WorldWideScience

Sample records for war case study

  1. Child Survivor of War: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysircar, Gargi

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the history of a Bosnian survivor of war living in the U.S. using the extended case method. Clinical issues related to acculturative stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and identity are analyzed. Suggested treatment includes existential therapy and its cognitive--behavioral applications, didactic education on trauma,…

  2. How China Wins: A Case Study of the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    BIBLIOGRAPHY ..............................................................................................................94 viii ACRONYMS ASEAN ...an historical case study rich with insights into the Chinese strategic use of war to achieve political ends. Subsequent Chapters The format of...

  3. Case-control study: posttraumatic stress disorder and habits of war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalihić, Amra; Skobić, Helena; Pejanović-Skobić, Natasa

    2008-03-01

    To correlate habits (abuse of tobacco, alcohol, psychoactive substances and drugs) of war veterans and the frequency of symptoms in persons with PTSD and those without it. We have carried out a prospective research (case-control study) over the period between September of 2005 and June 2006. The sample consisted of two groups of examinees: 60 males, war veterans with PTSD and 60 males, war veterans without PTSD. The group of war veterans without PTSD was formed using matching criteria (same age, level of education). Both groups included married males. Research was performed using a questionnaire designed for this study. A higher number of war veterans without PTSD were employed compared to war veterans with PTSD (chi2=45.753; df=4; pwar veterans with PTSD used psychoactive substances during the war period compared to war veterans without PTSD (18.3% vs. 3.3%). We have observed that 85% of examinees with PTSD have used anxiolitic drugs in the period of research, compared to only 5% of those without PTSD (chi2=77.576; df=1; Pwar veterans without PTSD had employment in comparison to the group of war veterans with PTSD. A higher number of war veterans with PTSD had some form of sleeping disorder, used psychoactive substances and anxiolitic drugs during the war period, and had alcohol abuse in comparison to the group of war veterans without PTSD.

  4. The South African Border War (1966 - 1989) a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The South African Border War – or the Bush War - was a quite remarkable conflict that took place in the border region between South-West-Africa (Namibia), Angola and the Republic of South Africa between 1966 and 1989 which makes it one of the longest conflicts on the African continent. The conflict...... is not well known because the events took place during the Cold War where the involved actors de facto acted as proxies in the overall ideological struggle between East and West. The conflict covered most of the South African region. The seed to the conflict originated from the colonial past, where most...... African countries were colonized and governed by European nations and white minorities. Following the end of World War II, African states gradually gained independence from their former colonial rulers often through a violent liberation struggle aimed against the colonial authorities but also against...

  5. Just War and Postmodern Warfare: A German Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Germany’s cognitive dissonance about the importance of military force and counter-insurgency operations in Afghanistan is an uphill battle they are still...1 Summary of Walzer’s Contemporary Just War Theory : ……............................................................2 Summary of...Postmodern Warfare Theory : .......................................................................................5 German Foreign Policy and Military

  6. Leadership Case Studies from Women Serving During World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    President Woodrow Wilson many times to discuss concerns and was an acknowledged voice for peace.3 Not all women were lucky to have the President’s...September of 1918, Woodrow Wilson made a speech concerning the suffrage issue. “We have made partners of the women in this war, shall we admit them...http://www.jstor.org/ stable/25163562. 105 Barbara Wilson , “WWI Thirty Thousand Women Were There,” last modified 2004, accessed January 15, 2017, http

  7. Severe war-related trauma and personality pathology: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjiza, Jasna; Britvic, Dolores; Radman, Maja; Crawford, Mike J

    2017-03-21

    Exposure to war-related trauma has long been recognised to have an adverse effect on mental health. We attempted to investigate whether people who have clinically significant personality-related problems 15 years after a war are more likely to have been exposed to severe war-related trauma than those who do not have significant personality difficulties. A case -control study was conducted in southern Croatia, fifteen years after the 1991-1995 war. We recruited 268 participants: 182 cases who scored positively on the International Personality Disorder Examination scale (IPDE), and 86 controls who were IPDE negative. Severity of war-related trauma was assessed according to the 17 items on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) trauma event scale, which were considered to be of severe (catastrophic) nature based on the ICD-10 description of catastrophic trauma and the opinion of trauma experts. All participants also completed measures of mental health (depression, anxiety and PTSD), social functioning and current substance misuse. Cases (IPDE positive) were eight times more likely to report exposure to severe war-related trauma than controls. This association increased after adjustments for demographic factors (OR = 10.1, 95% CI 5.0 to 20.4). The types of severe trauma most frequently reported were either the participants'own life being in direct danger or witnessing extreme violence inflicted on others or the result of violence towards others (murder, torture, seeing burned or disfigured bodies). Prevalences of depression, anxiety and PTSD were high among IPDE positive participants 15 years after exposure to war trauma. Their level of interpersonal dysfunction was considerably higher than that in controls (OR = 10.39, 95% CI 3.51 to 30.75). Alcohol consumption in cases was significantly higher with a mean of 14.24 units per week (sd = 11.03) when compared to controls whose mean number of alcohol units was 9.24 (sd = 7.25), t (73) = 2.16, p war

  8. Civil Wars Hijacked: A Case Study of the Lebanese Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Byman argues for four types of support to insurgent groups that have proven important: safe havens, financing , political support, and direct military...of 1976, the Israeli government under Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin debated three options: 1) intervene directly and risk a war with Syria that could...New York: Routledge, 1997), 72. 56 Latif Abul-Husn, The Lebanese Conflict: Looking Inward (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc ., 1998), 65

  9. War In Developing Drugs: A Case Study In Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Sarkar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Truly someone said that “Necessity is the mother of invention”. Scientific evolution always comes with sociological need and temporary crisis in our daily life. The invention of fire, wheel for transportation, paper for documentation, each and every scientific invention is associated with some sociological need. Even these words are very true for discovery of medicines. It was until the starting of twentieth century i.e. the world war, which caused proper things and brought sufficient human attention towards the need of developing new medicines (Drugs and medicinal techniques. In this article we shall try to reveal the very history with a strong emphasis on the chronological sequence.

  10. Software war stories case studies in software management

    CERN Document Server

    Reifer, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with practical advice on how to handle the many issues that can arise as a software project unfolds. The book uses twelve case studies to communicate lessons learned addressing such issues as they occur in government, industrial and academic settings. These cases focus on addressing the things that can be done to establish and meet reasonable expectations.  Such corrective actions often involve more than just dealing with project issues.  For example, software practitioners may have to address obstacles placed in their way by procurement, organizational procedures an

  11. Teaching History with Comic Books: A Case Study of Violence, War, and the Graphic Novel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Alicia C.; Castro, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, the authors present a case study that demonstrates how graphic novels can be utilized in the history classroom. More specifically, they discuss the benefits (and challenges) of using comic books to teach undergraduates about war and violence. While much of their discussion focuses on the historical particularities of Uganda, their…

  12. Teaching History with Comic Books: A Case Study of Violence, War, and the Graphic Novel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Alicia C.; Castro, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, the authors present a case study that demonstrates how graphic novels can be utilized in the history classroom. More specifically, they discuss the benefits (and challenges) of using comic books to teach undergraduates about war and violence. While much of their discussion focuses on the historical particularities of Uganda, their…

  13. Population Isolation in the Philippine War: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    1900- April 1901.” The Journal of Military History Volume 61, No. 2 (April 1997): 255-282. Blount, James. The American Occupation of the... Young , Kenneth. “Guerrilla Warfare: Balangiga Revisited” Leyte-Samar Studies 11, no. 1. (February 1977): 21-28. Zinn, Howard. A People’s History of the United States. New York: Harper Collins, 1980. ...some exposure to history at higher levels, will not learn about population isolationism in the Philippines.1 A key textbook in the 1990s and turn of the

  14. Women and work after the Second World War: a case study of the jute industry, circa 1945-1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Carlo; Tomlinson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the attempts by the Dundee jute industry to recruit women workers in the years circa 1945-1954. It locates its discussion of these attempts in the literature on the impact of the Second World War on the participation of women in the British labour market more generally, and the forces determining that participation. It stresses the peculiarities of jute as a traditional major employer of women operating in very specific market conditions, but suggests that this case study throws light on the broader argument about the impact of war and early post-war conditions on women's participation in paid work.

  15. "Agricultural Statecraft" in the Cold War: a case study of Poland and the West from 1945 to 1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Robert Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how the rise and fall of Polish agriculture affected the larger political and economic relationship among Poland and three key members of the western alliance - the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Federal Republic of Germany - in the first decade of the Cold War. This period is revealing precisely because the reversal of fortunes in the Polish agricultural economy required the Polish government and some western counterparts to maneuver through periods of both agricultural advantage and disadvantage. Agricultural strategies as means and ends motivated the Polish, British, West German, and American governments to actions that bent, stretched, and limited some well-established practices in Cold War relations across divided Europe. By explicating the political consequences of changing flows of agricultural exports and imports in one specific context, this essay serves as case study of the role of agriculture in the global context of the Cold War.

  16. Partition and Post-War Violence: Case Study of Moldova and Pridnestrovie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Johnson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Partition advocates argue that ethnic groups must be separated completely in order to prevent renewed violence but Moldova is an exception with its large “stay-behind” minority and a lack of renewed violence. This chapter uses Moldova to develop partition theory, presenting an institutionalist explanation that focuses on the interaction between state-building and minority collaboration in a post-war context. The chapter argues that strong state institutions create an incentive for ethnic minorities to collaborate with the state, regardless of minority preferences, and this helps maintain peace. The case of Moldova reinforces the importance of state-strength in avoiding interethnic conflict renewal. Both Pridnestrovie/Transnistria and Moldova were a relatively strong state, which is unusual in a post-war, post-partition situation, and these relative strengths reduced the likelihood of conflict recurrence.

  17. Protection of civilians during armed conflits: Kosovo War as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    BOITEUX, Tristan; NOTARO, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The modern idea of humanitarian intervention was a creation of the post-Cold War period, and it was closely linked to optimistic expectations of the establishment of a ‘new world order’. This study will deal with the way International Law seeks to prevent or stop Civilian Rights Violations during Armed Conflicts, relying on Geneva Convention and its appendices. The purpose of this thesis is to present of the lack of a truly defined international vision regarding Humanitarian Intervention ...

  18. The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

  19. From holy war to opium war? A case study of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhand, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper examines the recent growth of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan. A detailed analysis of one village in Badakshan Province reveals profound changes in the local economy and social institutions. The paper describes two major shifts in the local economy: first, the switch from wheat to poppy cultivation; and second, the shift from the livestock trade to the opium trade. It then examines the underlying causes and impacts of the opium economy on social relations in the village. Although a case study of a community living on the margins of the global economy, it is argued that these changes have important implications for international policymakers. The emergence of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan is symptomatic of new and expanding forms of trans-border trade associated with the restructuring of the global political economy.

  20. From reception of classics to outreach: classical reception and American response to war. A case study. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Lauriola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available After providing a theoretical framework pertaining to the field of Reception of Classic in the first part of this essay (LAURIOLA, 2014 and after discussing some related issues from a pedagogical viewpoint, I introduced, as case study, works and initiatives by a psychiatrist (SHAY, 1991, 1994, 2002, an American director (DOERRIES, 2008, and two scholars (MEINECK, 2010a, b, 2012; TRITLE, 1998, 2000, 2010 who have been proposing a use of Classical Literature as a therapeutic and awareness-raising tool in response to the problems that modern wars have been causing. Veterans and their family, as well as the whole civic community, are the addressees of their work. What follows is a detailed analysis of those works with the intention both to determine whether they can be classified as work of reception – which, so far, has never been proposed – and to discuss the plausibility of this kind of reception, which also turns into social outreach, and how it can be proposed without risking to completely dismiss changes that have occurred in the vision of war, although we may agree that the sufferings of war did not change too much1. Like in the first part, the discussion will be also carried on within a pedagogical discourse. A personal note based on a personal experience will conclude the analysis.

  1. "Star Wars", Model Making, and Cultural Critique: A Case for Film Study in Art Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Films are multimodal, often memorable, and change one's way of thinking. Films provide narratives and visual metaphors that function as tools for one's imagination and learning. No other film has amplified this phenomenon in the United States more than the "Star Wars" Cycle. "Star Wars" exemplifies the multidimensionality of the film industry, its…

  2. "Star Wars", Model Making, and Cultural Critique: A Case for Film Study in Art Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Films are multimodal, often memorable, and change one's way of thinking. Films provide narratives and visual metaphors that function as tools for one's imagination and learning. No other film has amplified this phenomenon in the United States more than the "Star Wars" Cycle. "Star Wars" exemplifies the multidimensionality of…

  3. An analysis of uranium dispersal and health effects using a Gulf War case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Albert Christian

    2005-07-01

    The study described in this report used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to depleted uranium (DU) during the 1991 Gulf War for both U.S. troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. Only a few veterans in vehicles accidentally struck by U.S. DU munitions are predicted to have inhaled sufficient quantities of DU particulate to incur any significant health risk (i.e., the possibility of temporary kidney damage from the chemical toxicity of uranium and about a 1% chance of fatal lung cancer). The health risk to all downwind civilians is predicted to be extremely small. Recommendations for monitoring are made for certain exposed groups. Although the study found fairly large calculational uncertainties, the models developed and used are generally valid. The analysis was also used to assess potential uranium health hazards for workers in the weapons complex. No illnesses are projected for uranium workers following standard guidelines; nonetheless, some research suggests that more conservative guidelines should be considered.

  4. Evaluation of the United States Drug War Policy Abroad: A Case Study in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    the Human Rights and Forced Displacement CODHES Consultoría para los Derechos Humanos y el Desplazamiento DIRAN Antinarcotics Directorate of...never been truer than during the days of the Cold War within Latin America. Several Latin American countries received massive political, social ... social conditions in Latin America (Edwards, 2009, p. 4). A secondary goal of the program was to wean these struggling countries away from the

  5. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  6. Leadership in the inter-war period. Case Study: Nicolae Malaxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț Constantin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The interwar period was called the Golden Age of Romania. From a certain point of view it was. Cultural effervescence of the time, the economic boom due by the development of the industry has brought Romania to the attention of Western Europe. Many industries in the late ‘30 had advanced enough to be able to satisfy almost all domestic needs. Regarding technology, most romanian plants were behind those in the West. In heavy industry, only Malaxa and the Steelworks Resita were the best in Western Europe. In retrospect of these events I have considered appropriate to study this issue closely, to be fascinated by a controversial but destined to lead character, a character that has go down in history because of his pioneering leadership actions.

  7. Construction of War Discourse on International News Agencies: Case Study Terrorist attacks November 13th 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel TORRES-TOUKOUMIDIS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes warmongering rhetoric presented by international agencies Reuters, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera and Associated Press (AP of the information related to the terrorist attacks in Paris on November 13th, 2015 for 15 days after the event. We have started from a quantitative and qualitative analysis of 550 information units using the software MAXQDA (v. 11.0.11. Subsequently, the semantic criteria of media discourse: functionality, significance and direction of the goal was applied on the selected sample. The results demonstrate the prevailing demonization of Islam, the exaltation of fear and panic in the discursive construction and it highlighted the spectacle of the information as a communicative strategy on the rhetorical guidance.

  8. Periodical Press as a Means to Study Rear Area Activities in the First World War (Black Sea Province Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the Black Sea Province rear activity in the First World War. The article is based on the data of local and regional periodical press, such as: «Chernomorsky Kray», «Sochinsky Listok», «Chernomorskoe Poberezh’e», «Chernomorsky Listok Voyny», etc. Among the rear area activities, we can name charity for the wounded, entertainment at military hospitals, foundation of Mercy Sisters schools and Red Cross regional offices. Attention is also attached to the interaction with state institutions in charge of hospital work and the attitude of the royal family towards hospital care. Red Cross activities in the First World War are also significant. The conclusion states that cooperation between centre and outskirts in terms of help for the wounded was close in the First World War. Almost all of the work, concerning the establishment of regional (province hospitals was charity-funded. Outskirts attempted to model the supreme authority behavior, concerning this question and as a result the care for war victims had become the duty of the whole Russian community.

  9. On the Effectiveness of Military Institutions: Historical Case Studies from World War I, The Interwar Period and World War II. Volume 2. The Interwar Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    criticizlnq CP 40(39), "Staff Conve.:satlons with France and Belgium." 246. I i42 Murray, _ n__L the uropean Balance of Power, pp. 269-74, 43. N.H. Gibbs ... Regla Aeronautica fighter pIlot training continued to instill biplane tactics.IS2 3 Nonetheless, the growing possibility after 1934 that the 8"ia...to Implement such a policy. As a re.sult of this £ failure, from the outset of Italian Intervention in the Second World War, the Regla ezonautica

  10. Is sexual abuse a part of war? A 4-year retrospective study on cases of sexual abuse at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

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    Mary W. Kuria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of sexual abuse are long lasting. Sexual abuse when associated with violence is likely to impact negatively on the life of the victim. Anecdotal reports indicate that there was an increase in the number of cases of sexual violence following the 2007 post election conflict and violence in Kenya. Although such increases in sexual abuse are common during war or conflict periods the above reports have not been confirmed through research evidence. The purpose of the current study is to establish the trend in numbers of reported cases of sexual abuse at Kenyatta National Hospital over a 4-year period (2006-2009. Data on sexually abused persons for the year 2006-2009 was retrieved from the hospitals record. A researcher designed questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from the completed Post Rape Care (PRC form. The PRC-Ministry of Health no. 363 (MOH363 form is mandatorily completed by the physician attending the sexually abused patient. There was an increase in the number of cases of sexual abuse reported in 2007 election year in Kenya, with a statistically significant increase in the sexually abused male cases. Sexual crime is more prevalent when there is war or conflict.

  11. Analyzing and Interpreting Lime Burials from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939): A Case Study from La Carcavilla Cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; García-Rubio, Almudena; Edwards, Howell G M; Munshi, Tasnim; Wilson, Andrew S; Ríos, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Over 500 victims of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) were buried in the cemetery of La Carcavilla (Palencia, Spain). White material, observed in several burials, was analyzed with Raman spectroscopy and powder XRD, and confirmed to be lime. Archaeological findings at La Carcavilla's cemetery show that the application of lime was used in an organized way, mostly associated with coffinless interments of victims of Francoist repression. In burials with a lime cast, observations made it possible to draw conclusions regarding the presence of soft tissue at the moment of deposition, the sequence of events, and the presence of clothing and other evidence. This study illustrates the importance of analyzing a burial within the depositional environment and taphonomic context.

  12. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will conduct a teleconference meeting on August 3, 2012. Members of the...

  13. Engaging Military in Post-War Reconciliation: A Case Study of Implications for the Consolidation of Democracy in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    to many countries transitioned from authoritarian regimes to democracies like Bangladesh , Indonesia, Philippine, Pakistan, South Korea, Taiwan, and...by the military in the post war reconciliation process in Sri Lanka. During the last stages of the war, over 12000 LTTE cadres—including 594 child ...contribute labor to the management of farm lands in reviving the north and east after the war—which has provided a comprehensive source of income

  14. The Hanford Nuclear Reservation (1943-1987): a case study of the interface between physics and biology during the cold war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macuglia, Daniele [Fishbein Center for the History of Science and Medicine, University of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    During its active period (1943-1987) the Hanford Nuclear Reservation shaped the history of US nuclear research. It also constitutes an interesting case study of the interface between physics, biology and the politics of Cold War society. Although supposed to turn the US into a stronger military force during the Cold War, the remarkable biological consequences of the nuclear research carried out in the facility ended up overshadowing its original political purpose. The high-level of radioactive waste harmed thousands of people living in the area, causing relevant environmental disasters which make the site the most contaminated area in the US even today. Nuclear research is uniquely dangerous since radiation can cause severe consequences both in terms of lives injured and environmental damage. I address various ways in which nuclear physics and biology were used - and abused - at the Hanford Site to combine the needs of politics with the needs of a healthy society. This paper further investigates the moral responsibility of science to society and the way in which biological research informed nuclear physics about the deleterious consequences of radiation on environment and on the human body.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study of a Validated Case Definition of Gulf War Illness in a Population-Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    neuropsychological [10, 11] , neurophysiological [10, 12] , auto- nomic [13] , brain imaging [7, 14–16] and functional status [17] measures, with...diac rhythm and is reproducible over time.19,20 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS P values are 2-tailed. The reported results were adjusted for age, sex, and race...ing Air Force veterans of the Gulf War. JAMA. 1998;280(11):981-988. 9. Sharief MK, Priddin J, Delamont RS, et al. Neurophysiologic analysis of neuro

  16. The impact of political decisions on sustainable urban development (case study of Siberian cities during the Russo-Japanese war)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageev, Ilya A.; Ageeva, Vera V.; Bleikher, Oksana V.; Larionova, Alyona V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of public-political factors on the regional sustainable development in the light of the historical experience of the Siberian cities during the Russo-Japanese war (1904-1905). Based on the analysis of archival materials and publications in the Siberian printed press at the beginning of the 20th century, the authors have identified the reasons why the sustainable development of the largest Siberian cities was hindered at that period. The construction of the railway eliminated the problem of transport links with Siberian cities; however it made them dependent on external supply of goods. Local Siberian production declined with the advent of cheap imported goods; warehouse infrastructure reduced due to the uselessness; the alternative modes of transport could not compete with the railroad and left the main traffic directions. The Russo-Japanese war began in 1904 and left Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk without transport service for nearly eighteen months, since cargo railway transportation which was not related to the supply of the army, was discontinued. Siberian cities were in catastrophic conditions: food prices increased several times, hospitals worked without pharmaceuticals, urban construction was stopped. Historical examples of unsatisfactory supply of cities under the influence of intense public and political factors demonstrate that sustainable urban development is impossible without the diversification of the sources and means of subsistence. Diversification is proved to be necessary, it can guarantee the use of the transport and economic infrastructure in the interests of the city in unexpected situations.

  17. Health Effects of Sexual Violence against Woman as a War Weapon: Case of Bosnia War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Gogen;

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Health effects and human rights dimensions of sexual violence against women, a public health and human rights problem, evaluated by the case of Bosnia War. METHODS: Bosnia War, United Nations resolutions, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY cases, activities of NGOs, approaches of WHO, Dayton Peace Agreement, current health programs were evaluated with the health effects and human rights dimensions of sexual violence against women. RESULTS: Sexual violence against women and systematic rapes were used as an “ethnic cleaning” tool and war weapon during Bosnia War, estimated 20.000-60.000 women and girls were raped systematically, captivated in rape camps, exposed to sexual violence. Medical care following the sexual violence against women and rape should include; Determination and teatment of injuries, forensic notice and documentation, preventive and curative services for Sexually Transmitted Diseases including HIV/AIDS, emergency contraceptive services, safe medical abortus, follow up of pregnancies, psychosocial support and services and training of health care professionals. Mental Health Reform became a priority health topic for Bosnia Herzegovina aftermath of the Bosnia War. Taking measures to prevent social stigmatism of the victims, economic support and implementation of rehabilitation programs, punishment of the perpetrators to repair social and community bonds are important. ICTY investigates and punishes the crimes of rapes and sexual violence against women. CONCLUSION: UN defines the violence against women and rapes during wars as “crime against humanity”. Besides improving the status of women, comprehensive approaches with the cooperation of medical, legal and social organisations are needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 119-126

  18. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  19. Stereotypes of English in Hollywood Movies : A Case Study of the Use of Different Varieties of English in Star Wars, The Lord of the Rings and Transformers.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    This essay deals with the use of linguistic stereotypes in Hollywood movies. It investigates whether attitudes towards English dialects found in studies on perceptual dialectology are reflected in the selected movies and discusses the notion of linguistic identity and how standard and nonstandard speech, respectively, are used symbolically to emphasize features of characters in eleven movies from three different movie series, namely The Lord of the Rings, Star Wars and Transformers, with a ma...

  20. Health effects of war stress on Norwegian World War II resistance groups: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Ellinor F

    2003-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which adverse long-term health effects of World War II stress exposure were present in 3 groups of resistance veterans. The groups had been exposed to different types of war stressors: concentration camp incarceration, resistance participation within the illegal press, and a secret military organization. With the differences in war stressors as a basis, we assumed that those incarcerated in a concentration camp would display more adverse health effect compared to the resistance veterans. The findings point to a relationship between the severity of war stressors and postwar health in all 3 groups.

  1. The Transformation of War:New Wars and The Case of Syrian Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    EKER, Sami

    2015-01-01

    The dramatic transformation of war phenomenon has leaded to some conceptual seekings in line with the globalization process and the end of Cold War. From 1990 onwards, the “new wars” debate provided multidimensional perspective for the war’s definiton, its actors, strategies and states’ position. Objects and motivations behind wars concluded with significant transformations: Privatization of state’s monopoly over use of force, replacing the inter-state wars by intra-state wars, and the emerge...

  2. Russian in the University Curriculum: A Case-Study of the Impact of the First World War on Language Study in Higher Education in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, James

    2008-01-01

    The outbreak of the First World War and the emergence of Russia as Britain's "glorious ally" swiftly changed public attitudes in Britain, which had been largely, but not entirely, hostile to Russia. The sense that Britain needed to cure its 'abysmal ignorance' of Russia, coupled with the strong desire to replace Germany, the enemy, as a…

  3. Russian in the University Curriculum: A Case-Study of the Impact of the First World War on Language Study in Higher Education in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, James

    2008-01-01

    The outbreak of the First World War and the emergence of Russia as Britain's "glorious ally" swiftly changed public attitudes in Britain, which had been largely, but not entirely, hostile to Russia. The sense that Britain needed to cure its 'abysmal ignorance' of Russia, coupled with the strong desire to replace Germany, the enemy, as a trading…

  4. World War II-related post-traumatic stress disorder and breast cancer risk among Israeli women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is related to adverse health outcomes. There are limited data on PTSD and cancer, which has a long latency period. We investigated the association between World War II (WWII)-related PTSD and subsequent breast cancer (BC) risk among Jewish WWII survivors and examined whether this association was modified by exposure to hunger during WWII. We compared 65 BC patients diagnosed in 2005 through 2010 to 200 population-based controls who were members of various organizations for Jewish WWII survivors in Israel. All participants were born in Europe, lived at least six months under Nazi rule during WWII, and immigrated to Israel after the war. We estimated PTSD using the PTSD Inventory and applied logistic regression models to estimate the association between WWII-related PTSD and BC, adjusting for potential confounders. We observed a linear association between WWII-related PTSD and BC risk. This association remained significant following adjustment for potential confounders, including obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking, age during WWII, hunger exposure during WWII, and total number of traumatic life events (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.14-7.31). However, the level of hunger exposure during WWII modified this effect significantly. These findings suggest an independent association between WWII-related PTSD and subsequent BC risk in Jewish WWII survivors that is modified by hunger, a novel finding. Future research is needed to further explore these findings.

  5. Case Studies in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-06

    Contains developed case studies in strategic planning on The Navy General Board, Joint Service War Planning 1919 to 1941, Navy Strategic Planning , NASA...in Strategic Planning NPS-56-88-031-PR of September 1988. Strategic planning , Strategic Management.

  6. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  7. Quantitative and Econometric Methodologies in the Study of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the quantitative study of civil war, focusing on the development of quantitative conflict studies, the basics of the quantitative method, the prominent sources of civil conflict data, and the strengths and weaknesses of using quantitative methods to analyse civil war.

  8. Quantitative and Econometric Methodologies in the Study of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Govinda

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the quantitative study of civil war, focusing on the development of quantitative conflict studies, the basics of the quantitative method, the prominent sources of civil conflict data, and the strengths and weaknesses of using quantitative methods to analyse civil war.

  9. Case Study of a Coffee War: Using the "Starbucks v. Charbucks" Dispute to Teach Trademark Dilution, Business Ethics, and the Strategic Value of Legal Acumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    A Harvard Business School-style teaching case can be a powerful pedagogical tool to teach law and ethics to business students because instructors can combine a traditional business case study with Socratic-style dialogue and legal analysis from a managerial perspective. This teaching note includes suggestions for several methods of using the case,…

  10. Case Study of a Coffee War: Using the "Starbucks v. Charbucks" Dispute to Teach Trademark Dilution, Business Ethics, and the Strategic Value of Legal Acumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    A Harvard Business School-style teaching case can be a powerful pedagogical tool to teach law and ethics to business students because instructors can combine a traditional business case study with Socratic-style dialogue and legal analysis from a managerial perspective. This teaching note includes suggestions for several methods of using the case,…

  11. The Arabic Language Fog of War: Exploring Iraq War Veterans’ Motivations to Study Arabic Language and Culture Post-Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jennifer Nichols

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes research into Iraq War Veterans studying Arabic at the college level post-deployment. What is it about their exposure to the language and culture that motivates them to study the language after serving in Iraq? Few research studies exist in the area of Veterans’ education, a federally recognized minority. The study’s purpose was to explore Iraq war veterans’ language learning motivations and described their experiences, through the use of qualitative research methodology and the development of case study narratives. Results indicate that understanding the Veteran experience can foster a diversity-friendly, inclusive environment in the critical language classroom. There are broader implications for veteran higher education, other Less Commonly Taught Languages, alternative pedagogies, non-traditional student education, K-12, foreign language education policy, foreign relations, diversity & equity in the classroom, and national security.

  12. Joint Global War on Terror (GWOT) Vascular Injury Study 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0014 TITLE: Joint Global War on Terror (GWOT) Vascular Injury Study 2 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: MAJ Zachary...SUBTITLE Joint Global War on Terror (GWOT) Vascular Injury Study 2 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-2-0014 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...effort by Col Rasmussen and has taken leadership of the protocol . HRPO approval was obtained September 9, 2014. Research staff has attempted to

  13. Post-traumatic stress symptoms linked to hidden Holocaust trauma among adult Finnish evacuees separated from their parents as children in World War II, 1939-1945: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pentti

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify long-term effects of diagnostic criteria on the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) for a test group of Finnish evacuees from World War II and compare the outcome effect with a control group of children who lived in Finland during the war in 1939-1945. 152 participants were recruited by the local leader of the Finnish War Child Association in Sweden and Finland. The selected group answered questions on the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) and the EMBU (Swedish acronym for "Own Memories of Parental Rearing"). Evidence suggests a link between childhood parental separation and termination of the internalized attachment hierarchy of origin in a detachment process among Finnish evacuees. Based on the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Total (PCL-C) diagnosis an extreme traumatization for 36.7% of the test group subjects was identified, including a hidden Holocaust trauma in the population of Finnish evacuees. The study met the criteria for satisfying global evidence value. Sixty-five years after the end of World War II and in line with other studies on war children, the data show high levels of different trauma exposures from the war with 10.6 higher risk (odds ratio) for the exposed group of Finnish evacuees. Despite some limitations, the data highlight the need for further investigation into different parts of the detachment process among seriously traumatized groups to reveal resilience and other dimensions of importance in professional mental health creation.

  14. boer war (1899–1902) studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    Defence Force Academy in Canberra, is an established Anglo-Boer War ... current publication is much wider in scope: it covers a period of a hundred years ... 30). In Chapter 3,. Wessels discusses and lists the theses according to their ...

  15. War, Law and Order - Case Study: Australian Whole-of-Government Efforts to Develop the Security and Criminal Justice Sectors in Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Peace: Report of the Commonwealth Commission on Respect and Understanding, Com- monwealth Secretariat, 2007. 75 Connable, Ben and Martin C. Libicki...154, No. 2, pp. 64-72. Feil , Scott, ‘Building Better Foundation: Security in Post-Con- flict Reconstruction’, The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 4... Martin , The Transformation of War, Free Press, 1991. Wainwright, Elsina, Police Join the Front Line. Building Austra- lia’s International Wagner

  16. Patriot War and the Fenian Raids: Case Studies in Border Security on the U.S. Canada Border in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    remain neutral in the conflict.1 Nearly thirty years later, the U.S.-Canada border was again the scene of conflict during the Fenian Raids. Similar to...War of 1812, arrived on scene under orders from Major General Scott to enforce the Neutrality Act. Colonel Worth seized both schooners in U.S... neutrality law and escorted him from the scene . John Boyle O’Reilly assumed command in O’Neill’s absence; however, he conducted no further attacks that

  17. Reanalysis of Korean War Anthropological Records to Support the Resolution of Cold Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emily K

    2017-01-20

    Re-investigation of previously unidentified remains from the Korean War has yielded 55 new identifications, each with corresponding records of prior anthropological analyses. This study compares biological assessments for age at death, stature, and ancestry across (i) anthropological analyses from the 1950s, (ii) recent anthropological analyses of those same sets of remains, and (iii) the reported antemortem biological information for the identified individual. A comparison of long bone measurements from both the 1950s and during reanalysis is also presented. These comparisons demonstrate commonalities and continuing patterns of errors that are useful in refining both research on Korean War cold case records and forensic anthropological analyses performed using methods developed from the 1950s identifications.

  18. Elaboration of the Visual Pathways from the Study of War-Related Cranial Injuries: The Period from the Russo-Japanese War to World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the wars in the early 20th century, elaboration of the visual pathways was greatly facilitated by the meticulous study of visual defects in soldiers who had suffered focal injuries to the visual cortex. Using relatively crude techniques, often under difficult wartime circumstances, investigators successfully mapped key features of the visual pathways. Studies during the Russo- Japanese War (1904-1905) by Tatsuji Inouye (1881-1976) and during World War I by Gordon Holmes (1876-1965), William Lister (1868-1944), and others produced increasingly refined retinotopic maps of the primary visual cortex, which were later supported and refined by studies during and after World War II. Studies by George Riddoch (1888-1947) during World War I also demonstrated that some patients could still perceive motion despite blindness caused by damage to their visual cortex and helped to establish the concept of functional partitioning of visual processes in the occipital cortex.

  19. Narrative Exposure Therapy as a treatment for child war survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: Two case reports and a pilot study in an African refugee settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuner Frank

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little data exists on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD that has resulted from exposure to war or conflict-related violence, especially in non-industrialized countries. We created and evaluated the efficacy of KIDNET, a child-friendly version of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET, as a short-term treatment for children. Methods Six Somali children suffering from PTSD aged 12–17 years resident in a refugee settlement in Uganda were treated with four to six individual sessions of KIDNET by expert clinicians. Symptoms of PTSD and depression were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at nine months follow-up using the CIDI Sections K and E. Results Important symptom reduction was evident immediately after treatment and treatment outcomes were sustained at the 9-month follow-up. All patients completed therapy, reported functioning gains and could be helped to reconstruct their traumatic experiences into a narrative with the use of illustrative material. Conclusions NET may be safe and effective to treat children with war related PTSD in the setting of refugee settlements in developing countries.

  20. The Saratoga WarHorse project: a case study of the treatment of psychological distress in a veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Robert; Finch, Sharon; Hickling, Edward J; Barnett, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    We theorized that ability to direct and control a horse will lead to a sense of empowerment, facilitate a relationship between horse and veteran, lead to a decrease in anxiety, and improve physical and social functioning. This case study utilizes the Connection methodology: nonverbal language of the horse in a predictable, sequential, and repeatable method. Psychological testing occurred immediately pre- and post-Connection with follow-up occurring at 2, 4, 6, and 12 wks post-Connection. Twice-deployed combat medic who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Saratoga Springs, New York. Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II); Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C); the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale (RSES); the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI); and the Modified Social Support Survey (MSSS). The participant demonstrated significant improvement in measures of psychological functioning (eg, over 12 wks); both PCL-C and RSES scores decreased 58% and 44%, respectively. Participant further reported an increase in sleep quality. The results of this case study strongly support the potential for the intervention and indicate the need for a controlled, randomized study that might more stringently investigate the impact of the intervention.

  1. 45 CFR 506.18 - Entitlement of survivors to award in case of death of prisoner of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of prisoner of war. 506.18 Section 506.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare..., ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.18 Entitlement of survivors to award in case of death of...

  2. Spiritual well-being, intrinsic religiosity, and suicidal behavior in predominantly Catholic Croatian war veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nad, Sanea; Marcinko, Darko; Vuksan-Aeusa, Bjanka; Jakovljević, Miro; Jakovljevic, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    We investigated relationships between spiritual well-being (SWB), intrinsic religiosity (IR), and suicidal behavior in 45 Croatian war veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and 32 healthy volunteers. Compared with the volunteers, the veterans had significantly lower SWB scores (p = 0.000) and existential well-being (EWB) scores (p = 0.000). Scores on the religious well-being (RWB) subscale (p = 0.108) and the IR scale did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.803). Veterans' suicidality inversely correlated with SWB (p = 0.000), EWB (p = 0.000), RWB (p = 0.026), and IR (p = 0.041), with the association being stronger for the EWB subscale than for the RWB subscale. Veterans who had attempted suicide at least once in their lifetime had significantly higher Suicidal Assessment Scale scores and lower EWB scores than veterans who never attempted suicide. Low EWB scores may imply an increased risk of suicidality. Some religious activities were more frequent among the veterans than among the healthy volunteers, possibly reflecting the veterans' increased help-seeking behavior due to poor EWB.

  3. Syrian war shrapnel injury: cubital nerve defect grafting during humanitarian surgical mission. Clinical case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argentina Vidrașcu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim of this clinical case presentation is to reveal the importance of early nerve injury diagnosis and surgical treatment in war wounded patients. Methods. The author treated patients in Amman Charity Hospital were among different plastic surgery cases where limb nerve injuries with nerve grafting indication. The presented case was treated with autologus sural nerve graft. Results were evaluated at 3 months after the surgery and revealed detectable nerve conductibility at the Electromiography test. In conclusion, in cases with delayed nerve repair surgical treatment in war wounded patients, the vascularised nerve graft can be a better solution for nerve defect surgical treatment.

  4. Moral Education and Post-War Societies: The Peruvian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, Susana; Reategui, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the unique challenges and needs of moral and citizenship education in post-war Peruvian society. It assumes the explanation of the roots, the facts and the enduring negative consequences of violence as described in the final report of the Comision de la Verdad y Reconciliacion (CVR) [Truth and Reconciliation Commission]…

  5. Moral Education and Post-War Societies: The Peruvian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, Susana; Reategui, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the unique challenges and needs of moral and citizenship education in post-war Peruvian society. It assumes the explanation of the roots, the facts and the enduring negative consequences of violence as described in the final report of the Comision de la Verdad y Reconciliacion (CVR) [Truth and Reconciliation Commission]…

  6. War experiences and psychotic symptoms among former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the mediating role of post-war hardships – the WAYS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy; Otim, Balaam Nyeko; Opio, George; Ovuga, Emilio; Meiser-Stedman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms have been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and war experiences. However, the relationships between types of war experiences, the onset and course of psychotic symptoms, and post-war hardships in child soldiers have not been investigated. This study assessed whether various types of war experiences contribute to psychotic symptoms differently and whether post-war hardships mediated the relationship between war experiences and later psychotic symptoms. In an ongoing longitudinal cohort study (the War-Affected Youths Survey), 539 (61% male) former child soldiers were assessed for psychotic symptoms, post-war hardships, and previous war experiences. Regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of different types of war experiences on psychotic symptoms and the mediating role of post-war hardships in the relations between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms. The findings yielded ‘witnessing violence’, ‘deaths and bereavement’, ‘involvement in hostilities’, and ‘sexual abuse’ as types of war experiences that significantly and independently predict psychotic symptoms. Exposure to war experiences was related to psychotic symptoms through post-war hardships (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.10, 0.25]) accounting for 50% of the variance in their relationship. The direct relation between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms attenuated but remained significant (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.12, 0.26]). Types of war experiences should be considered when evaluating risks for psychotic symptoms in the course of providing emergency humanitarian services in post-conflict settings. Interventions should consider post-war hardships as key determinants of psychotic symptoms among war-affected youths. PMID:24718435

  7. War in the Atlantic: A Historical Case of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    costs . The staggering toll of the “unrestricted” campaign, amplified by rising numbers of neutral vessels that ceased to operate, given the risk, far...outweighed the expense of convoys. As shipping attrition began to foreclose Britain’s ability to fight the war, the costs of the convoy system became...sighting to attack.33 Initially, convoys were arranged for ships inbound to Great Britain only, as the most pressing need was for supplies from abroad

  8. Treatment of Bone Defects in War Wounds: Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubor, Predrag; Milicevic, Snjezana; Grubor, Milan; Meccariello, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Results of the treatment of open fractures primarily depend on the treatment of connected soft tissue injuries. Objective: The aim was to present the experience and methods gained during the treatment of diaphyseal bone defects as a consequence of gunshot fracture soft war trauma. Patients and Methods: The study consisted of 116 patients with the diaphyseal bone defect who were treated with the usage of primary and delayed autotransplantation of bones, transplants of the fibula and Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis. Results: The results of compensation of bone defect less than 4 cm and conducted by an early cortico-spongioplastics were as follows: good in 8 respondents (45%), satisfactory in 6 (34%) and poor in 4 respondents (21%). In cases of delayed cortico-spongioplastics, the above mentioned results were: good in 36 (41%) respondents, satisfactory in 24 (34%) and poor in 16 (25%) respondents. The results of compensation of bone defect greater than 4 cm with the usage of fibular transplant were as follows: good in 3 (38%) respondents, satisfactory in 3 (38%) and poor in 2 (24%), and with the usage of using the Ilizarov method, the results were as follows: good in 8 (57%) respondents, satisfactory in 3 (21.5%) and poor in 3(21.5%) respondents. Conclusion: The results showed that, in cases of compensation of bone defects less than 4 cm, the advantage is given to the primary spongioplastics over the delayed one. In cases of compensation of bone defects greater than 4 cm, the advantage is given to the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis when compared to the fibular transplant. PMID:26543315

  9. Some Possible Effects of World War II on the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Murry R.

    1986-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of professional literature, curriculum guides, textbook advertisements, and newspaper articles from World War II era in order to assess response of social studies educators to crisis of World War II and effect of the war on the social studies curriculum. Concludes that rapid curriculum change resulted in response to the…

  10. TURNER LECTURE Military education and the study of War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of this renewed attention to war and its nature, the forces directed their gaze once ..... Australian military history or the history of insurgency in post-war Southeast Asia ... complex in the aftermath of the Cold War's end, and with war unlikely to ...

  11. Mental disorders following war in the Balkans: a study in 5 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Bogic, M.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Wang, D.; Schützwohl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: War experience may affect mental health. However, no community-based study has assessed mental disorders several years after war using consistent random sampling of war-affected people across several Western countries. Objectives: To assess current prevalence rates of mental disorders in an

  12. Mental disorders following war in the Balkans: a study in 5 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Bogic, M.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Wang, D.; Schützwohl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: War experience may affect mental health. However, no community-based study has assessed mental disorders several years after war using consistent random sampling of war-affected people across several Western countries. Objectives: To assess current prevalence rates of mental disorders in an

  13. Major reproductive health characteristics in male Gulf War Veterans. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, T; Andersson, A M; Suadicani, Poul Vilhelm

    2001-01-01

    The male reproductive system could have been affected by various hazardous agents and exposures during and in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War scenario. We tested the hypothesis that, compared to controls, male Danish Gulf War Veterans would have adverse sex hormone levels, decreased fertility...

  14. LESSONS FROM THE BOER WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. De Jong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Jay Stone and Erwin A. Schmidl, The Boer War and Military reforms, Volume 28 of the series "War and Society of East Central Europe", University Press of America, Lanham: New York - London, 1988, 345 pp. Numerous studies exist of the lessons to be learnt from the Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902 by students of 20th Century Warfare. These studies date back from the days of that war up to the present. In many cases these studies are titled "Lessons from the Boer War". In the book under review Jay Stone examines the War's impact on Britain and Erwin Schmidl its effect in Austria-Hungary. I shall confine this review to Stone's findings. According to him Britain entered the war full of self-confidence in the hope of terminating the conflict within a few weeks, but was totally unprepared. The reason was that the last war she waged against a European power was as long ago as 1855-56. That was the Crimean War against Russia. Thereafter she had fought only local, colonial wars against badly drilled, little disciplined and primitively armed non-European armies. Some of these used to attack in large hordes and were shot or ridden down en masse. This had happened recently at Omdurman in 1898 where Kitchener defeated the Sudanese. The British ultimately were victorious in all the colonial wars.

  15. Simple Analysis of War Scars left to Hemingway——through comparative study of Henry's and Hemingway's experiences and sufferings in the war

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克俊

    2008-01-01

    The First World War and the Second Wodd War brought Hemingway tremendous seam both physically and mentally, which became his nightmares in his later life. To better understand Hemingway's war scars and the masons, this article mainly analyses Henry's (Henry, the hero of A Farewell to Arms) and Hemingway's experiences and suffer-ings in the war respectively, and then makes a detailed comparative study. Another purpose of studying this topic is to help people realize that there should be no wars for mankind and that the whole world needs peace!

  16. War And Reconstruction: Four Comparative Case Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vassal or annexed by the victorious state, or were subjected to a humiliating peace treaty that did not provide for full ...... and which placed all kinds of restrictions on the exercise of black political actions. They wished .... The general mood.

  17. What makes a ‘National’ War Memorial? The Case of the Australian Ex-Prisoners of War Memorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan Grant

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Ex-Prisoners of War Memorial was unveiled in Ballarat to great fanfare in February 2004. Struggling to overcome serious setbacks in order to raise the necessary funds to construct the $2 million memorial over more than a period of four years, the memorial, listing the names of all Australian prisoners of war from all conflicts was judged by the Federal Government to be nothing but a ‘local’ memorial rather than a ‘national’ memorial. The article investigates whether this issue is at all associated with the ambiguity and difficulty of incorporating prisoners of war into the Anzac legend or whether there were other factors at hand deciding the official ‘national’ status of the first war memorial to list the names of all Australian prisoners of war. The importance of this issue reveals how government bureaucracy and party politics can influence the future and potential public significance of a war memorial.

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury Studies in Britain during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the wartime urgency to understand, prevent, and treat patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during World War II (WWII), clinicians and basic scientists in Great Britain collaborated on research projects that included accident investigations, epidemiologic studies, and development of animal and physical models. Very quickly, investigators from different disciplines shared information and ideas that not only led to new insights into the mechanisms of TBI but also provided very practical approaches for preventing or ameliorating at least some forms of TBI. Neurosurgeon Hugh Cairns (1896-1952) conducted a series of influential studies on the prevention and treatment of head injuries that led to recognition of a high rate of fatal TBI among motorcycle riders and subsequently to demonstrations of the utility of helmets in lowering head injury incidence and case fatality. Neurologists Derek Denny-Brown (1901-1981) and (William) Ritchie Russell (1903-1980) developed an animal model of TBI that demonstrated the fundamental importance of sudden acceleration (i.e., jerking) of the head in causing concussion and forced a distinction between head injury associated with sudden acceleration/deceleration and that associated with crush or compression. Physicist A.H.S. Holbourn (1907-1962) used theoretical arguments and simple physical models to illustrate the importance of shear stress in TBI. The work of these British neurological clinicians and scientists during WWII had a strong influence on subsequent clinical and experimental studies of TBI and also eventually resulted in effective (albeit controversial) public health campaigns and legislation in several countries to prevent head injuries among motorcycle riders and others through the use of protective helmets. Collectively, these studies accelerated our understanding of TBI and had subsequent important implications for both military and civilian populations. As a result of the wartime urgency to understand

  19. Does moving from war zone change emotions and risk perceptions? A field study of Israeli students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosh Shahrabani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current field study uses data collected after the 2009 war between Israel and the Hamas militias in the Gaza Strip ended. The study compares recalled emotions and perceived risks among two groups of students, all of whom were exposed to rocket attacks. Individuals in the ``left the war zone'' group left the region under attack as a precautionary action, while the ``stayed in the war zone'' group remained in the region during war. The results indicate no significant differences in the levels of recalled fear and anger between the two groups, while the perceived self-risk from terror was higher among the ``stayed in the war zone'' group. Yet, a higher level of recalled fear was found among those who left the war zone and whose parents resided in the war zone, compared to those who left the war zone and whose parents resided outside the war zone. In addition, fearful people became more pessimistic about their level of personal risk from terror, but not about the routine risks. We conclude that civilians need attention even if they leave the war zone since leaving the attacked region as a precautionary action may mitigate perceived self-risk from terror but does not seem to eliminate the high level of negative emotions evoked by the terror attacks.

  20. The influence of types of war experiences on conduct problems in war-affected youth in Northern Ugandan: Findings from the WAYS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amone-P Olak, Kennedy; Ovuga, Emilio

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to war is associated with poor psychosocial outcomes. Yet the effects of different types of war events on various psychosocial outcomes such as conduct problems remain unknown. This study aims to assess whether various war events differ in predicting conduct problems. Using data from an on-going longitudinal research project, the WAYS study, the current article examined the relationship between specific war events and conduct problems in war-affected youth in Northern Uganda (N=539, baseline age=22.39; SD=2.03, range 18-25). Regression analyses were conducted to relate each type of war experience to conduct problems. War categories of "witnessing violence", "deaths", "threat to loved ones" and "sexual abuse" were associated with reporting conduct problems. Multivariable models yielded independent effects of ''witnessing violence'' (β=0.09, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.18) and ''Sexual abuse'' (β=0.09, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.19) on conduct problems while "duration in captivity" independently and negatively predicted conduct problems (β=-0.14, 95% CI: -0.23, -0.06). Types of war events vary in predicting conduct problems and should be considered when designing interventions to alleviate negative consequences of exposure to war. Moreover, longer duration in captivity appear to protect war-affected youth from conduct problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Snapshot of a War Crime: The Case of Russian Colonel, Yuri Budanov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Finch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study of war, certain images become symbolic. In Vietnam, it might have been the photo of the young child running naked from a napalm explosion on her village. In the Iraq war, the toppling of Saddam Hussein’s statue in Baghdad. The trials of Russian Colonel, Yuri Budanov became the iconic event for many Russians when thinking about the most recent conflict with Chechnya (1999-2008. This paper will examine the trials surrounding the alleged war crimes of this Russian officer, the background to this crime, the course of the trials, and the political and social factors which affected the various verdicts. The article will also touch upon the dilemma involved with distinguishing combatants from non-combatants in a counter-insurgency operation.

  2. Tug-of-War Injuries: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranit N. Chotai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 10-year-old boy presenting with radial nerve palsy due to injury during a tug-of-war game. Patient was managed nonoperatively and regained radial nerve function. Tug-of-war is a globally popular noncontact sport. Injuries during this game are inevitable and may range from simple sprains to life and limb threatening trauma. Combined hip and knee injuries and soft-tissue injuries involving the back are most frequent. Most injuries occur when tug-of-war was played in an informal setting and where the tug-of-war International Federation rules were less likely to be followed. Measures should be taken to increase the awareness about these safety rules and prevention of consequent injuries. Sports physicians, pediatricians, orthopedic surgeons, general physicians, and athletic trainers should be aware of potential injuries resulting from this game while caring for these athletes, so as to be well prepared for apt management of the injuries associated with TOW.

  3. Topicality as War News Value: A Pragma – Linguistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareed Hameed Al-Hindawi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses one of the criteria of war news values in printed media. The current study concerns itself with only Topicality as the target of scrutiny. It explores this value through the application of a model of analysis based on a pragma-linguistic approach. The analysis is intended to achieve the following aims: first, bringing topicality as one criterion of news values to the attention of pragmatists; second, introducing an analytical framework which is hoped to be useful for pragmatists to analyze news values, and to be available in their hands for further development. This framework aims at explicitly revealing the linguistic as well as the pragmatic properties of the war news texts as far as topicality is concerned. In relation to the aims of the study and owing to the fact that people are eager to understand what is going on, it is hypothesized that topicality comes into viewable interaction between grammar and pragmatics. The findings of the data analysis indicate how topicality is transferred to the receiver of the message and how it shapes news reporting.

  4. Depression and anxiety among war-widows of Nepal: a post-civil war cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Syaron; Kandel, Pragya; Lamichhane, Prabhat

    2017-06-19

    Thousands of Nepalese women were widowed as a consequence of a decade (1996-2006) long civil war in Nepal. These women are at grave risk of mental health problems due to both traumatic experiences and violation of natural order of widowhood. The present study explores the depression and anxiety among war-widows. In 2012, a cross-sectional study was designed to interview 358 war-widows using validitated Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory in four districts of Nepal - Bardiya, Surkhet, Sindhupalchowk and Kavrepalanchowk with history of high conflict intensity. The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 53% and 63% respectively. Financial stress was significantly associated with depression (2.67, 95% CI: 1.40-5.07) and anxiety (2.37, 95% CI: 1.19-4.72). High autonomy of women as compared to low autonomy, high social support as compared to low social support and literacy as opposed to illiteracy was associated with less likelihood of depression and anxiety. Our results suggest high magnitude of depression and anxiety among war-widows in Nepal. Future policy efforts should be directed at providing mental health services to identify mental health issues among conflict affected individuals with focus on education, employment and activities to promote social support and autonomy at community.

  5. Extreme Case of Crisis: Definitions of War Violence in Narratives of Survivors from the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Basic, Goran

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of this article is the war that took place in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina and more specifi cally interpersonal interpretations of violence and the biographical impact of war-time violence. Serbian soldiers and police targeted their use of violent force directly against the civilian populations in northwestern Bosnia. In their quest to expel Bosniacs and Croats from this area, Serbian soldiers and police used mass executions, forced flight, systematic rape, and conce...

  6. The Well Being of Children Living in Chronic War Zones: The Palestinian-Israeli Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive review and integration of available studies on the effects of severe traumatic experiences on children, especially in the context of short and enduring exposure to harsh events and adversities, as they relate to children who live in violent war zones, in particular in Israel and the Palestinian territories. The…

  7. Autologous Skin Cell Spray for Massive Soft Tissue War Injuries: A Prospective, Case-Control, Multicenter Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0031 TITLE: Autologous Skin Cell Spray for Massive Soft Tissue War Injuries: A Prospective, Case...DATES COVERED 15Mar2013-31Oct2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Autologous Skin Cell Spray for Massive Soft Tissue War Injuries: A Prospective, Case-Control...assess the success of skin cell spray combined with a biocomposite subcutaneous (INTEGRA) layer for repair of large open wounds. The objective is the

  8. World War I--Catalyst for the Creation of the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermis, S. Samuel

    2009-01-01

    In honor of the 100th anniversary of "The Social Studies," the journal is reprinting this article, originally published in Vol. 55, No. 6 (November 1964). In this essay, Shermis explains that, while prior to 1914 the social studies did not exist, the field had come into existence within five years after World War I ended. The war, subsequent…

  9. "Atmosphère, atmosphère": On the Study of France Between the Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ungar

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Street Noises: Parisian Pleasure, 1900-1940 by Adrian Rifkin and Shanghai on the Métro: Spies, Espionage, and the French Between the Wars by Michael B. Miller are test cases for issues of historiography related to period and duration in the study of France between 1919 and 1940. Of added relevance to these issues is the fact that Rifkin and Miller both question distinctions between elite literary cultures linked to book publishing and new forms of mass reproduction enhanced by technologies of sound reproduction and illustration. A concluding excursus explores recent theories of urban space symbolized by the street as a site of interaction and exchange.

  10. [Japanese psychiatrists who studied in the United States in pre-war years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Y

    1994-12-01

    In pre-war years, the main stream of Japanese psychiatry belonged to the German School, and many eminent psychiatrists studied in Germany. As far as I could confirm, eleven Japanese psychiatrists studied in the United States in pre-war years. The first one was Saburo Matsubara (1877-1936), who studied under Adolf Meyer during the years 1903-1908. Nine psychiatrists studied in the United States during the years of World War I or just after it. Five of them studied under Meyer, and four others at the Wistar Institute of Biology and Anatomy. The last one, Tsuneo Muramatsu (1900-1981), studied at Harvard University during the years 1933-1935. In pre-war years, the seeds sown by them opened into very small flowers. But in post-war years, the seeds bore good fruit in the form of the introduction of dynamic concepts into Japanese psychiatry.

  11. Are injuries from terror and war similar? A comparison study of civilians and soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Jaffe, Dena H

    2010-08-01

    To compare injuries and hospital utilization and outcomes from terror and war for civilians and soldiers. Injuries from terror and war are not necessarily comparable, especially among civilians and soldiers. For example, civilians have less direct exposure to conflict and are unprepared for injury, whereas soldiers are psychologically and physically prepared for combat on battlefields that are often far from trauma centers. Evidence-based studies distinguishing and characterizing differences in injuries according to conflict type and population group are lacking. A retrospective study was performed using hospitalization data from the Israel National Trauma Registry (10/2000-12/2006). Terror and war accounted for trauma hospitalizations among 1784 civilians and 802 soldiers. Most civilians (93%) were injured in terror and transferred to trauma centers by land, whereas soldiers were transferred by land and air. Critical injuries and injuries to multiple body regions were more likely in terror than war. Soldiers tended to present with less severe injuries from war than from terror. Rates of first admission to orthopedic surgery were greater for all casualties with the exception of civilians injured in terror who were equally likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit. In-hospital mortality was higher among terror (7%) than war (2%) casualties, and particularly among civilians. This study provides evidence that substantial differences exist in injury characteristics and hospital resources required to treat civilians and soldiers injured in terror and war. Hospital preparedness and management should focus on treating combat injuries that result from specific causes-terror or war.

  12. Motivations and experiences of museum visitors: The case of the Imperial War Museum, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Raymond; Kokkranikal, Jithendran

    2015-01-01

    This study explores motivations of visitors to the Imperial War Museum (North and South), United Kingdom, with a view to understanding why people visit museums associated with conflicts. Though museums are part of the education and leisure industry, the distinction between education and leisure is often blurred. There are a number of reasons why people visit museums. Motives of museum visitors can be grouped into intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This study analysed the extent to which museum ...

  13. Relationship of early-life trauma, war-related trauma, personality traits, and PTSD symptom severity: a retrospective study on female civilian victims of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Stevanović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consequences of war-related traumatisation have mostly been investigated in military and predominant male populations, while research on female civilian victims of war has been neglected. Furthermore, research of post-war posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women has rarely included early-life trauma in their prediction models, so the contribution of trauma in childhood and early youth is still unexplored. Objective: To examine the relationship of early-life trauma, war-related trauma, personality traits, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress among female civilian victims of the recent war in Croatia. Method: The cross-sectional study included 394 participants, 293 war-traumatised adult women civilians, and 101 women without war-related trauma. Participants were recruited using the snowball sampling method. The applied instruments included the Clinician-Administrated PTSD Scale (CAPS, the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R, the War Stressors Assessment Questionnaire (WSAQ, and the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the prediction model of PTSD symptom severity measured by CAPS score for current PTSD. Results: The prevalence of current PTSD (CAPS cut-off score=65 in this cohort was 20.7%. The regression model that included age, early-life trauma, war-related trauma, neuroticism, and extraversion as statistically significant predictors explained 45.8% of variance in PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: Older age, exposure to early-life trauma, exposure to war-related traumatic events, high neuroticism, and low extraversion are independent factors associated with higher level of PTSD symptoms among women civilian victims of war.

  14. Wars and Suicides in Israel, 1948–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron (Ostre), Israel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:22754482

  15. Wars and suicides in Israel, 1948-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron Ostre, Israel

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed.

  16. NEW PROBLEMATIZATION WAYS OF THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR HISTORY IN WESTERN RUSSIAN STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Валерьевна Трубникова

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the new thematic perspectives prevailing in Western historiography of the Great Patriotic War. The analysis is implemented on the basis of the French scientific periodicals of 2001–2013 years. Historical survey of contemporary Russian Studies seeking to fill research gaps and form a new problem fields in the study of the World War II Eastern Front history. These studies continue the trend of the second half of 1990 – the beginning of the 2000s, which withdrow themes of Soviet history from politicized totalitarian interpretations to ideologically neutral field of renewed social history. New vectors of study based on the use of newly opened archives hold  a "context" study of pre–war and post–war international political events related to the activities of the Soviet regime, including sensitive issues of the Soviet Union geopolitical expansion in Eastern Europe; the survey of different social ( ethnic, gender , religious groups in the war and in the " out of the war " process; Stalins's strategies of management, military repression, " purges " and ideological influence on the population.Purpose: To reveal the areas of contemporary Western Russian Studies research in the history of the Great Patriotic War.Methodology : problem historiography.Results: the newest thematic areas of research and methodological techniques of WWII Western Russien studies are identified.Practical implications: research and teaching activities in the field of the Russian history.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-26

  17. Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sørensen, Tore

    that time Roskilde University Centre and Learning Lab Denmark, DK)3. The case here presented is based on results from research activity carried out over a 1 year period (spring 2006 - spring 2007). Detailed information concerning participation in the project was collected in two DHSs only: the Sports Day...

  18. The culture of war: a study of women military nurses in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell-Desch, E

    2000-04-01

    Many books and studies have described the male Vietnam War culture, whereas similar literature about women is almost nonexistent. This study describes the culture of war nursing as experienced by 24 U.S. women military nurses. Data were generated using a core question and in-depth interviews. Phenomenology served as the research method, incorporating data analysis procedures of Colaizzi and Lincoln and Guba. Nine theme categories were identified to describe the culture of war nursing. Core values of the military culture were threaded throughout descriptions, and activities to make their environment more homelike embodied the positive values of their culture.

  19. Enhancing Video Games Policy Based on Least-Squares Continuous Action Policy Iteration: Case Study on StarCraft Brood War and Glest RTS Games and the 8 Queens Board Game

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarhan, Shahenda; Abu ElSoud, Mohamed; Rashed, Hebatullah

    2016-01-01

    ...). The LSCAPI was implemented and tested on three different games: one board game, the 8 Queens, and two real-time strategy (RTS) games, StarCraft Brood War and Glest. The LSCAPI evaluation proved superiority over LSPI in time, policy learning ability, and effectiveness.

  20. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  1. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  2. The experience of death anxiety in Iranian war veterans: a phenomenology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Nia, Hamid; Ebadi, Abbas; Lehto, Rebecca H; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of death anxiety experienced by patients who have survived violence and threats to life during war is of strong importance in delivery of best care for veterans experiencing health stressors. The aim of the study was to explore the death anxiety experience of veterans from the Iran-Iraq war. Using a phenomenological approach, 11 war veterans were interviewed related to death anxiety experiences. Four major themes included afterlife fears; alienated farewell; ambiguous separation; and physical dissolution. Patients who have been exposed to death trauma in the battlefield may carry added burden from unique cognitions and fears related to personal death.

  3. A Contrast Study on Chinese and American Feminism Reflected in Martial Security War and Desperate Housewives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    Both Marital Security War and Desperate Housewives reflect modern Chinese and American women’s double pressure and challenges in marriage, career, life etc. This paper made a contrast study on Chinese and American feminism.

  4. A Contrast Study on Chinese and American Feminism Reflected in Martial Security War and Desperate Housewives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    Both Marital Security War and Desperate Housewives reflect modern Chinese and American women's double pressure and challenges in marriage, career, life etc. This paper made a contrast study on Chinese and American feminism.

  5. Study on Rhetoric Art of Counselor in Intrigues of the Warring States:In the Case of LU Zhong-lian%《战国策》中鲁仲连的说辞艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大玲

    2015-01-01

    《战国策》主要描述了战国到秦国之间各国纵横家的游说之词与权力变更的故事。通过各国各个策士们的游说,他们的思维缜密,逻辑性较强,且策士们有很高的善变能力,在遇到困难的时候能够临危不乱。文章通过以《战国策》中策士们说辞艺术并以鲁仲连的说辞艺术为代表,来阐述说辞艺术的丰富多彩,展示战国政治舞台各位策士运用说辞进行善变的的精彩画面。%Intrigues of the Warring States describes the lobbying words and power change story between the Warring States period to the Qin State period. By all counselors lobbying, they have careful thinking, logical, and high fickle ability, and can repeat chaos when they encounter difficulties. This paper elaborates the rhetoric art of rich and colorful based on the Intrigues of the Warring States in rhetoric art and strategists for LU Zhong-lian's rhetoric art as the representative, to show, wonderful picture of the Warring States political stage using rhetoric of mercurial counselor.

  6. Making Sense of War and Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    When people tell stories about their past experiences, they often include descriptions that infer changes in trust repertoires over time, especially when the stories relate to serious life dramas like war and peace. A happy ending can make a past war appear meaningful. In this case study...

  7. Latin American World War I Historiography: the Cases of Argentina, Mexico and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Ramírez Bacca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios187.204 The text provides a critical review of the Latin American historiography during the First World War. The author focuses on Argentina, Mexico and Colombia in order to account for the lines of work, categories of analysis and the recent contributions on the issue. In the same way, it takes into account the Western historiographical context, poses questions and dialogues based on recent studies as well as highlights the limitations and explains the reason for the identified historiographical gaps.

  8. Washington’s War: A Study in Operational Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    against the most modern and professional military in the late 1700s provides great insights, lessons, and takeaways for both today’s and tomorrow’s...onset of the war in discipline, training, professionalism, and technology. Of the 48,000, over 13,000 were stationed outside of England, Ireland , and...giant in the late 1700s provides great insights, lessons, and takeaways for both today’s and tomorrow’s military leaders. First, high-level leaders

  9. Challenges facing post-war tourism development: the case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical investigation to study the post-war tourism in sought west region of Iran. This region is the host of many Iranian who wish remember the events of War between Iran and Iraq. Many high school or university students travel to the region through cultural as well as religious communities. This paper tries to analyze the challenges facing these people when they travel to province of Khozestan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who visited the region. The implementation of Pearson correlation test has determined that “Weakness of tourism infrastructure facilities and services” is to be blamed the most followed by “Underdevelopment of decision making centers”. Moreover, path analysis has been implemented to detect direct and indirect effects of different factors on development of tourism in the region. In our survey, marketing, culture and weakness in infrastructures have been determined the most important factors influencing on development of the region.

  10. War related sexual violence and it's medical and psychological consequences as seen in Kitgum, Northern Uganda: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Were-Oguttu Juliet

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent adoption of the UN resolution 1820 (2008 which calls for the cessation of war related sexual violence against civilians in conflict zones, Africa continues to see some of the worst cases of war related sexual violence including the mass sexual abuse of entire rural communities particularly in the Great Lakes region. In addition to calling for a complete halt to this abuse, there is a need for the systematic study of the reproductive, surgical and psychological effects of war related sexual violence in the African socio-cultural setting. This paper examines the specific long term health consequences of war related sexual violence among rural women living in two internally displaced person's camps in Kitgum district in war affected Northern Uganda who accessed the services of an Isis-Women's International Cross Cultural Exchange (Isis-WICCE medical intervention. Methods The study employed a purposive cross-sectional study design where 813 respondents were subjected to a structured interview as part of a screening procedure for an emergency medical intervention to identify respondents who required psychological, gynaecological and surgical treatment. Results Over a quarter (28.6% of the women (n = 573 reported having suffered at least one form of war related sexual violence. About three quarters of the respondents had 'at least one gynaecological complaint' (72.4% and 'at least one surgical complaint' (75.6%, while 69.4% had significant psychological distress scores (scores greater than or equal to 6 on the WHO SRQ-20. The factors that were significantly associated with war related sexual violence were the age group of less than or equal to 44 years, being Catholic, having suffered other war related physical trauma, and having 'at least one gynaecological complaint'. The specific gynaecological complaints significantly associated with war related sexual violence were infertility, chronic lower abdominal pain

  11. Resilience-promoting factors in war-exposed adolescents: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyad, John; Cordahi-Tabet, C; Yeretzian, J; Salamoun, M; Najm, C; Karam, E G

    2017-02-01

    Studies of war-exposed children have not investigated a comprehensive array of resilience-promoting factors, nor representative samples of children and adolescents. A representative sample of N = 710 adolescents was randomly selected from communities recently exposed to war. All those who had experienced war trauma were administered questionnaires measuring war exposure, family violence, availability of leisure activities, school-related problems, interpersonal and peer problems, socialization, daily routine problems, displacement, availability of parental supervision and contact and medical needs as well as coping skills related to religious coping, denial, self-control, avoidance and problem solving. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Child-Revised Impact of Events Scale (CRIES). Resilient adolescents were defined as those who experienced war trauma, but did not manifest any symptoms on the SDQ or CRIES. Resilience was related to being male, using problem-solving techniques, having leisure activities, and having parents who spent time with their adolescents and who supported them with school work. Interventions designed for war-traumatized youth must build individual coping skills of children and adolescents, yet at the same time target parents and teachers in an integrated manner.

  12. 中国抗日战争的社会性别研究--以“云南妇女战地服务团”为例%Gender Studies in China’ s Anti-Japanese War:A Case Study of“Yunnan Women Battlefield Service Corps”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹仑

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, researches on the Anti -Japanese War tend to be concentrated only on the macro background of big events , battles, or famous generals and politicians , and the public also pay more attention to male dominated war veterans;however , the special group of women involved in the war are almost entirely ignored .Through examining the female soldiers in Yunnan Dian Corps , this paper tries to reveal the special the significance of gender study in war in view of history of females in war , the roles and status different gen-ders, and the construction of social gender relation .%长期以来,对抗日战争的研究往往集中在宏观背景下的大事件、大战役,或者著名的军事将领和政治人物,社会公众也多关注以男性为主的抗战老兵,在一定程度上忽视了抗战女兵这一特殊群体。通过云南滇军女兵与抗日战争的研究,可以在女性战争历史、战争中两性的复杂角色和社会行为、战争中男性与女性的社会性别构建等3个领域,分析战争与性别研究的特殊意义。

  13. All the Missiles Work Technological Dislocations and Military Innovation: A Case Study in US Air Force Air-to-Air Armament, Post-World War II through Operation Rolling Thunder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    connected with military might.‖ 8 Looking towards the future in a decidedly ethnocentric manner that York would be proud of, a US Army War College... consuming and complex procedure involving multiple switch actuations and dial manipulations to configure the aircraft radar, acquire the target with...Fighter Weapons Center, January 1973), M-U 42339-15a, MSFRIC, 10. 107 One area that consumed much of the wing‘s focus was the F-4‘s air-to-air

  14. GLAMUR case-study report: The comparison of three Dutch pork cases (Tasks 3.5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindië, H.A.; Horlings, L.G.; Broekhuizen, van R.E.; Hees, E.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the case study results of local-global pork chain performances in The Netherlands. As part of Work Package 3, this case study was carried out in cooperation with our Italian GLAMUR partner. The Dutch pork production sector came up after World War 2 and developed into a highly

  15. Making Sense of War and Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    When people tell stories about their past experiences, they often include descriptions that infer changes in trust repertoires over time, especially when the stories relate to serious life dramas like war and peace. A happy ending can make a past war appear meaningful. In this case study, retrosp......When people tell stories about their past experiences, they often include descriptions that infer changes in trust repertoires over time, especially when the stories relate to serious life dramas like war and peace. A happy ending can make a past war appear meaningful. In this case study...... power can provide an alternative framework for sensemaking and trusting. In Aceh, three decades of civil war ended with a peace process in 2005, and extreme distrust was then replaced by institutional trust. Insights from that process are of relevance for the study of trust-repair....

  16. The World War Two Allied Economic Warfare: The Case of Turkish Chrome Sales

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNSOY, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Economic character of "modern warfare" is too important to be underestimated. In the Economic Warfare belligerents attempt to reduce the war capacity of the enemy through various methods. In World War II crushing down the German war production and economy was the main target of the British Ministry of Economic Warfare. For Germany, one of the many ways of overcoming the British Economic Warfare was to trade with the neutral countries that had land connection to the Third Reich. Turkey was one...

  17. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  18. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  19. Fear of nuclear war increases the risk of common mental disorders among young adults: a five-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulio-Henriksson Annamari

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on the relation between fear of war and mental health is insufficient. We carried out a prospective cohort study to find out whether fear of nuclear war is related to increased risk of common mental disorders. Methods Within two months preceding the outbreak of Persian Gulf War in January 1991, 1518 adolescents [mean age 16.8 years, SD 0.9] filled in a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 1493 respondents, 47% gave their written informed consent to participate in the follow-up study. There were no material differences between those who chose to respond anonymously and those who volunteered to give their name and address for the follow-up study. In 1995, the response to the follow-up questionnaire was 92%. Common mental disorders were assessed by 36-item version of the General Health Questionnaire [GHQ]. A score 5 or higher was considered to indicate caseness. We excluded 23 cases which had used mental health services in the year 1991 or earlier and two cases with deficient responses to GHQ. This left 626 subjects for analysis [400 women]. Results After adjusting for significant mental health risk factors in logistic regression analysis, the risk for common mental disorders was found to be significantly related to the increasing frequency of fear for nuclear war, high scores of trait anxiety and high scores of immature defense style. Elevated risk was confined to the group reporting fear of nuclear war once a week or more often [odds ratio 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.29–3.27]. Conclusion Frequent fear of nuclear war in adolescents seems to be an indicator for an increased risk for common mental disorders and deserves serious attention.

  20. Nightmares as predictors of suicide: an extension study including war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Vartiainen, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2017-03-15

    Nightmares are intensive dreams with negative emotional tone. Frequent nightmares can pose a serious clinical problem and in 2001, Tanskanen et al. found that nightmares increase the risk of suicide. However, the dataset used by these authors included war veterans in whom nightmare frequency - and possibly also suicide risk - is elevated. Therefore, re-examination of the association between nightmares and suicide in these data is warranted. We investigated the relationship between nightmares and suicide both in the general population and war veterans in Finnish National FINRISK Study from the years 1972 to 2012, a dataset overlapping with the one used in the study by Tanskanen et al. Our data comprise 71,068 participants of whom 3139 are war veterans. Participants were followed from their survey participation until the end of 2014 or death. Suicides (N = 398) were identified from the National Causes of Death Register. Frequent nightmares increase the risk of suicide: The result of Tanskanen et al. holds even when war experiences are controlled for. Actually nightmares are not significantly associated with suicides among war veterans. These results support the role of nightmares as an independent risk factor for suicide instead of just being proxy for history of traumatic experiences.

  1. Nightmares as predictors of suicide: an extension study including war veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Vartiainen, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Nightmares are intensive dreams with negative emotional tone. Frequent nightmares can pose a serious clinical problem and in 2001, Tanskanen et al. found that nightmares increase the risk of suicide. However, the dataset used by these authors included war veterans in whom nightmare frequency - and possibly also suicide risk - is elevated. Therefore, re-examination of the association between nightmares and suicide in these data is warranted. We investigated the relationship between nightmares and suicide both in the general population and war veterans in Finnish National FINRISK Study from the years 1972 to 2012, a dataset overlapping with the one used in the study by Tanskanen et al. Our data comprise 71,068 participants of whom 3139 are war veterans. Participants were followed from their survey participation until the end of 2014 or death. Suicides (N = 398) were identified from the National Causes of Death Register. Frequent nightmares increase the risk of suicide: The result of Tanskanen et al. holds even when war experiences are controlled for. Actually nightmares are not significantly associated with suicides among war veterans. These results support the role of nightmares as an independent risk factor for suicide instead of just being proxy for history of traumatic experiences. PMID:28294195

  2. Enhancing Video Games Policy Based on Least-Squares Continuous Action Policy Iteration: Case Study on StarCraft Brood War and Glest RTS Games and the 8 Queens Board Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahenda Sarhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advent of video games recently and the increasing numbers of players and gamers, only a tough game with high policy, actions, and tactics survives. How the game responds to opponent actions is the key issue of popular games. Many algorithms were proposed to solve this problem such as Least-Squares Policy Iteration (LSPI and State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA but they mainly depend on discrete actions, while agents in such a setting have to learn from the consequences of their continuous actions, in order to maximize the total reward over time. So in this paper we proposed a new algorithm based on LSPI called Least-Squares Continuous Action Policy Iteration (LSCAPI. The LSCAPI was implemented and tested on three different games: one board game, the 8 Queens, and two real-time strategy (RTS games, StarCraft Brood War and Glest. The LSCAPI evaluation proved superiority over LSPI in time, policy learning ability, and effectiveness.

  3. Health effects of the war in two rural communities in Nicaragua. Nicaragua Health Study Collaborative at Harvard, CIES, and UNAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    We report on a pilot study to assess the effects of low intensity war in Nicaragua on the health of the civilian population. The study compared data from two regions in Nicaragua, one in an area of intense conflict, the other further removed from the war's violence. Information was obtained from a questionnaire administered to female heads of randomly selected households; structured interviews with community leaders and health workers; group discussions with community residents; and a review of regional and municipal death records. Height and mid-upper arm circumference of children were measured, and immunization records reviewed. The war has had a serious negative effect on the lives of the civilian population in both the war zone and the non-war zone, with the effects most severe in the war zone. In both communities, over half of the respondents reported the death of a friend or relative. In the war zone community, over one-fourth of respondents reported attacks on family members in non-combat situations around their homes. Death by firearms was the leading cause of death in persons over age 6 in the war zone. Vaccination coverage, nutritional indices, and familial disruption were worse in the war zone community. The findings suggest that continued funding of the Nicaraguan contra forces by the United States may be harming the ostensible beneficiaries of that policy, and that use of such low intensity conflict as a foreign policy tool should be questioned.

  4. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. Brief Cases on Military Treatise of English Translation of The Art of War Based on Functionalist Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙定宇

    2015-01-01

    Katharina Reiss put forward the functionalist translation theory in 1970s.It promotes the status of the translators and pro-vides options that translators could get in order to make the good translation.As China's military treasure,The Art of War exerts great influence on the military development for its profound theory and careful logic.Combined with the theory,the paper finds dif-ferent strategies in translating the military terminology of the cases.

  7. Healthcare-seeking strategies among displaced children in war-ridden northern Uganda: the case of malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akello-Ayebare, G.; Richters, J.M.; Polderman, A.M.; Visser, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    A field study was performed to examine suffering and treatment seeking from the perspective of children aged 8-16 years living in war-affected northern Uganda. Various techniques for collecting qualitative and quantitative data were used, including a semi-structured questionnaire about illness exper

  8. Healthcare-seeking strategies among displaced children in war-ridden northern Uganda: the case of malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akello-Ayebare, G.; Richters, J.M.; Polderman, A.M.; Visser, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    A field study was performed to examine suffering and treatment seeking from the perspective of children aged 8-16 years living in war-affected northern Uganda. Various techniques for collecting qualitative and quantitative data were used, including a semi-structured questionnaire about illness

  9. Healthcare-seeking strategies among displaced children in war-ridden northern Uganda: the case of malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akello-Ayebare, G.; Richters, J.M.; Polderman, A.M.; Visser, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    A field study was performed to examine suffering and treatment seeking from the perspective of children aged 8-16 years living in war-affected northern Uganda. Various techniques for collecting qualitative and quantitative data were used, including a semi-structured questionnaire about illness exper

  10. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  11. World War I--Catalyst for the Creation of the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermis, S. Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the conditions present during and after World War I which led to the creation of social studies as a discrete component in the U.S. school curriculum. Describes these conditions as a public awareness of impending crisis, perception of citizenship as a major social concern, alternatives to traditional citizenship education, and…

  12. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  13. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  14. Feasibibility study - cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation.......The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation....

  15. Demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American troops of World War II: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.

  16. Quality of life in the Iranian Blind War Survivors in 2007: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini Reza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of Life measurements are necessary tools for effectively evaluating health services. In the population of patients afflicted with war-related blindness in Iran, such measurements have yet to be documented and utilized. "The design and implementation of this study involved the determination of a baseline score for QOL in a population of Iranian blinded in the Iraq-Iran war in order to facilitate the design of interventions intended to improve the population's QOL." Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a representative population of 250 war victims blind in both eyes at a 14-day recreational conference. Results Participants had a mean age of 43.20(SD8.34 and their composition was 96.5% male and 3.5% female with a mean SF-36 QOL score of 59.20(SD22.80. An increasing level of education among the participants correlated with a higher QOL score (p = 0.006. The QOL also has a significant correlation to number of injuries (p Conclusions As blind war survivors' age, they will present with a greater set of burdens despite their relatively better QOL in the physical component scale when compared with lower limb amputees. Risk factors of cardiovascular attack such as high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia were present and need future interventions. Key words Quality of life, blindness, SF36, health

  17. Complex trauma of war captivity: a prospective study of attachment and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Z; Dekel, R; Mikulincer, M

    2008-10-01

    Victims of war captivity sometimes suffer from complex post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a unique form of PTSD that entails various alterations in personality. These alterations may involve changes in attachment orientation. The sample comprised two groups of veterans from the 1973 Yom Kippur War: 103 ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 106 comparable control veterans. They were assessed at two points in time, 18 years and 30 years after the war. Ex-POWs suffered from more post-traumatic symptoms than controls at both measurements points and these symptoms increased only among ex-POWs from Time 1 to Time 2. In addition, both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance increased with time among ex-POWs, whereas they decreased slightly or remained stable among controls. Finally, the increases in attachment anxiety and avoidance were positively associated with the increase in post-traumatic symptoms among both study groups. Further analyses indicated that early PTSD symptoms predicted later attachment better than early attachment predicted later PTSD symptoms. The results suggest that: (1) complex traumas are implicated in attachment orientations and PTSD symptoms even many years after captivity; (2) there is an increase in attachment insecurities (anxiety, avoidance) and an increase in PTSD symptoms decades after the captivity; (3) and post-traumatic stress symptoms predict attachment orientations better than attachment orientations predict an increase in PTSD symptoms.

  18. Belgian’s Political Reconstruction after World War II: An Exemplary Case for the Normalisation of the Post-War Western-European State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Beyens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sorrows of Belgium provides a very rich and beautifully written account of Belgium’s transition from a war-torn society at the beginning of 1944 to a stable, independent democracy by the end of 1947. However, in stressing the level of restoration of the Belgian state and society after the war, Martin Conway often approaches the period of reconstruction somewhat teleologically, and this perspective does little to further a better understanding of the mechanisms at play during periods of regime change such as the period studied. This is a bit of a missed opportunity, as is made clear by comparing The Sorrows of Belgium with the process of reconstruction in France and the Netherlands. Politieke reconstructie van België na de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Een voorbeeld voor de normalisatie van de naoorlogse Westeuropese staat?In The Sorrows of Belgium – een bijzonder mooi geschreven boek – onderzoekt Martin Conway het politieke en maatschappelijke herstelproces in België in de eerste jaren na de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Hij betoogt daarbij dat voor verandering nauwelijks ruimte was en dat de vooroorlogse samenleving nagenoeg geheel terugkeerde. De opzet van het werk is echter nogal teleologisch van aard, waardoor – belangrijke – delen van het verloop van het herstelproces zelf buiten beeld blijven. Dit is jammer omdat een korte vergelijking met de politieke reconstructie in Frankrijk en Nederland na de Tweede Wereldoorlog al gauw duidelijk maakt dat dit onderzoek een grote bijdrage zou kunnen leveren aan de studie van regimewisselingen in meer algemene zin.

  19. Case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  20. The Study of Military History Through Commercial War Games: A Look at Operation Crusader with the Operational Art of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    generously the British paid tribute to his prowess, or how extravagantly Hitler and the German propagandists praised him, the German High Command saw the...since found a way of deciphering the German Enigma code machine, and were therefore well supplied with many vital orders sent from Berlin to the Afrika...historically accurate war game can put game designers and researchers in the food line at the Salvation Army with just one game that does not make money

  1. The evaluation of mental health services in war: A case register in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooren, T.T.M.; Jong, Kaz de; Kleber, R.J.; Kulenovic, S.; Ruvic, J.

    2003-01-01

    Mental health programmes in war-stricken areas aim to offer immediate help to those who most need it. Usually, there is no urge to start a systematic registration on demographic data of clients and on characteristics of interventions. Nevertheless, there is a growing necessity to do so. Structured g

  2. Price Wars in Two-Sided Markets : The Case of the UK Quality Newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the price war in the UK quality newspaper industry in the 1990s. We build a model of the newspaper market which encompasses demand for differentiated products on both, the readers and advertisers side of the market, and profi…t maximization by four competing oligopolistic edi

  3. Women, war and peace in Mozambique: The case of Manica Province

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    catalysed the process of gender transformation, social fragmentation and civil .... have splintered into different ideological schools, her concept of women as. 'the other .... time the civil war erupted women had not yet enjoyed the same equal rights ..... domain of men, such as large-scale entrepreneurial activities, commercial.

  4. Iterating archival footage and the memory of war

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, J.; Bordina, A.; Campanini, S.; Mariani, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article I focus on the archive as a specific site of memory, in particular the audiovisual archive. I investigate the use of audiovisual archival records as sources for remembering war, specifically the war in the former Yugoslavia (1991-1995). I do so by discussing one particular case study

  5. Iterating archival footage and the memory of war

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Noordegraaf

    2011-01-01

    In this article I focus on the archive as a specific site of memory, in particular the audiovisual archive. I investigate the use of audiovisual archival records as sources for remembering war, specifically the war in the former Yugoslavia (1991-1995). I do so by discussing one particular case study

  6. Own and parental war experience as a risk factor for mental health problems among adolescents with an immigrant background: results from a cross sectional study in Oslo, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hauff Edvard; Haavet Ole; Oppedal Brit; Lien Lars; Thoresen Magne; Bjertness Espen

    2006-01-01

    Background An increasing proportion of immigrants to Western countries in the past decade are from war affected countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of war experience among adolescents and their parents and to investigate possible differences in internalizing and externalizing mental health problems between adolescents exposed and unexposed to own and parental war experience. Method ...

  7. Stability of symptom patterns in Australian Gulf War veterans: 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwini, S M; Kelsall, H L; Sim, M R; Ikin, J F; McFarlane, A C; Forbes, A B

    2016-03-01

    Previously we established that symptoms reported by 1990-1991 Gulf War veterans were correlated and exhibited a pattern with 3 factors (psychophysiological distress, somatic distress and arthroneuromuscular distress), and this pattern was similar to that observed in a military comparison group. In this follow-up study, we examined whether the patterns of symptomatology have changed over time. Using data on 56 symptoms that was collected in 2000-2003 (wave 1) and 2011-2012 (wave 2) from an Australian cohort of Gulf War veterans (veterans) and a military comparison group, exploratory factor analysis was conducted and Tucker's Congruence Coefficient (TCC) was used to determine factor structure similarity across study groups and waves. The results showed that the 3 factors observed at wave 1 were still present at wave 2, and factor structures across study groups and study waves were fairly similar, with TCC ranging 0.86-0.92. Veterans consistently reported more symptoms across all 3 factors. Veterans' symptomatology specific to psychophysiological distress increased between waves 1 and 2 (ratio of means 1.15; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.25) but psychophysiological distress symptomatology was constant in the comparison group (ratio of means 0.97; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.06). Somatic and arthroneuromuscular distress symptomatology significantly increased over time for both study groups, although at a similar rate. While the symptom groupings (measured by the 3 factors) remained unchanged at 10 years of follow-up, and remained comparable between Gulf War and comparison group, symptomatology continued to be elevated in Gulf War veterans than in the comparison group, and was most evident for psychophysiological distress. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Governing the grapevine: the study of rumor during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Cathy

    2007-02-01

    Throughout the early 1940s, a host of rumors relating to the Second World War began to circulate, leading the government to establish various committees and undertake multiple projects intended to counteract rumors that were believed to threaten civilian morale and compromise national security. Simultaneously, social scientists also began taking measures to study and combat rumor. Such efforts included the institution of several community groups, deemed "rumor clinics," that aimed to decrease the prevalence of wartime rumor by educating the general public. This article outlines the rise and fall of rumor clinics, focusing specifically on the shifting boundaries and the mounting tensions between the United States government and social scientists in the study of rumor during World War II.

  9. Gender differences in response to war stress in hospital personnel: Does profession matter? A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Essar

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: To study gender differences and the impact of trauma on hospital personnel during war. In addition, to test the relationship between gender and PTSD symptoms via mediation model. Methods: A random sample of physicians, nurses and administrative staff (n = 106 that were assessed for demographics, and PTSD symptoms a month after the war between Lebanon and Israel erupted. Results: Women had higher IES-R scores in comparison to men (25.27 vs. 16.18. Gender differences were reduced when accounted for profession. In each profession, no significant gender differences were found. The results of the mediation model showed significant mediation by profession and education. Conclusions: These results may suggest that gender differences in response to traumatic events may not be explained by exposure per se, but rather may result from various possible factors such as profession, education and control over the situation. The results warrant further longitudinal study.

  10. Technophilic hubris and espionage styles during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrakis, Kristie

    2010-06-01

    During the Cold War the United States developed an espionage style that reflected its love affair with technology (technophilia) whereas the Soviet Union and the East Bloc continued a tradition of using humans to collect intelligence. This essay places the origins and development of these espionage styles during the Cold War in historical and social context, and assesses their strengths and weaknesses by drawing on examples from particular cases. While the United States won the Cold War, the East Bloc won the spy wars because of a more effective espionage style. I conclude with some reflections on the uses of history for future policy, and suggest areas for further study.

  11. When a Diplomat goes into politics because of war. The case of João Chagas (1910-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alves de Fraga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the case of a Portuguese diplomat, João Chagas, who, during the First Republic, and by resorting to the conditions available to him as representative of his country, surpassed the mere negotiating role attributed to diplomacy to conduct national politics, succeeding in changing the international statute of Portugal in the Great War. The article describes the internal and external situation of Portugal in political, geopolitical and geostrategic terms, the conflict between Portuguese and British interests, the activity of Portuguese diplomats in London, Berlin and Paris, and, finally, the work of João Chagas.

  12. the internment of japanese americans during world war ii: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arianne

    Sociology, Bowling Green State University, and Adjunct. Professor of ... an interdisciplinary case study that develops out of a growing interest in the conceptual ..... The US government provided food, medical care, and basic education to the.

  13. Introduction to and Bibliography for the Study of Alimentary Life Writing and Recipe Writing as War Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvari, Louise O.

    2015-01-01

    In her article "Introduction to and Bibliography for the Study of Alimentary Life Writing and Recipe Writing as War Literature" Louise O. Vasvári defines the concept of "alimentary life writing" and locates it in the broader multidisciplinary context of alimentary history, the history of everyday life, gender studies, trauma, and war and holocaust studies. She also underlines and exemplifies the cultural and gendered significance of alimentary life writing in particular in grounding personal ...

  14. Children of war: An ECIT study of resiliency in young Canadian refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Helia

    2015-01-01

    There is a limited understanding of factors that contribute to resilience in refugee youth who successfully adapt in Canada, despite multiple traumas and the challenges of acculturation. Using the Enhanced Critical Incident Technique (ECIT), the objective of this study was to answer the question, “What helps or hinders adolescent refugees who have experienced war in their homeland to build resilience psychologically, socially, and academically as they resettle in Canada?” For this purpose, 12...

  15. New studies disputing allegations of bacteriological warfare during the Korean War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolicka, M

    1995-03-01

    In the television series Korea the Unknown War produced jointly by Thames Television (London) and WGBH (Boston) in 1990, General Matthew Ridgway, Commander in Chief of United Nations forces during the Korean War, called the accusations that the United States waged bacteriological warfare "black propaganda." The charges discredited the United States and, despite denials and many international discussions, have not been completely refuted until new. Following studies in archives previously not available for research and after uncovering new sources, many specific examples of black propaganda were discovered that contained false information and lies discrediting the United States. The mechanism of lies, which convinced the Korean population that bacteriological warfare was going on and that the only way not to become victims of the United States' inhuman cruelty was to fight, are shown in this paper.

  16. Understanding an Adversary’s Strategic and Operational Calculus: A Late Cold War Case Study with 21st Century Applicability U.S. Views on Soviet Navy Strategy and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    interpretation. Simultaneously, however, there began to develop slowly an interpretation that attempted to move away from an ethnocentric view of the Soviets in... ethnocentric view of the Soviets.” In particular, Robert W. Herrick’s 1968 study of Soviet naval strategy argued for an essentially defensive conception of...interpretation that tried to move away from an ethnocentric view of the Soviet in soviet terms on the basis of the Soviet Union’s values and the view

  17. Aid in a city at war: the case of Mogadishu, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, François

    2012-07-01

    Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia, has been central to life, war, and peace in the country for almost two decades. Its urban characteristics, though, have been put to one side for the most part. In recent years, Mogadishu-related issues have been merged mostly into a global agenda for South and Central Somalia, resulting in the technical and coordination approaches employed in the city largely being reproductions of solutions utilised in refugee camps and rural areas. Unfortunately, urban problems require urban solutions. The aid system is just starting to discover how specific aid in cities at war should be, both from an organisational and a technical standpoint. The enhancement of aid practices in an urban setting implies, among other things, a more strategic approach to the specific spatial characteristics of the city, a more fine-tuned analysis of the technical requirements of the urban service delivery systems, and a better understanding of the role of urban institutions.

  18. Sectarianism, Revolutionary Subjectivity and War in Syria - the case of the peaceful movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Thomas Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Events unfolding in Syria since 2011 have all too often been depicted too simply as a “sectarian war”. Against the backdrop of such accounts, this article investigates the lived revolutionary experience of Syrians active in the peaceful revolutionary movement and the local coordination committees....... A more nuanced ethnographic approach to sectarianism, revolutionary action and war reveals how young revolutionaries re-negotiate family background and sectarian histories in the face of the regime’s sectarian enterprises and narratives. Anti-sectarian features of revolutionary action on the part...... of the peaceful movement not only counteract the narratives of the regime. It also offers a window into revolutionary subjectivity and ideology in Syria’s peaceful movement as part of broader social changes occurring in Syria in the context of devastating war and destruction....

  19. Mediators of the relation between war experiences and suicidal ideation among former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the WAYS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Lekhutlile, Tlholego Molemane; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Ovuga, Emilio

    2014-09-24

    Globally, suicide is a public health burden especially in the aftermath of war. Understanding the processes that define the path from previous war experiences (WE) to current suicidal ideation (SI) is crucial for defining opportunities for interventions. We assessed the extent to which different types of previous WE predict current SI and whether post-war hardships and depression mediate the relations between WE and SI among former child soldiers (FCS) in Northern Uganda. We performed cross-sectional analyses with a sample of 539 FCS (61% male) participating in an on-going longitudinal study. The influence of various types of previous WE on current SI and mediation by post-war hardships and depression were assessed by regression analyses. The following types of war experiences: "witnessing violence", "direct personal harm", "deaths", "Involvement in hostilities", "sexual abuse" and "general war experiences" significantly predicted current SI in a univariable analyses whereas "direct personal harm", "involvement in hostilities", and "sexual abuse" independently predicted current SI in a multivariable analyses. General WE were linked to SI (β = 0.18 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.25)) through post-war hardships (accounting for 69% of the variance in their relationship) and through depression/anxiety (β = 0.17 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.22)) accounting for 65% of the variance in their relationship. The direct relationship between previous WE and current SI reduced but remained marginally significant (β = .08, CI: (.01, .17) for depression/anxiety but not for post-war hardships (β = .09, CI: (-.03, .20). Types of WE should be examined when assessing risks for SI. Interventions to reduce SI should aim to alleviate post-war hardships and treat depression/anxiety.

  20. Joint Global War on Terror (GWOT) Vascular Injury Study 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    surveillance program design and identified Service Members who incurred vascular injury. She has left the study. Name: Andrea Russell Project...Role: Research Nurse Nearest person month worked: 36 Contribution to Project: Ms. Andrea Russell assisted in developing the surveillance...program design and continues to identify Service Members who incurred vascular injury for inclusion in the study. Ms. Russell also oversees all

  1. Recovery from Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: A Qualitative Study of Attributions in Survivors of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdukovic, Dean; Ajdukovic, Dea; Bogic, Marija; Franciskovic, Tanja; Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Schützwohl, Matthias; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study explored factors to which people traumatized by war attribute their recovery from posttraumatic symptoms and from war experiences. Methods : In-depth interviews were conducted with two groups of participants with mental sequelae of the war in the former Yugoslavia: 26 people who had recovered from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 17 people with ongoing symptoms of PTSD. Participants could attribute their recovery to any event, person or process in their life. The material was subjected to thematic analysis. Results Eight themes covered all factors to which participants attributed their recovery. Six themes described healing factors relevant for both groups of participants: social attachment and support, various strategies of coping with symptoms, personality hardiness, mental health treatment, received material support, and normalization of everyday life. In addition to the common factors, recovered participants reported community involvement as healing, and recovered refugees identified also feeling safe after resolving their civil status as helpful. Unique to the recovered group was that they maintained reciprocal relations in social attachment and support, employed future-oriented coping and emphasised their resilient personality style. Conclusions The reported factors of recovery are largely consistent with models of mental health protection, models of resilience and recommended interventions in the aftermath of massive trauma. Yet, they add the importance of a strong orientation towards the future, a reciprocity in receiving and giving social support and involvement in meaningful activities that ensure social recognition as a productive and valued individual. The findings can inform psychosocial interventions to facilitate recovery from posttraumatic symptoms of people affected by war and upheaval. PMID:23950965

  2. Recovery from posttraumatic stress symptoms: a qualitative study of attributions in survivors of war.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Ajdukovic

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study explored factors to which people traumatized by war attribute their recovery from posttraumatic symptoms and from war experiences. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with two groups of participants with mental sequelae of the war in the former Yugoslavia: 26 people who had recovered from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and 17 people with ongoing symptoms of PTSD. Participants could attribute their recovery to any event, person or process in their life. The material was subjected to thematic analysis. RESULTS: Eight themes covered all factors to which participants attributed their recovery. Six themes described healing factors relevant for both groups of participants: social attachment and support, various strategies of coping with symptoms, personality hardiness, mental health treatment, received material support, and normalization of everyday life. In addition to the common factors, recovered participants reported community involvement as healing, and recovered refugees identified also feeling safe after resolving their civil status as helpful. Unique to the recovered group was that they maintained reciprocal relations in social attachment and support, employed future-oriented coping and emphasised their resilient personality style. CONCLUSIONS: The reported factors of recovery are largely consistent with models of mental health protection, models of resilience and recommended interventions in the aftermath of massive trauma. Yet, they add the importance of a strong orientation towards the future, a reciprocity in receiving and giving social support and involvement in meaningful activities that ensure social recognition as a productive and valued individual. The findings can inform psychosocial interventions to facilitate recovery from posttraumatic symptoms of people affected by war and upheaval.

  3. Recovery from posttraumatic stress symptoms: a qualitative study of attributions in survivors of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdukovic, Dean; Ajdukovic, Dea; Bogic, Marija; Franciskovic, Tanja; Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Schützwohl, Matthias; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The study explored factors to which people traumatized by war attribute their recovery from posttraumatic symptoms and from war experiences. In-depth interviews were conducted with two groups of participants with mental sequelae of the war in the former Yugoslavia: 26 people who had recovered from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 17 people with ongoing symptoms of PTSD. Participants could attribute their recovery to any event, person or process in their life. The material was subjected to thematic analysis. Eight themes covered all factors to which participants attributed their recovery. Six themes described healing factors relevant for both groups of participants: social attachment and support, various strategies of coping with symptoms, personality hardiness, mental health treatment, received material support, and normalization of everyday life. In addition to the common factors, recovered participants reported community involvement as healing, and recovered refugees identified also feeling safe after resolving their civil status as helpful. Unique to the recovered group was that they maintained reciprocal relations in social attachment and support, employed future-oriented coping and emphasised their resilient personality style. The reported factors of recovery are largely consistent with models of mental health protection, models of resilience and recommended interventions in the aftermath of massive trauma. Yet, they add the importance of a strong orientation towards the future, a reciprocity in receiving and giving social support and involvement in meaningful activities that ensure social recognition as a productive and valued individual. The findings can inform psychosocial interventions to facilitate recovery from posttraumatic symptoms of people affected by war and upheaval.

  4. International competition and strategic response in the Dundee jute industry during the inter-war (1919-1939) and post-war (1945-1960s) period : the case of jute industries, Buist Spinning, Craiks and Scott & Fyfe

    OpenAIRE

    Masrani, Swapnesh

    2008-01-01

    This research uses the ‘demand-side thesis’ to examine the decline of the Dundee jute industry. In particular, it examines the effect of international competition and the strategic response of the industry during the inter-war (1919-1939) and the post-war (1945-1960s) period to counter this challenge. The strategic response is studied by examining strategies employed at the firm and the industry level. Strategy at the firm level is studied in the form of capability development usi...

  5. Women Combatants in World War I: A Russian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Leon Trotsky and Alexandra Kollontai, and how their propaganda was causing soldiers to refuse orders to go to the front. Later that day, Rodzianko took...Eventually she was called in to speak with Lenin and Trotsky , the new leaders of Russia, who offered her the opportunity to join their cause. She...battle. Once more, when personally invited to join up with Lenin and Trotsky after their take-over of the government in November 1917, she took a

  6. In Contact! Case Studies from the Long War. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Mosul as well. Route BARRACUDA was a major thoroughfare that intersected MSR TAMPA several blocks south of Yarmuk Circle. Several blocks south of... BARRACUDA was Route NISSAN which also intersected MSR TAMPA and ran eastward through the northern portion of the old city and across the Tigris River...across the fourth bridge (counting from the south). BARRACUDA ran into NISSAN about a kilometer and a half east of MSR TAMPA. In the southwestern

  7. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vale, Ivone; Severo, Milton; Carvalho, Davide; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans' offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72). The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions) to 91% (happiness expressions). The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring.

  8. The Persian Gulf War: A Case Study in Just War Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    tenuous peace within and among peoples that is possible in this life.59 Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) Paul Ramsey states: "Two main alterations of the...the purpose of peace or the common good (with regard to the attainment of which there must be a ’reasonable hope "Cahill, 92. " Thomas Aquinas , Summa...Kenneth Vaux and But Was It Just?, edited by David DeCosse. I am also working from a very limited knowledge of either Augustine or Aquinas ; therefore

  9. Artificial Intelligence Concepts and the War Gaming Environment: A Case Study Using the TEMPO War Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    gastrointestinal tract, THEN there is suggestive evidence (.7) that the identity of the organism is bacteroides . (Barr, 1982:187) expert system Knowledge...last category consists of those simulations which rely on things such as "human intuition" and " gut feelings". These games, while not necessarily...containing a large number of rules, would be harder to implement since it is hard to define human intuition and gut feelings in terms of production rules

  10. Agostino Gemelli and the scientific study of courage in the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, Carlo; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo

    2016-03-11

    Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) is known as the founder of the Catholic University in Italy. Franciscan monk and doctor he had a central role in promoting studies on human behavior, thanks to his solid scientific training as a student of Camillo Golgi at the University of Pavia. His research activities during the years of the First World War involved studying the motivation, courage and psychological adaptation of the soldiers, engaged in trench warfare, laying the foundations of modern studies of behavior and trauma.

  11. Transnational science during the Cold War: the case of Chinese/American scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines the experiences of about five thousand Chinese students/scientists in the United States after the Communist takeover of mainland China in 1949. These experiences illustrate the often hidden transnational movements of people, instruments, and ideas in science and technology across the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. I argue that those hundreds who returned to China represented a partial "Americanization" of Chinese science and technology, while the rest of the group staying in the United States contributed to a transnationalization of the American scientific community.

  12. Image compression evaluation for digital cinema: the case of Star Wars: Episode II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuelle, David L.

    2003-05-01

    A program of evaluation of compression algorithms proposed for use in a digital cinema application is described and the results presented in general form. The work was intended to aid in the selection of a compression system to be used for the digital cinema release of Star Wars: Episode II, in May 2002. An additional goal was to provide feedback to the algorithm proponents on what parameters and performance levels the feature film industry is looking for in digital cinema compression. The primary conclusion of the test program is that any of the current digital cinema compression proponents will work for digital cinema distribution to today's theaters.

  13. The Childhood Experience of Being a War Orphan: A Study of the Effects of Father Loss on Women Whose Fathers Were Killed in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon Estill

    2010-01-01

    Asking the research question, "What is the lived experience of women whose fathers died in World War II?" led to awareness of the unexplored impact of war loss on children. It was hypothesized that this research would show that women who experienced father-loss due to war would share commonality in certain areas. Areas of exploration including…

  14. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  15. [Qualitative case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  17. Spines of Steel: A Case of Surgical Enthusiasm in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Just as the prevalence of scoliosis began to decline precipitously after World War II, American orthopedic surgeon Dr. Paul R. Harrington devised a new, invasive surgical system whereby implantable prosthetic metal rods and hooks were used to straighten curved backs. By the 1970s, "Harrington rods" had become the gold standard of surgical scoliosis care in the United States, replacing more conventional methods of exercise, bracing, and casting. This article situates the success of Harrington rods within a much larger and historically longer debate about why, when compared to those in other nations, American surgeons appear to be "more aggressive" and "knife-happy." Using Harrington's papers and correspondence, I argue that patients played a vital role in the rise of spinal surgery. As such, this article examines not only how surgical enthusiasm has been historically measured, defined, and morally evaluated, but also how scoliosis became classified as a debility in need of surgical management.

  18. Delays in childhood immunization in a conflict area: a study from Sierra Leone during civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gage George N

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sierra Leone has undergone a decade of civil war from 1991 to 2001. From this period few data on immunization coverage are available, and conflict-related delays in immunization according to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI schedule have not been investigated. We aimed to study delays in childhood immunization in the context of civil war in a Sierra Leonean community. Methods We conducted an immunization survey in Kissy Mess-Mess in the Greater Freetown area in 1998/99 using a two-stage sampling method. Based on immunization cards and verbal history we collected data on immunization for tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and measles by age group (0–8/9–11/12–23/24–35 months. We studied differences between age groups and explored temporal associations with war-related hostilities taking place in the community. Results We included 286 children who received 1690 vaccine doses; card retention was 87%. In 243 children (85%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 80–89% immunization was up-to-date. In 161 of these children (56%, 95%CI: 50–62% full age-appropriate immunization was achieved; in 82 (29%, 95%CI: 24–34% immunization was not appropriate for age. In the remaining 43 children immunization was partial in 37 (13%, 95%CI: 9–17 and absent in 6 (2%, 95%CI: 1–5. Immunization status varied across age groups. In children aged 9–11 months the proportion with age-inappropriate (delayed immunization was higher than in other age groups suggesting an association with war-related hostilities in the community. Conclusion Only about half of children under three years received full age-appropriate immunization. In children born during a period of increased hostilities, immunization was mostly inappropriate for age, but recommended immunizations were not completely abandoned. Missing or delayed immunization represents an additional threat to the health of children living in conflict areas.

  19. A Preliminary Study on the Strategic Choice of Persuasion——A Case Study on Intrigues of the Warring States%说服成功之策略选择初探——以《战国策》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙梦诗

    2011-01-01

    The strategic choice of persuasion is studied from the perspective of ancient Chinese persuasion theory,taking the content of Intrigues of the Warring States as an example.It is pointed out that persuasion is mainly supported by rigorous logical thinking.It is also put forward that the pertinence of persuasion content is the important basis of persuading successfully,and the flexibility and appropriateness of persuading methods is the guarantee of persuasion.%从中国古代说服理论的视角,以《战国策》内容为例,研究说服成功的策略选择,认为说服成功主要是以严密的逻辑思维作支撑,而说服内容的针对性是说服成功的重要根据,说服方法的灵活得体是说服成功的保证。

  20. Experiences and psychosocial adjustment of Darfuri female students affected by war: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Alia; Van den Borne, H W; Crutzen, Rik

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the personal accounts of Darfuri students studying at Ahfad University for Women in Omdurman, Sudan. Their war-related exposure, current ongoing life challenges, emotional distress, and coping strategies were explored using a semistructured interview protocol with a sample of 20 students. Through interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), the Darfuri students' stories illustrated that they were exposed to an array of traumatic war events, including personal experiences of parental separation, injury and death of family members, and shortages of essential life-sustaining supplies in internally displaced camps. Also, they were confronted with myriad current life hassles and urban-cultural challenges, including being physically distant from their families, and losing the shelter of parents, the encouragement of extended family members, and their rich and familiar social support networks. Urban-cultural challenges and lack of environmental mastery applied to most Darfuri participants as they relocated to Omdurman city, which included negotiating an unfamiliar transport system, learning the routes and directions to important city landmarks, and insufficient funds for basic hygienic essentials. Emotional distress reactions were coded by forming two distinct lists: directly mentioned by the participant; and observations of emotional manifestation during the interview. Patterns emerged that may be similar to symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders; for example, the DSM-IV criteria for symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and major depression. Strong religious practices and beliefs (such as praying and reading the Quran), ability to form interpersonal relationships, availability of social support networks, and a positive future outlook seemed to augment their ability to cope with their subsequent emotional distress owing to war-related exposures, current ongoing life hassles and urban-cultural challenges.

  1. national Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from this, the national case study begins to conceptualise a new approach to ... teacher education environments and a piloting of a 'Train the Trainers' or .... Study) and TIMMS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) ..... Objective 7: Publish the materials in an open learning system format and integrate the.

  2. A War Within a War: Mizo rebels and the Bangladesh liberation struggle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, W.

    2015-01-01

    In 1971 a war led to the creation of Bangladesh. Instantly three narratives sprang up: the war as a national triumph, the war as betrayal and shame, and the war as a glorious campaign. Today more layered interpretations are superseding these ‘first-generation narratives’. Taking the case of

  3. Long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence compared with non-sexual war trauma in female World War II survivors: a matched pairs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwert, Philipp; Glaesmer, Heide; Eichhorn, Svenja; Grundke, Elena; Pietrzak, Robert H; Freyberger, Harald J; Klauer, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence experienced at the end of World War II (WWII) with non-sexual WWII trauma (e.g., being exposed to shell shock or physical violence). A total of 27 elderly wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects who were drawn from a larger sample of subjects over 70 years of age who had experienced WWII-related trauma. A modified version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale was used to assess trauma characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 was used to assess current psychopathology. Additionally, measures of posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) and social acknowledgement as a trauma survivor (Social Acknowledgement Questionnaire) were used to assess two mediating variables in post-trauma conditions of rape victims. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence reported greater severity of PTSD-related avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as anxiety, compared with female long-term survivors of non-sexual WWII trauma. The vast majority (80.9 %) of these women also reported severe sexual problems during their lifetimes relative to 19.0 % of women who experienced non-sexual war trauma. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence also reported greater posttraumatic growth, but less social acknowledgement as trauma survivors, compared to survivors of non-sexual war trauma. The results were consistent with emerging neurobiological research, which suggests that different traumas may be differentially associated with long-term posttraumatic sequelae in sexual assault survivors than in other survivor groups and highlights the need to treat (or better prevent) deleterious effects of conflict-related sexual violence in current worldwide crisis zones.

  4. Coping and mental health outcomes among Sierra Leonean war-affected youth: Results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manasi; Fine, Shoshanna L; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2017-02-01

    This study explored how coping with war-related traumatic events in Sierra Leone impacted mental health outcomes among 529 youth (aged 10-17 at baseline; 25% female) using longitudinal data from three time points (Time 1 in 2002, Time 2 in 2004, and Time 3 in 2008). We examined two types of coping items (approach and avoidance); used multiple regression models to test their relations with long-term mental health outcomes (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, adaptive/prosocial behaviors, and posttraumatic stress symptoms); and used mediation analyses to test whether coping explained the relation between previous war exposures (being raped, death of parent(s), or killing/injuring someone during the war) and those outcomes. We found that avoidance coping items were associated with lower internalizing and posttraumatic stress behaviors at Time 3, and provided some evidence of mediating the relation between death of parent(s) during the war and the two outcomes mentioned above. Approach coping was associated with higher Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors, whereas avoidance coping was associated with lower Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors. Avoidance coping may be a protective factor against mental illness, whereas approach coping may be a promotive factor for adaptive/prosocial behaviors in war-affected societies. This study has important implications for designing and implementing mental health interventions for youth in postconflict settings.

  5. Political Leaders after the Cold War. The Case of Slobodan Milošević: Toxic vs. Charismatic Leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Popoiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War is often associated with the close of the year 1989, characterizedby the regaining of independence in Eastern Europe countries that were under dictatorships.The endof the Cold War was also connected with the fall of the Berlin Wall or with the disintegration of theSoviet Union in 1991. This paper is aimed to present Slobodan Milošević, analyzed as a toxic but alsoas a charismatic leader. Furthermore, this paper analyses the role of this political leader in Serbia andalso in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The paper presents the concept of “toxic” leader, with thepurpose of identifying characteristics of this type of leaders. In order to perceive the complexity of theconcept, the paper is focused on a multidimensional study that should emphasize the intentions, thebehaviors, the character of a “toxic” leader, the impact and also the consequences of his decisions andactions. Focusing on Slobodan Milošević, this paper also outlines essential aspects which describe“charismatic” leaders and addresses the challenging possibility of the “charismatic” leaders being“toxic” leaders simultaneously.

  6. A narrative study of refugee women who have experienced violence in the context of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Helene; Girón, Estella Rosa Irías; Marroquín, Antonia Ponce

    2006-12-01

    Although women are rarely on the frontlines of battle, as in many other realms of contemporary life they bear a disproportionate burden of the consequences of war. Many have experienced torture firsthand or been witnesses to the torture or killing of family, friends, and loved ones. The use of rape and other forms of sexual torture has been well documented. For those who are forced to flee their homes and countries, separation from spouses, children, and other family members is common. Because of the sheer magnitude of global conflict, the number of refugees and displaced persons throughout the world has risen exponentially. It has been estimated that women constitute more than half of the world's refugee population. The purpose of this narrative study was to examine the experiences of refugee women who experienced violence in the context of war. Data analysis revealed 8 themes: lives forever changed, new notions of normality, a pervasive sense of fear, selves obscured, living among and between cultures, a woman's place in Canada, bearing heavy burdens--the centrality of children, and an uncaring system of care. Implications for research and practice, including limitations associated with individualized Western approaches, are discussed.

  7. War experiences, general functioning and barriers to care among former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the WAYS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Jones, Peter; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Abbott, Rosemary; Ayella-Ataro, Paul Stephen; Amone, Jackson; Ovuga, Emilio

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to war is associated with considerable risks for long-term mental health problems (MHP) and poor functioning. Yet little is known about functioning and mental health service (MHS) use among former child soldiers (FCS). We assessed whether different categories of war experiences predict functioning and perceived need for, sources of and barriers to MHS among FCS. Data were drawn from an on-going War-affected Youths (WAYS) cohort study of FCS in Uganda. Participants completed questionnaires about war experiences, functioning and perceived need for, sources of and barriers to MHS. Regression analyses and parametric tests were used to assess between-group differences. Deaths, material losses, threat to loved ones and sexual abuse significantly predicted poor functioning. FCS who received MHS function better than those who did not. Females reported more emotional and behavioural problems and needed MHS more than males. FCS who function poorly indicated more barriers to MHS than those who function well. Stigma, fear of family break-up and lack of health workers were identified as barriers to MHS. Various war experiences affect functioning differently. A significant need for MHS exists amidst barriers to MHS. Nevertheless, FCS are interested in receiving MHS and believe it would benefit them. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Further Study on the Causes of the American Civil War%再探美国内战诱因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建

    2011-01-01

    在美国内战爆发前,南北双方在政治、经济、意识形态和文化方面都存在着巨大差异,而这种差异必然导致在各个方面矛盾的激化,当无法通过相互妥协的方式解决时,进而导致只有通过战争的手段来解决。本文试图从内战前的一些表现来分析美国内战爆发的诱因,作为对美国内战的进一步了解。%Before the American Civil War, the North and South had tremendous differences in politics, economy, ideology and culture, which would inevitably lead to an intensification of contradictions. When these contradictions couldn't be resolved by compromise, the only way left is war. In order to delve more deeply into the American Civil War, this paper attempts to do further study on the causes of the American Civil War through some phenomena before the war.

  9. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... the possibilities of re-appropriating digital software, game engines, and other tools available in digital media. The machinima film scenes demonstrate how war-related stories resemiotize, such as how meaning-making transforms from a story in a war game context to a film context. Thereby, machinima exemplifies how...

  10. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank's headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  11. First World War German soldier intestinal worms: an original study of a trench latrine in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bailly, M; Landolt, M; Bouchet, F

    2012-12-01

    For the first time in the study of ancient parasites, analyses were carried out on samples taken from a First World War settlement in France (Geispolsheim, region of Alsace). Microscopic examination of sediment samples revealed the presence of 3 common human parasites, i.e., Trichuris trichiura , Ascaris lumbricoides , and Taenia sp. A review of paleoparasitological studies in Europe shows that these 3 parasites have infected humanity for centuries. Despite this recurrence, literature shows that knowledge regarding many helminths was limited, and their life cycles were only relatively recently elucidated. Finally, the present study provides additional information about the health of the German soldiers and the sanitary conditions in the trenches during the first modern world conflict.

  12. Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback with War Veterans with Chronic PTSD: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerin, Mattia I.; Fichtenholtz, Harlan; Roy, Alicia; Walsh, Christopher J.; Krystal, John H.; Southwick, Steven; Hampson, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), especially war veterans, do not respond to available treatments. Here, we describe a novel neurofeedback (NF) intervention using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging for treating and studying PTSD. The intervention involves training participants to control amygdala activity after exposure to personalized trauma scripts. Three combat veterans with chronic PTSD participated in this feasibility study. All three participants tolerated well the NF training. Moreover, two participants, despite the chronicity of their symptoms, showed clinically meaningful improvements, while one participant showed a smaller symptom reduction. Examination of changes in resting-state functional connectivity patterns revealed a normalization of brain connectivity consistent with clinical improvement. These preliminary results support feasibility of this novel intervention for PTSD and indicate that larger, well-controlled studies of efficacy are warranted. PMID:27445868

  13. Case Studies in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  14. [Conservative methods of treatment of wounds during the great patriotic war (according to the magazine "the hospital case")].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, M M

    2013-09-01

    The article investigates reasons of increase of labour-saving innovations and inventions made by physicians during the great patriotic war. It is proved that suggestions made during the analyzed period (1942) showed no much novelty and originality. From the article it follows that soviet physicians at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War had no proper knowledge about military surgery.

  15. Who Won the Cold War? A Learning Packet for Secondary Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas Univ., Lawrence. Center for Russian and East European Studies.

    Realizing that the Cold War is a topic that often is neglected as time runs short at the end of a school year, a group of University of Kansas (Lawrence) educators sought to create effective classroom materials for secondary/community college instructors to teach about the Cold War. The group's main goal was to create a flexible model that…

  16. Civil wars and mortality rates of military commanders: a historical-demographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Yu. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to accomplish the following tasks: to compare mortality rates of generals in US civil war and Russia one; to explore the maximum life spans of military commanders; and to analyze changes in occupational mobility of commanders before and after the civil war. Both published materials and databases were used to determine mortality rates of generals. Civil wars are a vivid example of meritocracy. They evolve new military talents and give new political leaders. Civil wars are always a turning point in professional and social mobility. After some years of bitter fighting not everyone can pick up the threads. For some, the war was a step towards fame and fortune, for others a step towards disaster, obscurity and misery. History of civil wars suggests that men who started the war as young military leaders actually lived less than those who were in adulthood when the war began. Those who went through all the ordeals, even in the face of economic and political reconstruction (in the U.S., emigration or political repression (in the USSR could live to be very old.

  17. Pastoral care in the healing of moral injury: A case of the Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Moyo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is in the field of Practical theology with specific reference to pastoral care. The article is motivated by the growing number of conversions of members of the Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans Association (ex-combatants/war veterans, through miracle and spiritual healing Ministries under the leadership of Prophets. This article exposes the challenge of injured morals as a result of traumatic war experiences of ex-combatants during the war of liberation from colonialism in Zimbabwe. The violent acts in the political arena in Zimbabwe are linked to the military behaviour of the ex-combatants. This article also makes a critical analysis of the therapeutic narratives from ex-combatants, to conclude that violence in Zimbabwe is highly related to the injured morals of the ex-combatants. The war veterans are finding healing of moral injury from the miracles and exorcisms performed by Prophets.

  18. The Pattern of Social Movements of the Chinese in British Malaya Before World War Two-Case Study in Perak%英属马来亚华人二战前社会运动史类型--以霹雳州为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱梅[马来西亚

    2014-01-01

    本文主要探讨二战前英属马来亚华人的社会运动的类型。一般认为,二战前英属马来亚华人的群众运动受到民族和爱国主义的影响。本文尝试从另一角度进行探讨,即:运动的本土性,符合居住地的现实考虑及需求等。本文通过分析典藏在星、马和台湾的档案,把二战前马来亚华人的社会运动分为两个种类:一、倾向支持中国的社会运动,二、响应本土性课题而开展的社会运动,由此去探索二战前马来亚华人的本土关怀。%The paper aims to study the pattern of social movements of the Chinese in British Malaya.General consid-ered,the nationalism and patriotism spurred the mass movements in British Malaya.The research attempts to probe into the topic from another perspective:the indigenous concern of the movements,to fulfill their realistic considerations and de-mands.By utilizing and analyzing the archival materials which kept in Malaysia,Singapore and Taiwan,the paper divides social movements in Malaya before World War Two into two typefirstly,tending to support the social movements in Chi-na;secondly,responding to the local issues,exploring to the local concern by the Chinese community in Malaya before World War Two.

  19. No evidence for altered cellular immune functions in personnel deployed in the Persian Gulf during and after the Gulf War--The Danish Gulf War study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Ishøy, T; Skovgaard, L T;

    2001-01-01

    Veterans who have participated in the Gulf War suffer from a number of symptoms, collectively referred to as the Gulf War Syndrome. It has been hypothesized that a change in the systemic cytokine balance or other changes in immunological parameters could be responsible for some of the symptoms. We...

  20. The legacy of war: an epidemiological study of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Tran Kim; Le, Viet; Husum, Hans

    2012-07-01

    The study examines the epidemiology of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province since the end of the Vietnam War. The province is located just south of the demarcation line and was the province most affected during the war. In 2009, a cross sectional household study was conducted in all nine districts of the province. During the study period of 1975-2009, 7,030 persons in the study area were exposed to unexploded ordnances (UXO) or land mine accidents, or 1.1% of the provincial population. There were 2,620 fatalities and 4,410 accident survivors. The study documents that the main problem is cluster weapons and other unexploded ordnances; only 4.3% of casualties were caused by land mines. The legacy of the war affects poor people the most; the accident rate was highest among villagers living in mountainous areas, ethnic minorities, and low-income families. The most common activities leading to the accidents were farming (38.6%), collecting scrap metal (11.2%), and herding of cattle (8.3%). The study documents that the people of the Quang Tri Province until this day have suffered heavily due to the legacy of war. Mine risk education programs should account for the epidemiological findings when future accident prevention programs are designed to target high-risk areas and activities.

  1. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille...

  2. Device physics vis-à-vis fundamental physics in Cold War America: the case of quantum optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Joan Lisa

    2006-06-01

    Historians have convincingly shown the close ties U.S. physicists had with the military during the Cold War and have raised the question of whether this alliance affected the content of physics. Some have asserted that it distorted physics, shifting attention from fundamental problems to devices. Yet the papers of physicists in quantum electronics and quantum optics, fields that have been exemplary for those who hold the distortion thesis, show that the same scientists who worked on military devices simultaneously pursued fundamental and foundational topics. This essay examines one such physicist, Marlan O. Scully, with attention to both his extensive foundational studies and the way in which his applied and basic researches played off each other.

  3. Reduced case fatality among hospitalized children during a war in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Veirum, Jens Erik; Biai, S

    2004-01-01

    During a recent armed conflict in Guinea-Bissau, we observed a marked decline in the case fatality among hospitalized children at the only paediatric department in the country.......During a recent armed conflict in Guinea-Bissau, we observed a marked decline in the case fatality among hospitalized children at the only paediatric department in the country....

  4. Worms and war: A case report of trauma and tropical disease intersecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumbuko Claude

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report a case of heavy intestinal infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides complicating the surgical management of a gunshot injury to the abdomen. Co-existent traumatic and infectious pathologies in this case highlight the complex burden of illness among children living in areas of violent conflict, with clinical relevance to trauma surgeons in the tropics.

  5. War stress may be another risk factor for eating disorders in civilians: a study in Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Antoine; Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Mounzer, Caroll; Hlais, Sani; Grigioni, Sebastien; Honein, Khalil; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic life events are important risk factors for eating disorders (ED). War has been associated, in military populations, with an increased post-service incidence of ED and an increased mean body mass index. We hypothesize that a modification of eating behavior (EB) related to stress during wartime may increase the risk of developing an ED later on among civilians exposed to war stress during adulthood. This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in a group of 303 undergraduate young adult students of both sexes from Lebanon, 6 months after the July 2006 war. Modification of EB during wartime, sociodemographic and other potential risk factors were assessed retrospectively. Students were then screened for ED using the SCOFF questionnaire. SCOFF was positive in 31.4% of the students, with a mean value 41.6% higher among subjects who reported an altered EB during the war. Among subjects with a positive SCOFF screening, 71% had experienced a change of EB during wartime. Alteration of EB during war was related to an odds ratio for a positive SCOFF screening of 2.6 (95% CI 1.54-4.34) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.01-3.21) for non-adjusted and adjusted analysis, respectively. Modification of EB related to stress during wartime is associated with an increased risk of eating disorders. Early detection and treatment of eating disorders may be improved by routinely evaluation of EB modification in patients with a past history of war exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Study of literature on disease in the Rongchengshi of the Warring States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bao-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Many scholars have studied and disputed over the names of diseases recorded in Rongchengshi, bamboo slips of the Chu kingdon in the Warring States collected in the Shanghai Museum. According to comments of scholars and other literature it could be concluded: JinLong in slip 2 and AnLong in slip 36 means deaf-mutism; MaoFa in slip 2 means blindness; PiBi in slip 2 means lameness; ZhangZhe in slip 2 means persons who are strong and tall; An in slip 3 that it is the variant form of Ying, which means thyroid enlargement; Lou in slip 2 it means kyphosis of the spine; Xia in slip 3 it means pruritus and scabies; Δ in slip 36 means blindness; and Shang in slip 37 means bald head.

  7. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    to develop a descriptive framework (e.g. a draft table of contents) for organising the case study, whilst not pre-empting outcomes before the data...has been fully analysed. Such a framework can help the analyst with organising the data as well as with developing a story line [48]. As...Publications Repository http://dspace.dsto.defence.gov.au/dspace/ 14. RELEASE AUTHORITY Chief, Joint and Operations Analysis Division 15

  8. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  9. The Congress for Cultural Freedom, "Minerva," and the Quest for Instituting "Science Studies" in the Age of Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Congress for Cultural Freedom is remembered as a paramount example of the "cultural cold wars." In this paper, I discuss the ways in which this powerful transnational organization sought to promote "science studies" as a distinct--and politically relevant--area of expertise, and part of the CCF broader agenda to offer a renewed framework for…

  10. Conceptual Readings into the Cold War: Towards Transnational Approaches from the Perspective of Latin American Studies in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Manke

    Full Text Available Abstract This bibliographical and conceptual essay summarizes recent research in Cold War Studies in Europe and the Americas, especially on smaller states in historiographical studies. Against the background of an increasing connectedness and globalization of research about the Cold War, the authors highlight the importance of the full-scale integration of countries and regions of the 'Global South' into Cold War Studies. Critical readings of the newly available resources reveal the existence of important decentralizing perspectives resulting from Cold War entanglements of the 'Global South' with the 'Global North.' As a result, the idea that these state actors from the former 'periphery' of the Cold War should be considered as passive recipients of superpower politics seems rather troubled. The evidence shows (at least partially autonomous and active multiple actors.

  11. The psychological study of anxiety in the era of the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The mid-twentieth century in Britain ushered in a new age of anxiety with the development of total war and the aerial bombing of civilians. Rather than trying to chart and quantify levels of anxiety and fear on the British home front during the Blitz, this article's goal is to examine how these emotions were conceptualized by psychological experts immediately prior to and during the war. The essay follows the rising problematization of anxiety and fear as new concepts calling for professional knowledge and management. It emphasizes the contribution of psychoanalysts to this development while pointing to gradual change between the two world wars.

  12. Mexican and Central-American Contributions to the Study of the Civil War: Two Historical Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de HOYOS PUENTE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the historiography about the Spanish Civil War from Mexico and Central America. The result is quite different from the point of view of the interest raised by the Spanish conflict. This is can be explained by the different levels of involvement of the Mexican and Central American authorities in the war. However, the importance of the Republican exile in Mexico and its relative insignificance in Central America is also a contributing factor. The present day interest in the civil war is still based on that involvement and not of the evolution of the conflict.

  13. Just War Theory and Presidential Discourse Prior to Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    addresses prior to US intervention and War. The method used in this monograph is a structured focused comparison utilizing seven research questions...method used in this monograph is a structured focused comparison utilizing seven research questions applied to five case studies from 1983 to 2013 and...Fisher’s work and not enter the debate over the Middle Age, Modern, or Theological interpretations of whether or not war, or aggression, is itself a

  14. Carl Von Clausewitz's on War A Modern-Day Interpretation of a Strategy Classic

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Here, Andrew Holmes' interpretation of On War illustrates the timeless nature of von Clausewitz's insights by bringing them to life through 52 modern case studies of business and society. This brilliant interpretation of On War is an entertaining accompaniment to one of the most famous strategy books ever written.

  15. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  16. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  17. OBSESSIONS: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obsessions are one of the most refractory psychiatric disorders. The therapeutic guidelines include a psychopharmacotherapy and the use of behavioural and supportive psychotherapy.Methods. This case report study presents a patient with a homicide obsessions at the forefront and narcissistic personality disorder in background. The use of analytical oriented psychotherapy, which helped to resolve axis-1 symptoms, is described.Conclusions. In the therapy of patients it is important to have the knowledge about the national therapeutic guidelines and critical distance toward them as well. Which therapy to use should be decided by the individual patient’s needs.

  18. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  19. Temporomandibular joint health status in war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mottaghi, Ahmad; Zamani, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) in the Iran/Iraq war veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 subjects in the age range of 27 to 55 years were included; it included case group (30 war veterans with PTSD) and three control groups (30 patients with PTSD who had not participated in the War, 30 healthy war veterans, and 30 healthy...

  20. The First World War and Dutch Scientific Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friso Hoeneveld

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The centennial has revived attention for the First World War. Because of the Netherlands’ neutral position, the influence of the horrendous war in this nation has long been qualified as marginal. In the last two decades, this perspective has gradually changed and several studies were published on developments in the Netherlands in 1914–1918. In these studies the Great War has either been understood as a watershed moment in Dutch history or, adversely, as a continuation of previous times. In this special issue, we present five case-studies of the influence of the First World War on various scientific cultures in the Netherlands. These studies indicate that this interaction transcends the dichotomous image of either continuity or discontinuity.

  1. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  2. From the Great War to the Indian Subaltern Studies: provincializing Europe among possible worlds, minor stories, and gender subalternity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Zito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the Great War, fracture of historic course, watershed of contemporary culture and beginning point in the process of shifting the center of the world, the article reflects on currency of Indian Subaltern Studies. In particular, in the cultural debate on postcoloniality, it focuses on the contribution of Dipesh Chakrabarty in proving that the pattern of a euro-centric and patriarchal universal History, originated in Europe with the primacy of its modernity, must necessarily give space to the subaltern voices emerging from the suburbs of the globe (Provincializing Europe, by an adequate methodology that recoveries them in terms of historical and cultural reconstruction. Then it emerges the work of feminist scholar Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak on the gender subalternity, neglected issue in the official Indian historiography. Spivak locates in literature useful source through which to make the history more closely at what happened, notwithstanding the possibility that subalterns have had to express themselves, and she also shows, in the Indian postcolonial context, that different forms of minority, from ethnicity to caste, embodied in the condition of the female gender, intertwine in the figure of the woman, subaltern subject par excellence. This is the case of the tribal women of Bengal, to which, however, the Indian writer Mahasweta Devi can give a significant voice.

  3. Panama: Military Victory, Interagency Failure: A Case Study of Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-17

    Crisis, 1987 to 1990, is an interesting study in foreign policy *on. To be useful, the case must be more than interesting, it must be relevant, acessible ...Claypool, Robert G. *Military Medicine as and Instrument of Power An Overview and Assessment." Study Project, U.S. Army War College, 1989. Connaughton

  4. Increased psychological distress among Danish Gulf War veterans--without evidence for a neurotoxic background. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, Torben; Knop, Joachim; Suadicani, Poul

    2004-01-01

    would perform less well than controls using a computerized neuromotor test battery; and that 2) GW veterans have a psychological profile different from that of controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2......, 1990 until December 31, 1997; the control group comprised 231 subjects matched according to age, gender and profession. All participants underwent clinical and paraclinical examinations, along with a neuromotor test battery (CATSYS Test System) and a psychological health status questionnaire, the SCL...... associations were found for ratings of the obsessive-compulsive dimension and of the depression dimension. No associations were found with respect to phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. INTERPRETATION: The increased psychological distress found among Danish GW veterans seemed rather due...

  5. Sciatic nerve entrapment in the upper thigh caused by an injury sustained during World War II at the battle of Anzio. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldershaw, John B; Salem, Ayman; Storrs, Bruce B; Milner, Brenton; Omer, George E

    2004-03-01

    The authors present an unusual case of sciatic nerve entrapment due to a World War II shrapnel injury to the left thigh suffered during the battle of Anzio in 1943. The patient presented for evaluation of left lower-extremity pain in the sciatic nerve distribution. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine revealed a disc bulge at L5-S1 that would not explain severe sciatica. A positive Tinel sign was present in the posterior aspect of the upper thigh at the site of a scar resulting from a World War II shrapnel injury. The patient underwent exploratory external neurolysis of the area, and the sciatic nerve was released from fibrous adhesive entrapment. The patient improved dramatically following surgery. During a 3-year follow-up period, no recurrence of symptoms was noted.

  6. [Study of remains and dental wastes of a First World War German rest camp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R; Tzortzis, S; Desfosses, Y; Signoli, M; Tardivo, D

    2014-12-01

    This article presents the analysis of dental remains and waste from the dental office of a German rest camp of the First World War in order to study the living conditions of the soldiers, the care policy and the prosthetic rehabilitation techniques used in this context. The study included both dental and prosthetic remains, revealed during the excavation. The criteria to determine dental and periodontal health were the presence or absence of caries, wear, tartar and periodontal lesion. Location, severity and frequency of each of these parameters were examined. Regarding the prosthetic remains, the type of prosthesis and the materials used were determined. Three hundred and twenty seven (327) dental remains were analyzed. A high prevalence of large caries, especially in the molar areas, was highlighted. The incisal areas had however more wear and tartar. 183 casts of plaster dental arcade allowed to highlight a significant proportion of posterior edentulous. Prosthetic remains and laboratory waste revealed the use of vulcanite and porcelain for making dentures.

  7. An Explorative Note on Tourism Development along Former War Front Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Jansen-Verbeke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Current research about the pro-active role of tourism in valorizing war memories and landscapes still is in an explorative stage; learning from case studies, all marked by their political context, in time and space, and mainly describing local and/or regional key issues. Obviously, creating landscapes of memories for contemporary uses and visitors’ experiences implies a trans-disciplinary understanding of the process of changing values (heritage landscapes and of the intrinsic dynamics of tourism development. Shifting values and creativity in linking histories of war sites and their narratives with places and people today, leads to branding ‘sites of memories’ in the mindset of residents and visitors.We briefly scan four very different examples of border areas with a war history, that became landmarks on the tourist’ maps today.  The challenge for tourism development in former war related sites is to identify the dynamics - in time and space - to assess the political and economic forces and to identify shifts in the process of remembrance and valorization of war heritage sites, in terms of interests in war memories, narratives and experiences. These are now strategically integrated in national, regional and local tourism development planning.Historical military front zones, political borders in past wars, presently marked as tourism destinations, are on the research agenda of ‘War and Tourism’.  The observations below on four different former  war border zones with their specific landmarks and memoryscapes, are inspiring for current tourism development. Four different war border zones were briefly  explored “The Great Wall in China” “The Roman Limes”, The “Wire of Death”  in the  First World War  and the ”Iron Curtain” in the Cold War. These observations can inspire future research on tourismification of war heritage.

  8. Current Source Study of the History of the Great Patriotic War. Problems and Prospects of Studying the Art Heritage of 1941-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogarkova Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article emphasizes an urgency of the role of an art heritage and folklore of 1941-1945 years as perspective source for studying influence of war on the person and a society. By the example of activity of artists of a front seal the variety of displays of satire and humour in wartime is shown. An example of the fact that laughter and humor played a major role in the war can be found in the memoirs of many combatants, civilians, people of different professions. Even full of terrible details of the memories of children are mentions of Stalingrad as the edge of death, hopeless situation, people have found the strength to joke. Culture of folk humor – a powerful spiritual resource of any nation. On the one hand, it appears the attitude of people in a particular era. On the other hand, satire, humor, laughter – effective tools of propaganda and ideological influence. The culture of laughter responded to the challenges of wartime. It is possible to identify the mechanisms of self-preservation society and the individual. The issue of the research project “satire, humor, laughter in the culture of the Great Patriotic War”. Visual sources actualize the role of the artistic heritage in the formation of objective, reliable, multi-faceted, holistic scientific knowledge about the processes of socio-cultural development of the state and society in a world war. Artistic interpretation of scientific knowledge and the Great Patriotic War as a phenomenon of history and culture go hand in hand, influencing each other. Message from front generation accumulated in the art form and transmitted to descendants, as a cultural heritage of the Great Patriotic War, is the basis for the formation of the historical memory of the Great Patriotic War and World War II as a whole.

  9. Healthcare-seeking strategies among displaced children in war-ridden northern Uganda: the case of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akello-Ayebare, G; Richters, J M; Polderman, A M; Visser, L G

    2010-07-01

    A field study was performed to examine suffering and treatment seeking from the perspective of children aged 8-16 years living in war-affected northern Uganda. Various techniques for collecting qualitative and quantitative data were used, including a semi-structured questionnaire about illness experiences and medicine use over a 1-month recall period. The 165 children who were interviewed were attending primary schools for displaced children and/or commuters' night shelters. The children frequently attributed their common febrile ailments to malaria and used a variety of pharmaceuticals and herbal remedies, as self-medication, for their self-diagnosed malarial episodes. Misdiagnosis of febrile illnesses by the children (as well as by the local healthcare providers) and frequent misuse of medicines in the treatment of these illnesses appeared to be very common. Improvement of the health conditions of these children requires a change of focus. Firstly, children above the age of 5 years who are not under adult care and who are often no longer welcome in the local hospital's paediatric ward need to be accepted at the outpatient clinics currently intended for adults. Secondly, the local diagnostic system needs to be improved, not only so that malaria can be reliably diagnosed but also so that alternative diagnoses can be confirmed or rejected, otherwise the current over-consumption of antimalarial drugs may simply be replaced with an over-consumption of antibiotics.

  10. Examples and Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbach, C.; Aguerre, O.; Bressot, C.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gommel, U.; Gorbunov, B.; Bihan, O. le; Jensen, K.A.; Kaminski, H.; Keller, M.; Koponen, I.K.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Lecloux, A.; Morgeneyer, M.; Muir, R.; Shandilya, N.; Stahlmecke, B.; Todea, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Release of nanomaterials may occur during any stage of the life-cycle and can eventually lead to exposure to humans, the environment or products. Due to the large number of combinations of release processes and nanomaterials, release scenarios can currently only be tested on a case-by-case basis. Th

  11. Program evaluation and case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, S

    2009-01-01

    This entry looks at the convergence of case study methodology and program evaluation. An early insight of some educational evaluation theorists was of the convergence of case study and program evaluation – the fusion of method with purpose. Program evaluation and case study came to be mutually-bracketed. In the educational evaluation field 'Responsive', 'Democratic', 'Illuminative' methodologies were developed in parallel with case study methods - the same authors contributing freely to both ...

  12. The Somalia Country Case Study. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…

  13. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Hakimoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey, and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. RESULTS: the mean age was 29 (3-68 years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%, head (20.1%, abdomen (16.2%, vascular structures (4.4% and thorax (3.3%. Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%, blast injury (34.4% and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%. Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. CONCLUSION: among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war.

  14. Artificial Neural Networks Based War Scene Classification using Invariant Moments and GLCM Features: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Madan Raja S,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are trying to classify a war scene from the natural scene. For this purpose two set of image categories are taken viz., opencountry & war tank. By using Invariant Moments and Gray LevelCo-occurrence Matrix (GLCM, features are extracted from the images. The extracted features are trained and tested with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN using feed forward back propagation algorithm. The comparative results are proving efficiency of Artificial Neural Networks towards war scene classification problems by using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM feature extraction method. It can be concluded that the proposed work significantly and directly contributes to scene classification and its new applications. The complete work is experimented in Matlab 7.6.0 using real world dataset.

  15. A Study of the Loss of Masculinity in Hemingway’s Novels on Worldwide War I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹理

    2014-01-01

    Hemingway has two novels about the First World War, namely, The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms. For a long time, critics have noted that Hemingway’s heroes are characterized by their masculinities. However, the male characters’memories of body trauma in the war have psy-chologically or biologically castrated them and deprived them of masculinity. This essay, through close text analysis, investigates Hemingway heroes’loss of masculinity from the following two perspectives: the loss of social power and the male-gaze of the male’s body. This essay concluded that, the“code hero”in Hemingway’s novels on Worldwide War I, particularly in The Sun Also Rises (SAR) and A Farewell to Arms (AFTA) is only masculine on the sur-face.

  16. Reporting Military Sexual Trauma: A Mixed-Methods Study of Women Veterans' Experiences Who Served From World War II to the War in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Kristina B; Mills, Peter D

    2016-08-01

    Since 2004, there has been increased effort to reduce military sexual trauma (MST) in the U.S. military. Although MST covers a range of inappropriate behaviors, the majority of research, treatment, and outreach are focused on sexual assault and the experiences of individuals serving in Afghanistan and Iraq. During a study on veterans' involvement in a national peace organization, participants were asked about their military experiences. Veterans served from World War II to current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Emerging out of the responses were descriptions of women's experiences with MST, barriers to reporting incidents of sexual misconduct and sexual assault, and the challenges they faced when seeking care. Data were gathered using anonymous questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Out of 52 female veterans, the majority (90%) was subjected to at least one form of MST, and 15% (8) attempted to report the incident(s). Over half of the assailants were of a higher rank than the survivors. The majority of veterans remained silent due to lack of options to report, the status of perpetrators, and fear of retaliation. These data provide a glimpse into the challenges many women veterans faced when seeking assistance reporting incidents or obtaining health care for their MST.

  17. Dioxin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G G

    1993-01-01

    The need to notify individuals of a possible health risk from their past exposure to potentially hazardous agents frequently extends beyond workers to include community groups. The issues to consider in community notification are frequently similar to those that are important for worker notification but may include some that are unique. This case study traces the evolution of one company's strategy for communicating with the public about possible dioxin contamination associated with its operations. Early communications tended to emphasize the technical aspects of the issues in the fashion of scientists talking to other scientists. This was interpreted by some to be symptomatic of an arrogant and uncaring attitude. Beginning in the early 1980s, the company's management recognized the need to reach out to a variety of audiences on multiple levels, and shifted to a more comprehensive communications strategy. A similar shift is now occurring throughout the chemical manufacturing industry as top managers realize that, if they expect to continue to operate, they must become more accountable and responsive to the public.

  18. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  19. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  20. Exposures to war-related traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among displaced Darfuri female university students: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Alia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the deaths of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of up to three million Darfuris, the increasingly complex and on-going war in Darfur has warranted the need to investigate war-related severity and current mental health levels amongst its civilian population. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between war-related exposures and assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms amongst a sample of Darfuri female university students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW in Omdurman city. Methods An exploratory cross-sectional study among a representative sample of Darfuri female university students at AUW (N = 123 was conducted in February 2010. Using an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ, war-related exposures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms were assessed. Means and standard deviations illustrated the experiential severity of war exposure dimensions and PTSD symptom sub-scales, while Pearson correlations tested for the strength of association between dimensions of war exposures and PTSD symptom sub-scales. Results Approximately 42 % of the Darfuri participants reported being displaced and 54 % have experienced war-related traumatic exposures either as victims or as witnesses (M = 28, SD = 14.24, range 0 – 40 events. Also, there was a strong association between the experiential dimension of war-related trauma exposures and the full symptom of PTSD. Moreover, the refugee-specific self-perception of functioning sub-scale within the PTSD measurement scored a mean of 3.2 (SD = .56, well above the 2.0 cut-off. Conclusions This study provides evidence for a relationship between traumatic war-related exposures and symptom rates of PTSD among AUW Darfuri female students. Findings are discussed in terms of AUW counseling service improvement.

  1. Exposures to war-related traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among displaced Darfuri female university students: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Alia; Crutzen, Rik; Van den Borne, H W

    2012-08-03

    With the deaths of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of up to three million Darfuris, the increasingly complex and on-going war in Darfur has warranted the need to investigate war-related severity and current mental health levels amongst its civilian population. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between war-related exposures and assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst a sample of Darfuri female university students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW) in Omdurman city. An exploratory cross-sectional study among a representative sample of Darfuri female university students at AUW (N = 123) was conducted in February 2010. Using an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), war-related exposures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed. Means and standard deviations illustrated the experiential severity of war exposure dimensions and PTSD symptom sub-scales, while Pearson correlations tested for the strength of association between dimensions of war exposures and PTSD symptom sub-scales. Approximately 42 % of the Darfuri participants reported being displaced and 54 % have experienced war-related traumatic exposures either as victims or as witnesses (M = 28, SD = 14.24, range 0 - 40 events). Also, there was a strong association between the experiential dimension of war-related trauma exposures and the full symptom of PTSD. Moreover, the refugee-specific self-perception of functioning sub-scale within the PTSD measurement scored a mean of 3.2 (SD = .56), well above the 2.0 cut-off. This study provides evidence for a relationship between traumatic war-related exposures and symptom rates of PTSD among AUW Darfuri female students. Findings are discussed in terms of AUW counseling service improvement.

  2. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  3. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  4. Long-term impact of war on healthcare costs: an eight-country study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sabes-Figuera

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Exposure to war can negatively affect health and may impact on healthcare costs. Estimating these costs and identifying their predictors is important for appropriate service planning. We aimed to measure use of health services in an adult population who had experienced war in the former-Yugoslavia on average 8 years previously, and to identify characteristics associated with the use and costs of healthcare. METHOD: War-affected community samples in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, and Serbia were recruited through a random walk technique. Refugees in Germany, Italy and the UK were contacted through registers, organisations and networking. Current service use was measured for the previous three months and combined with unit costs for each country for the year 2006/7. A two-part approach was used, to identify predictors of service use with a multiple logistic regression model and predictors of cost with a generalised linear regression model. RESULTS: 3,313 participants were interviewed in Balkan countries and 854 refugees in Western European countries. In the Balkan countries, traumatic events and mental health status were related to greater service use while in Western countries these associations were not found. Participants in Balkan countries with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD had costs that were 63% higher (p = 0.005 than those without PTSD. Distress experienced during the most traumatic war event was associated with higher costs (p = 0.013. In Western European countries costs were 76% higher if non-PTSD anxiety disorders were present (0.027 and 63% higher for mood disorders (p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS: War experiences and their effects on mental health are associated with increased health care costs even many years later, especially for those who stayed in the area of conflict. Focussing on the mental health impact of war is important for many reasons including those of an economic nature.

  5. Social Studies Goes to War: An Analysis of the Pre-Induction Social Studies Curriculum of the Providence Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Whitney G.

    2015-01-01

    From the moment the United States entered World War II, public schools across the nation bombarded the Office of Education Wartime Commission requesting advice on how to mobilize schools for the war effort. American schools would rise to the occasion, implementing numerous programs including pre-induction training and the Victory Corps. The…

  6. [Eda Kalmre. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu] / Véronique Vincent-Campion

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vincent-Campion, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kalmre, Eda. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu. Amsterdam ; New York : Rodopi, 2013. (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 1570-7121 ; 34)

  7. [Eda Kalmre. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu] / Véronique Vincent-Campion

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vincent-Campion, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kalmre, Eda. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu. Amsterdam ; New York : Rodopi, 2013. (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 1570-7121 ; 34)

  8. The clinical picture of late-onset PTSD: a 20-year longitudinal study of Israeli war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Danny; Solomon, Zahava; Keinan, Giora; Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2013-08-15

    Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been under medico-legal debate for years. Previous studies examining the prevalence and clinical characteristics of delayed-onset PTSD have yielded inconclusive findings. This study prospectively examines the prevalence and clinical picture of late-onset PTSD among Israeli war veterans. It also evaluates whether or not late-onset PTSD erupts after a completely non-symptomatic period. 675 Israeli veterans from the 1982 Lebanon War, with and without antecedent combat stress reaction (CSR), have been assessed 1, 2 and 20 years post-war. They were divided into 4 groups, according to the duration of delay in PTSD onset. Participants completed self-report questionnaires tapping psychopathology, combat exposure and socio-demographics. 16.5% of the veterans suffered from late-onset PTSD. A longer delay in PTSD onset was associated with less severe psychopathology. Also, CSR was associated with a shorter delay in PTSD onset. Finally, the vast majority of veterans already suffered from PTSD symptoms prior to late PTSD onset. Our results offer further validation for the existence of delayed-onset PTSD. Delayed-onset PTSD appears to be a unique sub-type of PTSD, with an attenuated clinical picture. In addition, delayed-onset PTSD may be the result of an incubation process, wherein symptoms already exist prior to PTSD onset.

  9. Psychiatric Consequences of WTC Collapse and The Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2004-01-01

    Along with political, economic, ethical, rehabilitative and military dimensions, psychopathological sequelae of war and terrorism also deserve our attention. The terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre ( W.T.C.) in 2001 and the Gulf War of 1990-91 gave rise to a number of psychiatric disturbances in the population, both adult and children, mainly in the form of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD). Nearly 75,000 people suffered psychological problems in South Manhattan alone due to that one terrorist attack on the WTC in New York and the Pentagon in Washington. In Gulf War I, morethat 1,00,000 US veterans reported a number of health problems on returning from war, whose claims the concerned government has denied in more than 90% cases. Extensive and comprehensive neurological damage to the brain of Gulf War I veterans has been reported by one study, as has damage to the basal ganglia in another, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) in a third,possibly due to genetic mutations induced by exposure to biological and chemical agents, fumes from burning oil wells, landfills,mustard or other nerve gases. The recent Gulf War will no doubt give rise its own crop of PTSD and related disorders. In a cost-benefitanalysis of the post Gulf War II scenario, the psychopathological effects of war and terrorism should become part of the social audit any civilized society engages in. Enlightened public opinion must become aware of the wider ramifications of war and terrorism so that appropriate action plans can be worked out.

  10. Psychiatric consequences of WTC collapse and the Gulf War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with political, economic, ethical, rehabilitative and military dimensions, psychopathological sequelae of war and terrorism also deserve our attention. The terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre ( W.T.C. in 2001 and the Gulf War of 1990-91 gave rise to a number of psychiatric disturbances in the population, both adult and children, mainly in the form of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD. Nearly 75,000 people suffered psychological problems in South Manhattan alone due to that one terrorist attack on the WTC in New York and the Pentagon in Washington. In Gulf War I, morethat 1,00,000 US veterans reported a number of health problems on returning from war, whose claims the concerned government has denied in more than 90% cases. Extensive and comprehensive neurological damage to the brain of Gulf War I veterans has been reported by one study, as has damage to the basal ganglia in another, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS in a third,possibly due to genetic mutations induced by exposure to biological and chemical agents, fumes from burning oil wells, landfills,mustard or other nerve gases. The recent Gulf War will no doubt give rise its own crop of PTSD and related disorders. In a cost-benefitanalysis of the post Gulf War II scenario, the psychopathological effects of war and terrorism should become part of the social audit any civilized society engages in. Enlightened public opinion must become aware of the wider ramifications of war and terrorism so that appropriate action plans can be worked out.

  11. Children in War: A Guide to the Provision of Services. A Study for UNICEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Everett M.; And Others

    The sad reality of children killed, tortured, imprisoned, and orphaned by war substantiates the need for renewed local, national, and international commitment to these children. This guide examines: (1) the impacts present-day armed conflicts have on children and their families; (2) what special needs of children should be anticipated and…

  12. U.S. Warrior Studies: Air Interdiction in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    transcript was published as Air Superiority in World War II and Korea (Washington: Office of Air Force History, 1983). A second interview was...you saý the situatiobi ig -right," what spec; icatly do you mecan ’? Vogt: ’I he tactical situation The weather hijs right. The eneimy Was Po’w

  13. Propagandizing in the Interest of War: A Rhetorical Study of the Committee on Public Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    The Committee on Public Information was created by President Woodrow Wilson in 1917 and charged with informing the public about the war in Europe. Under the leadership of newspaper publisher George Creel, the Committee undertook a vigorous campaign that included censorship of government press releases; the production of posters, films, and…

  14. Baseball and World War II: A Study of the Landis-Roosevelt Correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percoco, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan using original documents of the wartime correspondence between President Franklin Roosevelt and baseball commissioner Kenesaw Landis. Explores the status of baseball during World War II to determine the importance of sports in U.S. culture. Includes background information and copies of the correspondence. (DK)

  15. Psychological effects of chemical weapons: a follow-up study of First World War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E; Everitt, B; Ironside, S; Palmer, I; Wessely, S

    2008-10-01

    Chemical weapons exercise an enduring and often powerful psychological effect. This had been recognized during the First World War when it was shown that the symptoms of stress mimicked those of mild exposure to gas. Debate about long-term effects followed the suggestion that gassing triggered latent tuberculosis. A random sample of 103 First World War servicemen awarded a war pension for the effects of gas, but without evidence of chronic respiratory pathology, were subjected to cluster analysis using 25 common symptoms. The consistency of symptom reporting was also investigated across repeated follow-ups. Cluster analysis identified four groups: one (n=56) with a range of somatic symptoms, a second (n=30) with a focus on the respiratory system, a third (n=12) with a predominance of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and a fourth (n=5) with a narrow band of symptoms related to the throat and breathing difficulties. Veterans from the neuropsychiatric cluster had multiple diagnoses including neurasthenia and disordered action of the heart, and reported many more symptoms than those in the three somatic clusters. Mild or intermittent respiratory disorders in the post-war period supported beliefs about the damaging effects of gas in the three somatic clusters. By contrast, the neuropsychiatric group did not report new respiratory illnesses. For this cluster, the experience of gassing in a context of extreme danger may have been responsible for the intensity of their symptoms, which showed no sign of diminution over the 12-year follow-up.

  16. The Sacred and the Sword: A Study of how Religions View War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    According to Sun Tzu: Victory is the main object in war. If this is long delayed, weapons are blunted and morale depressed . When the army engages in...fine. Difficulties may develop In the observance of religious practices. Diet is a coricern, for example, since we are vegetarians . Military ttervice is

  17. History Wars and the Classroom: Global Perspectives. Studies in the History of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tony, Ed.; Guyver, Robert, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The book is entitled History Wars in the Classroom: Global Perspectives and examines how ten separate countries have experienced debates and disputes over the contested nature of the subject, for example the "Black Armband" and "Whitewash" factions in Australia who adopt opposingly celebratory or denigratory views of Australian history, especially…

  18. Propagandizing in the Interest of War: A Rhetorical Study of the Committee on Public Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    The Committee on Public Information was created by President Woodrow Wilson in 1917 and charged with informing the public about the war in Europe. Under the leadership of newspaper publisher George Creel, the Committee undertook a vigorous campaign that included censorship of government press releases; the production of posters, films, and…

  19. A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam. Volume 8. Results of the War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-09

    8217eople’s Republic of Laos established. In a politica ) transformation which passed with little notice in the West, a communist regime was installed under...the Peking leadership was divided as tc its war aims, Mean.vhile, Hanoi enjoyed a propaganda field day, as the "David and Goliath" image was briefly

  20. Intercultural Communicative Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The essay is mainly about the author's comprehension of cultural differences and intercultural communication after reading the book Communication Between Cultures.In addition,the author also analyses three cases with the theories and approaches mentioned in Communication Between Cultures.

  1. A Psychobiographical Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adopt a child and, in due course, assumed parenthood of. Jobs shortly after his .... The Psychobiographical Case Subject and Sampling ..... The school recommended that he skip .... look at pathways that could lead to personal fulfilment ...... Personology: Method and content in personality assessment and psychobiography.

  2. War Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    F286. RG 109, NA. Thanks to Dr. Boyd Switzer, Professor of Nutrition at UNC Medical School, who assisted me here. Lee’s men consumed about 35 to 40...cigarettes, soap bars, and chocolate in. 200 Interviewer Talk to me a little bit, just as a final question, about the impact of the coming Cold War

  3. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  4. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  5. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  6. Study on German Oil War in World War Ⅱ%论德国在二战中的石油战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞媛媛

    2012-01-01

    为了争夺包括石油在内的重要战略资源的控制权,拓展生存空间,德国在欧洲挑起了第二次世界大战。德国视石油为生死攸关的战争必需品,对石油的控制和占有成为其制定军事战略的重要因素,而且对石油的角逐明显地影响着战争的进程和结局。随着战争的持续不断,德国战略资源逐渐耗尽。与此同时,战略资源丰富的同盟国对其采取资源断绝战和空袭反击战,使之战略资源更加紧缺,最终德国被迫承认战败。%In order to rob the strategic resources including oil and to expand its territory,Germany incites the world war II in the Europe.Germany regards oil as the vital supplies of war,and it becomes an important factor of Germanic military strategy to control and occupy enough oil resources.It is clear that the competition of the oil influences the process and result of the war.In the protracted war,Germanic strategic resources are consumed gradually.At the same time,allied powers that are rich in strategic resources cut off the resources supply to the Germany and frequently launch air strikes.As a result,Germany has no enough resources and has to concede defeat in World War II.

  7. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  8. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  9. 认知心理学与中东国际关系研究*--以第三次和第四次中东战争为例%Studies of Cognitive Psychology and the Middle East International Relations:The Case of the Third and Fourth Middle East Wars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢立忱; 李婧琦

    2014-01-01

    自20世纪50年代以来,个体及个体认知心理逐渐得到国际关系理论应有的学术关照。作为国际政治认知学派的一个代表人物,罗伯特·杰维斯发现,认知相符、诱发定势和历史包袱这三种心理机制,以及统一性知觉、夸大性认知、愿望性思维和失调性认知这四种决策者易犯的错误知觉,对国际政治具有不容忽视的影响。从认知心理学的视角宏观审视中东国际关系,特别是分析第三次和第四次中东战争,就会发现,杰维斯的研究在强调作为个人的决策者的认知作用的同时,却忽视了社会和文化对决策者个人的塑造作用。因此,在进行国际政治研究时,应将个人认知心理与身份认同结合起来。%Since the 1950s,the factors of individuality and individual cognitive psychology have attracted more attention in studies of international relations.As a major scholar of the international political cognition school, Robert Jervis identifies three mental mechanisms,namely,cognitive consistency,evoked set,and historical baggage,and four misperceptions,namely,united consciousness,exaggerated cognition,wishful thinking,and cognitive dissonance which decision-makers are prone to in their international politics studies.The paper intends to explore the Middle East international relations from the point of view of cognitive psychology thourgh an analysis of the Third and Fourth Middle East Wars.

  10. The Longitudinal Studies of Prisoners of War and Their Families. The Prisoner of War and His Family. The Captivity Experience of American Prisoners of War in Southeast Asia. Positive and Negative Residuals of Prolonged Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-08

    inter- national conflicts, The fourth goal is the compilation of a variety of reference materials about prisoners of war and those missing or killed in...related diseases, malaria, and situational reactions; those captured in North Vietnam, DO) I JA 7 1473 M0OIYION Or INOV 6 IONSOLETE nlssfe SIN O~a.L

  11. The World of WarsRisky systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably on different subjects than we are used to. The paper proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less on tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we have...... the systems we have. They have their own path dependencies, their temporal bindings and their own stories to tell. In the worst case, they stick to an imaginary of almighty power - and then they lose. We tend to forget that our present past will be experienced and told differently in the future past...

  12. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  13. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  14. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  15. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  16. Genetic consequences of war and social strife in sub-Saharan Africa : the case of Uganda's large mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muwanika, Vincent B.; Nyakaana, Silvester; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2005-01-01

    data that are relevant to understanding of the genetic effects of war and social strife on Africa's wildlife. Uganda was probably one of the worst affected countries. Before 1972, Uganda had large herds and a variety of mammals. However, following the breakdown of law and order, some large mammals were......The spectacular diversity of sub-Saharan Africa's large mammals was hit by constant social strife and civil war over three decades (1970s-1990s) leading to localized extinctions and drastic reductions in population sizes for many species. These localized extinctions and reduction in population...... sizes undermine the ability of species to evolve and adapt to changing environments as a result of genetic erosion. The genetic consequences of the widespread reduction of population sizes as a result of social strife in sub-Saharan Africa are not well documented. Here we review past molecular genetic...

  17. First World War and Mental Health: a retrospective comparative study of veterans admitted to a psychiatric hospital between 1915 and 1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagonia, Paolo; Aloi, Matteo; Magliocco, Fabio; Cerminara, Gregorio; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Luciano, Mario; Fiorillo, Andrea; De Fazio, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    The association between mental illness and war has been repeatedly investigated. Higher levels of depressive symptoms and an increased suicidal risk have been found in veterans. In this study we investigated the mental health conditions among Italian soldiers during the “Great War”, who were hospitalized in a mental health hospital in Italy. The study sample consists of 498 soldiers who were admitted during the World War I between 1915 and 1918, and 498 civilian patients admitted in two different periods (1898-1914, 1919- 1932). Psychiatric diagnoses have been recorded retrospectively by a detailed examination of clinical records. Socio-demographic informations, diagnosis at first admission, number of admissions, and deployment in war zones were collected. A logistic regression analysis was performed, the diagnosis of depression was considered as dependent variable while clinical and demographic variables as independent predictors. Soldiers deployed in war zones were more likely to have a diagnosis of depression compared to those not serving on the frontline. The logistic regression analysis showed that the diagnosis of depression is predicted by being a soldier and being deployed in a war area. Our data confirm that soldiers engaged in war are at higher risk of developing depression compared to non-deployed soldiers.

  18. A Case of Arrested Development: The Historiography Relating to South Africa’s Participation in the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Katz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The quantity and quality of military historical work on the participation of South Africa in the Second World War, with few exceptions, namely that of a few significant academic contributions over the last decade, lags appreciably compared to the plethora of titles offered on all aspects of the war in the buoyant international market. This article investigates and evaluates more important South African primary and secondary sources pertaining to the Union Defence Force’s participation in the Second World War, highlighting available sources and limitations in published material. Possible opportunities for further research are identified where there are areas of historiographical hiatus.  Reasons are offered for what amounts to a rather threadbare South African historiography, especially when compared to the prolific historiographical output of other belligerents. The article offers a brief survey of primary sources, identifying some of the archives that have received scant attention. Then follows an analysis of secondary sources broken down into official, semi-official and general history that examines their methodological integrity and completeness with a view to identifying what historical contributions may still be made in the light of what has been produced.

  19. Hybrid Feature Based War Scene Classification using ANN and SVM: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are proposing a hybrid feature extraction method for classifying the war scene from the natural scene. For this purpose two set of image categories are taken viz., opencountry & war tank. Byusing the hybrid method, features are extracted from the images/scenes. The extracted features are trained and tested with (i Artificial Neural Networks (ANN using feed forward back propagationalgorithm and (ii Support Vector Machines (SVM using Radial basis kernel functions with p=5. The results are also compared with the commonly used feature extraction methods such as haar wavelet,daubechies(db4 wavelet, Zernike moments, Invariant moments, co-occurrence features and statistical moments. The comparative results are proving efficiency of the proposed hybrid feature extraction method (i.e., the combination of GLCM & Statistical moments in war scene classification problems. It can be concluded that the proposed work significantly and directly contributes to scene classification and its new applications. The complete work is experimented in Matlab 7.6.0 using real world dataset.

  20. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  1. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  2. Instructional Computing: Ten Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargan, Carol; Hunter, Beverly

    These case studies are written for educational institutions that wish to plan, extend, or improve their use of computers for learning and teaching. Each case study includes a brief description of each of the following: profile of the institution, history of the development of instructional computing, organization and management, student access to…

  3. Fuzzy-Set Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Kim Sass

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary case studies rely on verbal arguments and set theory to build or evaluate theoretical claims. While existing procedures excel in the use of qualitative information (information about kind), they ignore quantitative information (information about degree) at central points of the analysis. Effectively, contemporary case studies rely on…

  4. Case study: Tourism marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kennell, James

    2014-01-01

    Tourism can be a challenging subject for students because it is both dynamic and susceptible to economic turbulence and shifts in trends. Tourism: A Modern Synthesis is an essential textbook for tourism students looking for a clear and comprehensive introduction to their studies which helps overcome these challenges. The authors apply a strong business approach to the subject reflecting developments in the teaching and content of modern courses and the text covers both key principles and cont...

  5. Roundabouts Canada case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada); Lenters, M. [Roundabouts Canada, Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A modern roundabout was constructed in the community of Ancaster, Ontario in response to growing complaints regarding speeding along the major roadway, and queuing on the minor roadway. The roundabout opened on October 25, 2002. The before and after speeds at the roundabout are being studied, and the fastest path characteristics are assessed in an effort to determine whether the predicted fastest path data correlates with the in-service operating speeds. The speed at R1, R2 and R3 locations on the east west, and north south approaches are measured. tabs., figs.

  6. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  7. The limits of renovation: Russian contributions to the study of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ígor MÉDNIKOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the vast transformation undergone by Soviet- Russian historiography of the Spanish Civil War in the last years. Having rejected the concept of a “National-Revolutionary War” and coming closer to Spanish and international historiography, Russian research has developed considerably in the recent past. Its principal fulcrum is the analysis of documents from Soviet archives which are hardly accessible to foreign historians. However, this transformation has some limitations, which this article endeavours to demonstrate.

  8. [Comparative characteristic of the formation of stereotype of aging in participants of current war conflicts and World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakymets', V M

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out to examine participants of current war conflicts and World War II in order to compare the development of the formation of stereotype of old age. It was established that participants of World War II have higher level of the formation of pessimistic stereotype of old age than participants of current war conflicts have.

  9. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  10. The memory and historiography of the First World War in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ferrari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The memory and historiography of the First World War in Italy may be divided into four broad periods. During the immediate post-war period (1918-1922 debate mainly focused on such issues as the Italian defeat at Caporetto in 1917, the human and material costs of the war, and the peace treaty. In the subsequent decades (1922-1960, fascism was presented as the heir of the war, which became a fundamental element of its nationalist identity as well as part of the rituals of the regime. This nationalistic and fascist interpretation of the conflict then survived in many respects until the start of the 1960s. Perspectives on the war were subsequently revised over the next twenty years (1960-1980. The new cultural tendencies of these decades produced a history of the conflict from below, which encompassed the experiences of Italian soldiers, who were often seen as victims of the military machine. The historiography focused on their opposition to the war, including cases of indiscipline and mental breakdown. In more recent times (1980-2014 these trends have continued, and new studies have emerged, but many aspects of the war, including the home front and the international context (including Italy’s enemies are still relatively neglected. Moreover, although there is a keen public interest in the First World War in north-east Italy, which was the theatre of operations, the period 1915-1918 is probably part of a faraway past for most Italians.

  11. AN EVALUATION NARRATIVE OF WARS ON HISTORY TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür AKTAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to investigate how the phenomenon of war was studied at the history books of secondary education. The method of the research depends on document analysis. For that reason, the history course books were investigated and the wars told in the books were determined. In the course book of Modern Turkish and World History, you can find wars and treaties. Establishment of Bolshevist regime led to new wars in the political history. In this book, it is likely to see something about World War II as well. Following the World War II, the cold war between Soviets Union and the USA had a great impact on era. The civil wars told in the Modern World History mostly intensified in the African countries. As for the twenty first century, the wars have mostly been realized as the civil wars and terrorism.

  12. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  13. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  14. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  15. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.

  16. Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Trauma Specific (AAQ-TS): A study with Portuguese Colonial War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Gouveia, José; Carvalho, Teresa; Cunha, Marina; Duarte, Joana; Walser, Robyn D

    2015-10-01

    The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Trauma Specific (AAQ-TS) is a self-report measure designed to assess-trauma-related psychological (in)flexibility, as conceptualized in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. However, there are no studies to date regarding its psychometric properties. This study explores such properties in the Portuguese version of the AAQ-TS, in Portuguese Colonial War Veterans. A Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted in a sample from the general population of war Veterans (N=371). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) as well as reliability and convergent validity studies were performed in a different sample from the same population (N=312). For the discriminant validity a clinical sample with a war-related PTSD (N=42) and a non-clinical sample without PTSD (N=44) were used. The CFA suggested a re-specified 15-item model with good global adjustment and factorial validity. The AAQ-TS showed internal consistency, a good temporal reliability, convergent validity with psychopathological symptoms (related to PTSD, anxiety, depression and stress) and peritraumatic dissociation (altered awareness and depersonalization/derealization). The questionnaire also discriminates between war Veterans with and without a PTSD diagnosis. The major limitation relates to the samples' characteristics and sampling methods, which can limit the generalization of results. The Portuguese version of the AAQ-TS is a reliable and valid measure to assess experiential avoidance related to trauma in Portuguese Colonial War Veterans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder Symptom Domains Relate Differentially to PTSD and Depression: A Study of War-Exposed Bosnian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, Meredith A; Charak, Ruby; Kaplow, Julie; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-10-01

    Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD) is a newly proposed diagnosis placed in the Appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as an invitation for further research. To date, no studies have examined the dimensionality of PCBD or explored whether different PCBD criteria domains relate in similar, versus differential, ways to other psychological conditions common to war-exposed bereaved youth, including symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression. We evaluated the dimensionality of proposed PCBD B and C symptom domains, and their respective relations with measures of PTSD and depression, in 1142 bereaved Bosnian adolescents exposed to the 1992-1995 Bosnian civil war. Instruments included the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, the Depression Self-Rating Scale, and the UCLA Grief Screening Scale (a prototype measure of PCBD symptoms). We investigated potential differences in grief, PTSD, and depression scores as a function of cause of death. We then examined hypothesized differential relations between PCBD B and C symptom domain subscales and selected external correlates, specifically measures of depression and the four-factor emotional numbing model of PTSD. Results of both analyses provide preliminary evidence of a multidimensional structure for PCBD in this population, in that the PCBD Criterion C subscale score covaried more strongly with each of the four PTSD factors and with depression than did PCBD Criterion B. We conclude by discussing theoretical, methodological, clinical, and policy-related implications linked to the ongoing study of essential features of PCBD.

  18. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans...... and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk...

  19. Charting the Crimean War: Contexts, Nationhood, Afterlives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Bates

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean War (1853–56 is much more culturally significant than its popular mythologies suggest. Now remembered mainly for the Charge of the Light Brigade and the Lady with the Lamp, the Crimean War is a pivotal moment in the history of modern warfare seen as both the last of the old wars and first of the new. The first total war, it inaugurated new forms of weaponry, tactics, communication, war reporting, military medicine, and new attitudes towards soldiers. The introduction outlines this issue of '19'’s case for the conflict’s wide-ranging significance, placing the Crimean War in the context of earlier and later nineteenth-century warfare, and considering its varied cultural afterlives.

  20. Models, Data, and War: A Critique of the Study of Conventional Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    dissects both the conccptual and empitical under- pinnings of the firepower-index concept to provide a case study of what is actually an admixture of a...and the establishment and use of communications links between cooperating and supporting units. All combat activity, in turn, must 1-r’ keyed to...the enemy. These and other factors affect system performance. Such appears to be the quality of the present U.S. standard trace , which is pink instead

  1. Genetic consequences of war and social strife in sub-Saharan Africa : the case of Uganda's large mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muwanika, Vincent B.; Nyakaana, Silvester; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2005-01-01

    data that are relevant to understanding of the genetic effects of war and social strife on Africa's wildlife. Uganda was probably one of the worst affected countries. Before 1972, Uganda had large herds and a variety of mammals. However, following the breakdown of law and order, some large mammals were...... sizes undermine the ability of species to evolve and adapt to changing environments as a result of genetic erosion. The genetic consequences of the widespread reduction of population sizes as a result of social strife in sub-Saharan Africa are not well documented. Here we review past molecular genetic...... exterminated while other populations were decimated. Recent results of genetic surveys in five large mammals in Uganda (the common warthog, savanna elephant, savanna buffalo, common hippopotamus and Uganda kob) suggest a substantial erosion of genetic diversity in the elephants and warthogs of Queen Elizabeth...

  2. Lifestyle changes during adolescence and risk of breast cancer: an ecologic study of the effect of World War II in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretli, S; Gaard, M

    1996-09-01

    There are biologic reasons to believe that the period between the larche and the first full-term pregnancy is a particularly sensitive period in a woman's life regarding the development of breast cancer. In this ecologic study, data provided by the Norwegian Cancer Registry were analyzed to compare risk of breast cancer among women who experienced this sensitive period before, during, or after World War II. An ordinary age-cohort model and a model where the cohort was described by exposure by calendar period and sensitivity to this exposure at different ages, were fitted to the data. The incidence of breast cancer was lower than expected among women who experienced puberty during the war. The estimated configuration of the exposure variable showed an increase in exposure up to the start of WWII to twice the level in 1916, dropped by 13 percent during the war, and increased again after the war. The level in 1975 was approximately 2.7 times higher than the level in 1916. The results indicate that one or more lifestyle factors that changed among adolescent women during the war, influenced their risk of breast cancer. Dietary intake of energy, fat, meat, milk, fish, fresh vegetables, and potatoes, in addition to physical activity level and height, are important factors to consider in relation to breast cancer risk.

  3. Is the war really over? A 20-year longitudinal study on trajectories of suicidal ideation and posttraumatic stress symptoms following combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, Avigal; Levi-Belz, Yossi; Solomon, Zahava

    2017-01-01

    Combat stress reaction (CSR) has widespread long-term consequences, including profound psychopathology in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have established the link between combat, PTSD, and suicidality. However, little is known about the temporal course of suicidal ideation (SI) in general, specifically among war veterans. We aimed to trace the trajectories of SI in the aftermath of war and to explore the role of CSR and PTSD in SI trajectories. Israeli veterans with CSR (n=164) and a matched control group (NCSR, n=111) were assessed, using self-report measures at three points over the course of 20 years. Veterans with CSR reported significantly higher levels of SI, compared to the NCSR group at all measurement points. Among veterans with CSR, SI increased 2 years after the war and then decreased 20 years following the war. This pattern was particularly characteristic of veterans with chronic PTSD. The results indicate that CSR is a strong predictor of subsequent PTSD and suicidality. These findings highlight the importance of prevention and treatment efforts for these traumatized veterans, who are at risk for suicide even 20 years after the end of the war.

  4. Translation Procedures (a Case Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Roswita; Lestari, Disa Evawani

    2012-01-01

    Roswita Silalahi This research is entitled Translation Procedures (A Case Study) which analysis translation procedures used in translating economic terms from English language book Principles of Economics by N. Gregory Mankiw into Bahasa Indonesia book Pengantar Ekonomi by Haris Munandar. The improvement of economic science which creates new economic terms challenges translator especially in translating a word or phrase, which in some cases, does not exist in the target l...

  5. Multisymptom Illness in Gulf War Veterans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwini, Stella M; Forbes, Andrew B; Sim, Malcolm R; Kelsall, Helen L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multisymptom illness (MSI) in 1990 to 1991 Gulf/Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans. Electronic databases were searched from January 1990, June 2014 for studies on MSI prevalence in Gulf/Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans, based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MSI case definition, and which included a military comparison group. Seven studies were identified among US, UK, and Australian Gulf War veterans; no studies were identified in Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans. MSI prevalence in Gulf War veterans and comparison groups ranged from 26 to 65% and from 12 to 37%, respectively. More recent studies were larger, with improved designs. The pooled odds ratio comparing Gulf War veterans to other military groups was 2.74 (95% confidence interval 2.15 to 3.51). The systematic review showed that MSI was most prevalent in Gulf War veterans, emphasizing the health burden of MSI in this veteran population.

  6. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes ...

  7. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  8. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  9. Application of Just War principles to nuclear war and deterrence in three contemporary theorists: Michael Walzer, Paul Ramsey, and William V. O'Brien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichol, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show that the Just War tradition remains applicable in the nuclear age; three contemporary just war theorists have been selected to show that this is the case: Michael Walzer, political theorist; Paul Ramsey, theologian, and William V. O'Brien, professor of international law. Each is also influenced by his Jewish, Protestant and Roman catholic tradition respectively. The focus is on the principles of proportionality and discrimination, showing how the three theorists define, validate, and apply these principles to the conduct of war as compared to the concepts of the classic Just War theorists and to those expressed in the 1983 US Catholic Bishops' Statement. This Statement reflects the influence of the three secular theorists and also of contemporary moral theory. Just War principles are applied to the uses of nuclear weapons in war-fighting and deterrence and to actual public policy. Just War principles provide policy makers with a moral basis to move beyond national egoism by directing them to be concerned about the needs of the person and about the interdependence among states principles whose validity has often been assumed but whose application has never been so necessary.

  10. 战争遗址纪念碑的价值评价--以南京大屠杀遗址纪念碑为例%The Value Evaluation of the War Memorial:A Case Study of the Nanjing Massacre Victim’s Memorials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜若菲; 王红扬; 史北祥; 王有正

    2016-01-01

    As a kind of city sculpture, the memorial of war is the carrier of the trauma memory, inheriting the history and culture of the city. However, many of them became normal indicators because of the less attention paid to their historical value and landscape value, which are supposed to be the most basic values of memorials. The Nanjing Massacre Victim’s Memorials are taken as a typical example in this paper. It has been formed the value evaluation system from the perspective of historical and landscape value, and all these memorials are divided into three categories based on their own radar model. In terms of existing problems, this paper gives out improvement suggestions, trying to explore and highlight the value of the war memorials combining different value perspectives, in order to construct unique city landscape.%战争遗址纪念碑作为城市雕塑的一种,是创伤记忆的载体,聚焦和传承城市的历史文化记忆。作为战争遗址纪念碑最基本的价值——历史价值和景观价值却未在城市的发展过程中得到应有的重视,导致诸多纪念碑沦为简单的“标志牌”。以南京大屠杀遗址纪念碑作为典例,对其从历史价值与景观价值结合的视角构建战争遗址纪念碑评价体系的雷达模型,基于雷达模型的评价结果,将其划分为3个类别,并针对各类别的不同特性及现状问题,从空间标志性的增强、空间参与度的提高、空间融合度的加深等方面提出保护彰显建议,通过不同价值结合的视角对战争遗址纪念碑的价值彰显进行探索,以期营造独特的城市文化景观。

  11. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  12. On the Effectiveness of Military Institutions: Historical Case Studies from World War I, The Interwar Period and World War II. Volume 1. World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    metals. At the same time, German strategic thought clearly began to turn to the problems Involved in realizing the POhrer’s 5 grandiose dreams of...off Into the realm of the 3 surreal . Annexationist demands., especially In Germany, Increased In Inverse proportion to the power to achieve them. For...ambitious admirals from building the navy of their dreams and did limit the stocks of small arms ammunition available in 1914. But 3 most of the shortages

  13. On the Effectiveness of Military Institutions: Historical Case Studies from World War I, The Interwar Period, and World War II. Volume 3. World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    as possible) and bluster: ’education fla cultural counts for nothing’. "L4 cultura might indeed count for nothing until It came time to navigate 3 in...1007, Cant. Z 506) (Fortunato Minniti, ’La politica Industziale 3 del Ministero dell*Aeronautica. Mercato, Planificazione, Sviluppo (1935-1943),’ Storia...remark: Minnici, ’La politica Industriale," p. 274. 12. See D’Avanzo, Ali e voltrone, pp. 334-35, tot an energetic but undocumented statement of the

  14. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  15. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  16. 冷战后民族主义和种族冲突原因探析--以前南斯拉夫民族主义和种族冲突为个案%The Causes of the Nationalism and Ethnic Conflicts after the Cold War--A Case Study of Pre-Yugoslavia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成竹; 刘桂芬

    2000-01-01

    Pre-Yugoslavia was a “mixture” far from maturity. Its disintegration and ethnic conflicts owed little to the social system but to the latent “malignant tumors” of its own. The country’s national separatism and ethnic conflicts, appearing crude and barbarian, originated from multiple factors stemming from its early history and recent development together with its internal conflicts, and is also effected by outside pressure. The interactivity of these factors eventually brought about the greatest national separatism and ethnic conflicts after the cold war.%前南斯拉夫是一个远未发展成熟的“混合体”,它的解体和民族冲突不能归咎于社会制度本身,而在于自身潜伏的“毒瘤”。前南斯拉夫的民族分离主义和种族冲突呈现出多层的、原始的、野蛮的、历史远因与现实近因相互作用、内部争斗与外部挤压互动的特点。这些历史远因和近因的相互作用,引发了冷战结束以来最大规模的民族分离主义运动和民族冲突。

  17. 用批判性思维改善情报分析中的认知偏见--以朝鲜战争中美军情报失误为例%Applying Critical Thinking to Cognitive Bias in Intelligence Analysis:A Case Study of U. S. Military Intelligence Failures in Korean War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋飞; 张静; 杜娜

    2013-01-01

    Being derived from the inherent limitations in intelligence analysts'cognition, cognitive bias is one of the major factors leading to intelligence failure. This paper introduces critical thinking into intelligence analysis by analyzing briefly the forms of cognitive bias of the U. S. military intelligence analysis in the Korean War and puts forward 12 basic mental techniques of critical thinking to avoid cognitive bi-as and improve intelligence analysis.%认知偏见是导致情报分析失误的重要因素之一,源于情报分析人员认知方式的固有局限性。将批判性思维引入情报分析,简要分析了朝鲜战争中美军情报分析存在的认知偏见表现形式,进一步提出了利用批判性思维改善情报分析认知偏见的12种基本智力技能。

  18. On the Development of Medical Vocational Education during the Anti-Japanese War Period——A Case Study of the Emergency Medical Service Training School(1938-1943)%抗战时期战地医护职业教育的发展——以战时卫生人员训练所(1938-1943年)为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施彦

    2015-01-01

    抗日战争爆发之后,战地救护人员从数量到质量上都不能满足实际的需要.战时卫生人员训练所抓住机遇,配合实际救护需要,开展了有效的战地医护职业教育,既服务于战地救护工作,降低了伤亡率,帮助保存了抗日军队战斗力;又帮助学员实现了就业有"出路",升学有"门路",推动了医护职业教育在近代中国的发展.%Since the China's Resistance War Against Japan broke, the medical relief personnel were so lacking both in quantity and quality. The Emergency Medical Service Training School(EMSTS) was founded at that time, and it tried its best to train and replenish medical relief work personnel for the field. The medical personnel EMSTS trained had saved millions of Chinese soldiers and civilians' lives which contributed a lot to China's triumph over Japan. Moreover, EMSTS's programs were designed to offer not only relief medical skills but also professional medical education in order to make thousands of trainees either to become medical workers or have chance to get higher education, which developed Chinese medical vocational education greatly.

  19. eCompetence Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Bækkelund

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches.......In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches....

  20. Experience of human rights violations and subsequent mental disorders: a study following the war in the Balkans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Bogic, M.; Ashcroft, R.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Roughton, M.; Schützwohl, M.; Ajdukovic, D.

    2010-01-01

    War experiences are associated with substantially increased rates of mental disorders, particularly Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depression (MD). There is limited evidence on what type of war experiences have particularly strong associations with subsequent mental disorders. Our

  1. Experience of human rights violations and subsequent mental disorders: a study following the war in the Balkans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Bogic, M.; Ashcroft, R.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Roughton, M.; Schützwohl, M.; Ajdukovic, D.

    2010-01-01

    War experiences are associated with substantially increased rates of mental disorders, particularly Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depression (MD). There is limited evidence on what type of war experiences have particularly strong associations with subsequent mental disorders. Our o

  2. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Sorooshian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, identifies the problems and provides recommendations for improvements. This study can be a guide for business advisers and those interested in analysing company performance, especially from a logistics viewpoint. We also suggest the methodology of this case study for those who want to have a better understanding of a business environment before starting their own business, or for benchmarking practice during strategic planning.

  3. Suicide among War Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Vsevolod Rozanov; Vladimir Carli

    2012-01-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to ex...

  4. Family violence, war, and natural disasters: a study of the effect of extreme stress on children's mental health in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Claudia; Jacob, Nadja; Schauer, Elisabeth; Kohila, Mahendran; Neuner, Frank

    2008-05-02

    The consequences of war violence and natural disasters on the mental health of children as well as on family dynamics remain poorly understood. Aim of the present investigation was to establish the prevalence and predictors of traumatic stress related to war, family violence and the recent Tsunami experience in children living in a region affected by a long-lasting violent conflict. In addition, the study looked at whether higher levels of war violence would be related to higher levels of violence within the family and whether this would result in higher rates of psychological problems in the affected children. 296 Tamil school children in Sri Lanka's North-Eastern provinces were randomly selected for the survey. Diagnostic interviews were carried out by extensively trained local Master level counselors. PTSD symptoms were established by means of a validated Tamil version of the UCLA PTSD Index. Additionally, participants completed a detailed checklist of event types related to organized and family violence. 82.4% of the children had experienced at least one war-related event. 95.6% reported at least one aversive experience out of the family violence spectrum. The consequences are reflected in a 30.4% PTSD and a 19.6% Major Depression prevalence. Linear regression analyses showed that fathers' alcohol intake and previous exposure to war were significantly linked to the amount of maltreatment reported by the child. A clear dose-effect relationship between exposure to various stressful experiences and PTSD was found in the examined children. Data argue for a relationship between war violence and violent behavior inflicted on children in their families. Both of these factors, together with the experience of the recent Tsunami, resulted as significant predictors of PTSD in children, thus highlighting the detrimental effect that the experience of cumulative stress can have on children's mental health.

  5. Family violence, war, and natural disasters: A study of the effect of extreme stress on children's mental health in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Elisabeth

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consequences of war violence and natural disasters on the mental health of children as well as on family dynamics remain poorly understood. Aim of the present investigation was to establish the prevalence and predictors of traumatic stress related to war, family violence and the recent Tsunami experience in children living in a region affected by a long-lasting violent conflict. In addition, the study looked at whether higher levels of war violence would be related to higher levels of violence within the family and whether this would result in higher rates of psychological problems in the affected children. Methods 296 Tamil school children in Sri Lanka's North-Eastern provinces were randomly selected for the survey. Diagnostic interviews were carried out by extensively trained local Master level counselors. PTSD symptoms were established by means of a validated Tamil version of the UCLA PTSD Index. Additionally, participants completed a detailed checklist of event types related to organized and family violence. Results 82.4% of the children had experienced at least one war-related event. 95.6% reported at least one aversive experience out of the family violence spectrum. The consequences are reflected in a 30.4% PTSD and a 19.6% Major Depression prevalence. Linear regression analyses showed that fathers' alcohol intake and previous exposure to war were significantly linked to the amount of maltreatment reported by the child. A clear dose-effect relationship between exposure to various stressful experiences and PTSD was found in the examined children. Conclusion Data argue for a relationship between war violence and violent behavior inflicted on children in their families. Both of these factors, together with the experience of the recent Tsunami, resulted as significant predictors of PTSD in children, thus highlighting the detrimental effect that the experience of cumulative stress can have on children's mental health.

  6. Post-cold war United Nations peacekeeping operations: a review of the case for a hybrid level 2+ medical treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War, UN peacekeeping operations (UN PKOs) have become larger, more mobile, multi-faceted and conducted over vast areas of remote, rugged, and harsh geography. They have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. Yet progressively there have been expectations of financial restraint and austerity. Additionally, UN PKOs have become more "robust," that is, engaged in preemptive, assertive operations. A statistically positive and significant relationship exists between missions' size, complexity, remoteness, and aggressive tenor and a higher probability of trauma or death, especially as a result of hostile actions or disease. Therefore, in the interest of "force protection" and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is health care and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support must conform to the general intent and structure of current UN PKOs to become more streamlined, portable, mobile, compartmentalized, and specialized, but also more varied and complex to address the medical aspects of these missions cost-efficiently. This article contends that establishing a hybrid level 2-a level 2 with level 3 modules and components (i.e., level 2+)-is a viable course of action when considering trends in the medical aspects of Post-Cold War UN PKOs. A level 2 medical treatment facility has the potential to provide needed forward mobile medical treatment, especially trauma care, for extended, complex, large-scale, and comprehensive UN PKOs. This is particularly the case for missions that include humanitarian outreach, preventive medicine, and psychiatry. The level 2 treatment facility is flexible enough to expand into a hybrid level 2+ with augmentation of modules based on changes in mission requirements and variation in medical aspects.

  7. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  8. Equatorial jet - a case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    Detailed EOF analysis of wind data reportEd. by Wunsch over Gan (00 degrees 41'S; 73 degrees 10'E) is made for the period 1963-70. The year 1964, which exhibited least variability from mean wind structure, has been chosen for the case study. EOF...

  9. Overview of the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    A series of case studies are used to illustrate many of the underlying modelling principles within the book. To facilitate this, the ICAS-MoT modelling tool has been used. A wide range of application areas have been chosen to ensure that the principal concepts of effective and efficient modelling...

  10. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  11. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  12. The Case Study of Frank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynde, Peter Op't; Hannula, Markku S.

    2006-01-01

    As a unifying feature of this Special Issue, we have asked proponents of each framework to analyse an empirical classroom account of one student's process of solving a mathematical problem. Here, for the case study of "Frank", we give the main data that were available to all authors.

  13. Bat 21: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-02

    review from Library Journal : While he [Anderson] succeeds in telling a rousing tale...one questions whether this ought to be considered more fiction...Day in a Long War, Random House, 1989.1 27. Lane, Mel D. "Bat 21." Library Journal , Vol. 105, 15 October 1980, pp. 2194-2195. 28. Stone, Judy. " ’Bat...5. Ibid., 187. 6. Ibid., liner notes. 7. Interview, p. 88. 8. Anderson, pp. 186. 9. Anderson, copyright notes. 10. Mel D. Lane, "Bat 21," Library

  14. Committed to Differentiation and Engagement: A Case Study of Two American Secondary Social Studies Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This case study examines two 10th-grade US History teachers who collaborated to create and implement an integrated, thematic eight-week unit on war with an emphasis differentiated instruction. Drawing on the National Council for the Social Studies (2010 framework for powerful and purposeful social studies instruction, the case study uses multiple sources of data, including 38 lesson observations, analyses of the teachers’ lesson plans and student work, and interviews of teachers. Initially, the teachers were successful at engaging students in simulations, small-group discussions, and higher-order thinking. As the unit progressed, however, the teachers reverted to transmission-style teaching with an emphasis on breadth over depth. Changing teaching practice requires overcoming barriers associated with prior experiences and deeply-held beliefs about teaching and learning.

  15. Comparison Study of Memory Status in War-PTSD Veterans With Depression and Non- Veterans Depressed Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvari SS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive problems in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD include poor concentration and impaired memory. Prevalence of PTSD in all aspects of life is 8% in USA. Regarding the importance of memory in functional levels, this study was performed to review memory status in these patients. Methods: Fifty male war veterans with PTSD and major depression and 50 male non-veterans with depression participated in this study performed at psychiatric outpatient ward in Baqiyatallah hospital during 2008-2009. The patients met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Depression severity, sex, age, educational level, and marital status were matched in both groups. A psychologist completed demographic and Mississippi questionnaires, PTSD checklist (PCL, beck depression Inventory and wechsler memory scale. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 11.0. A P-value smaller than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: The mean age of the veterans and non-veterans was 43.9±4.7 and 42±9.4 years, respectively. Memory status did not differ between the two groups (P>0.05. There was no statistically significant correlation between duration and severity of PTSD with memory impairment (P>0.05. A negative correlation was found between personal and general information with re-experiencing in the veterans (P<0.05. Impaired memory was correlated with age greater than 45, educational level lower than high school diploma, severity of depression and longer participation in war. Conclusion: Although both PTSD and major depression affected memory, but memory status did not differ between patients with PTSD and depression and patients with chronic depression.

  16. CRIMEAN WAR OTTTOMAN COMMEMORATIVE AND MILITARY MEDALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Hakan Tekin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medals are symbols to honor people and also to increase their loyalty to the state. States have revealed forces through medals in a symbolic sense. Although the Ottoman Empire met with the tradition of medal in the period of Sultan Mehmed II, medals became important with Sultan Mahmud I. Commemorative and military medals were pressed by the Ottoman Empire at the end of the Crimean War. The Ottomans used medals as a reflection of not only awards for those showing usefulness in the war but also as a souvenir to commemorate this important battle. Even allied forces and defeated Russia had made medals for Crimean War. In our study, information will be given about Crimean War commemorative and military medals in Ottoman era of the Crimean War. Mecidi Crimean War badges were not included in the study due to the scope of the research.

  17. The peace and nuclear war dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S.R. (North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States))

    1989-01-01

    The Peace and Nuclear War Dictionary is organized so that entries and supplementary data can be located easily and quickly. Items are arranged alphabetically throughout, rather than grouped into chapters. When doubtful about how to locate an entry, consult the general index. Page numbers for terms appear in the index in heavy black type; subsidiary concepts discussed within entries can be found in the index, identified by page numbers in regular type. For study purposes, numerous entries have also been subsumed under major topical headings in the index, affording the reader access to broad classes of related information. The reader can also fully explore a topic by employing the extensive cross-references included in all entries. Many entries can be found as subsidiary terms, but in each case the concept is related to the main entry. The author has adopted the format of this book to provide the reader a variety of useful applications. These include its use as a dictionary and ready reference guide to the global language of peace and nuclear war; a study guide for introductory courses in Nuclear War and Peace of International Relations, or for any specialized course in the area; a supplement to a textbook or a group of paperback monographs adopted for use in these courses; a source of review material for the political science major enrolled in advanced courses; and a social science aid for use in business, education, government, policy sciences, and journalism.

  18. "Voices of the people": linguistic research among Germany's prisoners of war during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the history of the Royal Prussian Phonographic Commission, a body that collected and archived linguistic, ethnographic, and anthropological data from prisoners-of-war (POWs) in Germany during World War I. Recent literature has analyzed the significance of this research for the rise of conservative physical anthropology. Taking a complementary approach, the essay charts new territory in seeking to understand how the prison-camp studies informed philology and linguistics specifically. I argue that recognizing philological commitments of the Phonographic Commission is essential to comprehending the project contextually. My approach reveals that linguists accommodated material and contemporary evidence to older text-based research models, sustaining dynamic theories of language. Through a case study based on the Iranian philologist F. C. Andreas (1846-1930), the paper ultimately argues that linguistics merits greater recognition in the historiography of the behavioral sciences. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Health Consequences of the Diversion of Resources to War and Preparation for War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Armed conflict damages health in many ways. These include death and disability directly caused by war, destruction of the societal infrastructure that supports health and safety, forced migration of people both within their own country and as refugees to other countries, promotion of violence as a method to settle conflicts and disputes, and the long-term adverse effects on social relationships. This special issue of Social Medicine examines the impact of war on human health from a geographically diverse set of countries and from diverse perspectives. Dr. Andrea Angulo Menasse, a researcher from Mexico City’s Autonomous University, documents the very personal story of how the violence of the Spanish Civil War affected one family. In her case study the trauma suffered by Spanish Republicans is traced through three generations and crosses the Atlantic Ocean as the family moves is exiled in Mexico. Dr. Sachin Ghimire from the Centre of Social Medicine and Community Health of the Jawaharlal Nehru University reports on his fieldwork in Rolpa, Nepal, the district from which the Nepal Civil War (also called the People’s War originated in 1996. Based on 80 interviews, he documents the difficulties faced by health care workers as they negotiated the sometimes deadly task of remaining in communities where control alternated between Nepalese Special Forces and the Maoist rebels. Finally, Colombian researcher, Carlos Iván Pacheco Sánchez, from the University of Rosario in Bogota, brings an epidemiologist’s tools to examine the impact of the ongoing armed conflict in the border Department of Nariño. His discussion is informed by the current debate over health care in Colombia where a recent Constitutional Court decision has found that the current health care system violates the right to health. These three papers amply demonstrate the depth, breadth and relevance of contemporary social medicine.

  20. The First World War years of Sydney Domville Rowland: an early case of possible laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Peter C; Hodges, A J

    2016-08-01

    Sydney Domville Rowland was a bacteriologist and staff member at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine when the First World War broke out in 1914. Following a request to the Director of the Lister Institute to staff and equip a mobile field laboratory as quickly as possible, Rowland was appointed to take charge of No. 1 Mobile Laboratory and took up a temporary commission at the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps. On 9 October 1914, Rowland set out for the European mainland and was subsequently attached to General Headquarters in Saint-Omer, France (October 1914-June 1915), No. 10 Casualty Clearing Station in Lijssenthoek, Belgium (June 1915-February 1916, during which period he was promoted Major), and No. 26 General Hospital in Étaples, France (February 1916-March 1917). His research focused on gas gangrene, typhoid fever, trench fever, wound infection and cerebrospinal fever. In February of 1917, while engaged in identifying meningococcal carriers, Rowland contracted cerebrospinal meningitis to which he succumbed at age 44 on 6 March 1917. His untimely death might have been caused by laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease, especially since Rowland's work with Neisseria meningitidis isolates had extended beyond routine laboratory techniques and included risk procedures like immunisation of rabbits with pathogenic strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Currently, microbiology laboratory workers who are routinely exposed to N. meningitidis isolates are recognised as a population at increased risk for meningococcal disease, for which reason recommended preventive measures include vaccination and handling of isolates within a class II biosafety cabinet. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Shaping the multicultural society of Lower Silesia after the Second World War exemplified by the case of Dobroszyce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Hold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available World War II and its political consequences resulted in a demographic shift in Lower Silesia. It took place to an extent never before seen in any part of Europe. Due to international decisions concerning the changes of its borders, Lower Silesia was once again integrated with Poland. At the same time the German inhabitants living in the region were obliged to leave. Polish people replaced them coming from other parts of Poland as well as from former Polish territories which had been incorporated by the Soviet Union. The immigrants were influenced by the cultures of the places of their origin. They differed in almost every field of everyday life, so in their new towns they met people with various integrating capabilities, contrasting points of view, political preferences and attitudes. That phenomenon was understood as a coexistence of the representatives of at least two different cultures whose members perceive the differences between them. Prevalence of so many distinct cultures in one area and the influences they had on each other led to the creation of specific cultural and social relations among the groups and their members. The situation obliged the settlers to overcome their particular attitudes and competences to live and communicate with new neighbours. Significant historical processes had influenced in a noticeable way the lives of people from every single town and village in Lower Silesia. One example of the place chosen by the immigrants to Lower Silesia is Dobroszyce. The incoming people created from the very beginning a society which was supposed to live in multicultural reality.

  2. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimoglu, Sedat; Karcıoglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Isıl; Koyuncu, Onur; Dikey, İsmail; Turhanoglu, Selim; Sarı, Ali; Acıpayam, Mehmet; Karatepe, Celalettin

    2015-01-01

    wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey), and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. the mean age was 29 (3-68) years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%), head (20.1%), abdomen (16.2%), vascular structures (4.4%) and thorax (3.3%). Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%), blast injury (34.4%) and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%). Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Case Study: Guidelines for Producing Videos to Accompany Flipped Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Généreux, Annie; Schiller, Nancy A.; Wild, John H.; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2017-01-01

    Three years ago, the "National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science" (NCCSTS) was inspired to merge the case study and flipped classroom approaches. The resulting project aimed to create the materials required to teach a flipped course in introductory biology by assigning videos as homework and case studies in the classroom. Three…

  4. The role of motivation, responsibility, and integrative complexity in crisis escalation: comparative studies of war and peace crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, David G

    2007-05-01

    Drawing on D. G. Winter's (1993) comparison of 1914 and the Cuban Missile Crisis, the author identified 8 paired crises (1 escalating to war, 1 peacefully resolved). Documents (diplomatic messages, speeches, official media commentary) from each crisis were scored for power, affiliation, and achievement motivation; text measures of responsibility and activity inhibition; and integrative complexity. Aggregated effect-size results show that war crises had significantly higher levels of power motivation and responsibility, whereas peace crises showed trends toward higher integrative complexity and achievement motivation. Follow-up analyses suggested that these results are robust with respect to both sides in a crisis, type of material scored, and historical time. The power motive results extend previous findings, but the responsibility results suggest that responsibility plays a paradoxical role in war. Future research directions are sketched, and the role of psychological content analysis in monitoring the danger of war is discussed.

  5. USAWC (United States Army War College) Military Studies Program Paper. The Development of the American General Staff: 1880 to 1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of a general staff, reasons for such an organization, and the actual develorinent of the staff compared to the design. After the Amnerican Civil War...organization, and the actual development of the staff compared to the design. After the American Civil War a group of reformers assessed the performance of...and prohib- ited it from interfering with the bureaus and their administration. The bureau chiefs regarded the Act as their "Magna Carta " essentially

  6. Experience of human rights violations and subsequent mental disorders - a study following the war in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Bogic, Marija; Ashcroft, Richard; Franciskovic, Tanja; Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Morina, Nexhmedin; Popovski, Mihajlo; Roughton, Michael; Schützwohl, Matthias; Ajdukovic, Dean

    2010-12-01

    War experiences are associated with substantially increased rates of mental disorders, particularly Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depression (MD). There is limited evidence on what type of war experiences have particularly strong associations with subsequent mental disorders. Our objective was to investigate the association of violations of human rights, as indicated in the 4th Geneva Convention, and other stressful war experiences with rates of PTSD and MD and symptom levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. In 2005/6, human rights violations and other war experiences, PTSD, post-traumatic stress symptoms and MD were assessed in war affected community samples in five Balkan countries (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Serbia) and refugees in three Western European countries (Germany, Italy, United Kingdom). The main outcome measures were the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In total 3313 participants in the Balkans and 854 refugees were assessed. Participants reported on average 2.3 rights violations and 2.3 other stressful war experiences. 22.8% of the participants were diagnosed with current PTSD and also 22.8% had MD. Most war experiences significantly increased the risk for both PTSD and MD. When the number of rights violations and other stressful experiences were considered in one model, both were significantly associated with higher risks for PTSD and were significantly associated with higher levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. However, only the number of violations, and not of other stressful experiences, significantly increased the risk for MD. We conclude that different types of war experiences are associated with increased prevalence rates of PTSD and MD more than 5 years later. As compared to other stressful experiences, the experience of human rights violations similarly increases the risk of PTSD, but appears more important for MD. Copyright

  7. A case study of Impetigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri P

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin

  8. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  9. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Iraq War has done the United States more harm than good the removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War,which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century.

  10. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN WENLIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War, which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century. Although there remain quite a few uncertainties, an honest review shows the war is a failure for the United States.

  11. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple personality disorder is characterised by splited individual ego-states and splited professional community arguing whether this disorder actually exists or not.Methods. In this case report study a supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy of a patient with multiple personality disorder is presented, that lasted for 4.5 years and resulted in ego-reintegration.Conclusions. The spliting between different ego-states is powered by unneutralised aggression with the possibility of hetero- and autoaggressive behaviour. Therefore the patient in the analytically oriented psychotherapeutic process is at high risk and a safe therapeutic (e. g. in-patient setting has to be provided.

  12. TEACHER BELIEFS: A CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuYijie

    2004-01-01

    In recent years ELT has stressed the role which teachers' beliefs play in shaping what they do in the classroom. But so far as teaching English in China is concerned, we lack empirical insight into the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their classroom practice. With specific reference to the use of English in intensive reading classes, by presenting and discussing data from a case study of a non-native college English teacher,this exploratory qualitative classroom research sheds light on the nature of teachers' beliefs held consciously or unconsciously.Their subsequent change and impact on the classroom will also be reported and discussed.

  13. Heterotopic ossification in combat amputees from Afghanistan and Iraq wars: Five case histories and results from a small series of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Melcer, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO is excess bone growth in soft tissues that frequently occurs in the residual limbs of combat amputees injured in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, or Iraq and Afghanistan wars, respectively. HO can interfere with prosthetic use and walking and delay patient rehabilitation. This article describes symptomatic and/or radiographic evidence of HO in a patient series of combat amputees rehabilitating at a military amputee care clinic (27 patients/33 limbs. We conducted a retrospective review of patient records and physician interviews to document evidence of HO symptoms in these limbs (e.g., pain during prosthetic use, skin breakdown. Results showed HO-related symptoms in 10 of the 33 residual limbs. Radiographs were available for 25 of the 33 limbs, and a physician identified at least moderate HO in 15 of the radiographs. However, 5 of the 15 patients who showed at least moderate radiographic HO did not report adverse symptoms. Five individual patient histories described HO onset, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. These case histories illustrated how HO location relative to pressure-sensitive/pressure-tolerant areas of the residual limb may determine whether patients experienced symptoms. These histories revealed the uncommon but novel finding of potential benefits of HO for prosthetic suspension.

  14. Humanitarian war: a new consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, S L

    2001-12-01

    The NATO bombing operation Allied Force against Yugoslavia in March-June 1999 represents the final disappearance of the narrowing divide between humanitarianism and politics: a war initiated and justified on humanitarian grounds. Although unlikely to be repeated any time soon, the Kosovo case appears to have cemented an ideological shift on the international right and even necessity of sing military force to protect civilians within sovereign states. Rather than humanitarians acknowledging the political context and consequences of their work, however, the case suggests the embrace of humanitarian principles of universality and neutrality by military organisations. This article discusses some consequences of the new consensus: neglect of the political context (both local and foreign) of such operations, interaction between the operational dynamics of relief operations and the logic of war and the political consequences of using the humanitarian legitimation and mission in such cases.

  15. Late sequelae of retained foreign bodies after world war II missile injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Thermann, Florian; Behrmann, Curd; Spielmann, Rolf-Peter; Kornhuber, Malte

    2012-09-01

    A number of people injured during the second world war harbour foreign bodies such as grenade splinters or bullets in some part of the body. Most of these metal fragments remain clinically silent. Some of them, however, may cause delayed complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of delayed complications associated with foreign bodies after world war II injuries. 159 patients with retained foreign bodies after world war II injuries were retrospectively identified radiologically in our data bases in the time interval from 1997 to 2009. Diverse delayed complications secondary to the metal objects were diagnosed in 3 cases (2%): one patient with grenade splinter migration into the choledochal duct, one case with pseudotumoural tissue reaction, and one patient with late osteomyelitis. The time from injury to clinical presentation varied from 56 to 61 years. PubMed and Medline were screened for additional cases with delayed sequelae after foreign body acquisition during the 2nd world war. A 30 year search period from 1980 up to date was selected. 15 cases were identified here. Our study demonstrates that health consequences of the 2nd world war extend into the present time, and therefore physicians should be aware of the presence of hidden foreign bodies and their different possible late reactions.

  16. Physiologic amputation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeri; Hall, Virginia

    2014-03-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a complication of severe peripheral arterial disease that can be a threatening limb as well as life. Multiple procedures exist today to help revascularize extremities; however, even with the latest technologies, surgical amputation of the limb may still be necessary. Cryoamputation, or physiologic amputation, is a method used to treat patients who are hemodynamically unstable for the operating room and who are in need of urgent amputation owing to arterial ischemia. This procedure is used in the rare instance where not only a persons' limb is threatened, but also their life. This is a case study regarding one patient who presented to the hospital with limb-threatening ischemia who became hemodynamically unstable owing to the rhabdomyolysis associated with the ischemia of his lower extremity. Cryoamputation was used to stabilize the patient and prevent further deterioration, so that he could safely undergo surgical amputation of the limb without an increase in mortality risk. Cryoamputation must be followed by formal surgical amputation when the patient is hemodynamically stabilized. It is not a limb salvaging, procedure but it is a life-saving procedure. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the procedure and discusses the technique used for cryoamputation.

  17. Victims of rape show increased cortisol responses to trauma reminders : a study in individuals with war- and torture-related PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Gola, Hannah; Engler, Harald; Schauer, Maggie; Adenauer, Hannah; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating cortisol responses to trauma-related stressors in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded inconsistent results, demonstrating that cortisol responses were enhanced or unaffected when confronted with trauma reminders. This study investigated the effect of the type of trauma experienced on both salivary and plasma cortisol responses during confrontation with trauma-related material. Participants were 30 survivors of war and torture, with and without...

  18. Rethinking the Conflict Trap: Systems Dynamics as a Tool to Understanding Civil Wars - The Case of Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Diaz Sr. (Fabio Andres)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper presents the first phase of a work in progress which aims at building a System Dynamics model around two theories concerning internal conflict. The model will asses the particular case of Colombia, that is characterized by the presence of armed groups that interact

  19. Mental health in war-affected populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses mental health problems in populations in nonwestern war-affected regions, and methods to mitigate these problems through interventions focusing on social reintegration. It describes a number of studies among war-affected populations in widely different areas: refugees from the Rw

  20. Creative Chaos: Learning from the Yugoslavian War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to understand more about the continued learning process of those who have experienced negative life experiences. This paper focuses on the various issues of learning and living through war, specifically encounters from the war in former Yugoslavia. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to understand lessons learned by…

  1. Obsessional slowness: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy; Wong, Karen W; Fulks, Mary-Ann; Holsti, Liisa

    2008-10-01

    Obsessional slowness is a rare psychiatric disorder with few treatment options and limited research to date. Some suggest that targeted behavioural interventions may reduce the time taken for functional daily activities. To examine whether a behavioural intervention would reduce the amount of time taken for an adolescent with obsessional slowness to walk to class. A single-subject A-B-A withdrawal design was incorporated into this case study. The treatment involved one-to-one pacing and prompting during the subject's walk to gym class. Walking times to gym class were measured during a baseline phase, during a one-month treatment phase, and during a post-treatment follow-up phase. The subject's walking times decreased during the treatment phase. Post-treatment walking times suggested a carry-over effect. This study adds to the sparse evidence on treatments for obsessional slowness and suggests occupation-based treatment options.

  2. Five misunderstandings about Case-study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...

  3. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study

  4. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study

  5. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  6. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  7. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  8. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  9. Resource Wars and Conflict Ivory: The Impact of Civil Conflict on Elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo - The Case of the Okapi Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Beyers, Rene L.; Hart, John A.; Sinclair, Anthony R. E.; Falk Grossmann; Brian Klinkenberg; Simeon Dino

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to doc...

  10. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  11. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various culture wars – hippies...... political or military but also social and psychological, economic and technological, cultural and imaginative. Using as its exemplar Pynchon’s treatment of world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow, this essay explores one key modulation in the nature of warfare: from the armed conflicts characteristic...... of an imperial order to the struggles for security – not just physical but also ideological and discursive, conceptual and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order. Through the personal identities and historical trajectories of a number of the novel’s representative figures...

  12. Blood Biomarkers of Chronic Inflammation in Gulf War Illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard J Johnson

    Full Text Available More than twenty years following the end of the 1990-1991 Gulf War it is estimated that approximately 300,000 veterans of this conflict suffer from an unexplained chronic, multi-system disorder known as Gulf War Illness (GWI. The etiology of GWI may be exposure to chemical toxins, but it remains only partially defined, and its case definition is based only on symptoms. Objective criteria for the diagnosis of GWI are urgently needed for diagnosis and therapeutic research.This study was designed to determine if blood biomarkers could provide objective criteria to assist diagnosis of GWI.A surveillance study of 85 Gulf War Veteran volunteers identified from the Department of Veterans Affairs Minnesota Gulf War registry was performed. All subjects were deployed to the Gulf War. Fifty seven subjects had GWI defined by CDC criteria, and 28 did not have symptomatic criteria for a diagnosis of GWI. Statistical analyses were performed on peripheral blood counts and assays of 61 plasma proteins using the Mann-Whitney rank sum test to compare biomarker distributions and stepwise logistic regression to formulate a diagnostic model.Lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts were higher in GWI subjects. Six serum proteins associated with inflammation were significantly different in GWI subjects. A diagnostic model of three biomarkers-lymphocytes, monocytes, and C reactive protein-had a predicted probability of 90% (CI 76-90% for diagnosing GWI when the probability of having GWI was above 70%.The results of the current study indicate that inflammation is a component of the pathobiology of GWI. Analysis of the data resulted in a model utilizing three readily measurable biomarkers that appears to significantly augment the symptom-based case definition of GWI. These new observations are highly relevant to the diagnosis of GWI, and to therapeutic trials.

  13. Psychological symptoms as long-term consequences of war experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Jankovic Gavrilovic, J.; Bremner, S.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Schützwohl, M.; Bogic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: War experiences can affect mental health, but large-scale studies on the long-term impact are rare. We aimed to assess long-term mental health consequences of war in both people who stayed in the conflict area and refugees. Method: On average 8 years after the war in former

  14. Psychological symptoms as long-term consequences of war experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Priebe; J. Jankovic Gavrilovic; S. Bremner; D. Ajdukovic; T. Franciskovic; G.M. Galeazzi; A. Kucukalic; D. Lecic-Tosevski; N. Morina; M. Popovski; M. Schützwohl; M. Bogic

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: War experiences can affect mental health, but large-scale studies on the long-term impact are rare. We aimed to assess long-term mental health consequences of war in both people who stayed in the conflict area and refugees. Method: On average 8 years after the war in former Yugoslav

  15. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  16. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  17. STS Case Study Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.

  18. KAIZEN – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Shettar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of manufacturing industries is to increase productivity with high quality. At present, many manufacturing companies are facing problems such as high quality rejection, high inventories, high lead time, high costs of production, and inability to cope with customer orders. By implementing and practicing the lean production system many problems can be solved without employing high-tech and high-touch approaches but by involving people on the shop floor in Kaizen activities. Kaizen is one of the powerful tools of lean manufacturing. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost and quality. Kaizen ensures that manufacturing processes become leaner and fitter, but eliminate waste (problem where value is added. The main objective of this paper is to provide a background on kaizen, present an overview of kaizen concepts that are used to transform a company into a high performing lean enterprise. A case study of implementation of Kaizen‟s has been discussed.

  19. Reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes among French gulf war veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bégassat Marion

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War veterans (PGWVs have been undertaken. Some authors have concluded that an association exists between Gulf War service and reported infertility or miscarriage, but that effects on PGWV's children were limited. The present study's objective was to describe the reproductive outcome and health of offspring of French Gulf War veterans. Methods The French Study on the Persian Gulf War (PGW and its Health Consequences is an exhaustive cross-sectional study on all French PGWVs conducted from 2002 to 2004. Data were collected by postal self-administered questionnaire. A case-control study nested in this cohort was conducted to evaluate the link between PGW-related exposures and fathering a child with a birth defect. Results In the present study, 9% of the 5,666 Gulf veterans who participated reported fertility disorders, and 12% of male veterans reported at least one miscarriage among their partners after the PGW. Overall, 4.2% of fathers reported at least one child with a birth defect conceived after the mission. No PGW-related exposure was associated with any birth defect in children fathered after the PGW mission. Concerning the reported health of children born after the PGW, 1.0% of children presented a pre-term delivery and 2.7% a birth defect. The main birth defects reported were musculoskeletal malformations (0.5% and urinary system malformations (0.3%. Birth defect incidence in PGWV children conceived after the mission was similar to birth defect incidence described by the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations, except for Down syndrome (PGWV children incidence was lower than Registry incidence. Conclusion This study did not highlight a high frequency of fertility disorders or miscarriage among French PGW veterans. We found no evidence for a link between paternal exposure during the Gulf War and increased risk of birth defects among French PGWV children.

  20. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  1. Using teaching case studies for management research

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, Veronique; Bowman, Cliff; Collier, Nardine

    2010-01-01

    Teaching case studies are widely deployed in business schools. They are contextually rich in detail, and students learn by applying and adapting theoretical concepts to specific business situations described in the case. This article proposes a new way to use teaching case studies, as research materials for academics. The article addresses three questions: (1) Can teaching cases be used as an alternative to field research? (2) When can teaching case studies be used as second...

  2. Severe war trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder in adolescents with sensory impairments: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuzama Hijal Shaar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A paucity of studies of the psychological status of adolescents with sensory impairments in political conflict areas is noted. This study was set up to examine the exposure of adolescents with sensory impairments (ASIs to severe war trauma and development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD as compared to their able-bodied peers (ABPs. It also answers the question whether their impairments have made them more resilient in facing traumatic events. A cross-sectional study of all ASIs attending special schools in three administrative districts in Lebanon (n=166 as well as a group of 166 age and sex-matched ABPs from neighboring schools was conducted. The Post Traumatic Stress Reaction Checklist for children (PTSRC was used to assess exposure to severe trauma, PTSD and their determinants. ASIs reported a lower exposure to severe traumatic events (24.1% as compared to their ABPs (69.9%, and risk factors for their exposure were an older age group, a fatherless family, and severe visual impairment. Prevalence rates for PTSD were similar in the two study groups (17.5% and 16.4%. Younger ASIs were at a significantly higher risk of developing PTSD. Lower exposure to trauma among ASIs points to the more sheltered life that they lead. Given the same exposure as ABPs, similar rates of PTSD are noted among the two study groups. This may indicate that having a sensory impairment may protect from PTSD due to decreased exposure to severe trauma and not due to increased resilience of subjects.

  3. Value of case studies in disaster assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.

  4. New York City Schools March Off to War: The Nature and Extent of Participation of the City Schools in the Great War, April 1917-June 1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Stephan F.

    1990-01-01

    Uses New York City schools as a case study in the translation of national policy into local action during World War I. Examines how the Board of Education initiated the intertwined tasks of stimulating patriotism and promoting Americanization. Discusses how schools were used as channels of communication to all Americans. (JS)

  5. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, Rene L; Hart, John A; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Grossmann, Falk; Klinkenberg, Brian; Dino, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.

  6. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene L Beyers

    Full Text Available Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.

  7. The Study of China in Poland after World War II: Toward the "New Sinology"?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna Rudakowska

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how an understanding of sinology as a discipline evolved among Polish specialists on China against the background of the epistemological debates on the study of China in the Western world...

  8. Biological and Archaeological Analysis of Deepwater Shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico: Studying the Artificial Reef Effect of Six World War II Shipwrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, R. A.; Irion, J. B.; Schroeder, W. W.; Warren, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    In the summer of 2004 researchers from across the United States and Canada partnered together to investigate biological and archaeological questions relating to six World War II era shipwrecks discovered in the Gulf of Mexico. The science team included microbiologists, marine vertebrate and invertebrate zoologists, a molecular biologist, an oceanographer, marine archaeologists, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) technicians, and a professional marine survey crew. The United States Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, and the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration sponsored this multidisciplinary project under the auspices of the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. The organizational involvement included six universities, two non-profit organizations, three commercial companies, and three U. S. federal agencies. The depth of the shipwrecks ranged from 87 to 1,964 meters. All six shipwrecks were war casualties, found during the past two decades on oil and gas surveys. These wrecks serve as artificial reefs sunk on well- documented dates, thereby offering biologists a unique opportunity to study the "artificial reef effect" of man- made structures in deep water. Taken together, these sites are an underwater battlefield, and a vital historical resource documenting a little-studied area in a crucial period of world history. They preserve information vital to scholarly and popular understanding of the war's impact in the Gulf of Mexico, on the American home front, and the global conflict. This paper will discuss the field methodology and touch on many of the scientific and technical aspects, and findings of the project.

  9. Catalog of NASA-Related Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OCKO has developed over 50 case studies to enhance learning at workshops, training, retreats and conferences. Case studies make mission knowledge attractive and...

  10. A Study in Leadership: The 761st Tank Battalion and the 92d Division in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-02

    Mifflin Co., 1972. Buchanan, A. Russell. Black Americans in World War II. Santa Barbara, CA: Clio Press, 1977 Cartwright , Dorwin and Alvin Zander. Group...Army, FM 22-100 Leadership (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 1990), 9. 2Dorwin Cartwright and Alvin Zander, Group Dynamics: Research and Theory

  11. A Comparative Study of the Current Situation on Teaching about World War II in Japanese and American Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, James L.

    1992-01-01

    Compares questionnaire results sent to elementary and secondary school teachers in Indiana and Japan. Surveys how and what is taught about World War II. Reports teachers in the United States concentrate more on Europe, Pearl Harbor, and fascism, whereas Japanese teachers are more concerned with Pacific theater. Concludes Japanese teach peace…

  12. War Within Man: A Psychological Enquiry Into The Roots of Destructiveness. A Study and Commentary in the Beyond Deterrence Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Erich

    The major portion of the essay explores the psychological aspects of war within man and is followed by six different commentaries on Dr. Fromm's work. Divided into three parts, the essay first examines the nature of man to determine the goodness vs. evilness of man. Two basic personality types are identified: The necrophile, a destruction,…

  13. The Effect of the 2008 War on Estonian Public Confidence in International Organisations: A Mixed Methods Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Jeroen; Melchior, Inge; Gugushvili, Alexi

    2014-01-01

    When the so-called 5 Day War between Russia and Georgia occurred in the summer of 2008, the Estonian public reaction was especially passionate. Two major explanations stem from the strong identification of Estonians with the situation of Georgia (post-Soviet state, small country, Russian citizens/sp

  14. How many mailouts? Could attempts to increase the response rate in the Iraq war cohort study be counterproductive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona Roberto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low response and reporting errors are major concerns for survey epidemiologists. However, while nonresponse is commonly investigated, the effects of misclassification are often ignored, possibly because they are hard to quantify. We investigate both sources of bias in a recent study of the effects of deployment to the 2003 Iraq war on the health of UK military personnel, and attempt to determine whether improving response rates by multiple mailouts was associated with increased misclassification error and hence increased bias in the results. Methods Data for 17,162 UK military personnel were used to determine factors related to response and inverse probability weights were used to assess nonresponse bias. The percentages of inconsistent and missing answers to health questions from the 10,234 responders were used as measures of misclassification in a simulation of the 'true' relative risks that would have been observed if misclassification had not been present. Simulated and observed relative risks of multiple physical symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD were compared across response waves (number of contact attempts. Results Age, rank, gender, ethnic group, enlistment type (regular/reservist and contact address (military or civilian, but not fitness, were significantly related to response. Weighting for nonresponse had little effect on the relative risks. Of the respondents, 88% had responded by wave 2. Missing answers (total 3% increased significantly (p Conclusion Bias due to nonresponse appears to be small in this study, and increasing the response rates had little effect on the results. Although misclassification is difficult to assess, the results suggest that bias due to reporting errors could be greater than bias caused by nonresponse. Resources might be better spent on improving and validating the data, rather than on increasing the response rate.

  15. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  16. War trauma and torture experiences reported during public health screening of newly resettled Karen refugees: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Tonya L; Shannon, Patricia J; Vinson, Gregory A; Letts, James P; Dwee, Ehtaw

    2015-04-08

    Karen refugees have suffered traumatic experiences that affect their physical and mental health in resettlement. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends assessing traumatic histories and mental health symptoms during initial public health screening. This article reports the traumatic experiences that Karen refugees were able to describe during a short screening and contributes knowledge to existing human rights documentation systems. Four semi-structured and open-ended items asked about lifetime experiences of war trauma and torture. Interviews were completed with adult, Karen refugees during their initial public health screening. Experiences of war trauma and torture were coded using the extensive Human Rights Information and Documentation (HURIDOCS) Micro-thesauri coding system. Additional codes were created to describe experiences not captured by existing codes. Over 85% of 179 Karen people interviewed experienced life-threatening war trauma. All participants who reported war trauma or torture stories were able to describe at least one event. New war trauma codes proposed include: widespread community fear, systematic destruction/burning of house or village, exposure to dead bodies, orphaned in the context of war, injury caused by a landmine, fear of Thai police or deportation from Thailand, and harm or killings in the context of war. New torture codes include: forced portering; forced to be a human landmine sweep; forced to be a soldier, including child soldier; forced contact with a dead body; and removal of the eyes. Karen refugees were able to report traumatic experiences in the context of a brief health screening. The findings confirm existing reports of human rights violations against Karen people and suggest that additional codes be added to the HURIDOCS Micro-thesauri system that is used by torture treatment centers. Understanding the nature of traumatic experiences of this group is important for health providers working

  17. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Piergiorgio; Centro, Sandro; Golfetto, Stelvio; Saccà, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV), once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  18. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV, once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  19. Summary of case studies for cooperation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longa, Francesco Dalla; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade

    2012-01-01

    This document is a summary report highlighting the main aspect analyzed in the RES4LESS case studies. The document starts with an introductory chapter where the background that led to the selection of the case studies is outlined. In the following three chapters the case studies are presented, hi...

  20. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  1. Case Study Evaluations: A Decade of Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    In the last 10 years, there has been increased use of case study methodology, with accompanying refinement and improvement of the methods. Case studies have become legitimate research methods in evaluation, but it is too soon to say whether improvements in methodology are really resulting in improvements in the case studies conducted. (SLD)

  2. Writing case studies in information systems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Blonk, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Case study research can be reported in different ways. This paper explores the various ways in which researchers may choose to write down their case studies and then introduces a subsequent typology of writing case studies. The typology is based on a 2 x 2 matrix, resulting in four forms of writing

  3. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  4. Case Study Evaluations: A Decade of Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    In the last 10 years, there has been increased use of case study methodology, with accompanying refinement and improvement of the methods. Case studies have become legitimate research methods in evaluation, but it is too soon to say whether improvements in methodology are really resulting in improvements in the case studies conducted. (SLD)

  5. The great war and the cinema The great war and the cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burns

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aside from documentary films of the First World War, fiction films may be categorized as period films, cinematic aptations of classic war novels, and, much the greatest in number, fiction films made after the war. The period films are useful for their clues to public attitudes during or in the decades immediately after the conflict. For example, silent films made during the war, like D.W. Griffith’s Hearts of the World (1918, which used actual footage, were propaganda evidently intended to induce the United States to progress from economic assistance to active military participation on the side of the Allies. The story of the young man, Ben Herron, going off to war would become typical in fiction films made thereafter, since such stories have elements that a mass audience, many of whom had fathers, sons, husbands, brothers, etc. in the military, can actually identify with. As propaganda, such movies—and this would be the case with the Second World War even more—may serve an important political end, by arguably having a much greater influence on public consciousness than official government propaganda, which usually arouses more suspicion. In fact, the US government during both world wars would make a direct appeal to Hollywood producers. Aside from documentary films of the First World War, fiction films may be categorized as period films, cinematic aptations of classic war novels, and, much the greatest in number, fiction films made after the war. The period films are useful for their clues to public attitudes during or in the decades immediately after the conflict. For example, silent films made during the war, like D.W. Griffith’s Hearts of the World (1918, which used actual footage, were propaganda evidently intended to induce the United States to progress from economic assistance to active military participation on the side of the Allies. The story of the young man, Ben Herron, going off to war would become typical in fiction films

  6. Yale University's Institute of Human Relations and the Spanish Civil War: Dollard and Miller's study of fear and courage under battle conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondra, José María; Sánchez de Miguel, Manuel

    2009-11-01

    In the late 1930s, the Institute of Human Relations of Yale University developed a research program on conflict and anxiety as an outcome of Clark Hull's informal seminar on the integration of Freud's and Pavlov's theories. The program was launched at the 1937 Annual Meeting of the APA in a session chaired by Clark L. Hull, and the experiments continued through 1941, when the United States entered the Second World War. In an effort to apply the findings from animal experiments to the war situation, John Dollard and Neal E. Miller decided to study soldiers' fear reactions in combat. As a first step, they arranged interviews with a few veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Taking these interviews as a point of departure, Dollard devised a questionnaire to which 300 former Lincoln brigaders responded. The present paper analyzes the main outcomes of the questionnaire, together with the war experiences reported in the interview transcripts. Our purpose was to evaluate a project which was initially investigated by the FBI because of the communists among the Lincoln ranks, but eventually supported by the American Army, and which exerted great influence on the military psychology of the time.

  7. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    -international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil......This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  8. Making a case for case studies in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward; Iwakabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    articulated explicitly or researched systematically in spite of its cardinal importance. An analysis of the role of case studies in psychotherapy training is presented. Reading, watching, or hearing about cases can offer novice psychotherapists access to a closed world; access to psychological theory...

  9. Demystifying Instructional Innovation: The Case of Teaching with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Lina D.

    2013-01-01

    Issues emerging from instructional innovation are inevitable, yet basing any curriculum shift on a theoretical framework is paramount. This paper grounds the case-based pedagogy in three learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. The three theories are described and situated in relation to the case study method. An…

  10. Pearl Harbor--A Study in the Application of the Principles of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    University Press, 1962. Articles and Periodicals 9. Barnhart, Michael A. "Planning the Pearl Harbor Attack: A Study in Military Politics," Aerospace Historian...15. Taussig , Joseph K. Jr. "I Remember Pearl Harbor." United States Naval Institute Proceedings, Vol. 98, No. 12 (December 1972): pp. 18-24. 16. "The

  11. Why Digital Memory Studies Should Not Overlook Eastern Europe's Memory Wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.; Blacker, U.; Etkind, A.; Fedor, J.

    2013-01-01

    n the last decades of the twentieth century, the humanities and social sciences in Western Europe and North America experienced a 'memory boom' that gave rise to new research agendas and provoked interdisciplinary exchange. Less known are the ways in which academic practices of Memory Studies have

  12. [The first anthropological study of the victims of World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, D; Galassi, A; Poppa, P; Cattaneo, C

    2009-01-01

    In Italy many hundreds of victims of both armies who fought WWI still attend to be recovered and, if possible, identified and given back to their relatives. This study has as its objective to carry out a correct recovery, anthropological analysis and possible identification of these soldiers. Our plan has been elaborated so that it may involve various experts of different disciplines (archeologists, historians, antropologists, but also genetists and entomologists). So far, in this research project, 35 recovered skeletons have been studied. Thus the biological profile was defined (sex, age, stature and ancestry) then pathologies as well as trauma. The first results show the presence of adult men but also of adolescents. The subjects show diseases of a degenerative type (arthrosis, reumatoide arthritis), as well as perimortal lesions linked to blunt trauma, explosions, or due bullet wounds.

  13. Red Cloud’s War: An Insurgency Case Study for Modern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    Indian ponies who subsisted solely on native grass had a distinct advantage in a supply limited situation. Nonetheless, the around the clock raids...their most able braves on their best ponies .92 Two weeks later, the Indians made another probing attack using similar tactics.93 This skirmish on

  14. Savage Wars of Peace: Case Studies of Pacification in the Philippines, 1900-1902

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    appointed Mariano Trias, a Tagalog, to command Filipino forces in southern Luzon and Antonio Luna , an Ilocano, as Chief of Operations for the Army of...its limited firearms, its defective ammunition, its inability to maneuver, nor its ill-discipline. Luna attempted to bring discipline and...Cabanatuan Malolos N Scale 0 50 miles CAGAYAN ILOCOS SUR ABRA ISABELA LEPANTO NUEVA VIZCAYA IN FA N TA BATANGAS LA UN IO N TAYABAS Bontoc Lipa Tayabas ILOCOS

  15. Eliminating War By Eliminating Warriors: A Case Study in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    hospitals , and immigrant flow, all of which was under the control of Keith’s firms.44 A strong national armed service would...such a cash cow in shipping, Costa Rica has managed to diversify its economy from commodities into tourism and most recently into personal computing

  16. Iranian Operational Decision Making: Case Studies from the Iran-Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    intentions, they began a disinformation campaign, feeding false intelligence to the Iraqi high command through double agents.90 Because of these measures...planned a very large disinformation operation in which the Americans, the Soviets, and the Iraqis were deceived. This operation...featured the use of decoys, feints, and a disinformation campaign that success- fully fooled not only the Iraqis, but also their American allies

  17. Nationalism, Mass Politics, and Sport: Cold War Case Studies at Seven Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    sedentary lifestyle that provided them time to innovate, set the stage for technological advancement.42 Larger and larger societal groups of people...were all heavily valued by the ancient Greeks. One did not achieve these attributes from a sedentary lifestyle pining over parchment filled with...movement had its origins in Britain) and the stopwatch represented pressure on athletes to compete against each other instead of together in an effort

  18. Joint Task Force-Bravo: A Case Study in Military Operations Other Than War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    border. Although two Honduran leaders, General Gustavo Alvarez and the Provisional President, General Oswaldo Lopez Arellano had approved the plan...president in a peaceable manner.18 Carlos Flores Facusse won the presidential election in December 1997, "defeating Nora Gunera de Melgar, widow of a

  19. Background: GIS Applications and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    01, CCTP; Albert, Don

    1998-01-01

    This unit presents (1) a case study and (2) a bibliographic resource for GIS in the medical field. The case study illustrates the use of a GIS to monitor and analyze spatial patterns of physicians' multiple locations. This case highlights data location, acquisition and assessment, join and relational operators, geocoding and distance calculations, and standard query language.

  20. Neuropsychological Functioning in Gulf War Veterans Exposed to Pesticides and Pyridostigmine Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    PhD; and E.J. Kasarskis, MD, PhD (2003). Occurrence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among Gulf War veterans. Neurology, 61:742–749. 14. Kaplan...removed, one case of a non-malignant meningioma removed with complete recovery, one case of multiple sclerosis (MS) and two cases of mini-stroke or...The NES tasks have reliable psychometric properties and demonstrated validity in epidemiological and laboratory studies of exposure to a wide

  1. L’identité nationale canadienne au travers des affiches de propagande des Première et Seconde Guerres mondiales Canadian National Identity through the Prism of First and Second World War Propaganda Posters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jean Quellien; Andrew Ives

    2009-01-01

    ... the citizen’s sense of patriotic duty. In the case of Canada, the propaganda posters produced during the two world wars allow us to study the creation process for this common register of symbols...

  2. Professors of War. The Naval War College and the Development of the Naval Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Ronald

    A study is presented of the role of the Naval War College in the professionalization of the U.S. Navy and the effects of that process upon the shaping of naval policy from the founding of the College in 1884 to its temporary discontinuance in 1917 during World War 1. A summary biography is given of Stephen Bleeker Luce, leading advocate and first…

  3. Five misunderstandings about case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...... and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of more...

  4. [Historical review on chemical and medical studies of globefish toxin before World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, M

    1994-01-01

    "Fugu," a species of globefish has eaten by Japanese people for a long time, so globefish poisoning in Japan has been prevalent. Figures are shown in the Annual Food Poisoning Report collected and issued by health service authorities of Japanese Government since 1879. These reports prompted Dr. Yoshizumi Tahara, National Institute of Hygienic Sciences to conduct a chemical investigation of the toxic substance of globefish in 1884. However, the analysis was very difficult and his report of investigation was delayed. Before publication of the report of Dr. Tahara, pharmacological and toxicological studies of globefish poisoning were reported by three research groups from the Facultly of Medicine, University of Tokyo in 1889. These reports concluded that globefish poison has curare-like activity and its distribution was limited to specific organs such as the ovaries and the liver. Dr. Tahara successfully isolated the poison from aqueaous extract of ovaries of globefish by precipitation with lead acetate in the presence of ammonia. He presented the results at the monthly meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan in July 1894. He continued the studies and established an improved method for extraction and purification suitable for large-scale production. Finally, he confirmed that globefish contains only one toxic substance and named it Tetrodotoxin (TTX) in 1909. He elucidated the chemical nature of TTX as follows: 1) TTX is an amorphous hygroscopic powder and its character is neither alkaloid nor protein. 2) The possibility of TTX being a protamine was excluded by chemical analysis. Before the discovery ot TTX, according to folklore, globefish was regarded as medicine for leprosy because flesh of globefish contaminated with a sublethal dose of toxic substance alleviated the neuralgia of patients affected with leprosy. The clinical effect of TTX prepared by Tahara's method to suppress severe neuralgia due to leprosy and to reduce muscle spasms due to tetanus were

  5. CHANGES IN THE SECURITY AGENDA: CRITICAL SECURITY STUDIES AND HUMAN SECURITY. THE CASE OF CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen THI THUY HANG

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War the meaning of security has fundamentally changed. Issues which are labeled as non-traditional security namely human development, economic crises, environmental degradation, natural disaster, poverty, epidemics… have become a crucial part of the security agenda. These changes have been intensified with the development of the two approaches: Critical Security Studies and Human Security. This article explores how the meaning of security has changed and how the boundaries between traditional and non-traditional security have become blurred. The case of China is taken as empirical evidence to support the assertion that security has evolved beyond its traditional focus on the state.

  6. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  7. People's Palaces: Architecture, culture and democracy in two European post-war cultural centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grafe, C.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation of the relationship between cultural politics and architecture in the context of the welfare state in post-war Western Europe. The book focusses on two case studies, the London South Bank and the Stockholm Kulturhus, and examines the discourses informing their institu

  8. The survival of 19th-century scientific optimism: the public discourse on science in Belgium in the aftermath of the Great War (ca. 1919-1930).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    In historiography there is a tendency to see the Great War as marking the end of scientific optimism and the period that followed the war as a time of discord. Connecting to current (inter)national historiographical debate on the question of whether the First World War meant a disruption from the pre-war period or not, this article strives to prove that faith in scientific progress still prevailed in the 1920s. This is shown through the use of Belgium as a case study, which suggests that the generally adopted cultural pessimism in the post-war years did not apply to the public rhetoric of science in this country. Diverse actors -- scientists, industrialists, politicians, the public opinion, and the military staff -- declared a confidence in science, enhanced by wartime results. Furthermore, belief in science in Belgium was not affected by public outcry over the use of mustard gas, unlike in the former belligerent countries where the gas became an unpleasant reminder of how science was used during the war. Even German science with its industrial applications remained the norm after 1918. In fact, the faith in science exhibited during the pre-war years continued to exist, at least until the 1920s, despite anti-German sentiments being voiced by many sections of Belgian society in the immediate aftermath of the war.

  9. The Top Three Valor Awards and the United States Marine Corps: A Study from World War I to Present Day Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    feat was achieved for actions in the Banana Wars in Central America, in World War II (WWII) and in the Korean War. To receive the Navy Cross the... shelling , had more casualties due to explosives such as artillery, land mines, and grenades than to small-arms fire according to the Office of the

  10. War and Comics (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Comics played a very important role in the total mobilization in Italy. Firstly in the cities and then in the trenches, they were a new propaganda tool and explanation of the war for children and soldiers with low literacy. At the same time, the war changed the history of comics and the magazine market for children and youth

  11. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  12. In Time of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  13. The Kawousan War reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimba, I.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    The Kawousan War (1916-1920) was one of the longest periods of resistance known in Niger and through it the local people - Tuareg, Hausa and others - fought to free their society from French colonial domination. Unlike other interpretations, this chapter looks at the structural causes of the war rel

  14. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  15. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  16. A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam. Volume VI. Conduct of the War. Book I. Operational Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-09

    Starlite ), the Mpirines first sealed off the peninsula and then attacked to clear it. After a tough two-day fight with a well-intrenched and concealed...amphibious operations was Operation Starlite , in which a landing on the beach of Van Tuong Peninsula was coordinated with a helicopter borne assault and...old Starlite battlefield. Bold Mariner was the largest Special Landing Force effort of the war. The operation was joined by the Americal Division in

  17. Trench foot--a study in military-medical responsiveness in the Great War, 1914-1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, J S

    1990-06-01

    Along the nearly 15,000 miles of trenches on the western front in the Great War of 1914-1918, a condition known as "trench foot" caused serious attrition among the fighting troops and resulted in swollen limbs, impaired sensory nerves, inflammation, and even loss of tissue through gangrene. Physicians, sanitarians, and military officers explored numerous theories regarding etiology and treatment before focusing on a combined regimen of common-sense hygiene and strict military discipline.

  18. A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam. Volume 4. US Domestic Factors Influencing Vietnam War Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    1376. Keogh, James, President Nixon and the Press, New York: Funk and Wagnalls ,•I ~1972. " - Kertesz, Stephen D. and Fitzsimorns, M. A., What America...approximately 25,000 in 1943 to over 135,000 in 1944 to over 280,000 in 1945. Statistics from Encyclopedia , World Books (Chicago: Encyclopedia ...early 1960s the old power elite which had dominated the United States during and after World War II was being challenged by a new elite that was

  19. History at the intersection of disability and public health: the case of John Galsworthy and disabled soldiers of the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    The author presented an earlier version of this historical article to the Disability Section of the American Public Health Association (November 2009). It is part of his ongoing research in the social and cultural history of medicine as the field intersects with the history of disability, veterans, and public health, as well as current issues that touch all of these areas. This article introduces readers to perspectives on disability held by the British novelist John Galsworthy (1867-1933), which he developed primarily through his philanthropic support for and his compositions about rehabilitation programs for British and American soldiers disabled in the First World War (1914-1918). Readers will learn that Galsworthy's perspectives are as much about his identity as an individual with disabilities as they are about men disabled in the "war to end all wars." The rediscovery of Galsworthy's experiences and words more than 90 years after the end of World War I reveals how history is present today at the intersection of disability and public health. Indeed, the story of Galsworthy ultimately seeking to forget his own experiences during the "Great War," as well as the very physical and psychological disability caused by that conflict, can inspire public health professionals and disability rights advocates today to remember-indeed, to advocate for-men and women who served in battle and have returned home to realize renewed health and social participation despite permanent physical and psychological wounds. Readers will note that language used throughout this article to describe disability is period-specific and therefore not keeping with current conventions.

  20. Roadmaster Roading Contractors Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Taylor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems analysis students seldom experience the practical difficulties of the initial investigation into a client’s requirements. They get little chance to practice the skills they need to investigate complex and confused problem situations, or to appreciate the wider organizational issues that can impact on a situation. This teaching case is designed to give students the opportunity to practice and apply investigation skills and to challenge them to consider the wider work environment when considering possible solutions to a problem situation. The case is conducted as a role-play, with students acting as systems analysts and teaching staff role-playing the clients. The students develop a report analyzing the client’s situation based on the issues that arise during the interviews. Feed-back sessions focus on discussing how well the students applied various interviewing strategies previously covered in lectures, and on the wider organizational problems that could impact proposed information system solutions.

  1. Perceptions about civil war in Central Africa: Can war be justified or solve problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitambala Lumbu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Civil war and ethnic violence are major problems in Central Africa and have caused the death and displacement of millions of people over the years. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of religious leaders, lecturers and students in theology at various tertiary institutions in Central Africa with regard to civil war in the region. A structured questionnaire was used to investigate participants� perceptions about and attitudes towards civil war. The questionnaire was completed by 1 364 participants who originated or lived in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC and Rwanda. The results of the study illustrated the severe effect that civil wars had on the participants or their families and further indicated that Rwandans, Tutsis and males were more inclined toward justifying wars and seeing them as solutions for problems. The role of the Church in countering these perceptions is discussed.

  2. Globalising Resistance against War? A Critical Analysis of a Theoretical Debate in the Context of the British Anti-War Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Seppälä

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The political revival of the anti-war movement after 9/11 launched a controversial debate on global resistance against war. Liberal cosmopolitans characterise the movement as a consensual force of opposition against war in the form of global civil society acting on thebasis of ‘universal’ values. Radical poststructuralists consider it a preliminary example of the Multitude, waging ‘a war against war’ as a global body of opposition. For statecentrics, these views are utopian in referring to global struggles and political subjects that do not yet exist, and alarming because global resistance escapes power in the ‘postpolitical’ struggle. Here, the theoretical debate is critically analysed from the perspective of ‘critical theory in political practice’. Through an empirical case study of four organisations within the new anti-war movement in Britain, it is demonstrated that these theories’ connection to practice is inadequate, and in many ways problematic due to theirtendency to resort to a dualistic ‘either-or’ logic. The paper introduces a ‘both-and’ approach that not only reflects more accurately the way in which the relationship between global and local is conceived within the movement but also provides a more comprehensive perspective for conceptualising power in the context of social movements generally.

  3. Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2011-01-01

    Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…

  4. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Charnallet; Carbonnel, S.; David, D; Moreaud, O

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory [4].

  5. Associative visual agnosia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnallet, A; Carbonnel, S; David, D; Moreaud, O

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study, an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory.

  6. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Charnallet; S. Carbonnel; David, D.; Moreaud, O.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory [4].

  7. Wars in the history of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Some important discoveries in the history of rheumatology happened during war periods. It is well known that arthritis associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis, following dysenteric episodes, has been described during the First World War from the German Hans Reiter and, nearly contemporarily, from the French Nöel Fiessinger and Edgar Leroy. Less known is instead the fact that the first cases of sympathetic algoneurodystrophy have been reported by the American Silas Weir Mitchell in soldiers wounded by fire-arms, during the Civil War of Secession. Other war episodes have been crucial for the development of some drugs now abundantly applied to the care of rheumatic diseases. The discovery of therapeutic effects of immunosuppressive agents, in fact, happened as an indirect consequence of the use of poison gas, already during the First World War (mustard gas, but above all after an episode in the port of Bari in 1943, where an American cargo boat was sunk. It had been loaded with a quantity of cylinders containing a nitrogenous mustard, whose diffusion in the environment provoked more than 80 deaths owing to bone marrow aplasia.Moreover, the history of the cortisone shows a strict link to the Second World War, when Germany imported large quantities of bovine adrenal glands from Argentina, with the purpose of producing some gland extracts for the Luftwasse aviators, in order to increase their performance ability.

  8. Kepler's "War on Mars"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

  9. Liverpool Telecare Pilot: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Barnes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Telecare services use information and communications technology (ICT to support the provision of care to people in their own homes. This paper describes a pilot telecare service employed by Liverpool (UK City Council to support a sample of their frail and elderly social services users. The pilot has been running for over two years and has been deployed for 21 individuals in Liverpool. In this paper we present the pilot system and provide real example cases which help to illustrate the benefits of such a system.

  10. Bodily symptoms in patients with post traumatic stress disorder: A comparative study of traumatized refugees, Danish war veterans, and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth; Nyboe, Lene; Gyllensten, Amanda Lundvik

    2017-01-01

    Background: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased general health symptoms and patients suffer from numerous bodily complaints such as increased pain, increased muscular tension, and restricted breathing. Methods and material: This study applied the Body Awareness...... Movement Quality and Experience scale (BAS MQ-E) in assessing and comparing bodily symptoms, including movement function, in traumatized refugees (N Z 14) and Danish war veterans with PTSD (N Z 19) and healthy controls (N Z 20). Results: Patients with PTSD had significantly poorer stability, balance...

  11. Civil War, Revolutionary Heritage, and the Chinese Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobie Meyer-Fong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese garden now symbolizes timeless national, cultural, and aesthetic values. But as real property in the past, gardens inevitably were subject to the vicissitudes of their times. This article focuses on gardens and the Taiping Civil War (1851–1864. During the war, many gardens were reduced to tile shards and ash. Surviving gardens functioned as objects of longing and nostalgia, sites of refuge (physical and emotional, or a means to display status under the new regime. In the postwar period, gardens served as status symbols, places to commemorate loss or celebrate restoration, and venues for renewed sociability. This article uses a series of case studies to explore the multiple meanings associated with gardens, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, and the Qing dynasty—in the past and today.

  12. Modern Air&Space Power and political goals at war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Güngör.

    2014-05-01

    Modern AirandSpace Power is increasingly becoming a political tool. In this article, AirandSpacePower as a political tool will be discussed. The primary purpose of this article is to search how AirandSpacePower can provide contributions to security and also determine if it may reach the political goals on its own at war by SWOT Analysis Method and analysing the role of AirandSpace Power in Operation Unified Protector (Libya) as a case study. In conclusion, AirandSpacePower may not be sufficient to win the political goals on its own. However it may reach the political aims partially against the adversary on its own depending upon the situations. Moreover it can alone persuade the adversary to alter its behavior(s) in war.

  13. Impacts of Geoengineering and Nuclear War on Chinese Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops under different climate scenarios. Here we consider two situations: stratospheric sulfate geoengineering and nuclear war. Although we certainly do not advocate either scenario, we cannot exclude the possibilities: if global warming is getting worse, we might have to deliberately manipulate global temperature; if nuclear weapons still exist, we might face a nuclear war catastrophe. Since in both scenarios there would be reductions of temperature, precipitation, and insolation, which are three controlling factors on crop growth, it is important to study food supply changes under the two cases. We conducted our simulations for China, because it has the highest population and crop production in the world and it is under the strong influence of the summer monsoon, which would be altered in geoengineering and nuclear war scenarios. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering and nuclear war on Chinese agriculture, we use the DSSAT crop model. We first evaluate the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for all the provinces in China, and compare the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (middle season rice, winter wheat, and maize). Then we perturbed observed weather data using climate anomalies for geoengineering and nuclear war simulations using NASA GISS ModelE. For stratospheric geoengineering, we consider the injection of 5 Tg SO2 per year into the tropical lower stratosphere. For the nuclear war scenario, we consider the effects of 5 Tg of soot that could be injected into the upper troposphere by a war between India and Pakistan using only 100 Hiroshima-size atomic bombs dropped on cities. We perturbed each year of the 31-year climate record with anomalies from each year of

  14. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  15. Myths of the Great War

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We review some "myths" of the Great War of 1914 to 1918: that the war broke out inadvertently, that the western front saw needless slaughter, that the Allies used the food weapon to strangle Germany, and that the peace treaty that ended the war caused the rise of Hitler and the still greater war that followed.\\ud

  16. Somatic hypotheses of war syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Vries, M. de; Bergen, L.F.J.M. van; Galama, J.M.D.; Keyser, A.J.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of the American Civil War, unexplained symptoms in military personnel arising after a war or peace mission have frequently been described. The pattern of symptoms is highly similar for all of the various war syndromes although the conditions of each war or peace mission are widely diff

  17. WHY NATIONS GO TO WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Vrey

    The narratives commence with World War I and conclude with the wars in .... The section on the war in Vietnam depicts how five consecutive American .... as his thesis that leaders should exploit all opportunities to avoid war as it is people,.

  18. Fighting for Social Democracy: R.H. Tawney and Educational Reconstruction in the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hsiao-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    R.H. Tawney (1880-1962), a leading English economic historian and prominent socialist, was vigorously involved in educational reconstruction during the Second World War. For Tawney, the war was a war for social democracy. His ideals of social democracy formed a basis for his case for Public (independent) School reform and free secondary education…

  19. Fighting for Social Democracy: R.H. Tawney and Educational Reconstruction in the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hsiao-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    R.H. Tawney (1880-1962), a leading English economic historian and prominent socialist, was vigorously involved in educational reconstruction during the Second World War. For Tawney, the war was a war for social democracy. His ideals of social democracy formed a basis for his case for Public (independent) School reform and free secondary education…

  20. Narrative exposure therapy for immigrant children traumatized by war: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of effectiveness and mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaslampi, Samuli; Garoff, Ferdinand; Peltonen, Kirsi

    2015-06-17

    Millions of children worldwide suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and other mental health problems due to repeated exposure to war or organized violence. Forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are the most commonly used treatment for PTSD and appear to be effective for children as well, but little is known about the mechanisms of change through which they achieve their effectiveness. Here we present the study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) studying the effectiveness and mechanisms of change of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET), a CBT-based, manualized, short-term intervention for PTSD symptoms resulting from repeated traumatization, in immigrant children traumatized by war. We are conducting a multicentre, pragmatic RCT in a usual care setting. Up to 80 9-17-year-old immigrant children who have experienced war and suffer from PTSD symptoms will be randomized into intervention (NET) and control (treatment as usual, TAU) groups of equal sizes. The effectiveness of NET treatment will be compared to both a waiting list and the parallel TAU positive control group, on the primary outcomes of PTSD and depressive symptoms, psychological distress, resilience, and level of cognitive performance. The effects of the intervention on traumatic memories and posttraumatic cognitions will be studied as potential mechanisms of change mediating overall treatment effectiveness. The possible moderating effects of peritraumatic dissociation, level of cognitive performance, and gender on treatment effectiveness will also be considered. We hypothesize that NET will be more effective than a waitlist condition or TAU in reducing PTSD and other symptoms and improving resilience, and that these effects will be mediated by changes in traumatic memories and posttraumatic cognitions. The results of this trial will provide evidence for the effectiveness of NET in treating trauma-related symptoms in immigrant children affected by war. The trial will also

  1. Case studies in conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisulca, Christina

    The research presented in this dissertation covers three separate topics of conservation as defined by the National Science Foundation: 1) Materials Stabilization, Strengthening, Monitoring, and Repair; 2. Understanding Material Degradation and Aging; and 3) Materials and Structural Characterization of Cultural Heritage Objects (the 'technical study'). The first topic is addressed through a study to assess the consolidant tetraethoxysilane for the stabilization of alum treated wood. Falling under materials degradation studies is a study published in American Museum Novitates to understand how environmental conditions affect the aging of fossil resins from five different deposits. Two separate studies are included in technical study of cultural heritage objects which comprises the third research area of materials characterization. The first is a survey of red dyes used in Chinese paintings from the Ming Dynasty to the Early Republic (1364-1911). The second is a study of the pigments, dyes and binders used in Hawaiian barkcloth (kapa) from the 19th century.

  2. Special Issue: War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This special double issue of NORMA explore the mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities, the forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts and the implications for masculinity research. The issues cover a range of historical and current topics, cases and analyt......This special double issue of NORMA explore the mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities, the forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts and the implications for masculinity research. The issues cover a range of historical and current topics, cases...... and analytical approaches. The contributions fall into the following four themes: violent masculine rituals and how contemporary societies cope with extreme violence against women; popular written and visual fiction about war and masculine rationalities; gender relations in social movements of rebellions...

  3. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  4. War No Longer Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    understanding that industrial ability decides a war…”58 Russell Wrigley , in his famous book “The American Way of War,” argues that America...2003, 82, no.4, 41. 60 Colin S Gray, “The American Way of War: Critique and Implications,” Rethinking the Principles of War,” Anthony D. McIvor...12, 2012). 91 Anthony H. Cordesman, “The New US Defense Strategy and the Priorities and Changes in FY2013 Budget,” Center for Strategic and

  5. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  6. Heterotopic Ossification in Combat Amputees from Afghanistan and Iraq wars: Five Case Histories and Results from a Small Series of Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ossification, Iraq war, physical medicine, prosthesis , radiograph, rehabilitation. INTRODUCTION Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a significant post- injury...mechanism for suspension of the residual limb within the prosthetic socket [16]. The patient continued to use the prosthesis without significant issues...lower right leg and foot . An electromyogram showed poor chance of recovery of motor control or sensation below the right knee. The frac- tures in the

  7. Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0477 TITLE: Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ronald R. Bach, Ph.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0477 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...GWI). Elevated biomarkers of inflammation were observed in our pilot observational study of GWI. Thus, chronic inflammation appears to be part of

  8. Regional case studies--Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  9. Leishmaniasis in dogs: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of leishmaniasis in a 2.5-month-old dog imported from France. The clinical examination established a generally poor state of health, expressed cachexia, atrophy of the temporal musculature, weakness of movement, as well as abnormally long and brittle nails. There was also hyperkeratosis of the nose tip and paws. A histological examination of biopsy sections of the altered skin parts showed inflammatory changes in the area of the dermis, together with infiltration of macrophages and a smaller number of lymphocytes, plasmocytes and neutrophil granulocytes in the area around the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. The determined changes correspond to superficial dermatitis. Edema followed by partial degeneration of connective-tissue fibers is observed in connective tissue. A smaller number of intracellular parasitic forms was established in mononuclear cells. A smaller number of oval amastigotes with round dark red nucleis were observed in sections stained using the Gimza method in the cytoplasm of macrophages located in the dermis, but also extracellularly. It was concluded that the dog was diseased with leishmaniasis on the grounds of the clinical picture and the microscopic findings.

  10. 经济外交与冷战史研究新视野%The Economic Diplomacy and the New Vision of Cold War History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢华

    2011-01-01

    经济外交是认识和理解冷战历史的重要研究角度。经济外交与对外经济战略、对外经济关系、私人企业对外交往活动有着较为明显的联系与区别。对外援助是经济外交最重要的表现形式。美国相关解密外交档案的启示作用,一是帮助澄清了经济外交是美国实现冷战目标的最重要工具之一;二是冷战时期美国对第三世界国家实施的经济援助计划,是其遏制苏联大战略的有机组成部分。%The economic diplomacy is an important angle of vision in the Cold War studies.There are significant connections and differences between economic diplomacy and foreign economic strategy,foreign economic relations,foreign economic activities of the private enterprises.Foreign aid is the most important manifestation of economic diplomacy.The relevant reports of declassified U.S.diplomatic archives give us some important enlightenment.On the part of the USA,the economic diplomacy is one of the most important tools of realizing its Cold War objectives.Moreover,the economic assistance programs the United States implemented during the Cold War aimed at Third World countries,are integral parts of its grand strategy of containing the Soviet Union.

  11. Case studies--ergonomics in projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ruud N

    2012-01-01

    The aim of a series of sessions on Company Case Studies, is to learn from practical experiences, to give feed back to researchers on applicability of theories, methods and techniques, and last but not least, to market ergonomics. In order to learn from case material, reports need to be easy accessible and well structured. System ergonomics provides such a structure. Usually a project is not done twice, i.e. with and without ergonomics. Therefore, it is not possible to make comparisons and determine the impact of ergonomics directly. A different approach is needed. It has been suggested at the IEA2006 World Congress, to compile a database of published case studies, each case to be reported in a fixed report format and critically reviewed to enable generalizing the outcomes. This paper proposes such a format. At the IEA2012 World Congress 40 case studies have been accepted, representing applied ergonomics cases in manufacturing, process industries, aviation and logistic systems.

  12. A Case Study of "Empathetic Teaching Artistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This case study is one of twenty cases derived from Anderson and Risner's international study of teaching artists in dance, and theatre, which investigated participants' (n=172) artistic and academic preparation in dance, and theatre, initial entry into the teaching artist field, rewards, challenges, and obstacles in participants' work, artists'…

  13. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    useful for generating hypotheses, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (d) the case study contains a bias toward verification; and (e) it is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. This article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one...

  14. Case Studies in Middle Management Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lori S.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a series of supervision-related case studies of situations that midlevel managers might face. Individuals enrolled in a midlevel management professional development course recommended the topics selected for this chapter. Drawing upon her experience teaching the course, the author selected four case studies that individuals…

  15. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    Three case studies from Danish science shops within the environmental field are analysed with respect to societal background, interaction between the involved actors and the societal impact of the co-operation. The report is one of the seven national case study reports from the EU...

  16. A Case Study of "Empathetic Teaching Artistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This case study is one of twenty cases derived from Anderson and Risner's international study of teaching artists in dance, and theatre, which investigated participants' (n=172) artistic and academic preparation in dance, and theatre, initial entry into the teaching artist field, rewards, challenges, and obstacles in participants' work, artists'…

  17. Case Studies in L2 Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the use of student-generated case studies in an English-as-a-Second-Language teacher education course, including the context, participants classroom procedures and case studies written, as well as students' responses to their use. (Author/VWL)

  18. From single-case studies to practice-based knowledge: aggregating and synthesizing case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakabe, Shigeru; Gazzola, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    Recent developments in case study methodology reflect a rising interest that clinicians and researchers share in building a clinically useful and empirically sound knowledge base from single-case studies. The present article describes three types of single-case studies (clinical, experimental, systematic) and examines their potential contributions to psychotherapy research. It then lays out three ways in which single-case studies can be aggregated and synthesized to enhance clinical understanding: (a) a case database that allows clinicians to efficiently search for relevant cases, (b) a metasynthesis of single-case studies that integrates common themes across similar cases, and (c) an individual case comparison method in which closely matched cases are compared to identify both therapeutic and hindering processes.

  19. [Ergotamine poisoning: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Szponar, Jarosław; Górska, Agnieszka; Niewiedzioł, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Ergotamine is a well known pharmacological remedy applied in neurology (treatment of vascular headache) and in obstetrics (abortive remedy, uterus atony). But today it is rarely used, because of new safer anti-migraine medicine (triptanes) which cause fewer side effects. According to obstetrical indications ergotamine is applied only in hospital treatment. For that reason, cases of intoxication by this class of drugs are rarely observed. Ergotamine causes constriction of the blood vessels through the blockade of alpha-receptors and stimulation of the serotonin-receptors on the walls of blood vessels both in the central nervous system and in peripheral circulation. Intoxication/overdose symptoms may appear on application of therapeutic dose by sensitive patients, mostly by patients with migraine headache using ergotamine preparation for relief of migraine attacks. In the Regional Centre of Clinical Toxicology, a 21-year-old patient was hospitalized. She took about 20 tablets of Cafergot (complex preparation containing 1mg ergotamine tartare and 100mg caffeine). During her stay on the ward, typical symptoms of severe poisoning were observed: nausea, severe vomiting, dizziness, decreased blood pressure without perceptible pulse, narrowing of the blood vessels in the extremities of the body (peripheral vasoconstriction) - paresthesia, digital cyanosis, refrigeration of legs, angina. Due to taking once of a great dose of the drug by the patient, violent process of intoxication, possibility of dangerous complication and also the unavailability of specific antidotes and lack of efficient methods of extracorporeal elimination of the drug, the patient was intensively controlled and symptomatic treatments according to the law of intensive therapy was applied.

  20. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  1. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M B D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or "Classical psychoanalysis" dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals.

  2. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Roberts, K.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business)

    1992-01-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  3. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, K.H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business

    1992-09-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  4. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  5. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the military contribution to terminate wars on the African strategic landscape is dependent upon a military leadership that is able to interface political ...... leadership. A further obstacle resides in the costs of adjusting military forces.

  6. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  7. How Wars Begin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Stevenson family was having dinner. The family atewithout talking for several minutes, then Tom said, "Daddy,do you know how wars begin? " Mr. Stevenson thought for a moment, then he said, "Yes,I think so.

  8. The Urbanizing of Global Challenges: The Case of Asymmetric War%全球挑战的城市化趋势:以不对称战争为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萨斯基娅·萨森; 孙莉; 黄小兵

    2011-01-01

    The essay is framed by the proposition that cities are the frontier spaces for much of what is usually referred to as global governance challenges. It uses the case of asymmetric war to explore the contradictious that arise from this urbanizing - most significantly,the limits of superior military power when war moves to cities and the ways in which this makes powerlessness complex rather than elementary. The core of the paper focuses on Mumbai and Gaza as two sites that help us understand the enormous variability of war once it gets urbanized, and thus the multiplicity of types of asymmetric war.The essay concludes with a discussion about larger patterns we can see through the cases examined here, such as the repositioning of territory,authority and rights.%本文围绕这样的论点展开:对于大部分通常被称为全球管治的挑战,城市是前沿阵地.作者通过对不对称战争的案例研究,探讨了全球挑战的城市化过程中所产生的矛盾冲突--其中最显著的是,强大军事力量在城市中所受到的限制,以及这使得弱势方不是单一的弱势而是情况更加复杂的方式.文章重点分析了孟买和加沙的案例,有助于我们理解战争一旦城市化之后所具有的极大的变异性以及不对称战争的多样性.文章结尾,作者论述了几种在案例中得到验证的更大格局的变化,如领土、权威、权利的重新划分.

  9. The Operational Level of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Ramsay III, Dr. William G. Robertson, Major Claude R. Sasso, and Lieutenant Colonel Gary H. Wade. We owe special thanks to a few individuals who...3942 (preceding the decisive battle at El Alamein). The article outlines General Sir Claude Auchinleck’s attempts to restore the lagging offensive...Western Front in 1918. It is an excellent study of the operations of one corps in World War I. Morin , Michael J. "Does NATO Need a New Conventional

  10. Case Study on Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Zahida

    2011-01-01

    Quality of Education, especially at Primary level, is an important issue to be discussed at the International Forum. This study highlights the quality of primary education through a comparison of the quality of Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in Pakistan. Community Model Schools were established under Girls Primary…

  11. Nuclear holocausts: Atomic war in fiction, 1895-1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brians, P.

    1987-01-01

    This study looks at the history and criticism of literary works that depict nuclear war or its aftermath. It provides a historical survey of the development of the nuclear war theme and a study of the causes and effects of nuclear war in literature. The author considers the failure of some works to confront the issue and the success of others as educational tools and examines the cultural attitudes toward the dangers posed by the reality of nuclear weapons.

  12. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    government.""’ 3 On the other hand, a change in political theory -also prompted by the war-provided the intellectual justification for a stronger national...individual Americans to behave as virtuous, self- sacrificing citizens led in two directions. The Radicals, who rested their political theories on the...values. From that perspective, the war suggested that Europeans had gone berserk, denying their civilization and its values. In a Freudian sense, they were

  13. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    customs. War, they have also asserted, draws two related political dangers in its train. An ambitious President (or one of his successful generals ) might... general questions about war’s intluence upon the economy. political institutions, and society’s constituent groups. This book takes a preliminary step... millennial task. As a consequence. political theorists and statesmen re- placed clergymen as the leaders of American thought, and politics supplanted

  14. Preventing a Currency War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ On the global economic recovery's already unpredictable road, the latest threat comes from the possibility of a currency war. Although worries about the war have recently been alleviated,as G20 financial officials vowed to "refrain from competitive devaluation of currencies" at their meeting in Gyeongju, South Korea, on October 21-23, more than just words and promises are necessary to avert a currency showdown.

  15. [War trauma and PTSD among German war survivors. A comparison of former soldiers and women of World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, C; Weierstall, R; Huth, S; Knecht, J; Elbert, T

    2014-03-01

    Stressful war experiences can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. To what extent were the soldiers and young women of World War II affected by PTSD symptoms over the course of their lives? Do these men and women differ in the traumatic experiences and PTSD symptom severity? To investigate these questions 52 male and 20 female Germans aged 81-95 years were recruited through newspaper advertisements and notices and interviewed regarding war experiences and PTSD symptoms. Of the men 2% and 7% met the criteria for current and lifetime PTSD diagnoses, respectively, as compared to 10% and 30% of the women, respectively. Using multiple linear regression a dose-response relationship between the number of trauma types experienced and PTSD symptom severity could be demonstrated. The slope of the regression curve was steeper for women than for men. When controlling for the number of different traumatic experiences women reported a significantly higher severity of PTSD symptoms than men. It is presumed that this difference in severity of symptoms can be attributed to qualitative differences in the type of traumatic stress factors during the war. The present study provides evidence that even today people continue to be affected by PTSD symptoms due to events which occurred during World War II; therefore, during patient contact with this age group the war experiences specific to each individual need to be considered as potential moderators of symptoms.

  16. Children and war: risk, resilience, and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Emmy E

    2012-05-01

    This article reviews and reflects on studies that have explored the effects of war on children around the world. Most are cross-sectional and based on self-reports. They describe a range of mental health problems, related to dose effects and to the negative impact of being a victim or witness of violent acts, threats to and loss of loved ones, prolonged parental absence, and forced displacement. The more recent the exposure to war, and the older the child, the higher was the likelihood of reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Especially vulnerable to long-term emotional distress were child soldiers, children who were raped, and children who had been forcibly displaced. In adulthood, war-traumatized children displayed significantly increased risks for a wide range of medical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases. Among protective factors that moderated the impact of war-related adversities in children were a strong bond between the primary caregiver and the child, the social support of teachers and peers, and a shared sense of values. Among the few documented intervention studies for children of war, school-based interventions, implemented by teachers or locally trained paraprofessionals, proved to be a feasible and low-cost alternative to individual or group therapy. More longitudinal research with multiple informants is needed to document the trajectories of risk and resilience in war-affected children, to assess their long-term development and mental health, and to identify effective treatment approaches.

  17. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

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    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  18. Arctic bioremediation -- A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C. (Harding Lawson Associates, Novato, CA (United States)); Liddell, B.V.

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses the use of bioremediation as an effective method to clean up diesel-range hydrocarbon spills in northern latitudes. The results of a laboratory study of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons under simulated arctic conditions showed that bioremediation can be effective in cold climates and led to the implementation of a large-scale field program. The results of 3 years of field testing have led to a significant reduction in diesel-range hydrocarbon concentrations in the contaminated area.

  19. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

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    A. Charnallet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive episodic models of memory [4].

  20. Battling for History: The Impact of War upon Modern South Africa

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    Bill Nasson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available I should like to start this talk with two disclaimers. The first is that I am acutely aware of standing in the shadow of last year's highly distinguished Turner lecturer, Professor Jeffrey Grey. Professor Grey's presence with us on this gracious occasion is a telling reminder of his professional stature as a military historian, and of my own lesser scholarly pedigree in the field. That is, being by background and inclination more of a Heinz Foods kind of historian, guilty of 57 varieties from oral history to cultural history, with a dash of war thrown in as light seasoning. The second disclaimer is the alleged topic for this brief lecture. If ever there was a case for chewing off more than one can bite, 'the impact of war upon modern South Africa' must be it. Ideally, one would need to be an A.J.P. Taylor or a John Keegan to really be able to pull this off. It must be said that I had initially considered addressing the question of the impact of the Anglo-Boer or South African War upon South African history. That would have made for some easily acceptable, straightforward verdicts. Just as A.J.P. Taylor thought memorably that the Second World War was wonderful, so we can all agree on simplicity of understanding. Boiled down to its essence, what is there to be said about the Anglo-Boer clash? In the long run, South Africa's Great War of 1899- 1902 was as crucial to the historical formation of modern South Africa as were the decisive Civil Wars of England, the United States of America, and Spain to the construction of those societies. And again, in the long run, cultivated memories of that war have fed successive nationalist illusions: firstly, the partisan fires of a resentful Afrikaner nationalism, more recently a post-apartheid South African narrative of shared white and black suffering under the heel of British imperialism. Going beyond this case study to the sweeping question of war and South Africa may risk substituting presumption for