, and musicals by Sholem Asch, Louis Hazam, Kurt Weill, Langston Hughes, and others. Each offered new ways for making sense of urban space, yet their works reveal contradictions and uncertainties, particularly in an inability to meld competing impulses toward assimilation and particularism. Building on the volume's theme "The Arts in Place," this essay examines these texts as a collective form of imaginative "placemaking." It explores the conflicted mode of liberal nationalism that took the polyglot city neighborhood as emblem. And it outlines the fissures embedded in that vision, which emerged more fully as the provisional wartime consensus dissolved.

  5. THE APPLICATION OF RADAR IN THE UDF DURING WORLD WAR II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.B. Vlok

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of large decisive campaigns and wars, and more so when opposing forces are clearly defined, appearing on a massive scale, conventional weapons and methods of warfare are produced in enormous quantities, to be used by every able-bodied person available; this because every war holds the threat that a state of attrition will be reached when superiority in numbers will tip the scales. To bolster morale, to minimise what is indeed a fateful attitude, a great deal of effort and energy is devoted to developing the secret weapon, the one that will more than restore the balance. Such were in their time: ballistae, the short sword, bows and arrows, gunpowder, breech loading rifles, machine guns, submarines, aerial bombs, tanks, and poison gas. The World War II crop was roughly: Blitzkrieg, radar, V.-type bombs and the atomic bomb. Great leaps ahead like these, in advance of current practice, were the fruits of labour by devoted and untrammelled "Backroom Boys". They produced the strategic ideas and material which were then handed over to the combat forces to exploit tactically. With a strong element of secrecy and national security ever-present, it was invariably necessary to create new units in the field for such exploitation, rather than to extend the functions of existing organisations. It is against this background that the development of radar in the South African Armed Forces must be seen.

  6. World War II Mobilization in Men’s Work Lives: Continuity or Disruption for the Middle Class?1

    OpenAIRE

    Dechter, Aimée R.; Elder, Glen H.

    2004-01-01

    The labor needs of World War II fueled a growing demand for both military and war industry personnel. This longitudinal study investigates mobilization into these competing activities and their work life effects among men from the middle class. Hazard estimates show significant differences in wartime activities across occupations, apart from other deferment criteria. By war’s end, critical employment, in contrast to military service, is positively associated with supervisory responsibility fo...

  7. Sekhukhune II and the Pedi Operations ofthe Anglo-Boer War, 1899-1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Malunga

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt will be made to demonstrate how the Pedi under the leadership of Sekhukhune II took advantage of wartime conditions during the Anglo - Boer War to reshape the pattern of colonial relations imposed on them by the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, to attempt to re-establish the dominance of the Sekhukhune House in the eastern Transvaal and to negotiate favourable terms with the occupying British military forces once the ZAR was defeated.It will also be shown that often Sekhukhune II deliberately followed a policy of not eliminating republican govemment officials, Boer farmers and their families as well as the Berlin missionaries in order not to antagonise the British and Boer military authorities against him. However, Sekhukhune II subjected all these groups to frequent harassment. Another primary aim of Sekhukhune II was to concentrate on punishing "sell-out usurpers" of the Pedi paramountcy who had betrayed the Pedi polity by pledging allegiance to Abel Erasmus, the Native Commissioner, who had represented Boer hegemony over the Pedi between 1881 and 1899.Again, Sekhukhune II punished Pedi Christian converts of the Berlin missionary society who had abandoned and undermined Pedi traditions and culture by converting and adhering to Christian principles. In this respect, a number of Berlin mission stations became battlefields of the warring Pedi factions. In the process these mission stations were neutralised as centres of the Berlin missionary activities. It was only after 1902 that attempts were made by the missionary authorities to rebuild these mission stations.

  8. Different Places, Different Ideas: Reimagining Practice in American Psychiatric Nursing After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie M

    2018-01-01

    In 1952, Hildegard Peplau published her textbook Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. This was the same year the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1st ed.; DSM-I; APA). These events occurred in the context of a rapidly changing policy and practice environment in the United States after World War II, where the passing of the National Mental Health Act in 1946 released vast amounts of funding for the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the development of advanced educational programs for the mental health professions including nursing. This article explores the work of two nurse leaders, Hildegard Peplau and Dorothy Mereness, as they developed their respective graduate psychiatric nursing programs and sought to create new knowledge for psychiatric nursing that would facilitate the development of advanced nursing practice. Both nurses had strong ideas about what they felt this practice should look like and developed distinct and particular approaches to their respective programs. This reflected a common belief that it was only through nurse-led education that psychiatric nursing could shape its own practice and control its own future. At the same time, there are similarities in the thinking of Peplau and Mereness that demonstrate the link between the specific social context of mental health immediately after World War II and the development of modern psychiatric nursing. Psychiatric nurses were able to gain significant control of their own education and practice after the war, but this was not without a struggle and some limitations, which continue to impact on the profession today.

  9. [Anaesthesiology in the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkiewicz, Aleksander; Duda, Izabela; Musioł, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    Until the outbreak of WW II, anaesthesiology, as a separate specialty, did not exist in Poland. After the fall of Poland, a large section of the Polish Armed Forces was evacuated to France and after that, to the UK, where Polish military physicians had a unique opportunity to obtain training in modern anaesthesia. The first regular courses were established at the University of Edinburgh. After WW II, doctor Stanisław Pokrzywnicki, a pioneer of Polish anaesthesiology, who was trained by Sir Robert Macintosh, and doctor Bolesław Rutkowski, an anaesthesiologist in London, returned to Poland and started regular services. This led to the registering of anaesthesiology as a separate specialty in 1951. In the article, the wartime and post-war stories of the first Polish anaesthesiologists are presented.

  10. 20 CFR 404.111 - When we consider a person fully insured based on World War II active military or naval service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on World War II active military or naval service. 404.111 Section 404.111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... States during World War II; (b) The person died within three years after separation from service and... Quarters of Coverage Fully Insured Status § 404.111 When we consider a person fully insured based on...

  11. Meteorologists from the University of Tokyo: Their Exodus to the United States Following World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John M.

    1993-07-01

    The emigration of 11 young Japanese meteorologists to the United States following World War II is investigated. Their move is examined with the benefit of a historical backdrop that includes a study of the socioeconomic conditions in Japan and the education that they received at the University of Tokyo. Oral histories and letters of reminiscence from these scientists are used with standard source material to reconstruct the conditions of postwar Japan. The principal results of the study are that 1) these scientists were among the intellectual elite, because of the rigorous screening process in the Japanese educational system; 2) their scientific education was fundamentally grounded in traditional physics and a wide range of geophysical sciences; 3) they all experienced austere living conditions and poor job prospects in the war-torn Japanese economy; and 4) they made a strong scientific connection with U.S. researchers in the areas of numerical experimentation and numerical weather prediction, which facilitated their move to the United States.

  12. Science with a vengeance: How the Military created the US Space Sciences after World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devorkin, David H.

    The exploration of the upper atmosphere was given a jump start in the United States by German V-2 rockets - Hitler's "vengeance weapon" - captured at the end of World War II. The science performed with these missiles was largely determined by the missile itself, such as learning more about the medium through which a ballistic missile travels. Groups rapidly formed within the military and military-funded university laboratories to build instruments to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere, the nature of cosmic radiation, and the ultraviolet spectrum of the Sun. Few, if any, members of these research groups had prior experience or demonstrated interests in atmospheric, cosmic-ray, or solar physics. Although scientific agendas were at first centered on what could be done with missiles and how to make ballistic missile systems work, reports on techniques and results were widely publicized as the research groups and their patrons sought scientific legitimacy and learned how to make their science an integral part of the national security state. The process by which these groups gained scientific and institutional authority was far from straightforward and offers useful insight both for the historian and for the scientist concerned with how specialties born within the military services became part of post-war American science.

  13. Half a Man: The Symbolism and Science of Paraplegic Impotence in World War II America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Beth; Laemmli, Whitney

    2015-01-01

    At the conclusion of the Second World War, more than 600,000 men returned to the United States with long-term disabilities, profoundly destabilizing the definitions, representations, and experiences of male sexuality in America. By examining an oft-neglected 1950 film, The Men, along with medical, personal, and popular accounts of impotence in paralyzed World War II veterans, this essay excavates the contours of that change and its attendant anxieties. While previous scholarship on film and sexuality in the postwar period has focused on women's experiences, we broaden the analytical lens to provide a fuller picture of the various meanings of male sexuality, especially disabled heterosexuality. In postwar America, the paralyzed veteran created a temporary fissure in conventional discussions of the gendered body, a moment when the "normality" and performative features of the male body could not be assumed but rather had to be actively defined. To many veterans, and to the medical men who treated them, sexual reproduction--not function-became the ultimate signifier of remasculinization.

  14. A Study in Leadership: The 761st Tank Battalion and the 92d Division in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-02

    Mifflin Co., 1972. Buchanan, A. Russell. Black Americans in World War II. Santa Barbara, CA: Clio Press, 1977 Cartwright , Dorwin and Alvin Zander. Group...Army, FM 22-100 Leadership (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 1990), 9. 2Dorwin Cartwright and Alvin Zander, Group Dynamics: Research and Theory

  15. A Comparative Study of the Current Situation on Teaching about World War II in Japanese and American Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, James L.

    1992-01-01

    Compares questionnaire results sent to elementary and secondary school teachers in Indiana and Japan. Surveys how and what is taught about World War II. Reports teachers in the United States concentrate more on Europe, Pearl Harbor, and fascism, whereas Japanese teachers are more concerned with Pacific theater. Concludes Japanese teach peace…

  16. Documents Related to Churchill and FDR. The Constitution Community: The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tom

    During World War II, a close friendship and excellent working relations developed between President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) and Prime Minister Winston Churchill that were crucial in the establishment of a unified effort to deal with the Axis powers. In early 1941, FDR began the long-term correspondence that developed into a close working…

  17. America in World War II: An Analysis of History Textbooks from England, Japan, Sweden, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stuart; Nicholls, Jason

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how textbooks from England, Japan, Sweden, and the United States portray America's role in World War II. Analysis of the central story lines revealed that historical information purveyed to students in different nations varies considerably. Accordingly, U.S. textbooks emphasize the significant and pre-eminent role that the…

  18. Transmission patterns of smallpox: Systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bhatnagar (Vibha); M.A. Stoto (Michael); S.C. Morton (Sally); R. Boer (Rob); S.A. Bozzette (Samuel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Because smallpox (variola major) may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods: A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library o

  19. Transmission patterns of smallpox: Systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bhatnagar (Vibha); M.A. Stoto (Michael); S.C. Morton (Sally); R. Boer (Rob); S.A. Bozzette (Samuel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Because smallpox (variola major) may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods: A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library o

  20. From Technical Assistants to Critical Thinkers: The Journey to World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Michelle; Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2014-01-01

    A review of professional literature was conducted to examine the history of the education of medical laboratory practitioners. This comprehensive review included historical educational milestones from the birth of medical technology to the advent of World War II. During this time period standards were developed by clinical pathologists for laboratory personnel and training programs. In addition, a formal educational model began to form and by the 1940's two years of college was required for matriculation into a medical technology program. Intertwined within the educational milestones are imprints of the evolution of critical thinking requirements and skills within the profession. For the first laboratory practitioners, critical thinking was not developed, discussed, or encouraged as duties were primarily repetitive promoting psychomotor skills.

  1. The ten most important changes in psychiatry since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micale, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Writing the recent history of a subject is notoriously difficult because of the lack of perspective and impartiality. One way to gain insight and understanding into the recent past of a discipline of knowledge is to consult directly the living practitioners who actually experienced first-hand the major changing circumstances in the discipline during the period under study. This article seeks to explore the most significant changes occurring in Western, and especially American, psychiatry from the end of World War II up to the present by interrogating a representative selection of psychiatrists and psychologists about the subject. Over a three-year period, the author surveyed approximately 200 mental health experts on their perceptions of change in the world of psychiatric theory and practice during this enormously eventful 70-year period. After presenting the survey results, the article then attempts to analyse the answers that the author did (and did not) obtain from his poll-taking subjects.

  2. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille...

  3. The Role of Counterintelligence in the European Theater of Operations During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-04

    CIC vs Naziism , (Office of the Assistance Chief of Staff, G2, 24 November 1944), 5. 5 US War Department, Headquarters, 1st Infantry Division, CIC...Operations in Aachen and Vicinity (Undated), 2. 6US War Department, Headquarters, VII Corps, CIC vs Naziism , 5. 7 US War Department, General Board Study...Corps, CIC vs Naziism , 5. 9 US War Department, General Board Study Number 13, Organization and Operation of the Counter-Intelligence Corps in the

  4. Review Article: Inventing Historical Myths—Deborah S. Cornelius. Hungary in World War II. Caught in the Cauldron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pastor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the validity of Deborah S. Cornelius’s claims which she presents in her recently published book on interwar and World War II Hungary. These exonerate the revisionist, anti-Semitic and war-time policies of the Horthy regime. The monograph also presents the Hungarian leaders in an undeservedly positive light. The author of the review demonstrates that Cornelius’s representation of the past was accomplished by the selective reading of primary and secondary sources. Cornelius also commits too many factual errors in order to justify some of her assertions.

  5. Choke Hold: The Attack on Japanese Oil In World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    the Sino-Japanese War, gaining control over Formosa and Korea. Their next major conflict, the Ruso -Japanese War, vaulted Japan into the first rank...from England, naval artillery from Krupp, and using British naval officers to start the naval academy at Etajima. In the Ruso -Japanese War, the

  6. Coping with War: KGST 'Radio' and Other Media Strategies of Civilian Internees in the Philippines in World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Enriquez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the almost 4,000 internees, mostly American, at the Santo Tomas Internment Camp (University of Santo Tomas campus shows how the media may help tide people through even the most difficult conditions. Thrown into confinement during the Second World War from January 1942 to February 1945, the internees built a community that struggled to sustain itself through self-government and the management of everyday necessities such as food, health and sanitation and other resources, as well as the performance of normal activities like educating the young and organizing recreational activities. Communication among the internees, the need for which was heightened by the conditions of war and the uncertainty brought about by incarceration, was aided by camp newspapers until paper became scarce in mid-1942. A makeshift radio station soon replaced the newspaper, which the internees fondly called KGST. While not a broadcast station in the technical sense of the word, it served the important function of keeping morale high until the internees were freed towards the end of the war.

  7. Medical Care for Interned Enemy Aliens: A Role for the US Public Health Service in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiset, Louis

    2003-01-01

    During World War II, the US Public Health Service (USPHS) administered health care to 19 000 enemy aliens and Axis merchant seamen interned by the Justice Department through its branch, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The Geneva Prisoners of War Convention of 1929, which the United States applied to civilian internees, provided guidelines for belligerent nations regarding humanitarian treatment of prisoners of war, including for their health. The INS forged an agreement with the USPHS to meet these guidelines for the German, Italian, and Japanese internees and, in some cases, their families. Chronic shortages and crowded camps continuously challenged USPHS administrators. Nevertheless, the USPHS offered universal access to care and provided treatment often exceeding care received by many American citizens. PMID:14534217

  8. Pre-World War II Romania from Latvian Perspective: An Envoy's views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ēriks Jēkabsons

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The paper approaches the working environment and observations of Latvian envoy Ludvigs Ēķis in Romania from the autumn of 1939 when the Latvian Legation was opened in Bucharest until the summer of 1940 when the State of Latvia was liquidated. The main focus is on the Latvian-Romanian relations in this period of time, the Romanian foreign and economical policy and the reaction of Romanian statesmen and society to the events and processes of the first stage of World War: the policy of Soviet Union, Germany and Hungary, the Soviet-Finnish War and other conflicts in region and in Europe. The article is based on the materials stored in the State Archives of Latvia and particularly on Ludvigs Ekis’ reports. In a time when war was raging in Europe, Romania, too, was subject to considerable international pressure. Some similarities can be detected between the developments in this region and in the Baltic States.Rezumat:Lucrarea abordează mediul de lucru şi observaţiile ministrului leton în România Ludvigs Ēķis începând din toamna anului 1939, cand Legaţia letonă a fost deschisă la Bucureşti, până în vara anului 1940, când statul leton a fost lichidat. Lucrarea se va concentra în principal asupra relaţiilor letono-române în această perioadă de timp, asupra politicii externe şi a celei economice, a reacţiei oamenilor de stat şi a societăţii româneşti faţă de evenimente şi procese desfăşurate în prima etapă a primului război mondial: politicile Uniunii Sovietice, Germaniei şi Ungariei, Războiul sovieto-finlandez şi alte conflicte regionale şi europene. Articolul se bazează pe materiale păstrate în arhivele de stat din Letonia şi în special pe rapoartele lui Ludvigs Ēķis. Într-un moment în care războiul făcea ravagii în Europa, România a fost, de asemenea, supusă unor presiuni internaţionale considerabile. Unele similitudini pot fi detectate între evoluţiile din această regiune

  9. Pykrete is the frozen composite material of the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kovalev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the war, government of the allies considered the construction of ice structures converted from artificial icebergs into aircraft carriers. The idea to use ice for construction of floating aerodromes, or giant aircraft carriers, was launched by Geoffrey Pyke, and then was developed in a project called «Habbakuk». Aircraft carriers, made of ice, had to work for a long period of time at temperatures of water and air, resulting in rapid destruction of the structure of ordinary ice. The ice in its pure form is unsuitable for any engineering form therefore the experiments on reinforcement of ice were undertaken. New form of ice engineering was based on the type of reinforcement patterns of ice and coating it with an insulating material, which would greatly reduce the influence of melting due to the temperature of the ambient air. After tests with different substances and proportions, it was found that the mixture of ice with wood pulp, amounting to about 14%, gives the best result of reinforcement. Proposed dimensions of «Habbakuk» were 610 m (2000 ft long, 90 m (300 feet in width and a height of 60 m (200 ft. In 1943, on the surface of the lake Patricia a reduced model to test the viability of the project was constructed. Development of improved long-range aviation, the airbase in Iceland and other technological advances contributed to the successful elimination of the threat from submarines, so the project had been suspended. The technology of strong ice structures invented during the World War II time can still have practical applications today.

  10. [Development of pharmacy in the Leskovac region for the period from liberation from the Turks until World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Petar; Milić, Slavica

    2013-01-01

    From the historical point of view, there are three time periods when the process of modernization of Serbian society took place. First period includes the interval from the beginning of the 19th century until the end of World War I, when the Serbian country was reestablished as Serbian Knezevina (princedom) and in 1882 as Serbian Kingdom. Second period includes an interval from the unity of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians, which was established at the end of World War I (1918) and in 1929 changed the name into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which lasted until the end of World War II. The third period includes time after World War II. In this paper, the social-economical conditions in the Leskovac area during the first two periods of modernization were described, as well as the pharmacy development emphasizing the characteristic of the pharmaceutics. The Leskovac area belongs to most recently liberated areas in Serbia, i.e. Leskovac was liberated at the end of 1877. Nevertheless, the first pharmacy was opened in Leskovac in 1862, during the reign of the Turks. The authors being the people from Leskovac as well as the pharmacists believe that they contributed to better overview of the activities of people from modernization period, paying them well-deserved recognition.

  11. Breast cancer incidence in food- vs non-food-producing areas in Norway: possible beneficial effects of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robsahm, Trude Eid; Tretli, S

    2002-02-01

    It has been suggested that World War II influenced breast cancer risk among Norwegian women by affecting adolescent growth. Diet changed substantially during the war, and the reduction in energy intake was assumed to be larger in non-food-producing than in food-producing municipalities. In the present study, we have looked at the influence of residential history in areas with and without food production on the incidence of breast cancer in a population-based cohort study consisting of 597,906 women aged between 30 and 64 years. The study included 7311 cases of breast cancer, diagnosed between 1964 and 1992. The risk estimates were calculated using a Poisson regression model. The results suggest that residential history may influence the risk of breast cancer, where the suggested advantageous effect of World War II seems to be larger in non-food-producing than in food-producing areas. Breast cancer incidence was observed to decline for the post-war cohorts, which is discussed in relation to diet. Copyright 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign

  12. Combined Final Report for Colony II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Laxmikant [University of Illinois; Jones, Terry [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moreira, Jose [IBM Corp.

    2013-10-23

    (This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.

  13. China, Japan, and the United States in World War II: The Relinquishment of Unequal Treaties in 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine how the United States transformed its foreign policy to promote China as an “equal state” in international politics during World War II, with focus on the process of the American relinquishment of its unequal treaties with China in 1943. In particular, it concentrates on analyzing the conflicts between the United States and Japan in the process of relinquishment. By examining the rivalry between the United States and Japan in the social warfare – propaganda – we can see that the relinquishment of the unequal treaties in 1943 not only marked a historical turning point in America’s China policy, but also had a great impact on the transformation of East Asian politics in World War II and its influence in the world politics.

  14. Reappraising FDR’s Approach to World War II in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Stimson’s directives, the War Department understood that the basic U.S. policy during the period of Adolf Hitler hosts Benito Mussolini in Munich...judged by historians as having had war thrust upon him.52 With the declaration of war on the United States by Hitler and Benito Mussolini on...Hitler and Mussolini , Roosevelt’s hope of avoiding entry into the war came to an end ndupress .ndu.edu issue 49, 2d quarter 2008 / JFQ 145 BELL

  15. Is there a long-term caries-preventive effect of sugar restrictions during World War II?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, H M; Grytten, J; Holst, D

    1991-06-01

    Wartime decrease in caries prevalence among children explained by restrictions in sugar availability and consumption is widely documented. The aim of the present investigation was to study possible long-term effects of this regimen on dental caries. Norwegian age cohorts who were 7 years old during World War II were reexamined in 1983. On the basis of DMF recordings of their first permanent molars, a long-lasting beneficial effect of the wartime caries decrease could not be demonstrated.

  16. The place of agriculture in credit policy after World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Kłusek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available After World War II the Polish state, which had restricted financial resources was forced to select the most important economic aims, which ought to have been driven out by people in select and taking into consideration credit applications. On this stage of state rebuilding, approval had been voiced, in first order for credits for agriculture production, mining production, industrial production, and craft production. Credits for sowing, harvest, rations, tools purchase, fertilizers, seeds and livestock had been the most important in agriculture. Ministry of Treasury and National Bank of Poland had been driven by planning rules and planning in economic life, central rule of establishing financial and credit politics and central way of establishing distributions ways, supervision and control. Unfortunately state credit politic realisation in relation to agriculture had diverged from its main assumptions. Industry had been favored at the expense of village. The effect of shortage of capital in a village had caused the fall of agricultural production, what, in short time had led to increase of agriculture products’ prices.

  17. From Technical Assistants to Critical Thinkers: From World War II to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Michelle; Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2014-01-01

    A review of professional literature was conducted to examine the history of the education of medical laboratory practitioners. This comprehensive review included historical educational milestones from World War II to present day. During this time period the standard of two years of college required for matriculation into a medical technology program increased to four years. Critical thinking skills promoted in the educational model and applied in practice expanded from an analytic and psychomotor orientation to include those requiring extensive situational interpretation and negotiation. By the end of the twentieth century, the clinical laboratory had experienced significant scientific and technologic transformations necessitating greatly expanded roles for the medical laboratory practitioner. Though the educational requirements and education model have changed minimally since the 1970's, the knowledge and skills required for the next generation of medical laboratory practitioners continue to escalate. The second decade of the 21st century portends a transformation in medical laboratory practitioner education commensurate with the rapid advancement of science, technology, communications, and the precepts of evidence-based practice.

  18. Streets and stages: urban renewal and the arts after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, Julia L

    2010-01-01

    Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Manhattan and the revitalization of the Brooklyn Academy of Music in Brooklyn offer insights into the intersection of arts and urbanization after World War II. This intra-city comparison shows the aggrandizing pull of the international arena in the shaping of Lincoln Center and the arts it featured in contrast to the local focus and debate that transformed how BAM fit into its Brooklyn neighborhood. The performing arts, bound as they are to a moment fused in space and time, reveal the making of place within grandiose formal buildings as well as outside on the streets that surround them—and it is, perhaps, that tensile connection between stages and streets that informs the relevancy of both the institution and the arts it features. At a time when the suburbs pulled more and more people, the arts provided a counterforce in cities, as magnet and stimulus. The arts were used as compensation for the demolition and re-building of a neighborhood in urban renewal, but they also exposed the more complex social dynamics that underpinned the transformation of the mid-20th century American city from a segregated to a multi-faceted place.

  19. Camels, Cormorants, and Kangaroo Rats: Integration and Synthesis in Organismal Biology After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Joel B

    2015-01-01

    During the decades following World War II diverse groups of American biologists established a variety of distinctive approaches to organismal biology. Rhetorically, organismal biology could be used defensively to distinguish established research traditions from perceived threats from newly emerging fields such as molecular biology. But, organismal biologists were also interested in integrating biological disciplines and using a focus on organisms to synthesize levels of organization from molecules and cells to populations and communities. Part of this broad movement was the development of an area of research variously referred to as physiological ecology, environmental physiology, or ecophysiology. This area of research was distinctive in its self-conscious blend of field and laboratory practices and its explicit integration with other areas of biology such as ecology, animal behavior, and evolution in order to study adaptation. Comparing the intersecting careers of Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew highlights two strikingly different approaches to physiological ecology. These alternative approaches to studying the interactions of organisms and environments also differed in important ways from the organismal biology championed by leading figures in the modern synthesis.

  20. Map based multimedia tool on Pacific theatre in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakala Venkata, Devi Prasada Reddy

    Maps have been used for depicting data of all kinds in the educational community for many years. A standout amongst the rapidly changing methods of teaching is through the development of interactive and dynamic maps. The emphasis of the thesis is to develop an intuitive map based multimedia tool, which provides a timeline of battles and events in the Pacific theatre of World War II. The tool contains summaries of major battles and commanders and has multimedia content embedded in it. The primary advantage of this Map tool is that one can quickly know about all the battles and campaigns of the Pacific Theatre by accessing Timeline of Battles in each region or Individual Battles in each region or Summary of each Battle in an interactive way. This tool can be accessed via any standard web browser and motivate the user to know more about the battles involved in the Pacific Theatre. It was made responsive using Google maps API, JavaScript, HTML5 and CSS.

  1. The effect of non ionising electromagnetic radiation on RAAF personnel during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, J A

    1994-05-01

    Did exposure to non ionising electromagnetic radiation during World War II in the short term have a stimulating effect on the anterior pituitary gland, and in turn on the gonads of both sexes, since the figures obtained appeared to affect the sexes equally? Is it that the long-term effect of microwave radiation on personnel is to cause adenoma and carcinoma? Is this long-term effect similar to the long-term effect of X-rays on infants, children and adolescents? According to Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 1980 (page 1710): "X-rays to the head and neck in infancy, childhood or adolescence is associated with a high incidence of thyroid disease later in life. Nodular disease is found to be particularly common on 20% of patients at risk, and may not be apparent until 30 years or more after exposure. One-third of the nodular type are found to be carcinomatous." The effect of non ionising electromagnetic and microwave radiation on those who work in these fields certainly needs much more investigation. What will be the long-term effect of using micro-ovens on the rising generation?

  2. [Lessons learnt from the German smallpox outbreaks after World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Julia; Gelderblom, Hans R

    2015-07-01

    Even though smallpox was declared eradicated by WHO in 1980, it cannot be ruled out that the etiological variola virus could be used as a biological weapon. Undestroyed viruses from biowarfare programmes, virus strains left undetected in a freezer or dangerous recombinant poxvirus constructs could cause dangerous outbreaks in a relatively unprotected population. Despite an abundance of studies performed during the eradication of smallpox, epidemiological data for preparedness planning and outbreak control in modern, industrialized countries are scarce. Full-text hand search for the period from 1945 to 1975 in the main German public health journals. After World War II 12 smallpox outbreaks occurred in Germany. They were studied with the focus on the period of contagiousness, the protective effect of vaccination, booster-effect of revaccination and the place of infection. A total of 95 individuals contracted smallpox, including 10 fatalities. Despite having been previously vaccinated, 81 vaccinated persons came down with smallpox, yet 91% of them developed only mild symptoms. These patients presented a high risk for spreading the infection to contact persons due to misinterpretation of symptoms and the continuing social contacts. Basically, the risk of transmission in the first 2 to 3 days after onset of symptoms was low, thus facilitating antiepidemic measures. The importance of hospital preparedness is emphasized by the fact that most infections occurred in hospitals. The data analyzed provide valuable information for today's outbreak response planning and counter bioterrorism preparedness.

  3. The Study on the set of Senior Prison Camp in Liaoyuan by Japan during World War II%日本设置二战辽源盟军高级战俘集中营探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 张冬梅

    2014-01-01

    本文根据英文资料温莱特将军《回忆录》及日本战犯供述等亲历性资料为主要线索,结合其他档案文献,研究日本战局变化、辽源(伪满时称西安)战略地位与日军将二战盟军高官战俘逐步北上转移关押的内在联系,分析探讨日本法西斯将二战盟军高官战俘关押在辽源的原因及目的。%Prisoners of war is an important issue of war history research, as the main clue to the English data of general Wainwright’s “memoirs”and the statement and experience of Japanese war criminals, combined with other archives, research the change of the situation of Japanese war、the relationship between the strategic status of Liaoyuan( Manchukuo period known as Xi’an ) and the transfer of the jail of allied official prisoners that gradually move north, analysis the reason and purpose that Japanese fascist held prisoner inLiaoyuan for the prisoners of allied officials in World War II. Throughout the history of the war in the Pacific during World War II, the situation changes have inherent consistency with the six changes of the detained of allied officials, reflect the changing stages of the Pacific War and the changes of the Japanese strategic posture, it also clear perspective the true intentions that Japanese chose the prison camp in Liaoyuan.

  4. The Citizen-Soldier in the American Imagination: Traces of the Myths of World War II in the "Army Strong" Recruitment Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The myth of the citizen-soldier resonates strongly in the American imagination and helps (re)construct America the nation. The construction of this myth in the historical context of World War II is especially prominent in contemporary American culture. The myth of the World War II citizen-soldier functions as an individualized discursive formation with specific rules of formation. I contextualize the construction of this individualized discursive formation within the historical era of World W...

  5. Long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence compared with non-sexual war trauma in female World War II survivors: a matched pairs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwert, Philipp; Glaesmer, Heide; Eichhorn, Svenja; Grundke, Elena; Pietrzak, Robert H; Freyberger, Harald J; Klauer, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence experienced at the end of World War II (WWII) with non-sexual WWII trauma (e.g., being exposed to shell shock or physical violence). A total of 27 elderly wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects who were drawn from a larger sample of subjects over 70 years of age who had experienced WWII-related trauma. A modified version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale was used to assess trauma characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 was used to assess current psychopathology. Additionally, measures of posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) and social acknowledgement as a trauma survivor (Social Acknowledgement Questionnaire) were used to assess two mediating variables in post-trauma conditions of rape victims. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence reported greater severity of PTSD-related avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as anxiety, compared with female long-term survivors of non-sexual WWII trauma. The vast majority (80.9 %) of these women also reported severe sexual problems during their lifetimes relative to 19.0 % of women who experienced non-sexual war trauma. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence also reported greater posttraumatic growth, but less social acknowledgement as trauma survivors, compared to survivors of non-sexual war trauma. The results were consistent with emerging neurobiological research, which suggests that different traumas may be differentially associated with long-term posttraumatic sequelae in sexual assault survivors than in other survivor groups and highlights the need to treat (or better prevent) deleterious effects of conflict-related sexual violence in current worldwide crisis zones.

  6. Commercial Radio Broadcasts of Propaganda: An Activity for Teaching about World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1983-01-01

    By using propaganda commercial radio broadcasts which occurred during the Second World War as the basis for classroom activities, teachers can help students capture the emotional drama of various topics of the war, as well as certain themes still applicable in contemporary society, and stimulate student curiosity about the past. (RM)

  7. Commercial Radio Broadcasts of Propaganda: An Activity for Teaching about World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1983-01-01

    By using propaganda commercial radio broadcasts which occurred during the Second World War as the basis for classroom activities, teachers can help students capture the emotional drama of various topics of the war, as well as certain themes still applicable in contemporary society, and stimulate student curiosity about the past. (RM)

  8. Severe caloric restriction in young women during World War II and subsequent breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, N; Barchana, M; Linn, S; Keinan-Boker, L

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the impact of WWII-related caloric restriction (CR) on subsequent breast cancer (BC) risk based on individual exposure experiences and whether this effect was modified by age at exposure. We compared 65 breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2005-2010 to 200 controls without breast cancer who were all members of various organizations for Jewish WWII survivors in Israel. All participants were Jewish women born in Europe prior to 1945 who lived at least 6 months under Nazi rule during WWII and immigrated to Israel after the war. We estimated CR using a combined index for hunger and used logistic regression models to estimate the association between CR and BC, adjusting for potential confounders. Women who were severely exposed to hunger had an increased risk of BC (OR=5.0, 95% CI= 2.3-10.8) compared to women who were mildly exposed. The association between CR and BC risk was stronger for women who were exposed at a younger age (0-7 years) compared to the risk of BC in women exposed at ≥ 14 years (OR= 2.8, 95% CI=1.3-6.3). Severe exposure to CR is associated with a higher risk for BC decades later, and may be generalized to other cases of severe starvation during childhood that may have long-term effects on cancer in adulthood. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. [The re-introduction of malaria in the Pontine Marshes and the Cassino district during the end of World War II. Biological warfare or global war tactics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio; Manfredi, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    After the fall of the Fascist regime on September 8, 1943, Italy was split into two parts: (i) the Southern regions where the King Victor Emanuel III and the military general staff escaped was under the control of English-American allied armies, and (ii) the northern regions comprising Lazio, Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche still under the control of the Germans. The German Wehrmacht, after suffering several defeats on Southern lines, established a new strengthened line of defence called the Gustav line, located south of Rome and crossing in the western portion the recently-drained Pontine Marshes. In his book published in 2006, Frank Snowden hypothesised that occupying German armies in 1943 had initiated a programme of re-flooding the Pontine plain as a biological warfare strategy to re-introduce malaria infection in the territories south of Rome, Such a plan was intended (i) to slow down the advance of English-American forces, and (ii) to punish Italians who abandoned their former allies. Other authors, including Annibale Folchi, Erhard Geissler, and Jeanne Guillemin, have disputed this hypothesis based on an analysis of recently-uncovered archive documents. What is not disputed is that the flooding of the Pontine and Roman plains in 1943 contributed to a severe malaria epidemic in 1944, which was associated with exceptionally high morbidity and mortality rates in the afflicted populations. Herein, we critically evaluate the evidence and arguments of whether the Wehrmacht specifically aimed to spread malaria as a novel biological warfare strategy in Italy during the Second World War. In our opinion, evidence for specific orders to deliberately spread malaria by the German army is lacking, although the strategy itself may have been considered by Nazis during the waning years of the war.

  10. [Borders, immigration, and international relations on the eve of World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, C

    1997-01-01

    The author investigates international migratory movements in Europe between the two world wars, with a focus on the impact of economic and social changes brought about by World War I. "The economic crisis brought out new behavioral patterns. Although the number of foreign migrant workers was decreasing, there appeared xenophobic attitudes....The terrible events that led to the War questioned and upset the efforts towards stabilization made by most foreigners. They were soon considered as would-be enemies....[The] hard times further reinforced the precarious situation of foreigners living in border areas." (EXCERPT)

  11. Neurocinematography in Pre-World War II Netherlands: The Magnus-Rademaker Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J; Lameris, Bregt; Hielscher, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Historical films made by neuroscientists have shown up in several countries during past years. Although originally supposed to have been lost, we recently found a collection of films produced between 1909 and 1940 by Rudolf Magnus (1873-1927), professor of pharmacology (Utrecht) and his student Gysbertus Rademaker (1887-1957), professor of physiology (1928, succeeding Willem Einthoven) and neurology (1945, both in Leiden). Both collections deal with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were done with animals (labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brainstem sections) and observations on patients. The films demonstrate the results of these studies. Moreover, there are films with babies showing tonic neck reflexes and moving images capturing adults with cerebellar symptoms following cerebellectomies for tumors and several other conditions. Magnus' studies resulted in his well-known Körperstellung (1924, "Body Posture") and Rademaker's research in his Das Stehen (1931, "Standing"). The films probably had an educative and scientific purpose. Magnus demonstrated his films at congresses, including the Eighth International Congress of Physiologists (Vienna, 1910) and Rademaker screened his moving images at meetings of the Amsterdam Neurologists Society (at several occasions as reflected in the Winkler-Monakow correspondence and the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde). Next to these purposes, the films were used to analyze movement and a series of images from the films were published in articles and books. The films are important historical sources that provide a portrait of the pre-World War II era in neuroscience, partly answering questions on how physicians dealt with patients and researchers with their laboratory animals. Moreover, the films confirm that cinematography was an important scientific tool in neuroscience research.

  12. That’ll Teach’em to Love Their Motherland!: Russian Youth Revisit the Battles of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kucherenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cult of World War II once again occupies a hegemonic position in the frigid, increasingly militaristic cultural climate of modern-day Russia. A matter of great pride for the overwhelming majority of Russian people, the war serves as a model for group solidarity and a means of social control. It is used as a positive, character forming experience as each new generation is initiated into it through popular culture. Three recent films, the duology We are from the Future and The Fog, take on the role of the « ceremony masters » for contemporary Russian youth in its rite of passage. Essentially the vehicles of state propaganda, the films not only explore the idiosyncrasies of the proverbial Russian character, while reviving military traditions and encouraging civic responsibility, but also reflect the deep-seated anxieties of Russian society regarding its younger members.

  13. Adaptations to Curriculum at the Quartermaster School Officer Candidate Course during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    War I where most candidates at the Officer Training Schools were from the upper crust of society and often well connected. While many within the...commanders establish schools that adhered to standards of courses in the continental United States, the commandant of the Infantry School produced a training...instruction should the War Department direct a 17 week course length. The process highlighted great variances between school curriculums. After

  14. Problem-Solving Learning in the Home Economics Education at Elementary Schools during the Post-Woeld-War II Period

    OpenAIRE

    布川, 和恵; Nunokawa, Kazue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how the home economics education in school was designed and what kinds of lessons were actually implemented under the tentative Course of Study published in 1947 and its plot, in order to deepen our understanding of problem-solving learning in home economies. For this purpose, first, the development of problem-solving learning in the empiricism education during the post-World-War II period was overviewed, and then two teaching practices were examined. T...

  15. Appetitive aggression as a resilience factor against trauma disorders: appetitive aggression and PTSD in German World War II veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierstall, Roland; Huth, Sina; Knecht, Jasmin; Nandi, Corina; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades. To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8). War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS). Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = - .31, p = .014). The effect size and power were sufficient (f(2) = 0.51, (1-β) = .99). The same was true for current PTSD (β = - .27, p = .030). Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans.

  16. Appetitive aggression as a resilience factor against trauma disorders: appetitive aggression and PTSD in German World War II veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weierstall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8. War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS. Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = - .31, p = .014. The effect size and power were sufficient (f(2 = 0.51, (1-β = .99. The same was true for current PTSD (β = - .27, p = .030. CONCLUSIONS: Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans.

  17. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, Philipp; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald J; Maercker, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    To examine posttraumatic growth (PTG) and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence (SOC), trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Cross-sectional. University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. One hundred three former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years in which 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Social Acknowledgment Questionnaire (SAQ), and SOC Scale. Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed by the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Number of traumas, recognition by significant others, and general disapproval as facets of social acknowledgment as a survivor, and meaningfulness as a dimension of SOC correlated significantly with PTG. In a multiple hierarchical regression analysis, recognition as a survivor by significant others (SAQ) and meaningfulness (SOC) remained the only significant predictors of PTG. Social acknowledgment as a survivor by significant others and the belief that the world is meaningful are among the most important factors contributing to PTG. Further research should investigate whether treatments of PTSD in people who experienced war traumas recently or many years ago might benefit from a focus on the belief system and the role of family and social support.

  18. The Collision of Romanticism and Modernism in Post-World War II American Cinema: A Theoretical Defense of Intellectual History in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daniel Hunter

    2013-01-01

    The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…

  19. The Collision of Romanticism and Modernism in Post-World War II American Cinema: A Theoretical Defense of Intellectual History in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daniel Hunter

    2013-01-01

    The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…

  20. Air Force Support of Army Ground Operations Lessons Learned during World War II, Korea, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-06

    Th ;e 8epre--cdin this paper .rv thoe. of ’:ceauhor IDep 2rtmt-nt of Diefense rayo t gr: s hsPcC % FOC, O P 0- C GOUND OP!-txA’TONS ’A NS tTAI.D 11...NOTE S T edder, Wi.th Preudice: The War Memoirs . - y Air Force. Lord Tedaer. rr- 40-43. 2.".~ : X :"~ , M~.c, ’ = A r Power in Three Wars WW 7:, Kora...that FEAF assume operational control over land based Marine air units and over carri.er bjdsed aviation operating over Korea effective as soon as X

  1. Catholic sports in Italy: After World War II until second Vatican Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mercedes Palandri

    2013-10-01

    explore the development and importance that this sport had to do with the national sphere of sport starting with its reconstruction after the World War II. This period coincides with the years of the Second Vatican Council (CVII on one side and the Olympic Games in Rome on the other, and wish to show the reciprocal influence that exist between these events. It will be also be explained the Centro Sportivo Italiano (CSI and its contribution to the sports system in Italy during this time, the Olympic Games in Rome in 1960 and about the push that CSI gave to spread the Olympic spirit among the population, of the CVII and the influence that this event had in the dynamics of the CSI. There are not many who know that the Council speaks also about sports, in particular in the Constitution Gaudium et Spes, a document in which the Church give heed to the signs of times and listens to the contemporary world, and opens for further research and dialogue. This attitude of openness gave a chance to the conciliar Fathers to reflect about sports as an important social phenomenon of the twentieth century.

  2. 论二战时期日军对盟军高级战俘奉行政策之演变%Discuss the Evolution of Japanese Policy towards the Implementation of Advanced Allied War Prisoners During World War II

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春萍

    2015-01-01

    二战时期,日军在进攻东南亚时,俘虏了大量美国、英国与荷兰的军政高级官员。这些高级战俘从1942年8月开始,从各自被关押地运送到台湾,最后又转押到中国东北。日军频繁变更盟军高级战俘的关押地,主要是太平洋战争局势的变化以及日本对待高级战俘政策变化的外在反映。本文即在探讨日本在各个时期对于高级战俘关押地的变化和待遇与日军太平洋战局的关系,以总结出二战时期日军对高级战俘们所奉行政策的演变过程。%During World War II, the Japanese army attacked Southeast Asia, captured a large number of Unit-ed States, Britain and the Netherlands military senior officials.From the beginning of August 1942, these senior prisoners were transported from their places to Taiwan, and finally transferred to northeast China, was the main re-flection of changes the situation in the Pacific War, and Japanese treatment of prisoners of war policy changes ad-vanced external.This article discussed the relationship between changes and treatment of the Japanese advanced prisoners of war in all period, and the situation of Japanese Pacific war during World War II to summarize the senior prisoner of War pursued the policy evolution.

  3. Remembering Wartime Schooling...Catholic Education, Teacher Memory and World War II in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ruyskensvelde, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Power over education and the upcoming generations has always been an important instrument in shaping religious and secular values. As a consequence, control over schools, pupils and teachers was, particularly in periods of war, an important means for bringing about acceptance of the new regime. The aim of this paper is to discuss priest-teachers'…

  4. World War II Activity Day: Through the Eyes of Trainee Treachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily; Hornsby, Laura; Howard, Abigail; Pople, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    As student teachers, authors Emily Clark, Laura Hornsby, Abigail Howard, and Kathryn Pople were aware of what the class had already covered on World War 2 (WW2). It was unclear to them, however, what knowledge the children actually had acquired from the lessons. In this article these student teachers describe their use of concept mapping as they…

  5. Childhood IQ and In-Service Mortality in Scottish Army Personnel during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Janie; Crang, Jeremy A.; Deary, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    The Scottish Mental Survey of 1932 (SMS1932) provides a record of intelligence test scores for almost a complete year-of-birth group of children born in 1921. By linking UK Army personnel records, the Scottish National War Memorial data, and the SMS1932 dataset it was possible to examine the effect of childhood intelligence scores on wartime…

  6. Teaching Giants to Learn: Lessons from Army Learning in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Max

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the "truism" that learning organizations cannot be large organizations and, conversely, that large organizations cannot be learning organizations. This paper analyzes learning in the German and US armies in the Second World War, based on a four-dimensional model of the learning organization.…

  7. Advising Success: Lessons from American Military Assistance Efforts Since World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    scholarly research of Columbia in the 50s and 60s and the long-term impacts that the violent period known as La Violencia has on the problems the...parties occasionally erupts into violence, most notably in the Thousand Days War (1899–1902) and La Violencia , beginning in 1948.130 A generation of

  8. Identity Loss and Recovery in the Life Stories of Soviet World War II Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Peter G.; Podolskij, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the adjustment to societal change following the fall of communism in a group of Soviet war veterans from Russia and the Ukraine. The focus of the study was on the dynamics of identity development, and especially generativity, in a period of intense social upheaval. Design and Methods: We administered measures of self-esteem,…

  9. Major General Charles Ryder: The Forging of a World War II Division Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    source documents. I owe a deep debt of gratitude to COL(P) Jon Jensen and LTC(P) Charles Kemper both of which have provided me a decade of mentorship...the trench warfare stalemate would have to end through an aggressive war of maneuvers. The 1st Division Histories recorded, “Through keenness of

  10. Identity Loss and Recovery in the Life Stories of Soviet World War II Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Peter G.; Podolskij, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the adjustment to societal change following the fall of communism in a group of Soviet war veterans from Russia and the Ukraine. The focus of the study was on the dynamics of identity development, and especially generativity, in a period of intense social upheaval. Design and Methods: We administered measures of self-esteem,…

  11. Amphibious Landing Operations in World War II: Personal Experience in Applying and Developing Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    however, already considering the possibility of a two-ocean war with Japan and Germany as potential opponents.34 Coinciding with the tense... divorced from the land operations that follow. Troops that make the assault must continue in subsequent land phases, and the whole operation must be

  12. The Female Image in the Literature of the Soviet Union and the United States in World War II%苏美二战文学中的女性形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志清

    2015-01-01

    在世界文学的发展史上,战争对文学产生的影响浸入文学作品的创作中,改变着文学作品的内涵及所表达的思想价值。第二次世界大战波及众多国家,特别是对美国和苏联的文学产生了深远的影响,这两个国家的作家立足战争,分析和反思战争中的各种因素,创作出了一系列优秀的文学作品。这些文学作品中不同程度地塑造了战争中的女性形象。本文通过阐述第二次世界大战中苏美文学的创作概况,结合具体的作品分析苏美二战文学中的女性形象,比较并总结苏美二战文学中的女性形象。%In the history of world literature,the literature from the impact of war on in literature changes the meaning of literary works and the ideological value of expression.The second world war spread to many countries,especially the far -reaching im-pact on the American and Soviet literature,the two countries based on the analysis of various factors of war writers and reflec-tion in the war,which created a series of outstanding literary works.These literary works in different degree shaped the image of women in the war.This paper describes the creation of the Second World War in Soviet literature,combining with the specif-ic works analysis of female images in the literature of the Soviet Union and the United States in World War II.It compares and summarizes the female images in the literature of the Soviet Union and the United States in World War II.

  13. Commemoration, Race, and World War II: History and Civil Rights at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Ater

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available History and civil rights are intertwined at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Moton Field in Tuskegee, Alabama. Moton Field was a training flight facility for African American pilot candidates in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, operating from 1941–45. Through the extant buildings and interpretive exhibits, the National Park Service commemorates the Tuskegee Airmen’s contributions to World War II, recognizing the first African American military aviators and their struggle for civil rights during the 1940s. This essay examines the way in which race, personal narratives, historical objects, and sensorial experience (sight, sound, touch, and smell are used at the historic site to suggest the significance of the Tuskegee Airmen. Despite the segregation and racism that they experienced in the U.S. military, the African American pilots and the men and women who worked alongside them believed staunchly in the idea of service to the nation as a means of participating in democracy and gaining full citizenship.

  14. Reporting Military Sexual Trauma: A Mixed-Methods Study of Women Veterans' Experiences Who Served From World War II to the War in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Kristina B; Mills, Peter D

    2016-08-01

    Since 2004, there has been increased effort to reduce military sexual trauma (MST) in the U.S. military. Although MST covers a range of inappropriate behaviors, the majority of research, treatment, and outreach are focused on sexual assault and the experiences of individuals serving in Afghanistan and Iraq. During a study on veterans' involvement in a national peace organization, participants were asked about their military experiences. Veterans served from World War II to current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Emerging out of the responses were descriptions of women's experiences with MST, barriers to reporting incidents of sexual misconduct and sexual assault, and the challenges they faced when seeking care. Data were gathered using anonymous questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Out of 52 female veterans, the majority (90%) was subjected to at least one form of MST, and 15% (8) attempted to report the incident(s). Over half of the assailants were of a higher rank than the survivors. The majority of veterans remained silent due to lack of options to report, the status of perpetrators, and fear of retaliation. These data provide a glimpse into the challenges many women veterans faced when seeking assistance reporting incidents or obtaining health care for their MST.

  15. Prosthetic Manhood in the Soviet Union at the End of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Millions of Soviet soldiers were disabled as a direct consequence of their service in the Second World War. Yet despite its expressions of gratitude for their sacrifices, the state evinced a great deal of discomfort regarding their damaged bodies. The countless armless and legless veterans were a constant reminder of the destruction suffered by the country as a whole, an association increasingly incompatible with the postwar agenda of wholesale reconstruction. This article focuses on a key strategy for erasing the scars of war, one with ostensibly unambiguous benefit for the disabled themselves: the development of prostheses. In addition to fostering independence from others and ultimately from the state, artificial limbs would facilitate the veterans' return to the kinds of socially useful labor by which the country defined itself. In so doing, this strategy engendered the establishment of a new model of masculinity: a prosthetic manhood.

  16. Surgery in World War II. Orthopedic Surgery in the Zone of Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    administrative errors. It was a stroke of good fortune that, during a large part of the war, the Surgeon General of the Army was Maj. Gen. Norman T. Kirk...of symptoms in the ulnar dis- tribution in the hand. Treatment consisted of physiotherapy , a short rest from actual jump- ing, and reassurance. An... physiotherapy and active exercises were begun immediately. Results were uniformly good and limitation of ex- tension was only slight. Only the blocking

  17. Mines Away! The Significance of U.S. Army Air Forces Minelaying in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    convinced the Japanese Navy to abandon anchorages at Pa1au, Penang , and Kavieng. The disruption of merchant traffic , in turn, caused supp1y problems for the...Thayer Mahan is that victory in war rests with control of sea communications. l One means of disrupting overwater traffic , whether merchant or military...producing temporary sea control by disrupting maritime traffic due to the defender�s fear of harm to his ships. In addition to sinking, damaging, and

  18. ORPHANS IN EASTERN AZOV DURING WORLD WAR II AND THE EARLY POSTWAR YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. CHAIKA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the most important problems, the elimination of child homelessness in the Krasnodar Territory in 1941-1950 years. It was found that the Kuban from the first months of the war was one of the regions where the population is evacuated from the occupied territories of the USSR. Analyze the process of evacuation of children in orphanages in the summer of 1942 it demonstrated that even before the complete liberation of Krasnodar region from the Nazi invaders in its territory began to revive children's institutions. The author investigated the damage caused to children's homes occupiers of their financial situation during the war years; it showed the difficulties faced by students in the study period. The researcher concluded that during the war the main form of struggle against children's homelessness in the East Sea of Azov and other areas of the Krasnodar Territory was an orphanage. The country's leaders, using pre-war forms and methods of elimination of child neglect. In the early postwar years, financial status of children's institutions in the Kuban region in comparison with the military over the years has improved somewhat. Funding for children's homes was carried out in full, improved nutrition students. Despite the presence of local constraints on material maintenance of children's homes. In general, the existing system of social protection of orphans has fulfilled its function in the short term has been eliminated homeless children throughout the territory of Krasnodar region. The article shows the role of the party and government bodies in ensuring the conditions for the functioning of orphanages. For the opening theme used a variety of sources, some of which are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.

  19. Suffering What They Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    neutrality or alliance under different circumstances, considering their own desires as well as those of the country. In the end, Romania throughout...European War, 1941-1945 (New York: Arms and Armour , 1995), 11-12. 7 achieved its ambition of România Mare, or Greater Romania. As much a philosophy... Armour , 1995), 12. 13 Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918-1945, 30. 14 Ibid., 50

  20. The Finnish Campaigns: Failure of Soviet Operational Art in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    Army was paramount. He provided a clear focus on Marxism , but also a pragmatic flexibility to reap the benefits of capitalist technology. He believed...form of warfare. His premise was that Marxism provided the structure and direction for military theory, but military professionals who studied...12 With the ideological side of doctrine firmly rooted in Marxism , follow-on theoretical debate focused on the actual execution of war

  1. Blacks in the Army Air Forces during World War II: The Problem of Race Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-06

    the implication was that black people desed a Nazi victory. The War De- - 78 - -T . • " il I partment misinterpreted the Courier’s Double V...Racial Policies." Harper’s Magazine, January 1945. Amidon, Beulah. "Negroes and Defense." Survey Graphic , June 1941. Bombardier. "The Story of the 477th... Graphic , November 1942. Dabney, Virginius. "Nearer and Nearer the Precipice." Atlantic Monthly, January 1943. Davis, Ralph N. "The Negro Newspapers and the

  2. Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Lindner, Iris; Büttner, Andreas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Szczerkowska, Zofia; Comas, David

    2013-04-01

    Homogeneous Proto-Slavic genetic substrate and/or extensive mixing after World War II were suggested to explain homogeneity of contemporary Polish paternal lineages. Alternatively, Polish local populations might have displayed pre-war genetic heterogeneity owing to genetic drift and/or gene flow with neighbouring populations. Although sharp genetic discontinuity along the political border between Poland and Germany indisputably results from war-mediated resettlements and homogenisation, it remained unknown whether Y-chromosomal diversity in ethnically/linguistically defined populations was clinal or discontinuous before the war. In order to answer these questions and elucidate early Slavic migrations, 1156 individuals from several Slavic and German populations were analysed, including Polish pre-war regional populations and an autochthonous Slavic population from Germany. Y chromosomes were assigned to 39 haplogroups and genotyped for 19 STRs. Genetic distances revealed similar degree of differentiation of Slavic-speaking pre-war populations from German populations irrespective of duration and intensity of contacts with German speakers. Admixture estimates showed minor Slavic paternal ancestry (~20%) in modern eastern Germans and hardly detectable German paternal ancestry in Slavs neighbouring German populations for centuries. BATWING analysis of isolated Slavic populations revealed that their divergence was preceded by rapid demographic growth, undermining theory that Slavic expansion was primarily linguistic rather than population spread. Polish pre-war regional populations showed within-group heterogeneity and lower STR variation within R-M17 subclades compared with modern populations, which might have been homogenised by war resettlements. Our results suggest that genetic studies on early human history in the Vistula and Oder basins should rely on reconstructed pre-war rather than modern populations.

  3. [Research and treatment of war neuroses at the Clinic for Nervous and Mental Diseases at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow before World War II in the context of psychiatry in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Dembińska, Edyta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to offer an overview of the research into diagnosis and treatment of war neuroses at the Clinic for Nervous and Mental Diseases at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow before the outbreak of World War II. It also includes a profile of the work of Prof. Jan Piltz, the then director of the Clinic, and his major scientific achievements. The publications cited in the article date in the main from the period of World War I, and comprise clinical analyses of the consequences of stress suffered at the front as well as a description of the ways in which they were treated. These are presented alongside other major findings related to war neuroses being made in Europe at the time. The article draws attention to the very modern thinking on treatment of war neuroses, far ahead of the average standards of the day, evinced by Prof. Piltz and his team. The most important innovative elements of their treatment of these conditions were the fact that they perceived the cause of the neurosis to lie in previous personality disorders in the patients, their recommendation of psychotherapy as the main method of treatment, and their emphasis on the need for further rehabilitation following the completion of the course of hospital treatment. They also paid significant attention to the importance of drawing up individual therapy plans for each patient.

  4. The 1944 Nisei Draft at Heart Mountain, Wyoming: Its Relationship to the Historical Representation of the World War II Japanese American Evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Arthur A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that not only illuminates a little-known incident in Asian American history but also questions how history is constructed and communicated. Provides an excellent historical account of the draft resistance movement within the Nisei internment camps during World War II. Includes handouts and discussion questions. (MJP)

  5. The political economy of redistribution in the U.S. in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression - Evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer) agenda setter

  6. The political economy of redistribution in the US in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression: evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an substantial upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a politicaleconomy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer) age

  7. The political economy of redistribution in the US in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression: evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an substantial upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer) ag

  8. The political economy of redistribution in the U.S. in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression - Evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer) agenda setter

  9. The political economy of redistribution in the US in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression: evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an substantial upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer)

  10. Syphilis and human experimentation from World War II to the present: a historical perspective and reflections on ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerda-Galindo, E; Sierra-Valenti, X; González-López, E; López-Muñoz, F

    2014-11-01

    Even after the Nuremberg code was published, research on syphilis often continued to fall far short of ethical standards. We review post-World War II research on this disease, focusing on the work carried out in Guatemala and Tuskegee. Over a thousand adults were deliberately inoculated with infectious material for syphilis, chancroid, and gonorrhea between 1946 and 1948 in Guatemala, and thousands of serologies were performed in individuals belonging to indigenous populations or sheltered in orphanages. The Tuskegee syphilis study, conducted by the US Public Health Service, took place between 1932 and 1972 with the aim of following the natural history of the disease when left untreated. The subjects belonged to a rural black population and the study was not halted when effective treatment for syphilis became available in 1945.

  11. Maternity care during the post-World War II Baby Boom: the experience of general duty nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, L K

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe maternity nursing during the post-World War II Baby Boom from the perspective of general duty nurses. During the Baby Boom, maternity care changed with medical advances and the highest birth rate ever in the United States. This study provides insight into the impact of context on nurses' work experiences. Seven general duty postpartum or nursery nurses were interviewed about their nursing experiences during the Baby Boom. Constant comparative analysis was used to synthesize the transcripts of the interviews into in-depth descriptions of participants' work experiences. The large numbers of mothers and babies in their care, the prevailing concerns for infections, and paternalism influenced these nurses' work. Expectations about and by the nurses as well as work relationships contributed to the nurses' acceptance and rejection of changes in care of mothers and babies.

  12. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan.

  13. National / regional / transnational: the Catalan Diaspora and the humanitarian assistance from the Spanish Civil War at the end of World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvina Jensen

    2014-01-01

    ... on both sides for help to the desplazed persons (first moved into the peninsula during the Civil War, then moved to France after the "withdrawal" and finally evacuated from France to Latin America...

  14. Impact of international financial assistance on economic growth in Europe after the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchanov A.Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is devoted to studying the impact of international financial aid on economic growth in Europe after the Second World War. The aim of the investigation is the identification of regularities of post-war recovery of European economies in the second half of the twentieth century and the assessment of international financial aid’s role in the economic growth stimulation. The author summarizes domestic and foreign researchers’ achievements of studying the issue of the Marshall Plan and its importance for modern Ukraine, and differentiates the classic, capitalistic and modern stages of post-conflict reconstruction of the national economies. The relation between the amount of financial assistance from US government to 14 European countries and the growth of GDP in 1947–1952 is studied with the help of correlation and regression analysis and their significant linear dependence is determined. The issue of institutional support of international financing program of economic recovery of Europe has not been left without attention.

  15. World War II and other historical influences on the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Little has been written about wartime ergonomics and the role this played in prompting the need for a society dedicated to ergonomics within the UK, namely the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society (ERS) in early 1950. This article aims to fill this gap in our understanding of the history of ergonomics in the UK and provide further details of the types of research undertaken by wartime research groups and committees such as the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit and the Flying Personnel Research Committee. In addition, the role of societal developments such as wartime links with the USA, the post-war drive to increase productivity and collaboration with industry and the recommendations of government committees in stimulating the work of the ERS are described in detail. This article also offers some reflection on present-day ergonomics in the UK and how this contrasts with the past. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article will provide practitioners with a historical perspective on the development of ergonomics from its roots in the Second World War. These developments shed light on current trends and challenges within the discipline as a whole.

  16. Farming the Desert: agriculture in the World War II-era Japanese-American relocation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillquist, Karl

    2010-01-01

    In 1942 over 110,000 Japanese Americans were evacuated from the West Coast to ten inland, barbed wire-enclosed relocation centers in the name of national security. Agriculture was a key component of the eight arid to semi-arid centers located in the western United States. Each center's agricultural program included produce for human consumption, feed crops, and livestock. Some centers also grew seed, ornamental, and war crops. Evacuees raised and consumed five types of livestock and sixty-one produce varieties, including many traditional foods. Seasonal surpluses were preserved, shipped to other centers, or sold on the open market. Short growing seasons, poor soils, initially undeveloped lands, pests, equipment shortages, and labor issues hampered operations. However, imprisoned evacuee farmers proved that diverse agricultural programs could succeed in the harsh settings primarily because of labor-intensive farming methods, ingenuity, and the large markets provided by the centers. These agricultural programs played major roles in feeding, providing meaningful employment, and preparing evacuees for life outside the centers, and readied lands for post-war "homesteaders."

  17. Brazil-United States Military Relations in the Early Post-World War II Era Brazil-United States Military Relations in the Early Post-World War II Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny Davis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As estreitas relações militares entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos deterioraram-se no período imediatamente após à II Guerra Mundial. As divisões associadas à Guerra Fria criaram pressões nacionais e internacionais que levaram a um relacionamento menos preciso e sempre reativo entre os dois gigantes do hemisfério. Quando havia uma convergência de metas, as relações militares refletiam a cooperação amistosa anterior. Quando divergências políticas e institucionais sobre questões bilaterais emergiam, o Brasil recusava-se a seguir a liderança norte-americana. Em larga medida, a política externa no pós-guerra obrigou o Brasil a desenvolver confiança e habilidade para acabar com a prática tradicional de agir como subordinado de um poderoso protetor. O processo começou com a assistência norte-americana para a criação da Escola Superior de Guerra e culminou em 1977 com o fim das relações militares com os EUA (com a denúncia do acordo militar com os EUA. Dessa forma, o Brasil conquistou parte do seu antigo desejo de grandeza.The close military relations between the Brazil and the United States underwent strains in the early post-war era. Cold War divisions created national and international pressures that led to a less precise and often reactive relationship between the hemisphere giants. When there was a convergence of goals, military relations reflected the previous smooth cooperation. When political and institutional divisiveness emerged in the officer corps over bilateral issues, Brazil refused to follow the U.S. lead. To a large degree, the post-war foreign policy forced Brazil and its military establishment to develop the confidence and ability to end the traditional practice of acting as a surrogate for a more powerful patron. The process began with U.S. assistance in creating the Escola Superior de Guerra and culminated in 1977 with the end of formal military relations with the United States. In so doing, Brazil

  18. Bushido’s Role in the Growth of Pre-World War II Japanese Nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Patterson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Though some attention has been given to the role that Bushido (the ethical system of the samurai may have played in the development of nationalism in post-Meiji Japan, the martial arts themselves have largely been absolved of any complicity. I argue in this article that the martial arts did in fact play a role in the rise of Japanese nationalism and therefore share some of the blame for the events that took place leading up to and during the Second World War. The article demonstrates how the martial arts were used to popularize the precepts of Bushido and how these precepts in turn lead to the growth of expansionist nationalism. It also shows how the martial arts were used in the educational system and the military to inculcate the Bushido notions of honor and loyalty in the general public.

  19. World War II Aerial Bombings of Germany: Fear as Subject of National Socialist Governmental Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Möbius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights how the National Socialist regime in Germany created the so-called «Selbstschutz» («self protection» in civil air defense as an «apparatus of society» (Michel Foucault to educate the German population with regard to the new possibility of aerial bombing. Mechanisms, functions of emotional control and their relationship to concrete practices of the people involved are shown alongside a local example. Regarding the spread and development of fears, this article maintains that practices of «Selbstschutz» had to bridge the temporal gap between future expectations and actual experiences in crucial ways. Before the war, «Selbstschutz» followed its own logic of expectation of danger and risk, as exemplified in aerial-defense simulation exercises, which clashed with the reality of bombs falling on German cities later on.

  20. Nuclear dawn F. E. Simon and the race for atomic weapons in World War II

    CERN Document Server

    McRae, Kenneth D

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a rounded biography of Franz (later Sir Francis) Simon, his early life in Germany, his move to Oxford in 1933, and his experimental contributions to low temperature physics approximating absolute zero. After 1939 he switched his research to nuclear physics, and is credited with solving the problem of uranium isotope separation by gaseous diffusion for the British nuclear programme Tube Alloys. The volume is distinctive for its inclusion of source materials not available to previous researchers, such as Simon's diary and his correspondence with his wife, and for a fresh, well-informed insider voice on the five-power nuclear rivalry of the war years. The work also draws on a relatively mature nuclear literature to attempt a comparison and evaluation of the five nuclear rivals in wider political and military context, and to identify the factors, or groups of factors, that can explain the results.

  1. U.S. responses to Japanese wartime inhuman experimentation after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul

    2014-04-01

    In 1945-46, representatives of the U.S. government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the United States, influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the United States played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and in securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes.

  2. Post-War Research on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Part II - 1989 onwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Dembińska, Edyta

    2016-10-31

    The paper illustrates the research on post-traumatic disorders conducted in Kraków at the Department of Psychotherapy and the Department of Psychiatry of the Jagiellonian University Medical College after 1989. The political changes that occurred in Poland after 1989 allowed the research to be extended with new groups of survivors. Having conducted the research of the former concentration camp prisoners, the study started to be carried out in the two research teams: 1) the former prisoners of the Stalinist period, Siberian deportees, war veterans and others were examined at the former Social Pathology Institute of the Department of Psychiatry, Jagiellonian University Medical College and the work is continued at the Department of Psychotherapy, Jagiellonian University Medical College; 2) at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic the research of the Holocaust survivors and their families has been carried on by the same team up to the present day. The paper outlines the historical background of persecution, its course and a typical impact it had on health of each of the group of survivors. All individuals suffer from widely understood post-traumatic disorders (F43.1 and F62.0). However, differences in the profile of symptoms can be noted. The manner in which the research was organised and its modifications are also presented. The aim of this paper is to familiarise the Reader with the presented concepts and contextualise them in a political and historical dimensions, and in the continuity of the previous research on KZ-Syndrome and war neuroses.

  3. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  4. From the front lines to the home front: a history of the development of psychiatric nursing in the U.S. during the World War II era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Christine M

    2008-07-01

    During World War II, psychiatric nurses learned valuable lessons on how to deal with the traumas of war. Using psychohistorical inquiry, this historian examined primary and secondary sources, beyond the facts and dates associated with historical events, to understand why and how psychiatric nurse pioneers developed therapeutic techniques to address the psychosocial and physical needs of combatants. Not only is the story told about the hardships endured as nurses ministered to soldiers, but their attitudes, beliefs, and emotions, that is, how they felt and what they thought about their circumstances, are explored. In this study the lived experiences of two psychiatric nurses, Votta and Peplau, are contrasted to explicate how knowledge development improved care and how this knowledge had an impact on the home front in nursing practice and education, as well as in mental institutions and society, long after the war was won.

  5. Lifestyle changes during adolescence and risk of breast cancer: an ecologic study of the effect of World War II in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretli, S; Gaard, M

    1996-09-01

    There are biologic reasons to believe that the period between the larche and the first full-term pregnancy is a particularly sensitive period in a woman's life regarding the development of breast cancer. In this ecologic study, data provided by the Norwegian Cancer Registry were analyzed to compare risk of breast cancer among women who experienced this sensitive period before, during, or after World War II. An ordinary age-cohort model and a model where the cohort was described by exposure by calendar period and sensitivity to this exposure at different ages, were fitted to the data. The incidence of breast cancer was lower than expected among women who experienced puberty during the war. The estimated configuration of the exposure variable showed an increase in exposure up to the start of WWII to twice the level in 1916, dropped by 13 percent during the war, and increased again after the war. The level in 1975 was approximately 2.7 times higher than the level in 1916. The results indicate that one or more lifestyle factors that changed among adolescent women during the war, influenced their risk of breast cancer. Dietary intake of energy, fat, meat, milk, fish, fresh vegetables, and potatoes, in addition to physical activity level and height, are important factors to consider in relation to breast cancer risk.

  6. Lesser known aspects of Ludwik Fleck's (1896-1961) heroic life during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ciesielska, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Professor Ludwik Fleck was a famous scientist and a prominent philosopher. Although his life and work were studied extensively, the Second World War period was a subject of some discussion and controversy. On account of his Jewish origin, he was first arrested and moved from the Lwów ghetto to the 'Laokoon' factory and then imprisoned in KL Auschwitz-Birkenau and in KL Buchenwald. Fleck produced the anti-typhus vaccine in the chemo-bacteriological laboratory in the Jewish Hospital at Kuszewicza Street and in the 'Laokoon' factory in Lwów. During his incarceration in KL Auschwitz-Birkenau, Fleck worked in the camp laboratory in Block 10 carrying out bacteriological studies for the inmates and then was assigned to work in the Wasserman station in Rajsko. From January 1944 Fleck performed routine laboratory tests in Block 50 in KL Buchenwald. Though Fleck had a privileged life in the camp, he participated in the sabotage activities organized by the camp resistance.

  7. Sciatic nerve entrapment in the upper thigh caused by an injury sustained during World War II at the battle of Anzio. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldershaw, John B; Salem, Ayman; Storrs, Bruce B; Milner, Brenton; Omer, George E

    2004-03-01

    The authors present an unusual case of sciatic nerve entrapment due to a World War II shrapnel injury to the left thigh suffered during the battle of Anzio in 1943. The patient presented for evaluation of left lower-extremity pain in the sciatic nerve distribution. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine revealed a disc bulge at L5-S1 that would not explain severe sciatica. A positive Tinel sign was present in the posterior aspect of the upper thigh at the site of a scar resulting from a World War II shrapnel injury. The patient underwent exploratory external neurolysis of the area, and the sciatic nerve was released from fibrous adhesive entrapment. The patient improved dramatically following surgery. During a 3-year follow-up period, no recurrence of symptoms was noted.

  8. Design at the Edge of the World: The Birth of American Air Intelligence in the China, Burma, India, and the Pacific Theaters during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    DESIGN AT THE EDGE OF THE WORLD: THE BIRTH OF AMERICAN AIR INTELLIGENCE IN THE CHINA, BURMA, INDIA, AND THE PACIFIC THEATERS DURING WORLD WAR...II BY KYLE BRESSETTE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES FOR COMPLETION OF GRADUATION...REQUIREMENTS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES AIR UNIVERSITY MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE, ALABAMA JUNE 2017 DISTRIBUTION

  9. From Socialist Showcase to Mezzogiorno? Lessons on the Role of Technical Change from East Germany's Post-World War II Growth Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Keller

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we emphasize the contribution of technical change, broadly defined, towards productivity growth in explaining the relative East Germany-West Germany performance during the post-World War II era. We argue that previous work was excessively focused on physical capital investments determining productivity differentials, which consequently led to an overestimation of the East German performance during the Socialist era, and an overly pessimistic assessment of the East German prospec...

  10. The mental health sector and the social sciences in post- World War II USA. Part 2: The impact of federal research funding and the drugs revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    The second of two linked papers examining the interactions of psychiatry and the social sciences since World War II examines the role of NIMH on these disciplines. It analyses the effects of the prominence and the decline of psychoanalysis, and the impact of the psychotropic drugs revolution and the associated rise of biological psychiatry on relations between psychiatry and clinical psychology; and it explores the changing relationships between psychiatry and sociology, from collaboration to conflict to mutual disdain.

  11. Provenancing of unidentified World War II casualties: Application of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis in tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Laura; Jonker, Geert; van Aalderen, Patric A; Schiltmans, Els F; Davies, Gareth R

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 and 2012 two sets of unidentified human remains of two World War II soldiers were recovered in the area where the 1944-1945 Kapelsche Veer bridgehead battle took place in The Netherlands. Soldiers of four Allied nations: British Royal Marine Commandos, Free Norwegian Commandos, Free Poles and Canadians, fought against the German Army in this battle. The identification of these two casualties could not be achieved using dental record information of DNA analysis. The dental records of Missing in Action soldiers of the Allied nations did not match with the dental records of the two casualties. A DNA profile was determined for the casualty found in 2010, but no match was found. Due to the lack of information on the identification of the casualties provided by routine methods, an isotope study was conducted in teeth from the soldiers to constrain their provenance. The isotope study concluded that the tooth enamel isotope composition for both casualties matched with an origin from the United Kingdom. For one of the casualties a probable origin from the United Kingdom was confirmed, after the isotope study was conducted, by the recognition of a characteristic belt buckle derived from a Royal Marine money belt, only issued to British Royal Marines, found with the remains of the soldier.

  12. Estimation of maximum increment age in height and weight during adolescence and the effect of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md. Ayub; Ohtsuki, Fumio

    2000-05-01

    An attempt was made to estimate the maximum increment age (MIA) in height and weight of Japanese boys and girls during the birth years 1893-1990 through the published data of the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture in Japan. In cases where the same maximum annual increment occurred in two or three successive age classes in a birth year cohort, a new formula (see Eq. 2) was developed to estimate the MIA. The existing formula for estimating MIA was modified to remove the mathematical deficiency (Eq. 1). Estimated MIA shows an overall declining trend, except in birth year cohorts 1934-1951. The effect of World War II on MIA was investigated by a dummy variable regression model. On average, during the birth years 1934-1951, MIA in height decelerated by 1.35 years in boys and 0.54 year in girls, while MIA in weight decelerated by 0.95 year in boys and 0.78 year in girls. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:363-370, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Writing interventions in older adults and former children of the World War II: impact on quality of life and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Silke; Hahm, Stefanie; Freitag, Simone

    2017-06-05

    The aim of the current study was to analyze whether biographical writing interventions have an impact on depression and QoL compared to daily diary writing. We also wanted to investigate differential effects between structured and unstructured interventions. In two Northern regions of Germany, 119 older adults aged 64-90 were randomly assigned to three different types of narrative writing interventions: written structured and unstructured biographical disclosure as well as daily diary writing. Depression (PHQ-9), QoL (SF-12, EUROHIS) and trauma-related symptoms (PCL-C) were obtained pre- and post-interventions as well as at three-month follow-up. Follow-up measures were obtained from 85 participants (29% loss to follow-up; mean age = 73.88; 68.2% female). Results of repeated measurement analysis demonstrated a significant effect on depression with the daily diary writing group showing lower depressive symptoms than structured biographical writing. We did not find a significant impact on QoL. Post-hoc analyses showed that posttraumatic symptoms lead to increases in depressive symptoms. In a non-clinical sample of community-dwelling older adults, biographical writing interventions were not favorable to daily diary writing concerning the outcomes of the study. This might be related to the association of traumtic reminiscences of former children of World War II and outcome measures.

  14. Exploitation of the Vistula River from earliest times to the outbreak of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Marcin Duchnowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest times, the Vistula River has been an artery used for movement of people, commodities and cultures. The settlement network that began to develop along it constituted the foundation of the emerging Polish state in the Early Middle Ages. In the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights appeared downriver. After the outbreak of Prussia and Gdańsk Pomerania, they formed a state with a powerful economy and army. During their reign along the Vistula River (Wisła, many castles and fortified towns guarding its particular sections were erected. After the end of the Thirteen Years’ War (1466, almost the whole river with its tributaries was incorporated within the limits of Poland or countries recognising its authority. From the middle of the 16th century to the mid-17th century, the Vistula River performed the role of the main Polish trade route for many products sent to Western European countries through Gdańsk. The city was then experiencing the apogee of its magnificence. Cereals were the most important commodity back then. The gentry – the producers – and many towns intermediating in trade were growing rich thanks to the good economic situation. Then, the rich folklore of raftsmen immortalised by poets and pictured by painters came into being. In the 18th century, changes in agriculture in Western European countries and increasing competition caused depression in the export of Polish cereals. In addition, the partitions of Poland affected its balance. Because of this, the Vistula River flowed through three states: Austria, Russia and Prussia. All of them conducted separate policies concerning the river, which caused its decline as an important European water artery. In the 19th century, it remained unregulated. Germans performed the most works in the lower course of the river, while Russians did the least in its middle course. In the period of Second Polish Republic, the revived state had new needs, thus river development was not

  15. Amphibious Landing Operations in World War II: Personal Experience in Applying and Developing Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Operations,” Truscott wrote, “the combination of inexperienced landing craft crews, poor navigation, and desperate hurry resulting in lateness of hour...States Army, 1991), 34-41. 51 After the Army medically discharged Truscott in 1947, he participated in institutional initiatives to capture the

  16. The Capitalist World-System and U.S. Cold War Policies in the Core and the Periphery: A Comparative Analysis of Post-World War II American Nation-building in Germany and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hugh Jo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the emerging cold war, why did the United States stress industrial expansion in Western Europe but focus on primary production alongside policing operations in the non-western world? Examining US postwar occupation in Germany and Korea from a world-systems perspective, this article argues that a given country’s standing in the capitalist economy generally shapes American foreign policy toward that particular country in the early cold war years. A paladin of system-wide prosperity and peace, the United States sought to restore the international division of labor after World War II. Reactions varied across the system, however, because of distinct socio-economic developments. The presence of capital-intensive export-dependent industry afforded western Germany flexible labor-management relations. Politics was overall stable there, and America dispensed with heavy-handed intervention. In southern Korea, labor-exploitive tenancy farming rendered interclass compromise virtually impossible. As intransigent peasants threatened the market economy, the United States used force to keep the ally in the system.

  17. The Experience of Soviet Medicine in World War II 1941-1945. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-25

    which the thermoflows must penetrate going from the surface to the depths. The UHF electrical field is one of the means which provides a deep heating of...effective results were achieved with flabby granulated sur- faces. In these cases, combined therapy was used: Matsestin’skiybaths, solar treatment, diet rich...few minutes after the burn occurred,significant changes in the cells of the solar plexus. However, this concept does not give the authors mentioned the

  18. Gliders of World War II: ’The Bastards No One Wanted’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Eban Emael, the seizure of Crete, and the unconventional use of gliders in the rescue of Benito Mussolini . Finally, the chapter examines the events...Crete, used them in numerous smaller operations. One of the most interesting commando uses of gliders was the rescue of Benito Mussolini from his...Italian defenders and rescue Mussolini .42 The surprise and silence of the glider combined with the relatively low loss of life (only ten killed or

  19. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression analysis of cDNA encoding metalloprotein II (MP II) induced by single and combined metals (Cu(II), Cd(II)) in polychaeta Perinereis aibuhitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dazuo; Zhou, Yibing; Zhao, Huan; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Na; Wang, Bin; Yuan, Xiutang

    2012-11-01

    We amplified and analyzed the complete cDNA of metalloprotein II (MP II) from the somatic muscle of the polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis, the full length cDNA is 904 bp encoding 119 amino acids. The MP II cDNA sequence was subjected to BLAST searching in NCBI and was found to share high homology with hemerythrin of other worms. MP II expression of P. aibuhitensis exposed to single and combined metals (Cu(II), Cd(II)) was analyzed using real time-PCR. MP II mRNA expression increased at the start of Cu(II) exposure, then decreased and finally return to the normal level. Expression pattern of MP II under Cd(II) exposure was time- and dose-dependent. MP II expression induced by a combination of Cd(II) and Cu(II) was similar to that induced by Cd(II) alone.

  20. Phase I/II adaptive design for drug combination oncology trials

    OpenAIRE

    Wages, Nolan A.; Conaway, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Existing statistical methodology on dose finding for combination chemotherapies has focused on toxicity considerations alone in finding a maximum tolerated dose combination to recommend for further testing of efficacy in a phase II setting. Recently, there has been increasing interest in integrating phase I and phase II trials in order to facilitate drug development. In this article, we propose a new adaptive phase I/II method for dual-agent combinations that takes into account both toxicity ...

  1. On the Effectiveness of Military Institutions: Historical Case Studies from World War I, The Interwar Period and World War II. Volume 2. The Interwar Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    criticizlnq CP 40(39), "Staff Conve.:satlons with France and Belgium." 246. I i42 Murray, _ n__L the uropean Balance of Power, pp. 269-74, 43. N.H. Gibbs ... Regla Aeronautica fighter pIlot training continued to instill biplane tactics.IS2 3 Nonetheless, the growing possibility after 1934 that the 8"ia...to Implement such a policy. As a re.sult of this £ failure, from the outset of Italian Intervention in the Second World War, the Regla ezonautica

  2. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  3. The Great Escape: An Analysis of Allied Actions Leading to the Axis Evacuation of Sicily in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    had tired the Italians of war. The Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini , wished to bring back the glory days of the old Roman empire and he never tired...knew they intended to because in the first few days of December the Japanese had asked he and Italy’s Mussolini if they too would declare war on the...ultimate German defeat in Tunisia did nothing to change his views.4 Mussolini followed Hitler’s lead and declared war on the U.S. on 11 December. In

  4. “Reffos, Wogs and Dagoes:” The Immigration Experience in Post-World War II Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Jacobowitz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p77 This article seeks to analyze the ways in which immigrants experienced Australia in the years following World War II, when the makeup of Australian society changed. In The Voyage of Their Life: The Story of the SS Derna and Its Passengers, Diane Armstrong – a child immigrant to Australia – writes, “Homogenous, conservative and almost entirely Anglo-Saxon in its origin, Australians were about to awake from there illusion of perfection” (274. Focusing on memoir, poetry and short stories, this article analyzes Andra Kins’ memoir Coming and Going: A Family Quest; Serge Liberman’s short stories “Home,” “Greetings, Australia!  To You I Have Come,” “The Fortress” and “Two Years in Exile;” Peter Skrzynecki’s The Sparrow Garden; Lily Brett’s poetry; and Susan Varga’s memoir Heddy and Me.  Jewish and non-Jewish immigrants from Russia, Poland, Latvia, Hungary and Ukriane struggled with trying to build new lives in a new land in the face of prejudice and “anti-refo” feeling. Measures were introduced to limit severely the number of Jewish refugees allowed to travel to Australia. Despite these obstacles, Australia was transformed.  According to Mark Wyman, “Eventually, 182,159 DPs emigrated to Australia, led by 60,000 Poles and 36,000 Balts.  Enough of an Eastern European mixture was admitted through Australian gates to constitute a small revolution in the nation’s much-publicized homogeneity.  The long tradition of allowing only British stock down under was broken.  By 1966 almost one in five Australians was a postwar immigrant or the child of one, and 60 percent of this group had non-British ethnic backgrounds” (191.

  5. Transmission patterns of smallpox: systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boer Rob

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because smallpox (variola major may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library of Medicine, Embase, Biosis, Cochrane Library, Defense Technical Information Center, WorldCat, and reference lists of included publications. Two authors reviewed selected papers for smallpox outbreaks. Results 51 relevant outbreaks were identified from 1,389 publications. The median for the effective first generation reproduction rate (initial R was 2 (range 0–38. The majority outbreaks were small (less than 5 cases and contained within one generation. Outbreaks with few hospitalized patients had low initial R values (median of 1 and were prolonged if not initially recognized (median of 3 generations; outbreaks with mostly hospitalized patients had higher initial R values (median 12 and were shorter (median of 3 generations. Index cases with an atypical presentation of smallpox were less likely to have been diagnosed with smallpox; outbreaks in which the index case was not correctly diagnosed were larger (median of 27.5 cases and longer (median of 3 generations compared to outbreaks in which the index case was correctly diagnosed (median of 3 cases and 1 generation. Conclusion Patterns of spread during Smallpox outbreaks varied with circumstances, but early detection and implementation of control measures is a most important influence on the magnitude of outbreaks. The majority of outbreaks studied in Europe and North America were controlled within a few generations if detected early.

  6. Standing Fast: German Defensive Doctrine on the Russian Front During World War II; Prewar to March 1943,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    determined Soviet attacks could no, t, mitaqwit~ed by these mecans alwl:. Micrfo often, depth 𔃻* and tiropeewer we-re metre- .i(fiiits it, the... Transcript of Pro- ceedings (Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College. August 1985), 582. 40. Hosshach. Infanterie. 173. See also -26:3...of War Symposium: From the Dnepr to the Vistula-Souiet Offensive Operations, November 1943-August 1944, a Transcript of Proceedings. Carlisle Barracks

  7. The Shared Burden: United States-French Coalition Operations in the European Theater of World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    General Charles De Gaulle , leader of the Free French, felt strongly enough on this matter that he threatened Eisenhower with removing the French forces...French leadership, and in particular de Gaulle , these goals remained at the forefront throughout the war. De Gaulle wanted to place France in the best...position possible in the post-war world. De Gaulle had to seamlessly replace the Vichy regime and their German handlers with a government capable of

  8. A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies: II Kamerun

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great War' had a major impact on Africa and that is visible in the post stamps used in the various postal territories in Africa. This paper discusses the postal offices, postal services, and stamps used in the German colony Kamerun during the early twentieth century. For the postal history of the First World War in the German colonies Togo, Deutsch-Südwestafrika (SWA) and Deutsch-Ostafrika/German East Africa (GEA), see the ASC working papers 116, 118 and 119.

  9. National / regional / transnational: the Catalan Diaspora and the humanitarian assistance from the Spanish Civil War at the end of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Jensen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the relationship between Catalan diasporic community in the Southern Cone and solidary regional practices, emphasizing projects and initiatives that were articulated on both sides for help to the desplazed persons (first moved into the peninsula during the Civil War, then moved to France after the "withdrawal" and finally evacuated from France to Latin America. Also, try to think from a set of individual and group trajectories of exile which had as destinations to Chile and Argentina, to what extent these countries functioned as a porous space transits, of fluid relationships, information exchange and joint projects for both individuals and groups receiving assistance to local e internacional institutions that generated it. And all this under the activation of complex family networks, partisan political, professional and ideological border and transnational

  10. Belgian’s Political Reconstruction after World War II: An Exemplary Case for the Normalisation of the Post-War Western-European State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Beyens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sorrows of Belgium provides a very rich and beautifully written account of Belgium’s transition from a war-torn society at the beginning of 1944 to a stable, independent democracy by the end of 1947. However, in stressing the level of restoration of the Belgian state and society after the war, Martin Conway often approaches the period of reconstruction somewhat teleologically, and this perspective does little to further a better understanding of the mechanisms at play during periods of regime change such as the period studied. This is a bit of a missed opportunity, as is made clear by comparing The Sorrows of Belgium with the process of reconstruction in France and the Netherlands. Politieke reconstructie van België na de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Een voorbeeld voor de normalisatie van de naoorlogse Westeuropese staat?In The Sorrows of Belgium – een bijzonder mooi geschreven boek – onderzoekt Martin Conway het politieke en maatschappelijke herstelproces in België in de eerste jaren na de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Hij betoogt daarbij dat voor verandering nauwelijks ruimte was en dat de vooroorlogse samenleving nagenoeg geheel terugkeerde. De opzet van het werk is echter nogal teleologisch van aard, waardoor – belangrijke – delen van het verloop van het herstelproces zelf buiten beeld blijven. Dit is jammer omdat een korte vergelijking met de politieke reconstructie in Frankrijk en Nederland na de Tweede Wereldoorlog al gauw duidelijk maakt dat dit onderzoek een grote bijdrage zou kunnen leveren aan de studie van regimewisselingen in meer algemene zin.

  11. Multilayer piezoelectric transducer models combined with Field II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    with a polymer ring, and submerged into water. The transducer models are developed to account for any external electrical loading impedance in the driving circuit. The models are adapted to calculate the surface acceleration needed by the Field II software in predicting pressure pulses at any location in front...

  12. Syphilis and human experimentation from the first appearance of the disease to World War II: a historical perspective and reflections on ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerda-Galindo, E; Sierra-Valentí, X; González-López, E; López-Muñoz, F

    2014-10-01

    Physicians have conducted research on syphilis for centuries, seeking to understand its etiology and the means of transmission as well as find ways to prevent and cure the disease. Their research practices often strayed from today's ethical standards. In this paper we review ethical aspects of the long history of research on syphilis with emphasis on the experiments performed in the 20th century. The description of research around the time of World War II covers medical experiments carried out in US prisons and in the experimentation centers established by Japanese doctors in occupied territory, as well as experiments in Nazi Germany and the treatment of syphilitics there.

  13. 二战后日本马克思主义哲学研究探析%On Marx's philosophy of Japan after World War II

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋振美

    2013-01-01

    After World War II, Japanese Marx scholars have made certain achievements in text interpretation, basic theory research, the practice topic answer, system, Marx's theory and non Marx thought struggle.%  二战以后,日本马克思主义学者在文本解读、基本理论研究、实践课题回答、马克思主义理论体系、与非马克思主义思潮的斗争等方面取得了一定的成就。

  14. Biological and Archaeological Analysis of Deepwater Shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico: Studying the Artificial Reef Effect of Six World War II Shipwrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, R. A.; Irion, J. B.; Schroeder, W. W.; Warren, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    In the summer of 2004 researchers from across the United States and Canada partnered together to investigate biological and archaeological questions relating to six World War II era shipwrecks discovered in the Gulf of Mexico. The science team included microbiologists, marine vertebrate and invertebrate zoologists, a molecular biologist, an oceanographer, marine archaeologists, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) technicians, and a professional marine survey crew. The United States Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, and the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration sponsored this multidisciplinary project under the auspices of the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. The organizational involvement included six universities, two non-profit organizations, three commercial companies, and three U. S. federal agencies. The depth of the shipwrecks ranged from 87 to 1,964 meters. All six shipwrecks were war casualties, found during the past two decades on oil and gas surveys. These wrecks serve as artificial reefs sunk on well- documented dates, thereby offering biologists a unique opportunity to study the "artificial reef effect" of man- made structures in deep water. Taken together, these sites are an underwater battlefield, and a vital historical resource documenting a little-studied area in a crucial period of world history. They preserve information vital to scholarly and popular understanding of the war's impact in the Gulf of Mexico, on the American home front, and the global conflict. This paper will discuss the field methodology and touch on many of the scientific and technical aspects, and findings of the project.

  15. Integrative testimonial therapy: an Internet-based, therapist-assisted therapy for German elderly survivors of the World War II with posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaevelsrud, Christine; Böttche, Maria; Pietrzak, Robert H; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; Renneberg, Babette; Kuwert, Philipp

    2014-09-01

    Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral treatments are known to be effective for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. However, evidence for effective treatments for older persons with PTSD, particularly elderly war trauma survivors, is scarce. In an open trial, 30 survivors of World War II aged 65 to 85 years (mean, 71.73 years; SD, 4.8; n = 17 women) with PTSD symptoms were treated with a Web-based, therapist-assisted cognitive-behavioral/narrative therapy for 6 weeks. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed a significant decrease in PTSD severity scores (Cohen's d = 0.43) and significant improvements on secondary clinical outcomes of quality of life, self-efficacy, and posttraumatic growth from pretreatment to posttreatment. All improvements were maintained at a 3-month follow-up. The attrition rate was low (13.3%), with participants who completed the trial reporting high working alliance and treatment satisfaction. Results of this study suggest that integrative testimonial therapy is a well accepted and potentially effective treatment for older war trauma survivors experiencing PTSD symptoms.

  16. [Verification for reform of the Japanese pharmaceutical education by some organizations in 60 years, after World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Koji; Momose, Kazutaka

    2005-01-01

    After World War II, the Japanese pharmaceutical education system was drastically changed on the advice of the general headquarters of the American occupational army. Two universities and 18 colleges were reformed in to new universities. Graduates from pharmaceutical universities were eligible to take the national pharmacist's license examination, which was conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. New pharmaceutical departments within a university could be founded provided that they conformed to stringent standards set by the Ministry of Education, covering such aspects as location, building facilities, equipment, teaching administration, number of teachers and qualifications, and curriculum. From 1949 to 1983, seven national, three public and 31 private universities with pharmaceutical departments were established. Three departments, pharmacy, manufacturing pharmacy, and biological pharmacy, are present in several pharmaceutical universities. The number of students attending university pharmaceutical departments increased from 4,000 in 1940 to 8,000 in 1983. In 1973, the Japan Pharmaceutical Association proposed a six-year pharmaceutical education system. However, the Council of Deans of in the faculty of pharmaceutical sciences at the national university and the Ministry of Education were opposed. The plans to reform pharmaceutical education were thrown into confusion from 1983 to 1990. The Six Members Council for pharmaceutical education (Rokushakon), the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Welfare, the Japan Pharmaceutical Association, the Japan Hospital Pharmaceutical Association, the Council of Deans in the faculty of pharmaceutical sciences at the national university, and the Association of Private Pharmaceutical Universities was reformed in 1999, and then the council carried out debate into 2004. The Six Members Council arrived at an agreement that requires six years of pharmaceutical educations, including six months of the practical pharmacy

  17. No Quarter Given: The Change in Strategic Bombing Application in the Pacific Theater During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    On War (Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1968), 119, 121, 123. 32LTC S. D. Serafini , Officer Basic Course memorandum, Clausewitz Condensed, CRS-3, US Army...Office, December 1945. Serafini , S. D. “Clausewitz Condensed.” Paper presented to Officer’s Basic Course 15 February 1985, United States Army Training

  18. The Office of Censorship's Attempt to Control Press Coverage of the Atomic Bomb during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Patrick S.

    The Office of Censorship's struggle to keep journalists from revealing the development of the first atomic bomb, the sites where the development was taking place, and the fact that the bomb might be available for use in the war, was desperate and in many ways heroic. Soon after it was created on December 19, 1941, the office issued a voluntary…

  19. From the "Fortress Europe" to a Democratic Confederation: Romanian Visions on the European Construction during the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Sebe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The end of the First World War, with its dramatic changes, opens up the way for a fresh thing as regards Europe. From now on we will be dealing with a thinking balancing between two extremes. On one hand we will have the idea of a Confederation, an union of equals, free and democratic states. On the other side there is the vision of a united Europe under a totalitarian regime, a continent whose frontiers are gone due to the brute force of a totalitarian regime. The start of the Second World War will first favor the Nazis totalitarian ideas on the future of Europe. We will have then an united Europe under the German rule, with a dominant master race. On the opposite side the democratic speech on Europe tends to continue the Inter-war ideals. The Romanian thinkers are also influenced by the European ideas. If in the beginning their speech was influenced by the totalitarian influence, later on, as the tide of war changes they will go toward a more democratic version of the European construction. Europe must be united, the states must be equals and every European coordination mechanism must take into consideration the national sovereignty.

  20. A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies : II Kamerun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great War' had a major impact on Africa and that is visible in the post stamps used in the various postal territories in Africa. This paper discusses the postal offices, postal services, and stamps used in the German colony Kamerun during the early twentieth century. For the postal history of t

  1. A Critical Analysis of the Generalship of General Douglas Macarthur as Theatre Commander in the Pacific during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    imperative the broadenin9 of the concept of Philippine defense, and the str-ength and composition of defense forces hera_? arta believed to be sufficient...war." (13,127) What he apparently never realized was that his insistence on switching to his plan so close to the anticipated beginning of hoti litis

  2. Bergmann's Rule, Adaptation, and Thermoregulation in Arctic Animals: Conflicting Perspectives from Physiology, Evolutionary Biology, and Physical Anthropology After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Joel B

    2017-05-01

    Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule played important roles in mid-twentieth century discussions of adaptation, variation, and geographical distribution. Although inherited from the nineteenth-century natural history tradition these rules gained significance during the consolidation of the modern synthesis as evolutionary theorists focused attention on populations as units of evolution. For systematists, the rules provided a compelling rationale for identifying geographical races or subspecies, a function that was also picked up by some physical anthropologists. More generally, the rules provided strong evidence for adaptation by natural selection. Supporters of the rules tacitly, or often explicitly, assumed that the clines described by the rules reflected adaptations for thermoregulation. This assumption was challenged by the physiologists Laurence Irving and Per Scholander based on their arctic research conducted after World War II. Their critique spurred a controversy played out in a series of articles in Evolution, in Ernst Mayr's Animal Species and Evolution, and in the writings of other prominent evolutionary biologists and physical anthropologists. Considering this episode highlights the complexity and ambiguity of important biological concepts such as adaptation, homeostasis, and self-regulation. It also demonstrates how different disciplinary orientations and styles of scientific research influenced evolutionary explanations, and the consequent difficulties of constructing a truly synthetic evolutionary biology in the decades immediately following World War II.

  3. Post-traumatic stress symptoms linked to hidden Holocaust trauma among adult Finnish evacuees separated from their parents as children in World War II, 1939-1945: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pentti

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify long-term effects of diagnostic criteria on the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) for a test group of Finnish evacuees from World War II and compare the outcome effect with a control group of children who lived in Finland during the war in 1939-1945. 152 participants were recruited by the local leader of the Finnish War Child Association in Sweden and Finland. The selected group answered questions on the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) and the EMBU (Swedish acronym for "Own Memories of Parental Rearing"). Evidence suggests a link between childhood parental separation and termination of the internalized attachment hierarchy of origin in a detachment process among Finnish evacuees. Based on the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Total (PCL-C) diagnosis an extreme traumatization for 36.7% of the test group subjects was identified, including a hidden Holocaust trauma in the population of Finnish evacuees. The study met the criteria for satisfying global evidence value. Sixty-five years after the end of World War II and in line with other studies on war children, the data show high levels of different trauma exposures from the war with 10.6 higher risk (odds ratio) for the exposed group of Finnish evacuees. Despite some limitations, the data highlight the need for further investigation into different parts of the detachment process among seriously traumatized groups to reveal resilience and other dimensions of importance in professional mental health creation.

  4. Prognostic importance of VEGF-A haplotype combinations in a stage II colon cancer population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer-Frifeldt, Sanne; Fredslund, Rikke; Lindebjerg, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prognostic effect of three VEGF-A SNPs, -2578, -460 and 405, as well as the corresponding haplotype combinations, in a unique population of stage II colon cancer patients.......To investigate the prognostic effect of three VEGF-A SNPs, -2578, -460 and 405, as well as the corresponding haplotype combinations, in a unique population of stage II colon cancer patients....

  5. The Politics of Forgetting: Otto Hahn and the German Nuclear-Fission Project in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2012-03-01

    As the co-discoverer of nuclear fission and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, Otto Hahn (1879-1968) took part in Germany`s nuclear-fission project throughout the Second World War. I outline Hahn's efforts to mobilize his institute for military-related research; his inclusion in high-level scientific structures of the military and the state; and his institute's research programs in neutron physics, isotope separation, transuranium elements, and fission products, all of potential military importance for a bomb or a reactor and almost all of it secret. These activities are contrasted with Hahn's deliberate misrepresentations after the war, when he claimed that his wartime work had been nothing but "purely scientific" fundamental research that was openly published and of no military relevance.

  6. Migratory birds: Silent panic and play – Reflections on memories of childhood and adolescence from World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Stenvold

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The museum of reconstruction for Finnmark and Northern Troms uses personal war memories from childhood and adolescence e.g. in exhibitions, articles and lectures. However, 70-year-old memories are most likely processed and changed over time, and critics often consider memories untrustworthy. Some scholars claim that positive memories stick better than negative memories, while others vice versa. The first research question addresses this problem by asking: “Are good or bad experiences most likely remembered?”. Discussing this revealed different factors affecting the memories, such as the desire to honor the parents, the questionnaire design, and more. The purpose of the second research question was to gain a deeper understanding of the factors that might would enhance or hinder resilience or vulnerability in the face of their war experiences at the time.

  7. Bridge Busters: The 397th Bombardment Group (Medium) and the B-26 Marauder in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    mph desired, a bomb load of 3,000 pounds, range over 2000 miles, a service ceiling of at least 20,000 feet, and defensive armament of at least four .30...homeland. In their view, strategic bombing alone could bring victory by destroying the enemy’s will and capability to wage war. This belief rested...higher altitudes.30 Lacking “blind bombing” techniques and technologies, medium bombers in the Pacific often operated below low cloud ceilings for

  8. The II Italian Corps Deployment on the Western Front during the First World War (April 1918-May 1919)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    hours, the brigade commander was informed that the German Government had accepted all peace clauses and the Versailles treaty was signed on June 28...The Versailles treaty granted only the first of the aforementioned goals. 71 achievements became a useless effort in a war that the Fascist...on 16 December 1917. The formal closure of the Eastern Front, which became effective with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918, freed a

  9. Operations GUNNERSIDE and GROUSE - Special Operations During World War II Against the German Controlled Heavy Water Plant in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    Vemork be attacked with sufficient force to destroy all accumulated stocks of heavy water , the major pieces of machinery in the electrolysis plant...chain reaction within the nuclear reactor . Jens-Anton Poulsson, The Heavy Water Raid: The Race for the Atom Bomb 1942-1944 (Orion Forlag AS, 2009...Special Operations during N/A World War ll against the German Controlled Heavy Water Plant in NoiWay. 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  10. From reception of classics to outreach: classical reception and American response to war. A case study. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Lauriola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available After providing a theoretical framework pertaining to the field of Reception of Classic in the first part of this essay (LAURIOLA, 2014 and after discussing some related issues from a pedagogical viewpoint, I introduced, as case study, works and initiatives by a psychiatrist (SHAY, 1991, 1994, 2002, an American director (DOERRIES, 2008, and two scholars (MEINECK, 2010a, b, 2012; TRITLE, 1998, 2000, 2010 who have been proposing a use of Classical Literature as a therapeutic and awareness-raising tool in response to the problems that modern wars have been causing. Veterans and their family, as well as the whole civic community, are the addressees of their work. What follows is a detailed analysis of those works with the intention both to determine whether they can be classified as work of reception – which, so far, has never been proposed – and to discuss the plausibility of this kind of reception, which also turns into social outreach, and how it can be proposed without risking to completely dismiss changes that have occurred in the vision of war, although we may agree that the sufferings of war did not change too much1. Like in the first part, the discussion will be also carried on within a pedagogical discourse. A personal note based on a personal experience will conclude the analysis.

  11. Depression, Somatization, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Born of Occupation After World War II in Comparison With a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2015-10-01

    At the end of World War II and during the first decade after the war, roughly 200,000 children were fathered in intimate contacts between German women and foreign soldiers. The experiences of these German occupation children (GOC) have been so far described in case reports and from historical perspective only. Research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as a GOC has been missing so far. This study examined traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization, and depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire. Findings have then been compared with a representative birth cohort-matched sample from the German general population (N = 977). German occupation children showed significantly higher prevalence rates of most traumatic experiences, higher point prevalence rates of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and somatization than the control group. In summary, GOC often grew up under difficult conditions (e.g., poverty, single mothers, and stigmatization). Even decades later, they showed higher rates of different mental disorders and higher comorbidity. These findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their burdened social, financial, and familial conditions. The results underpin the importance of conceptualizing occupation children as a vulnerable group in postconflict settings.

  12. [Bombed out--psychic and psychosomatic long term consequences of World War II for the cohort born until 1945 in the year 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Heuft, Gereon; Schneider, Gudrun; Klaiberg, Antje; Brähler, Elmar

    2007-01-01

    In a population-based study the hypothesis was pursued as to what extent psychiatric consequences of specific war experiences of the cohort born up to 1945, exemplified through the fate of those bombed out during World War II, can be proven. A representative sample of 2552 participants (1206 men and 1346 women) with an age range from 14 to 92 years were questioned using the random-route-technique by an opinion research institute. The subsample of the cohort born until 1945 was comprised of 776 participants (30.4 % of the complete sample), of whom 375 were men (48.3 %) and 401 women. 161 participants (20.7 % of the cohort born until 1945) had been bombed out (66 men and 95 women). Comparing those who had been bombed out to those who had not been did not show any significant differences concerning their age, their place of residence (Eastern vs. Western Germany), marital status, education level or income level. From a gender perspective women had been bombed out more frequently (p out, low income level and low education level (9 % of the variance could be explained). The results show the necessity for a new approach to the long-term consequences of severe strain and traumata concerning psychopathology of older people. For this purpose the concept of ambivalence must be further developed.

  13. The Living Goddess of Mercy at the Rape of Nanking: Minnie Vautrin and the Ginling Refugee Camp in World War II (1937–1938 †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ping Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the infamous Nanking Atrocity, some Western businesspersons and missionaries established the Nanking Safety Zone to protect about 250,000 refugees. When the Japanese army was pressing on Nanking, Minnie Vautrin, an educational missionary from the United Christian Missionary Society, took charge of the Ginling College campus. As one of the 25 refugee camps, Ginling provided shelter to about 10,000 women and children in late December 1937—the hardest time during World War II in China. With her neutral identity of American nationality, Vautrin seriously struggled with Japanese soldiers when they were seizing Chinese women for rape from the campus; thus, she helped many women avoid the possible fate of sexual violence and slaughter. The Chinese people promoted her as a “Goddess of Mercy”, in the Chinese language a “Living Buddha” (Huo pu sa or “Guanyin Buddha” (Guan Yin pu sa. The Chinese central government awarded her the Order of Jade (Cai Yu xun zhang. Drawing from Vautrin’s diaries and other original materials, this paper narrates this Christian female missionary’s moving story in humanism, evangelism, and internationalism. Her devotion to the Chinese refugee women and children made her an eyewitness to the Nanking Massacre, a rehabilitator of refugee sufferings, and a mental and bodily victim of disastrous war.

  14. [How traumatized are the children of World War II? The relationship of age during flight and forced displacement and current posttraumatic stress symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Carolin; Freitag, Simone; Schmidt, Silke

    2012-08-01

    Traumatic events experienced in childhood can be reactivated in older age. The present study investigates the relation of age during flight and forced displacement within World War II (WWII; 2-7 years, 8-13 years, 14-20 years) and the current occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic events and current posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Impact of Event Scale-revised. Mean age of participants (N=169) was 73.76 years (SD=4.18). The eldest group reported most war-related traumatic events. In each age group a one-week-prevalence for a full PTSD of 10-11% was found. The prevalence for both full and subthreshold PTSD was higher for the age group 14-20 years (60.5%) compared to the younger age groups (33-35%). People, who experienced WWII as adolescents, show a dose-response-effect indicated by a higher prevalence for subthreshold PTSD.

  15. World War II-related post-traumatic stress disorder and breast cancer risk among Israeli women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is related to adverse health outcomes. There are limited data on PTSD and cancer, which has a long latency period. We investigated the association between World War II (WWII)-related PTSD and subsequent breast cancer (BC) risk among Jewish WWII survivors and examined whether this association was modified by exposure to hunger during WWII. We compared 65 BC patients diagnosed in 2005 through 2010 to 200 population-based controls who were members of various organizations for Jewish WWII survivors in Israel. All participants were born in Europe, lived at least six months under Nazi rule during WWII, and immigrated to Israel after the war. We estimated PTSD using the PTSD Inventory and applied logistic regression models to estimate the association between WWII-related PTSD and BC, adjusting for potential confounders. We observed a linear association between WWII-related PTSD and BC risk. This association remained significant following adjustment for potential confounders, including obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking, age during WWII, hunger exposure during WWII, and total number of traumatic life events (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.14-7.31). However, the level of hunger exposure during WWII modified this effect significantly. These findings suggest an independent association between WWII-related PTSD and subsequent BC risk in Jewish WWII survivors that is modified by hunger, a novel finding. Future research is needed to further explore these findings.

  16. War Movies Decoded: Understanding the Logic of War Movie Making from Hollywood to Bollywood and Its Use to Spread Propaganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Introduction War is Cinema and Cinema is War - Paul Virilo World War II: Film and History Why is a war film made? The need to communicate and...using a narrative of non-existent WMD. Therefore, the myth of information transparency in a globalized interconnected world is disputable. While...due to the very nature of the topic is disproportionately interested in the genre of war movies. Gary Freitas in his book War Movies states

  17. Conference on the Trend in Income Inequality in the U.S. Part I, Trends in Inequality of Well-Offness in the United States since World War II. Part 2, Conference Overview: Conceptual Issues, Data Issues, and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, Michael K.; Danziger, Sheldon

    The first part of this document summarizes the current state of knowledge on trends in inequality of economic well-being in the United States since World War II. It surveys alternative answers to the often asked question: Has inequality in the U.S. increased, decreased, or remained roughly the same over a period of time? Intelligent laymen, and…

  18. Did the Germans learn from Goddard? An examination of whether the rocketry of R.H. Goddard influenced German Pre-World-War II missile development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Frank H.

    2016-10-01

    Ever since a few months before the death of American rocket pioneer Dr. Robert H. Goddard, on 10 August 1945, it has been widely claimed he was the true source of the development of the infamous V-2 rocket of World War II - the world's first large-scale liquid-propellant rocket. It is thus alleged the German developers of the V-2 had "stolen" ideas from Goddard to create the V-2 that was also the forerunner of the world's first space launch vehicles. The question of the validity of this claim thus becomes far more significant than first appears and is the subject of this article. But we must first briefly examine other popular conceptions, or rather, misconceptions, about Goddard in our own Space Age. This helps establish a "bigger picture" that identifies some of the problems in overall misinterpretations of Goddard that also applies to his supposed role in the development of the V-2.1

  19. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 3). From the second half of the 19th century to World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    The history of modern pharmaceutical science and technology, from the second half of the 19th century to the end of World War II, is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. The European medical and pharmaceutical science and technology at the end of the 19th century is reviewed. Pharmacology, bacteriology and biochemistry were built in this period. 2. The Meiji Government accepted Western medicine and medical law and regulations in 1883. Consequently, the Japanese physician changed from Eastern (Kanpooi) to Western (Seiyooi). 3. Modern scientific and engineering education had been accepted in America, England, Germany, and France etc. Foreign scientists and engineers (Oyatoi-gai-kokujin) were educated by practice and theory. The Faculty of Engineering was established in the universities in Japan. This fact is one of the differences in the history of universities in Europe and America. 4. Pharmaceutical education in the Meiji period (1873-1911). Twenty-nine schools of pharmacy were built in this period. However, 20 schools of pharmacy had been closed. Pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry was not established in the Meiji era. 5. The profession of pharmacist in 1873-1944. The policy of medicine was changed by the Meiji Government in 1889, when Western physicians were allowed to prepare medicines for patients, and this practice continues today. Political and technological power of Japanese pharmacists was weak, so their role was not estimated. 6. Consequences of world War I, and the establishment of the pharmaceutical industry. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) were won fortunately. The first pharmaceutical company was established in 1885. At this times, many pharmaceutical manufacturing companies, which were converted from whole sale merchants, were built. Then started the manufacturing of commercial drugs. 7. Hygienic chemistry and some problems of public hygiene. The causes of diseses unique to Japan, such as

  20. [Max Planck--an adversary of Christianity? The debate about Planck's attitude towards religion after World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhr, Gebhard

    2012-03-01

    The article discusses a debate which unfolded in the early 1950s and 1960s between East German Marxist philosophers and historians of science and West German theologians and scientists. The subject treated was the attitude towards religion of famous physicist Max Planck who had died a few years earlier, in 1947. The article analyses the different positions of the contributors, mainly with a view to developing a categorial framework usable in descriptions and analyses of the religious attitudes of natural scientists. Moreover the different stages of the debate are outlined in order to exhibit their connections to the larger historical context, i.e. the unfolding of the cold war. In the light of this the debate can be regarded as a religious or ideological war, albeit a cold one, on German soil, which fortunately did not escalate into a hot conflict. It ended, as can be illustrated in a late contribution to the debate, with the collapse of the GDR in 1989 or shortly thereafter.

  1. 美国二战小说中的隐形战场——性%Sex: The Hidden Battlefield in U.S. World War II Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋天平; 纪琳

    2012-01-01

    U.S. World War II novels usually have two themes--anti-fascist and indictment of the modem power, and two battlefields--the fight against the enemy in the front line and the class struggle between the officers and soldiers in the rear line of battlefield. According to the charac- teristics of sexual politics, this paper studies the phenomenon of sex in these novels, and finds out that sex as the hidden battlefield and one kind of the writing strategies works for ideologies of the two lines and also implies the third front line threatening the soldiers' lives. This paper analyzes how in the World War II novels the authors condemn the war and the modem power through a va- riety of sexual behavior, involving heterosexual sex, homosexual sex and sexual violence. However, when sex becomes a tool of political expression, it loses its original meaning and bears too much expectation from authors and readers.%美国二战小说具有两个主题——反法西斯以及控诉现代社会权力,两个战场一~敌我斗争的前线战场和官兵之间阶级斗争的后方战场。根据性的政治属性,本文研究美国二战小说中的性行为,发现性作为隐形战场和写作策略为前两个战场的意识形态服务,并隐含威胁士兵生命的第三条战线。文章揭示了二战小说作者如何通过各种性行为,包括异性、同性和性暴力,谴责战争和抗议权力。当性行为变成政治表述工具时,它失去本身的含义而承载作者和读者过多的期望。

  2. United States Responses to Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation after World War II: National Security and Wartime Exigency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E.; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In 1945-46, representatives of the United States government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the U.S., influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the U.S. played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes. PMID:24534743

  3. Isolated and combined Type II SLAP repairs in a military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enad, Jerome G; Kurtz, Christopher A

    2007-11-01

    The study compares the clinical results of isolated arthroscopic repair of Type II SLAP tears with those of combined treatment for Type II SLAP and other associated shoulder conditions. The population was composed of 36 aged-matched active duty males with a mean age of 31.6 years (range 22-41 years); mean follow-up was 29.1 months (range 24-42 months). Eighteen subjects in Group I had isolated Type II SLAP tears. Eighteen subjects in Group II had Type II SLAP tear and concomitant ipsilateral shoulder conditions, including subacromial impingement in six patients, acromioclavicular arthrosis in three patients, subacromial impingement and acromioclavicular arthrosis in four patients, spinoglenoid cyst in four patients, and intra-articular loose bodies in one patient. Arthroscopic SLAP repair was performed with biodegradable suture anchors. Subacromial decompression and spinoglenoid cyst decompression were performed arthroscopically. Distal claviculectomy was performed in open fashion. Loose bodies were removed arthroscopically. At minimum 2-year follow-up, the mean UCLA score for Group I (30.2 +/- 3.0 points) was not significantly different from Group II (30.8 +/- 2.0 points) (P = 0.48). The mean post-operative ASES score for Group I (84.1 +/- 13.4 points) was significantly lower than for Group II (91.8 +/- 5.4 points) (P SLAP had comparable results with a cohort of Type II SLAP repairs treated in combination with other shoulder conditions, with the combined treatment group having significantly better results in two of three parameters measured. Return to duty rates were identical. Therefore, concurrent treatment of other associated extra-articular shoulder conditions improves the overall success of SLAP repair and the presence of these other conditions should be recognized and treated along with the SLAP tears in order to maximize clinical results.

  4. Phase II study of bevacizumab and temsirolimus combination therapy for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Ulrik; Sorensen, Morten; Gaziel, Tine Bernhardtsen

    2013-01-01

    Bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy has recently shown promising efficacy in recurrent high-grade glioma. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mutation in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients causes abnormally high activity of the pathways of Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K), Protein...... been investigated, but with the hypothesis that temsirolimus might provide complimentary therapeutic benefit in combination with bevacizumab, we included patients with progressive GBM after bevacizumab in an open phase II study....

  5. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... the possibilities of re-appropriating digital software, game engines, and other tools available in digital media. The machinima film scenes demonstrate how war-related stories resemiotize, such as how meaning-making transforms from a story in a war game context to a film context. Thereby, machinima exemplifies how...

  6. Reproductive traits following a parent-child separation trauma during childhood: a natural experiment during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Forsén, Tom; Eriksson, Johan G

    2008-01-01

    Given the ethical limitations of exposing children to experimentally manipulated adverse experiences, evidence of the effects of childhood traumas on subsequent life history are based mostly on women's retrospective reports and animal studies. Only a few prospective studies have assessed the life-long consequences of childhood trauma. We asked whether a traumatic separation from both parents during childhood is associated with reproductive and marital traits later in life, measured by age of onset of menarche, timing of menopause, period of fertile years, age at first childbirth, birth spacing, number of children, and history of divorce. We studied members of the 1934-1944 Helsinki Birth Cohort, including 396 former war evacuees from varying socioeconomic backgrounds, who were sent unaccompanied by their parents to temporary foster families in Sweden and Denmark, and 503 participants who had no separation experiences. Data on separation experiences, number of children, and divorces experienced came from national registers, and the remaining data from a survey among the participants aged 61.6 years (SD = 2.9). Former evacuees had earlier menarche, earlier first childbirth (men), more children by late adulthood (women), and shorter interbirth intervals (men), than the non-separated. A traumatic experience in childhood is associated with significant alterations in reproductive and marital traits, which characterize both women and men. The implications are relevant to the 9.2 million child refugees living throughout the world today.

  7. AN EVALUATION NARRATIVE OF WARS ON HISTORY TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür AKTAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to investigate how the phenomenon of war was studied at the history books of secondary education. The method of the research depends on document analysis. For that reason, the history course books were investigated and the wars told in the books were determined. In the course book of Modern Turkish and World History, you can find wars and treaties. Establishment of Bolshevist regime led to new wars in the political history. In this book, it is likely to see something about World War II as well. Following the World War II, the cold war between Soviets Union and the USA had a great impact on era. The civil wars told in the Modern World History mostly intensified in the African countries. As for the twenty first century, the wars have mostly been realized as the civil wars and terrorism.

  8. Persuasive History: A Critical Comparison of Television's "Victory at Sea" and "The World at War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheisen, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the television series "Victory at Sea" and "The World at War" and their use in teaching about World War II. Contrasts that war's glorious portrayal in "Victory at Sea" with the more ambiguous presentation of "The World at War." Suggests that students can learn a great deal about war and film itself…

  9. Enemy War Crimes: How to Investigate and Prosecute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-30

    automatically think of Nuremberg . In many instances they recall seeing pictures of Goering , Hess, and Speer sitting together being tried before the...think of the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials, but few are familiar with the overall U.S. Army war crimes trials efforts in World War II or what, if any, was...DATE: 30 March 1988 PAGES: 51 CLASSIFICATAION: Unclassified ,When the subject of enemy war crimes is mentioned, most people think of the Nuremberg War

  10. CTEQ-TEA PDFs and HERA run I+II Combined Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Tie-Jiun; Gao, Jun; Guzzi, Marco; Huston, Joey; Nadolsky, Pavel; Pumplin, Jon; Schmidt, Carl; Stump, Daniel; Yuan, C -P

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the impact of the recent HERA run I+II combination of inclusive deep inelastic scattering cross-section data on the CT14 global analysis of PDFs. New PDFs at NLO and NNLO, called CT14$_{\\textrm{HERA2}}$, are obtained by a refit of the CT14 data ensembles, in which the HERA run I combined measurements are replaced by the new HERA run I+II combination. The CT14 functional parametrization of PDFs is flexible enough to allow good descriptions of different flavor combinations, so we use the same parametrization for CT14$_{\\textrm{HERA2}}$ but with an additional shape parameter for describing the strange quark PDF. We find that the HERA I+II data can be fit reasonably well, and both CT14 and CT14$_{\\textrm{HERA2}}$ PDFs can describe equally well the non-HERA data included in our global analysis. Because the CT14 and CT14$_{\\textrm{HERA2}}$ PDFs agree well within the PDF errors, we continue to recommend CT14 PDFs for the analysis of LHC Run 2 experiments.

  11. "They Are Hiring the White Women but They Won't Hire the Colored Women": Black Women Confront Racism and Sexism in the Richmond Shipyards During World War II

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    During World War II, black women migrated largely out of the South to take advantage of the growing defense industries in California. Black women flocked to the shipbuilding industry in Richmond for the great economic opportunities industrial jobs offered. What they found when they arrived and attempted to secure jobs in the shipyards hardly lived up to their dreams and expectations. Black women found themselves faced with dual discrimination due to their race and gender. The shortage of a...

  12. Sir Hugh Cairns and World War II British advances in head injury management, diffuse brain injury, and concussion: an Oxford tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L; Patel, Vimal; Bailes, Julian E

    2016-11-01

    The authors trace the Oxford, England, roots of World War II (WWII)-related advances in head injury management, the biomechanics of concussion and brain injury, and postwar delineation of pathological findings in severe concussion and diffuse brain injury in man. The prominent figure in these developments was the charismatic and innovative Harvey Cushing-trained neurosurgeon Sir Hugh Cairns. Cairns, who was to closely emulate Cushing's surgical and scholarly approach, is credited with saving thousands of lives during WWII by introducing and implementing innovative programs such as helmets for motorcyclists, mobile neurosurgical units near battle zones, and the military usage of penicillin. In addition, he inspired and taught a generation of neurosurgeons, neurologists, and neurological nurses in the care of brain and spinal cord injuries at Oxford's Military Hospital for Head Injuries. During this time Cairns also trained the first full-time female neurosurgeon. Pivotal in supporting animal research demonstrating the critical role of acceleration in the causation of concussion, Cairns recruited the physicist Hylas Holbourn, whose research implicated rotary acceleration and shear strains as particularly damaging. Cairns' work in military medicine and head injury remain highly influential in efforts to mitigate and manage brain injury.

  13. Walking a fine scientific line: the extraordinary deeds of Dutch neuroscientist C. U. Ariëns Kappers before and during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Cohen, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Dutch neuroscientist Cornelius Ubbo Ariëns Kappers is famous for pioneering neuroembryological work and for establishing the Amsterdam Central Institute for Brain Research. Less well known is his anthropological work, which ultimately played a role in saving Dutch Jews from deportation to their deaths during the Holocaust. Ariëns Kappers extensively campaigned against anti-Semitism and Nazi persecution during the 1930s. During World War II, he utilized his credentials to help create anthropological reports "proving" full-Jews were "actually" partial- or non-Jews to evade Nazi criteria, and at least 300 Jews were thus saved by Ariëns Kappers and colleagues. His earlier work demonstrating differences between Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jewish skull indices became the focus of an attempt to save hundreds of Dutch Portuguese Jews collectively from deportation. Ariëns Kappers and colleagues brilliantly understood how anthropology and neuroscience could be utilized to make a difference and to save lives during a tragic era.

  14. Survey of Lake Ontario bottom sediment off Rochester, New York, to define the extent of jettisoned World War II material and its potential for sediment contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gregory; Kappel, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Military-type mat??riel was recovered from the bottom of Lake Ontario near Rochester, N.Y., during bottom-trawl, fish-stock surveys at depths of 75 to 180 feet each year from 1978 through 1996. The recovered mat??riel included many shell-detonator nose cones (2 inches in diameter by about 3.5 inches long); several electronic components; one corroded box of detonators; a corrugated container of mercury-filled capsules; and corroded batteries. Most of the recovered mat??riel has been identified as defective components of shell detonators (proximity-fuze assemblies) that were jettisoned in the lake to protect them from discovery during World War II. Side-scan SONAR, metal-detector, and ROV (remotely-operated-vehicle) surveys found no evidence of any large piles of mat??riel containing potentially hazardous, toxic, or polluting materials within the 17-square-mile study site. Many scattered magnetic anomalies were detected in this area, but chemical analysis of bottom sediment and of zebra- and quagga-mussel (Dreissena spp.) tissue indicate that the concentrations of mercury and other heavy metals are within the previously documented ranges for Lake Ontario sediment. The failure of ROV videos and of SCUBA-diver surveys and probes of the lake bottom to locate any debris indicates that most, if not all, of the debris is scattered and buried under a layer of fine-grained sediment and, possibly, mussels.

  15. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  16. Seeing the Attitude of the Countries to History of World War II through Memorial Hall%通过纪念馆看各国对二战历史的态度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳敏

    2014-01-01

    第二次世界大战的战火已经离我们远去,但是它给全人类带来的深重灾难和心灵创伤永不能忘。战后世界上许多国家都建立了以二战为主题的纪念馆,本文通过对这些著名二战类纪念馆成立背景、概况、展示内容及纪念活动的阐述,反映出除个别当局不尊重事实、歪曲侵略历史外,世界大部分国家都是以纪念馆为依托,表达缅怀二战历史、热爱和平的美好希冀;同时,也呼吁人们深刻认识到战争的残酷和给全人类带来的深重灾难,希望有关当局尊重过往、珍爱和平。%World War II has gone away from us , but it brings the great disaster and trauma to all mankind , which can never be forgotten .After the war , many countries in the world have established memorial halls about World War II-themed ,this paper through the exposition of the background , overview , content of exhibition and commemoration of establishment of these famous World War II Memorial halls , reflects the addition of individual authorities do not respect the facts and distort the history of aggression in addition , most countries in the world are thought to Memorial relying on the memory of World War II history , love of good hope for peace , while it also urges people to a profound understanding of the cruelty of war and brings in grave disaster to mankind , I hope the relevant authorities can respect the past ,and cherish peace .

  17. Fe(II) sorption on a synthetic montmorillonite. A combined macroscopic and spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltermann, Daniela; Fernandes, Maria Marques; Baeyens, Bart; Dähn, Rainer; Miehé-Brendlé, Jocelyne; Wehrli, Bernhard; Bradbury, Michael H

    2013-07-02

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and Mössbauer spectroscopy combined with macroscopic sorption experiments were employed to investigate the sorption mechanism of Fe(II) on an iron-free synthetic montmorillonite (Na-IFM). Batch sorption experiments were performed to measure the Fe(II) uptake on Na-IFM at trace concentrations as a function of pH and as a function of sorbate concentration at pH 6.2 and 6.7 under anoxic conditions (O2 < 0.1 ppm). A two-site protolysis nonelectrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange sorption model was used to quantitatively describe the uptake of Fe(II) on Na-IFM. Two types of clay surface binding sites were required to model the Fe(II) sorption, the so-called strong (≡S(S)OH) and weak (≡S(W)OH) sites. EXAFS data show spectroscopic differences between Fe sorbed at low and medium absorber concentrations that were chosen to be characteristic for sorption on strong and weak sites, respectively. Data analysis indicates that Fe is located in the continuity of the octahedral sheet at trans-symmetric sites. Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements confirmed that iron sorbed on the weak edge sites is predominantly present as Fe(II), whereas a significant part of surface-bound Fe(III) was produced on the strong sites (∼12% vs ∼37% Fe(III) species to total sorbed Fe).

  18. Ni(II immobilization by bio-apatite materials: Appraisal of chemical, thermal and combined treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivić-Ivanović Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bones are natural and rich source of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP, which was found to be a good sorbent material for heavy metals and radionuclides. Various treatments can reduce the content of bone organic phase and improve sorption properties. In this study, sorption capacities of raw bovine bones (B and samples obtained by chemical treatment with NaOH (BNaOH, by heating at 400 oC (B400 and by combined chemical and thermal treatment (BNaOH+400, were compared, using Ni(II ions as sorbates. Maximum sorption capacities increased in the order BII sorption was found to be complex, with participation of both HAP and organic phase (when present. Sequential extraction analysis was applied for testing the stability of Ni(II ions sorbed by BNaOH+400. Majority of Ni(II was found in residual phase (65% at lower level of sorbent loading, while with the increase of sorbent saturation carbonate fraction became dominant (39 %. According to the results, BNaOH+400 can be utilized in water purification systems. As an apatite based material with low organic content and high efficiency for Ni(II sorption, it is also a good candidate for in-situ soil remediation, particularly at lower contamination levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  19. The War Against Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  20. The War Against Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  1. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  2. Reuse fo a Cold War Surveillance Drone to Flight Test a NASA Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. M.; Smith, Norm

    1999-01-01

    Plans for and early feasibility investigations into the modification of a Lockheed D21B drone to flight test the DRACO Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine are discussed. Modifications include the addition of oxidizer tanks, modern avionics systems, actuators, and a vehicle recovery system. Current study results indicate that the D21B is a suitable candidate for this application and will allow demonstrations of all DRACO engine operating modes at Mach numbers between 0.8 and 4.0. Higher Mach numbers may be achieved with more extensive modification. Possible project risks include low speed stability and control, and recovery techniques.

  3. Combined effects of sugarcane bagasse extract and Zinc(II) ions on the growth and bioaccumulation properties of yeast isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Geetanjali Basak; CHARUMATHI D; NILANJANA DAS

    2011-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of zinc(II) ions by yeast isolates viz. Candida rugosa and Cryptococcus laurentii was investigated in different growth media. Both the isolates showed maximum bioaccumulation of zinc(II) in the medium prepared from sugarcane bagasse extract. The growth and zinc(II) bioaccumulation properties of yeasts in sugar cane bagasse extract were tested as a function of pH, temperature and initial metal concentrations. The combined effects of sugar extracted from bagasse and initial zinc...

  4. Preferred SLA class I/class II haplotype combinations in German Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimsa, Ulrike; Ho, Chak-Sum; Hammer, Sabine E

    2017-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are responsible for the antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. High recombination rates in the MHC genes, as observed in humans, are believed to serve the evolutionary goal to achieve a high genetic diversity, allowing for a broad and efficient immune response. In a cohort of 155 pedigreed German Landrace pigs (65 founders and 90 piglets), we found that MHC genes occur in particular class I and class II haplotype combinations. This phenomenon has not been described before, probably because most of the earlier MHC studies in pigs were not pedigree-based. After comparing our data with published genotypes of different European pig breeds and Asian pigs, we hypothesise that the combination of particular but different haplotypes in different geographical regions may have developed under the evolutionary pressure of regionally endemic pathogens. This proposed mechanism ensures an efficient immune response despite low recombination rates.

  5. Le Fort II midfacial distraction combined with orthognathic surgery in the treatment of nasomaxillary hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbo; Dai, Jiewen; Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Wenbin; Shen, Steve Guofang

    2014-05-01

    Patients with nasomaxillary hypoplasia have severe facial concavity and compromised skeletal class III malocclusion. Its treatment is still a challenge to surgeons. Our aim was to evaluate the combination of midfacial distraction and orthognathic surgery in the treatment of nasomaxillary hypoplasia. Four patients with nasomaxillary hypoplasia were enrolled in this study. After Le Fort II osteotomy, the rotational distraction of nasomaxillary complex was performed to rehabilitate facial convexity. Then bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy with or without Le Fort I osteotomy was used to correct malocclusion. All patients healed uneventfully, and the maxillae moved forward conspicuously. No obvious pain and severe discomfort were complained during distraction. A significant advancement and downward movement of the maxilla were shown by cephalometric analysis. The combination of midfacial distraction and orthognathic surgery provides us an ideal alternative in the treatment of nasomaxillary hypoplasia.

  6. Comparative binding energy COMBINE analysis for understanding the binding determinants of type II dehydroquinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peón, Antonio; Coderch, Claire; Gago, Federico; González-Bello, Concepción

    2013-05-01

    Herein we report comparative binding energy (COMBINE) analyses to derive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models that help rationalize the determinants of binding affinity for inhibitors of type II dehydroquinase (DHQ2), the third enzyme of the shikimic acid pathway. Independent COMBINE models were derived for Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis DHQ2, which is an essential enzyme in both these pathogenic bacteria that has no counterpart in human cells. These studies quantify the importance of the hydrogen bonding interactions between the ligands and the water molecule involved in the DHQ2 reaction mechanism. They also highlight important differences in the ligand interactions with the interface pocket close to the active site that could provide guides for future inhibitor design.

  7. High-salt diet combined with elevated angiotensin II accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Maria E; Bernberg, Evelina; Andersson, Irene J

    2009-01-01

    to atherosclerosis. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice received standard or high-salt diet (8%) alone or in combination with fixed angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.5 microg/kg per min). BP was measured using telemetry, and plaque burden was assessed in the thoracic aorta and innominate artery. We...

  8. Combined modality treatment with ternary Cu(II) complexes and X rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, J A; Douple, E B; Abrams, M J; Giandomenico, C M; Bradley, F C; McElligott, M A; Caruso, F S

    1992-01-01

    Ternary Cu(II) complexes with bidentate malonato- and heterocyclic amine ligands were tested with regard to cytotoxicity and potentiation of x-ray induced cell killing in V79 cells. Two lead complexes were also tested in a tumor assay using the MTG-B murine adenocarcinoma model growing in the flanks of female C3H/HeJ mice. One complex, [2,2'-bipyridyl malonatoCu(II)] (RL-5077), produced sensitizer enhancement ratios (SER's) of 1.8 (hypoxic conditions) and 1.0 (oxic conditions) in vitro when irradiation followed 1 hr exposure to the drug at 100 microM. When RL-5077 was administered at doses of 1/2 (11.65 mg/kg) or 1/4 (5.25 mg/kg) the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), 15 min prior to a locally delivered dose of 20 Gy, enhancement ratios (ER's) of 1.6 and 2, respectively, resulted. The second lead complex, [1,10 phenanthroline (malonato)Cu(II)hydrate] (RL-5027), produced SER's of 1.8 and 1.2 under hypoxic and oxic conditions, respectively, at a concentration of 25 microM. Injection of RL-5027 (5 mg/kg) resulted in toxicity without enhancement in combination with radiation. Analogues of these two complexes have been synthesized in an effort to optimize the potentiation of radiation effects while minimizing toxicity to drug alone and increasing water solubility of the drug. Further studies of the structure-activity relationship of Cu(II) ternary complexes using in vitro radiosensitization as the endpoint have identified four classes of ligands with varying biological activity and have supplied information about the effects of group substitution on solubility, toxicity, and radiation potentiation. This group of complexes represents a new class of radiopotentiators that deserves further investigation into its potential for clinical use.

  9. War Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    F286. RG 109, NA. Thanks to Dr. Boyd Switzer, Professor of Nutrition at UNC Medical School, who assisted me here. Lee’s men consumed about 35 to 40...cigarettes, soap bars, and chocolate in. 200 Interviewer Talk to me a little bit, just as a final question, about the impact of the coming Cold War

  10. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  11. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  12. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  13. Chromosome damage induced by DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors combined with {gamma}-radiation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Maria Cristina P.; Dias, Francisca da Luz; Cecchi, Andrea O.; Antunes, Lusania M.G.; Takahashi, Catarina S. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Genetica

    1998-09-01

    Combined radiation and antineoplastic drug treatment have important applications in cancer therapy. In the present work, an evaluation was made of two known topoisomerase II inhibitors, doxorubicin (DXR) and mitoxantrone (MXN), with {gamma}-radiation. The effect of DXR or MXN on {gamma}radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were analyzed. Two concentrations of each drug, 0.5 and 1.0 {mu}g/ml DXR, and 0.02 and 0.04 {mu}g/ml MXN, were applied in combination with two doses of {gamma}-radiation (20 and 40 cGy). A significant potentiating effect on chromosomal aberrations was observed in CHO cells exposed to 1.0 {mu}g/ml DXR plus 40 cGy. In the other tests, the combination of {gamma}-radiation with DXR or MXN gave approximately additive effects. Reduced mitotic indices reflected higher toxicity of the drugs when combined with radiation. (author) 55 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: mcaraujo at spider.usp.br

  14. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  15. CRIMEAN WAR OTTTOMAN COMMEMORATIVE AND MILITARY MEDALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Hakan Tekin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medals are symbols to honor people and also to increase their loyalty to the state. States have revealed forces through medals in a symbolic sense. Although the Ottoman Empire met with the tradition of medal in the period of Sultan Mehmed II, medals became important with Sultan Mahmud I. Commemorative and military medals were pressed by the Ottoman Empire at the end of the Crimean War. The Ottomans used medals as a reflection of not only awards for those showing usefulness in the war but also as a souvenir to commemorate this important battle. Even allied forces and defeated Russia had made medals for Crimean War. In our study, information will be given about Crimean War commemorative and military medals in Ottoman era of the Crimean War. Mecidi Crimean War badges were not included in the study due to the scope of the research.

  16. CAN POLITICIANS SPEED UP LONG-TERM TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE? SOME INSIGHTS FROM A COMPARISON OF THE GERMAN AND US-AMERICAN SYNTHETIC RUBBER PROGRAMS BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER WORLD WAR II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Streb

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available I investigated the effect of government demand on firms’ innovation activities comparing the German and American synthetic rubber industries before, during and after World War II. I obtained three main results. 1. Because of the low price of natural rubber, price and sales guarantees were needed to motivate firms to produce the synthetic rubber BUNA S. 2. Facing fixed prices I.G. Farben improved their efficiency more than the American firms working under cost plus contracts. 3. The patent sharing agreement of the American synthetic rubber program caused firms to hold back advanced synthetic rubber inventions.

  17. Bringing colour back after 70 years: Predicting eye and hair colour from skeletal remains of World War II victims using the HIrisPlex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Pajnič, Irena Zupanič; Walsh, Susan; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Retrieving information about externally visible characteristics from DNA can provide investigative leads to find unknown perpetrators, and can also help in disaster victim and other missing person identification cases. Aiming for the application to both types of forensic casework, we previously developed and forensically validated the HIrisPlex test system enabling parallel DNA prediction of eye and hair colour. Although a recent proof-of-principle study demonstrated the general suitability of the HIrisPlex system for successfully analysing DNA from bones and teeth of various storage times and conditions, practical case applications to human remains are scarce. In this study, we applied the HIrisPlex system to 49 DNA samples obtained from bones or teeth of World War II victims excavated at six sites, mostly mass graves, in Slovenia. PCR-based DNA quantification ranged from 4pg/μl to 313pg/μl and on an average was 41pg/μl across all samples. All 49 samples generated complete HIrisPlex profiles with the exception of one MC1R DNA marker (N29insA) missing in 83.7% of the samples. In 44 of the 49 samples (89.8%) complete 15-loci autosomal STR (plus amelogenin) profiles were obtained. Of 5 pairs of skeletal remains for which STR profiling suggested an origin in the same individuals, respectively, 4 showed the same HIrisPlex profiles and predicted eye and hair colours, respectively, while discrepancies in one pair (sample 26 and 43) are likely to be explained by DNA quantity and quality issues observed in sample 43. Sample 43 had the lowest DNA concentration of only 4pg/μl, producing least reliable STR results and could be misleading in concluding that samples 43 and 26 originate from the same individual. The HIrisPlex-predicted eye and hair colours from two skeletal samples, suggested to derive from two brothers via STR profiling together with a living sister, were confirmed by the living sister's report. Overall, we demonstrate that after more than 70 years, HIris

  18. Primul Război Mondial (1914-1918. Contribuţii cartofilice / The First World War (1914-1918 in deltiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Griţco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of research of the museum's collection of postcards on the theme of the First World War, which was carried out in connection with the centenary since the war began. At the present stage of the evolution of historical science a special role belongs to the documentary sources that had previously been "less required", including illustrated postcards. At the beginning of the 20th century postcards know peak of their evolution. Being very popular, mobile and accessible, during the war they fulfilled several functions. In addition to performing the functions of postal items, they become an accessible form of propaganda and a source of supplementing military budget.

  19. War casualties on the home front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda J. Flinn

    2005-11-01

    On May 12, 1942, at Christopher coal mine No. 3 in Osage, West Virginia, a continent away from the frontlines of World War II, Superintendent Ed O'Neil saw the mine ventilation fan suddenly run backwards, propelled by a strong gust of air that tore the belt off the huge blower. The second shift mantrip of 115 coal miners, traversing the drift mouth for the 3:00 p.m. shift, ground to an uneasy halt. The article recounts the tragic consequences of this incident. It also tells of other events affecting coal miners during World War I and World War II.

  20. War Games: "Ender's Game", "The Monuments Men", and Movies for Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of adolescent fantasy movies about cosmic war and the enjoyment of military adventures that we find in World War II movies suggest the unique importance of war-themed culture in fostering solidarity in large, complex, and factionalized societies. War movies offset the power of sub-cultural movements by emphasizing the togetherness…

  1. War Games: "Ender's Game", "The Monuments Men", and Movies for Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of adolescent fantasy movies about cosmic war and the enjoyment of military adventures that we find in World War II movies suggest the unique importance of war-themed culture in fostering solidarity in large, complex, and factionalized societies. War movies offset the power of sub-cultural movements by emphasizing the togetherness…

  2. You Can Help Your Country: English Children's Work during the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayall, Berry; Morrow, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Using a rich collection of archives, school histories, photographs and memoirs, this book charts and discusses the contributions English children made to the war effort during World War II. As men and women were increasingly called up for war work, as the country needed to grow as much food as possible, and as the war effort required ever…

  3. Enhanced infrared detectors using resonant structures combined with thin type-II superlattice absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldflam, M. D.; Kadlec, E. A.; Olson, B. V.; Klem, J. F.; Hawkins, S. D.; Parameswaran, S.; Coon, W. T.; Keeler, G. A.; Fortune, T. R.; Tauke-Pedretti, A.; Wendt, J. R.; Shaner, E. A.; Davids, P. S.; Kim, J. K.; Peters, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    We examined the spectral responsivity of a 1.77 μm thick type-II superlattice based long-wave infrared detector in combination with metallic nanoantennas. Coupling between the Fabry-Pérot cavity formed by the semiconductor layer and the resonant nanoantennas on its surface enables spectral selectivity, while also increasing peak quantum efficiency to over 50%. Electromagnetic simulations reveal that this high responsivity is a direct result of field-enhancement in the absorber layer, enabling significant absorption in spite of the absorber's subwavelength thickness. Notably, thinning of the absorbing material could ultimately yield lower photodetector noise through a reduction in dark current while improving photocarrier collection efficiency. The temperature- and incident-angle-independent spectral response observed in these devices allows for operation over a wide range of temperatures and optical systems. This detector paradigm demonstrates potential benefits to device performance with applications throughout the infrared.

  4. Combined Electrical, Optical and Nuclear Investigations of Impurities and Defects in II-VI Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS325 \\\\ \\\\ To achieve well controlled bipolar conductivity in II-VI semiconductors represents a fundamental problem in semiconductor physics. The doping problems are controversely discussed, either in terms of self compensation or of compensation and passivation by unintentionally introduced impurities. \\\\ \\\\It is the goal of our experiments at the new ISOLDE facility, to shed new light on these problems and to look for ways to circumvent it. For this aim the investigation of impurities and native defects and the interaction between each other shall be investigated. The use of radioactive ion beams opens the access to controlled site selective doping of only one sublattice via nuclear transmutation. The compensating and passivating mechanisms will be studied by combining nuclear, electrical and optical methods like Perturbed Angular Correlation~(PAC), Hall Effect~(HE), Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy~(DLTS), Photoluminescence Spectroscopy~(PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). \\\\ \\\\We intend to ...

  5. Efficient vaccine against pandemic influenza: combining DNA vaccination and targeted delivery to MHC class II molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grødeland, Gunnveig; Bogen, Bjarne

    2015-06-01

    There are two major limitations to vaccine preparedness in the event of devastating influenza pandemics: the time needed to generate a vaccine and rapid generation of sufficient amounts. DNA vaccination could represent a solution to these problems, but efficacy needs to be enhanced. In a separate line of research, it has been established that targeting of vaccine molecules to antigen-presenting cells enhances immune responses. We have combined the two principles by constructing DNA vaccines that encode bivalent fusion proteins; these target hemagglutinin to MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Such DNA vaccines rapidly induce hemagglutinin-specific antibodies and T cell responses in immunized mice. Responses are long-lasting and protect mice against challenge with influenza virus. In a pandemic situation, targeted DNA vaccines could be produced and tested within a month. The novel DNA vaccines could represent a solution to pandemic preparedness in the advent of novel influenza pandemics.

  6. Chromosome damage induced by DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors combined with g-radiation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina P. Araújo

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Combined radiation and antineoplastic drug treatment have important applications in cancer therapy. In the present work, an evaluation was made of two known topoisomerase II inhibitors, doxorubicin (DXR and mitoxantrone (MXN, with g-radiation. The effects of DXR or MXN on g-radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells were analyzed. Two concentrations of each drug, 0.5 and 1.0 µg/ml DXR, and 0.02 and 0.04 µg/ml MXN, were applied in combination with two doses of g-radiation (20 and 40 cGy. A significant potentiating effect on chromosomal aberrations was observed in CHO cells exposed to 1.0 µg/ml DXR plus 40 cGy. In the other tests, the combination of g-radiation with DXR or MXN gave approximately additive effects. Reduced mitotic indices reflected higher toxicity of the drugs when combined with radiation.A associação de radiação ionizante com drogas antineoplásicas tem importante aplicação na terapia do câncer. No presente trabalho, foram avaliados os efeitos de dois inibidores de topoisomerase II, doxorubicina (DXR e mitoxantrona (MXN, sobre as aberrações cromossômicas induzidas pelas radiações-g em células do ovário de hamster chinês (CHO. Foram usadas as concentrações 0,5 e 1,0 mg/ml de DXR e 0,02 e 0,04 mg/ml de MXN, combinadas com duas doses de radiações gama (20 e 40 cGy. Um significativo efeito potenciador das aberrações cromossômicas foi observado em células CHO tratadas com 1,0 mg/ml de DXR e expostas a 40 cGy de radiação. Nos outros testes, a combinação da radiação-g com a DXR ou MXN apresentou um efeito próximo ao aditivo. A redução dos índices mitóticos refletiu a alta citotoxicidade das drogas quando combinadas às radiações-g.

  7. [The Continuity Between World War II and the Postwar Period: Grant Distribution by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Subsidiary Fund for Scientific Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizusawa, Hikari

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distribution of the Subsidiary Fund for Scientific Research, a predecessor to the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI), which operated in Japan from the 1930s to 1950s. It reveals that the Japanese government maintained this wide-ranging promotion system since its establishment during the war until well into the postwar period. Previous studies insist that, at the end of the war, the Japanese government generally only funded the research that it considered immediately and practically useful. In contrast to this general perception, my analysis illustrates that both before and after the war, funding was allotted to four research areas: natural science, engineering, agriculture, and medicine. In order to illuminate this continuity, I compare the Subsidiary Fund with another research fund existing from 1933 to 1947: the Grant of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). The comparison demonstrates that the JSPS received externally raised capital from the military and munitions companies. However, while this group focused upon engineering and military-related research as the war dragged on, the Subsidiary Fund has consistently entrusted scientists with the authority to decide the allocation of financial support.

  8. Rebuttal to McAleer J. Mobility redux: Post-World War II prosthetics and functional aids for veterans, 1945 to 2010. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2011;48(2:vii-xvi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart M. Coulter, PhD

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor:This letter addresses the following sentence in the "Mobility redux: Post-World War II prosthetics and functional aids for veterans, 1945 to 2010" editorial that appeared in JRRD, Volume 48, Number 2. The sentence on page xv, second column: "Early testing and rigorous subject feedback clearly showed that DEKA II's first active socket design was not what patients wanted or needed." is not accurate. There is evidence in the historical literature on problematic prosthetic sockets. However, user response to the interface design introduced as part of the DEKA Arm System in collaboration with prosthetists at biodesigns, Inc (Santa Monica, California and Next Step Orthotics and Prosthetics, Inc (Manchester, New Hampshire has been quite favorable.It would be accurate to say "Early testing and rigorous subject feedback clearly showed that the active socket design used as part of the DEKA Arm System offers significant benefits and was positively received by research subjects."

  9. A phase II trial of a biweekly combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli Gian

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many emerging new drugs have recently been trialled for treatment of early and advanced breast cancer. Among these new agents paclitaxel and gemcitabine play a crucial role, mostly in patients with relapsed and metastatic disease after failure of chemotherapy with antracyclines. Methods A phase II study was started in order to evaluate the activity and toxicity of a combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in a biweekly schedule on metastatic breast cancer patients previously treated with antracyclines. Results Twenty-five patients received paclitaxel (150 mg/mq by 3-hours infusion, followed by gemcitabine (2000 mg/mq given as a 60 min i.v. infusion (day 1–14 for a maximum of eight cycles. In all patients treatment was evaluated for toxicity and efficacy; four patients (16% achieved a complete response, 12 (48% a partial response giving an overall objective response rate of 64%. Stable disease was documented in 5 patients (20% and progressive disease occurred in 4 patients (16%. Conclusion The schedule of treatment was safe and tolerable from a haematological and non-haematological point of view. These data confirm that the combination of gemcitabine and paclitaxel on a biweekly basis is an effective and well-tolerated regimen in breast cancer patients with prior therapeutic exposure to antracyclines.

  10. A phase II trial of a biweekly combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomao, Silverio; Romiti, Adriana; Tomao, Federica; Di Seri, Marisa; Caprio, Giuliana; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Terzoli, Edmondo; Frati, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    Background Many emerging new drugs have recently been trialled for treatment of early and advanced breast cancer. Among these new agents paclitaxel and gemcitabine play a crucial role, mostly in patients with relapsed and metastatic disease after failure of chemotherapy with antracyclines. Methods A phase II study was started in order to evaluate the activity and toxicity of a combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in a biweekly schedule on metastatic breast cancer patients previously treated with antracyclines. Results Twenty-five patients received paclitaxel (150 mg/mq) by 3-hours infusion, followed by gemcitabine (2000 mg/mq) given as a 60 min i.v. infusion (day 1–14) for a maximum of eight cycles. In all patients treatment was evaluated for toxicity and efficacy; four patients (16%) achieved a complete response, 12 (48%) a partial response giving an overall objective response rate of 64%. Stable disease was documented in 5 patients (20%) and progressive disease occurred in 4 patients (16%). Conclusion The schedule of treatment was safe and tolerable from a haematological and non-haematological point of view. These data confirm that the combination of gemcitabine and paclitaxel on a biweekly basis is an effective and well-tolerated regimen in breast cancer patients with prior therapeutic exposure to antracyclines. PMID:16723016

  11. Class II: a comparison of activator and activator headgear combination appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Y; Tankuter, N

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal and dental effects of activator and activator high-pull headgear combination appliances on growing patients with Class II, division 1 malocclusion. The material consisted of pre- and post-treatment cephalograms of 17 boys and 20 girls. Seventeen patients (eight male and nine female) were treated with an activator, the remaining 20 (9 male and 11 female) were treated with an activator high-pull headgear combination (AHGC) appliance. Changes due to treatment were compared with a group of 19 (nine male and ten female) untreated children. ANB angle was significantly reduced and mandibular growth development was favourable in both treatment groups. The AHGC appliance was more effective in the reduction of the maxillary prognathism. An increase of the anterior facial height and clockwise rotation of the occlusal plane was observed in the patients treated with activator appliance. The cant of the mandibular plane remained stable during both treatment periods. On the other hand, the forward displacement of the upper first molars was reduced significantly and the axial inclination of the lower incisors was controlled much better with the AHGC appliance.

  12. Microleakage of Class II Combined Amalgam-Composite Restorations Using Different Composites and Bonding Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sharafeddin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the microleakage of composite restorations with and without a cervical amalgam base and to compare the results of dif-ferent composites and bonding agents.Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty mesio-occlusal (MO and disto-occlusal (DO Class II cavities were prepared on sixty extracted permanent premolar teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 30 and restored as follows:In group A, the mesio-occlusal cavity (MO, Scotchbond multi purpose plus + Z250 and in the disto-occlusal (DO cavity, Prompt-L-Pop + Z250 were applied. As for group B, in the MO and DO cavities, Clearfil SE Bond + Clearfil APX, and varnish + amalgam (In box + Clearfil SE Bond + Clearfil APX were used respectivelywhile in group C; the teeth were restored with amalgam and varnish mesio-occlusally and with amalgam only disto-occlusally. As for group D, varnish + amalgam (in box + Scotchbond multi purpose plus + Z250 were applied mesio-occlusally and Varnish + Amalgam (in box + Prompt–L–Pop + Z250 disto-occlusally.Marginal leakage was assessed by the degree of dye penetration into various sections of the restored teeth. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis.Results: Microleakage in gingival margin was more than that in occlusal margin (P<0.05 and microleakage of combined amalgam-composite restorations was significantly lower than that of conventional composite and amalgam restorations.Conclusion: Marginal microleakage decreased by using amalgam at the base of the box in Class II composite restorations.

  13. The Evolution of Integrated Close Air Support: World War 2, Korea and the Future of Air-Ground Combined Arms Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Translated by Oberstleutnant Lothar Sauermann Lw, student at SAASS. 77 Thomas E. Greiss series ed., West Point Atlas for the Second World War, ( Garden City...School program. The Marine Corps‟ Basic School mission evolved to inculcate all newly minted Second Lieutenants and Warrant Officers (male and female) in

  14. Nimotuzumab combined with radiotherapy for esophageal cancer: preliminary study of a Phase II clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jun Liang,1 Mingyan E,2 Gang Wu,3 Lujun Zhao,4 Xia Li,5 Xia Xiu,6 Ning Li,1 Bo Chen,1 Zhouguang Hui,1 Jima Lv,1 Hui Fang,1 Yu Tang,1 Nan Bi,1 Wenqing Wang,1 Yirui Zhai,1 Tao Li,1 Dongfu Chen,1 Shuangmei Zou,7 Ning Lu,7 Rolando Perez-Rodríguez,8 Junqi Zheng,9 Luhua Wang11Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Radiotherapy, Tongji Cancer Center Hospital, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 4Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 5Department of Radiotherapy, LiaoNing Province Cancer Hospital, Shenyang, People's Republic of China; 6Department of Radiotherapy, Beijing Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 7Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 8Center of Molecular Immunology, Havana, Cuba; 9School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaObjective: To determine the safety and therapeutic effects of nimotuzumab (h-R3 combined with radiotherapy in esophageal cancer.Methods: This Phase II clinical trial involved 42 patients with stage II (inoperable or refused surgery to stage IV (supraclavicular lymph node metastasis only esophageal cancers treated between November 2008 and July 2010. All patients had squamous cell carcinomas, and all received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and 200 mg nimotuzumab per week during radiotherapy.Results: There were 9, 25, and 8 patients with stage II, III and IV disease, respectively. All except two patients received 50–70 Gy radiation; 37 patients (88.1% received more than five nimotuzumab doses. Grade III toxicities (21.4% of all adverse events included esophagitis and gastrointestinal, dermatological and hematological

  15. Health and Civil War in Rural Burundi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundervoet, Tom; Verwimp, Philip; Akresh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We combine household survey data with event data on the timing and location of armed conflicts to examine the impact of Burundi's civil war on children's health status. The identification strategy exploits exogenous variation in the war's timing across provinces and the exposure of children's birth cohorts to the fighting. After controlling for…

  16. Phase II trial of docetaxel combined with nedaplatin for patients with recurrent and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng PJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pei-Jian Peng,1,* Bao-Jun Lv,2,* Con Tang,2,* Hai Liao,3 Zhong Lin,1 Yu-Meng Liu,4 Zhi-Hui Wang,1 Si-Yang Wang,5 Zhi-Bin Cheng5 1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Department of Surgical Oncology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, 3Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Centre, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 4Department of Oncology, People’s Hospital of Zhongshan City, Zhongshan, 5Department of Radiation Oncology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: This Phase II trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of docetaxel combined with nedaplatin as first-line treatment for patients with recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: In this multicenter Phase II trial, the patients were treated with intravenous docetaxel (75 mg/m2, day 1 and nedaplatin (80 mg/m2, day 1, each cycle repeated every 3 weeks for two cycles at least. Results: From January 2010 to November 2013, a total of 78 patients were recruited in this trial. Among them, 73 patients were assessable for response. The treatment was well tolerated. The main hematological adverse event was neutropenia. A total of 12 patients (15.4% had grade 3 or grade 4 neutropenia. Grade 3 anemia was observed in six patients (7.7% and no grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia was observed. No Grade 3/4 non-hematological toxicity was observed. There were five complete response (6.8%, 43 partial responses (58.9%, and the overall response rate was 65.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48.7%–81.2%. With a median follow-up period of 18.6 months, the median time to progression was 7.9 months (95% CI, 4.2–10.8 months, median overall survival was 15.7 months (95% CI, 11.6–18.5 months. Conclusion: Docetaxel combined with nedaplatin offers a satisfactory clinical activity and an acceptable safety profile as first

  17. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515 nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0 mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55 μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n = 10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5 mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1 h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples.

  18. A Recounting of the Stages of French Communist Resistance during World War II and its Relationship to the French Resistance Overall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus, Eoin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will recount the stages of communist resistance in France during World War Two and its relationship to the French Resistance overall, as well as analyse the effect that communist resistance in France had on the war. It will outline the position of the French Communist Party (PCF in three different and distinctive periods: pre-1939, 1939 to the German invasion of the USSR in 1941, and from Operation Barbarossa to the liberation of France. This paper uses primary and secondary sources to create as balanced and objective an essay as possible. It will show that, for most of its existence, the PCF had been operating in a clandestine state and was thus the best prepared of any group for the outbreak of hostilities. The Communists were not necessarily late in joining the war, with resistance as we know it only beginning when the Communists began to resist. The relationship between the communist resisters and the other resistance groups is discussed, with particular reference to de Gaulle and shows the large degree of autonomy that the Communists maintained. What can be said with certainty of communist resistance in France is that it prevented greater casualties among the Allies through its acts of sabotage and its engagement of the enemy. This dissertation challenges the myth of the French Resistance and asserts that the Communists had the greatest influence of any group in the Resistance.

  19. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  20. Multi-objective Local Search Combined with NSGA-II for Bi-criteria Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiu; Zhang, Wenqiang; Weng, Wei; Fujimura, Shigeru

    This paper proposed a multi-objective local search procedure (MOLS). It is combined with NSGA-II for solving bi-criteria PFSP with the objectives of minimizing makespan and maximum tardiness. Utilizing the properties of active blocks for flow shop scheduling problem, neighborhood structures MOINS (multi-objective insertion) and MOEXC (multi-objective exchange) are designed in order to improve efficiency of perturbation. Any perturbation based on MOINS and MOEXC takes effect on different criteria simultaneously. The original idea of MOLS is systematic change neighborhoods in the local search procedure. The search direction of MOLS on an individual is naturally guided by interaction of MOINS and MOEXC. Moreover, there is no need to set parameters in MOLS. The MOLS combined with popular multi-objective evolutionary algorithm NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II) is called as “NSGA-II-MOLS”. To illustrate the efficacy of proposed approach, four different scaled problems are used to test performance of NSGA-II-MOLS. The numerous comparisons show efficacy of NSGA-II-MOLS is better than most of algorithms even with the same number of individual evaluations and parameters setting.

  1. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  2. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes ...

  3. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  4. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  5. Combined effect of genetic polymorphisms in phase I and II biotransformation enzymes on head and neck cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacko, M.; Voogd, A.C.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Ophuis, M.B.; Peters, W.H.M.; Manni, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combinations of genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes might modify the individual risk for head and neck cancer. METHODS: Blood from 432 patients with head and neck cancer and 437 controls was investigated for genetic polymorphisms in 9 different phase I and II biotransforma

  6. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  7. Edward Kennedy: the Reporter at War

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ASSOCIATED PRESS WAR CORRESPONDENT Edward Kennedy (1905–1963) was among the 17 journalists chosen to witness Germany’s surrender, ending Allied combat operations in Europe during World War II (Knightley, 2002). While en route to the early morning meeting, all members of the press corps were warned that the story was under embargo until Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (or SHAEF) issued its official release. After the event, the armed services placed a 36- hour embargo on the st...

  8. Temozolomide combined with irradiation as postoperative treatment of primary glioblastoma multiforme. Phase I/II study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, S.E.; Gutwein, S.; Schulz-Ertner, D.; Thilmann, C.; Wannenmacher, M.M.; Debus, J. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Kampen, M. van [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Nordwestkrankenhaus Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Edler, L. [Central Unit Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Background and purpose: the role of radiochemotherapy in the treatment of primary glioblastoma multiforme is still discussed controversially. To evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of irradiation and concomitant administration of 50 mg/m{sup 2} temozolomide in patients with primary malignant glioma, this phase I/II study was conducted. Patients and methods: 53 patients with histologically confirmed WHO grade IV malignant glioma were enrolled into the study. All patients were treated with radiation therapy up to a total dose of 60 Gy using conventional fractionation of 5 x 2.0 Gy/week. Temozolomide was administered orally each therapy day at a dose of 50 mg/m{sup 2}. Results: prior to radiochemotherapy, complete resection (n = 14), subtotal resection (n = 22) or a biopsy (n = 17) of the tumor was performed. The median time interval between surgery and radiochemotherapy was 21 days. Treatment-related toxicity was very mild. Acute toxicity > grade 2 was observed in one patient who developed grade 4 hemotoxicity. Minor side effects of chemotherapy included nausea and vomiting. No severe late effects were observed. Median progression-free and overall survival were 8 and 19 months, respectively. The overall survival rate was 72% at 1 and 26% at 2 years. Age and extent of surgery significantly influenced survival. Conclusion: the combination of temozolomide plus radiation therapy is feasible and safe in terms of toxicity. Overall survival times were relatively long compared to survival times reported for radiotherapy alone. The application of 50 mg/m{sup 2} of temozolomide can be performed throughout the whole time course without interruption due to side effects and might largely contribute to the prolonged overall survival. Further evaluation is warranted as to which dose of temozolomide is optimal with regard to tumor response and toxicity. (orig.)

  9. Cu(II), Fe(III) and Mn(II) combinations as environmental stress factors have distinguishing effects on Enterococcus hirae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanyan, Zaruhi; Trchounian, Armen

    2015-02-01

    Pollution by various heavy metals as environmental stress factors might affect bacteria. It was established that iron (Fe(III)), manganese (Mn(II)) and copper (Cu(II)) ion combinations caused effects on Enterococcus hirae that differed from the sum of the effects when the metals were added separately. It was shown that the Cu2+-Fe3+ combination decreased the growth and ATPase activity of membrane vesicles of wild-type E. hirae ATCC9790 and atpD mutant (with defective FoF1-ATPase) MS116. Addition of Mn2+-Fe3+ combinations within the same concentration range had no effects on growth compared to control (without heavy metals). ATPase activity was increased in the presence of Mn2+-Fe3+, while together with 0.2 mmol/L N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), ATPase activity was decreased compared to control (when only 0.2 mmol/L DCCD was present). These results indicate that heavy metals ion combinations probably affect the FOF1-ATPase, leading to conformational changes. Moreover the action may be direct or be mediated by environment redox potential. The effects observed when Fe3+ was added separately disappeared in both cases, which might be a result of competing processes between Fe3+ and other heavy metals. These findings are novel and improve the understanding of heavy metals ions effects on bacteria, and could be applied for regulation of stress response patterns in the environment.

  10. Analysis of the reason that Japan Mikado system retained after World War II%浅析二战后日本天皇制被保留的原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕青

    2012-01-01

      二战后日本天皇制被保留是由当时的国际形势多决定的。美国总统的更替与其内部的争论以及美国的战略考虑;中国蒋介石的态度与其战略考虑;日本国内民众的态度等都是影响天皇制是否被保留的重要因素%  After World War II Japan Mikado system retained by the international situation of multiple decision. The United States presidential replacement and internal debate and the strategic considerations of United States; Jiang Jie-shi's attitude and strategic consideration; Japan domestic public attitudes are the important factors affecting Mikado system retained.

  11. Combined spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques to study interaction of Zn (II) DiAmsar with serum albumins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardajee, Ghasem Rezanejade, E-mail: rezanejad@pnu.ac.ir; Hooshyar, Zari; Shafagh, Pegah; Ghiasvand, Samira; Kakavand, Nahaleh

    2014-12-15

    Zinc (II) diamine-sarcophagine (Zn (II) DiAmsar) as a water soluble hexadentate ligand was synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy. The bindings of Zn (II) DiAmsar with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated under the simulative physiological conditions. To study this binding, the fluorescence spectra in combination with FT-IR, UV–vis, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and molecular docking techniques were used in the present work. The results indicate that Zn (II) DiAmsar quenched effectively the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA and BSA via a static quenching process. The fluorescence quenching data was also used to determine binding sites and binding constants at different temperatures. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S°) suggest that the binding process occurs spontaneously by involving hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions. The distance between HSA (or BSA) as a donor and Zn (II) DiAmsar as an acceptor was obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In addition, the docking results revealed the possible binding sites and assess the microenvironment around the bounded Zn (II) DiAmsar.

  12. Combined application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the NANDA-International Taxonomy II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Christine; Grill, Eva; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Brach, Mirjam; Rauch, Alexandra; Eriks-Hoogland, Inge; Stucki, Gerold

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the conceptual and practical relationships between the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the NANDA-International Taxonomy II for nursing diagnoses, and their use in nursing practice. The ICF provides a common classification framework for all healthcare professionals, including nurses. Nursing care plans can be broadly based on NANDA-I taxonomies. No published attempt has been made to systematically compare the NANDA-I Taxonomy II to the ICF. The most recently published descriptions of both classifications and a case example presenting the combined use of both classifications. The work was carried out in 2009. There are conceptual commonalities and differences between the ICF and the NANDA-I Taxonomy II. In the case example, the overlap between the ICF categories and NANDA-I nursing diagnoses reflects the fact that the ICF, focusing on functioning and disability, and the NANDA-I Taxonomy II, with its functioning health patterns, are similar in their approaches. The NANDA-I Taxonomy II permits the fulfilment of requirements that are exclusively nursing issues. The application of the ICF is useful for nurses to communicate nursing issues with other healthcare professionals in a common language. For nurses, knowledge shared with other healthcare professionals may contribute to broader understanding of a patient's situation. The ICF and the NANDA-I Taxonomy II should be used in concert by nurses and can complement each other to enhance the quality of clinical team work and nursing practice.

  13. Combination of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy is associated with improved survival at early stage type II endometrial cancer and carcinosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozen, Hamdullah; Çiftçi, Rumeysa; Vatansever, Dogan; Topuz, Samet; Iyibozkurt, Ahmet Cem; Bozbey, Hamza Ugur; Yaşa, Cenk; Çali, Halime; Yavuz, Ekrem; Kucucuk, Seden; Aydiner, Adnan; Salihoglu, Yavuz

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of postoperative adjuvant treatment modalities and identify risk factors associated with recurrence and survival rates in women diagnosed with early stage type II endometrial cancer and carcinosarcoma. In this retrospective study, patients diagnosed with early stage (stages I-II) carcinosarcoma and type II endometrial cancer were reviewed. All women underwent comprehensive surgical staging. Postoperative treatment options of chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT), observation (OBS) and chemotherapy-radiotherapy (CT-RT) combination were compared in terms of recurrence and survival outcome. In CT-RT treatment arm, recurrence rate was found as 12.5% and this result is significantly lower than the other treatment approaches (P = 0.01 CT alone: 33.3%, RT alone: 26.7%, OBS: 62.5%). Three-year disease free survival(DFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate were statistically higher for the group of women treated with combination of CT-RT (92-95%) compared to the women treated with RT alone (65-72%), treated with CT alone (67-74%) and women who received no adjuvant therapy (38-45%). The multivariate analysis revealed that carcinosarcoma histology was associated with shortened DFS and OS (P = 0.001, P = 0.002). On the other hand, being at stage Ia (P = 0.01, P = 0.04) and receiving adjuvant treatment of CT-RT combination (P = 0.005, P = 0.002) appeared to lead to increased DFS and OS rates. We identified that a combination treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is superior compared to other postoperative adjuvant treatment approaches concerning PFS, OS and recurrence rates in stages I-II of type II endometrial cancers and uterine carcinosarcoma. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. 西班牙法西斯政权的建立及在二战中保持中立的原因%Analyzing on the Establishment of the Spain Fascist Regime and the Reason for It Being Neutral During World War II

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长风

    2013-01-01

      Spain established the fascist dictatorship between World War I and World War II . However , Spain as one of the fascist states maintained neutrality in the war involved with two -thirds countries world-wide w hile Germany ,Italy and Japan allied as Axis and committed monstrous crimes as defeated nations in the unprecedented war in human history .It has been a tricky question baffling many historians and schol-ars of international relations for years . This paper briefly illustrates the facts ,results and influences of Spanish civil war .On that basis ,the paper analyzes the causes and effects of Spanish civil war and the rea-sons w hy Franco fascist regime remained neutrality during the World War II .%  西班牙在一战后二战前建立起了法西斯独裁统治的国家。德、意、日三国结为轴心国在二战中犯下了滔天罪行,然而同为法西斯国家的西班牙却在这场全球三分之二的国家被卷入的世界大战中保持中立,让史学界和国际关系学界诸多学者难以理解。阐述了西班牙内战的经过、结局和影响,在此基础上,探析了西班牙内战的前因后果与佛朗哥法西斯政权在二战中保持中立的原因。

  15. The Notion of a "Pre-emptive War:" the Six Day War Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtulus, Ersun N

    2007-01-01

    The article presents a critical assessment of the widespread conceptualization of the June 1967 War between Israel and its neighboring Arab states as a pre-emptive war both in academic and non-academic writing. Tracing the origins of the notion of pre-emptive war to international law, the article identifies three necessary conditions for such a war to be classified as pre-emptive: acute crisis combined with high alert levels; vulnerable offensive weapons; and strategic parity as regards to of...

  16. Identification of putative rhamnogalacturonan-II specific glycosyltransferases in Arabidopsis using a combination of bioinformatics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voxeur, Aline; André, Aurélie; Breton, Christelle; Lerouge, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) is a complex plant cell wall polysaccharide that is composed of an α(1,4)-linked homogalacturonan backbone substituted with four side chains. It exists in the cell wall in the form of a dimer that is cross-linked by a borate di-ester. Despite its highly complex structure, RG-II is evolutionarily conserved in the plant kingdom suggesting that this polymer has fundamental functions in the primary wall organisation. In this study, we have set up a bioinformatics strategy aimed at identifying putative glycosyltransferases (GTs) involved in RG-II biosynthesis. This strategy is based on the selection of candidate genes encoding type II membrane proteins that are tightly coexpressed in both rice and Arabidopsis with previously characterised genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of RG-II and exhibiting an up-regulation upon isoxaben treatment. This study results in the final selection of 26 putative Arabidopsis GTs, including 10 sequences already classified in the CAZy database. Among these CAZy sequences, the screening protocol allowed the selection of α-galacturonosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of α4-GalA oligogalacturonides present in both homogalacturonans and RG-II, and two sialyltransferase-like sequences previously proposed to be involved in the transfer of Kdo and/or Dha on the pectic backbone of RG-II. In addition, 16 non-CAZy GT sequences were retrieved in the present study. Four of them exhibited a GT-A fold. The remaining sequences harbored a GT-B like fold and a fucosyltransferase signature. Based on homologies with glycosyltransferases of known functions, putative roles in the RG-II biosynthesis are proposed for some GT candidates.

  17. Identification of Putative Rhamnogalacturonan-II Specific Glycosyltransferases in Arabidopsis Using a Combination of Bioinformatics Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Voxeur; Aurélie André; Christelle Breton; Patrice Lerouge

    2012-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) is a complex plant cell wall polysaccharide that is composed of an α(1,4)-linked homogalacturonan backbone substituted with four side chains. It exists in the cell wall in the form of a dimer that is cross-linked by a borate di-ester. Despite its highly complex structure, RG-II is evolutionarily conserved in the plant kingdom suggesting that this polymer has fundamental functions in the primary wall organisation. In this study, we have set up a bioinformatics str...

  18. A Phase I/II Study Combining Erlotinib and Dasatinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Kathryn A.; Lee, J. Jack; Harun, Nusrat; Tang, Ximing; Price, Justina; Kawedia, Jitesh D.; Tran, Hai T.; Erasmus, Jeremy J.; Blumenschein, George R.; William, William N.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.

    2014-01-01

    Background. EGFR and Src are frequently activated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In preclinical models, combining EGFR and Src inhibition has additive synergistic effects. We conducted a phase I/II trial of the combination of Src inhibitor dasatinib with EGFR inhibitor erlotinib to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetic drug interactions, biomarkers, and efficacy in NSCLC. Methods. The phase I 3+3 dose-escalation study enrolled patients with solid tumors to determine the MTD. The phase II trial enrolled patients with advanced NSCLC who had undergone no previous treatments to determine progression-free survival (PFS) and response. Pharmacokinetic and tissue biomarker analyses were performed. Results. MTD was 150 mg of erlotinib and 70 mg of dasatinib daily based on 12 patients treated in the phase I portion. No responses were observed in phase I. The 35 NSCLC patients treated in phase II had an overall disease control rate of 59% at 6 weeks. Five patients (15%) had partial responses; all had activating EGFR mutations. Median PFS was 3.3 months. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers did not correlate with outcomes. Conclusion. The combination of erlotinib and dasatinib is safe and feasible in NSCLC. The results of this study do not support use of this combination in molecularly unselected NSCLC. PMID:25170013

  19. Combined modality treatment for stage I-II non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: CVP versus BACOP chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajetta, E.; Valagussa, P.; Bonadonna, G.; Lattuada, A.; Buzzoni, R.; Rilke, F.; Banfi, A.

    1988-07-01

    This paper reports the 5-year results of a prospective randomized study beginning in 1976 on 177 evaluable patients with pathologic Stage I-IE and II-IIE non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with diffuse histology according to the Rappaport classification. Treatment consisted of either CVP or BACOP chemotherapy (3 cycles) followed by regional radiotherapy (40 to 50 Gy) and further cycles of either combination. In both arms, complete remission at the end of combined treatment was high (CVP 93%, BACOP 98%) regardless of age, stage or bulky disease. At 5 years, the comparative freedom from first progression was 62% for CVP vs 78% for BACOP (p = 0.02), respectively. Clinically relevant differences favoring BACOP chemotherapy were essentially documented in patients with large cell lymphomas (International Working Formulation), those with Stage II having more than three involved anatomical sites, bulky disease and age over 60 years. Recurrence within radiation fields was documented in only 5% of complete responders. Combined treatment was, in general, well tolerated particularly when BACOP was used. In only 2 patients given CVP post radiation cutaneous fibrosis was documented. Second solid tumors were detected in 4 patients. One patient started on CVP died because of brain stem necrosis after 45 Gy. We conclude that in Stage I-II patients with nodal and extranodal diffuse non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, particularly large cell lymphomas, combined modality approach with primary Adriamycin and bleomycin containing regimen, such as BACOP, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy offers high chances of cure with minimal toxicity.

  20. Treatment of Angle Class II malocclusions with a newly modified bionator combined with headgear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bionator is one of the most commonly used functional appliances in treating Angle Class II division 1 malocclusions. However, the original type of bionator often causes lower incisor flaring and is limited in cases with mild crowding. There is little published literature on treating Angle Class II division 2 malocclusions using bionators. Our group suggested some modifications to the original-type bionator, including addition of an anterior resin cap, upper and lower labial bows, an expansion screw and a posterior resin wedge, to attempt to overcome limitations of the original design. This article shows our results on two male patients, one with an Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion with a large overjet and the other with an Angle Class II division 2 malocclusion. The treatment was completed using a newly modified bionator with no other fixed appliance and resulted in a decrease in facial convexity, a reduced overjet and overbite, ideal interincisal relationships, and a harmonious profile.

  1. 全球化历史视域下的第二次世界大战%On the World War II From the Perspective of the Globalization History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文伟

    2016-01-01

    第二次世界大战是全球化发展的产物,更是全球化历史的体现.迄今为止的全球化历史经历了地理全球化、经济全球化和全方位全球化发展三个阶段.19世纪末20世纪初全球化历史从第一阶段向第二阶段转型,全球化的内容和性质开始发生根本的变化,而人们应对经济全球化时代的国际矛盾和冲突仍沿袭传统的观念和方式.这种观念和方式与客观历史发展需要的不协调激化了矛盾,引发了20世纪前期世界性的大动荡,第二次世界大战就是其极端表现.第二次世界大战的惨痛教训警醒了世人,战后人们逐渐探索适应全球化历史新时期需要的新观念和行为方式,构建和完善较为合理的全球性体系,从而推动了全球化历史进入了全方位全球化的新阶段.%The World War II is a product of globalization.It is also a reflection of the globalization history.The past globalization history has experienced three stages: Geography Globalization, Economic Globalization and All-round Development Globalization.Late 19th and early 20th century, the globalization history made a transition from the first stage to the second stage, the content and character of globalization began to change radically.However, the way that people responded to the international contradictions and conflicts in economic globalization was still followed the tradi-tional concept and approach.The incoordination between this kind of concept and approach and obj ective historical de-velopment needs intensified the conflict, led to a worldwide upheaval in early 20th century, the World War II was its extreme consequence.The painful lessons of the World War II alerted the whole world.After the war, people gradual-ly explored new ideas and behavior to adapt to the new historical period of globalization, built and improved a more rational global system, so as to promote the globalization history into the whole the new phase of

  2. The privateering war with the Western Muslim Countries during the first years of the reign of James II (1291-1309

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer i Mallol, María Teresa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to some instances of privateering and piracy between the Catalan subjects of the Crown of Aragon and the subjects of the Western Muslim Countries, the Magrib and Granada, in the context of relations with the latter in both peace and war, during the brief period from 1291 to 1309. The paper points out how difficult it was to make the privateers and merchants observe any peace treaty or truce.

    L’article presenta incidents de cors i pirateria entre catalans súbdits de la Corona d’Aragó i els països musulmans occidentals del Magrib i Granada dins el context de les relacions de pau o guerra amb aquests països, en un període breu de temps entre 1291 i 1309. Assenyala la dificultat de fer observar els tractats de pau o de treva a corsaris i mercaders.

  3. Influence of urban runoff, inappropriate waste disposal practices and World War II on the heavy metal status of sediments in the southern half of Saipan Lagoon, Saipan, CNMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Gary R W; Emborski, Carmen A; Habana, Nathan C; Starmer, John A

    2014-04-15

    Heavy metals were examined in sediments from the southern half of Saipan Lagoon. These waters provided tactical access for US troops during WWII and were heavily shelled at the time. Mercury profiles in sediments were, to some extent, reflective of this event. Samples from the southern end of the lagoon, where an old post-war dumpsite once existed, were found to be substantially enriched with Pb, Cu and Zn. Further north, the lagoon was primarily impacted by urban runoff. Metal enrichment in sediments from this region was generally highest at storm drain outlets and attenuated seawards. Moderate enrichment was rarely exceeded for any element other than Hg beyond the 50 m mark. Sediment quality guidelines used to flag potentially adverse ecological health effects revealed no PEL exceedances. TEL exceedances for Pb and Cu were identified in sediments near the former dumpsite. The public health implications of the data are briefly addressed.

  4. [Werner Leibbrand, Annemarie Wettley and controversies on "euthanasia" the background of medico-historical and ethical debates in the Post World War II era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Christine; Frewer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists and medical historians Werner Leibbrand (1896 - 1974) and Annemarie Wettley (1913 - 1996) are amongst the most striking figures in the field of history of medicine. Leibbrand was appointed director of the "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" in Erlangen shortly after the war. Fuelled by his own experiences of suppression and persecution during the Nazi era he promised to unearth the crimes and atrocities which had happened under watch of the Nazi regime. He was joined by Annemarie Wettley, who worked as a physician at the hospital and had developed an increasing interest in the history of medicine. In 1946 they published "Um die Menschenrechte der Geisteskranken" ("Human Rights of the Mentally Ill") about the "euthanasia" campaign of the Nazi regime. Although a number of substantial works followed, Leibbrand and Wettley failed to inform in more depth on crimes and atrocities, for instance killings of patients and forced malnutrition. Doubts and charges against Wettley regarding her role in dietary programmes at the Erlangen hospital and against Leibbrand regarding special expert's reports--both had a short-term arrest warrant--might have contributed to stagnation in their efforts. In 1953 Leibbrand accepted the offer of a chair at the University in Munich, Wettley followed and habilitated in history of medicine; in the year 1962 they married. Contacts and exchange amongst medico-historical experts shed light on developments during the post-war era; still, a critical and fundamental review of the crimes within the medical system of the Nazi regime did not take place during this time.

  5. Usefulness of AFP, AFP-L3, and PIVKA-II, and their combinations in diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Joon; Jang, Jae Young; Jeong, Soung Won; Cho, Young Kyu; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cha, Sang-Woo; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung; Park, Suyeon; Bang, Hae In

    2017-03-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Lens culinaris-agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) are widely used as tumor markers for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study compared the diagnostic values of AFP, AFP-L3, and PIVKA-II individually and in combination to find the best biomarker or biomarker panel.Seventy-nine patients with newly diagnosed HCC and 77 non-HCC control patients with liver cirrhosis were enrolled. AFP, AFP-L3, and PIVKA-II were measured in the same serum samples using microchip capillary electrophoresis and a liquid-phase binding assay on an automatic analyzer. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses were also applied to all combinations of the markers.When the 3 biomarkers were analyzed individually, AFP showed the largest area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) (0.751). For combinations of the biomarkers, the AUC was highest (0.765) for "PIVKA-II > 40 mAU/mL and AFP > 10 ng/mL." The combination of "PIVKA-II > 40 mAU/mL and AFP > 10 ng/mL and AFP-L3 > 10%" had worse sensitivity and lower AUC (P = 0.001). The highest AUC of a single biomarker was highest for AFP and of a combination was "PIVKA-II > 40 mAU/mL and AFP > 10 ng/mL," with this also being the case when the cut-off value of AFP and AFP-L3 was changed.Alpha-fetoprotein showed the best diagnostic performance as a single biomarker for HCC. The diagnostic value of AFP was improved by combining it with PIVKA-II, but adding AFP-L3 did not contribute to the ability to distinguish between HCC and non-HCC liver cirrhosis. These findings were not altered when the cut-off value of AFP and AFP-L3 was changed.

  6. Nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) metallo-intercalators: structural details of the DNA-binding by a combined experimental and computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, Antonino; Bonsignore, Riccardo; Terenzi, Alessio; Spinello, Angelo; Giannici, Francesco; Longo, Alessandro; Almerico, Anna Maria; Barone, Giampaolo

    2014-04-28

    We present a thorough characterization of the interaction of novel nickel(II) (1), copper(II) (2) and zinc(II) (3) Schiff base complexes with native calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA), in buffered aqueous solution at pH 7.5. UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and viscometry titrations provided clear evidence of the intercalative mechanism of the three square-planar metal complexes, allowing us to determine the intrinsic DNA-binding constants (K(b)), equal to 1.3 × 10(7), 2.9 × 10(6), and 6.2 × 10(5) M(-1) for 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Preferential affinity, of one order of magnitude, toward AT compared to GC base pair sequences was detected by UV-vis absorption titrations of 1 with [poly(dG-dC)]2 and [poly(dA-dT)]2. Structural details of the intercalation site of the three metal complexes within [dodeca(dA-dT)]2 were obtained by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations followed by density functional theory/molecular mechanics (DFT/MM) calculations. The calculations revealed that three major intermolecular interactions contribute to the strong affinity between DNA and the three metal complexes: (1) the electrostatic attraction between the two positively charged triethylammoniummethyl groups of the metal complexes and the negatively charged phosphate groups of the DNA backbone; (2) the intercalation of the naphthalene moiety within the four nitrogen bases of the intercalation site; (3) the metal coordination by exocyclic donor atoms of the bases, specifically the carbonyl oxygen and amine nitrogen atoms. Remarkably, the Gibbs formation free energy calculated for the intercalation complexes of 1, 2 and 3 with [dodeca(dA-dT)]2 in the implicit water solution is in agreement with the experimental Gibbs free energy values obtained from the DNA-binding constants as ΔG° = -RT ln(K(b)). In particular, the DNA-binding affinity trend, 1 > 2 > 3, is reproduced. Finally, the first shell coordination distances calculated for the intercalation complex 3/[dodeca(dA-dT)]2 are in

  7. Cold War America, 1946 to 1990. Almanacs of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ross

    This book offers an in-depth look at U.S. culture during a 45-year period when the threat of nuclear war loomed over millions worldwide, and post-World War II ideological tensions took form as an ever-deepening chasm separating two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The book finds that the national and global societies that…

  8. Faculty Mobility and Academic Profession Development:Based on a Survey after World War II%大学教师流动与学术职业发展:基于对二战后的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进; 沈红

    2014-01-01

    二战后大学教师流动随着学术职业的发展而变得频繁,迁徙模式从战前的因种族、信仰、战乱等原因导致的结构性迁徙转变为教育和经济因素影响的制度性迁徙。全球化加剧了大学教师的流动,许多国家和地区纷纷出台了国际化或本土化的政策来吸引或留住人才。学术资本主义的兴起等使得教学和研究分离的趋势加剧,这导致教师流动性大幅增加、学术职业的主体性缺失等。%With the development of the academic profession,faculty mobility became more frequent-ly after World War II,with structural migration resulting from race,belief,and war before WWII re-placed by institutional migration mainly influenced by educational and economic factors.Globalization has promoted faculty mobility,and thus many countries and regions have introduced international or lo-cal policies to attract and retain talents.The rise of academic capitalism has exacerbated the separation between teaching and research,contributing to the significant increase of faculty mobility and the ero-sion of the principal part of the academic profession.

  9. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  10. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Iraq War has done the United States more harm than good the removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War,which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century.

  11. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN WENLIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War, which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century. Although there remain quite a few uncertainties, an honest review shows the war is a failure for the United States.

  12. Influence of World Wars on the Development of International Law on War Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Sergey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Regulations on laws and customs of land warfare of 1907 that existed during World War I did not protect war prisoners. The tragic experience forced us to return tothe problem of protection of the rights of the victims of war. The Geneva Convention on the war prisoners of 1929 was the first document of international law in which the status of war prisoners was determined in detail. The Soviet Union did not join the states which had signed the Convention, and during the World War II it was guided by its national legislation confirmed by the Soviet Government on July 1, 1941. On the whole, the items of the Regulations on War Prisoners adopted in 1941 corresponded to the Geneva Convention. But non-recognition of the international convention provided the heads of fascist Germany with the reason for inhuman treatment of the Soviet captives. Serious consequences of war compelled the world community to pay the closest attention to the issues of military captivity again. On August 12, 1949 in Geneva the Soviet Union joined the new Convention on prisoners.

  13. Wars, Redistribution and Civilian Federal Expenditures in the US over the 20th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2005-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence on two, major war-related, regularities of U.S. fiscal policy. First, while during and around World War I there is a positive correlation between defense spending and civil non-defense spending, this correlation becomes negative during World War II. This may be explaine

  14. Clinical use of a combined grasping and locking core suture technique for flexor tendon repair in zone II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2013-12-01

    Previous authors have used either a grasping or a locking technique for flexor tendon repair in zone II. A combined (grasping and locking) 10-strand repair was used by the author in 22 adults (n = 28 fingers) with lacerations of both flexor tendons in zone II. The combined repair is known to be strong (mean tensile strength of 164 N), and the technique was used in selected cases who were thought to be at higher risk of rupture either because of excessive digital oedema (in early tendon repairs) or because of tendon retraction (in late primary tendon repairs). The 10-strand repair was bulky and, hence, only the profundus tendon was repaired; and "venting" of the pulley system was done proximal to the repair site as recommended by other authors. Supervised early active mobilisation was done immediately after the operation. At final follow-up, the outcome was calculated using the original Strickland-Glogovac grading system. There were no ruptures and the final outcome was considered excellent in 19 patients (n = 25 fingers), good in two patients (n = 2 fingers), and fair in the remaining patient (n = 1 finger). It was concluded that the bulky 10-strand repair may be used for zone II finger flexor tendon lacerations as long as a profundus-(?) only repair and "venting" of the pulley system are performed.

  15. Results of simultaneous combination therapy with radiation and chemotherapeutics in stage I. II non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yutaka

    1989-01-01

    From October 1973 through August 1986, 100 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (Male 61, Female 39, Mean age 56 yr) were treated in our department. Diffuse large cell type was the most predominant histologic type (63 patients). There were 29 Stage I, 45 Stage II, 14 Stage III and 12 Stage IV patients. Since Aug. 1981, simultaneous therapy combinations involving radiation and chemotherapeutic techniques in Stage I,II patients were used. Complication such as leucopenia, mucositis and fever were encounterd occasionally, but the therapy was completed when the administration of drugs had been stopped for a few weeks. Treatment results of combination therapy were quite excellent compared to previous ones; 5 year survival was 100% vs 67% in Stage I (not significant) and 92% vs 44% in Stage II (p<0.01). As for radiologic examination for staging, it was concluded that CT-scans, lymphography, /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and GI study are indispensable, bone scintigraphy is desirable and liver-spleen scitigraphy is not necessary.

  16. Hodgkin's disease stages I and II with infradiaphragmatic presentation: a rare and prognostically unfavourable combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Nissen, N.I.

    1988-01-01

    analysis, infradiaphragmatic presentation turned out to be an adverse prognostic factor with regard to disease-free survival, whereas it was not of significant independent prognostic value with regard to overall survival. Staging laparotomy in 11/35 infradiaphragmatic patients revealed 1 stage-IV case......Out of 323 patients with Hodgkin's disease CS I or II treated during the period 1969 to 1983 at Denmark's Finsen Institute, 35 presented with infradiaphragmatic disease. Patients with infradiaphragmatic presentation were older than patients with supradiaphragmatic presentation and were more often...... in stage II as opposed to stage I. NS histology was less prevalent among infradiaphragmatic than among supradiaphragmatic patients. Disease-free survival and overall survival was poorer in infradiaphragmatic patients. When other factors of prognostic importance were taken into account in a multivariate...

  17. The War Within-A Brief Study on the Symbolic Level of the Function of World War II in the Novel A Separate Peace%内心的战争--浅析“二战”背景在小说《一个人的和平》中的象征意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹颖

    2013-01-01

    小说《一个人的和平》中,“二战”背景若隐若现,不断逼近德文校园和学生们。它有很多象征意义:代表纯真不再,成年期的到来;最重要的是,代表刚刚走出天真的人们把人生想成战场,寻找根本不存在的敌人。正是这些象征意义烘托与强化了小说的主题与名字:至纯至善的菲尼拒绝相信有人会成为他的敌人,他创造了“一个人的和平”。通过分析“二战”在贯穿故事始末、表现主题成分以及主要人物内心刻画等三方面所蕴含的象征意义,更好地理解了作者的写作目的与表述主题。%In the novel A Separate Peace,the background of the World War II constitutes a looming presence, constantly pressing on Devon and drawing closer to the boys. Its symbolic meanings are numerous:it represents a loss of innocence, the coming of adulthood;and most importantly, the way that human beings, out of ignorance, regard the world as a hostile place and look for enemies where none exist. It is these symbolic meanings that set off by contrast and enhance the theme and the title of the novel:Finny, the champion of innocence, who refuses to believe that anyone could be his enemy, creates the“separate peace” for himself. The thesis attempts to analyze the function of World War II in the novel A Separate Peace on a symbolic level from three perspectives:the development of the story, the expression of the motifs and the characters' depiction, thus to understand the writing goal and the expressed theme better.

  18. Information War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Expertise typically involves combining information with heuristic rules, rare facts, metaknowledge and metacognition , and compiled forms of behavior...aids, or upon any single source of information, lest he be completely disabled by their failure at a critical moment. 34 CHAPTER IX SOME IMPLICATIONS... intellectual effort. communications intelligence (COMINT) and its counterpart, communications security (COMSEC). Successes in these fields only suggest

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of perfusion scintigraphy combined with chest radiography for acute pulmonary embolism in PIOPED II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostman, H Dirk; Miniati, Massimo; Gottschalk, Alexander; Matta, Fadi; Stein, Paul D; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2008-11-01

    We used the archived Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II (PIOPED II) data and images to test the hypothesis that reading perfusion scans with chest radiographs but without ventilation scans, and categorizing the perfusion scan as "pulmonary embolism (PE) present" or "PE absent," can result in clinically useful sensitivity and specificity in most patients. Patients recruited into PIOPED II were eligible for the present study if they had a CT angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) diagnosis, an interpretable perfusion scan and chest radiographs, and a Wells' score. Four readers reinterpreted the perfusion scans and chest radiographs of eligible patients. Two readers used the modified PIOPED II criteria and 2 used the Prospective Investigative Study of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PISAPED) criteria. The chest radiographs were read as "normal/near normal," "abnormal," or "nondiagnostic," and the perfusion scans were read as "PE present," "PE absent," or "nondiagnostic." The primary analysis used a composite reference standard: the PIOPED II DSA result or, if there was no definitive DSA result, CTA results that were concordant with the Wells' score as defined in PIOPED II (CTA positive and Wells' score > 2, or CTA negative and Wells' score PIOPED II criteria, the sensitivity of a "PE present" perfusion scan was 84.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.1%-88.8%), and the specificity of "PE absent" was 92.7% (95% CI, 91.1%-94.1%), excluding "nondiagnostic" results, which occurred in 20.6% (95% CI, 18.8%-22.5%). Using PISAPED criteria, the sensitivity of a "PE present" perfusion scan was 80.4% (95% CI, 75.9%-84.3%) and the specificity of "PE absent" was 96.6% (95% CI, 95.5%-97.4%), whereas the proportion of patients with "nondiagnostic" scans was 0% (95% CI, 0.0%-0.2%). Perfusion scintigraphy combined with chest radiography can provide diagnostic accuracy similar to both CTA and ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, at lower cost

  20. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  1. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various culture wars – hippies...... political or military but also social and psychological, economic and technological, cultural and imaginative. Using as its exemplar Pynchon’s treatment of world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow, this essay explores one key modulation in the nature of warfare: from the armed conflicts characteristic...... of an imperial order to the struggles for security – not just physical but also ideological and discursive, conceptual and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order. Through the personal identities and historical trajectories of a number of the novel’s representative figures...

  2. Combined experimental and theoretical study on the reactivity of compounds I and II in horseradish peroxidase biomimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; Franke, Alicja; Brindell, Małgorzata; Oszajca, Maria; Zahl, Achim; van Eldik, Rudi

    2014-10-27

    oxygen rebound processes. Importantly, depending on the electronic nature of the oxidizing species, that is, (2,4) Cpd I or (3) Cpd II, an interesting region-selective conversion phenomenon between sulfoxidation and H-atom abstraction was revealed in the course of the oxidation reaction of dimethylsulfide. The combined experimental and theoretical study on the elucidation of the intrinsic reactivity patterns of the HRP-I and HRP-II mimics provides a valuable tool for evaluating the particular role of the HRP active species in biological systems.

  3. Selection Component Analysis of Natural Polymorphisms using Population Samples Including Mother-Offspring Combinations, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge

    1981-01-01

    Population samples including mother-offspring combinations provide information on the selection components: zygotic selection, sexual selection, gametic seletion and fecundity selection, on the mating pattern, and on the deviation from linkage equilibrium among the loci studied. The theory...

  4. War: Origins and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Piepers, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    The International System is a self-organized system and shows emergent behavior. During the timeframe (1495 - 1945), a finite-time singularity and four accompanying accelerating log-periodic cycles shaped the dynamics of the International System. The accelerated growth of the connectivity of the regulatory network of the International System, in combination with its anarchistic structure, produce and shape the war dynamics of the system. Accelerated growth of the connectivity of the International system is fed by population growth and the need for social systems to fulfill basic requirements. The finite-time singularity and accompanying log-periodic oscillations were instrumental in the periodic reorganization of the regulatory network of the International System, and contributed to a long-term process of social expansion and integration in Europa. The singularity dynamic produced a series of organizational innovations. At the critical time of the singularity (1939) the connectivity of the system reached a cr...

  5. Treatment of a Class II Division 1 malocclusion with a severe unilateral lingual crossbite with combined orthodontic/orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureton, S L; Bice, R; Strider, J

    2000-06-01

    A 24-year-old woman had a Class II Division 1 malocclusion with a severe unilateral crossbite. The crossbite was due partially to the maxilla being much wider than the mandible, allowing the mandibular left canine and first and second premolars to overerupt, impinging on the palatal tissue in habitual occlusion. The maxillary left segment from the lateral incisor to the first molar also overerupted producing 2 planes of occlusion. The malocclusion was treated successfully with comprehensive orthodontics, combined with a 2 piece Lefort I osteotomy procedure, a 3 tooth mandibular segmental osteotomy procedure, and a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy procedure.

  6. A novel technique combining laparoscopic and endovascular approaches using image fusion guidance for anterior embolization of type II endoleak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujeeb Zubair, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Type II endoleak (T2E leading to aneurysm sac enlargement is one of the challenging complications associated with endovascular aneurysm repair. Recent guidelines recommend embolization of T2E associated with aneurysmal sac enlargement. Various percutaneous and endovascular techniques have been reported for embolization of T2E. We report a novel technique for T2E embolization combining laparoscopic and endovascular approaches using preoperative image fusion. We believe our technique provides a more direct access to the lumbar feeding vessels that is typically challenging with transarterial or translumbar embolization techniques.

  7. 1940s: Camping in the War Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camping Magazine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Camps continued to operate during World War II, but young male counselors, food, and supplies were difficult to obtain. An illustrative article from 1943, "Meal Planning for Summer Camps in Wartime" (Agnes B. Peterson), presents a guide to planning nutritious meals for campers despite shortages caused by wartime rationing, increased food…

  8. Operational Intelligence Failures of the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Translator and Interrogation Service section struggled to perform its primary mission. It was only a skeleton of its former World War II... posture and the capture of Chinese troops in early October 1950. Willoughby failed to determine enemy capabilities and intentions, not just

  9. Thiocyanate-free cyclometalated ruthenium(II) sensitizers for DSSC: a combined experimental and theoretical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitumalla, Ramesh Kumar; Gupta, Kankatala S V; Malapaka, Chandrasekhram; Fallahpour, Reza; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan; Kotamarthi, Bhanuprakash; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2014-02-14

    In an effort to bring out efficient thiocyanate-free dyes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) we have designed, synthesized and characterized four novel cyclometalated ruthenium(II) dyes (M1 to M4) with superior photochemical properties. All dyes contain terpyridyl ligands (TPY) with carboxylic acids as anchoring groups and cyclometalated ligand (TPY-C) with substituents for fine tuning the electronic properties. We obtain a broad absorption band which extends up to 725 nm due to metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) when donating groups are used, which slightly blue-shifts when a withdrawing group is used. In addition to the CT, small HOMO-LUMO gaps are obtained from electrochemical measurements which indicate characteristics of an ideal sensitizer. All four dyes were used as sensitizers for DSSC and photoelectrochemical measurements were carried out. Reasonably good efficiency (7.1%) has been achieved for . We have carried out periodic-DFT studies of these dyes adsorbed on the (TiO2)38 cluster. They revealed that, in bidentate bridging mode the dyes preferably bind with the help of two carboxylic groups onto the TiO2. To the best of our knowledge we are the first to do DFT studies of thiocyanate free cyclometalated ruthenium(ii) dyes tethered to TiO2.

  10. Phase II studies of dianhydrogalactitol-based combination chemotherapy for recurrent brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, R T; Creagan, E T; Bisel, H F; Layton, D D; Groover, R V; Herman, R C

    1981-01-01

    The drug combinations of dianhydrogalactitol and VP-16 and dianhydrogalactitol, VP-16, and triazinate were used in patients with primary brain tumors, principally astrocytoma, recurrent following cranial irradiation. Tumor regressions were noted in 40% of patients treated with the 2-drug regimen and in 33% of patients treated with the 3-drug regimens. Regression were noted in all grades of tumor. Poor performance score on the patients' part did not seem to effect regression rates. Myelosuppression was the principal toxicity encountered. Dianhydrogalactitol-based combination chemotherapy seems as active as nitrosourea therapy and presents an alternative to nitrosourea therapy.

  11. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  12. Antileukemic properties of combinations of radiation and malonato(1,2-diaminocyclohexane) platinum(ii) (NSC-224964).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C R; Blackwell, L H; Loveless, V S

    1977-01-01

    Mean survival times were increased an average of 23, 53 and 61%, when 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg, respectively, of the organoplatinum congener, malonato(1,2-diaminocyclohexane) platinum(II)(NSC-224964), was given as the only treatment modality to BDF1 mice bearing 1-day-old L1210 leukemia. When a single dose of 10 mg/kg was combined with either 300 or 100 R on day 1 only, the anticipated response (ILS = 30 and 38%, respectively) based on the additive effects of the single modalities was surpassed by 26 and 21%, respectively (i.e. extent of therapeutic synergism). When divided doses of radiation (200 R/day x 3 days) were combined with 15 or 20 mg/kg of NSC-224964, survival times were enhanced an average of 15% (extent of synergism) greater than would be expected if these modalities were acting through an additive process(es).

  13. Phase II study of bevacizumab and temsirolimus combination therapy for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Ulrik; Sorensen, Morten; Gaziel, Tine Bernhardtsen;

    2013-01-01

    Kinase B (AKT), and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and is associated with unfavorable prognosis. Temsirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, has been well-tolerated in monotherapy, but with limited effects. The combination of temsirolimus and antibodies to vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) has not yet...

  14. Restoring testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to a drospirenone containing combined oral contraceptive : II. Clinical effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, Y.; Foidart, J. M.; Pintiaux, A.; Minon, J. M.; Fauser, B. C J M; Cobey, K.; Coelingh Bennink, H. J T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease androgen levels, including testosterone (T), which may be associated with sexual dysfunction and mood complaints in some women. We have shown that 'co-administration' of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to a drospirenone (DRSP)-containing COC

  15. Sexual violence by occupational forces during and after World War II: influence of experiencing and witnessing of sexual violence on current mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Zeilinger, Elisabeth L

    2012-08-01

    Wartime rape is an atrocity with long-lasting impacts not only on victims but whole societies. In this brief report, we present data on experience and witness of sexual violence during World War II (WWII) and subsequent time of occupation and on indicators of mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians. Interviews of 298 elderly Austrians from a larger epidemiological study on WWII traumatization were analyzed for the impact of experience and witness of sexual violence during the wartime committed by occupational forces. Interviews comprised a biographical/historical section and psychological measures (BSI, TLEQ, PCL-C). Participants were recruited in all nine provinces of Austria with respect to former zones of occupation (Western Allied/Soviet). Twelve persons reported direct experience of sexual violence, 33 persons witnessed such atrocities. One third of the victims and 18.2% of the witnesses reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD full/subthreshold). Sexual violence occurred more often in the former Soviet zone. Victims and witnesses displayed higher odds of post-traumatic symptoms and symptoms of depression and phobic fear than non-victims. Furthermore, witnesses displayed higher levels of aggression compared to victims and non-witnesses. Our results corroborate previous findings that wartime rape has long-lasting effects over decades on current mental health and post-traumatic distress in victims and witnesses. We recommend integration of psychotraumatological knowledge on consequences of sexual violence on mental health into geriatric care and the education of dedicated personnel.

  16. Military Construction of British against Germany alone in World War II%二战英国单独抗德的军事建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏

    2015-01-01

    自1940年6月法国战败至1941年6月德军入侵苏联的一年里是英国在单独抵抗德军的进攻。在此生死存亡之际,首相丘吉尔领导下的英国政府通过调整军队部署、租借美国战舰、发展军事科技、完善防空体系、加强海空军建设等准备措施筑起了保卫不列颠的钢铁长城,并取得了大西洋海战、不列颠空战的胜利,同时也为盟国提供大量军事援助,为赢得世界反法西斯战争胜利做出了突出贡献。其合理的指挥部署、灵活的军事外交手段以及先进的军工科研理念都是非常值得我们学习借鉴的成功经验。%Since the year's defeat of France in June 1940 to June 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union in the German re-sistance to the British in a separate attack.On this occasion of life and death,the British government under the leadership of Prime Minister Winston Churchill by adjusting military deployment,US warships lease,the development of military technology, improve the air defense system,strengthen the construction of Navy and Air Force to prepare measures to defend the British e-rected a steel wall,and made the Atlantic naval battle,the Battle of Britain victory,while also providing a large number of mil-itary aid to allies,to win the World Anti -Fascist War has made outstanding contributions.Reasonable command of deploy-ment,flexibility and advanced military and diplomatic means to military research ideas are very worthwhile to learn from our successes.

  17. A randomized, double-blind evaluation of D-cycloserine or alprazolam combined with virtual reality exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Price, Matthew; Jovanovic, Tanja; Norrholm, Seth D; Gerardi, Maryrose; Dunlop, Boadie; Davis, Michael; Bradley, Bekh; Duncan, Erica J; Rizzo, Albert; Ressler, Kerry J

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure augmented with D-cycloserine or alprazolam, compared with placebo, in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to military trauma. After an introductory session, five sessions of virtual reality exposure were augmented with D-cycloserine (50 mg) or alprazolam (0.25 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial for 156 Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with PTSD. PTSD symptoms significantly improved from pre- to posttreatment across all conditions and were maintained at 3, 6, and 12 months. There were no overall differences in symptoms between D-cycloserine and placebo at any time. Alprazolam and placebo differed significantly on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale score at posttreatment and PTSD diagnosis at 3 months posttreatment; the alprazolam group showed a higher rate of PTSD (82.8%) than the placebo group (47.8%). Between-session extinction learning was a treatment-specific enhancer of outcome for the D-cycloserine group only. At posttreatment, the D-cycloserine group had the lowest cortisol reactivity and smallest startle response during virtual reality scenes. A six-session virtual reality treatment was associated with reduction in PTSD diagnoses and symptoms in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, although there was no control condition for the virtual reality exposure. There was no advantage of D-cycloserine for PTSD symptoms in primary analyses. In secondary analyses, alprazolam impaired recovery and D-cycloserine enhanced virtual reality outcome in patients who demonstrated within-session learning. D-cycloserine augmentation reduced cortisol and startle reactivity more than did alprazolam or placebo, findings that are consistent with those in the animal literature.

  18. Combining partially ranked data in plant breeding and biology: II. Analysis with Rasch model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Simko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of breeding experiments, germplasm screening, and molecular biologic experimentation have generated volumes of sequence, genotype, and phenotype information that have been stored in public data repositories. These resources afford genetic and genomic researchers the opportunity to handle and analyze raw data from multiple laboratories and study groups whose research interests revolve around a common or closely related trait. However, although such data sets are widely available for secondary analysis, their heterogeneous nature often precludes their direct combination and joint exploration. Integration of phenotype information across multiple studies and databases is challenging due to variations in the measurement instruments, endpoint classifications, and biological material employed by each investigator. In the present work, we demonstrate how Rasch measurement model can surmount these problems. The model allows incorporating data sets with partially overlapping variables, large numbers of missing data points and dissimilar ratings of phenotypic endpoints. The model also enables quantifying the extent of heterogeneity between data sets. Biologists can use the model in a data-mining process to obtain combined ratings from various databases and other sources. Subsequently, these ratings can be used for selecting desirable material or (in combination with genotypic information for mapping genes involved in the particular trait. The model is not limited to genetics and breeding and can be applied in many other areas of biology and agriculture.

  19. Phase I/II trial of everolimus in combination with bortezomib and rituximab (RVR) in relapsed/refractory Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobrial, I M; Redd, R; Armand, P; Banwait, R; Boswell, E; Chuma, S; Huynh, D; Sacco, A; Roccaro, A M; Perilla-Glen, A; Noonan, K; MacNabb, M; Leblebjian, H; Warren, D; Henrick, P; Castillo, J J; Richardson, P G; Matous, J; Weller, E; Treon, S P

    2015-12-01

    We examined the combination of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus with bortezomib and rituximab in patients with relapsed/refractory Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) in a phase I/II study. All patients received six cycles of the combination of everolimus/rituximab or everolimus/bortezomib/rituximab followed by maintenance with everolimus until progression. Forty-six patients were treated; 98% received prior rituximab and 57% received prior bortezomib. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed in the phase I. The most common treatment-related toxicities of all grades were fatigue (63%), anemia (54%), leucopenia (52%), neutropenia (48%) and diarrhea (43%). Thirty-six (78%) of the 46 patients received full dose therapy (FDT) of the three drugs. Of these 36, 2 (6%) had complete response (90% confidence interval (CI): 1-16). In all, 32/36 (89%) of patients experienced at least a minimal response (90% CI: 76-96%). The observed partial response or better response rate was 19/36 (53, 90 CI: 38-67%). For the 36 FDT patients, the median progression-free survival was 21 months (95% CI: 12-not estimable). In summary, this study demonstrates that the combination of everolimus, bortezomib and rituximab is well tolerated and achieved 89% response rate even in patients previously treated, making it a possible model of non-chemotherapeutic-based combination therapy in WM.

  20. Effect and Mechanism of Mitomycin C Combined with Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Type II against Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemotherapy drug Mitomycin C (MMC in combination with recombinant adeno-associated virus II (rAAV2 in cancer therapy was investigated, and the mechanism of MMC affecting rAAV2’s bioactivity was also studied. The combination effect was evaluated by the level of GFP and TNF expression in a human glioma cell line, and the mechanism of MMC effects on rAAV mediated gene expression was investigated by AAV transduction related signal molecules. C57 and BALB/c nude mice were injected with rAAV-EGFP or rAAV-TNF alone, or mixed with MMC, to evaluate the effect of MMC on AAV-mediated gene expression and tumor suppression. MMC was shown to improve the infection activity of rAAV2 both in vitro and in vivo. Enhancement was found to be independent of initial rAAV2 receptor binding stage or subsequent second-strand synthesis of target DNA, but was related to cell cycle retardation followed by blocked genome degradation. In vivo injection of MMC combined with rAAV2 into the tumors of the animals resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. It was thus demonstrated for the first time that MMC could enhance the expression level of the target gene mediated by rAAV2. The combination of rAAV2 and MMC may be a promising strategy in cancer therapy.

  1. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    -international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil......This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  2. Elaboration of the Visual Pathways from the Study of War-Related Cranial Injuries: The Period from the Russo-Japanese War to World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the wars in the early 20th century, elaboration of the visual pathways was greatly facilitated by the meticulous study of visual defects in soldiers who had suffered focal injuries to the visual cortex. Using relatively crude techniques, often under difficult wartime circumstances, investigators successfully mapped key features of the visual pathways. Studies during the Russo- Japanese War (1904-1905) by Tatsuji Inouye (1881-1976) and during World War I by Gordon Holmes (1876-1965), William Lister (1868-1944), and others produced increasingly refined retinotopic maps of the primary visual cortex, which were later supported and refined by studies during and after World War II. Studies by George Riddoch (1888-1947) during World War I also demonstrated that some patients could still perceive motion despite blindness caused by damage to their visual cortex and helped to establish the concept of functional partitioning of visual processes in the occipital cortex.

  3. Compatible host/mycorrhizal fungus combinations for micropropagated sea oats: II. Field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Agely, Abid; Sylvia, David M

    2008-07-01

    Sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.) are the dominant plant in the pioneer coastal dunes of Florida and are widely used for dune restoration. DNA analysis has revealed significant ecotypic variation among Atlantic and Gulf coast populations of sea oats, but little is known about the diversity of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) communities present in the dune systems. In a prior greenhouse study, we evaluated the functional diversity that exists among the AM fungal communities from divergent Florida dunes and selected effective host/AM fungus combinations for further study. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of these compatible combinations on the growth of sea oats planted at Anastasia State Recreation Area (AN) on the Atlantic coast and St. George Island State Park (SG) on the Gulf coast. Micropropagated sea oats from each site were inoculated with AM fungal communities also from AN and SG or a microbial filtrate control. The complete factorial of treatment combinations were grown in the greenhouse for 8 weeks and outplanted to the AN and SG field sites. After 1 year, root colonization was evaluated, and after 2 years, root colonization, shoot and root dry masses, and shoot- and root-P contents were determined. Overall, sea oats planted at AN had greater percent root colonization, shoot dry mass, and shoot-P content than those planted at SG. At AN, the local sea oat ecotype responded more to the fungal community from the same site relative to shoot dry mass and shoot-P content. At SG, the local fungal community produced larger plants with greater P content regardless of the origin of the host. We conclude that sea oat productivity is responsive to AM fungal ecotype as well as host ecotype, and fungal origin should therefore be taken into account when planning sea oat plantings on coastal dunes.

  4. Skin-pass rolling II - Studies of roughness transfer under combined normal and tangential loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kijima, Hideo; Bay, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The influence of tool roughness on roughness transfer in skin-pass or temper rolling of steel strip is investigated, focusing on loading under combined normal and tangential displacement of tool relative to the workpiece. The calculated roughness transfer by an elasto-plastic finite element (FE...... measurements in this paper. The experiment shows a significant influence on roughness transfer of tangential displacement of workpiece in the sticking and the sliding region. The FE calculations modelling the sticking and sliding region reveal the mechanisms of plastic deformation and roughness transfer....

  5. Standardized Observational Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes. II. Classroom Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaughy, Stephanie H; Ivanova, Masha Y; Antshel, Kevin; Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Dumenci, Levent

    2009-07-01

    Trained classroom observers used the Direct Observation Form (DOF; McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) to rate observations of 163 6- to 11-year-old children in their school classrooms. Participants were assigned to four groups based on a parent diagnostic interview and parent and teacher rating scales: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type (n = 64); ADHD-Inattentive type (n = 22); clinically referred without ADHD (n = 51); and nonreferred control children (n = 26). The ADHD-Combined group scored significantly higher than the referred without ADHD group and controls on the DOF Intrusive and Oppositional syndromes, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems scale, Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subscale, and Total Problems; and significantly lower on the DOF On-Task score. The ADHD-Inattentive group scored significantly higher than controls on the DOF Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and Attention Problems syndromes, Inattention subscale, and Total Problems; and significantly lower on the DOF On-Task score. Implications are discussed regarding the discriminative validity of standardized classroom observations for identifying children with ADHD and differentiating between the two ADHD subtypes.

  6. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  7. The lab and the land: overcoming the Arctic in Cold War Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farish, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The militarization of Alaska during and after World War II created an extraordinary set of new facilities. But it also reshaped the imaginative role of Alaska as a hostile environment, where an antagonistic form of nature could be defeated with the appropriate combination of technology and training. One of the crucial sites for this reformulation was the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, based at Ladd Air Force Base in Fairbanks. In the first two decades of the Cold War, its employees conducted numerous experiments on acclimatization and survival. The laboratory is now best known for an infamous set of tests involving the application of radioactive tracers to indigenous Alaskans--experiments publicized by post-Cold War panels established to evaluate the tragic history of atomic-era human subject research. But little else has been written about the laboratory's relationship with the populations and landscapes that it targeted for study. This essay presents the laboratory as critical to Alaska's history and the history of the Cold War sciences. A consideration of the laboratory's various projects also reveals a consistent fascination with race. Alaskan Natives were enrolled in experiments because their bodies were understood to hold clues to the mysteries of northern nature. A scientific solution would aid American military campaigns not only in Alaska, but in cold climates everywhere.

  8. THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND UKRAINE: HISTORY AND MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVSEEVA G. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Despite the attempts of historians to objectively present the events of the prehistory and history of the war, the opening of new archives and the desire to get rid of ideological stereotypes, are driving the need to once again explore the role of Ukraine in world war II to prevent its recurrence. On the other hand, the deep understanding of the history of the previous generations will provide an opportunity to properly understand the events of today. The analysis of the research. During the years of independence in the national historiography it was a new understanding of the conceptual foundations of the study of war. Over the past decade it was written a large number of scientific studies in which the main direction of new concepts there was an increased attention to the person, separate social groups and society as a whole in situations of conflict and crises. The article aims to analyze the role and place of Ukraine in the events of the Second world war; identify "Ukrainian dimension" of war and its implications for the modern generation, especially the youth. Conclusion. The effects of war for decades identified the complex and contradictory political, economic and social processes in Ukrainian society, affected the moral and psychological qualities of post-war generations. The memory of war – spiritual-historical heritage of our nation, which lays the foundations for self-sufficiency and identity and integrates it seamlessly into a civilizational flow. The modern level of researches of the events of world war II pays special attention to humanitarian problems of the war. For the youth of Ukraine it is important to join the European perception of the war as tragedy, to understand the responsibility for the memory of the past, because it's a chance for the future.

  9. Development of a Novel Fiber Optic Sensor Combined with a Fluorescence Turn-on Probe for Cu (II Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing staining-based methodology for the detection of metal ions is not well suited for real-time or in situ use. This is a significant problem, given that these ions can have a considerable impact on both human health and the environment. Thus, there is growing interest and need for simple, rapid and in-situ monitoring techniques for the purpose of detecting various target analytes (e.g. heavy metals, which is of a significant importance in many fields ranging from environmental monitoring to the study of intracellular processes. Among various sensors developed, optical fiber-optic sensors (FOS, based on fluorescence, are one class of sensors that address this goal [1]. Optical fibers are ideal for environmental sensing applications because of their ability to transmit optical signals to and from the sensing region without the use of free-space optics. In this work, we present, for the first time, a simple FOS incorporating novel fluorescence turn-on mechanism [2] that could detect Cu (II as low as 10−4 M. Traditionally, fluorescence quenching or “turn-off” was used to detect Cu (II [3]. In recent years, fluorescence “turn-on” emerges as a preferable tool. The developed fiber-optic sensor has two fiber leads and one probe head. One fiber lead includes 6 fibers for He-Ne laser excitation light delivery (e-fibers. Another fiber lead has one receiving fiber (r-fiber connected to an Ocean Optics QE65000 scientific grade spectrometer, which is interrogated by a computer via USB connection. The SpectroSuite software is used to observe and to record all spectra. The probe head combines all fibers together to form a coaxial structure with the r-fiber placed in the center. The key component in the proposed fluorescent sensing system is a probe prepared by binding a receptor containing a zwitterionic chromophore (M1, through noncovalent interactions, to the fluorescent polymer (P1 resulting in quenching its emission. The sensing mechanism

  10. Chemotherapy of disseminated seminoma with combination of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) and cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugrin, D; Whitemore, W J; Batata, M

    1981-01-01

    Nine patients with metastatic seminoma who had received no prior chemotherapy were induced with a combination containing cis-platinum 120 mg/m2 I.V. and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 I.V. for three to six treatments at 4-6 weeks intervals, and then received maintenance with cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 I.V. every 3-4 weeks to complete 2 years of chemotherapy. Eight patients entered complete remission: five with chemotherapy alone and three with chemotherapy and radiation or resection of residual disease. Seven patients remain in CR with a minimum follow up of 17 months. Chemotherapy is effective in treatment of metastatic seminoma.

  11. Liposomal cisplatin combined with gemcitabine in pretreated advanced pancreatic cancer patients: a phase I-II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, George P; Boulikas, Teni; Vougiouka, Maria; Rigatos, Sotirios K; Stathopoulos, John G

    2006-05-01

    The present trial is a phase I-II study based on a new liposomal cisplatin (lipoplatin). Previous preclinical and clinical data (phase I pharmacokinetics) led to the investigation of a combined treatment modality involving lipoplatin and gemcitabine. The gemcitabine dose was kept standard at 1000 mg/m2 and the lipoplatin dose was escalated from 25 mg/m2 to 125 mg/m2. The treatment was administered to advanced pretreated pancreatic cancer patients who were refractory to previous chemotherapy which included gemcitabine. Lipoplatin at 125 mg/m2 was defined as dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and 100 mg/m2 as the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in combination with 1000 mg/m2 of gemcitabine. Preliminary objective response rate data showed a partial response in 2/24 patients (8.3%), disease stability in 14 patients (58.3%) for a median duration of 3 months (range 2-7 months) and clinical benefit in 8 patients (33.3%). Liposomal cisplatin is a non-toxic alternative agent to bare cisplatin. In combination with gemcitabine, it has an MTD of 100 mg/m2 and shows promising efficacy in refractory pancreatic cancer.

  12. Using Ken Burns's "The Civil War" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    When it aired in 1989, Ken Burns's epic documentary about America's Civil War garnered the largest audience in PBS history. Viewers who had little interest or knowledge of the Civil War were attracted to the powerful images and sounds as well as the narration by David McCullough and commentary by Shelby Foote--the combination of which served to…

  13. Prisoners of War of the Triple Alliance within Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The work studies the problem of the detention of prisoners of war of the Triple Alliance in the camps, located within Kazakhstan. During the first months of war, the Russian authorities treated the prisoners of war in accordance with ‘Convention on the Treatment of the Prisoners of War’, approved by the Emperor of Russia. The content of this document corresponded to the Hague Convention with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The major areas of the detention of prisoners of war were Turkestan and Omsk Military Okrug, combining all military institutions of the Steppe Governorate General, including the ones of North-Eastern and Central Kazakhstan. The source base of the research is the materials of Kazakhstan and German archives, the recollections of the former prisoners of war and the published collections of documents and materials.

  14. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  15. War and Comics (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Comics played a very important role in the total mobilization in Italy. Firstly in the cities and then in the trenches, they were a new propaganda tool and explanation of the war for children and soldiers with low literacy. At the same time, the war changed the history of comics and the magazine market for children and youth

  16. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  17. In Time of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  18. The Kawousan War reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimba, I.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    The Kawousan War (1916-1920) was one of the longest periods of resistance known in Niger and through it the local people - Tuareg, Hausa and others - fought to free their society from French colonial domination. Unlike other interpretations, this chapter looks at the structural causes of the war rel

  19. Combination of angiotensin II and l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester exacerbates mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress to cause heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Dale J; Zhang, Aijun; Li, Shumin; Cao, Tram N; Smith, Jessie A; Vedula, Indira; Cordero-Reyes, Andrea M; Youker, Keith A; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; Gupte, Anisha A

    2016-03-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as a cause of energy deprivation in heart failure (HF). Herein, we tested individual and combined effects of two pathogenic factors of nonischemic HF, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis [with l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME)] and hypertension [with angiotensin II (AngII)], on myocardial mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and metabolic gene expression. l-NAME and AngII were administered individually and in combination to mice for 5 wk. Although all treatments increased blood pressure and reduced cardiac contractile function, the l-NAME + AngII group was associated with the most severe HF, as characterized by edema, hypertrophy, oxidative stress, increased expression of Nppa and Nppb, and decreased expression of Atp2a2 and Camk2b. l-NAME + AngII-treated mice exhibited robust deterioration of cardiac mitochondrial function, as observed by reduced respiratory control ratios in subsarcolemmal mitochondria and reduced state 3 levels in interfibrillar mitochondria for complex I but not for complex II substrates. Cardiac myofibrils showed reduced ADP-supported and oligomycin-inhibited oxygen consumption. Mitochondrial functional impairment was accompanied by reduced mitochondrial DNA content and activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and complex I but increased H2O2 production and tissue protein carbonyls in hearts from AngII and l-NAME + AngII groups. Microarray analyses revealed the majority of the gene changes attributed to the l-NAME + AngII group. Pathway analyses indicated significant changes in metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial function, cardiac hypertrophy, and fatty acid metabolism in l-NAME + AngII hearts. We conclude that l-NAME + AngII is associated with impaired mitochondrial respiratory function and increased oxidative stress compared with either l-NAME or AngII alone, resulting in nonischemic HF.

  20. DENSIFICATION OF WOOD VENEERS COMBINED WITH OIL-HEAT TREATMENT. PART II: HYGROSCOPICITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hua Fang,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to achieve high mechanical performance and improved dimensional stability, densification combined with oil-heat treatment (OHT was performed. In our previous study, OHT was successfully applied to densified veneer, which resulted in improved dimensional stability. In the present study, the impact of OHT on densified wood veneer hygroscopicity and mechanical properties was determined. OHT at 180, 200, and 220ºC for 1, 2, and 3 hours was applied to densified Aspen (Populus tremuloides veneers. OHT was found to be an efficient treatment to reduce the hygroscopicity of densified aspen veneers, although OHT had a negative impact on Brinell hardness. However, due to the contribution of densification, the hardness of oil-heat treated veneers was still two to three times higher than that of non-densified veneers. Similar results were found for tensile strength. Bending strength increased slightly at low OHT temperature, and then decreased at high temperature. Bending strength of oil-heat treated densified veneer samples was higher than that of non-densified ones. No significant effect of OHT was found on tensile MOE, but bending MOE increased after OHT. Compared to OHT duration, OHT temperature had a larger impact on densified wood hygroscopicity and mechanical properties.

  1. Comparison of chemical and thermal protein denaturation by combination of computational and experimental approaches. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Christiansen, Alexander; Samiotakis, Antonios; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla; Cheung, Margaret S.

    2011-11-01

    Chemical and thermal denaturation methods have been widely used to investigate folding processes of proteins in vitro. However, a molecular understanding of the relationship between these two perturbation methods is lacking. Here, we combined computational and experimental approaches to investigate denaturing effects on three structurally different proteins. We derived a linear relationship between thermal denaturation at temperature Tb and chemical denaturation at another temperature Tu using the stability change of a protein (ΔG). For this, we related the dependence of ΔG on temperature, in the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, to that of ΔG on urea concentration in the linear extrapolation method, assuming that there is a temperature pair from the urea (Tu) and the aqueous (Tb) ensembles that produces the same protein structures. We tested this relationship on apoazurin, cytochrome c, and apoflavodoxin using coarse-grained molecular simulations. We found a linear correlation between the temperature for a particular structural ensemble in the absence of urea, Tb, and the temperature of the same structural ensemble at a specific urea concentration, Tu. The in silico results agreed with in vitro far-UV circular dichroism data on apoazurin and cytochrome c. We conclude that chemical and thermal unfolding processes correlate in terms of thermodynamics and structural ensembles at most conditions; however, deviations were found at high concentrations of denaturant.

  2. Improved five year survival after combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy for Stage I-II non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfardini, S.; Banfi, A.; Bonadonna, G.; Rilke, F.; Milani, F.; Valagussa, P.; Lattuada, A.

    1980-02-01

    In order to improve the prognosis of patients with localized non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) who are treated with radiotherapy (RT), a prospective controlled study utilizing a combined modality approach was carried out in patients with pathologic Stage I-II NHL. After treatment with regional RT, patients in complete remission were randomized to receive either no further therapy or 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone (CVP). At 5 years from completion of irradiation, the relapse-free survival was 46.3% after RT and 72.1% after RT plus CVP (P=0.005). The corresponding findings for the overall survival calculated from the beginning of irradiation were 55.8 and 82.8% respectively (P=0.03). The favorable effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on relapse-free survival were statistically significant only in the subgroup with diffuse histology. In patients who relapsed after RT alone, the salvage therapy failed to induce a high incidence of second durable remission. Adjuvant chemotherapy is indicated to improve the curve rate in pathologic stage I-II NHL with diffuse histology when regional RT is utilized.

  3. Combining a Ru(II) "Building Block" and Rapid Screening Approach to Identify DNA Structure-Selective "Light Switch" Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Erin; Moyá, Diego; Glazer, Edith C

    2017-02-13

    A chemically reactive Ru(II) "building block", able to undergo condensation reactions with substituted diamines, was utilized to create a small library of luminescent "light switch" dipyrido-[3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenazine (dppz) complexes. The impact of substituent identity, position, and the number of substituents on the light switch effect was investigated. An unbiased, parallel screening approach was used to evaluate the selectivity of the compounds for a variety of different biomolecules, including protein, nucleosides, single stranded DNA, duplex DNA, triplex DNA, and G-quadruplex DNA. Combining these two approaches allowed for the identification of hit molecules that showed different selectivities for biologically relevant DNA structures, particularly triplex and quadruplex DNA.

  4. Toward a Combined SAGE II-HALOE Aerosol Climatology: An Evaluation of HALOE Version 19 Stratospheric Aerosol Extinction Coefficient Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 microns is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 microns is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 micron aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40micronaerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 micron channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived data sets.

  5. Treatment of acquired drug resistance in multiple myeloma by combination therapy with XPO1 and topoisomerase II inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel G. Turner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired drug resistance is the greatest obstacle to the successful treatment of multiple myeloma (MM. Despite recent advanced treatment options such as liposomal formulations, proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, myeloma-targeted antibodies, and histone deacetylase inhibitors, MM is still considered an incurable disease. Methods We investigated whether the clinical exportin 1 (XPO1 inhibitor selinexor (KPT-330, when combined with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD or doxorubicin hydrochloride, could overcome acquired drug resistance in multidrug-resistant human MM xenograft tumors, four different multidrug-resistant MM cell lines, or ex vivo MM biopsies from relapsed/refractory patients. Mechanistic studies were performed to assess co-localization of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A, DNA damage, and siRNA knockdown of drug targets. Results Selinexor was found to restore sensitivity of multidrug-resistant 8226B25, 8226Dox6, 8226Dox40, and U266PSR human MM cells to doxorubicin to levels found in parental myeloma cell lines. NOD/SCID-γ mice challenged with drug-resistant or parental U266 human MM and treated with selinexor/PLD had significantly decreased tumor growth and increased survival with minimal toxicity. Selinexor/doxorubicin treatment selectively induced apoptosis in CD138/light-chain-positive MM cells without affecting non-myeloma cells in ex vivo-treated bone marrow aspirates from newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory MM patients. Selinexor inhibited XPO1-TOP2A protein complexes (proximity ligation assay, preventing nuclear export of TOP2A in both parental and multidrug-resistant MM cell lines. Selinexor/doxorubicin treatment significantly increased DNA damage (comet assay/γ-H2AX in both parental and drug-resistant MM cells. TOP2A knockdown reversed both the anti-tumor effect and significantly reduced DNA damage induced by selinexor/doxorubicin treatment. Conclusions The combination of an XPO1 inhibitor

  6. Comparison of high-latitude thermospheric meridional winds II: combined FPI, radar and model climatologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, E.M.; Aruliah, A.; Mueller-Wodarg, I.C.F.; Aylward, A. [Atmospheric Physics Lab., Univ. Coll. London, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The climatological behaviour of the thermospheric meridional wind above Kiruna, Sweden (67.4 N, 20.4 E) has been investigated for seasonal and solar cycle dependence using six different techniques, comprising both model and experimental sources. Model output from both the empirical Horizontal Wind Model (HWM) (Hedin et al., 1988) and the numerical coupled thermosphere and ionosphere model (CTIM) are compared to the measured behaviour at kiruna, as a single site example. The empirical International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model is used as input to an implementation of servo theory, to provide another climatology combining empirical input with a theoretical framework. The experimental techniques have been introduced in a companion paper in this issue and provide climatologies from direct measurements, using fabry-perot interferometers (FPI), together with 2 separate techniques applied to the European incoherent scatter radar (EISCAT) database to derive neutral winds. One of these techniques uses the same implementation of servo theory as has been used with the IRI model. Detailed comparisons for each season and solar activity category allow for conclusions to be drawn as to the major influences on the climatological behaviour of the wind at this latitude. Comparison of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) derived neutral winds with FPI, empirical model and numerical model winds is important to our understanding and judgement of the validity of the techniques used to derive thermospheric wind databases. The comparisons also test model performance and indicate possible reasons for differences found between the models. In turn, the conclusions point to possible improvements in their formulation. In particular it is found that the empirical models are over-reliant on mid-latitude data in their formulation, and fail to provide accurate estimates of the winds at high-latitudes. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of high-latitude thermospheric meridionalwinds II: combined FPI, radar and model Climatologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Griffin

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The climatological behaviour of the thermospheric meridional wind above Kiruna, Sweden (67.4°N, 20.4°E has been investigated for seasonal and solar cycle dependence using six different techniques, comprising both model and experimental sources. Model output from both the empirical Horizontal Wind Model (HWM (Hedin et al., 1988 and the numerical Coupled Thermosphere and Ionosphere Model (CTIM are compared to the measured behaviour at Kiruna, as a single site example. The empirical International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model is used as input to an implementation of servo theory, to provide another climatology combining empirical input with a theoretical framework. The experimental techniques have been introduced in a companion paper in this issue and provide climatologies from direct measurements, using Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPI, together with 2 separate techniques applied to the European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT database to derive neutral winds. One of these techniques uses the same implementation of servo theory as has been used with the IRI model. Detailed comparisons for each season and solar activity category allow for conclusions to be drawn as to the major influences on the climatological behaviour of the wind at this latitude. Comparison of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR derived neutral winds with FPI, empirical model and numerical model winds is important to our understanding and judgement of the validity of the techniques used to derive thermospheric wind databases. The comparisons also test model performance and indicate possible reasons for differences found between the models. In turn, the conclusions point to possible improvements in their formulation. In particular it is found that the empirical models are over-reliant on mid-latitude data in their formulation, and fail to provide accurate estimates of the winds at high-latitudes.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics

  8. Analysis of Factors that have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 5. World War II, 1939-1945; Campaigns in North Africa, Italy, and Western Europe. Part 2. Wars of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    9-11 Sep Sele- Calore Corridor 11 Sep Battipaglia I 12-15 Sep Vietri I 12-15 Sep Tobacco Factory 13-14 Sep Battipaglia II 17-18 Sep -:-> Eboli 17-18...read center seco d in Jp ortance MIT te Cen andthe~point of origin of two major roads leading to the south. The captumre of St. Lo and the high

  9. Chinese Public Opinions on Okinawa Issue after the Victory of World War II%二战胜利后中国舆论对琉球问题的认知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高月

    2016-01-01

    二战胜利后,琉球问题引起舆论热议。舆论通过历史书写,表达现实诉求,试图建立中琉历史关系与现实法理依据之间的逻辑关系;民族自决对当时中国舆论如何看待琉球归属产生了直接影响;较之朝鲜、越南等原中国属国战后清晰的主权定位,当时中国舆论关注的焦点与其说是能否收回琉球,毋宁说是琉球归谁所有;琉球问题虽然受到官民各界的重视,但总体而言,官方政策与舆论态度之间并未形成互动。%Following the victory of World War II , heated discussion was raised over Okinawa issue in Chi -na.The public opinion expressed the realistic demands through writing history , and tried to establish the logi-cal relationship between the history and the reality .The idea of selfd-etermination exerted direct influence on Chinese public opinion about the ownership of Okinawa .Compared with the clear sovereignty of Korea and Vi-etnam,the focus of Chinese public opinion is on whom Okinawa belongs to rather than whether Chinese gov -ernment could regain Okinawa .Although the government and the society paid attention to Okinawa , overall the official policy and the attitude of public opinion did not interact with each other .

  10. Use of angiotensin II receptor blockers alone and in combination with other drugs: a large clinical experience trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Weir

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (Ang II receptor blockers are the newest class of antihypertensive drugs to be developed. No large-scale clinical trials have been performed to evaluate their efficacy alone, or in combination with other drugs. A large-scale, eight week, open-label, non-placebo-controlled, single-arm trial evaluated the efficacy, tolerability and dose-response of candesartan cilexetil, 16—32 mg once-daily, either as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy, in a diverse hypertensive population in actual practice settings. 6465 patients with high blood pressure, of whom 52% were female and 16% African American, with a mean age of 58 years, were included. 5446 patients had essential hypertension and 1014 patients had isolated systolic hypertension. In order to be included in this study, patients had either untreated or uncontrolled hypertension (systolic blood pressure (SBP 140—179 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP 90—109 mmHg inclusive at baseline, despite a variety of other antihypertensive drugs. Of the 5156 patients with essential hypertension and at least one post baseline efficacy measurement, the mean pretreatment blood pressure (BP was 156/97 mmHg. Candesartan cilexetil monotherapy reduced mean SBP/DBP by 18.0/12.2 mmHg. Similarly, in the 964 patients with isolated systolic hypertension and at least one post baseline efficacy measurement, candesartan cilexetil monotherapy reduced SBP/DBP from 158/81 by 16.5/4.5 mmHg. Candesartan cilexetil was similarly effective when employed as add-on therapy. When added to baseline antihypertensive medication in 51% of the patients with essential hypertension not achieving BP control, additional reduction in BP was achieved regardless of the background therapy, including diuretics (17.8/11.7 mmHg calcium antagonists (16.6/11.2 mmHg, beta-blockers (16.5/10.4 mmHg, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I (15.3/10.0 mmHg, and alpha blockers (16.4/10.4 mmHg. Likewise, when

  11. De la Historia a la Historieta: Yo, René Tardi, prisionero de guerra en el Stalag II B = From History to Comics: I, René Tardi, prisoner of war at Stalag II B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vadillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La obra de Jacques Tardi ha recurrido con frecuencia a la Historia como marco de referencia para sus relatos. En su último álbum, el autor francés aprovecha las vivencias personales de su propio padre y, a partir de los testimonios escritos que éste dejó, ahonda de manera minuciosa y documentada en la experiencia de miles de soldados y oficiales franceses en los campos de prisioneros de la Alemania nazi entre 1940 y 1945. Pero, más allá de la representación detallada de este periodo tan poco tratado por la historiografía oficial francesa, Tardi hace gala de un extraordinario dominio del lenguaje del cómic y utiliza de manera magistral muchos de los recursos narrativos pertenecientes a este medio de expresión. Además, la manera en la que el autor trata la conflictiva y problemática relación con su progenitor otorga una dimensión especial a su última obra.Jacques Tardi has frequently used history as a point of reference for his stories. In his last work, the French author incorporates his own father’s personal memories, and, from the written testimonials he left behind, Tardi, painstakingly, documents the experiences of hundreds of thousands of French soldiers and officers who were held captive in Nazi prisoner of war camps between 1940 and 1945. Furthermore, in Tardi’s detailed representation of this period, which has received little coverage in official French history, he demonstrates an extraordinary mastery of the language of comics, and uses many of the narrative techniques specific to this medium. In addition, the way in which the author writes about the conflictive and problematic relationship he has with his father gives a special dimension to Tardi’s final work.

  12. The war of guns and mathematics mathematical practices and communities in France and its Western allies around World War I

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, David

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, World War I has been shortchanged by the historiography of science. Until recently, World War II was usually considered as the defining event for the formation of the modern relationship between science and society. In this context, the effects of the First World War, by contrast, were often limited to the massive deaths of promising young scientists. By focusing on a few key places (Paris, Cambridge, Rome, Chicago, and others), the present book gathers studies representing a broad spectrum of positions adopted by mathematicians about the conflict, from militant pacifism to military, scientific, or ideological mobilization. The use of mathematics for war is thoroughly examined. This book suggests a new vision of the long-term influence of World War I on mathematics and mathematicians. Continuities and discontinuities in the structure and organization of the mathematical sciences are discussed, as well as their images in various milieux. Topics of research and the values with which they were d...

  13. Myths of the Great War

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We review some "myths" of the Great War of 1914 to 1918: that the war broke out inadvertently, that the western front saw needless slaughter, that the Allies used the food weapon to strangle Germany, and that the peace treaty that ended the war caused the rise of Hitler and the still greater war that followed.\\ud

  14. Somatic hypotheses of war syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Vries, M. de; Bergen, L.F.J.M. van; Galama, J.M.D.; Keyser, A.J.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of the American Civil War, unexplained symptoms in military personnel arising after a war or peace mission have frequently been described. The pattern of symptoms is highly similar for all of the various war syndromes although the conditions of each war or peace mission are widely diff

  15. WHY NATIONS GO TO WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Vrey

    The narratives commence with World War I and conclude with the wars in .... The section on the war in Vietnam depicts how five consecutive American .... as his thesis that leaders should exploit all opportunities to avoid war as it is people,.

  16. Dacarbazine in combination with bevacizumab for the treatment of unresectable/metastatic melanoma: a phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Pier F; Minchella, Ida; Mosconi, Massimo; Gandini, Sara; Verrecchia, Francesco; Cocorocchio, Emilia; Passoni, Claudia; Pari, Chiara; Testori, Alessandro; Coco, Paola; Munzone, Elisabetta

    2015-06-01

    The combined treatment of dacarbazine with an antiangiogenic drug such as bevacizumab may potentiate the therapeutic effects of dacarbazine in metastatic melanoma (MM). Preliminary antitumour activity of dacarbazine plus bevacizumab is evaluated, together with the toxicity and safety profile, in MM patients. This prospective, open-label, phase II study included patients with previously untreated MM or unresectable melanoma. Patients received dacarbazine and bevacizumab until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. The primary efficacy variable was the overall response rate. The secondary efficacy parameters included duration of response, duration of stable disease, time to progression/progression-free survival, time to treatment failure and overall survival. The safety analysis included recordings of adverse events and exposure to study treatment. The intention-to-treat population included 37 patients (24 men and 13 women, mean age 54.2±13.1 years). Overall response rate was 18.9% (seven patients achieved a response) and clinical benefit was 48.6%. In patients who achieved a response, the median duration of response was 16.9 months and the median duration of stable disease was 12.5 months. The median time to progression/progression-free survival and time to treatment failure were 5.5 and 3.1 months, respectively. The median overall survival was 11.4 months. Almost all patients (94.6%) experienced at least one adverse event; however, no new area of toxicity of bevacizumab emerged. The dacarbazine/bevacizumab combination provides benefits compared with dacarbazine monotherapy in historical controls, with an acceptable safety profile. This combination appears to be a valid option in specific subgroups of patients, namely, those triple negative (BRAF, C-KIT and NRAS wild type) or with a BRAF mutation who have already received, or are not eligible for, immunomodulating or targeted agents.

  17. Phase II Trial of Bevacizumab in Combination With Temozolomide as First-Line Treatment in Patients With Metastatic Uveal Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Alhassane; Etienne-Grimaldi, Marie-Christine; Bidard, François-Clément; Rodrigues, Manuel; Plancher, Corine; Mariani, Pascale; Cassoux, Nathalie; Decaudin, Didier; Asselain, Bernard; Servois, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Lessons Learned Trials dedicated to metastatic uveal melanoma are needed because of the poor prognosis of this rare cancer and because its biology is distinct from that of cutaneous melanoma. Agents targeting the MEK/ERK/MAP kinase pathways are being tested. Background. In experimental models, bevacizumab suppressed in vitro growth and in vivo hepatic metastasis of ocular melanoma cells. Additional preclinical data suggested a potential benefit when combining bevacizumab with dacarbazine. Methods. This noncomparative phase II study evaluated a combination of bevacizumab (10 mg/kg on days 8 and 22) with temozolomide (150 mg/m2 on days 1–7 and 15–21) in 36 patients with metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM). The primary endpoint was the progression-free rate (PFR) at 6 months. Using a modified 2-step Fleming plan, at least 10 of 35 patients were required to support a predefined PFR at 6 months of 40%. Secondary objectives were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety; liver perfusion computed tomography (CT) for response imaging; and impact of VEGF-A gene polymorphisms on bevacizumab pharmacodynamics. Results. First- and second-step analyses revealed nonprogression at 6 months in 3 of 17 and 8 of 35 patients, respectively. Finally, the 6-month PFR was 23% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10–39), with long-lasting stable disease in 5 patients (14%). Median PFS and OS were 12 weeks and 10 months, respectively. No unexpected toxicity occurred. Liver perfusion CT imaging was not useful in assessing tumor response, and VEGF-A gene polymorphisms were not correlated with toxicity or survival. Conclusion. In patients with MUM, a combination of bevacizumab plus temozolomide achieved a 6-month PFR of 23%. PMID:26911405

  18. The International Space of the Danish Testing Community in the Post-war Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    International forums and organizations, as well as non-governmental organizations, have played a considerable role in societal developments since the end of World War II. Many changes in post-war Danish public schools like standardized educational testing were formed in dialogue with or initiated...... in such forums or organizations. This contribution explores the importance of these connections by focussing on the period from 1945 to around 1990, i.e., from the end of World War II when Danish education was characterized by a high degree of national unity as a contrast to the strife of the inter-war years...

  19. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  20. War No Longer Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    understanding that industrial ability decides a war…”58 Russell Wrigley , in his famous book “The American Way of War,” argues that America...2003, 82, no.4, 41. 60 Colin S Gray, “The American Way of War: Critique and Implications,” Rethinking the Principles of War,” Anthony D. McIvor...12, 2012). 91 Anthony H. Cordesman, “The New US Defense Strategy and the Priorities and Changes in FY2013 Budget,” Center for Strategic and

  1. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  2. Understanding the Excited State Behavior of Cyclometalated Bis(tridentate)ruthenium(II) Complexes: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitner, Christoph; Erdmann, Elisa; Seidel, Wolfram W; Heinze, Katja

    2015-12-07

    The synthesis and characterization of the donor-acceptor substituted cyclometalated ruthenium(II) polypyridine complex isomers [Ru(dpb-NHCOMe)(tpy-COOEt)](PF6) 1(PF6) and [Ru(dpb-COOEt)(tpy-NHCOMe)](PF6) 2(PF6) (dpbH = 1,3-dipyridin-2-ylbenzene, tpy = 2,2';6,2"-terpyridine) with inverted functional group pattern are described. A combination of resonance Raman spectroscopic and computational techniques shows that all intense visible range absorption bands arise from mixed Ru → tpy/Ru → dpb metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excitations. 2(PF6) is weakly phosphorescent at room temperature in fluid solution and strongly emissive at 77 K in solid butyronitrile matrix, which is typical for ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the weak emission of 2(PF6) arises from a (3)MLCT state that is efficiently thermally depopulated via metal-centered ((3)MC) excited states. The activation barrier for the deactivation process was estimated experimentally from variable-temperature emission spectroscopic measurements as 11 kJ mol(-1). In contrast, 1(PF6) is nonemissive at room temperature in fluid solution and at 77 K in solid butyronitrile matrix. Examination of the electronic excited states of 1(PF6) revealed a ligand-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)LL'CT) as lowest-energy triplet state due to the very strong push-pull effect across the metal center. Because of the orthogonality of the participating ligands, emission from the (3)LL'CT is symmetry-forbidden. Hence, in this type of complex a stronger push-pull effect does not increase the phosphorescence quantum yields but completely quenches the emission.

  3. The Manhattan Project: Science in the Second World War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1990-08-01

    The Manhattan Project: Science in the Second World War'' is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details of the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  4. Toward a combined SAGE II-HALOE aerosol climatology: an evaluation of HALOE version 19 stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Thomason

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 μm is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 μm is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 μm aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40 μm aerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 μm channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived

  5. A new combined process for efficient removal of Cu(II) organic complexes from wastewater: Fe(III) displacement/UV degradation/alkaline precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe; Gao, Guandao; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu

    2015-12-15

    Efficient removal of heavy metals complexed with organic ligands from water is still an important but challenging task now. Herein, a novel combined process, i.e., Fe(III)-displacement/UV degradation/alkaline precipitation (abbreviated as Fe(III)/UV/OH) was developed to remove copper-organic complexes from synthetic solution and real electroplating effluent, and other processes including alkaline precipitation, Fe(III)/OH, UV/OH were employed for comparison. By using the Fe(III)/UV/OH process, some typical Cu(II) complexes, such as Cu(II)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Cu(II)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), Cu(II)-citrate, Cu(II)-tartrate, and Cu(II)-sorbate, each at 19.2 mg Cu/L initially, were efficiently removed from synthetic solution with the residual Cu below 1 mg/L. Simultaneously, 30-48% of total organic carbon was eliminated with exception of Cu(II)-sorbate. Comparatively, the efficiency of other processes was much lower than the Fe(III)/UV/OH process. With Cu(II)-citrate as the model complex, the optimal conditions for the combined process were obtained as: initial pH for Fe(III) displacement, 1.8-5.4; molar ratio of [Fe]/[Cu], 4:1; UV irradiation, 10 min; precipitation pH, 6.6-13. The mechanism responsible for the process involved the liberation of Cu(II) ions from organic complexes as a result of Fe(III) displacement, decarboxylation of Fe(III)-ligand complexes subjected to UV irradiation, and final coprecipitation of Cu(II) and Fe(II)/Fe(III) ions. Up to 338.1 mg/L of Cu(II) in the electroplating effluent could be efficiently removed by the process with the residual Cu(II) below 1 mg/L and the removal efficiency of ∼99.8%, whereas direct precipitation by using NaOH could only result in total Cu(II) removal of ∼8.6%. In addition, sunlight could take the place of UV to achieve similar removal efficiency with longer irradiation time (90 min).

  6. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  7. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the military contribution to terminate wars on the African strategic landscape is dependent upon a military leadership that is able to interface political ...... leadership. A further obstacle resides in the costs of adjusting military forces.

  8. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  9. How Wars Begin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Stevenson family was having dinner. The family atewithout talking for several minutes, then Tom said, "Daddy,do you know how wars begin? " Mr. Stevenson thought for a moment, then he said, "Yes,I think so.

  10. Teuton vs Slav: The Great War Sinks Chicago's German "Kultur."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holli, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the fervent political and cultural nationalism of German Americans in Chicago during World War I. Discusses how this nationalism, combined with ethnic conflict between Germans and Slavs, helped to sway public opinion against Chicago's German community. (GC)

  11. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  12. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    government.""’ 3 On the other hand, a change in political theory -also prompted by the war-provided the intellectual justification for a stronger national...individual Americans to behave as virtuous, self- sacrificing citizens led in two directions. The Radicals, who rested their political theories on the...values. From that perspective, the war suggested that Europeans had gone berserk, denying their civilization and its values. In a Freudian sense, they were

  13. Preventing a Currency War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ On the global economic recovery's already unpredictable road, the latest threat comes from the possibility of a currency war. Although worries about the war have recently been alleviated,as G20 financial officials vowed to "refrain from competitive devaluation of currencies" at their meeting in Gyeongju, South Korea, on October 21-23, more than just words and promises are necessary to avert a currency showdown.

  14. ‘Do not say they are dead’ : the political use of mystical and religious concepts in the Persian poetry of the Iran-Iraq war (1980-88)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi Mahani, Mahnia A.

    2014-01-01

    The Iran-Iraq war began on September 22, 1980 when Iraq attacked the border towns of Iran. The war lasted for eight years. The Iran-Iraq war is the longest conventional battle since World War II. It is estimated that on both sides there is about one million dead and three million wounded, thousands

  15. Phase II/III Study of Radiofrequency Ablation Combined with Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells Treating Colorectal Liver Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This phase II/III, non-randomized clinical trial aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of the combination of radiofrequency ablation (RFA and cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells transfusion for patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs. Experimental Design: A total of 60 eligible patients with CRLMs were enrolled and divided into Group A (RFA alone, n = 30 and Group B (RFA plus CIK, n = 30, and following enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay was performed in 8 patients with CEA > 50 ng/mL pre-RFA and 7 days post-RFA and CIK treatment, respectively. Results: The median progression-free survival (PFS times of Group A and Group B were 18.5 months and 23 months, respectively (P = 0.0336. The 3-year progression-free rates were 13.3% in Group A and 20.3% in Group B, respectively. The median overall survival time was 43 months in Group A, and not reached in Group B. The 3-year survival rates were 64.6% in Group A and 81.0% in Group B, respectively (P = 0.1187. Among the 8 patients with CEA > 50ng/mL, 6 had increase of circulating CEA-specific T cells after RFA (P = 0.010. After CIK cell therapy, the number of CEA-specific T cells increased in all the 8 patients comparing with that pre-treatment (P = 0.001 and in 7 patients comparing with that post-RFA (P = 0.028. Conclusions: We firstly confirm that the combination of RFA and CIK cells boosts CEA-specific T cell response and shows to be an efficacious and safe treatment modality for patients with CRLMs.

  16. Numerical Predictions of Wind Turbine Power and Aerodynamic Loads for the NREL Phase II and IV Combined Experiment Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Earl P. N.; Johnson, Wayne; vanDam, C. P.; Chao, David D.; Cortes, Regina; Yee, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Accurate, reliable and robust numerical predictions of wind turbine rotor power remain a challenge to the wind energy industry. The literature reports various methods that compare predictions to experiments. The methods vary from Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM), Vortex Lattice (VL), to variants of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS). The BEM and VL methods consistently show discrepancies in predicting rotor power at higher wind speeds mainly due to inadequacies with inboard stall and stall delay models. The RaNS methodologies show promise in predicting blade stall. However, inaccurate rotor vortex wake convection, boundary layer turbulence modeling and grid resolution has limited their accuracy. In addition, the inherently unsteady stalled flow conditions become computationally expensive for even the best endowed research labs. Although numerical power predictions have been compared to experiment. The availability of good wind turbine data sufficient for code validation experimental data that has been extracted from the IEA Annex XIV download site for the NREL Combined Experiment phase II and phase IV rotor. In addition, the comparisons will show data that has been further reduced into steady wind and zero yaw conditions suitable for comparisons to "steady wind" rotor power predictions. In summary, the paper will present and discuss the capabilities and limitations of the three numerical methods and make available a database of experimental data suitable to help other numerical methods practitioners validate their own work.

  17. Bridge pier failure probabilities under combined hazard effects of scour, truck and earthquake. Part II: failure probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zach; Lee, George C.

    2013-06-01

    In many regions of the world, a bridge will experience multiple extreme hazards during its expected service life. The current American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) load and resistance factor design (LRFD) specifications are formulated based on failure probabilities, which are fully calibrated for dead load and non-extreme live loads. Design against earthquake load effect is established separately. Design against scour effect is also formulated separately by using the concept of capacity reduction (or increased scour depth). Furthermore, scour effect cannot be linked directly to an LRFD limit state equation because the latter is formulated using force-based analysis. This paper (in two parts) presents a probability-based procedure to estimate the combined hazard effects on bridges due to truck, earthquake and scour, by treating the effect of scour as an equivalent load effect so that it can be included in reliability-based failure calculations. In Part I of this series, the general principle for treating the scour depth as an equivalent load effect is presented. In Part II, the corresponding bridge failure probability, the occurrence of scour as well as simultaneously having both truck load and equivalent scour load effect are quantitatively discussed. The key formulae of the conditional partial failure probabilities and the necessary conditions are established. In order to illustrate the methodology, an example of dead, truck, earthquake and scour effects on a simple bridge pile foundation is represented.

  18. Impact of World War I on Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2015-01-01

    Mention chemistry and the Great "War to End all Wars" in the same sentence, and nearly everybody who ever had a history class will nod sorrowfully and say,"Yes, poison gases." True enough, and Fritz Haber, who led the development of them for the Central Powers, was the one German scientist whom Rutherford never forgave or spoke to again. Such substances (not all really gaseous, and something like 50 have been tried) were used by both sides from 1915 onward, killed about 90,000 people (about 1% of the total), maimed many more, and arguably loosened constraints on future uses of chemical weapons in other wars, prison camps, and terrorist actions. But the war was not determined by them and could have been fought without them. On the other hand, the sudden blockading of ports and termination of most international trade forced Germany (etc) to expand very quickly processes for fixing nitrogen for explosives and for fertilizers in lieu of Chilean guano (yes there is also a Haber process for that). They needed in addition to find domestic replacements for rubber (for tires, hoses, and gas masks) and liquid fuels for tanks and aircraft. The Allies, for their part, had been heavily dependent on German dyestuffs, optical-quality glass for binoculars, and phosphates (fertilizer again). Production facilities for derivatives of coal tars, cottonseed oil, etc. were of necessity scaled up rapidly. And once people have learned to do these things, there is no way to have them be forgotten. The same is, of course, true of the nuclear weapons of World War II and of whatever biological and/or cybernetic entities prove to be essential in the next war.

  19. Libri prohibit: Government interference with book production and book collections during World War II as exemplified by the city of Nitra (Libri prohibiti: zásahy politiky do knižnej produkcie a knižničných fondov počas druhej svetovej vojny na príklade mesta Nitra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Palárik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In post-1939 Slovakia, the government adopted several measures to exercise undue control over its citizens and influence their views and opinions. During World War II, a number of censorship decrees were issues which sought to control what information was made public in the press, on the radio and in movies and other artistic productions. This paper exa-mines book censorship during that period, analyzing the role of specific institutions which were tasked with excising the undesirable literary production, describing the process of „cleaning up“ libraries and looking at what works and which authors were considered unacceptable by the ruling regime, focusing on the city of Nitra.

  20. A combined stretching-tilting mechanism produces negative, zero and positive linear thermal expansion in a semi-flexible Cd(II)-MOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Prem; Das, Raj Kumar; Smith, Vincent J; Barbour, Leonard J

    2014-06-21

    A novel semi-flexible Cd(II)-MOF has been synthesized and characterized by variable temperature powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The material displays an unusual combination of thermal expansion (TE) i.e. negative, zero and positive, which is an extremely rare finding, especially for metal-organic frameworks as a result of a combined stretching-tilting mechanism.