WorldWideScience

Sample records for wanting understand twistors

  1. Twistor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perjes, Z.

    1982-01-01

    Particle models in twistor theory are reviewed, starting with an introduction into the kinematical-twistor formalism which describes massive particles in Minkowski space-time. The internal transformations of constituent twistors are then discussed. The quantization rules available from a study of twistor scattering situations are used to construct quantum models of fundamental particles. The theory allows the introduction of an internal space with a Kaehlerian metric where hadron structure is described by spherical states of bound constituents. It is conjectured that the spectrum of successive families of hadrons might approach an accumulation point in energy. Above this threshold energy, the Kaehlerian analog of ionization could occur wherein the zero-mass constituents (twistors) of the particle break free. (Auth.)

  2. Twistor geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a detailed exposition of the relation between the geometry of twistor space and the geometry of Minkowski space. The paper has a didactical purpose; no use has been made of differential geometry and cohomology.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Solitons, Instantons, and Twistors Solitons, Instantons, and Twistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Donald M.

    2011-04-01

    Solitons and instantons play important roles both in pure and applied mathematics as well as in theoretical physics where they are related to the topological structure of the vacuum. Twistors are a useful tool for solving nonlinear differential equations and are useful for the study of the antiself-dual Yang-Mills equations and the Einstein equations. Many books and more advanced monographs have been written on these topics. However, this new book by Maciej Dunajski is a complete first introduction to all of the topics in the title. Moreover, it covers them in a very unique way, through integrable systems. The approach taken in this book is that of mathematical physics à la field theory. The book starts by giving an introduction to integrable systems of ordinary and partial differential equations and proceeds from there. Gauge theories are not covered until chapter 6 which means the reader learning the material for the first time can build up confidence with simpler models of solitons and instantons before encountering them in gauge theories. The book also has an extremely clear introduction to twistor theory useful to both mathematicians and physicists. In particular, the twistor theory presentation may be of interest to string theorists wanting understand twistors. There are many useful connections to research into general relativity. Chapter 9 on gravitational instantons is great treatment useful to anyone doing research in classical or quantum gravity. There is also a nice discussion of Kaluza-Klein monopoles. The three appendices A-C cover the necessary background material of basic differential geometry, complex manifolds, and partial differential equations needed to fully understand the subject. The reader who has some level of expertise in any of the topics covered can jump right into that material without necessarily reading all of the earlier chapters because of the extremely clear writing style of the author. This makes the book an excellent reference on

  4. twistors and gauge fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sergeev

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe briefly the basic ideas and results of the twistor theory. The main points: twistor representation of Minkowsky space, Penrose correspondence and its geometrical properties, twistor interpretation of linear massless fields, Yang-Mills fields (including instantons and monopoles and Einstein-Hilbert equations.

  5. Twistors in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1987-01-01

    The two most significant definitions of a twistor in (conformally) flat space-time are that given by solutions of the twistor equation and that given by α-planes in the complexification of the space-time. It is shown that these concepts are naturally dual to one another, and that they give rise to various different twistor concepts in curved space-time when referred to submanifolds of differing dimension. One of these concepts, that of 2-surface twistors, gives rise to a quasi-local definition of mass (and angular momentum). The status of this definition is explored in relation to various examples. (author)

  6. Twistor Transform for Spinning Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoruk, S.

    2005-01-01

    Twistorial formulation of a particle of arbitrary spin has been constructed. The twistor formulation is deduced from a space-time formulation of the spinning particle by introducing pure gauge Lorentz harmonics in this system. Canonical transformations and gauge fixing conditions, excluding space-time variables, produce the fundamental conditions of twistor transform relating the space-time formulation and twistor one. Integral transformations, relating massive twistor fields with usual space-time fields, have been constructed

  7. Twistors, particles, strings and links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1990-01-01

    Twistors provide a setting for physical theory that is different in several respects from the usual one. In place of the conventional underlying geometry, namely a real four-dimensional space-time manifold, we have a complex manifold -whose complex dimensionality is either three (projective twistor space PT, with the structure of CP 3 ) or four (non-projective twistor space T, with the vector space structure C 4 ). The correspondence between space-time and twistor space is a non-local one, and questions of locality in space-time take on a new character when interpreted in terms of twistors. Instead of the normal description using space-time fields, which are essentially local objects (e.g. curvature, which can be of the Maxwell, Yang-Mills or Einstein variety), one has global information in twistor space: sheaf cohomology elements, in the case of the twistor description of linear fields, and global bundle structure or global manifold structure in the case of non-linear fields. A key ingredient of twistor theory is holomorphic (i.e. complex-analytic) structure. It is global holomorphic structure, in twistor theory, that replaces the local field equations of the normal space-time descriptions. Twistor theory is discussed in relation to a generalization of conformal field theory, the interpretation of Foch space elements, gravitational interactions and twistor diagrams. (author)

  8. Mixed twistor D-modules

    CERN Document Server

    Mochizuki, Takuro

    2015-01-01

    We introduce mixed twistor D-modules and establish their fundamental functorial properties. We also prove that they can be described as the gluing of admissible variations of mixed twistor structures. In a sense, mixed twistor D-modules can be regarded as a twistor version of M. Saito's mixed Hodge modules. Alternatively, they can be viewed as a mixed version of the pure twistor D-modules studied by C. Sabbah and the author. The theory of mixed twistor D-modules is one of the ultimate goals in the study suggested by Simpson's Meta Theorem, and it would form a foundation for the Hodge theory of holonomic D-modules which are not necessarily regular singular.  .

  9. Twistor theory at fifty: from contour integrals to twistor strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyah, Michael; Dunajski, Maciej; Mason, Lionel J

    2017-10-01

    We review aspects of twistor theory, its aims and achievements spanning the last five decades. In the twistor approach, space-time is secondary with events being derived objects that correspond to compact holomorphic curves in a complex threefold-the twistor space. After giving an elementary construction of this space, we demonstrate how solutions to linear and nonlinear equations of mathematical physics-anti-self-duality equations on Yang-Mills or conformal curvature-can be encoded into twistor cohomology. These twistor correspondences yield explicit examples of Yang-Mills and gravitational instantons, which we review. They also underlie the twistor approach to integrability: the solitonic systems arise as symmetry reductions of anti-self-dual (ASD) Yang-Mills equations, and Einstein-Weyl dispersionless systems are reductions of ASD conformal equations. We then review the holomorphic string theories in twistor and ambitwistor spaces, and explain how these theories give rise to remarkable new formulae for the computation of quantum scattering amplitudes. Finally, we discuss the Newtonian limit of twistor theory and its possible role in Penrose's proposal for a role of gravity in quantum collapse of a wave function.

  10. Some dual relations in twistor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarski, J.

    1983-08-01

    The option of employing twistors or dual twistors in integral representations, etc., is considered. In particular, dual-space analyses are presented which relate to the problem of background electromagnetic fields, and to the inverse transformation. (author)

  11. Curved twistor spaces and H-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.

    1980-01-01

    The curved twistor space construction of Penrose for anti-self-dual solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations is described. Curved twistor spaces are defined and it is shown with the aid of an example how to obtain them by deforming the complex structure of regions of flat twistor space. The connection of this procedure with Newman's H-space construction via asymptotic twistor space is outlined. (Auth.)

  12. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões BrunoAscenso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures and . This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  13. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ascenso Simões

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures J1 and J2. This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  14. New twistor string theories revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broedel, Johannes; Wurm, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    A gauged version of Berkovits twistor string theory featuring the particle content of N=8 supergravity was suggested by Abou-Zeid, Hull and Mason. The equations of motion for a particular multiplet in the modified theory are examined on the level of basic twistor fields and thereby shown to imply the vanishing of the negative helicity graviton on-shell. Additionally, the restrictions emerging from the equation of motion for the new gauge field B-bar reveal the chiral nature of interactions in theories constructed in this manner. Moreover, a particular amplitude in Berkovits open string theory is shown to be in agreement with the corresponding result in Einstein gravity.

  15. Wanted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Two researchers at the Danish School of Education outline the new and softer management styles emerging in the classroom. In the ‘good old days', teachers held the class in check by strict control and harsh discipline, but this kind of management has been banned for decades in Danish schools. Now...... it has become legitimate to talk about classroom management, however, management by means of confidence and empathy - a language that the children understand. Two researchers at the Danish School of Education outline the new and softer management styles in the classroom. Udgivelsesdato: January...

  16. Twistor theory and the Einstein equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    R. Penrose has argued that the goal of twistor theory with regard to the vacuum Einstein equations ought to consist of some kind of unification of twistor-theoretic description of anti-self-dual (a.s.d.) and self-dual (s.d.) space-times. S.d. space-times currently possess a description only in terms of dual twistor space, however, rather than twistor space. In this paper, suggestions due to Penrose for providing a purely twistor space description of s.d. space-times are investigated. It is shown how the points of certain s.d. space-times define mappings on twistor space and the geometry of these mappings is studied. The families of mappings for two particular s.d. space-times are presented explicitly. (author)

  17. 2-surface twistors, embeddings and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffryes, B.P.

    1987-01-01

    2-Surface twistor space was introduced in connection with a proposal for a quasi-local definition of mass and angular momentum within general relativity. Properties of the 2-surface twistor space are related to the possibilities for embedding the 2-surface in real and complex conformally flat spaces. The additional properties of the twistor space resulting from symmetries of the 2-surface are discussed, with particular detail on axisymmetric 2-surfaces. (author)

  18. Twistor connection and the Palatini method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    For the Yang-Mills Lagrangian of the twistor connection, an analog of the Palatini variational method is considered, in which the variations of the twistor connection A m and metric g ab are taken to be independent. It is shown that varying the Lagrangian with respect to the connection establishes a relation between A m and g ab (i.e., defines a standard twistor connection, postulated earlier), while varying with respect to the metric with a subsequent substitution of explicit expressions of the standard twistor connection leads to the Bach vacuum equations, describing the dynamics of conformal gravity

  19. Twistor theory a particle-physicist attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perjes, Z.

    1979-07-01

    Particle models in twistor theory are reviewed, starting with an introduction into the kinematical-twistor formalism which describes massive particles in Minkowski space-time. The internal transformations of constituent twistors are then discussed. The quantization rules available from a study of twistor scattering situations are used to construct quantum models of fundamental particles. The theory allows the introduction of an internal space with a Kaehlerian metric where hadron structure is described by ''spherical'' states of bound constituents. It is conjectured that the spectrum of successive families of hadrons might approach an accumulation point in energy. Above this threshold energy, the Kaehlerian analog of ionization could occur wherein the zero-mass constituents (twistors) of the particle break free. (author)

  20. Structure of three-twistor particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Perjes, Z.; Sebestyen, A.; Newman, E.T.; Porter, J.

    1981-11-01

    The simplest physical system to have a non-trivial intrinsic structure in Minkowski space-time is a three-twistor particle. The authors investigate this structure and the two pictures of the particle as an extended object in space-time and as a point in unitary space. The effect of twistor translations on the mass triangle defined by the partial centre of mass points in space-time as well as the connections between twistor rotations and the spin are considered and the spin deficiency formula is established. (author)

  1. Differential calculus for q-deformed twistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akulov, V.P.; Duplij, S.A.; Chitov, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    Brief type of q-deformed differential calculus at light cone with using of twistor representation is suggested. Commutative relations between coordinates and moments are obtained. Considered quasiclassical limit gives exact form of vanish from mass shell

  2. From twistor string theory to recursion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2009-01-01

    Witten's twistor string theory gives rise to an enigmatic formula 1 known as the 'connected prescription' for tree-level Yang-Mills scattering amplitudes. We derive a link representation for the connected prescription by Fourier transforming it to mixed coordinates in terms of both twistor and dual twistor variables. We show that it can be related to other representations of amplitudes by applying the global residue theorem to deform the contour of integration. For six and seven particles we demonstrate explicitly that certain contour deformations rewrite the connected prescription as the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten representation, thereby establishing a concrete link between Witten's twistor string theory and the dual formulation for the S matrix of the N=4 SYM recently proposed by Arkani-Hamed et al. Other choices of integration contour also give rise to 'intermediate prescriptions'. We expect a similar though more intricate structure for more general amplitudes.

  3. Structure of twistor and H-spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    In chapter one, we review briefly the spinor and twistor formalisms in general relativity. Following some suggestions of A.H. Taub, we show that the local twistor structure of a general curved space-time is closely related to the conformal structure used by B.G. Schmidt to define conformal infinity. In particular, we prove that the normal Cartan connection of the conformal bundle coincides with the connection which gives the covariant derivative of local twistors. In chapter two, we use the results of E.T. Newman and J. Plebanski to construct some explicit self-dual metrics. These solutions are of interest because they are good candidates for what we would like to call asymptotically flat H-spaces. Furthermore, by a closer look at these metrics, we may gain more insight into the behavior of twistor spaces near the boundary. In chapter three, we study the geometric structure of twistor spaces associated with asymptotically flat space-times. We show that the space of asymptotic projective twistors, PT + , is an Einstein Kaehler manifold of constant holomorphic sectional curvature. We also give a brief description of the twistor space construction of the metrics in chapter two. In chapter four, we apply the Chern-Moser theory of the pseudoconformal geometry of real hypersurfaces in complex manifolds to study the structure of the boundary PN of PT + . Using some ideas due to S. Webster, we show that the Chern-Moser curvature invariants of PN coincide with the Kaehler curvature invariants of PT + . From the results of chapter three, we deduce that the pseudoconformal geodesics (chains) of the boundary are nicely behaved

  4. Twistor space, Minkowski space and the conformal group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broek, P.M. van den

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the conformal group of compactified Minkowski space is isomorphic to a group of rays of semilinear transformations of twistor space. The action of the conformal group on twistor space is given by an explicit realisation of this isomorphism. In this way we determine the transformation of twistor space under space inversion and time inversion. (orig.)

  5. Worldsheet factorization for twistor-strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Tim [Department of Applied Mathematics & Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-10

    We study the multiparticle factorization properties of two worldsheet theories which — at tree-level — describe the scattering of massless particles in four dimensions: the Berkovits-Witten twistor-string for N=4 super-Yang-Mills coupled to N=4 conformal supergravity, and the Skinner twistor-string for N=8 supergravity. By considering these string-like theories, we can study factorization at the level of the worldsheet before any Wick contractions or integrals have been performed; this is much simpler than considering the factorization properties of the amplitudes themselves. In Skinner’s twistor-string this entails the addition of worldsheet gravity as well as a formalism that represents all external states in a manifestly symmetric way, which we develop explicitly at genus zero. We confirm that the scattering amplitudes of Skinner’s theory, as well as the gauge theory amplitudes for the planar sector of the Berkovits-Witten theory, factorize appropriately at genus zero. In the non-planar sector, we find behavior indicative of conformal gravity in the Berkovits-Witten twistor-string. We contrast factorization in twistor-strings with the story in ordinary string theory, and also make some remarks on higher genus factorization and disconnected prescriptions.

  6. Worldsheet factorization for twistor-strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We study the multiparticle factorization properties of two worldsheet theories which — at tree-level — describe the scattering of massless particles in four dimensions: the Berkovits-Witten twistor-string for N=4 super-Yang-Mills coupled to N=4 conformal supergravity, and the Skinner twistor-string for N=8 supergravity. By considering these string-like theories, we can study factorization at the level of the worldsheet before any Wick contractions or integrals have been performed; this is much simpler than considering the factorization properties of the amplitudes themselves. In Skinner’s twistor-string this entails the addition of worldsheet gravity as well as a formalism that represents all external states in a manifestly symmetric way, which we develop explicitly at genus zero. We confirm that the scattering amplitudes of Skinner’s theory, as well as the gauge theory amplitudes for the planar sector of the Berkovits-Witten theory, factorize appropriately at genus zero. In the non-planar sector, we find behavior indicative of conformal gravity in the Berkovits-Witten twistor-string. We contrast factorization in twistor-strings with the story in ordinary string theory, and also make some remarks on higher genus factorization and disconnected prescriptions

  7. The amplituhedron from momentum twistor diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yuntao; He, Song

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new diagrammatic formulation of the all-loop scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in planar N=4 SYM, dubbed the “momentum-twistor diagrams”. These are on-shell-diagrams obtained by gluing trivalent black and white vertices in momentum twistor space, which, in the reduced diagram case, are known to be related to diagrams in the original twistor space. The new diagrams are manifestly Yangian invariant, and they naturally represent factorization and forward-limit contributions in the all-loop BCFW recursion relations in momentum twistor space, in a fashion that is completely different from those in momentum space. We show how to construct and evaluate momentum-twistor diagrams, and how to use them to obtain tree-level amplitudes and loop-level integrands; in particular the latter involve isolated bubble-structures for loop variables arising from forward limits, or the entangled removal of particles. From each diagram, the generalized “boundary measurement” directly gives the C, D matrices, thus a cell in the amplituhedron associated with the amplitude, and we expect that our diagrammatic representations of the amplitude provide triangulations of the amplituhedron. To demonstrate the computational power of the formalism, we give explicit results for general two-loop integrands, and the cells of the amplituhedron for two-loop MHV amplitudes.

  8. Non-commutative field theory with twistor-like coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Tomasz R.

    2007-01-01

    We consider quantum field theory in four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, with the position coordinates represented by twistors instead of the usual world-vectors. Upon imposing canonical commutation relations between twistors and dual twistors, quantum theory of fields described by non-holomorphic functions of twistor variables becomes manifestly non-commutative, with Lorentz symmetry broken by a time-like vector. We discuss the free field propagation and its impact on the short- and long-distance behavior of physical amplitudes in perturbation theory. In the ultraviolet limit, quantum field theories in twistor space are generically less divergent than their commutative counterparts. Furthermore, there is no infrared-ultraviolet mixing problem

  9. Integrable systems twistors, loop groups, and Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hitchin, NJ; Ward, RS

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is designed to give graduate students an understanding of integrable systems via the study of Riemann surfaces, loop groups, and twistors. The book has its origins in a series of lecture courses given by the authors, all of whom are internationally known mathematicians and renowned expositors. It is written in an accessible and informal style, and fills a gap in the existing literature. The introduction by Nigel Hitchin addresses the meaning of integrability: how do werecognize an integrable system? His own contribution then develops connections with algebraic geometry, and inclu

  10. Twistor Spinoffs for Collider Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Lance

    2006-01-01

    In the coming decade, the search for the Higgs boson, and for new particles representing physics beyond the Standard Model, will be carried out by colliding protons at the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider. A collision of two protons, each of which is made out of quarks and gluons, is inherently messy. Feynman likened it to smashing two Swiss watches together to figure out how they work. In recent decades, we have learned better how the Swiss watches work, using the theory of quark-gluon interactions, quantum chromodynamics. Armed with this knowledge, we can better predict the results of collisions at the Tevatron and the LHC, to see whether the Standard Model holds up or fails, or whether new particles are in the data. But a major bottleneck is simply in adding up Feynman diagrams, for which the rules are well known, yet there can be thousands of extremely complicated diagrams. In fact, the sum of all diagrams is often much simpler than the typical one, suggesting hidden symmetries and better ways to compute. In the past two years, spinoffs from a new theory, 'twistor string theory', have led to very efficient alternatives to Feynman diagrams for making such predictions, as I will explain.

  11. Twistor diagrams and massless Moeller scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of twistor diagrams, as devised by Penrose, is intended to lead to a manifestly finite account of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. The theory is here extended to a more general type of interaction between massless fields than has hitherto been described. It is applied to the example of first-order massless Moeller scattering in quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that earlier studies of this example have failed to render a correct account, in particular by overlooking an infrared divergency, but that the scattering data can nevertheless be represented within the twistor formalism. (author)

  12. Pure connection formulation, twistors, and the chase for a twistor action for general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfray, Yannick

    2017-11-01

    This paper establishes the relation between traditional results from the (Euclidean) twistor theory and chiral formulations of general relativity (GR), especially the pure connection formulation. Starting from an SU(2)-connection only, we show how to construct natural complex data on twistor space, mainly an almost Hermitian structure and a connection on some complex line bundle. Only when this almost Hermitian structure is integrable is the connection related to an anti-self-dual-Einstein metric and makes contact with the usual results. This leads to a new proof of the non-linear graviton theorem. Finally, we discuss what new strategies this "connection approach" to twistors suggests for constructing a twistor action for gravity. In Appendix A, we also review all known chiral Lagrangians for GR.

  13. The development of ideas in twistor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggett, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the main concepts of twistor theory. The emphasis is on the evolution of the subject from the original motivating ideas to the more recent work. In particular the physical and philosophical reasoning behind the use of the various mathematical structure is discussed. (author)

  14. Twistor quantisation of open strings in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    The paper treats the first quantisation of loops in real four-dimensional twistor space. Such loops correspond to open strings in three-dimensional spacetime. The geometry and reality structures pertaining to twistors in three dimensions are reviewed and the twistor description of null geodesics is presented as a prototype for the discussion of null curves. The classical twistor structure of null curves is then described. The symplectic structure is exhibited and used to investigate the constraint algebra. Expressions for the momentum operators are found. The symplectic structure defines natural canonical variables for covariant twistor quantisation and the consequences of carrying this out are described. A twistor representation of the Virasoro algebra with central charge 2 is found and some solutions of the quantum constraints are exhibited. (author)

  15. Asymptotic twistor theory and the Kerr theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Ezra T

    2006-01-01

    We first review asymptotic twistor theory with its real subspace of null asymptotic twistors: a five-dimensional CR manifold. This is followed by a description of the Kerr theorem (the identification of shear-free null congruences, in Minkowski space, with the zeros of holomorphic functions of three variables) and an asymptotic version of the Kerr theorem that produces regular asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences in arbitrary asymptotically flat Einstein or Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes. A surprising aspect of this work is the role played by analytic curves in H-space, each curve generating an asymptotically flat null geodesic congruence. Also there is a discussion of the physical space realizations of the two associated five- and three-dimensional CR manifolds

  16. Nonlinear gravitons and curved twistor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1976-01-01

    A new approach to the quantization of general relativity is suggested in which a state consisting of just one graviton can be described, but in a way which involves both the curvature and nonlinearities of Einstein's theory. It is felt that this approach can be justified solely on its own merits but it also receives striking encouragement from another direction: a surprising mathematical result enables one to construct the general such nonlinear gravitation state from a curved twistor space, the construction being given in terms of one arbitrary holomorphic function of three complex variables. In this way, the approach fits naturally into the general twistor program for the description of quantized fields. (U.K.)

  17. Twistor-theoretic approach to topological field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei.

    1991-12-01

    The two-dimensional topological field theory which describes a four-dimensional self-dual space-time (gravitational instanton) as a target space, which we constructed before, is shown to be deeply connected with Penrose's 'twistor theory'. The relations are presented in detail. Thus our theory offers a 'twistor theoretic' approach to topological field theories. (author)

  18. Twistor space, Minkowski space and the conformal group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the conformal group of compactified Minkowski space is isomorphic to a group of rays of semilinear transformations of twistor space. The action of the conformal group on twistor space is given by an explicit realisation of this isomorphism. In this way we determine the

  19. Non-Relativistic Twistor Theory and Newton-Cartan Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunajski, Maciej; Gundry, James

    2016-03-01

    We develop a non-relativistic twistor theory, in which Newton-Cartan structures of Newtonian gravity correspond to complex three-manifolds with a four-parameter family of rational curves with normal bundle O oplus O(2)}. We show that the Newton-Cartan space-times are unstable under the general Kodaira deformation of the twistor complex structure. The Newton-Cartan connections can nevertheless be reconstructed from Merkulov's generalisation of the Kodaira map augmented by a choice of a holomorphic line bundle over the twistor space trivial on twistor lines. The Coriolis force may be incorporated by holomorphic vector bundles, which in general are non-trivial on twistor lines. The resulting geometries agree with non-relativistic limits of anti-self-dual gravitational instantons.

  20. Twistor methods for AdS{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Tim; Skinner, David; Williams, Jack [Department of Applied Mathematics & Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-30

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS{sub 5} is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  1. Conformal higher spin theory and twistor space actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan

    2017-12-01

    We consider the twistor description of conformal higher spin theories and give twistor space actions for the self-dual sector of theories with spin greater than two that produce the correct flat space-time spectrum. We identify a ghost-free subsector, analogous to the embedding of Einstein gravity with cosmological constant in Weyl gravity, which generates the unique spin-s three-point anti-MHV amplitude consistent with Poincaré invariance and helicity constraints. By including interactions between the infinite tower of higher-spin fields we give a geometric interpretation to the twistor equations of motion as the integrability condition for a holomorphic structure on an infinite jet bundle. Finally, we conjecture anti-self-dual interaction terms which give an implicit definition of a twistor action for the full conformal higher spin theory.

  2. On form factors and correlation functions in twistor space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, Laura; Mitev, Vladimir; Staudacher, Matthias; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our study of form factors and correlation functions of gauge-invariant local composite operators in the twistor-space formulation of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. Using the vertices for these operators obtained in our recent papers (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.011601; 10.1007/JHEP06(2016)162 ), we show how to calculate the twistor-space diagrams for general N k MHV form factors via the inverse soft limit, in analogy to the amplitude case. For general operators without α-dot indices, we then reexpress the NMHV form factors from the position-twistor calculation in terms of momentum twistors, deriving and expanding on a relation between the two twistor formalisms previously observed in the case of amplitudes. Furthermore, we discuss the calculation of generalized form factors and correlation functions as well as the extension to loop level, in particular providing an argument promised in https://www.doi.org/10.1002/prop.201400085.

  3. On form factors and correlation functions in twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster, Laura [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Mitev, Vladimir [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut für Physik, WA THEP,Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz,Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Staudacher, Matthias [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wilhelm, Matthias [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2017-03-24

    In this paper, we continue our study of form factors and correlation functions of gauge-invariant local composite operators in the twistor-space formulation of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. Using the vertices for these operators obtained in our recent papers (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.011601; 10.1007/JHEP06(2016)162 ), we show how to calculate the twistor-space diagrams for general N{sup k}MHV form factors via the inverse soft limit, in analogy to the amplitude case. For general operators without α-dot indices, we then reexpress the NMHV form factors from the position-twistor calculation in terms of momentum twistors, deriving and expanding on a relation between the two twistor formalisms previously observed in the case of amplitudes. Furthermore, we discuss the calculation of generalized form factors and correlation functions as well as the extension to loop level, in particular providing an argument promised in https://www.doi.org/10.1002/prop.201400085.

  4. Single twistor description of massless, massive, AdS, and other interacting particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Picon, Moises

    2006-01-01

    The Penrose transform between twistors and the phase space of massless particles is generalized from the massless case to an assortment of other particle dynamical systems, including special examples of massless or massive particles, relativistic or nonrelativistic, interacting or noninteracting, in flat space or curved spaces. Our unified construction involves always the same twistor Z A with only four complex degrees of freedom and subject to the same helicity constraint. Only the twistor to phase space transform differs from one case to another. Hence, a unification of diverse particle dynamical systems is displayed by the fact that they all share the same twistor description. Our single twistor approach seems to be rather different and a strikingly economical construction of twistors compared to other past approaches that introduced multiple twistors to represent some similar but far more limited set of particle phase space systems

  5. S-duality in Twistor Space

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    In type IIB string compactifications on a Calabi-Yau threefold, the hypermultiplet moduli space $M_H$ must carry an isometric action of the modular group SL(2,Z), inherited from the S-duality symmetry of type IIB string theory in ten dimensions. We investigate how this modular symmetry is realized at the level of the twistor space of $M_H$, and construct a general class of SL(2,Z)-invariant quaternion-Kahler metrics with two commuting isometries, parametrized by a suitably covariant family of holomorphic transition functions. This family should include $M_H$ corrected by D3-D1-D(-1)-instantons (with fivebrane corrections ignored) and, after taking a suitable rigid limit, the Coulomb branch of five-dimensional N=2 gauge theories compactified on a torus, including monopole string instantons. These results allow us to considerably simplify the derivation of the mirror map between type IIA and IIB fields in the sector where only D1-D(-1)-instantons are retained.

  6. S-duality in twistor space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Pioline, Boris

    2012-08-01

    In type IIB string compactifications on a Calabi-Yau threefold, the hypermultiplet moduli space {{M}_H} must carry an isometric action of the modular group SL(2 , {Z} ), inherited from the S-duality symmetry of type IIB string theory in ten dimensions. We investigate how this modular symmetry is realized at the level of the twistor space of {{M}_H} , and construct a general class of SL(2 , {Z} )-invariant quaternion-Kähler metrics with two commuting isometries, parametrized by a suitably covariant family of holomorphic transition functions. This family should include {{M}_H} corrected by D3-D1-D(-1)-instantons (with five-brane corrections ignored) and, after taking a suitable rigid limit, the Coulomb branch of five-dimensional {N} = {2} gauge theories compactified on a torus, including monopole string instantons. These results allow us to considerably simplify the derivation of the mirror map between type IIA and IIB fields in the sector where only D1-D(-1)-instantons are retained.

  7. Twistor Interpretation of Harmonic Spheres and Yang–Mills Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Sergeev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the twistor descriptions of harmonic maps of the Riemann sphere into Kähler manifolds and Yang–Mills fields on four-dimensional Euclidean space. The motivation to study twistor interpretations of these objects comes from the harmonic spheres conjecture stating the existence of the bijective correspondence between based harmonic spheres in the loop space \\(\\Omega G\\ of a compact Lie group \\(G\\ and the moduli space of Yang–Mills \\(G\\-fields on \\(\\mathbb R^4\\.

  8. Twistor description of spinning particles in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitakis, Alex S.; Barns-Graham, Alec E.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2018-01-01

    The two-twistor formulation of particle mechanics in D-dimensional anti-de Sitter space for D = 4 , 5 , 7, which linearises invariance under the AdS isometry group Sp(4; K ) for K=R,C,H, is generalized to the massless N -extended "spinning particle". The twistor variables are gauge invariant with respect to the initial N local worldline supersymmetries; this simplifies aspects of the quantum theory such as implications of global gauge anomalies. We also give details of the two-supertwistor form of the superparticle, in particular the massive superparticle on AdS5.

  9. New constructions of twistor lifts for harmonic maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Martin; C. Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    We show that given a harmonic map \\varphi from a Riemann surface into a classical simply connected compact inner symmetric space, there is a J_2-holomorphic twistor lift of \\varphi (or its negative) if and only if it is nilconformal. In the case of harmonic maps of finite uniton number, we give...... algebraic formulae in terms of holomorphic data which describes their extended solutions. In particular, this gives explicit formulae for the twistor lifts of all harmonic maps of finite uniton number from a surface to the above symmetric spaces....

  10. Particle, superparticle, superstring and new approach to twistor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, Y.

    1990-10-01

    A new approach to twistor theory is proposed. The approach is based on certain reformulations of the classical massless particle and superparticle in terms of twistors. The first quantization of these systems leads to a full classification of all the free 4D field theories. The extension of one of this systems to the interacting case leads to a reformulation of the standard Dirac-Yang-Mills field equations in terms of gauge potential which fulfills certain curvatureless conditions in a generalized space (Minkowski+twistor). These conditions are a consequence of integrability conditions of an overdetermined system of linear equations whose vector field is composed from the components of the Dirac field and the Yang-Mills field strength. The twistorial reformulation allows us to gauge away all the ordinary space-time variables. By this procedure we obtain a description of the usual free massless field theories in terms of pure twistor space. These systems are invariant under an infinite dimensional algebra, which contains the two dimensional conformal algebera as a subalgebra. We propose this systems as candidates to a generalization of the notion of two-dimensional conformal field theories to four dimensions. Alternatively, we introduce an extension of the pure twistorial point particle to a two dimensional object, i.e. a pure twistorial string. (author)

  11. Conformal higher-spin symmetries in twistor string theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Uvarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that similarly to massless superparticle, classical global symmetry of the Berkovits twistor string action is infinite-dimensional. We identify its superalgebra, whose finite-dimensional subalgebra contains psl(4|4,R superalgebra. In quantum theory this infinite-dimensional symmetry breaks down to SL(4|4,R one.

  12. Yank-Mills fields and hypersurface twistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioravanti, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The author establishes a one-to-one correspondence between (not necessarily self-dual) solutions of the non-abelian source-free Yang-Mills equations on Minkowski space, and pairs of cohomology classes [γ], [φ]. If O(n) is the sheaf of holomorphic sections of the n th tensor power of the hyperplane line bundle over C P 1 , and g is the Lie algebra of the gauge group, [γ] var-epsilon H CR 1 (PN circumflex,g) and defines a deformation C-R(γ) of the canonical C-R structure on a principal bundle over PN circumflex, the subset of null twistor space PN, representing unscaled null geodesics in Minkowski space. [φ] var-epsilon H CR(γ) 1 (PN,O(-4) direct-product g). The spin-bundle over Minkowski space is used in the construction. This bundle is foliated by a congruence of lines; each of these lines projects into a null geodesic in Minkowski space, and corresponds to a point in N. The restriction S of the spin-bundle to a spacelike hyperplane in Minkowski space is transversal to this foliation, and PN is identified with S. [γ] encodes certain components of the Yang-Mills connection on S, and [φ] encodes the self-dual part of the field on S. They give initial values for a system of evolution equations in the spin-bundle. This system is composed by four first order ordinary differential equations along the lines in the foliation of the spin-bundle, with some of the right-hand sides given by integrals on the fiber over a point in Minkowski space, and a partial differential equation on this fiber. The evolution equations simplify largely in the case of an abelian gauge group. In the case of anti-self-dual fields, the system reduces to two ordinary differential equations along the lines in the foliation of the spin-bundle, and the differential equation on the fiber over each point in Minkowski space. He studies the modifications in the construction when sources are present

  13. Twistors and four-dimensional conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This is a report (with technical details omitted) on work concerned with generalizations to four dimensions of two-dimensional Conformed Field Theory. Accounts of this and related material are contained elsewhere. The Hilbert space of the four-dimensional theory has a natural interpretation in terms of massless spinor fields on real Minkowski space. From the twistor point of view this follows from the boundary CR-manifold P being precisely the space of light rays in real compactified Minkowski space. All the amplitudes can therefore be regarded as defined on Hilbert spaces built from Lorentzian spinor fields. Thus the twistor picture provides a kind of halfway house between the Lorentzian and Euclidean field theories. (author)

  14. Quaternionic Kaehler and hyperkaehler manifolds with torsion and twistor spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Stefan; Minchev, Ivan

    2001-12-01

    The target space of a (4,0) supersymmetric two-dimensional sigma model with Wess-Zumino term has a connection with totally skew-symmetric torsion and holonomy contained in Sp(n)Sp(l) (resp. Sp(n)), QKT (resp. HKT)-spaces. We study the geometry of QKT, HKT manifold and their twistor spaces. We show that the Swann bundle of a QKT manifold admits a HKT structure with special symmetry if and only if the twistor space of the QKT manifold admits an almost hermitian structure with totally skew-symmetric Nijenhuis tensor, thus connecting two structures arising from quantum field theories and supersymmetric sigma models with Wess- Zumino term. We discovered that a HKT manifold has always co-closed Lee form. Applying this property to compact HKT manifold we get information about the plurigenera. (author)

  15. On the twistor representation of Siegel transformation for superparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.V.; Sorokin, D.P.; Tkach, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that an explicit incorporation of twistor variables into the Lagrangian of a massless relativistic particle together with the local supersymmetrization of its proper time leads to a Lagrangian which is invariant under the space-time global supersymmetry. The equivalence of the Siegel symmetry and the local proper-time supersymmetry with a complexified grassmanian parameter is established. The Siegel algebra is formed by an irreducible set of covariant constraints and is closed off shell. 20 refs

  16. Fluctuating twistor-beam solutions and Pre-Quantum Kerr-Schild geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burinskii, Alexander, E-mail: bur@ibrae.ac.r [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, NSI Russian Academy of Sciences, B.Tulskaya 52, Moscow, 115191 (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-01

    Kerr-Schild (KS) geometry is based on a congruence of twistors which is determined by the Kerr theorem. We describe time-dependent KS solutions for electromagnetic excitations of black-holes taking into account the consistent back-reaction to metric. The exact solutions have the form of singular beam-like pulses supported on twistor null lines of the Kerr congruence. The twistor-beams have very strong back reaction to metric and BH horizon and produce a fluctuating KS geometry which takes an intermediate position between the Classical and Quantum gravity.

  17. Fluctuating twistor-beam solutions and Pre-Quantum Kerr-Schild geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Kerr-Schild (KS) geometry is based on a congruence of twistors which is determined by the Kerr theorem. We describe time-dependent KS solutions for electromagnetic excitations of black-holes taking into account the consistent back-reaction to metric. The exact solutions have the form of singular beam-like pulses supported on twistor null lines of the Kerr congruence. The twistor-beams have very strong back reaction to metric and BH horizon and produce a fluctuating KS geometry which takes an intermediate position between the Classical and Quantum gravity.

  18. Conformal higher spin scattering amplitudes from twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Tim [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan [School of Mathematics, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2017-04-04

    We use the formulation of conformal higher spin (CHS) theories in twistor space to study their tree-level scattering amplitudes, finding expressions for all three-point (MHV)-bar amplitudes and all MHV amplitudes involving positive helicity conformal gravity particles and two negative helicity higher spins. This provides the on-shell analogue for the covariant coupling of CHS fields to a conformal gravity background. We discuss the restriction of the theory to a ghost-free unitary subsector, analogous to restricting conformal gravity to general relativity with a cosmological constant. We study the flat-space limit and show that the restricted amplitudes vanish, supporting the conjecture that in the unitary sector the S-matrix of CHS theories is trivial. However, by appropriately rescaling the amplitudes we find non-vanishing results which we compare with chiral flat-space higher spin theories.

  19. The connected prescription for form factors in twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandhuber, A.; Hughes, E.; Panerai, R.; Spence, B.; Travaglini, G. [Centre for Research in String Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy,Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-23

    We propose a connected prescription formula in twistor space for all tree-level form factors of the stress tensor multiplet operator in N=4 super Yang-Mills, which is a generalisation of the expression of Roiban, Spradlin and Volovich for superamplitudes. By introducing link variables, we show that our formula is identical to the recently proposed four-dimensional scattering equations for form factors. Similarly to the case of amplitudes, the link representation of form factors is shown to be directly related to BCFW recursion relations, and is considerably more tractable than the scattering equations. We also discuss how our results are related to a recent Grassmannian formulation of form factors, and comment on a possible derivation of our formula from ambitwistor strings.

  20. Conformal higher spin scattering amplitudes from twistor space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, Tim; Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan

    2017-01-01

    We use the formulation of conformal higher spin (CHS) theories in twistor space to study their tree-level scattering amplitudes, finding expressions for all three-point (MHV)-bar amplitudes and all MHV amplitudes involving positive helicity conformal gravity particles and two negative helicity higher spins. This provides the on-shell analogue for the covariant coupling of CHS fields to a conformal gravity background. We discuss the restriction of the theory to a ghost-free unitary subsector, analogous to restricting conformal gravity to general relativity with a cosmological constant. We study the flat-space limit and show that the restricted amplitudes vanish, supporting the conjecture that in the unitary sector the S-matrix of CHS theories is trivial. However, by appropriately rescaling the amplitudes we find non-vanishing results which we compare with chiral flat-space higher spin theories.

  1. 'Sometimes I want to play by myself': Understanding what friendship means to children with autism in mainstream primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Lynsey; Hill, Vivian; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Research has shown that friendship impacts the overall experience of mainstream school for autistic children. Using a unique combination of quantitative, qualitative and social network methods, we investigated the extent and nature of autistic children's friendships from their perspective and from those of their mothers, teachers and classroom peers. Consistent with previous research, children with autism (n = 12), aged between 9 and 11 years, rated their friendships to be of poorer quality than their non-autistic classroom peers (n = 11). There was, however, much variability in autistic children's ratings, which, unexpectedly, was related to neither children's cognitive ability nor their theory of mind ability. Encouragingly, the children generally reported satisfaction with their friendships, and although no child was socially isolated, the degree of inclusion in friendship networks varied widely. Furthermore, autistic children's social motivation emerged as a key factor in parents' and teachers' reports in determining both the nature and extent of their friendships. Adults played an active role in supporting children's friendships, but this sometimes conflicted with what the children wanted. These findings highlight the need to ascertain the perspectives of young people with autism on their friendships and to consider the social and ethical implications of when and how to intervene.

  2. All tree-level MHV form factors in N=4 SYM from twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster, Laura [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Mitev, Vladimir [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut für Physik, WA THEP,Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Staudacher, Matthias [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wilhelm, Matthias [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2016-06-28

    We incorporate all gauge-invariant local composite operators into the twistor-space formulation of N=4 SYM theory, detailing and expanding on ideas we presented recently in http://arxiv.org/abs/1603.04471. The vertices for these operators contain infinitely many terms and we show how they can be constructed by taking suitable derivatives of a light-like Wilson loop in twistor space and shrinking it down to a point. In particular, these vertices directly yield the tree-level MHV super form factors of all composite operators in N=4 SYM theory.

  3. What a man wants: understanding the challenges and motivations to physical activity participation and healthy eating in middle-aged Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kolt, Gregory S; Duncan, Mitch; Ellison, Marcus; George, Emma; Mummery, W Kerry

    2012-11-01

    Little attention has been paid to the physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviors of middle-aged men; thus, the aim of this study was to gather information and gain insight into the PA and nutrition behaviors of these men. Six focus group sessions were undertaken with middle-aged men (N = 30) from regional Australia to explore the challenges and motivations to PA participation and healthy eating. Men had a good understanding of PA and nutrition; however, this was sometimes confounded by inconsistent media messages. Work commitments and family responsibilities were barriers to PA, while poor cooking skills and abilities were barriers to healthy eating. Disease prevention, weight management, and being a good role model were motivators for PA and healthy eating. By understanding what a man wants, PA and nutrition interventions can be designed and delivered to meet the needs of this hard-to-reach population.

  4. Quaternionic six-dimensional (super)twistor formalism and composite (super)spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Nowicki, A.

    1990-06-01

    We extend by real quaternions the D=4 twistor and supertwistor formalism. The notion of quaternionic D=4 composite superspaces is considered. It is shown how to construct D=6 real composite space-time variables as well as D=6 real composite superspaces. (author). 21 refs

  5. When Atoms Want

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry students and teachers often explain the chemical reactivity of atoms, molecules, and chemical substances in terms of purposes or needs (e.g., atoms want or need to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to become more stable). These teleological explanations seem to have pedagogical value as they help students understand and use…

  6. Want a Camel, Yes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    "Want a Camel, Yes?" takes us to the pyramids in Giza, Egypt. We are shown the interaction between camel drivers and tourists. Through price negotiations, conversations and interviews, we get an insight into how they imagine and understand each other and what they think constitute a good trip...... to the pyramids....

  7. What Do Our Users Want? Perspectives on Understanding and Meeting User Needs for Multi-Mission Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Robert E.; Candey, Robert M.; Bilitza, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Sun-Earth Connection Active Archive (SECAA) project of NASA's Space Physics Data Facility operates a range of unique and heavily used multi-mission data services in support of the large-scale science objectives of the Great Observatory, including services such as CDAWeb, the CDAWeb Plus client, SSCWeb, OMNIweb and the CDF data format. In developing and operating these services, we have encountered and continue to struggle with a wide range of issues such as balancing scope and functionality with simplicity and ease of use, understanding the effectiveness of our choices and identifying areas most important for further improvement. In this paper, we will review our key services and then discuss some of our observations and new approaches to understanding and meeting user data service requirements. Some observations are obvious but may still have substantial implications; e.g. functionality without information content is of little user interest, which has led to our recent emphasis on development of web services interfaces, so the content and functionality we already serve is readily and fully available as a building block for new services. Some observations require careful design and tradeoffs; e.g. users will complain when they are offered interfaces with limited options but users are also easily intimidated and become lost when offered extensive options for customization. Some observations remain highly challenging; e.g. a comprehensive multi-mission, multi-source view of all data and services available easily produces a daunting list, but a more selective view can easily lead users to overlook available and relevant data. It is often difficult to obtain and meaningfully interpret measures of true productive usage and overall user satisfaction, even with a variety of techniques including statistics, citations, case studies, user feedback and advisory committees. Most of these issues will apply to and may even be more acute for distributed implementation

  8. General split helicity gluon tree amplitudes in open twistor string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Louise; Goddard, Peter

    2010-05-01

    We evaluate all split helicity gluon tree amplitudes in open twistor string theory. We show that these amplitudes satisfy the BCFW recurrence relations restricted to the split helicity case and, hence, that these amplitudes agree with those of gauge theory. To do this we make a particular choice of the sextic constraints in the link variables that determine the poles contributing to the contour integral expression for the amplitudes. Using the residue theorem to re-express this integral in terms of contributions from poles at rational values of the link variables, which we determine, we evaluate the amplitudes explicitly, regaining the gauge theory results of Britto et al. [25].

  9. A twistor-like D=10 superparticle action with manifest N=8 world-line supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Sokatchev, E.

    1992-03-01

    We propose a new formulation of the D = 10 Brink-Schwarz superparticle which is manifestly invariant under both the target-space super-Poincare group and the world-line local N = 8 superconformal group. This twistor-like construction naturally involves the sphere S 8 as a coset space of the D = 10 Lorentz group. The action contains only a finite set of auxiliary fields, but they appear in unusual trilinear combinations. The origin of the on-shell D = 10 fermionic Κ symmetry of the standard Brink-Schwarz formulation is explained. The coupling to a D = 10 super-Maxwell background requires a new mechanism, in which the electric charge appears only on shell as an integration constant. (orig.)

  10. What do Parties Want?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2012-01-01

    What parties want – policy, office or votes - is important to how they represent their voters, how they make strategic decisions and how they respond to external changes in society. What parties strive to accomplish is simply important to what they do. Moreover, our knowledge of what parties want...... is important to what we expect them to do. For instance, coalition theory assumes that parties have homogeneous goals, and hence are equally likely to join coalitions given the same circumstances. However, this article investigates this basic assumption of party goal homogeneity and finds that party goals do...

  11. Who wants paternalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie Kragh; Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    these problems, or because people with good self-control want those who lack it to change their behaviors. We find no evidence linking self-control to attitudes towards weak forms of paternalism (e.g. nudges or information about health consequences). But respondents with good selfcontrol are significantly more...

  12. An off-shell formulation of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in twistor harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokatchev, E.

    1989-01-01

    Twistor-like harmonic variables which parametrize the coset space SO(1, 4)/SO(1, 2)xSO(2) are introduced. With their help the on-shell constraints for N=4, d=5 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are rewritten as conditions for flatness in the harmonic directions of superspace. A Chern-Simons off-shell action leading to those equations is proposed. There are indications that the off-shell theory might be finite, despite the fact that the on-shell one seems non-renormalizable. (orig.)

  13. Twistor theory and the energy-momentum and angular momentum of the gravitational field at spatial infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Penrose's 'quasi-local mass and angular momentum' is investigated for 2-surfaces near spatial infinity in both linearized theory on Minkowski space and full general relativity. It is shown that for space-times that are radially smooth of order one in the sense of Beig and Schmidt with asymptotically electric Weyl curvature, there exists a global concept of a twistor space at spatial infinity. Global conservation laws for the energy-momentum and angular momentum are obtained, and the ten conserved quantities are shown to be invariant under asymptotic coordinate transformations. The relation to other definitions is discussed briefly. (author)

  14. All I want for 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available All I want for 2010: Brief notes about practical or totally pie-in-the-sky ideas for things we’d like to see happen in our libraries, in libraries in general, or in the profession We thought the New Year would be a good time for us to get together and do another group post; what do we want [...

  15. Hermitian Yang-Mills equations and pseudo-holomorphic bundles on nearly Kaehler and nearly Calabi-Yau twistor 6-manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Alexander D.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the Hermitian Yang-Mills (HYM) equations for gauge potentials on a complex vector bundle E over an almost complex manifold X 6 which is the twistor space of an oriented Riemannian manifold M 4 . Each solution of the HYM equations on such X 6 defines a pseudo-holomorphic structure on the bundle E. It is shown that the pull-back to X 6 of any anti-self-dual gauge field on M 4 is a solution of the HYM equations on X 6 . This correspondence allows us to introduce new twistor actions for bosonic and supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. As examples of X 6 we consider homogeneous nearly Kaehler and nearly Calabi-Yau manifolds which are twistor spaces of S 4 , CP 2 and B 4 , CB 2 (real 4-ball and complex 2-ball), respectively. Various explicit examples of solutions to the HYM equations on these spaces are provided. Applications in flux compactifications of heterotic strings are briefly discussed.

  16. Untwisting the pure spinor formalism to the RNS and twistor string in a flat and AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovits, Nathan [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista,Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-06-21

    The pure spinor formalism for the superstring can be formulated as a twisted N=2 worldsheet theory with fermionic generators j{sub BRST} and composite b ghost. After untwisting the formalism to an N=1 worldsheet theory with fermionic stress tensor j{sub BRST}+b, the worldsheet variables combine into N=1 worldsheet superfields X{sup m} and Θ{sup α} together with a superfield constraint relating DX{sup m} and DΘ{sup α}. The constraint implies that the worldsheet superpartner of θ{sup α} is a bosonic twistor variable, and different solutions of the constraint give rise to the pure spinor or extended RNS formalisms, as well as a new twistor-string formalism with manifest N=1 worldsheet supersymmetry. These N=1 worldsheet methods generalize in curved Ramond-Ramond backgrounds, and a manifestly N=1 worldsheet supersymmetric action is proposed for the superstring in an AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} background in terms of the twistor superfields. This AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} worldsheet action is a remarkably simple fermionic coset model with manifest PSU(2,2|4) symmetry and might be useful for computing AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} superstring scattering amplitudes.

  17. Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...

  18. We want to be provoked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen

    2001-01-01

    The title is a quotation from one of the meetings between residents and professionals during the Holmbladsgade regeneration process. During a discussion of future projects somebody asked what the residents expected from the professionals. We want to be provoked a resident answered. Provocations...

  19. We Need Action on Social Determinants of Health - but Do We Want It, too? Comment on "Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne

    2016-02-27

    Recently a number of calls have been made to mobilise the arsenal of political science insights to investigate - and point to improvements in - the social determinants of health (SDH), and health equity. Recently, in this journal, such a rallying appeal was made for the field of public administration. This commentary argues that, although scholarly potential should justifiably be redirected to resolve these critical issues for humanity, a key ingredient in taking action may have been neglected. This factor is 'community.' Community health has been a standard element of the public health and health promotion, even political, repertoire for decades now. But this commentary claims that communities are insufficiently charged, equipped or appreciated to play the role that scholarship attributes (or occasionally avoids to identify) to them. Community is too important to not fully engage and understand. Rhetorical tools and inquiries can support their quintessential role. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  20. We Need Action on Social Determinants of Health – but Do We Want It, too? Comment on “Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne de Leeuw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of calls have been made to mobilise the arsenal of political science insights to investigate – and point to improvements in – the social determinants of health (SDH, and health equity. Recently, in this journal, such a rallying appeal was made for the field of public administration. This commentary argues that, although scholarly potential should justifiably be redirected to resolve these critical issues for humanity, a key ingredient in taking action may have been neglected. This factor is ‘community.’ Community health has been a standard element of the public health and health promotion, even political, repertoire for decades now. But this commentary claims that communities are insufficiently charged, equipped or appreciated to play the role that scholarship attributes (or occasionally avoids to identify to them. Community is too important to not fully engage and understand. Rhetorical tools and inquiries can support their quintessential role.

  1. What does it mean to want to quit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, James; Borland, Ron

    2008-01-01

    To report on the prevalence of attitudes and beliefs about the importance of wanting to quit and need for use of cessation assistance, that may act as barriers to quitting smoking and adopting cessation assistance. National telephone survey of 802 randomly selected adults (685 smokers, 117 recent quitters). Seventy per cent of smokers believed that 'wanting to quit' was both a necessary and sufficient condition for being able to quit. While only one-third of smokers believed that they were too addicted to be able to quit, only a quarter believed they could quit any time they want to. Belief that use of cessation assistance is a sign of weakness was endorsed by 35% of participants, and related to stage of change. Beliefs about the importance of wanting to quit are commonly held. Many smokers appear to believe that a rational, unambivalent desire to quit is needed before it is worthwhile trying. Short-term impulses to act are not perceived as sufficient. The role of cessation assistance in helping smokers form a rational desire to quit appears to be poorly understood by the majority of smokers. There is a need to engender greater understanding of the potential value of cessation aids to smokers experiencing ambivalence about wanting to quit.

  2. iPads, mobile technologies, and communication applications: a survey of family wants, needs, and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meder, Allison M; Wegner, Jane R

    2015-03-01

    Families of children with communication disabilities were surveyed to explore wants and preferences relative to mobile media technology, including iPads, as a form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The families surveyed reported wanting information and support from professionals, including speech language pathologists (SLPs), who are knowledgeable about AAC. These families wanted devices to meet their children's individual needs and reported that ease of use and affordability were the most influential characteristics in the purchase of mobile media devices and communication applications. SLPs who understand family decision making can utilize collaborative clinical decision making that respects families' wants and needs, while also focusing on device feature matching and family education.

  3. Wanting, liking, and preference construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xianchi; Brendl, C Miguel; Ariely, Dan

    2010-06-01

    According to theories on preference construction, multiple preferences result from multiple contexts (e.g., loss vs. gain frames). This implies that people can have different representations of a preference in different contexts. Drawing on Berridge's (1999) distinction between unconscious liking and wanting, we hypothesize that people may have multiple representations of a preference toward an object even within a single context. Specifically, we propose that people can have different representations of an object's motivational value, or incentive value, versus its emotional value, or likability, even when the object is placed in the same context. Study 1 establishes a divergence between incentive value and likability of faces using behavioral measures. Studies 2A and 2B, using self-report measures, provide support for our main hypothesis that people are perfectly aware of these distinct representations and are able to access them concurrently at will. We also discuss implications of our findings for the truism that people seek pleasure and for expectancy-value theories.

  4. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  5. Everything you want to know about Agile

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Jamie Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Everything you want to know about Agile comprehensively addresses the issues that IT departments face when they try to implement Agile approaches within the constraints of their traditional organizations, including existing project frameworks, budgeting structures, contracts and corporate reporting.  It is an essential resource for IT departments that want to deliver successful Agile results, even in the most challenging environments.

  6. Wanted: More Squares Among Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William H.

    1969-01-01

    Professors who see the world and life in a context of sincerely held religious beliefs should be given the same tolerance and understanding which atheists and agnostics used to demand for themselves. (AD)

  7. Stationarity: Wanted dead or alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Larry F.; Cohn, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Aligning engineering practice with natural process behavior would appear, on its face, to be a prudent and reasonable course of action. However, if we do not understand the long-term characteristics of hydroclimatic processes, how does one find the prudent and reasonable course needed for water management? We consider this question in light of three aspects of existing and unresolved issues affecting hydroclimatic variability and statistical inference: Hurst-Kolmogorov phenomena; the complications long-term persistence introduces with respect to statistical understanding; and the dependence of process understanding on arbitrary sampling choices. These problems are not easily addressed. In such circumstances, humility may be more important than physics; a simple model with well-understood flaws may be preferable to a sophisticated model whose correspondence to reality is uncertain.

  8. Research chief wants to make science matter

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    1999-01-01

    The new research chief of the European Union, Phillippe Busquin wants to move science into the heart of EU decision-taking. He would like to make European research more 'cohesive, focused, mobile and multilateral' (2 pages).

  9. Particle physicists want to expand open access

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaiser, Jocelyn

    2006-01-01

    "Particle physicists have come up with a novel way to promote free, immediate access to journal articles. Led by CERN, the gian lab near Geneva, Switzerland, they want to raise at least $6 million a year to begin buying open access to all published papers in their field." (1 page)

  10. Generational Mentorship: What Millennial Mentees Want

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seheult, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Based on her own experience as a 25-year-old director of a new department and mentee of a university vice president, Erin Seheult shares what millennials want from mentors. A conversation with her own mentor illuminated four aspects of her boss's mentorship that she cherished and have broader applications that appeal to millennial mentees.…

  11. What Industry Wants: Employers' Preferences for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erica; Kemmis, Ros Brennan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse what retail and hospitality industry employers want from training and trainers. Design/methodology/approach: The research project was undertaken for Service Skills Australia, the Australian Industry Skills Council that oversees formal training for a range of service industries in…

  12. Particle physicists want to expand open access

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaiser, Jocelyn

    2006-01-01

    "Particle physicists have come up with a novel way to promote free, immediate access to journal articles. Led by CERN, the giant lab near Geneva, Switzerland, thay want to raise at lesat $6 million a year to begin buying open access to all published papers in their field." (1/2 page)

  13. Users want simple control over device selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misker, J.M.V.; Lindenberg, J.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    When users want to combine various resources in an ambient intelligent environment in an ad hoc manner, they need to be able to identify and select these resources. We conducted an experiment to study various user interaction styles for combining input and output devices in an ambient intelligent

  14. Communicating during a pandemic: information the public wants about the disease and new vaccines and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Natalie; Holmes, Bev

    2011-07-01

    To prepare for pandemics, countries are creating pandemic preparedness plans. These plans frequently include crisis communication strategies that recommend conducting pre-crisis audience research to increase the effectiveness and relevance of communication with the public. To begin understanding the communication needs of the public and health care workers, 11 focus groups were conducted in Vancouver, Canada, in 2006 and 2007 to identify what information people want to receive and how they want to receive it. In the event of a pandemic, participants want to know their risk of infection and how sick they could become if infected. To make decisions about using vaccines and drugs, they want information that enables them to assess the risks of using the products. The public prefers to receive this information from family doctors, the Internet, and schools. Health care workers prefer to receive information in e-mails and in-services.

  15. A Marketing Strategy for the Development of Want Want Rice Crackers in China Biscuits Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜卉

    2015-01-01

    The Want Want Group, as the biggest rice crackers manufacturer in the world, entered the mainland China's biscuit market and established its first factory in Hunan 1994. Rice Crackers are widely welcomed by Chinese consumers; however, in this decade it remained a stable company share with a very little decline in China's biscuit market. In order to maintain sustainable development, it is worthy to consider the competitive environment and distinguish the opportunities and challenges, analysis strengths and weaknesses.

  16. The role of implicit wanting in relation to explicit liking and wanting for food: implications for appetite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Graham; King, Neil; Blundell, John

    2008-01-01

    Eating is an action open to awareness by the individual; however, it cannot be claimed that processes that control the expression of eating habits are necessarily explicit. This distinction between implicit and explicit processes may enhance understanding of the expression of food reward (particularly the concepts of liking and wanting [Berridge, K. C., & Robinson, T. E. (2003). Parsing reward. Trends in Neurosciences, 26, 507-513] and its importance for human appetite control [Finlayson, G. S., King, N. A., & Blundell, J. E. (2007b). Liking vs. wanting food: Importance for human appetite control and weight regulation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews, in press]. The present study investigated the effect of meal-induced satiation on implicit and explicit processes of liking (L) and wanting (W) by developing a computer-based procedure to measure L and W in hungry and satiated states. Explicit measures were derived from analogue ratings whilst an implicit W measure was derived from reaction time in a forced-choice procedure, which also identified food preferences. Seventy subjects (21.8+/-0.9 years, BMI: 22.2+/-0.5 kg/m2) completed the procedure before and immediately following consumption of a savoury test meal. Satiation caused explicit ratings of L and W to decrease in all food categories (phunger were linked to changes in explicit L and W in a manner consistent with sensory specific satiety, while a relationship between hunger and implicit W was absent. We suggest that implicit W is not systematically downregulated by the physiological consequences of food consumption in the same way as hunger and therefore may be largely independent of homoeostatic processes influencing intake.

  17. 29 CFR 1625.4 - Help wanted notices or advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Help wanted notices or advertisements. 1625.4 Section 1625.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT Interpretations § 1625.4 Help wanted notices or advertisements. (a) Help wanted notices or advertisements may not contain...

  18. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer’s utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, generating different purchase decisions and optimal prices across...... individuals. When a good’s fixed price is lower than a threshold fair value, PWYW can lead to a lower utility. This may result in a lower purchase rate and higher average price, accounting for previously unexplained field experimental evidence. An increase in the threshold value decreases the buyer’s utility...... and may further lower the purchase rate, resulting in a further increase in purchase price....

  19. Students want feedback and educators need dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Rask, Morten

    2015-01-01

    wanting: a survey found that only a third of students at Business and Social Science (BSS), Aarhus University (AU), think they get sufficient feedback on their work , while educators bemoan the impossibility of activating and engaging students in the substantive, theoretical and methodological discussions...... and performance levels for both students and educators, and also be used as a medium to provide suggestions for improving learning. The conceptual model can be used to solve the interaction paradox. It has implications for both individual educators and on an institutional level for creating the conditions...

  20. Health Information Exchange: What do patients want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford-Davis, Laura N; Chang, Lawrence; Rhodes, Karin V

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether emergency department patients want to share their medical records across health systems through Health Information Exchange and if so, whether they prefer to sign consent or share their records automatically, 982 adult patients presenting to an emergency department participated in a questionnaire-based interview. The majority (N = 906; 92.3%) were willing to share their data in a Health Information Exchange. Half (N = 490; 49.9%) reported routinely getting healthcare outside the system and 78.6 percent reported having records in other systems. Of those who were willing to share their data in a Health Information Exchange, 54.3 percent wanted to sign consent but 90 percent of those would waive consent in the case of an emergency. Privacy and security were primary concerns of patients not willing to participate in Health Information Exchange and preferring to sign consent. Improved privacy and security protections could increase participation, and findings support consideration of "break-the-glass" provider access to Health Information Exchange records in an emergent situation.

  1. Preferring familiar emotions: As you want (and like) it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q.; Tamir, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Do people want to feel emotions that are familiar to them? In two studies, participants rated how much they typically felt various emotions (i.e., familiarity of the emotion) and how much they generally wanted to experience these emotions. We found that, in general, people wanted to feel pleasant emotions more than unpleasant emotions. However, for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, people more (vs. less) familiar with an emotion also wanted to experience it more. Links between the familiarity of an emotion and wanting to experience that emotion were not explained by the concurrent experience of familiar emotions. Also, we show that although familiar emotions were also liked more, liking did not fully account for wanting familiar emotions. Finally, the familiarity of emotions mediated the links between trait affect and the emotions people wanted to feel. We propose that people are motivated to feel familiar emotions, in part, because of their instrumental value. PMID:23962316

  2. Preferring familiar emotions: as you want (and like) it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Tamir, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Do people want to feel emotions that are familiar to them? In two studies, participants rated how much they typically felt various emotions (i.e., familiarity of the emotion) and how much they generally wanted to experience these emotions. We found that, in general, people wanted to feel pleasant emotions more than unpleasant emotions. However, for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, people more (vs. less) familiar with an emotion also wanted to experience it more. Links between the familiarity of an emotion and wanting to experience that emotion were not explained by the concurrent experience of familiar emotions. Also, we show that although familiar emotions were also liked more, liking did not fully account for wanting familiar emotions. Finally, the familiarity of emotions mediated the links between trait affect and the emotions people wanted to feel. We propose that people are motivated to feel familiar emotions, in part, because of their instrumental value.

  3. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    this threshold, however, PWYW can lead to a lower utility. This may result in a lower purchase rate and higher average price, in line with previously unexplained evidence from field experiments. Moreover, an increase in the threshold value decreases the buyer's utility and may further lower the purchase rate......Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular in a wide range of industries. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer's utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, which generates different purchase...... decisions and optimal prices across individuals. When a good is sold at a fixed price higher than a threshold value, a price that the individual thinks is fair, the adoption of PWYW increases his utility and hence results in a weakly higher purchase rate. When a good is sold at a fixed price lower than...

  4. The data analysis facilities that astronomers want

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the need and importance of data analysis facilities and what astronomers ideally want. A brief survey is presented of what is available now and some of the main deficiencies and problems with today's systems are discussed. The main sources of astronomical data are presented incuding: optical photographic, optical TV/CCD, VLA, optical spectros, imaging x-ray satellite, and satellite planetary camera. Landmark discoveries are listed in a table, some of which include: our galaxy as an island, distance to stars, H-R diagram (stellar structure), size of our galaxy, and missing mass in clusters. The main problems at present are discussed including lack of coordinated effort and central planning, differences in hardware, and measuring performance

  5. What communication strategies do AAC users want their communication partners to use? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtlin, Hanne Sofie; Næss, Kari-Anne B; Taxt, Tone; Karlsen, Asgjerd Vea

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate which communication strategies the people, who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), want their communication partners to use. We interviewed eight children using Talking Mats to examine the AAC users' own opinion. The results showed that they wanted their communication partners to take the initiative, to repair the breaks when communication breakdowns occurred, and to invest time in understanding what AAC users wanted to express. These results underlined the significant responsibility of communication partners and revealed the need for AAC user interventions to help them be active communicators. More research needs to emphasise AAC users' opinions about communication partner strategies to improve the communication processes for AAC-users and thereby promote social inclusion in natural environment. Implications for Rehabilitation Communication partner strategies can affect communication as well as personal development and life quality for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) users. In AAC-users opinion, their communication partners should take the communicative initiative, repair the breaks when communication breakdowns occurred, and invest time in understanding what AAC-users want to express. There is a need to inform and educate communication partners, especially those unfamiliar to AAC users. Practical training sessions, clinician modelling and written materials may be helpful. A communication partner guide can be adapted to each individual AAC user who explains his or her communication preferences. Additionally, there is a need that the clinicians promote active rather than passive communication from AAC users, which requires that they have access to the necessary symbols.

  6. Decision Utility, Incentive Salience, and Cue-Triggered "Wanting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Kent C; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines brain mechanisms of reward utility operating at particular decision moments in life-moments such as when one encounters an image, sound, scent, or other cue associated in the past with a particular reward or perhaps just when one vividly imagines that cue. Such a cue can often trigger a sudden motivational urge to pursue its reward and sometimes a decision to do so. Drawing on a utility taxonomy that distinguishes among subtypes of reward utility-predicted utility, decision utility, experienced utility, and remembered utility-it is shown how cue-triggered cravings, such as an addict's surrender to relapse, can hang on special transformations by brain mesolimbic systems of one utility subtype, namely, decision utility. The chapter focuses on a particular form of decision utility called incentive salience, a type of "wanting" for rewards that is amplified by brain mesolimbic systems. Sudden peaks of intensity of incentive salience, caused by neurobiological mechanisms, can elevate the decision utility of a particular reward at the moment its cue occurs. An understanding of what happens at such moments leads to a better understanding of the mechanisms at work in decision making in general.

  7. Who wants to be involved in health care decisions? Comparing preferences for individual and collective involvement in England and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mio Fredriksson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient and public involvement (PPI is framed as positive for individuals, the health system, public health, as well as for communities and society as a whole. We investigated whether preferences for PPI differed between two countries with Beveridge type health systems–Sweden and England. We measured willingness to be involved in individual treatment decisions and in decisions about the organization and provision of local health and social care services. Methods This was a comparative cross-sectional study of the general population’s preferences. Together, the two samples included 3125 respondents; 1625 in England and 1500 in Sweden. Country differences were analysed in a multinomial regression model controlling for gender, age and educational attainment. Results Overall, 68% of respondents wanted a passive patient role and 44% wanted to be involved in local decisions about organization and provision of services. In comparison with in Sweden, they were in England less likely to want a health professional such as a GP or consultant to make decisions about their treatment and also more likely to want to make their own decisions. They were also less likely to want to be involved in local service development decisions. An increased likelihood of wanting to be involved in organizational decision-making was associated with individuals wanting to make their own treatment decisions. Women were less likely to want health professionals to make decisions and more likely to want to be involved in organizational decisions. Conclusions An effective health system that ensures public health must integrate an effective approach to PPI both in individual treatment decisions and shaping local health and social care priorities. To be effective, involvement activities must take in to account the variation in the desire for involvement and the implications that this has for equity. More work is needed to understand the relationship between the

  8. Farmers of Jin county want fewer children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M

    1986-04-01

    The economic reform practiced in the vast rural areas in China gives a great impetus to the vigorous development of rural economy and the the rapid improvement of living standard. Meanwhile, reform pounds at the traditional childbearing ideas. The striking change in the childbearing attitudes of the farmers of the Jin County is a good example. As the farmers of the country are getting well-off when the commodity economy develops rapidly with the rural economic reforms, their childbearing attitudes change. Profound changes have taken place in their mode of production and their life style. The young couples of the county begin to seek small families instead of traditional big ones. They are convinced that under the new situation of reforms, the farmers of an old generation are in no way competent as the head of the family to guide production and therefore want to build their own small families by freeing themselves from the binds of the traditional patriarchal system. The increase in the cost of bringing up children and the economic loss resulting from the absence from work for looking after children constitute another reason to prefer a small family. The son is no more the only economic guarantee for the aged. As a result of the rapid development of the rural economy, a retirement system has been established among the farmers of the Jin county. "It is unreliable to expect that the son will support his aged parents. Now it is better to earn more money and the collective can be depended upon by the aged."

  9. What do we want to talk about?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, P.

    1989-01-01

    Montreux is in the Swiss state of (Canton de) Vaud, which has repeatedly opposed nuclear energy in the polls and has turned dow a radioactive waste storage on its land, in Ollon, by 70 of the votes. In spite of this, the nuclear industry and the utilities want to impose this storage to the people of Ollon. Federal and cantonal authorities don't seem to support the people's decision. So a situation could arise where a storage for radioactive wastes is forced upon the people against their will. This is but one of the many unpleasant aspects of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy has been developed because our society has somehow become convinced that it couldn't do without an ever increasing supply of energy, particularly electricity. The question is why this is so. This means we have to discuss energy policy first. Nuclear energy helps in keeping mankind addicted to energy consumption so as to keep us worshipping the myth of economic expansion. Man has accepted to get the electricity for his appliances and gadgets out of a NPP that generates more than 100 ALIs (annual limit of intake) for every kWh produced? If the nuclear power plants were shut down today there would still remain 5000 of these ALIs in a hundred years from now. The total radioactive inventory in this world has already grown beyond sanity. In short the nuclear option symbolises the fact that in his quest for power society has lost its common sense and respect for the biosphere. But common sense and respect for the biosphere are needed for survival. Our choice is thus between nuclear energy and survival. We can't have both. I consequently suggest that we discuss how to phase out nuclear energy in a smooth way with a minimum of social disturbances. This will require a lot of technical know how because the problems will be enormous. The competence of all the specialists of nuclear energy will be extremely valuable to achieve this goal. It will also require cooperation and love between people who to this date

  10. Five Things Girls Want to Know about Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tampon. You also might want to wear dark-colored underwear and pants during your period. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  11. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) chickpea: India's most wanted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sumita

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... most wanted genetically modified (GM) pulse crop. Sumita Acharjee and Bidyut ... (predominantly, Helicoverpa armigera) and diseases, lack of supply of quality seeds, ... emerging from winter diapause. The trap crops are.

  12. Safety training for working youth: Methods used versus methods wanted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierold, Kristina M

    2016-04-07

    Safety training is promoted as a tool to prevent workplace injury; however, little is known about the safety training experiences young workers get on-the-job. Furthermore, nothing is known about what methods they think would be the most helpful for learning about safe work practices. To compare safety training methods teens get on the job to those safety training methods teens think would be the best for learning workplace safety, focusing on age differences. A cross-sectional survey was administered to students in two large high schools in spring 2011. Seventy percent of working youth received safety training. The top training methods that youth reported getting at work were safety videos (42%), safety lectures (25%), and safety posters/signs (22%). In comparison to the safety training methods used, the top methods youth wanted included videos (54%), hands-on (47%), and on-the-job demonstrations (34%). This study demonstrated that there were differences in training methods that youth wanted by age; with older youth seemingly wanting more independent methods of training and younger teens wanting more involvement. Results indicate that youth want methods of safety training that are different from what they are getting on the job. The differences in methods wanted by age may aid in developing training programs appropriate for the developmental level of working youth.

  13. What do teachers really want to know?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocherman, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The key to public acceptance and understanding of nuclear energy and power in the US is in the hands of the teachers in the thousands of public schools across the country. Teachers reach many students during their careers, and those students become the policymakers of the future. The attitudes they develop in school shape their beliefs and responses to the social and technical issues that they will encounter in their adult lives. This paper describes a successful radiation education program in a public high school and the way it is used to inspire teachers in the state of Florida and throughout the nation to teach more radiation concepts in their existing classes and encourage them to formulate strategies to establish radiation courses at their schools. It presents areas of particular interest to teachers and provides suggestions to members of the nuclear industry on how to organize and sponsor a successful teacher workshop

  14. 'I want a choice, but I don't want to decide'--a qualitative study of pregnant women's experiences regarding early ultrasound risk assessment for chromosomal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Ingvild; Möller, Anders

    2012-02-01

    To increase our understanding of how pregnant women experience early ultrasound examination that includes a risk assessment for chromosomal anomalies and how such women perceive the test results. Qualitative study at St. Olavs Hospital in Norway. Both pre- and post-examination interviews were conducted with ten pregnant women who underwent risk assessment for chromosomal anomalies. Grounded theory was used to analyse the results. The study generated a core category (I want a choice, but I don't want to decide), which related to the conflict between choice and decision making. There were also five main categories (existential choices, search for knowledge, anxiety, feeling of guilt and counselling and care). The main categories describe the complex feelings experienced by the women regarding the risk assessment. Factors contributing to the difficulty of choice included loss of control and coping, emotional connection to the fetus and social pressure. As the women sought independent choices without any external influence, they also felt greater responsibility. The women's understanding of the actual risk varied, and they used different types of logic and methods to evaluate the risk and reach a decision. The pregnant women in this study wanted prenatal diagnostic information and easy access to specialty services. Stress-related feelings and non-transparent information about the actual and perceived risks as well as personal moral judgments made the decision-making process complicated. Improved distribution of information and frequent contact with health professionals may help such women to make informed choices in accordance with their values and beliefs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. What the public want in nuclear use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    This article described public opinion poll by the web in October 2011 and considered human behavior facing a danger to understand silent majority's opinion change and what safety was required from the public. Web's social investigation showed (1) opposition to nuclear power with great anxiety (no admission and necessity of nuclear power was strong enough at east Japan (Tohoku, Niigata and Tokyo area)), (2) trust on electric utilities and government was lost and accident was thought manmade, and (3) as for radioactivity contamination, residents at east Japan were more acceptable than at west Japan (Osaka and Kyushu) (radiation hazards were scientifically better understood at east Japan). Human behavior facing a danger such as accident or natural disaster could be predicted by two factors: controllability and extend of damage. If recognized as controllable and damage was slightly greater than threshold, cost vs. benefit action or rational response might be taken. If recognized as controllable and damage were far beyond threshold, psychological excessive reaction would be taken. If recognized not controllable, apathy, patience and resignation would prevail dependent on extent of damage evaluation. Also 'confidence bias' would occur at facing a danger. Results of web poll and public opinion of silent majority were analyzed from these psychological aspect of human mind facing a danger. After the Fukushima accident, the public might require appropriate measures to assure (1) security not to allow the accident, (2) safety to minimize accident damage and (3) resilience for efficient and swift restoration from the damage. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Wanted! Nuclear Data for Dark Matter Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondolo, P.

    2014-01-01

    Astronomical observations from small galaxies to the largest scales in the universe can be consistently explained by the simple idea of dark matter. The nature of dark matter is however still unknown. Empirically it cannot be any of the known particles, and many theories postulate it as a new elementary particle. Searches for dark matter particles are under way: production at high-energy accelerators, direct detection through dark matter-nucleus scattering, indirect detection through cosmic rays, gamma rays, or effects on stars. Particle dark matter searches rely on observing an excess of events above background, and a lot of controversies have arisen over the origin of observed excesses. With the new high-quality cosmic ray measurements from the AMS-02 experiment, the major uncertainty in modeling cosmic ray fluxes is in the nuclear physics cross sections for spallation and fragmentation of cosmic rays off interstellar hydrogen and helium. The understanding of direct detection backgrounds is limited by poor knowledge of cosmic ray activation in detector materials, with order of magnitude differences between simulation codes. A scarcity of data on nucleon spin densities blurs the connection between dark matter theory and experiments. What is needed, ideally, are more and better measurements of spallation cross sections relevant to cosmic rays and cosmogenic activation, and data on the nucleon spin densities in nuclei

  17. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  18. Ombuds’ corner: “I want it to stop!”

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2013-01-01

    Most people that seek help from the Ombuds just want that their dispute ended, so they can get back to work in normal, respectful conditions. They clearly express it when I ask them what they want: “I want it to stop!” How should it stop? And who should stop it?   Ideally the interpersonal issues between the people working at or on behalf of CERN should be resolved between the colleagues concerned. This should really be expected in cases where the colleagues are part of the senior staff, for two main reasons: first, their high accountability to the institution should prevent them from falling into ineffective disputes; second, they are in charge of fostering dialogue among their supervisees and should not present such a detrimental image of fighting against each other. Where conflict arises between a manager and a supervisee, and mutual understanding cannot be reached, their management should act and stop the fight right away to prevent further escalation of the dispute. ...

  19. Feathering the nest: what women want from the birth environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Debbie; Newburn, Mary

    2006-07-01

    The National Childbirth Trust wants all women to be able to give birth with confidence and dignity, and believes it is important for women to begin motherhood feeling fit and well, good about themselves, and valued and supported by others. Good health and positive experiences can act as a buffer against the tiredness and demands of looking after a new baby. This paper draws on surveys conducted in 2003 and 2005 to describe what women want and need from birth environments, and how these factors can help or hinder them in having the kind of birth experience they desire.

  20. What Do Patients Want? Survey of Patient Desires for Education in an Urban University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seibert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study examines the emergency department (ED waiting room (WR population’s knowledge about the ED process and hospital function and explores the types of educational materials that might appeal to patients and their companions in an ED waiting room. Our goal was to identify potential high-impact opportunities for patient education. Methods: A 32-question survey about demographics, usage of primary care physicians (PCP, understanding of the ED and triage process, desire to know about delays, health education and understanding of teaching hospitals was offered to all qualified individuals. Results: Five hundred and forty-four surveys were returned. Fifty-five percent reported having a PCP, of which 53% (29% of all WR patients called a PCP prior to coming to the ED. It was found that 51.2% can define triage; 51% as an acuity assessment and 17% as a vital signs check. Sixty-nine percent knew why patients were seen according to triage priority. Seventy-two percent wanted to know about delays, yet only 25% wanted to know others’ wait times. People wanted updates every 41 minutes and only three percent wanted a physician to do this. Forty-one percent wanted information on how the ED functions, 60% via handouts and 43% via video. Information on updates and common medical emergencies is significantly more important than material on common illnesses, finding a PCP, or ED function (p<0.05. Median estimated time for medical workup ranged from 35 minutes for radiographs, to one hour for lab results, computed tomography, specialist consult, and admission. Sixty-nine percent knew the definition of a teaching hospital and of those, 87% knew they were at a teaching hospital. Subgroup analysis between racial groups showed significantly reduced knowledge of the definitions of triage and teaching hospitals and significantly increased desire for information on ED function in minority groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: The major findings in this study

  1. Functional neuroanatomy of human cortex cerebri in relation to wanting sex and having it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2015-04-01

    Neuroanatomical textbooks typically restrict the central nervous system control of sexual responsiveness to the hypothalamus, brainstem and spinal cord. However, for all its primitive functions human sex is surprisingly complex and versatile. This review aims to extend the neuroanatomy of sexual responsiveness by providing a comprehensive overview of the empirical evidence for cerebral cortical involvement. To this end I will structure relevant human brain research data to fit the sexual pleasure cycle template-wanting sex, having sex, inhibiting sex-arguing that going through these sexual response phases requires adequate shifting between functional cortical networks. The relevance of this notion for understanding certain sexual dysfunctions is discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Who Wants To Win a Million? A Library Media Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, Jolene

    2000-01-01

    Describes a library media game for grades four and five that is centered around books and is based on the television show "Who Wants To Be a Millionaire?". Procedures for the game are explained, and examples of questions from simple to more difficult, with answers, are presented. (LRW)

  3. Liking, wanting, and the incentive-sensitization theory of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Kent C; Robinson, Terry E

    2016-11-01

    Rewards are both "liked" and "wanted," and those 2 words seem almost interchangeable. However, the brain circuitry that mediates the psychological process of "wanting" a particular reward is dissociable from circuitry that mediates the degree to which it is "liked." Incentive salience or "wanting," a form of motivation, is generated by large and robust neural systems that include mesolimbic dopamine. By comparison, "liking," or the actual pleasurable impact of reward consumption, is mediated by smaller and fragile neural systems, and is not dependent on dopamine. The incentive-sensitization theory posits the essence of drug addiction to be excessive amplification specifically of psychological "wanting," especially triggered by cues, without necessarily an amplification of "liking." This is because of long-lasting changes in dopamine-related motivation systems of susceptible individuals, called "neural sensitization." A quarter-century after its proposal, evidence has continued to grow in support the incentive-sensitization theory. Further, its scope is now expanding to include diverse behavioral addictions and other psychopathologies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Can we understand consumers by asking them?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    Consumers make choices, and we want to understand or even predict them. This is the interest that has driven most of the consumer research we have seen over the decades. Sometimes we can understand choices just by looking at the environment in which they take place, but these cases are rare. So m...

  5. What do patients really know or want to know about x-rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, there is a general feeling that patients want to know all about everything that is to be done to or for them by the Medical Profession. Indeed the General Medical Council requires doctors to obtain informed consent' for all procedures. Should this apply to x-rays? Certainly a full explanation of complex procedures with risks and benefits explained is important, especially for interventional procedures. But do patients really need to know about dose, and if they are told, are they in a position to understand such information? Indeed, do patients really want to know much about their x-rays at all, other than the result? To try to answer these and other questions about patients' experiences in x-ray departments, a pilot study has been carried out in may department. This is ongoing. So far, (17/8/99), some 30 patients have completed a questionnaire which includes questions on their knowledge of radiation, including background radiation, techniques to be used, questions on what they want from medical staff in the way of explanations and just as important, when they should receive the explanations. The questionnaire will be presented and the reasons for the questions discussed. An analysis of the replies will be given. An initial assessment is that most patients would appreciate arriving in the x-ray department with a reasonable idea of why they were coming and what for, but there is a substantial minority who would rather not know. Few were interested in the radiation aspects, generally relying on medical staff to look after their interests. Patients' knowledge of radiation is generally vague. Many considered that ultrasound used ionising radiation. The paper will conclude with some ideas for the further education of, and explanations to, patients. (author)

  6. When Words were Wanted, But Woefully Wanting, We Waged War With Chess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitler, Burton Norman

    2016-12-01

    What do you say to a child who rarely speaks? How do you work with such a youngster? What are the sine qua nons or guiding principles upon which analysts can draw? And, how do we know if we are being helpful? Sam was 9-years when I began treating him. He was extremely withdrawn and rarely spoke more than a few words. Instead, he mainly played chess. I did not know at first whether Sam's taciturn demeanor was due to shyness, limited verbal abilities, or the stultifying effects of trauma. Fortuitously, during one of many seemingly "innocent" games of chess, Sam happened to make a bold move, to which I admiringly remarked, "What a move, you're killing me." His surprising reaction permanently altered the trajectory of treatment. Curiously, upon returning from summer vacation, not only did Sam no longer need to play chess, but he also found his voice. It was then that he began to discuss things for the first time. Initially, what he said was cloaked in symbolic and indirect referents, suggesting that there were things about which he still could not speak. I proceeded with patience and eventually Sam was able to disclose what he had been harboring inside. In this article, I will discuss the role and psychoanalytic meaning of chess in Sam's play therapy and how it served as a means of symbolically expressing an unspoken, yet ongoing trauma; how it non-verbally, and thus safely communicated Sam's desperate need for understanding and his urgent (but silent) disguised plea for help.

  7. Give the people what they want: studying end-user needs for enhancing the web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yeon Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available End-user programming (EUP is a common approach for helping ordinary people create small programs for their professional or daily tasks. Since end-users may not have programming skills or strong motivation for learning them, tools should provide what end-users want with minimal costs of learning –i.e., they must decrease the barriers to entry. However, it is often hard to address these needs, especially for fast-evolving domains such as the Web. To better understand these existing and ongoing challenges, we conducted two formative studies with Web users –a semi-structured interview study, and a Wizard-of-Oz study. The interview study identifies challenges that participants have with their daily experiences on the Web. The Wizard-of-Oz study investigates how participants would naturally explain three computational tasks to an interviewer acting as a hypothetical computer agent. These studies demonstrate a disconnect between what end-users want and what existing EUP systems support, and thus open the door for a path towards better support for end user needs. In particular, our findings include: (1 analysis of challenges that end-users experience on the Web with solutions; (2 seven core functionalities of EUP for addressing these challenges; (3 characteristics of non-programmers describing three common computation tasks; (4 design implications for future EUP systems.

  8. Cassandra's regret: The psychology of not wanting to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigerenzer, Gerd; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2017-03-01

    Ignorance is generally pictured as an unwanted state of mind, and the act of willful ignorance may raise eyebrows. Yet people do not always want to know, demonstrating a lack of curiosity at odds with theories postulating a general need for certainty, ambiguity aversion, or the Bayesian principle of total evidence. We propose a regret theory of deliberate ignorance that covers both negative feelings that may arise from foreknowledge of negative events, such as death and divorce, and positive feelings of surprise and suspense that may arise from foreknowledge of positive events, such as knowing the sex of an unborn child. We conduct the first representative nationwide studies to estimate the prevalence and predictability of deliberate ignorance for a sample of 10 events. Its prevalence is high: Between 85% and 90% of people would not want to know about upcoming negative events, and 40% to 70% prefer to remain ignorant of positive events. Only 1% of participants consistently wanted to know. We also deduce and test several predictions from the regret theory: Individuals who prefer to remain ignorant are more risk averse and more frequently buy life and legal insurance. The theory also implies the time-to-event hypothesis, which states that for the regret-prone, deliberate ignorance is more likely the nearer the event approaches. We cross-validate these findings using 2 representative national quota samples in 2 European countries. In sum, we show that deliberate ignorance exists, is related to risk aversion, and can be explained as avoiding anticipatory regret. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Mission impossible? The boss wants to double our inventory turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gips, J

    1998-11-01

    Despite the prolific implementation of manufacturing systems, JIT principles, Kaizen events, and cycle time reduction programs over the past few years, high inventories still plague many companies. The assumption that implementing these principles and techniques will automatically result in inventory levels that satisfy management frequently proves to be false. Events like mergers, introduction of new competition, and a dropoff in business often trigger edicts to cut inventories. The cost of inventories also extends beyond the traditional accounting measurements to include hidden operating costs that everyone should want to eliminate. This article looks at the reasons for inventories and explores strategies for reducing them.

  10. Capturing One of the Human Gut Microbiome's Most Wanted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeraldo, Patricio; Hernandez, Alvaro; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    The role of the microbiome in health and disease is attracting great attention, yet we still know little about some of the most prevalent microorganisms inside our bodies. Several years ago, Human Microbiome Project (HMP) researchers generated a list of "most wanted" taxa: bacteria both prevalent...... the environment, and to lack virulence genes. Thus, the evidence is consistent with a secondary degrader that occupies a host-dependent, nutrient scavenging niche within the gut; its ability to produce butyrate, which is thought to play an anti-inflammatory role, makes it intriguing for the study of diseases...

  11. Who Wants To Be an Astronomaire?-The Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2006-12-01

    You have all probably seen the game ``Who Wants To Be a Millionaire'' on television and have been drawn into the hot seat from your easy chair. Games like this one are popular among the public as entertainment, but they can also be educational. A game developed at the University of Central Florida (UCF) for large (>300) classes is used as a fun learning and assessment tool to establish who has enough wealth of astronomy knowledge to be labeled a Top Gamer. The pace is fast, hand-eye coordination is demanded, and instantaneous reasoning for easy questions and patience for more difficult questions are necessities, as is a long-term strategy.

  12. Marketing Research Merely Reflects The Needs And Wants of Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Theodossiou George; Kourti Chrisa

    2007-01-01

    In the recent years, marketers have focused their attention on the consumer. The aim is the acquisition of comparative advantage in the market. They have succeeded to develop organizations oriented to the market, and departments that support the competition strategy for the satisfaction of the needs and the wants of the consumers. The golden rule of Marketing says that a product is not sold but answers to a need of the market. To reveal this need question of the following type must be answere...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... decide how much information you want. If you do decide you want to know more, the doctor ... of time after diagnosis compared to people who do not have cancer. Overall survival This is the ...

  14. The Information Needs of New Radiotherapy Patients: How to Measure? Do They Want to Know Everything? And if Not, Why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeguers, Maaike; Haes, Hanneke C.J.M. de; Zandbelt, Linda C.; Hoeven, Claartje L. ter; Franssen, Sanne J.; Geijsen, Debbie D.; Koning, Caro C.E.; Smets, Ellen M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish 1) further psychometric properties of the information preference for radiotherapy patients scale (IPRP); 2) what information new radiotherapy patients want to receive; 3) which patients have a lower information need. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients (n = 159; response rate 54%) of 15 radiation oncologists completed the IPRP and provided background characteristics before their first radiotherapy consultation. Exclusion criteria were: age <18 years, having undergone radiotherapy before, unable to read and write Dutch, cognitive problems or a brain tumor. Results: Reliability (Cronbach’s alpha 0.84–0.97) and concurrent validity (r from .39 to .57, p < 0.001) of the subscales of the IPRP were good. New radiotherapy patients want extensive information about their disease, treatment, procedures, side effects, and prognosis (mean scores between 4.1 and 4.4 on a scale from 1 to 5) but less information about psychosocial issues (mean = 3.4). Patients who are older and male, have lung or rectal cancer, more difficulty understanding and a higher trait anxiety level, need less information. Conclusions: The IPRP can reliably and validly address information needs of patients undergoing radiation treatment. Most new radiotherapy patients want much information. Yet, information giving should be tailored according to their background, understanding and anxiety.

  15. The Information Needs of New Radiotherapy Patients: How to Measure? Do They Want to Know Everything? And if Not, Why?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeguers, Maaike; Haes, Hanneke C.J.M. de [Department of Medical Psychology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zandbelt, Linda C. [Department of Quality and Process Innovation, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoeven, Claartje L. ter; Franssen, Sanne J. [Department of Medical Psychology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geijsen, Debbie D.; Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smets, Ellen M.A., E-mail: e.m.smets@amc.uva.nl [Department of Medical Psychology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish 1) further psychometric properties of the information preference for radiotherapy patients scale (IPRP); 2) what information new radiotherapy patients want to receive; 3) which patients have a lower information need. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients (n = 159; response rate 54%) of 15 radiation oncologists completed the IPRP and provided background characteristics before their first radiotherapy consultation. Exclusion criteria were: age <18 years, having undergone radiotherapy before, unable to read and write Dutch, cognitive problems or a brain tumor. Results: Reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.84-0.97) and concurrent validity (r from .39 to .57, p < 0.001) of the subscales of the IPRP were good. New radiotherapy patients want extensive information about their disease, treatment, procedures, side effects, and prognosis (mean scores between 4.1 and 4.4 on a scale from 1 to 5) but less information about psychosocial issues (mean = 3.4). Patients who are older and male, have lung or rectal cancer, more difficulty understanding and a higher trait anxiety level, need less information. Conclusions: The IPRP can reliably and validly address information needs of patients undergoing radiation treatment. Most new radiotherapy patients want much information. Yet, information giving should be tailored according to their background, understanding and anxiety.

  16. Atoms Want to Be Free Too! Expanding the Critique of Intellectual Property to Physical Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Söderberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available “Atoms are the new bits”. That is the latest buzz arising from the Californian trade press. What do we get when this dictum is sampled with the old rallying cry: “Information wants to be free”? We suggest that the predominant, bounded critique of intellectual property is thereby destabilised. Constitutive of that critique was the exceptionality attributed to information goods (bits vis-a-vis tangible goods (atoms. It was thus intellectual property could be presented as something altogether different from private property. We recognise that this way of framing the issue has had tactical advantages, but contend that it has stood in the way of a deeper understanding of what intellectual property is. When the critique of proprietary software is expanded by an emerging movement for open hardware development, however, the boundary between intellectual property and property as such crumbles. This enables us to renew our critique of the political economy of information.

  17. Career dreams among health care students: 'I want to make a difference.'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øster, Inge; Munk, Karen; Henriksen, Jette

    2017-01-01

    . Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate career dreams among undergraduate students in health care majors in order to understand what motivates them. Method: Eighteen focus group interviews were carried out with students at health care education institutions at the beginning and end...... of their study period. Narrative analysis was performed within a sociological frame. Findings: Four narratives emerged: The students do not consider working with elderly people; they dream of making a difference; they want a lot of activity in their future jobs; and, finally, during education the clinical...... location has a big impact in stimulating the interest in the elderly. Discussion: There is a need for changing the way we talk about older adults everywhere, not just in health care education. Attention must be drawn to the fact that geriatrics and gerontology do not cover the components students...

  18. "Maintaining connections but wanting more": the continuity of familial relationships among assisted-living residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Catherine J; Ihara, Emily S; Cusick, Alison; Park, Nan Sook

    2012-01-01

    Social support is a key component of well-being for older adults, particularly for those who have moved from independent living to assisted living involving a transformation of roles, relationships, and responsibilities. Twenty-nine assisted-living facility residents were interviewed to understand the perceived continuity of relationships with family and friends. An inductive approach to thematic analysis revealed 1 main theme and 3 subthemes. The main theme that emerged was: maintaining connections but wanting more. Residents appreciated maintaining connections with family and friends, but often expressed feelings of discontentment with the continuity of former relationships. The subthemes included: appreciating family and friends, waiting for more, and losing control. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  19. Co-providing: understanding the logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Pamela S

    2011-11-01

    Continuing nursing education providers have sometimes said that they don't want to co-provide because "it's too much trouble" or they "won't be able to control what happens" or because they don't understand the process. This column clarifies the logistics of the co-provider relationship. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Volunteers wanted for the Telethon "Children of the World" gathering

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The Telethon 2000, that will take place at Divonne-les-Bains on 8 and 9 December, organises a gathering of children from all over the world. The purpose of this annual event is to raise money for research about genetically transmitted diseases. 200 children of all nationalities aged between 8 and 14 will parade during the opening ceremony carrying their national flags. They will also take part in the closing ceremony. The children, who must be accompanied, will be welcomed by a girl or boy of their own age from the Pays de Gex. The Telethon event will be shown live on the French television. If you want to sign your child up, please contact : Giacomo Busetta Tel. + 41 22 767 85 89 Mobile + 41 79 201 43 72 Fax + 41 22 767 63 00 ; Email : Giacomo.Busetta@cern.ch The parental consent form to fill is in the bulletin 44/2000.

  1. COGAIN2009 - "Gaze interaction for those who want it most"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , with substantial amounts of applications to support communication, learning and entertainment already in use. However, there are still some uncertainties about this new technology amongst communication specialists and funding institutions. The 5th COGAIN conference will focus on spreading the experiences of people...... using gaze interaction in their daily life to potential users and specialists who have yet to benefit from it. The theme of the conference is "Gaze interaction for those who want it most". We present a total of 18 papers that have been reviewed and accepted by leading researchers and communication...... specialists. Several papers address gaze-based access to computer applications and several papers focus on environmental control. Previous COGAIN conferences have been a most effective launch pad for original new research ideas. Some of them have since found their way into journals and other conferences...

  2. Who Wants Gender When You Can Have Sex?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Garrido

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an overview about the definition of both network and work within feminist movement networks, and about some of the last regional coordination experiences, the article sets out the question: “Articulation: how, where from and what for”. Three large working guidelines are suggested, that, in several cases, guide or might guide regional feminist action. Insertion in World Social Forum takes part of the incidence strategy that Marcosur Feminist Articulation has adopted in order to answer this question. And election of subject matter and style of the campaign “Your mouth, fundamental against fundamentalisms”, is a way to respond to the one that says: “who wants gender, when one can have sex?”

  3. Twistor Cosmology and Quantum Space-Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, D.C.; Hughston, L.P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a model of a 'quantum space-time' in which the global symmetries of space-time are unified in a coherent manner with the internal symmetries associated with the state space of quantum-mechanics. If we take into account the fact that these distinct families of symmetries should in some sense merge and become essentially indistinguishable in the unified regime, our framework may provide an approximate description of or elementary model for the structure of the universe at early times. The quantum elements employed in our characterisation of the geometry of space-time imply that the pseudo-Riemannian structure commonly regarded as an essential feature in relativistic theories must be dispensed with. Nevertheless, the causal structure and the physical kinematics of quantum space-time are shown to persist in a manner that remains highly analogous to the corresponding features of the classical theory. In the case of the simplest conformally flat cosmological models arising in this framework, the twistorial description of quantum space-time is shown to be effective in characterising the various physical and geometrical properties of the theory. As an example, a sixteen-dimensional analogue of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies is constructed, and its chronological development is analysed in some detail. More generally, whenever the dimension of a quantum space-time is an even perfect square, there exists a canonical way of breaking the global quantum space-time symmetry so that a generic point of quantum space-time can be consistently interpreted as a quantum operator taking values in Minkowski space. In this scenario, the breakdown of the fundamental symmetry of the theory is due to a loss of quantum entanglement between space-time and internal quantum degrees of freedom. It is thus possible to show in a certain specific sense that the classical space-time description is an emergent feature arising as a consequence of a quantum averaging over the internal degrees of freedom. The familiar probabilistic features of the quantum state, represented by properties of the density matrix, can then be seen as a by-product of the causal structure of quantum space-time

  4. What a medical school chair wants from the dean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hromas R

    2018-05-01

    awkward topics, and skill in improving relations with the teaching hospital were judged as desirable attributes of a dean. Interestingly, only 23% of chairs want to be a dean in the future. Financial acumen was the least important skill a chair thought a dean should hold, which is in contrast to the skill set for which many deans are hired and evaluated. After reviewing the literature and analyzing these responses, we assert that medical school chairs want their dean to maintain more traditional leadership than that needed by a health care system executive, such as articulating a vision for the future and keeping their promises. Thus, there appears to be a mismatch between what medical school chairs perceive they need from their dean and how the success of a dean is evaluated. Keywords: academic medicine deans, leadership characteristics, organizational values

  5. Access to abortion: what women want from abortion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen R; Sandhu, Supna

    2008-04-01

    Whether Canadian physicians can refuse to refer women for abortion and whether private clinics can charge for abortions are matters of controversy. We sought to identify barriers to access for women seeking therapeutic abortion and to have them identify what they considered to be most important about access to abortion services. Women presenting for abortion over a two-month period at two free-standing abortion clinics, one publicly funded and the other private, were invited to participate in the study. Phase I of the study involved administration of a questionnaire seeking information about demographics, perceived barriers to access to abortion, and what the women wanted from abortion services. Phase II involved semi-structured interviews of a convenience sample of women to record their responses to questions about access. Responses from Phase I questionnaires were compared between the two clinics, and qualitative analysis was performed on the interview responses. Of 423 eligible women, 402 completed questionnaires, and of 45 women approached, 39 completed interviews satisfactorily. Women received information about abortion services from their physicians (60.0%), the Internet (14.8%), a telephone directory (7.8%), friends or family (5.3%), or other sources (12.3%). Many had negative experiences in gaining access. The most important issue regarding access was the long wait time; the second most important issue was difficulty in making appointments. In the private clinic, 85% of the women said they were willing to pay for shorter wait times, compared with 43.5% in the public clinic. Physicians who failed to refer patients for abortion or provide information about obtaining an abortion caused distress and impeded access for a significant minority of women requesting an abortion. Management of abortion services should be prioritized to reflect what women want: particularly decreased wait times for abortion and greater ease and convenience in booking appointments

  6. [What Do Young Surgeons Want? Modern Requirements for Senior Surgeons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeth, Anjali A; Mille, Markus

    2018-02-01

    Due to the shortage of surgical specialists, the question arises as to what surgical residents want and how the fascination of general and visceral surgery may be highlighted. The surgical working group "Young Surgeons" (CAJC) of the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) has organised and subdivided the aspects of an attractive surgical workplace and provides solutions. On the one hand, there is the structured and transparent residency which includes a defined curriculum, assistance of sub-steps during surgery, residency dialogues held on a regular basis, logbooks, the possibility of training and simulation in the clinic as well as permission to participate in further education and training. This has to go hand in hand with a "livable surgery" that is characterised by the compatibility of family and work, better planning of the routine in the clinic, a positive feedback culture, work-life balance, new work (time) models and more time for teaching and research. For many of these aspects, the head of surgery has to be the central role model to initiate structural changes in the clinic, especially as many of these key points may be easily implemented. In this way, the attraction of surgery can be rapidly enhanced and a "livable surgery" may be lived. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Public education: Learning to say what we want to say

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimlich, J.E.; Manel, K.M.; Fentiman, A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Most people involved in the public arena know that people often react with fear and concern to the word {open_quotes}radiation.{close_quotes} It is also known that many of these same people readily admit they have little knowledge of the topic. As publics are facing the demands of decision making related to low level radioactive waste, discussions of high level waste challenges, and confusing information regarding what are sound data, the difficulty in conveying good, science based information to the public is increased. In examining the various groups involved in the low level radioactive waste (LLRW) discussions, it is some of the environmental activist groups with an anti-nuclear goal whose messages are heard by the general public. Why do these groups succeed and others not? This paper will provide a cursory examination of issues surrounding how people hear the radiation science message, what people want and need to know versus what the scientific literature contains and provide examples of how information is presented from the LLRW Education Program at Ohio State University.

  8. Where do students in the health professions want to work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birden Hudson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural and remote areas of Australia are facing serious health workforce shortages. While a number of schemes have been developed to improve recruitment to and retention of the rural health workforce, they will be effective only if appropriately targeted. This study examines the factors that most encourage students attending rural clinical placements to work in rural Australia, and the regions they prefer. Methods The Careers in Rural Health Tracking Survey was used to examine the factors that most influence medical, nursing and allied health students' preference for practice locations and the locations preferred. Results Students showed a preference for working in large urban centres within one year, but would consider moving to a more rural location later in life. Only 10% of students surveyed said they would never work in a rural community with a population of less than 10 000. Almost half the sample (45% reported wanting to work overseas within five years. The type of work available in rural areas was found to be the factor most likely to encourage students to practice rurally, followed by career opportunities and challenge Conclusion The decision to practise rurally is the result of a complex interaction between a number of factors including ethnicity, discipline, age and sex, among others. Incentives that aim to entice all students to rural practice while considering only one of these variables are likely to be inadequate.

  9. Deciding what information is necessary: do patients with advanced cancer want to know all the details?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell BJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bethany J Russell, Alicia M WardSouthern Adelaide Palliative Services, Repatriation General Hospital, Daw Park, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Communicating effectively with patients who have advanced cancer is one of the greatest challenges facing physicians today. Whilst guiding the patient through complex diagnostic and staging techniques, treatment regimens and trials, the physician must translate often imprecise or conflicting data into meaningful personalized information that empowers the patient to make decisions about their life and body. This requires understanding, compassion, patience, and skill. This narrative literature review explores current communication practices, information preferences of oncology patients and their families, and communication strategies that may assist in these delicate interactions. Overwhelmingly, the literature suggests that whilst the majority of patients with advanced cancer do want to know their diagnosis and receive detailed prognostic information, this varies not only between individuals but also for a given individual over time. Barriers to the delivery and understanding of information exist on both sides of the physician–patient relationship, and family dynamics are also influential. Despite identifiable trends, the information preferences of a particular patient cannot be reliably predicted by demographic, cultural, or cancer-specific factors. Therefore, our primary recommendation is that the physician regularly asks the patient what information they would like to know, who else should be given the information and be involved in decision making, and how that information should be presented.Keywords: metastatic, communication, prognosis, physician–patient relations

  10. When hunger does (or doesn't) increase unhealthy and healthy food consumption through food wanting: The distinctive role of impulsive approach tendencies toward healthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Audrin, Catherine; Sarrazin, Philippe; Pelletier, Luc

    2017-09-01

    Hunger indirectly triggers unhealthy high-calorie food consumption through its positive effect on the incentive value (or "wanting") for food. Yet, not everyone consumes unhealthy food in excess, suggesting that some individuals react differently when they are exposed to unhealthy high-calorie food, even when they are hungry. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether individual differences in impulsive approach tendencies toward food may explain how, and for whom, hunger will influence unhealthy food consumption through its effect on food wanting. A complementary goal was to explore whether these individual differences also influence healthy food consumption. Students (N = 70) completed a questionnaire measuring their hunger and food wanting. Then, they performed a manikin task designed to evaluate their impulsive approach tendencies toward unhealthy food (IAUF) and healthy food (IAHF). The main outcomes variables were the amount of sweets (i.e., unhealthy food) and raisins (i.e., healthy food) consumed during a product-testing task. A moderated mediation analysis revealed that the indirect effect of hunger on unhealthy consumption through food wanting was moderated by IAHF. Specifically, hunger positively predicted sweets consumption through wanting for food among individuals with a low or moderate, but not high IAHF. The moderated mediation pattern was, however, not confirmed for IAUF. Finally, results revealed a direct and positive effect of IAHF on raisins consumption. These findings showed that IAHF play a protective role by preventing hunger to indirectly increase unhealthy food consumption through wanting for food. It confirms the importance of considering how individuals may differ in their impulsive approach tendencies toward food to better understand why some individuals will increase their unhealthy food intake when they are hungry, whereas other will not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. I want it and I want it now: using a temporal discounting paradigm to examine predictors of consumer impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Helga; Bond, Rod

    2010-11-01

    This paper proposes a new model of consumer impulsivity, using type of good, a person's endorsement of materialistic values, and identity deficits as predictors. Traditional decision making and psychological accounts see impulsive behaviour as a general overweighing of short-term gratification (I want that dress now) relative to longer-term concerns, irrespective of consumer good. Our proposal is that consumers' impulsivity (a) differs according to type of good and (b) is linked systematically to a combination of materialistic values and high identity deficits. Beginning with Study 1, three experiments, using a temporal discounting paradigm, show consistently that discount rates are higher for goods that are seen as highly expressive of identity (e.g., clothes) than goods not expressive of identity (e.g., basic body care products). For materialistic consumers, identity deficits predict discount rates for identity-expressive goods (Study 2), and discount rates change for materialistic individuals when their identity deficits are made salient (Study 3). These findings support a conceptualization of consumer impulsivity as identity-seeking behaviour.

  12. Do prostate cancer patients want to choose their own radiation treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol-Geerdink, J.J. van; Stalmeier, P.F.M.; Lin, E.N.J.T. van; Schimmel, E.C.; Huizenga, H.; Daal, W.A.J. van; Leer, J.W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate whether prostate cancer patients want to be involved in the choice of the radiation dose, and which patients want to be involved. Methods and Materials: This prospective study involved 150 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with

  13. Doctor, quiero una talla 100 Doctor, I want size 100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Amorrortu

    2009-09-01

    volume does she want. The method to value patient's breast volume and the one she would like to have is limited by technical problems and by the low accuracy in the psyco-social interpretation of measurements and calculation that can be done. The aim of this study was to find a way to relate patient's breast volume, the bra that she uses and the bra that she wants to use, with the volume of the breast implant needed to get the desired cup bra. We collected anthropomorphic thoracic and breast measures in 100 women between 18 and 32 years old candidates to a prosthetic breast augmentation and made an evaluation about the size of the bra they were wearing and the bra that they would like to use after surgery procedure. We studied the volume of the cup of the bras related to the calibration system of usual commercial measures. Patients were asked for two questions: ¿what volume of cup and contour bra does she use? and ¿what volume of cup and contour bra does she want to use?, and the responses were related to the previous measurements. We looked for that breast implant that, complementing the volume of the breast cup, could fill the cup of the desired bras. Knowing the commercial sizes of the bras, the bra size that the patients uses, which bra she would like to use, and knowing the measures of chest contour, breast contour (or thoracomammary contour, projection, diameter and mammary contour we can select the most adequate breast implant in every patient in order to get satisfactory results.

  14. Do I still want to take this? Soll ich das wirklich schlucken? Uncertainty avoidance in English and German PILs - a contrastive study

    OpenAIRE

    Verplaetse, Heidi; Wermuth, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    Do I still want to take this? Soll ich das wirklich schlucken? Uncertainty avoidance in English and German PILs - a contrastive study Aim and focus The current study aims to compare the linguistic means used in German and English patient information leaflets (PILs) for patients’ understanding and behaviour concerning medicine intake. We focus on the expression of uncertainty avoidance. Background Three studies and a European guideline lie at the basis of the current study. ...

  15. What Does Industry Really Want in a Knowledge Management System? A Longitudinal Study of Taiwanese Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang-Chih; Lu, Hsi-Peng

    This paper depicts a longitudinal investigation of knowledge management system development from industrial perspectives. Snapshots on three surveys (2002, 2006, and 2010) of Taiwanese companies were conducted and compared, which is to explore the perceived understandings and requirements for the applications of a knowledge management system.From the surveys, it was found that the most useful applications were document management, knowledge search and retrieval, and knowledge repository and map. The emerging applications were expert management, document security, and knowledge automation such as auto-classification, auto-abstract and auto-keyword generation. The most wanted services along with KMS were consulting service, success story-sharing, and modularization while deploying knowledge management system in the enterprises. The trends and transformation of a KM system were also collected and analyzed. We suggest that a company should use different knowledge management approach according to its corporate main business function. Combing intellectual capital theories proposed by other researchers, we categorize knowledge management focus as staff-centric, system-centric, and customer-centric knowledge from industrial perspectives.

  16. What parents want from doctors in end-of-life decision-making for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J; Monagle, P; Gillam, L

    2014-03-01

    End-of-life decision-making is difficult for everyone involved, as many studies have shown. Within this complexity, there has been little information on how parents see the role of doctors in end-of-life decision-making for children. This study aimed to examine parents' views and experiences of end-of-life decision-making. A qualitative method with a semistructured interview design was used. Parent participants were living in the community. Twenty-five bereaved parents. Parents reported varying roles taken by doctors: being the provider of information without opinion; giving information and advice as to the decision that should be taken; and seemingly being the decision maker for the child. The majority of parents found their child's doctor enabled them to be the ultimate decision maker for their child, which was what they very clearly wanted to be, and consequently enabled them to exercise their parental autonomy. Parents found it problematic when doctors took over decision-making. A less frequently reported, yet significant role for doctors was to affirm decisions after they had been made by parents. Other important aspects of the doctor's role were to provide follow-up support and referral. Understanding the role that doctors take in end-of-life decisions, and the subsequent impact of that role from the perspective of parents can form the basis of better informed clinical practice.

  17. Reasons for Leaving Home: Comparing Predictors of Wanting to Migrate and Travel in Croatian Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyu Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has relied on the assumption that people migrate from a poor to a rich country. This study instead looks at predictors of desires for migration away from a relatively well-off country in Eastern Europe. Predictors for both long-term, permanent international migration and short-term, leisure international travel are compared. A survey was administered to 323 undergraduates in Osijek, Croatia. Power motivation, career orientation, neophilia and place attachment were examined as predictors. As predicted, career orientation, place attachment, and neophilia are significant predictors for desires for long-term international migration for both men and women. Power motivation, career orientation and neophilia predicted women’s travel intentions, but only neophilia predicted men’s travel intentions. Gender differences in travel intentions are discussed. The role of economic and noneconomic factors and predictions for future migration in Croatia are examined. The data allow better understanding of the reasons why Eastern Europeans want to leave their home country. It also has implication for gender differences on reasons for traveling. Such gender differences might relate to more effective marketing strategies targeting male and female tourists from Eastern Europe.

  18. WHO wants more use of irradiated food, calls for education programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Short note. The World Health Organization (WHO) has taken aim at critics of irradiated food, claiming that the process has the potential to reduce the incidence of foodborne diseases such as salmonellosis, to cut postharvest food losses and to provide a wider variety of foods for consumers. 'The unwarranted rejection of this process, often based on lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails, may hamper its use in those countries which may benefit most', Dr. Jean-Paul Jardel, WHO's assistant director-general, argued following a recent international conference on the subject. Critics, including Canadians, has opposed food irradiation for years, claiming that more needs to be known about its effects. WHO said the 'vast majority' of the 54 national delegations at the conference supported use of the technology on foods ranging from grain and potatoes to poultry, tropical fruit and strawberries. WHO wants governments to educate the public on the benefits and safety of irradiation because 'strange as it may seem, at least to the scientific community, this misconception (that irradiated food is radioactive) proves to be a stumbling block in general public acceptance of irradiated food'

  19. Wanting better: a qualitative study of low-income parents about their children's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlotte W; Linsenmayer, Kristi A; Williams, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, the purpose of this study was to understand low-income parents' experiences and how these influenced their oral health-related behavior toward their children. Twenty-eight parents were recruited from 7 sites that serve low-income families. Interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed, were comprised of mostly open-ended questions. Transcripts were analyzed for common themes. Parents' experiences influenced their oral health-related beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Finding dentists who accept Medicaid was the greatest barrier to realizing intended preventive dental care. Physicians appeared to have relatively little impact on these families' oral health care, even though parents believed that oral health is part of overall health care. WIC (the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children) played an important role in facilitating oral health knowledge and access to dental care. Most low-income parents had received little attention to their own oral health, yet wanted better for their children. This motivated the high value placed on their children's preventive oral health. Parents faced challenges finding dental care for their children. Difficulty finding a regular source of dental care for low-income adults, however, was nearly universal. The authors identified strategies, which emerged from their interviews, to improve the oral health knowledge and dental care access for these low-income families.

  20. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  1. Roles of "Wanting" and "Liking" in Motivating Behavior: Gambling, Food, and Drug Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M J F; Fischer, A M; Ahuja, A; Lesser, E N; Maniates, H

    2016-01-01

    The motivation to seek out and consume rewards has evolutionarily been driven by the urge to fulfill physiological needs. However in a modern society dominated more by plenty than scarcity, we tend to think of motivation as fueled by the search for pleasure. Here, we argue that two separate but interconnected subcortical and unconscious processes direct motivation: "wanting" and "liking." These two psychological and neuronal processes and their related brain structures typically work together, but can become dissociated, particularly in cases of addiction. In drug addiction, for example, repeated consumption of addictive drugs sensitizes the mesolimbic dopamine system, the primary component of the "wanting" system, resulting in excessive "wanting" for drugs and their cues. This sensitizing process is long-lasting and occurs independently of the "liking" system, which typically remains unchanged or may develop a blunted pleasure response to the drug. The result is excessive drug-taking despite minimal pleasure and intense cue-triggered craving that may promote relapse long after detoxification. Here, we describe the roles of "liking" and "wanting" in general motivation and review recent evidence for a dissociation of "liking" and "wanting" in drug addiction, known as the incentive sensitization theory (Robinson and Berridge 1993). We also make the case that sensitization of the "wanting" system and the resulting dissociation of "liking" and "wanting" occurs in both gambling disorder and food addiction.

  2. Testing the incentive-sensitization theory with at-risk drinkers: wanting, liking, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostafin, Brian D; Marlatt, G Alan; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2010-03-01

    Motivational models of addiction typically propose that alcohol and drugs are desired because of their hedonic effects (i.e., increasing pleasure or reducing distress). In contrast, the incentive-sensitization theory proposes that wanting motivation and liking motivation are separable and that after repeated substance use, motivation shifts from liking to wanting. Using a sample of 85 at-risk drinkers (as defined by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism), in the current study we examined the separability of liking motivation and wanting motivation for alcohol and whether years of drinking experience was associated with an increased role for wanting motivation and a decreased role for liking motivation. Consumption was measured with a free-drinking task. Wanting motivation was assessed immediately before drinking, and liking was assessed immediately after drinking had begun. The results indicated that (a) wanting motivation predicted variance of consumption unique from that accounted for by liking motivation, (b) longer drinking experience was associated with a decreased relation between liking motivation and consumption, and (c) longer drinking experience was not associated with an increased relation between wanting motivation and consumption. The results provide partial support for the incentive-sensitization theory.

  3. What Millennial Preservice Teachers Want to Learn in Their Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah K.; Byrnes, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    As teacher educators, we implore teacher candidates to understand the cultures and experiences of their students to engage them in learning. Yet, preservice teachers are seldom asked what they hope to learn in their training to become teachers of young children. In this study, we examined the interests, resources, and expectations of millennial…

  4. How to give your users the LIS services they want

    CERN Document Server

    Pantry, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    With the challenges of a constantly changing job market, shifting information-seeking behaviour and a vast array of resources continually being produced, library and information services need to constantly keep one step, or more, ahead of their users. This text helps in understanding users of the services - the what, why, where, when, how and who.

  5. I don't want to grow old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Sharp-Johansen, Marie-Louise; Evron, Lotte

    Through participant observation, we explored students' understanding of the aging process and how they learn wearing an old age simulation suit. The students engaged in everyday life activities such as eating, climbing stairs, getting in and out of bed. The suit enables students to experience...

  6. KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING AND ADVANCED SEARCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vidya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It’s a comprehensive fact that millions of people around the world surf the Internet for want of answers for their questions. Generally, the questions are asked in the form of Searching or direct questions which follow perfect ontological directions. It is important that the system understands the questions in the right sense and can provide the best answer for all the questions raised in the web forum. One such pragmatic method is required which is expected to provide optimum solution to achieve best answers for questions that not only percepts language but also follows perfect ontological information in accordance with the cyber law. This Proposed Model presents a new dynamic model called Knowledge Understanding and Advance Searching (KUAS that studies the importance of Smart Question Answering with other question answering engines like START and proves to give the optimal solution compared to them.

  7. Embodied Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Leonard Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  8. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  9. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  10. Waste not - want not. DOE appropriate technology small grants program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The work reported was to look at various alternatives for local solid waste management and develop an implementation strategy for a resource conservation and recovery plan for the community of Berea, Kentucky. A library on recycling and conservation of resources was compiled, and state and local plans were examined. To get a better understanding of how the community would respond to a waste reduction and recycling program, a series of surveys was conducted. A community recycling project plan is proposed. (LEW)

  11. PRODUCTIVE GENERATIONS AND CAREERS: WHAT DO (Y GEN WOMEN WANT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Heloísa Costa Lemos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the attention that Generation Y has received in recent times, studies that map the attitudes related to work of these individuals has devoted little attention to understanding the differences that gender can produce in the same generational group. However, we believe that gender differences should be better understood, because, according to the IBGE (2012, women represent 45.4% of the current Brazilian labor force. The growing importance of women in the labor market brings the challenge for organizations to attract and retain that portion of the workforce, whose demands are not necessarily equal those of men. The scarcity of studies on the expectations related to career of Gen Y women motivated the present work, which sought to understand the desires of young professionals with regard to the construction of their professional careers. To answer these questions we carried out a qualitative research, interviewing young women born between 1980 and 2000. We tried to understand what these professionals expect from its insertion in the labor market. The results confirm the analysis of the descriptions of the recent literature on Yrs, because the interviewees proved eager for success, professional recognition and attractive remuneration, but also highlight differences and indicate some specifics aspects related to the gender considerations, as expressed by these young woman, which expect to lower their work dedication when they become mothers and wives.

  12. Want to have more voltage on the job; Vil ha mer spenning paa jobben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Marte

    2010-07-01

    The central grid is normally unconnected when it should be upgraded or repaired. More pressure on the lines, however, make both Statnet and Swedish Kraftnaet wanting more work done under voltage. (AG)

  13. Teens: Want a Brighter Smile? Visit the Dentist, Not the Shopping Mall

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Brighter Smile? Visit the Dentist, not the Shopping Mall Article Chapters Teens: Want a Brighter Smile? Visit the Dentist, not the Shopping Mall print full article print this chapter email this ...

  14. Variety in Parental Use of "Want" Relates to Subsequent Growth in Children's Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Puri, Aastha; Galloway, Olivia; Su, Japher; Taumoepeau, Mele

    2018-01-01

    In 2 cross-lagged, longitudinal studies we contrasted parental talk about want in a single context versus multiple contexts. Study 1 examined thirty-two 2 year olds, with mothers describing pictures to children. Mothers could use want in zero, one, or multiple contexts. Children whose mothers used want in multiple contexts experienced a…

  15. What Do Parents Want?: An Analysis of Education-Related Comments Made by Parents of Children with Different Genetic Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Deborah J.; Lawson, John E.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of educational desires found parents of children with Down syndrome (n=39) wanted changes in speech therapy and reading services, parents of children with Prader-Willi syndrome (n=25) wanted increases in adaptive physical education services, and parents of children with Williams syndrome (n=26) wanted increases in music services and…

  16. Understanding Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Eugene W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Urges returning to the original federalist debates to understand contemporary federalism. Reviews "The Federalist Papers," how federalism has evolved, and the centralization of the national government through acts of Congress and Supreme Court decisions. Recommends teaching about federalism as part of teaching about U.S. government…

  17. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  18. Dissociation between wanting and liking for alcohol and caffeine: A test of the Incentive Sensitisation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulkadacham, Lilani J; Richardson, Ben; Staiger, Petra K; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; O'Donnell, Renée L; Ling, Mathew

    2017-07-01

    Limited human studies have directly tested the dissociation between wanting and liking with human substance users, a core tenet of the Incentive Sensitisation Theory (IST). The aim of this study is to test the dissociation between wanting and liking in humans across two commonly used licit substances, alcohol and caffeine. The STRAP-R (Sensitivity To Reinforcement of Addictive and other Primary Rewards) questionnaire was administered to 285 alcohol users (mean age=33.30, SD= 8.83) and 134 coffee users (mean age=33.05, SD=8.10) ranging in their levels of substance use to assess wanting and liking. Findings showed that in high risk alcohol users wanting may drive alcohol consumption more so than liking, compared with low risk alcohol users. However, wanting and liking did not significantly dissociate as alcohol consumption increased. These findings partially support IST. Additionally, IST was not supported in coffee users. It is possible that caffeine functions differently at the neurological level compared with alcohol, perhaps explaining the lack of dissociation emerging in coffee users as caffeine use increased. Nevertheless, the current study makes several contributions to IST research. Future studies should focus on utilising the STRAP-R with a clinically dependent sample to test the dissociation between wanting and liking.

  19. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  20. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home About Cancer Diagnosis and Staging Diagnosis and Staging ... If you want treatment How to best take care of yourself and manage treatment side effects How ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to deal with financial and legal matters Many people want to know their prognosis. They find it ... that researchers have collected over many years about people with the same type of cancer. Several types ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Many people want to know their prognosis. They find it easier to cope when they know more ... this information on your own. Or, you may find statistics confusing and frightening, and think they are ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance ... take care of yourself and manage treatment side effects How to deal with financial and legal matters Many people want to know ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manage treatment side effects How to deal with financial and legal matters Many people want to know ... Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manage treatment side effects How to deal with financial and legal matters Many people want to know ... most about your situation is in the best position to discuss your prognosis and explain what the ...

  7. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  8. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  9. "Sometimes I Want to Play by Myself": Understanding What Friendship Means to Children with Autism in Mainstream Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Lynsey; Hill, Vivian; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that friendship impacts the overall experience of mainstream school for autistic children. Using a unique combination of quantitative, qualitative and social network methods, we investigated the extent and nature of autistic children's friendships from their perspective and from those of their mothers, teachers and classroom…

  10. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  11. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  12. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  13. So You Want to Start a Peer Online Writing Center?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Rosalia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to share lessons learned in setting up three different peer online writing centers in three different contexts (EFL, Generation 1.5, and ESL. In each center the focus was on the language learner as a peer online writing advisor and their needs in maintaining centers “for and by” learners. Technology affordances and constraints for local contexts, which promote learner autonomy, are analyzed. The open-source platforms (Moodle, Drupal, and Google Apps are compared in terms of usability for peer writing center work, particularly centers where groups co-construct feedback for writers, asynchronously. This paper is useful for readers who would like a head start or deeper understanding of potential logistics and decision-making involved in establishing a peer online writing center within coursework and/or a self-access learning center.

  14. Understanding uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Lindley, Dennis V

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.

  15. What Do Korean Women Know and Want to Know about Thyroid Cancer? A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bomyee; Park, Jae Young; Shin, Hye Young; Park, Sang Hee; Choi, Eun-Bi; Yoo, Jisu; Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing debate about overdiagnosis and overtreatment of thyroid cancer in Korea, information to guide decisions on whether or not to undergo screening for and treatment of abnormal lesions of the thyroid is lacking. Moreover, studies have yet to outline what lay people know and want to know about thyroid cancer. The primary aim of this study was to explore general awareness of thyroid cancer among Korean women, their sources of information, and their satisfaction with the information they are provided. The secondary aim was to investigate information needs about thyroid cancer. A qualitative study using focus group interviews was conducted. Twenty-nine women were divided into four groups: (1) participants who had never undergone thyroid ultrasound screening; (2) those who had undergone screening, (3) those who continued to undergo regular check-ups with ultrasonography for benign nodules of the thyroid; and (4) participants who had undergone surgery for thyroid cancer. A widespread lack of awareness of information on thyroid cancer was noted among participants in groups 1 and 2 who were not well aware of thyroid cancer and generally recognized it as a'good cancer'. Surprisingly, instead of doctors and medical personnel, most participants reported obtaining information from acquaintances and media outlets. Moreover, most participants described dissatisfaction with their experience with screening and a lack of explanation on treatment and test results from medical personnel. Women in Korea seek reliable information on thyroid cancer that could help them to better understand the disease and make informed decisions regarding screening and treatment. More effort is needed from medical personnel to communicate the implications of thyroid cancer, screening results, and treatments thereof to lay people.

  16. What do providers want to know about opioid prescribing? A qualitative analysis of their questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Phoebe A; Liebschutz, Jane M; Hodgkin, Joseph G; Shanahan, Christopher W; White, Julie L; Hardesty, Ilana; Alford, Daniel P

    2017-01-01

    In 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) responded to the opioid crisis with a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, requiring manufacturers of extended-release/long-acting opioids to fund continuing medical education based on the "FDA Blueprint for Prescriber Education." Topics in the Blueprint are "Assessing Patients for Treatment," "Initiating Therapy, Modifying Dosing, and Discontinuing Use," "Managing Therapy," "Counseling Patients and Caregivers about Safe Use," "General Drug Information," and "Specific Drug Information." Based on the FDA Blueprint, Boston University School of Medicine's "Safe and Competent Opioid Prescribing Education" (SCOPE of Pain) offers live trainings for physicians and other prescribers. During trainings, participants submit written questions about the curriculum and/or their clinical experiences. The objective was to compare themes that arose from questions asked by SCOPE of Pain participants with content of the FDA Blueprint in order to evaluate how well the Blueprint answers prescribers' concerns. The authors conducted qualitative analyses of all 1309 questions submitted by participants in 29 trainings across 16 states from May 2013 to May 2015, using conventional content analysis to code the questions. Themes that emerged from participants' questions were then compared with the Blueprint. Most themes fell into the topic categories of the Blueprint. Five main themes diverged: Participants sought information on (1) safe alternatives to opioids, (2) overcoming barriers to safe opioid prescribing, (3) government regulations of opioid prescribing, (4) the role of marijuana in opioid prescribing, and (5) maintaining a positive provider-patient relationship while prescribing opioids. In addition to learning the mechanics of safe opioid prescribing, providers want to understand government regulations and effective patient communication skills. Aware of the limitations of opioids in managing chronic pain, providers seek advice

  17. What do Patients Want From Their Radiation Oncologist? Initial Results From a Prospective Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Ajay K.; Land, Stephanie R.; Shogan, Alyson; Rodgers, Edwin E.; Heron, Dwight E.; Flickinger, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess patients' initial physician preferences using a newly developed instrument. Methods and Materials: A total of 182 patients with a primary diagnosis of prostate, breast, or lung cancer referred for consultation to University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Department of Radiation Oncology enrolled in our institutional review board-approved protocol. All patients completed patient preference instrument surveys before meeting their radiation oncologist. Survey responses to 10 statements were categorized into three groups (agree, neutral, or disagree), and the association of survey responses by cancer site was tested with chi-squared tests. Results: Ninety-nine percent of all patients preferred to be addressed by their first name in encounters with their radiation oncologist. There were significant associations of Item 3 (hand holding) with gender (p = 0.039) and education (p = 0.028). The responses to Item 5, a statement that patients would feel uncomfortable if the radiation oncologist offered to hug them at the end of treatment, was significantly associated with disease site (p < 0.0001). Further analysis was performed for Item 5 and revealed that the male lung cancer patients had a much higher rate of disagreement with Item 5 compared with prostate cancer patients (37% vs. 18%). Conclusions: Results of this study may afford greater insight and foster better understanding of what patients want from their radiation oncologist. For breast, lung, and prostate cancer patients, initial preferences for their radiation oncologist are generally similar, according to this tool. However, there are important difference among cancer sites (and gender) regarding physical contact at the end of treatment

  18. What are the questions that patients with early-stage prostate cancer want to ask before decision making?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyda, A.; Gawkowska-Suwinska, M.; Feldman-Stewart, D.; Brennenstuhl, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine what information is most needed by patients with early-stage prostate cancer during the time between diagnosis and treatment decision making. This study is a part of a multicentered international study conducted in Canada, the Netherlands, Italy, Poland, Spain, Turkey and England. The questionnaire was completed by 55 Polish patients, 3 to 24 months after they had completed their treatment. Patients used a 4-pt Likert scale (essential, desired, no opinion, avoid) to rate how important it was to obtain answers to each of the 93 questions, between diagnosis and treatment decision. Participants also indicated the reason for which they wanted each essential and desired question answered: to help them understand their situations, to decide on treatment, to plan their future or other. The patients also indicated who they remember participating in making the decision and who they would like to participate if the decision was to be made today. 23 questions were described as essential by 49% or more of the patients. We observed an immense variability of results. Each question was rated as essential or desired by at least a few patients. Twelve questions were identified as questions which should be avoided by 9 to 20% of participants: Of the 23 questions rated essential by at least 49% of patients, on average 44% wanted the information to help them understand their situations and 23% to help them decide on treatment. Patients had made their decision: with their family and doctor (31%), with their doctor (29%), alone (11%), with their family (9%), no answer - 11%. In 9% of cases the decision had been made without the active participation of the patient. If the patients were to make their decision now, they would have liked to make it with their doctor and family (47%), with their doctor (29%), alone (9%), with their family (4%), no answer- 9%. Eighty percent of patients recalled taking an active role in their treatment decisions and that

  19. Understanding Transfer as Personal Change: Concerns, Intentions, and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeani C.

    2013-01-01

    Adult education is about change. Change in knowledge and understanding. Change in attitudes and beliefs. Change in skills and behaviors. The transfer that adult educators and learners often want to achieve is that change. In situations where transfer equals change, models of change can be useful to describe, support, and predict transfer. This…

  20. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  1. Understanding ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  2. Understanding Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya Dilip Gadgil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda′s power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  3. So, You Want to be a Science Communicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzilowicz, John G.

    2009-03-01

    The late Carl Sagan opined that somehow we have managed to create a global civilization dependant on science and technology in which almost no one understands science and technology. This is an unacceptable recipe for disaster with social, political and financial implications for the future of scientific research. And so, like it or not, popular science communication, more than ever before, is an important and necessary part of the scientific enterprise. Public outreach programs, media interviews, and popular articles have become required parts of the scientist's professional repertoire. But, what does it take to be a good science communicator? What is needed to develop and deliver meaningful public outreach programs? How do you handle non-technical presentations? And, what help is available in developing the necessary skills for good popular science communication? This presentation will look at the essential components of effective science communication aimed at a broad public audience. The components of successful science communication in programs, presentations and articles will be discussed. Specific attention will be given to how university-museum partnerships can expand the reach and enhance the quality of public outreach programs.

  4. What patients want and need to know about atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCabe PJ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pamela J McCabe Saint Mary's Hospital, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Clinicians in a variety of settings are called upon to care for patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation (AF, a common chronic condition that affects up to 3 million people in the USA. Evidence-based guidelines provide clinicians with direction for treatment of AF, but recommended content for educating patients and counseling about self-management of AF is not included in published guidelines. When patients believe they have a good understanding of AF they report fewer symptoms, perceive greater control over AF, and attribute less emotional distress to AF. Thus, providing patients with information about AF and how to manage it is important for promoting positive outcomes. The purpose of this article is to offer evidence-based recommendations for content to include in self-management education and counseling for patients with AF. Approaches for educating and counseling patients related to AF pathophysiology, the nature of AF (its cause, consequences, and trajectory, treatments, action plans, and symptom management, and managing the psychosocial challenges of living with AF, are discussed. Keywords: atrial fibrillation, patient education, self-management education, counseling

  5. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  6. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... tested in library contexts and the aim of this article is to identify the main approaches and to discuss their perspectives, including their strenghts and weaknesses in, especially, public library contexts. The purpose is also to prsent and discuss the results of a recent - 2014 - Danish library user...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  7. Children's liking and wanting of snack products: Influence of shape and flavour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Djin G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's food choices are guided by their preferences. However, these preferences may change due to repeated exposure. Methods This study investigated children's (n = 242, 7–12 yrs-old liking and wanting for snacks over 3 weeks of daily consumption. The snacks differed in size (small vs large or flavour (sweet vs sweet-sour. Two conditions were designed: 1 a monotonous group in which children continuously consumed the same snack across the 3 weeks, and 2 a free choice group in which children were allowed to freely choose amongst 3 different flavours of the snack each day during 3 weeks. Results Shape influenced long-term liking, i.e. small shaped snacks remained stable in liking over repeated consumption, whereas large shaped snacks with the same flavour decreased in liking. Mean wanting ratings for all snack products decreased over 3 weeks daily consumption. Flavour did not significantly influence liking and wanting over time. The ability to freely choose amongst different flavours tended to decrease children's liking (p Conclusion Wanting rather than liking was most affected by repeated daily consumption of snack foods over three weeks. In order to increase the likelihood that children will repeatedly eat a food product, smaller sized healthy snacks are preferred to larger sized snacks. Future research should focus on stabilizing wanting over repeated consumption.

  8. What the public wants to know (getting their attention)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Beaumont, P.; Earl, B.; Peddicord, K.L.; Datta, S.

    1999-01-01

    Indeed, the more one reflects on this question, the clearer it becomes that one will never be able to bring the public around to a full support of things nuclear until they truly understand the incredible benefits inherent in this marvelous technology. Arguments centered on low risk will continually fall on either deaf or skeptical ears until the public is awakened to the enormous benefits they already derive from nuclear technology. Tempting though it may be to spent time and energy formulating and defending issue statements, the reality is that the public and most policy makers will simply not pay attention until they become aware of how ubiquitous radiation has become in enriching their daily lives. But, how does one get their attention? How can nuclear technologists penetrate the apathy that is exemplified by the glazed eyes normally encountered whenever one attempts to reach meaningful numbers of the public? How does one get the attention of the American people in a positive sense? Whereas one dare not make premature claims, the authors two activities that hold instant appeal to most Americans: (a) publicizing a real hero and (b) holding a celebration. It was on this premise that a decision was made in May 1998 to launch the concept of celebrating the centennial discovery of radium by Marie Curie. The initial response has been no less than staggering. Why? How could an event associated with things nuclear garner such positive attraction? Since the main events are not scheduled to take place until the year 2000, it is too early to claim success. But, by featuring the most famous female scientist of modern times, combined with a natural time of celebration, they believe they have successfully created a combination that has almost a magical attraction. People hearing of the project for the first time naturally begin to ask questions and explore possibilities, and the enthusiasm becomes contagious. They all known they have a powerful story to tell, if only they

  9. Wanted: role models - medical students’ perceptions of professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byszewski Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Methods Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA. Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5 were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship. Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was

  10. What the public wants to know (getting their attention)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltar, A.E.; Beaumont, P.; Earl, B.; Peddicord, K.L.; Datta, S.

    1999-07-01

    Indeed, the more one reflects on this question, the clearer it becomes that one will never be able to bring the public around to a full support of things nuclear until they truly understand the incredible benefits inherent in this marvelous technology. Arguments centered on low risk will continually fall on either deaf or skeptical ears until the public is awakened to the enormous benefits they already derive from nuclear technology. Tempting though it may be to spent time and energy formulating and defending issue statements, the reality is that the public and most policy makers will simply not pay attention until they become aware of how ubiquitous radiation has become in enriching their daily lives. But, how does one get their attention? How can nuclear technologists penetrate the apathy that is exemplified by the glazed eyes normally encountered whenever one attempts to reach meaningful numbers of the public? How does one get the attention of the American people in a positive sense? Whereas one dare not make premature claims, the authors two activities that hold instant appeal to most Americans: (a) publicizing a real hero and (b) holding a celebration. It was on this premise that a decision was made in May 1998 to launch the concept of celebrating the centennial discovery of radium by Marie Curie. The initial response has been no less than staggering. Why? How could an event associated with things nuclear garner such positive attraction? Since the main events are not scheduled to take place until the year 2000, it is too early to claim success. But, by featuring the most famous female scientist of modern times, combined with a natural time of celebration, they believe they have successfully created a combination that has almost a magical attraction. People hearing of the project for the first time naturally begin to ask questions and explore possibilities, and the enthusiasm becomes contagious. They all known they have a powerful story to tell, if only they

  11. What Patients and Providers Want to Know About Complementary and Integrative Health Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie L; Giannitrapani, Karleen F; Yuan, Anita; Marshall, Nell

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a quality improvement project to determine (1) what information providers and patients most wanted to learn about complementary and integrative health (CIH) therapies and (2) in what format they wanted to receive this information. The overall aim was to develop educational materials to facilitate the CIH therapy decision-making processes. We used mixed methods to iteratively pilot test and revise provider and patient educational materials on yoga and meditation. We conducted semistructured interviews with 11 medical providers and held seven focus groups and used feedback forms with 52 outpatients. We iteratively developed and tested three versions of both provider and patient materials. Activities were conducted at four Veterans Administration medical facilities (two large medical centers and two outpatient clinics). Patients want educational materials with clearly stated basic information about: (1) what mindfulness and yoga are, (2) what a yoga/meditation class entails and how classes can be modified to suit different abilities, (3) key benefits to health and wellness, and (4) how to find classes at the hospital/clinic. Diverse media (videos, handouts, pocket guides) appealed to different Veterans. Videos should depict patients speaking to patients and demonstrating the CIH therapy. Written materials should be one to three pages with colors, and images and messages targeting a variety of patients. Providers wanted a concise (one-page) sheet in black and white font with no images listing the scientific evidence for CIH therapies from high-impact journals, organized by either type of CIH or health condition to use during patient encounters, and including practical information about how to refer patients. Providers and patients want to learn more about CIH therapies, but want the information in succinct, targeted formats. The information learned and materials developed in this study can be used by others to educate patients and providers on CIH

  12. Understanding PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen DOWNES

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding PISA Stephen DOWNESMoncton, CANADA ABSTRACT The headline was dramatic enough to cause a ripple in the reading public. "Students who use computers a lot at school have worse maths and reading performance," noted the BBC news article, citing a 2004 study by Ludger Woessmann and Thomas Fuchs (Fuchs and Woessman, 2004. It was not long before the blogosphere took notice. Taking the theme and running with it, Alice and Bill ask, "Computers Make School Kids Dumber?" They theorize, "If you track the admitted decline of education, you'll probably notice that it follows along with the increase of technology in the classroom." In a similar vein, James Bartholomew asks, "Do you think that the government will turn down the volume of its boasting about how it has spent billions introducing computers in schools (while keeping down the pay of teachers so much that there are shortages? Do you think it will stop sending governors of state schools glossy pamphlets about insisting that computers are used in their schools as much as possible?" In this study, therefore, PISA looks well beyond educational attainment, and also includes school demographics, such as whether it is a public or private school, has large or small classes, or has access or not to technological resources. Finally, it does measure student information-their family background, access to books and computers and parental support as well. The PISA survey departs from previous surveys in disregarding the stated curricula of the schools being measured. Therefore, the conclusion is not surprising, nor even wrong for him to consider independently of any parental or teacher support, considered without reference to the software running on it, considered without reference to student attitudes and interests, does not positively impact an education. Finally, he focus on missing the reporting of results

  13. Inmate must take HIV test if he wants to enroll in program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-29

    An inmate cannot sue the Taylorville Correctional Center in Illinois under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) for requiring an HIV test for enrollment in a prison program. [Name removed] wanted to participate in the prison's culinary arts program, but did not want to take the HIV test. The 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that [name removed] was not a "qualified individual with a disability" and therefore could not sue under ADA. The policy justification for the HIV test, which is required of all inmates enrolling in the program, was not addressed by the court.

  14. The awareness and want matrix with adoption gap ratio analysis for e-service diffusion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2011-03-01

    Since the hierarchical stages of a customer purchasing decision or innovation adoption process are interrelated, an analysis of all their stages, including awareness, want, and adoption, in relation to product or service diffusion, is urgently needed. Therefore, this study proposes the use of an awareness and want matrix, together with an adoption gap ratio analysis, to assess the effectiveness of innovation and technology diffusion for e-services. This study also conducts an empirical test on the promotion performance evaluation of 12 e-services promoted by the Taiwanese government.

  15. Do prostate cancer patients want to choose their own radiation treatment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol-Geerdink, Julia J. van; Stalmeier, Peep F.M.; Lin, Emile N.J.T. van; Schimmel, Erik C.; Huizenga, Henk; Daal, Wim A.J. van; Leer, Jan-Willem

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate whether prostate cancer patients want to be involved in the choice of Radiation dose, and which patients want to be involved. Methods and Materials: This prospective study involved 150 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. A decision aid was used to explain the effects of two alternative radiation doses (70 and 74 Gy) in terms of cure and side effects. Patients were then asked whether they wanted to choose their treatment (accept choice), or leave the decision to the physician (decline choice). The treatment preference was carried out. Results: Even in this older population (mean age, 70 years), most patients (79%) accepted the option to choose. A lower score on the designations Pre-existent bowel morbidity, Anxiety, Depression, Hopelessness and a higher score on Autonomy and Numeracy were associated with an increase in choice acceptance, of which only Hopelessness held up in multiple regression (p < 0.03). The uninformed participation preference at baseline was not significantly related to choice acceptance (p = 0.10). Conclusion: Uninformed participation preference does not predict choice behavior. However, once the decision aid is provided, most patients want to choose their treatment. It should, therefore, be considered to inform patients first and ask participation preferences afterwards

  16. Diurnal rhythms in psychological reward functioning in healthy young men: 'Wanting', liking, and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jamie E M; Murray, Greg

    2017-01-01

    A range of evidence suggests that human reward functioning is partly driven by the endogenous circadian system, generating 24-hour rhythms in behavioural measures of reward activation. Reward functioning is multifaceted but literature to date is largely limited to measures of self-reported positive mood states. The aim of this study was to advance the field by testing for hypothesised diurnal variation in previously unexplored components of psychological reward: 'wanting', liking, and learning using subjective and behavioural measures. Risky decision making (automatic Balloon Analogue Risk Task), affective responsivity to positive images (International Affective Pictures System), uncued self-reported discrete emotions, and learning-contingent reward (Iowa Gambling Task) were measured at 10.00 hours, 14.00 hours, and 19.00 hours in a counterbalanced repeated measures design with 50 healthy male participants (aged 18-30). As hypothesised, risky decision making (unconscious 'wanting') and ratings of arousal towards positive images (conscious wanting) exhibited a diurnal waveform with indices highest at 14.00 hours. No diurnal rhythm was observed for liking (pleasure ratings to positive images, discrete uncued positive emotions) or in a learning-contingent reward task. Findings reaffirm that diurnal variation in human reward functioning is most pronounced in the motivational 'wanting' components of reward.

  17. What we want is what we get: Group-based emotional preferences and conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Roni; Halperin, Eran; Tamir, Maya

    2016-02-01

    Imagine yourself facing someone who might attack your group--if you could control your emotions, how would you want to feel toward that person? We argue that the goals people have for their group dictate how they want to feel on behalf of their group. We further propose that these group-based emotional preferences, in turn, influence how people actually feel as group members and how they react to political events. We conducted 9 studies to test our proposed model. In a pilot study, we showed that political ideology is related to how people want to feel toward outgroup members, even when controlling for how they want to feel in general, or how they actually feel toward outgroup members. In Studies A1-A3, we demonstrated that group-based emotional preferences are linked to emotional experience and that both mediate links between political ideology and political reactions. In Study A4, we showed that political ideology influences emotional preferences, emotional experiences and political reactions. Next, in Studies B1-B4, we demonstrated that changing group-based emotional preferences can shape group-based emotional experiences and consequently influence political reactions. By suggesting that group-based emotions are motivated, our findings point to new directions for advancing conflict resolution. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Multiple sclerosis patients need and want information on exercise promotion from healthcare providers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Adamson, Brynn C; Balto, Julia M; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Molina-Guzman, Isabel; Finlayson, Marcia; Riskin, Barry J; Motl, Robert W

    2017-08-01

    There is growing recognition of the benefits and safety of exercise and its importance in the comprehensive care of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet uptake is low. We explored the needs and wants of patients with MS regarding exercise promotion through healthcare providers. Participants were adults with MS who had mild-or-moderate disability and a range of exercise levels. All participants lived in the Midwest of the United States. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged, namely interactions between patients and healthcare providers and needs and wants of patients. Analysis of participant accounts illustrate that current exercise promotion by healthcare providers does not meet patient needs and wants. The identified needs and wants of persons with MS involved (i) information and knowledge on the benefits of exercise and exercise prescription, (ii) materials to allow home and community exercise and (iii) tools for initiating and maintaining exercise behaviour. Patients with MS frequently interact with healthcare providers and are generally unsatisfied with exercise promotion during interactions. Healthcare providers can address the low uptake of exercise among persons with MS by acting upon the identified unmet needs involving materials, knowledge and behaviour change strategies for exercise. © 2016 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Acoustics in Research Facilities--Control of Wanted and Unwanted Sound. Laboratory Design Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Robert B.

    Common and special acoustics problems are discussed in relation to the design and construction of research facilities. Following a brief examination of design criteria for the control of wanted and unwanted sound, the technology for achieving desired results is discussed. Emphasis is given to various design procedures and materials for the control…

  20. What models of maternity care do pregnant women in Ireland want?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, C

    2012-02-01

    The introduction of new models of care in the Irish maternity services has been recommended by both advocacy groups and strategic reports. Yet there is a dearth of information about what models of care pregnant women want. We surveyed women in early pregnancy who were attending a large Dublin maternity hospital. Demographic and clinical details were recorded from the hospital chart. Of the 501 women, 351 (70%) (352 (70.3%) of women wanted shared antenatal care between their family doctor and either a hospital doctor or midwife. 228 (45.5%) preferred to have their baby delivered in a doctor-led unit, while 215 (42.9%) preferred a midwifery-led unit. Of those 215 (42.9%), 118 (55%) met criteria for suitability. There was minimal demand (1.6%) for home births. Choice was influenced by whether the woman was attending for private care or not. Safety is the most important factor for women when choosing the type of maternity care they want. Pregnant women want a wide range of choices when it comes to models of maternity care. Their choice is strongly influenced by safety considerations, and will be determined in part by risk assessment.

  1. Consumer wants and use of ingredient and nutrition information for alcoholic drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    2018-01-01

    In the EU, alcoholic beverages are exempt from Regulation 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers (FIC) that requires food labels to contain both ingredient information and information on key nutrients. We investigate to which extent consumers want and use information...

  2. TAFE Graduates: Do They Get What They Want from Training? Statistics 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    The question of whether graduates of Australia's technical and further education (TAFE) programs are getting what they want from training was examined. A market segmentation approach was used to analyze data from the 2001 Student Outcomes Survey (SOS). The market segments analyzed covered 93% of TAFE graduates surveyed in the 2001 SOS. The…

  3. The Emergence of "Wanting to Do It Oneself": A Precursor of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Ulrich; Kuster, Ursula

    1983-01-01

    A total of 41 children ranging in age from 9 months to 6 years, 6 months of age were observed playing at game-like tasks. Disruptive interventions were made at different times and with different levels of intensity. Children's reactions revealed developmental stages in wanting to do things by themselves; stages varied with the development of…

  4. From Barney to Super Nintendo: What to Do When Your Child Wants It All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Ellen

    1994-01-01

    Parents must help their children distinguish between wants and needs and put them in a balanced perspective. Children need to learn to respect differences in people rather than base their judgments on socioeconomic status. The article suggests ways parents can grab teachable moments to reinforce their values and decisions. (SM)

  5. From Malthus to motive: how the HPA axis engineers the phenotype, yoking needs to wants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecoraro, Norman; Dallman, Mary F.; Warne, James P.; Ginsberg, Abigail B.; Laugero, Kevin D.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Houshyar, Hani; Gomez, Francisca; Bhargava, Aditi; Akana, Susan F.

    2006-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the critical mediator of the vertebrate stress response system, responding to environmental stressors by maintaining internal homeostasis and coupling the needs of the body to the wants of the mind. The HPA axis has numerous complex drivers and highly

  6. Most Wanted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafragou, Anna; Schwarz, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    On the standard, neo-Gricean view, most is semantically lower bounded but may give rise to the meaning "not all" through scalar implicature (Horn (1972)). More recent proposals have claimed that most does not generate a scalar implicature but is semantically both lower and upper bounded (Ariel (2004; in press)). In this article, we investigate the…

  7. Help wanted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Anthony McGrath , Senior Lecturer at Middle-sex University, is undertaking a doctorate to examine 'To what extent does masters degree education affect clinical prac-tice'. He would like to hear from anyone who has undertaken such a degree programme and remains in clinical practice to discuss their perceptions of the value of the educational and clinical benefits of their masters degree education.

  8. Tools for Understanding Identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creese, Sadie; Gibson-Robinson, Thomas; Goldsmith, Michael; Hodges, Duncan; Kim, Dee DH; Love, Oriana J.; Nurse, Jason R.; Pike, William A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2013-12-28

    Identity attribution and enrichment is critical to many aspects of law-enforcement and intelligence gathering; this identity typically spans a number of domains in the natural-world such as biographic information (factual information – e.g. names, addresses), biometric information (e.g. fingerprints) and psychological information. In addition to these natural-world projections of identity, identity elements are projected in the cyber-world. Conversely, undesirable elements may use similar techniques to target individuals for spear-phishing attacks (or worse), and potential targets or their organizations may want to determine how to minimize the attack surface exposed. Our research has been exploring the construction of a mathematical model for identity that supports such holistic identities. The model captures the ways in which an identity is constructed through a combination of data elements (e.g. a username on a forum, an address, a telephone number). Some of these elements may allow new characteristics to be inferred, hence enriching the holistic view of the identity. An example use-case would be the inference of real names from usernames, the ‘path’ created by inferring new elements of identity is highlighted in the ‘critical information’ panel. Individual attribution exercises can be understood as paths through a number of elements. Intuitively the entire realizable ‘capability’ can be modeled as a directed graph, where the elements are nodes and the inferences are represented by links connecting one or more antecedents with a conclusion. The model can be operationalized with two levels of tool support described in this paper, the first is a working prototype, the second is expected to reach prototype by July 2013: Understanding the Model The tool allows a user to easily determine, given a particular set of inferences and attributes, which elements or inferences are of most value to an investigator (or an attacker). The tool is also able to take

  9. Buyer and seller data from pay what you want and name your own price laboratory markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Florentin; Schmidt, Klaus M; Spann, Martin; Stich, Lucas

    2017-06-01

    Pay What You Want (PWYW) and Name Your Own Price (NYOP) are customer-driven pricing mechanisms that give customers (some) pricing power and that have been used in service industries with high fixed costs to price discriminate without setting a reference price. This paper describes buyer and seller data in a series of induced-value laboratory experiments that compare PWYW and NYOP in monopoly and competitive situations. Sellers are in a one-shot interaction with buyers. Sellers using customer-driven pricing mechanisms may exogenously or endogenously receive additional promotional benefits, for instance through word-of-mouth effects. The major findings based on the data presented here are reported in the paper "Delegating Pricing Power to Customers: Pay What You Want or Name Your Own Price?" (Krämer et al., 2017) [3].

  10. Buyer and seller data from pay what you want and name your own price laboratory markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Krämer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pay What You Want (PWYW and Name Your Own Price (NYOP are customer-driven pricing mechanisms that give customers (some pricing power and that have been used in service industries with high fixed costs to price discriminate without setting a reference price. This paper describes buyer and seller data in a series of induced-value laboratory experiments that compare PWYW and NYOP in monopoly and competitive situations. Sellers are in a one-shot interaction with buyers. Sellers using customer-driven pricing mechanisms may exogenously or endogenously receive additional promotional benefits, for instance through word-of-mouth effects. The major findings based on the data presented here are reported in the paper "Delegating Pricing Power to Customers: Pay What You Want or Name Your Own Price?" (Krämer et al., 2017 [3].

  11. Shared social responsibility: a field experiment in pay-what-you-want pricing and charitable giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneezy, Ayelet; Gneezy, Uri; Nelson, Leif D; Brown, Amber

    2010-07-16

    A field experiment (N = 113,047 participants) manipulated two factors in the sale of souvenir photos. First, some customers saw a traditional fixed price, whereas others could pay what they wanted (including $0). Second, approximately half of the customers saw a variation in which half of the revenue went to charity. At a standard fixed price, the charitable component only slightly increased demand, as similar studies have also found. However, when participants could pay what they wanted, the same charitable component created a treatment that was substantially more profitable. Switching from corporate social responsibility to what we term shared social responsibility works in part because customized contributions allow customers to directly express social welfare concerns through the purchasing of material goods.

  12. What parents of mentally ill children need and want from mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharer, Kathleen

    2002-09-01

    Child psychiatric hospitalization is a time of crisis for the parents of a child with a mental disorder. Prior to hospitalization, the child's problematic behavior has escalated. Parents have various types of contact with mental health professionals prior to, during, and after the hospitalization, which influence their ability to care for their child. This paper reports a qualitative descriptive study of what parents need and want from mental health professionals during this time frame. During the study, parents spontaneously talked about what they needed and wanted from mental health professionals, including nursing personnel. The perspectives of 38 parents of 29 hospitalized children were obtained through interviews. Parents identified needing informational, emotional, and instrumental support most often in the interviews. Specific examples from the data are included in this report.

  13. When Wanting the Best Goes Right or Wrong: Distinguishing Between Adaptive and Maladaptive Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jeffrey; Scholer, Abigail A

    2017-04-01

    Researchers have often disagreed on how to define maximization, leading to conflicting conclusions about its potential benefits or drawbacks. Drawing from motivation research, we distinguish between the goals (i.e., wanting the best) and strategies (e.g., alternative search) associated with maximizing. Three studies illustrate how this differentiation offers insight into when maximizers do or do not experience affective costs when making decisions. In Study 1, we show that two motivational orientations, promotion focus and assessment mode, are both associated with the goal of wanting the best, yet assessment (not promotion) is related to the use of alternative search strategies. In Study 2, we demonstrate that alternative search strategies are associated with frustration on a discrete decision task. In Study 3, we provide evidence that one reason for this link may be due to reconsideration of previously dismissed options. We discuss the potential of this approach to integrate research in this area.

  14. Want to Inspire Science Students to Consider a Research Career? Host a Scientist in Your Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Baynham, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Most biology students have limited exposure to research since this is not a public activity and the pace of science does not lend itself to television dramatization. In contrast, medicine is the subject of numerous TV shows, and students’ experience visiting doctors may lead them to think they want to become physicians. One effective way to encourage these students to consider a research career is to invite engaging scientists to speak about their career paths and lives during class. S...

  15. Delegating pricing power to customers: Pay what you want or name your own price?

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Florentin; Schmidt, Klaus M.; Spann, Martin; Stich, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Pay What You Want (PWYW) and Name Your Own Price (NYOP) are customer driven pricing mechanisms that give customers (some) pricing power. Both have been used in service industries with high fixed costs to price discriminate without setting a reference price. Their participatory and innovative nature gives rise to promotional benefits that do not accrue to posted-price sellers. We explore the nature and effects of these benefits and compare PWYW and NYOP using controlled lab experiments. We sho...

  16. The influence of wanting to look like media figures on adolescent physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Field, Alison E; Frazier, A Lindsay; Colditz, Graham A; Gillman, Matthew W

    2004-07-01

    To examine the association of adolescents' wanting to look like figures in the media with physical activity levels. Cross-sectional mailed survey of 11,606 boys and girls, between the ages of 9 and 16 years, participating in the Growing Up Today Study in 1997. Participants reported detailed information on physical activities over the previous year, and the degree to which they were trying to look like same-sex images in television, movies, and magazines. We performed linear regression modeling to assess the independent effects of wanting to look like figures in the media on physical activity levels. Mean total weekly physical activity levels were 12.4 hours in girls and 15.2 hours in boys. 3019 (46%) girls and 1360 (27%) boys reported making at least some effort to look like figures in the media. Adjusted for age, body mass index, sexual maturity rating, and race/ethnicity, total physical activity levels were higher by 0.7 (95% CI 0.5-0.9) and 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.6) hours per week in girls and boys, respectively, for every 1 (out of 5) category increase in wanting to look like figures in the media. Adjustment for intrapersonal and social confounders modestly attenuated the associations. Wanting to look like figures in the media was associated with higher physical activity levels among older children and adolescents, independent of other personal and social influences. These data suggest that television, movie, and magazine industries should be encouraged to cultivate and reinforce realistic and healthy norms of physical activity and body image.

  17. We Want You: It Takes a Village To Market the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    controls over its marketing activities. While policy governs Army behavior, principles of marketing shape it as well. In marketing , the brand...18. 92 Ibid., 18. 93 Head, 4. 94 Kotler and Lee, 239. 95 Ibid., 209. 96 Ibid., 218. 97 U.S. Army Marketing and Research Group, “Army...We Want You: It Takes a Village To Market the Army by Lieutenant Colonel Daniel C. Hodne United States Army

  18. Drug liking and wanting, not impulsive action or reflection is increased by 4-fluoroamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, K P C; de Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Dolder, P C; Toennes, S W; Theunissen, E L; Mason, N L; Hutten, N R P W; Ramaekers, J G

    2018-05-31

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) are chemical analogues designed to mimic the effects of various classic recreational drugs of abuse including MDMA, LSD, and cannabis. NPS use is associated with concern about the acute and longer-term effects particular substances might have, with abuse and addiction as potential consequences. Impulsivity and sensitivity to the rewarding effects of drugs have been considered as risk factors for drug abuse. In light of the popularity of 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA), it is important to assess whether 4-FA can lead to subjective drug liking and wanting, and impulsive behavior, all factors contributing to the abuse likelihood of a substance. A placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study in 12 healthy poly-drug using participants was conducted to test subjective and behavioral effects of 4-FA (100 mg). 4-FA concentrations were determined in serum up to 12 h after administration and two impulsivity tasks and two drug experience questionnaires assessing drug liking and wanting, and good and bad drug effect, were administered between 1 and 11 h post-administration. Findings showed that 4-FA did not affect impulsive behavior. Self-ratings of drug liking and wanting and good drug effect were increased 1 h after administration; this effect was absent 11 h after drug intake. To conclude, 4-FA (single dose) increased self-rated liking and wanting, which is known to contribute to the abuse likelihood of a substance; however, it left another factor impulsive behavior unaffected. It has to be noted that the current picture is limited and might change with increased sample size, and/or different 4-FA doses. Trial acronym: 4-FA. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=6164 . Registration number: NTR6164 (Dutch clinical trial registry number).

  19. [What preoperative information do the parents of children undergoing surgery want?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Josefina; Espinoza, Pilar; Díaz, María Soledad; Ferdinand, Constanza; Lacassie, Héctor J; González, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Parents feel fear and anxiety before surgery is performed on their child, and those feelings could obstruct their preparation for the surgery. Preoperative information could relieve those feelings. To determine the preoperative information needs of parents of children undergoing elective surgery. A study was conducted on the parents of children who underwent elective surgery. Demographic data of parents were recorded. Preoperative information received or would like to have received was assessed in terms of contents, methods, opportunity, place and informant. Descriptive statistics were used. Thirteen hundred parents were surveyed. More than 80% of them want preoperative information about anaesthesia, surgery, preoperative fasting, drugs and anaesthetic complications, monitoring, intravenous line management, pain treatment, postoperative feeding, anxiety control, hospitalisation room, recovery room, and entertainment in recovery room. Most want to be informed verbally, one to two weeks in advance and not on the same day of surgery. The informant should be the surgeon and in his office. In addition, they want information through leaflets, videos and simulation workshops, or guided tours. Parents need complete preoperative information about anesthesia, surgery and postoperative care, received verbally and in advance. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Primary care consultations about medically unexplained symptoms: how do patients indicate what they want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Ring, Adele; Humphris, Gerry M; Davies, John C; Dowrick, Christopher F

    2009-04-01

    Patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUS) are often thought to deny psychological needs when they consult general practitioners (GPs) and to request somatic intervention instead. We tested predictions from the contrasting theory that they are transparent in communicating their psychological and other needs. To test predictions that what patients tell GPs when they consult about MUS is related transparently to their desire for (1) emotional support, (2) symptom explanation and (3) somatic intervention. Prospective naturalistic study. Before consultation, patients indicated what they wanted from it using a self-report questionnaire measuring patients' desire for: emotional support, explanation and reassurance, and physical investigation and treatment. Their speech during consultation was audio-recorded, transcribed and coded utterance-by-utterance. Multilevel regression analysis tested relationships between what patients sought and what they said. Patients (N = 326) consulting 33 GPs about symptoms that the GPs designated as MUS. Patients who wanted emotional support spoke more about psychosocial problems, including psychosocial causes of symptoms and their need for psychosocial help. Patients who wanted explanation and reassurance suggested more physical explanations, including diseases, but did not overtly request explanation. Patients' wish for somatic intervention was associated only with their talk about details of such interventions and not with their requests for them. In general, patients with medically unexplained symptoms provide many cues to their desire for emotional support. They are more indirect or guarded in communicating their desire for explanation and somatic intervention.

  1. The "most wanted" taxa from the human microbiome for whole genome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A Fodor

    Full Text Available The goal of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP is to generate a comprehensive catalog of human-associated microorganisms including reference genomes representing the most common species. Toward this goal, the HMP has characterized the microbial communities at 18 body habitats in a cohort of over 200 healthy volunteers using 16S rRNA gene (16S sequencing and has generated nearly 1,000 reference genomes from human-associated microorganisms. To determine how well current reference genome collections capture the diversity observed among the healthy microbiome and to guide isolation and future sequencing of microbiome members, we compared the HMP's 16S data sets to several reference 16S collections to create a 'most wanted' list of taxa for sequencing. Our analysis revealed that the diversity of commonly occurring taxa within the HMP cohort microbiome is relatively modest, few novel taxa are represented by these OTUs and many common taxa among HMP volunteers recur across different populations of healthy humans. Taken together, these results suggest that it should be possible to perform whole-genome sequencing on a large fraction of the human microbiome, including the 'most wanted', and that these sequences should serve to support microbiome studies across multiple cohorts. Also, in stark contrast to other taxa, the 'most wanted' organisms are poorly represented among culture collections suggesting that novel culture- and single-cell-based methods will be required to isolate these organisms for sequencing.

  2. Scientists' understanding of public communication of science and technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt; Kjaer, Carsten Rahbæk; Dahlgaard, Jørgen

    Background Research into the field of science communication has tended to focus on public understanding of science or on the processes of science communication itself, e.g. by looking at science in the media. Few studies have explored how scientists understand science communication. At present...... and technical sciences see science communication. We wanted to map their general interest in using different media of science communication as well as their active participation in current science communication. Moreover, we wanted to find out what they think about future of science communication, and what...... science communication. Results Our respondents indicated interest in doing science communication through media aimed at a broader public. In particular, news media surfaced as the most attractive media of public communication. The respondents preferred to be in charge of science communication themselves...

  3. Most wanted particle the inside story of the hunt for the Higgs, the heart of the future of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, Jon

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson has brought us a giant step closer to understanding how our universe works. But before the Higgs was found, its existence was hotly debated. Even Peter Higgs, who first pictured it, did not expect to see proof within his lifetime. The quest to find the Higgs would ultimately require perhaps the most ambitious experiment in human history. Jon Butterworth was there—a leading physicist on the ATLAS project at the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva, Switzerland. In Most Wanted Particle, he gives us the first insider account of the hunt for the Higgs, and of life at the collider itself—the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator, 17 miles long, 20 stories underground, and designed to “replay” the original Big Bang by smashing subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light. Writing with clarity and humor, Butterworth revels as much in the hard science—which he carefully reconstructs for readers of all levels—as in the messiness, uncertainty, and humanne...

  4. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghonge, Nitin P; Gadanayak, Satyabrat; Rajakumari, Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN) offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know

  5. What happens when you want to talk to the animals: lessons of a career in animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ann E.

    2004-05-01

    Animal bioacoustics (AB) is the study of sound in nonhuman animal biology. I entered the field because I was interested in the evolution of language, and I wanted to study the acoustic communication of whales and dolphins. Topics like this within the scope of AB make the discipline accessible to students and laypeople. Although career opportunities are limited (professionals declaring AB as their primary area represent only 3% of ASA membership [http://www.acoustics.org/WIA, statistics for 2000]), an interest in AB can foster entry into more marketable disciplines. It has been a particularly important avenue for bringing women into careers in traditionally male-dominated subject areas. For example, women represent 14% of the ASA membership and 12% or fewer of those declaring Underwater Acoustics, Engineering Acoustics, and Noise as their primary interest. However, 25% of those declaring AB as their primary interest are women, and AB includes all three topic areas within its scope. Unfortunately, AB is still fairly inaccessible to interested lay professionals such as educators, science writers, and environmental planners. By helping them to develop a deeper understanding of topics in AB, ASA can help them foster careers in acoustics.

  6. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin P Ghonge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know.

  7. Understanding War in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    family name, ruled from 1929 to 1978. After Nadir Shah’s death, his teenage son, Zahir Shah, succeeded to the throne, although his paternal uncles...Finally, the Soviet Union fought to secure an authoritarian state with an alien ideology, while the United States and its allies are trying to build...and whether they will be governed by a backward-looking authoritarian theocracy or a decent civil government. The Taliban wants a radical Islamic

  8. Enabling Responsible Energy Decisions: What People Know, Want to Know, and Need to Know about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    PytlikZillig, L. M.; Tomkins, A. J.; Harrington, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a broader regional effort focused on climate change education and rural communities, this paper focuses on a specific effort to understand effective approaches to two presumably complementary goals: The goal of increasing knowledge about climate change and climate science in a community, and the goal of having communities use climate change and climate science information when making decisions. In this paper, we explore the argument that people do not need or want to know about climate change, in order to make responsible and sustainable energy decisions. Furthermore, we hypothesize that involvement in making responsible and sustainable energy decisions will increase openness and readiness to process climate science information, and thus increase learning about climate change in subsequent exposures to such information. Support for these hypotheses would suggest that rather than encouraging education to enable action (including engagement in attempts to make responsible decisions), efforts should focus on encouraging actions first and education second. To investigate our hypotheses, we will analyze and report results from efforts to engage residents from a medium-sized Midwestern city to give input on future programs involving sustainable energy use. The engagement process (which will not be complete until after the AGU deadline) involves an online survey and an optional face-to-face discussion with city officials and experts in energy-related areas. The online survey includes brief information about current local energy programs, questions assessing knowledge of climate change, and an open-ended question asking what additional information residents need in order to make good decisions and recommendations concerning the energy programs. To examine support for our hypotheses, we will report (1) relationships between subjective and objective knowledge of climate science and willingness to attend the face-to-face discussion about the city's energy decisions

  9. Shape understanding system machine understanding and human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Les, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    This is the third book presenting selected results of research on the further development of the shape understanding system (SUS) carried out by authors in the newly founded Queen Jadwiga Research Institute of Understanding. In this book the new term Machine Understanding is introduced referring to a new area of research aiming to investigate the possibility of building machines with the ability to understand. It is presented that SUS needs to some extent mimic human understanding and for this reason machines are evaluated according to the rules applied for the evaluation of human understanding. The book shows how to formulate problems and how it can be tested if the machine is able to solve these problems.    

  10. "Liking" and "wanting" linked to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): hypothesizing differential responsivity in brain reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Gardner, Eliot; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve controversy regarding the causal contributions of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems to reward, we evaluate the three main competing explanatory categories: "liking,"learning," and "wanting" [1]. That is, DA may mediate (a) the hedonic impact of reward (liking), (b) learned predictions about rewarding effects (learning), or (c) the pursuit of rewards by attributing incentive salience to reward-related stimuli (wanting). We evaluate these hypotheses, especially as they relate to the Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), and we find that the incentive salience or "wanting" hypothesis of DA function is supported by a majority of the evidence. Neuroimaging studies have shown that drugs of abuse, palatable foods, and anticipated behaviors such as sex and gaming affect brain regions involving reward circuitry, and may not be unidirectional. Drugs of abuse enhance DA signaling and sensitize mesolimbic mechanisms that evolved to attribute incentive salience to rewards. Addictive drugs have in common that they are voluntarily selfadministered, they enhance (directly or indirectly) dopaminergic synaptic function in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), and they stimulate the functioning of brain reward circuitry (producing the "high" that drug users seek). Although originally believed simply to encode the set point of hedonic tone, these circuits now are believed to be functionally more complex, also encoding attention, reward expectancy, disconfirmation of reward expectancy, and incentive motivation. Elevated stress levels, together with polymorphisms of dopaminergic genes and other neurotransmitter genetic variants, may have a cumulative effect on vulnerability to addiction. The RDS model of etiology holds very well for a variety of chemical and behavioral addictions.

  11. Clinical SAS programming in India: A study of industry needs versus wants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Nithiyanandhan

    2014-07-01

    The clinical SAS (www.sas.com) programming industry, in India, has seen a rapid growth in the last decade and the trend seems set to continue, for the next couple of years, due to cost advantage and the availability of skilled labor. On one side the industry needs are focused on less execution time, high margins, segmented tasks and the delivery of high quality output with minimal oversight. On the other side, due to the increased demand for skilled resources, the wants of the programmers have taken a different shift toward diversifying exposure, unsustainable wage inflation due to multiple opportunities and generally high expectations around career progression. If the industry needs are not going to match with programmers want, or vice versa, then there is the possibility that the current year on year growth may start to slow or even go into decline. This paper is intended to identify the gap between wants and need and puts forwards some suggestions, for both sides, in ways to change the equation to benefit all. Questionnaire on similar themes created to survey managers and programmers working in clinical SAS programming industry and was surveyed online to collect their perspectives. Their views are compared for each theme and presented as results. Two surveys were created in www.surveymonkey.com. https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/SAS_India_managment_needvswant_survey. Programmer: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/SAS_India_programmer_needvswant_survey. Bar chart and pie chart used on data collect to show segmentation of data. In conclusion, it seeks to highlight the future industry direction and the skillset that existing programmers need to have, in order to sustain the momentum and remain competitive, to contribute to the future pipeline and the development of the profession in India.

  12. Clinical SAS programming in India: A study of industry needs versus wants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithiyanandhan Ananthakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical SAS (www.sas.com programming industry, in India, has seen a rapid growth in the last decade and the trend seems set to continue, for the next couple of years, due to cost advantage and the availability of skilled labor. On one side the industry needs are focused on less execution time, high margins, segmented tasks and the delivery of high quality output with minimal oversight. On the other side, due to the increased demand for skilled resources, the wants of the programmers have taken a different shift toward diversifying exposure, unsustainable wage inflation due to multiple opportunities and generally high expectations around career progression. If the industry needs are not going to match with programmers want, or vice versa, then there is the possibility that the current year on year growth may start to slow or even go into decline. Aim: This paper is intended to identify the gap between wants and need and puts forwards some suggestions, for both sides, in ways to change the equation to benefit all. Settings and Design: Questionnaire on similar themes created to survey managers and programmers working in clinical SAS programming industry and was surveyed online to collect their perspectives. Their views are compared for each theme and presented as results. Materials and Methods: Two surveys were created in www.surveymonkey.com. Management: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/SAS_India_managment_needvswant_survey. Programmer: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/SAS_India_programmer_needvswant_survey. Statistical Analysis Used: Bar chart and pie chart used on data collect to show segmentation of data. Results and Conclusions: In conclusion, it seeks to highlight the future industry direction and the skillset that existing programmers need to have, in order to sustain the momentum and remain competitive, to contribute to the future pipeline and the development of the profession in India.

  13. What young people want from a sexual health website: design and development of Sexunzipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Ona; Carswell, Kenneth; Murray, Elizabeth; Free, Caroline; Stevenson, Fiona; Bailey, Julia V

    2012-10-12

    Sexual health education in the United Kingdom is of variable quality, typically focusing on the biological aspects of sex rather than on communication, relationships, and sexual pleasure. The Internet offers a unique opportunity to provide sexual health education to young people, since they can be difficult to engage but frequently use the Internet as a health information resource. To explore through qualitative research young people's views on what elements of a sexual health website would be appealing and engaging, and their views on the content, design, and interactive features of the Sexunzipped intervention website. We recruited 67 young people aged 16-22 years in London, UK. We held 21 focus groups and 6 one-to-one interviews to establish sexual health priorities, views on website look and feel, and what features of a sexual heath website would attract and engage them. Two researchers facilitated the focus groups, using a semistructured topic guide to lead the discussions and asking open questions to elicit a range of views. The discussions and interviews were audio recorded and detailed notes were made on key topics from the audio recording. Young people's views influenced design templates for the content and interactive features of Sexunzipped. Young people particularly wanted straightforward information on sexual pleasure, sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy, how to communicate with partners, how to develop skills in giving pleasure, and emotions involved in sex and relationships. Focus group participants wanted social interaction with other young people online and wanted to see themselves reflected in some way such as through images or videos. While it is challenging to meet all of young people's technological and design requirements, consultation with the target audience is valuable and necessary in developing an online sexual health intervention. Young people are willing to talk about sensitive issues, enjoy the discussions, and can offer key

  14. People with epilepsy and their relatives want more information about risks of injuries and premature death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Oliver; Nakken, Karl O; Lossius, Morten I

    2018-05-01

    For most people with chronic diseases such as epilepsy, thorough knowledge of the disease is important in order to reduce feelings of insecurity and to enable better management of everyday life. Whether and when to inform patients and their families about all the risks associated with epilepsy is a matter of controversy. Using a web-based survey, patients with epilepsy (PWE) (n=1183) and carers, family members, or guardians of PWE, who could either answer on behalf of the patients (CBP) (n=676) or on their own behalf (CAR) (n=231) were asked whether they wanted information about the risk of epilepsy-related injuries and premature death and also whether they had received such information. Ninety percent or more of PWE, CBP, and CAR reported that they wanted such information, and 50% of CAR, 81% of CBP, and 70% of PWE had received some information about seizure-related injuries. Regarding risk of unexpected death, 31% of PWE, 35% of CBP, and 28% of CAR had received information on this issue. Those with tonic-clonic seizures were most eager to obtain information on these matters, and those best informed about epilepsy-related risks were males and the youngest part of the cohort. The wish for more information or the likelihood of having already received information was independent of the individual's seizure situation. This study demonstrates that there is a considerable gap between what the patients want regarding information and what they are actually given by healthcare providers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health information for the teenage years: what do they want to know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rolinson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available What are the health Information needs of adolescents? What do they want to know? Sex 'n drugs 'n rock and roll? Reviewed are the information needs of adolescents within the educational setting, analyses of previous use and sources of Health Information and also the anticipated needs and preferred sources for the future. The changing need for Health Information from medical information to information relating to image and sexuality is reported. The restrictions of the educational system and the National Curriculum in teaching Health Information are identified, as are the differences in roles and responsibilities of the teachers who have a designated interest teaching Health Information.

  16. What the Industry Wants. How Physics Students can Prepare to Thrive in the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sandeep

    The goal of this talk is to provide a window to physics undergraduates into what the industry wants. And thus, preparing them on what relevant hard skills to acquire, highlighting the types of experiences that are valued, and how to market themselves (interviewing, resume writing, networking). Physics majors can excel just as well as their engineering peers in the private sector. Professors can also gather insights in how to empower their students for successful transition out of academia. This talk is also a personal journey of a physics major, from a small liberal arts college, moving up the ladder in the tech industry in silicon valley.

  17. A new model for understanding the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in siting waste facilities has been impeded by a too-limited understanding of what the public wants. National and statewide surveys sponsored by the U.S. Council for Energy Awareness and others on both high-level and low-level radioactive waste reveal a new, more comprehensive model for assessing public opinion. These surveys by independent research firms -- Market Strategies, Gordon S. Black, Tarrance, and Bruskin/Goldring -- have a margin of error of +3% for national polls and +4% for statewide polls. The old model assumes that because people fear radioactive waste, support for building waste facilities is politically risky. The new model shows that fear of radioactive waste is an important dynamic, but reaches a different conclusion about the public's sense of generational responsibility. Because people see waste as dangerous, most support the principle of transporting the waste to a permanent disposal facility instead of keeping the waste stored at many different sites. Most want to keep the uses of radioactive materials that produce waste -- including nuclear energy. They strongly believe that disposing of radioactive waste now instead of leaving it for future generations is the environmentally responsible thing to do

  18. Wanting, having, and needing: integrating motive disposition theory and self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Schüler, Julia

    2011-11-01

    Four studies explored the motivational and experiential dynamics of psychological needs, applying both self-determination theory and motive disposition theory. In all 4 studies, motive dispositions toward achievement and affiliation ("wanting" particular experiences) predicted corresponding feelings of competence and relatedness ("having" those experiences). Competence and relatedness in turn predicted well-being, again indicating that these 2 experiences may really be "needed." Illuminating how wanting gets to having, in Studies 2 and 3, participants reported greater self-concordance for motive-congruent goals, which, in longitudinal Study 3, predicted greater attainment of those goals and thus enhanced well-being. Study 4 replicated selected earlier results using an implicit as well as an explicit motive disposition measure. Supporting the presumed universality of competence and relatedness needs, in no studies did motive dispositions moderate the effects of corresponding need-satisfaction on well-being. Discussion focuses on a "sequential process" model of psychological needs that views needs as both motives that instigate and outcomes that reward behavior.

  19. Wanting to attend isn't just wanting to quit: why some disadvantaged smokers regularly attend smoking cessation behavioural therapy while others do not: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Fiona E; Stronks, Karien; Willemsen, Marc C; Bogaerts, Nina M M; Nierkens, Vera

    2014-07-07

    Attendance of a behavioural support programme facilitates smoking cessation. Disadvantaged smokers have been shown to attend less than their more affluent peers. We need to gain in-depth insight into underlying reasons for differing attendance behaviour in disadvantaged smokers, to better address this issue. This study aims to explore the underlying motivations, barriers and social support of smokers exhibiting different patterns of attendance at a free smoking cessation behavioural support programme in a disadvantaged neighbourhood of The Netherlands. In 29 smokers undertaking smoking cessation group therapy or telephone counselling in a disadvantaged neighbourhood, qualitative interviews were completed, coded and analysed. Major themes were motivations, barriers to attend and social support. Motivations and social support were analysed with reference to the self-determination theory. Two distinct patterns of attendance emerged: those who missed up to two sessions ("frequent attenders"), and those who missed more than two sessions ("infrequent attenders"). The groups differed in their motivations to attend, barriers to attendance, and in the level of social support they received. In comparison with the infrequent attenders, frequent attenders more often had intrinsic motivation to attend (e.g. enjoyed attending), and named more self-determined extrinsic motivations to attend, such as commitment to attendance and wanting to quit. Most of those mentioning intrinsic motivation did not mention a desire to quit as a motivation for attendance. No organizational barriers to attendance were mentioned by frequent attenders, such as misunderstandings around details of appointments. Frequent attenders experienced more social support within and outside the course. Motivation to attend behavioural support, as distinct from motivation to quit smoking, is an important factor in attendance of smoking cessation courses in disadvantaged areas. Some focus on increasing motivation to

  20. Special issue on new ideas and emerging results in understanding software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinju, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Welcome to the special issue on new ideas and emerging results in understanding software. It is a present to Prof. Dr. Paul Klint on the occasion of his 65th birthday. His colleagues and friends who share similar research interests have written the papers, wanting to present Paul with a worthy gift.

  1. Value-Added Funding: A Simple, Easy-to-Understand Model to Reward Performance. DO THIS!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete College America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The mere mention of so-called "performance funding" makes college presidents and the higher education community nervous. It's an understandable reaction to a concept that too often results in an overly complex outcome. Still, the basic principle of "investing the limited resources states have in the results they want" is fundamentally sound--and…

  2. Having to versus wanting to play: background and consequences of harmonious versus obsessive engagement in video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K; Weinstein, Netta; Ryan, Richard M; Rigby, C Scott

    2009-10-01

    The present research examined the background and consequences of different styles of engagement in video game play. Based on self-determination theory(1) and the dualistic model of passion,(2) the authors hypothesized that high levels of basic psychological need satisfaction would foster harmonious passion for video play, supporting the subjective sense that play is something one wants to do. It was also predicted that low levels of need satisfaction would promote obsessive passion for games and contribute to the feeling that game play is something one feels compelled to or has to do. It was expected, in turn, that passion for play would directly influence player outcomes closely tied to games, moderate links between play and well-being, and relate to overall levels of well-being as a function of basic need satisfaction. As expected, results showed that low levels of basic need satisfaction were associated with more obsessive passion, higher amounts of play, greater tension following play, and low game enjoyment, whereas high levels of need satisfaction did not predict hours of play but were associated with more harmonious passion, game enjoyment, and energy following play. Moderation analyses showed that high amounts of play related negatively to well-being only to the extent that players reported an obsessive passion and that the unique relations between passion and overall levels of player well-being were quite small once controlling for their basic need satisfaction in daily life. Discussion of the current findings focuses on their significance for understanding disordered play and the value of applying a theory-based approach to study motivation for virtual contexts.

  3. Exploring older and younger adults' preferences for health information and participation in decision making using the Health Information Wants Questionnaire (HIWQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Wang, Mo; Feldman, Robert; Zhou, Le

    2014-12-01

    Existing measurements of patient preferences cover only a limited range of health information and participation in decision making. A broader approach is necessary to understand the breadth and variations in patient preferences. To explore the breadth and variances in patient preferences for health information and participation in decision making and to understand the relationship between age and each type of preference. The Health Information Wants Questionnaire (HIWQ) was administered during May-December 2010 to gather data about the information and corresponding decision-making autonomy participants would want in seven areas: diagnosis, treatment, laboratory tests, self-care, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), psychosocial factors and health-care providers. A large state university, public libraries and senior centres in Maryland, USA. A convenience sample of 438 individuals, including 226 undergraduates (mean age = 20; SD = 2.15) and 212 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 72; SD = 9.00). Ratings on the information and decision-making items of the HIWQ. Participants expressed higher levels of preference for information than for participation in decision making on six of seven subscales. On the psychosocial subscale, they expressed stronger desire for participation in decision making than for information. Age had no predictive effect on the overall preferences or specific preferences for information and participation in decision making about standard treatments and CAM. The predictive effect of age on the other types of preferences varied significantly. Physicians should take into account the breadth and variations in patient preferences. The predictive effect of age on patient preferences varied depending on the specific area of preferences. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Why Don't They Understand Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasz, Ladislav

    The aim of the article is to provide teachers some ideas about the development of physical knowledge and to make them more receptive to the differences between their and the students thinking. I want to show, that these differences lie not only in the richness of experience, but also in the structure of this experience. I try to point to some of these differences lying in the content, form and meaningfulness. The article is based on an adapted version of Piaget's model of the growth of physical knowledge. The model represents the changes of semantic understanding, formal language and logical structure of a theory during its historical development. I illustrate the model on the development of classical mechanics, but similar changes can be found also in the history of electrodynamics or quantum mechanics. The central idea of the paper is to use this model of the historical development of physical knowledge in analysis of the cognitive processes in physics education.

  5. Gender Differences in Liking and Wanting Sex: Examining the Role of Motivational Context and Implicit Versus Explicit Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Marieke

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the specificity of sexual appraisal processes by making a distinction between implicit and explicit appraisals and between the affective (liking) and motivational (wanting) valence of sexual stimuli. These appraisals are assumed to diverge between men and women, depending on the context in which the sexual stimulus is encountered. Using an Implicit Association Test, explicit ratings, and film clips to prime a sexual, romantic or neutral motivational context, we investigated whether liking and wanting of sexual stimuli differed at the implicit and explicit level, differed between men and women, and were differentially sensitive to context manipulations. Results showed that, at the implicit level, women wanted more sex after being primed with romantic mood whereas men showed the least wanting of sex in the romantic condition. At the explicit level, men reported greater liking and wanting of sex than women, independently of context. We also found that women's (self-reported) sexual behavior was best predicted by the incentive salience of sexual stimuli whereas men's sexual behavior was more closely related to the hedonic qualities of sexual stimuli. Results were discussed in relation to an emotion-motivational account of sexual functioning.

  6. From wanting to willing - controlled drug use as a treatment goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Margaretha

    2017-03-01

    This paper uses rational choice theory to analyse a new - and controversial - treatment approach to drug problems: services aimed at making clients capable of controlled use of illegal drugs. The paper highlights three mechanisms used in control-focused treatment: attempts to move drug use from the sphere of "wanting" to the sphere of "willing"; temporal framing of illegal drug use; and a therapeutic focus on clients' resources rather than their problems. Furthermore, the paper identifies some of the main challenges associated with this kind of treatment. The paper is based on 30 qualitative interviews with young people (aged 18-25) enrolled in drug treatment in Copenhagen, Denmark. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pay-What-You-Want pricing: An integrative review of the empirical research literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Pay What You Want (PWYW setting companies empower their customers to fix the prices buyers voluntarily pay for a delivered product or service. The seller agrees to any price (includ-ing zero customers are paying. For about ten years researchers empirically investigate customer reactions to and economic outcomes of this pricing method. The present paper distinguishes PWYW from other voluntary payment mechanisms and reviews 72 English- or German-speaking PWYW publications, which appeared between January 2006 and September 2016 and contain 97 independent empirical data sets. Prior PWYW research is structured with the help of a conceptual framework which incorporates payment procedure design, buyer, seller, focal sales object and market context characteristics as factors potentially influencing customer perceptions of the PWYW scheme and their behavioral reactions to PWYW offers. The review discusses both consistent key findings as well as contradictory results and derives recommendations for future empirical PWYW research efforts.

  8. A review of the empirical literature on Pay-What-You-Want price setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerpott Torsten J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a Pay What You Want (PWYW setting companies empower their customers to fix the prices buyers voluntarily pay for a delivered product or service. The seller agrees to any price (including zero customers are paying. For about ten years researchers empirically investigate customer reactions to and economic outcomes of this pricing method. The present paper distinguishes PWYW from other voluntary payment mechanisms and reviews 72 English- or German-speaking PWYW publications, which appeared between January 2006 and September 2016 and contain 97 independent empirical data sets. Prior PWYW research is structured with the help of a conceptual framework which incorporates payment procedure design, buyer, seller, focal sales object and market context characteristics as factors potentially influencing customer perceptions of the PWYW scheme and their behavioral reactions to PWYW offers. The review discusses both consistent key findings as well as contradictory results and derives recommendations for future empirical PWYW research efforts.

  9. Want to Inspire Science Students to Consider a Research Career? Host a Scientist in Your Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Baynham

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Most biology students have limited exposure to research since this is not a public activity and the pace of science does not lend itself to television dramatization. In contrast, medicine is the subject of numerous TV shows, and students’ experience visiting doctors may lead them to think they want to become physicians. One effective way to encourage these students to consider a research career is to invite engaging scientists to speak about their career paths and lives during class. Students are most likely to be influenced by people they consider to be like themselves. While this method is well-suited to a lecture format where the scientist can address a larger audience, the laboratory would also be appropriate.

  10. Wants of information of out-patients undergoing irradiation for malignant neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieger, M.M.

    1981-05-01

    In the course of final check-up, after a series of irradiations, the remarks of 80 patients have been recorded. The want of information was expressed by 74%. Stage I-II patients were primarily interested in the results of medical examination and hoped for cure, whereas depressive reactions and anxiousness were found more frequently in stage III-IV, but the intention not to abandon hope and the desire for detailed information were also existent. Prognosis, anxiousness and fear of death are discussed, in general, not earlier than after several meetings, the question of the prognosis particularly being important to patients under 50. Special characteristics of the correlation physician-patient in the case of radiation treatment are interpreted considering the role adopted by the patient and his response to cancerous desease.

  11. Critical incidents during prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: what are the problems nobody wants to talk about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Christian; Rupp, Peter; Fleischmann, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    We wanted to identify incidents that led or could have led to patient harm during prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A nationwide anonymous and Internet-based critical incident reporting system gave the data. During a 4-year period we received 548 reports of which 74 occurred during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Human error was responsible for 85% of the incidents, whereas equipment failure contributed to 15% of the reports. Equipment failure was considered to be preventable in 61% of all the cases, whereas incidents because of human error could have been prevented in almost all the cases. In most cases, prevention can be accomplished by simple strategies with the Poka-Yoke technique. Insufficient training of emergency medical service physicians in Germany requires special attention. The critical incident reports raise concerns regarding the level of expertize provided by emergency medical service doctors.

  12. Changing health behavior motivation from I-must to I-want.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, S; Kenning, P

    2016-01-01

    In the past, medicine was dominated by acute diseases. Since treatments were unknown to patients they followed their medical doctors´ directives-at least for the duration of the disease. Behavior was thus largely motivated by avoiding expected costs associated with alternative behaviors (I-must). The health challenges prevailing today are chronic conditions resulting from the way we chose to live. Traditional directive communication has not been successful in eliciting and maintaining appropriate lifestyle changes. An approach successful in other fields is to motivate behavior by increasing expected rewards (I-want). Drawing on neuroeconomic and marketing research, we outline strategies including simplification, repeated exposure, default framing, social comparisons, and consumer friendliness to foster sustained changes in preference. We further show how these measures could be integrated into the health care system. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High-fructose corn syrup: everything you wanted to know, but were afraid to ask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor

    2008-12-01

    The annual American Society for Nutrition Public Information Committee symposium for 2007 titled "High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS): Everything You Wanted to Know, But Were Afraid to Ask" served as a platform to address the controversy surrounding HFCS. Speakers from academia and industry came together to provide up-to-date information on this food ingredient. The proceedings from the symposium covered 1) considerable background on what HFCS is and why it is used as a food ingredient, 2) the contribution HFCS makes to consumers' diets, and 3) the latest research on the metabolic effects of HFCS. The data presented indicated that HFCS is very similar to sucrose, being about 55% fructose and 45% glucose, and thus, not surprisingly, few metabolic differences were found comparing HFCS and sucrose. That said, HFCS does contribute to added sugars and calories, and those concerned with managing their weight should be concerned about calories from beverages and other foods, regardless of HFCS content.

  14. The wants of information of out-patients undergoing irradiation for malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    In the course of final check-up, after a series of irradiations, the remarks of 80 patients have been recorded. The want of information was expressed by 74%. Stage I-II patients were primarly interested in the results of medical examination and hoped for cure, whereas depressive reactions and anxiousness were found more frequently in stage III-IV, but the intention not to abandon hope and the desire for detailed information were also existent. Prognosis, anxiousness and fear of death are discussed, in general, not earlier than after several meetings, the question of the prognosis particularly being important to patients under 50. Special characteristics of the correlation physician-patient in the case of radiation treatment are interpreted considering the role adopted by the patient and his response to cancerous desease. (orig.) [de

  15. Listening to Women: Focus group discussions of what women want from postnatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WA Butchart

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum care is an essential part of the experience of childbirth and parenthood. This study explores what women want from postnatal care. Three focus groups, using a semi-structured format, were conducted. A total of 12 mothers, up to six weeks postpartum, participated in the study, which was conducted in two clinics in the Western Cape Metropole. Data was transcribed from taped sessions and analysed using Burnard’s (1991 model of “thematic content analysis” . Seven major categories were identified: Information, Support, Organisation of services, Attitudes of the health team, Contact with other mothers, Practical assistance and Other services. Listening to women is an essential element in the provision of flexible and responsive postnatal care that meets the felt needs of women and families.

  16. The impact of a junk-food diet during development on 'wanting' and 'liking'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Ellen Nacha; Arroyo-Ramirez, Aime; Mi, Sarah Jingyi; Robinson, Mike James Ferrar

    2017-01-15

    The global increase in obesity rates has been tied to the rise in junk-food availability and consumption. Increasingly, children are exposed to a junk-food diet during gestation and early development. Excessive consumption of junk-food during this period may negatively impact the development of brain motivation and reward pathways. In this study we investigated the effects of a chronic junk-food diet throughout development on cue-motivated behavior ('wanting'), hedonic 'liking' for sweet tastes, as well as anxiety and weight gain in male and female Long-Evans (LE) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Here we found that chronic exposure to a junk-food diet resulted in large individual differences in weight gain (gainers and non-gainers) despite resulting in stunted growth as compared to chow-fed controls. Behaviorally, junk-food exposure attenuated conditioned approach (autoshaping) in females, particularly in non-gainers. In contrast, junk-food exposed rats that gained the most weight were willing to work harder for access to a food cue (conditioned reinforcement), and were more attracted to a junk-food context (conditioned place preference) than non-gainers. Hedonic 'liking' reactions (taste reactivity) were severely blunted in LE, but not SD rats, and 'liking' for sucrose negatively correlated with greater weight gain. Finally, junk-food exposure reduced anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus maze) in males but not females. These results suggest that junk-food exposure during development may give rise to dissociable differences in 'liking' and 'wanting' neural systems that do not depend on weight gain and may not be detected through Body Mass Index monitoring alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. What Do Men Want from a Health Screening Mobile App? A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of mobile app which aims to improve health screening uptake developed for men. As part of the study to develop an effective mobile app to increase health screening uptake in men, we conducted a needs assessment to find out what do men want from a health screening mobile app. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 31 men from a banking institution in Kuala Lumpur. The participants were purposely sampled according to their job position, age, ethnicity and screening status. The recruitment was stopped once data saturation was achieved. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic approach. Three themes emerged from the analysis and they were: content, feature and dissemination. In terms of the content, men wanted the app to provide information regarding health screening and functions that can assess their health; which must be personalized to them and are trustable. The app must have user-friendly features in terms of information delivery, ease of use, attention allocation and social connectivity. For dissemination, men proposed that advertisements, recommendations by health professionals, providing incentive and integrating the app as into existing systems may help to increase the dissemination of the app. This study identified important factors that need to be considered when developing a mobile app to improve health screening uptake. Future studies on mobile app development should elicit users’ preference and need in terms of its content, features and dissemination strategies to improve the acceptability and the chance of successful implementation. PMID:28060953

  18. Matrix analysis of the digital divide in eHealth services using awareness, want, and adoption gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2012-02-13

    The digital divide usually refers to access or usage, but some studies have identified two other divides: awareness and demand (want). Given that the hierarchical stages of the innovation adoption process of a customer are interrelated, it is necessary and meaningful to analyze the digital divide in eHealth services through three main stages, namely, awareness, want, and adoption. By following the three main integrated stages of the innovation diffusion theory, from the customer segment viewpoint, this study aimed to propose a new matrix analysis of the digital divide using the awareness, want, and adoption gap ratio (AWAG). I compared the digital divide among different groups. Furthermore, I conducted an empirical study on eHealth services to present the practicability of the proposed methodology. Through a review and discussion of the literature, I proposed hypotheses and a new matrix analysis. To test the proposed method, 3074 Taiwanese respondents, aged 15 years and older, were surveyed by telephone. I used the stratified simple random sampling method, with sample size allocation proportioned by the population distribution of 23 cities and counties (strata). This study proposed the AWAG segment matrix to analyze the digital divide in eHealth services. First, awareness and want rates were divided into two levels at the middle point of 50%, and then the 2-dimensional cross of the awareness and want segment matrix was divided into four categories: opened group, desire-deficiency group, perception-deficiency group, and closed group. Second, according to the degrees of awareness and want, each category was further divided into four subcategories. I also defined four possible strategies, namely, hold, improve, evaluate, and leave, for different regions in the proposed matrix. An empirical test on two recently promoted eHealth services, the digital medical service (DMS) and the digital home care service (DHCS), was conducted. Results showed that for both e

  19. Religious hospital policies on reproductive care: what do patients want to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Lori R; Hebert, Luciana E; Battistelli, Molly F; Stulberg, Debra B

    2018-02-01

    Religious hospitals are a large and growing part of the American healthcare system. Patients who receive obstetric and other reproductive care in religious hospitals may face religiously-based restrictions on the treatment their doctor can provide. Little is known about patients' knowledge or preferences regarding religiously restricted reproductive healthcare. We aimed to assess women's preferences for knowing a hospital's religion and religiously based restrictions before deciding where to seek care and the acceptability of a hospital denying miscarriage treatment options for religious reasons, with and without informing the patient that other options may be available. We conducted a national survey of women aged 18-45 years. The sample was recruited from AmeriSpeak, a probability-based research panel of civilian noninstitutionalized adults. Of 2857 women invited to participate, 1430 completed surveys online or over the phone, for a survey response rate of 50.1%. All analyses adjusted for the complex sampling design and were weighted to generate estimates representative of the population of US adult reproductive-age women. We used χ 2 tests and multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations. One third of women aged 18-45 years (34.5%) believe it is somewhat or very important to know a hospital's religion when deciding where to get care, but 80.7% feel it is somewhat or very important to know about a hospital's religious restrictions on care. Being Catholic or attending religious services more frequently does not make one more or less likely to want this information. Compared with Protestant women who do not identify as born-again, women of other religious backgrounds are more likely to consider it important to know a hospital's religious affiliation. These include religious minority women (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-4.27), those who reported no religion/atheist/agnostic (adjusted odds ratio, 2.27; 95% confidence interval

  20. Understanding in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinska, Anna

    1994-01-01

    The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.

  1. Understand Your Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Lookup > Asthma > Living with Asthma > Managing Asthma Understand Your Asthma Medication There are a variety of ... healthcare team. They can help make sure you understand the correct way to take the medicines, or ...

  2. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Understanding Puberty KidsHealth / For Parents / Understanding Puberty What's in this ... your child through all the changes? Stages of Puberty Sure, most of us know the telltale signs ...

  3. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ...

  5. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  6. The Emperor Has No Clothes: Teaching about Race and Racism to People Who Don't Want to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Tema Jon

    2010-01-01

    "The Emperor Has No Clothes: Teaching About Race and Racism to People Who Don't Want to Know" is designed to offer both practical and theoretical grounding for leaders and teachers interested in effectively addressing racism as well as other oppressive constructs. The dissertation offers an overview of the role of western culture in maintaining…

  7. Does the cancer patient want to know? Results from a study in an Indian tertiary cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhawat Laxmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The disclosure of the diagnosis of cancer is a distressing and complex issue. Families and doctors still do not tell patients when they have cancer in the belief that the patient does not want to know and telling him would lead to fear and depression. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the information needs of Indian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 300 patients′ views was conducted with the help of an adaptation of Cassileth′s Information Needs questionnaire. Results: A majority of cancer patients exhibited a strong need for information about illness and treatment. Ninety-four percent wanted to know if their illness was cancer. Most patients also wanted to know the chance of cure (92%. Age, education, and type of treatment significantly affect information preferences. Gender did not have an effect on information needs. Conclusion: This study showed that most of the patients wanted to know about their illness, treatment, side-effects, and chances of cure.

  8. "I Don't Want Him Hitting on Me": The Role of Masculinities in Creating a Chilly High School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a qualitative analysis of data from interviews with 15 heterosexual males ages 16-18 in Canadian high schools. Findings indicate that gay male youth often occupy lower status positions in the school's social hierarchy. Heterosexual males did not typically want to associate with gay male peers for fear of being perceived as…

  9. Pride and Patronage - The effect of identity on pay-what-you-want prices at a charitable bookstore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravert, Christina Annette

    I conduct a field experiment at a charitable bookstore to provide evidence for the role of identity under "pay-what-you-want pricing". When subtly reminded of their participation in the store's membership program members paid significantly more per book then without a reminder, while this nudge h...

  10. 40 CFR 267.176 - What must I do when I want to stop using the containers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Use and Management of Containers § 267.176 What must I do when I want to stop using the containers? You must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues from...

  11. So, You Want to Move out?!--An Awareness Program of the Real Costs of Moving Away from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Steven L.; Hansen, Lyle; Falen, Christi

    2011-01-01

    The So, You Want To Move Out?! program was developed to help teens explore the financial realities of moving away from home. This 3-day camp program allows youth the opportunity to interview for a job, work, earn a paycheck, and pay financial obligations. After paying expenses and trying to put some money away in savings, the participants begin to…

  12. Investigating the link between liking versus wanting self-esteem and depression in a nationally representative sample of American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Moeller, Scott J; Konrath, Sara; Crocker, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    The self-esteem movement has been around since the 1970s, and may have influenced how much value people place on self-esteem. We predicted a negative relationship between age and the amount of value placed on self-esteem boosts. We also investigated the correlates of liking versus wanting self-esteem boosts (and other pleasant rewards) on depression. A nationally representative sample of American adults (N = 867) indicated how much they liked and wanted several pleasant rewards (i.e., sex, food, alcohol, money, friendship, self-esteem boost). They also completed a standardized measure of depressive symptoms. As expected, there was a negative relationship between age and valuing self-esteem boosts, sex, and alcohol. People with depressive symptoms wanted self-esteem boosts, even though they did not like them very much. Similar effects were obtained for depressive symptoms and alcohol and friendship. This is the first research to show that self-esteem boosts are more valued among a nationally representative sample of younger American adults. It also is the first research to explore the association between depression and the motivation to boost self-esteem. People with depressive symptoms want self-esteem, and may pursue it, but this pursuit may feel unrewarding because they do not derive pleasure from it. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. MEN WANT WORK. REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, OFFICE OF MANPOWER AUTOMATION AND TRAINING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOLLIS, DAVID L.

    THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS MADE A ONE-YEAR STUDY OF THE MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING ACT IN APPALACHIA AND HELPED ESTABLISH THE YOUTH, EDUCATION, JOB DEVELOPMENT, WORK EXPERIENCE, VISTA, AND ON THE JOB TRAINING PROGRAMS WHICH ARE REVIEWED AND EVALUATED IN THIS REPORT. IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT--(1) MEN WANT JOBS, (2) WHILE UNFILLED…

  14. Gazing behavior reactions of Vietnamese and Austrian consumers to Austrian wafers and their relations to wanting, expected and tasted liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Minh Hang; Tu, Viet Phu; Duerrschmid, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Predictability of consumers' food choice based on their gazing behavior using eye-tracking has been shown and discussed in recent research. By applying this observational technique and conventional methods on a specific food product, this study aims at investigating consumers' reactions associated with gazing behavior, wanting, building up expectations, and the experience of tasting. The tested food products were wafers from Austria with hazelnut, whole wheat, lemon and vanilla flavors, which are very well known in Austria and not known in Vietnam. 114 Vietnamese and 128 Austrian participants took part in three sections: The results indicate that: i) the gazing behavior parameters are highly correlated in a positive way with the wanting-to-try choice; ii) wanting to try is in compliance with the expected liking for the Austrian consumer panel only, which is very familiar with the products; iii) the expected and tasted liking of the products are highly country and product dependent. The expected liking is strongly correlated with the tasted liking for the Austrian panel only. Differences between the reactions of the Vietnamese and Austrian consumers are discussed in detail. The results, which reflect the complex process from gazing for "wanting to try" to the expected and tasted liking, are discussed in the context of the cognitive theory and food choice habits of the consumers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. How do Europeans want to live in 2040? Citizen visions and their consequences for European land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzger, Marc J.; Murray-Rust, Dave; Houtkamp, Joske; Jensen, Anne; Riviere, la Inge; Paterson, James S.; Pérez-Soba, Marta; Valluri-Nitsch, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    The aspirations, motivations and choices of individual European citizens are a major driver of the future of global, European and local land use. However, until now no land use study has explicitly attempted to find out how the general public wants to live in the future. This paper forms a first

  16. How do Europeans want to live in 2040? : Citizen visions and their consequences for European land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzger, Marc; Murray-Rust, Dave; Houtkamp, J.M.; Jensen, Anne; La Riviere, Inge; Paterson, James; Pérez-Soba, M.; Valluri-Nitsch, Christiane

    The aspirations, motivations and choices of individual European citizens are a major driver of the future of global, European and local land use. However, until now no land use study has explicitly attempted to find out how the general public wants to live in the future. This paper forms a first

  17. Internet Use Frequency and Patient-Centered Care: Measuring Patient Preferences for Participation Using the Health Information Wants Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Feldman, Robert; Zhou, Le

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet is bringing fundamental changes to medical practice through improved access to health information and participation in decision making. However, patient preferences for participation in health care vary greatly. Promoting patient-centered health care requires an understanding of the relationship between Internet use and a broader range of preferences for participation than previously measured. Objective To explore (1) whether there is a significant relationship between Internet use frequency and patients’ overall preferences for obtaining health information and decision-making autonomy, and (2) whether the relationships between Internet use frequency and information and decision-making preferences differ with respect to different aspects of health conditions. Methods The Health Information Wants Questionnaire (HIWQ) was administered to gather data about patients’ preferences for the (1) amount of information desired about different aspects of a health condition, and (2) level of decision-making autonomy desired across those same aspects. Results The study sample included 438 individuals: 226 undergraduates (mean age 20; SD 2.15) and 212 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 72; SD 9.00). A significant difference was found between the younger and older age groups’ Internet use frequencies, with the younger age group having significantly more frequent Internet use than the older age group (younger age group mean 5.98, SD 0.33; older age group mean 3.50, SD 2.00; t 436=17.42, PInternet use frequency was positively related to the overall preference rating (γ=.15, PInternet users preferred significantly more information and decision making than infrequent Internet users. The relationships between Internet use frequency and different types of preferences varied: compared with infrequent Internet users, frequent Internet users preferred more information but less decision making for diagnosis (γ=.57, PInternet users in their preferences

  18. The future of humanity. How do we want to live tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenneker, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    This special edition contains the following 13 contributions: 1. anthropogenetics: Our evolution continues (Homo sapiens has always adapted to new living conditions. He will continue to do so.); 2. Transplantation medicine: donor organs from animals (scientists try to breed human organs in pigs, cows and other animals); 3. Germ line therapy: human design through the back door (gene manipulated sperm cells against male infertility would be an ethical breach of the perineum: the modifications would be passed on); 4. Gerontology: the methuselah effect (researchers investigate the processes in cells, thanks to which individual human beings live for more than 100 years); 5. Society: Rich world - poor world (in industrialised countries the population is stagnating, while in developing countries more and more young people are demanding work); 6. Inequality: divided society (tensions exacerbated by flight and migration, endangering social cohesion); 7. Epidemiology: A diagnosis of mankind (global data provide information on the state of health of the earth's population); 8. Geology: a complex matter; 9. Urbanism: the city of tomorrow; 10. Technology: energy revolution for Africa (the continent could fully rely on clean electricity); 11. Transhumanism: Do we want to live forever? 12. Social contacts: Don't google it, Dad. (Sherry Turkle warns of the constant cross-linking); 13. Anthropocene: apocalypse or departure? (We determine the fate of intelligent life). One contribution was separately analyzed for this database. [de

  19. How Would You Move Mount Fuji - And Why Would You Want To?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paor, D. G.

    2008-12-01

    According to author William Poundstone, "How Would You Move Mt Fuji?" typifies the kind of question that corporations such as Microsoft are wont to ask job applicants in order to test their lateral thinking skills. One answer (albeit not one that would necessarily secure a job at Microsoft) is: "With Google Earth and a Macintosh or PC." The answer to the more profound follow-up question "Why Would You Want To?" is hinted at by one of the great quotations of earth science, namely Charles Lyell's proposition that "The Present Is Key to the Past." Google Earth is a phenomenally powerful tool for visualizing today's earth, ocean, and atmosphere. With the aid of Google SketchUp, that visualization can be extended to reconstruct the past using relocated samples of present-day landscapes and environments as models of paleo-DEM and paleogeography. Volcanoes are particularly useful models because their self similar growth can be simulated by changing KML altitude tags within a timespan, but numerous other landforms and geologic structures serve as useful keys to the past. Examples range in scale from glaciers and fault scarps to island arcs and mountain ranges. The ability to generate a paleo-terrain model in Google Earth brings us one step closer to a truly four- dimensional, interactive geological map of the world throughout time.

  20. Pay What You Want! A Pilot Study on Neural Correlates of Voluntary Payments for Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskow, Simon; Markett, Sebastian; Montag, Christian; Weber, Bernd; Trautner, Peter; Kramarz, Volkmar; Reuter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Pay-what-you-want (PWYW) is an alternative pricing mechanism for consumer goods. It describes an exchange situation in which the price for a given good is not set by the seller but freely chosen by the buyer. In recent years, many enterprises have made use of PWYW auctions. The somewhat contra-intuitive success of PWYW has sparked a great deal of behavioral work on economical decision making in PWYW contexts in the past. Empirical studies on the neural basis of PWYW decisions, however, are scarce. In the present paper, we present an experimental protocol to study PWYW decision making while simultaneously acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Participants have the possibility to buy music either under a traditional “fixed-price” (FP) condition or in a condition that allows them to freely decide on the price. The behavioral data from our experiment replicate previous results on the general feasibility of the PWYW mechanism. On the neural level, we observe distinct differences between the two conditions: In the FP-condition, neural activity in frontal areas during decision-making correlates positively with the participants’ willingness to pay. No such relationship was observed under PWYW conditions in any neural structure. Directly comparing neural activity during PWYW and the FP-condition we observed stronger activity of the lingual gyrus during PWYW decisions. Results demonstrate the usability of our experimental paradigm for future investigations into PWYW decision-making and provides first insights into neural mechanisms during self-determined pricing decisions. PMID:27458416

  1. What should we want to know about our future? A Kantian view on predictive genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic research have led to the development of new diagnostic tools, including tests which make it possible to predict the future occurrence of monogenetic diseases (e.g. Chorea Huntington) or to determine increased susceptibilities to the future development of more complex diseases (e.g. breast cancer). The use of such tests raises a number of ethical, legal and social issues which are usually discussed in terms of rights. However, in the context of predictive genetic tests a key question arises which lies beyond the concept of rights, namely, What should we want to know about our future? In the following I shall discuss this question against the background of Kant's Doctrine of Virtue. It will be demonstrated that the system of duties of virtue that Kant elaborates in the second part of his Metaphysics of Morals offers a theoretical framework for addressing the question of a proper scope of future knowledge as provided by genetic tests. This approach can serve as a source of moral guidance complementary to a justice perspective. It does, however, not rest on the-rather problematic--claim to be able to define what the "good life" is.

  2. Helping the child with cancer: what school personnel want to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, L L; Saylor, C F; Finch, A J; Smith, K E

    1989-10-01

    As more children with cancer survive, the importance of facilitating school reintegration as a part of maximizing the quality of life has become evident. Workshops have been presented to school personnel to acquaint them with the issues facing cancer patients and their families, but there are gaps in our knowledge of what school personnel really need or want to know. In this study, 18 teachers of children with cancer and 15 teachers with no prior contact with students with cancer completed a questionnaire designed to assess needs, beliefs, and priorities with regard to working with cancer patients in the classroom. Significant findings included: (a) a consensus that a certain core of information about medical/psychological issues would be useful, and presentation of such information by psychologists and medical personnel working with such families would be optimal; (b) teachers having cancer patients as students were less likely to see the adaptation of siblings as an important issue; (c) teachers associated working with a student with cancer with less stress and demands on their time than predictable from previous studies; and (d) cancer patients as a whole were rated as having fewer behavioral, emotional, and learning problems than randomly selected students without a major illness, suggesting a "halo effect" or contradiction of some literature. Preliminary findings are detailed and implications are discussed for those attempting to help teachers facilitate students' adjustment to school following diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  3. Project WANT - Women's Access to Nuclear Technology, a successful industry/education partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widen, W.C.; Roth, G.L.; NIU)

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, the U.S. Congress issued the Carl D. Perkins Act, which charges vocational educators to increase their focus on two broad themes: (a) the elimination of sexual bias and sexual stereotyping in vocational education and (b) the provision of marketable skills to the economically deprived of the nation's work force. In response to this charter, an industry/education partnership was established among the Illinois State Board of Education, Norther Illinois University, and the Westinbghouse Nuclear Training Center. In essence, these partners established Project WANT - Women's Access to Nuclear Technology - with two premier goals: (a) to increase women's awareness regarding nuclear career opportunities and (b) to train and place women in technical professions within the nuclear industry. Feedback from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics identifies that <2% of all technical positions within the nuclear power industry are held by women. Hence, one may conclude that there is a definite need to promote sexual equity in the nuclear industry and that Illinois represents a unique environment of opportunity to accomplish this

  4. Valuation of Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    An important aim for the teacher in Higher Education is that students, in order to learn, achieve understanding in terms of being able to handle knowledge in a certain way. In this paper focus will be on understanding as a phenomenon which is permeated with values of what good understanding might...... be. Understanding is to be discussed as a phenomenon which in its definition is relative to the paradigm of educational thinking in which it is embedded. Paradigms of valuation of understanding in higher education will be viewed from two perspectives: An anglosaxon curriculum studies tradition...

  5. Big lie, small world: what E. Lynn Harris wanted readers to understand about the struggle for African American, homosexual males seeking to attain the American dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lisa D

    2012-01-01

    This article will examine the social implications for African American homosexual males seeking to achieve the American Dream. Invisible Life and Just as I Am-the first two novels in a trilogy by the late E. Lynn Harris writing from a semi-autobiographical perspective in late-twentieth century America-will serve as the texts that drive this research topic. Careful analysis of these works will substantiate the assertion that the American Dream, even on the cusp of the new millennium, is just beyond the grasp of this specific subpopulation.

  6. Understanding and managing risk attitude

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillson, David; Murray-Webster, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    ... This book highlights how risk attitude factors influence the human psyche, and carefully explains the impacts. Organisations seeking to dramatically improve the effectiveness of their risk management process will want to use this book's insights. Craig Peterson, President, PMI Risk Management SIG This book has prompted me to think more deeply as a change d...

  7. Understanding quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spillner, Vera

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a bundle definition for 'scientific understanding' through which the empirically equivalent interpretations of quantum mechanics can be evaluated with respect to the understanding they generate. The definition of understanding is based on a sufficient and necessary criterion, as well as a bundle of conditions - where a theory can be called most understandable whenever it fulfills the highest number of bundle criteria. Thereby the definition of understanding is based on the one hand on the objective number of criteria a theory fulfills, as well as, on the other hand, on the individual's preference of bundle criteria. Applying the definition onto three interpretations of quantum mechanics, the interpretation of David Bohm appears as most understandable, followed by the interpretation of Tim Maudlin and the Kopenhagen interpretation. These three interpretations are discussed in length in my thesis. (orig.)

  8. Understanding Nuclear Safety Culture: A Systemic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afghan, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima accident was a systemic failure (Report by Director General IAEA on the Fukushima Daiichi Accident). Systemic failure is a failure at system level unlike the currently understood notion which regards it as the failure of component and equipment. Systemic failures are due to the interdependence, complexity and unpredictability within systems and that is why these systems are called complex adaptive systems (CAS), in which “attractors” play an important role. If we want to understand the systemic failures we need to understand CAS and the role of these attractors. The intent of this paper is to identify some typical attractors (including stakeholders) and their role within complex adaptive system. Attractors can be stakeholders, individuals, processes, rules and regulations, SOPs etc., towards which other agents and individuals are attracted. This paper will try to identify attractors in nuclear safety culture and influence of their assumptions on safety culture behavior by taking examples from nuclear industry in Pakistan. For example, if the nuclear regulator is an attractor within nuclear safety culture CAS then how basic assumptions of nuclear plant operators and shift in-charges about “regulator” affect their own safety behavior?

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using statistics that researchers have collected over many years about ...

  10. To which countries do European psychiatric trainees want to move to and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto da Costa, M; Giurgiuca, A; Holmes, K; Biskup, E; Mogren, T; Tomori, S; Kilic, O; Banjac, V; Molina-Ruiz, R; Palumbo, C; Frydecka, D; Kaaja, J; El-Higaya, E; Kanellopoulos, A; Amit, B H; Madissoon, D; Andreou, E; Uleviciute-Belena, I; Rakos, I; Dragasek, J; Feffer, K; Farrugia, M; Mitkovic-Voncina, M; Gargot, T; Baessler, F; Pantovic-Stefanovic, M; De Picker, L

    2017-09-01

    There is a shortage of psychiatrists worldwide. Within Europe, psychiatric trainees can move between countries, which increases the problem in some countries and alleviates it in others. However, little is known about the reasons psychiatric trainees move to another country. Survey of psychiatric trainees in 33 European countries, exploring how frequently psychiatric trainees have migrated or want to migrate, their reasons to stay and leave the country, and the countries where they come from and where they move to. A 61-item self-report questionnaire was developed, covering questions about their demographics, experiences of short-term mobility (from 3 months up to 1 year), experiences of long-term migration (of more than 1 year) and their attitudes towards migration. A total of 2281 psychiatric trainees in Europe participated in the survey, of which 72.0% have 'ever' considered to move to a different country in their future, 53.5% were considering it 'now', at the time of the survey, and 13.3% had already moved country. For these immigrant trainees, academic was the main reason they gave to move from their country of origin. For all trainees, the overall main reason for which they would leave was financial (34.4%), especially in those with lower (2500€) incomes, personal reasons were paramount (44.5%). A high number of psychiatric trainees considered moving to another country, and their motivation largely reflects the substantial salary differences. These findings suggest tackling financial conditions and academic opportunities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. What Do Upper Secondary School Teachers Want to Know from Research on the Use of ICT and How Does This Inform a Research Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Anders D.; Lindberg, J. Ola; Fransson, Göran

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates what teachers taking part in a longitudinal research project on the use of ICT for teaching and learning in three upper secondary schools in Sweden want to learn more about. At the beginning of the project eighty-four teachers were invited to respond to a questionnaire relating to what teachers wanted to learn more about…

  12. 42 CFR 137.325 - What does a Self-Governance Tribe do if it wants to perform a construction project under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does a Self-Governance Tribe do if it wants to..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.325 What does a Self-Governance Tribe do if it wants to perform a construction project under section...

  13. From understanding to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2013-01-01

    in which entities (for example, the world, culture, society, organization and identities) emerge through entangled, layered practices in concrete circumstances. Understanding is not treated as a philosophical puzzle or as a purely linguistic phenomenon. Rather, it is conceptualized as an embodied...... a residential home where mutual understanding is an everyday challenge, namely the Danish Acquired Brain Injury Centre North....

  14. Understanding Business Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    analytics have been used in organizations for a variety of reasons for quite some time; ranging from the simple (generating and understanding business analytics...process. understanding business analytics 3 How well these two components are orchestrated will determine the level of success an organization has in

  15. Conceptions of Musical Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Papageorgi, Ioulia

    2016-01-01

    Music can be understood in many ways. This has important implications for music education. The research reported here explored how groups of people conceptualise musical understanding and what they believe supports its acquisition. In this study 463 participants completed two statements: "Musical understanding is" and "You learn to…

  16. Approaches to understand culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Rauner, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed.......Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed....

  17. Understanding Menstrual Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Anne H

    2018-04-01

    Menstrual-related migraine is very prevalent, very disabling, yet very easy to manage given a good understanding of its cause. This article is intended to help with that understanding and to enable headache specialists to prescribe or create effective hormonal preventives of menstrual-related migraine. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  18. Understanding the visual resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd L. Newby

    1971-01-01

    Understanding our visual resources involves a complex interweaving of motivation and cognitive recesses; but, more important, it requires that we understand and can identify those characteristics of a landscape that influence the image formation process. From research conducted in Florida, three major variables were identified that appear to have significant effect...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a ... for provider care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three ...

  20. Natural language understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S

    1982-04-01

    Language understanding is essential for intelligent information processing. Processing of language itself involves configuration element analysis, syntactic analysis (parsing), and semantic analysis. They are not carried out in isolation. These are described for the Japanese language and their usage in understanding-systems is examined. 30 references.

  1. Who wants to adopt and who wants to be adopted: a sample of American families and sub-Saharan African orphans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balding, Christopher; Feng, Yan; Atashband, Armita

    2015-12-01

    The debate between pro- and anti-international adoption advocates relies heavily on rhetoric and little on data analysis. To better understand the state of orphans and potential adopters in this debate, we utilize the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to study who adopts internationally and the status of orphaned children in sub-Saharan Africa. According to NSFG data adopters are church going, highly educated, stable families aware of the challenges faced by international adoption, with high rates of infertility and rates of child abuse half the population average. According to the DHS data, orphans in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from significantly higher deprivation, reduced schooling and increased levels of stunting and underweight reported than their cohort. Using this data, we estimate conservatively that that 1 50 000 orphans from our sample of sub-Saharan African countries died from their 5-year birth cohort. Given the large number of families seeking to adopt and the high number of orphan deaths, it seems counterproductive to restrict international adoptions given the significantly lower risks faced by children in adopted families compared with remaining orphaned. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  2. University Students Seeking Hormonal Emergency Contraception: Why Do They Not Want Pregnancy Now? When is it Suitable to Have Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aira Virtala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available University students who sought hormonal emergency contraception (EC in the Tampere Student Health Station during the period 1.9.2000-31.12.2001 received a questionnaire on their use of it. Of the total, 114 responded (67%. The aim of this study was to ascertain why the respondents did not want to get pregnant now and when it would be suitable for them to get children. Free answers to these questions were analysed using a collective consensus method. The main reasons for not wanting pregnancy now were un? nished studies and the non-steady character of the relationship. Almost all planned to become pregnant some day in the future when their life situation was appropriate, usually at the age of about 30 years.

  3. Understanding community traits - understanding public concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodarczyk, T.

    2003-01-01

    No two communities are alike. Therefore, one should not expect that public concerns and socio-economic effects of a proposed undertaking would be the same everywhere. Public concerns and the potential for social and economic effects of nuclear waste management facilities in one community will be different from those in another because communities differ in their fundamental sociological and economic traits. Research and experience with various types of nuclear and hazardous waste management facilities, generating stations and other energy developments across Canada and the United States indicate that an analysis of only a few key community traits can yield a more thorough understanding of the ways in which a community might perceive and respond to a project, the kinds of concerns that might dominate the public agenda, and the types of socio-economic effects that will be of primary concern. (author)

  4. IMPROVING THE STUDENTS‘ READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH KNOW-WANT-LEARN (KWL TECHNIQUE TO TEACH ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION ( Class Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Imelda Wachyu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the impacts of the use of Know-Want-Learn technique in improving the reading comprehension to teach analytical exposition among eleventh grade students of SMA N 2 Indramayu in the academic year of 2017/2018. The study was action research in two research cycles. In the study, the researcher collaborated with the English teachers and the students. The data of this study were qualitative in nature supported by quantitative data. Qualitative data were obtained from the results of classroom observation and collaborators‘ discussion. Quantitative data were obtained from pre-test and post test results. The instruments for collecting the data were observation guides, interview guides, and the pre-test and posttest. The data were in the form of field notes, interview transcripts, and the scores of the students‘ pre-test and posttest. The results of the two cycles show that the use of Know-WantLearn technique is effective to improve the students‘ reading comprehension. It is supported by the qualitative data which show that (1 Know-Want-Learn technique can help the teacher to scaffold the students‘ comprehension of the text by focusing on the steps before, during, and after reading; (2 Know-Want-Learn technique can help the students to preview the text, assess what they have learned after reading, and motivate their interest in reading; (3 The kind of activities given such as preeteaching vocabulary, using skimming and scanning, using fix-up strategies, and guessing meaning can help the students to read the text efficiently.

  5. Media, messages, and medication: strategies to reconcile what patients hear, what they want, and what they need from medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Richard L; Bell, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, patients' options for accessing information about prescription drugs have expanded dramatically. In this narrative review, we address four questions: (1) What information sources are patients exposed to, and are they paying attention? (2) Is the information they hear credible and accurate? (3) When patients ask for a prescription, what do they really want and need? Finally, (4) How can physicians reconcile what patients hear, want, and need? A critical synthesis of the literature is reported. Observations indicate that the public is generally aware of and attends to a growing body of health information resources, including traditional news media, advertising, and social networking. However, lay audiences often have no reliable way to assess the accuracy of health information found in the media, on the Internet, or in direct-to-consumer advertising. This inability to assess the information can lead to decision paralysis, with patients questioning what is known, what is knowable, and what their physicians know. Many patients have specific expectations for the care they wish to receive and have little difficulty making those expectations known. However, there are hazards in assuming that patients' expressed desires are direct reflections of their underlying wants or needs. In trying to reconcile patients' wants and needs for information about prescription medicines, a combination of policy and clinical initiatives may offer greater promise than either approach alone. Patients are bombarded by information about medicines. The problem is not a lack of information; rather, it is knowing what information to trust. Making sure patients get the medications they need and are prepared to take them safely requires a combination of policy and clinical interventions.

  6. #Hashtagaktivisme: En netnografisk undersøgelse af #WhatIReallyReallyWant på Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Randeris, Sarah Schwab; Kristiansen, Nanna Würtz; Mogensen, Sofia Tolstrup

    2016-01-01

    This paper will examine a case of online activism, more precisely hashtag activism in a semiotic analysis of the #WhatIReallyReallyWant campaign, launched by the organization Global Goals on July 5th 2016. Furthermore an ethnographic examination of Twitter users’ online behavior in using the hashtag is made. Based on these examinations and the theory of Bennett & Segerberg’s The Logic of Connective Action this study will assess whether online activism is an expression of a modern tendency...

  7. Wanting to Maximize the Positive and Minimize the Negative: Implications for Mixed Affective Experience in American and Chinese Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Tamara; Tsai, Jeanne L.; Jiang, Da; Wang, Yaheng; Fung, Helene H.; Zhang, Xiulan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that European Americans have fewer mixed affective experiences (i.e., are less likely to experience the bad with the good) compared to Chinese. In this paper, we argue that these cultural differences are due to “ideal affect,” or how people ideally want to feel. Specifically, we predict that people from individualistic cultures want to maximize positive and minimize negative affect more than people from collectivistic cultures, and as a result, they are less likely to actually experience mixed emotions (reflected by a more negative within-person correlation between actual positive and negative affect). We find support for this prediction in two experience sampling studies conducted in the U.S. and China (Studies 1 and 2). In addition, we demonstrate that ideal affect is a distinct construct from dialectical view of the self, which has also been related to mixed affective experience (Study 3). Finally, in Study 4, we demonstrate that experimentally manipulating the desire to maximize the positive and minimize the negative alters participants' actual experience of mixed emotions during a pleasant (but not unpleasant or combined pleasant and unpleasant) television clip in the U.S. and Hong Kong. Together, these findings suggest that across cultures, how people want to feel shapes how they actually feel, particularly people's mixed affective experience. PMID:26121525

  8. Wanting to maximize the positive and minimize the negative: implications for mixed affective experience in American and Chinese contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Tamara; Tsai, Jeanne L; Jiang, Da; Wang, Yaheng; Fung, Helene H; Zhang, Xiulan

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that European Americans have fewer mixed affective experiences (i.e., are less likely to experience the bad with the good) compared with Chinese. In this article, we argue that these cultural differences are due to "ideal affect," or how people ideally want to feel. Specifically, we predict that people from individualistic cultures want to maximize positive and minimize negative affect more than people from collectivistic cultures, and as a result, they are less likely to actually experience mixed emotions (reflected by a more negative within-person correlation between actual positive and negative affect). We find support for this prediction in 2 experience sampling studies conducted in the United States and China (Studies 1 and 2). In addition, we demonstrate that ideal affect is a distinct construct from dialectical view of the self, which has also been related to mixed affective experience (Study 3). Finally, in Study 4, we demonstrate that experimentally manipulating the desire to maximize the positive and minimize the negative alters participants' actual experience of mixed emotions during a pleasant (but not unpleasant or combined pleasant and unpleasant) TV clip in the United States and Hong Kong. Together, these findings suggest that across cultures, how people want to feel shapes how they actually feel, particularly people's experiences of mixed affect. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Thermometers: Understand the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the options Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...

  10. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  11. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prognosis Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what ...

  13. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  14. Understanding Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curjel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)

  15. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources ...

  18. Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis is the main video in the NCI Prognosis Video Series, which offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor, an oncologist who is also a national expert in doctor-patient communication.

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what she' ... understand what prognosis means and also hard to talk about, even for doctors. Many Factors Can Affect ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease will go for you is called prognosis. It can be hard to understand what prognosis means ... prognosis include: The type of cancer and where it is in your body The stage of the ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to talk about, even for doctors. Many Factors Can Affect Your Prognosis Some of the factors that ... Understanding your cancer and knowing what to expect can help you and your loved ones make decisions. ...

  2. Understanding your cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about: Treatment Palliative care Personal matters such as finances Knowing what to expect may make it easier ... treatment. www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/cancer-basics/understanding-statistics-used-guide-prognosis-and-evaluate-treatment . ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what she'd like to know of her prognosis. Credit: National ...

  4. Tinnitus: Understanding the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Support Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  5. Understanding Yugoslavia's Killing Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swigert, James W

    1994-01-01

    Since Yugoslavia disintegrated in violence 3 years ago, observers have struggled to understand why the Yugoslav conflict has been so brutal and has involved such extensive violence against civilian populations...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer What Is ... Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you have cancer, you and your loved ones face many unknowns. Understanding your cancer and knowing what ... make decisions. Some of the decisions you may face include: Which treatment is best for you If ...

  8. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...

  9. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  10. Understanding Medical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  11. What do people with dementia and their carers want to know about neuroimaging for dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Hannah; Butler, Marie-Louise; Ciblis, Aurelia; Bokde, Arun L; Mullins, Paul G; McNulty, Jonathan P

    2017-05-01

    Neuroimaging forms an important part of dementia diagnosis. Provision of information on neuroimaging to people with dementia and their carers may aid understanding of the pathological, physiological and psychosocial changes of the disease, and increase understanding of symptoms. This qualitative study aimed to investigate participants' knowledge of the dementia diagnosis pathway, their understanding of neuroimaging and its use in diagnosis, and to determine content requirements for a website providing neuroimaging information. Structured interviews and a focus group were conducted with carers and people with dementia. The findings demonstrate an unmet need for information on neuroimaging both before and after the examination. Carers were keen to know about neuroimaging at a practical and technical level to help avoid diagnosis denial. People with dementia requested greater information, but with a caveat to avoid overwhelming detail, and were less likely to favour an Internet resource.

  12. Differentiating Motivational from Affective Influence of Performance-contingent Reward on Cognitive Control: The Wanting Component Enhances Both Proactive and Reactive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, Anne-Clémence; Giersch, Anne; Hoonakker, Marc; Capa, Rémi L; Bonnefond, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Positive affect strongly modulates goal-directed behaviors and cognitive control mechanisms. It often results from the presence of a pleasant stimulus in the environment, whether that stimulus appears unpredictably or as a consequence of a particular behavior. The influence of positive affect linked to a random pleasant stimulus differs from the influence of positive affect resulting from performance-contingent pleasant stimuli. However, the mechanisms by which the performance contingency of pleasant stimuli modulates the influence of positive affect on cognitive control mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these differentiated effects are the consequence of the activation of the motivational "wanting" component specifically under performance contingency conditions. To that end, we directly compared the effects on cognitive control of pleasant stimuli (a monetary reward) attributed in a performance contingent manner, and of random pleasant stimuli (positive picture) not related to performance, during an AX-CPT task. Both proactive and reactive modes of control were increased specifically by performance contingency, as reflected by faster reaction times and larger amplitude of the CNV and P3a components. Our findings advance our understanding of the respective effects of affect and motivation, which is of special interest regarding alterations of emotion-motivation interaction found in several psychopathological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. "What Do They Want Me To Say?" The hidden curriculum at work in the medical school selection process: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been little study of the role of the essay question in selection for medical school. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of how applicants approached the essay questions used in selection at our medical school in 2007. Methods The authors conducted a qualitative analysis of 210 essays written as part of the medical school admissions process, and developed a conceptual framework to describe the relationships, ideas and concepts observed in the data. Results Findings of this analysis were confirmed in interviews with applicants and assessors. Analysis revealed a tension between "genuine" and "expected" responses that we believe applicants experience when choosing how to answer questions in the admissions process. A theory named "What do they want me to say?" was developed to describe the ways in which applicants modulate their responses to conform to their expectations of the selection process; the elements of this theory were confirmed in interviews with applicants and assessors. Conclusions This work suggests the existence of a "hidden curriculum of admissions" and demonstrates that the process of selection has a strong influence on applicant response. This paper suggests ways that selection might be modified to address this effect. Studies such as this can help us to appreciate the unintended consequences of admissions processes and can identify ways to make the selection process more consistent, transparent and fair.

  14. Big Data: Understanding Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor-Sakyi, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Steve Jobs, one of the greatest visionaries of our time was quoted in 1996 saying "a lot of times, people do not know what they want until you show it to them" [38] indicating he advocated products to be developed based on human intuition rather than research. With the advancements of mobile devices, social networks and the Internet of Things, enormous amounts of complex data, both structured and unstructured are being captured in hope to allow organizations to make better business decisions ...

  15. On multi-level thinking and scientific understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Michael Edgeworth

    2017-10-01

    Professor Duzheng YE's name has been familiar to me ever since my postdoctoral years at MIT with Professors Jule CHARNEY and Norman PHILLIPS, back in the late 1960s. I had the enormous pleasure of meeting Professor YE personally in 1992 in Beijing. His concern to promote the very best science and to use it well, and his thinking on multi-level orderly human activities, reminds me not only of the communication skills we need as scientists but also of the multi-level nature of science itself. Here I want to say something (a) about what science is; (b) about why multi-level thinking—and taking more than one viewpoint—is so important for scientific as well as for other forms of understanding; and (c) about what is meant, at a deep level, by "scientific understanding" and trying to communicate it, not only with lay persons but also across professional disciplines. I hope that Professor YE would approve.

  16. Understanding How Culture Influences Emotions in Consumer Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    to understand how other cultural dimensions, than those traditionally studied (individualism vs. collectivism) in relation to consumers’ behavior, influence emotions. It is confirmed that indeed also Danes as other Western cultures prefer high arousal positive emotions over low arousal positive emotions......The present research contributes to a limited researched area in consumer research focusing on culture and emotion. Little is known about how culture influence emotions in consumer decision making but there is an emerging interest in deepening the understanding of this. Review of previous studies...... reveal that culture shapes how consumers ideally want to feel, and that this in turn influences preferences and choice, which is guided by anticipated emotions. Empirical results confirm that some emotions are preferred more than others and that studying discrete emotions may be important when trying...

  17. When Kids Want Too Much: Curing a Case of the "Gimmies."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaire, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that as parents spend less time with their children and try to assuage their guilt by buying children things, the many effects of materialism must be prevented. Children need help understanding that spending time with friends and family is more rewarding than spending money. They need to be taught the strategies of media literacy while…

  18. ”I tried so many diets, now I want to do it differently”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    -active model – viewing the client as a self-reflective individual – was used as theoretical basis. A narrative analysis of the first session and a cross-session examination was presented to show, analyse and understand the procedure of the coaching approach. Finally, the voice of the coachee was heard...

  19. The Problems of Authority and the Want of Apprenticeship in Soldiers' Character Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghaus, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Militaries that take a character development approach in their moral education programs but rely heavily on authority figures as subject matter experts to teach soldiers face two serious problems. First, soldiers improperly defer to their instructors and, as a result, do not understand the moral virtues taught in class. Second, instructors are in…

  20. Do Latino Youth Really Want to Get Pregnant?: Assessing Pregnancy Wantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Genevieve; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Atkinson, Nancy; Portnoy, Barry; Lee, Sunmin

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent declines, Latinas bear a disproportionate burden of teen births. Understanding social, cultural, and demographic factors underlying pregnancy desire among Latino adolescents is needed to design effective teen pregnancy prevention interventions. A questionnaire was completed by 794 Latino youth including a "pregnancy wantedness…

  1. Teachers Know Best: What Educators Want from Digital Instructional Tools 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's efforts to improve educational outcomes for all students, and particularly low-income students and students of color, the foundation seeks to encourage innovation in K-12 education by supporting educators to personalize learning for students. This report renews the understanding about how…

  2. Who wants to be an agent? A framework to analyse water politics and governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce a framework to analyse water politics and governance in order to highlight aspects that are lesser known within the South African water discourse and to introduce and further a critical understanding...

  3. You Just Want to Be Like that Teacher: Modelling and Intercultural Competence in Young Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Language teachers are called upon to understand both the nature of students' intercultural competence and their own role in its development. Limited research attention has been paid to the relationship between the types of behaviour that language teachers model and the intercultural competence their students acquire. This article reports on a case…

  4. Want to Add Pizazz to Your Weight Training Class? Try Sport Education!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; McCollum, Starla

    2014-01-01

    Weight training classes are offered in many secondary level physical education classes. The type of instruction used during weight training is crucial, ensuring students understand the content knowledge and the enjoyment weight training has to offer as a lifetime activity. By using the sport education model (SEM) in weight training classes,…

  5. Who Wants to Become a Teacher? Typology of Student-Teachers' Commitment to Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Ikupa; Berry, Amanda; Saab, Nadira; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    Understanding student-teachers' decisions to enter and stay in the teaching profession after graduation could help teacher educators to find appropriate procedures to enhance commitment to teaching. This study classified student-teachers based on their levels of commitment to teaching, and described these types based on student-teachers'…

  6. Upward Bound: An Untapped Fountain Of Youth Wanting To Learn About Math And Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis-Davis, J. J.; Sherman, S. B.; Gillis-Davis, L. C.; Svelling, K. L.

    2009-12-01

    , physics, math, and engineering. In addition, learning science through inquiry and experimentation lends tangible examples to abstract principles. Our curricula (available on-line for sharing) are comprised of (1) modular classroom lesson plans, (2) teacher tutorials, and (3) hands-on laboratory experiments. Each set of summer classes has a theme; the first set of summer classes centered on factors that affect climate on any planet. For example, students measured solar activity by counting sunspots and learned about the greenhouse effect by conducting experiments with colored bottles. The second summer focused on how the electromagnetic spectrum is fundamental to remote sensing. During our summer 2009 program the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter launched, and with its many instruments served as a shining example of how the electromagnetic spectrum is used to study planetary bodies. Thus, NASA archived and student-collected data sets used in a PBL setting provide the basic foundation for helping students learn science and math concepts, while the UB programs ensure sustainability by providing a fountain of youth who want to learn.

  7. What older people want: evidence from a study of remote Scottish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gerry; Farmer, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The growing proportions of older people in rural areas have implications for the provision of health and social care services. Older people are more likely to have complex health needs compared with other age groups, requiring a full range of primary, community and acute hospital services. The provision of services to older people in rural areas is challenged by diseconomies of scale, travel costs and difficulties in attracting staff. Policy-makers are requested to include the 'voice' of older people to help provide services that match needs and context. In spite of this, what older people want from health and social care services is a neglected area of investigation. The reported study was conducted in 2005/2006 as part of a European Union Northern Periphery Programme (EU NPP) project called Our Life as Elderly. Its aims were to explore the views of those aged 55 years and over and living in remote communities about current and future health and social care service provision for older people. Evidence was to be collected that could inform policy-makers about changing or improving service delivery. This article summarises emergent themes and considers their implications. The study selected two small remote mainland Scottish Highland communities for in-depth case study. Semi-structured interviews (n = 23), 10 'informal conversations' and 4 focus groups were held with community members aged 55 years and over, in order to provide different types of qualitative data and 'layers' of data to allow reflection. Data analysis was assisted by computerised data management software and performed using the 'framework analysis' approach. Participants did not consider themselves 'old' and expressed the need for independence in older age to be supported by services. Several aspects of services that were undergoing change or restructuring were identified, including arrangements for home care services, meals provision and technological support. Participants valued elements of the

  8. Questioning the Moral Understanding of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavčnik Marijan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary content-related framework we are bound to are the basic human rights as established in the constitution. These basic rights may change and develop, yet as the heritage of our political and legal culture, they possess such a solid core meaning that only a “dogmatic sceptic” (G. Radbruch can doubt it. In societies with plural values, the moral values expressed by the basic human rights are the most solid moral basis of law. The moral understanding of law is necessarily accompanied by a moral criticism of law. Such criticism is often not pleasing to the authorities, but it cannot be avoided if one wants to live up to our responsibility towards nature, society and future generations. A lawyer who is not interested in these issues and only sticks to the letter of the law acts in a fossilized manner and does not enrich the life that the law is intended for. Legal thought should always have its meaning, as Smole’s Antigone would say.

  9. Understanding Sex for Sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted....... This interdisciplinary book aims to understand how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are defined, delineated, contested and understood in different places and times. The book offers contributions from a number of scholars who, based on their on their own research, discuss on going theoretical issues and analytical...... challenges Some chapters focuses on how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale have been regulated by the authorities and what understandings this regulation builds on. Other chapters investigate the experiences of the sex workers and sex buyers asking how these actors adjust to or resist the categorisation...

  10. Understanding Organizational Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    The attention-based view (ABV) of the firm highlights the role of decision makers’ attention in firm behavior. The ABV vastly improves our understanding of decision makers’ focus of attention; how that focus is situated in an organization’s procedural and communication channels; and how the distr......The attention-based view (ABV) of the firm highlights the role of decision makers’ attention in firm behavior. The ABV vastly improves our understanding of decision makers’ focus of attention; how that focus is situated in an organization’s procedural and communication channels; and how...... the distribution of the focus of attention among decision makers participating in those procedural and communication channels affects their understanding of a situation, their motivation to act, and, ultimately, their behavior. Significant progress has been made in recent years in refining and extending the ABV...

  11. What kind of evidence is it that Evidence-Based Medicine advocates want health care providers and consumers to pay attention to?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes R Brian

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, Evidence-Based Medicine advocates proclaimed a "new paradigm", in which evidence from health care research is the best basis for decisions for individual patients and health systems. Hailed in New York Times Magazine in 2001 as one of the most influential ideas of the year, this approach was initially and provocatively pitted against the traditional teaching of medicine, in which the key elements of knowing for clinical purposes are understanding of basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of disease coupled with clinical experience. This paper reviews the origins, aspirations, philosophical limitations, and practical challenges of evidence-based medicine. Discussion EBM has long since evolved beyond its initial (misconception, that EBM might replace traditional medicine. EBM is now attempting to augment rather than replace individual clinical experience and understanding of basic disease mechanisms. EBM must continue to evolve, however, to address a number of issues including scientific underpinnings, moral stance and consequences, and practical matters of dissemination and application. For example, accelerating the transfer of research findings into clinical practice is often based on incomplete evidence from selected groups of people, who experience a marginal benefit from an expensive technology, raising issues of the generalizability of the findings, and increasing problems with how many and who can afford the new innovations in care. Summary Advocates of evidence-based medicine want clinicians and consumers to pay attention to the best findings from health care research that are both valid and ready for clinical application. Much remains to be done to reach this goal.

  12. What do lay people want to know about the disposal of nuclear waste? A mental model approach to the design and development of an online risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlatidou, A; Cheng, T; Haklay, M

    2012-09-01

    Public participation requires the involvement of lay people in the decision-making processes of issues that concern them. It is currently practiced in a variety of domains, such as transport and environmental planning. Communicating risks can be a complex task, as there may be significant differences between the risk perceptions of experts and those of lay people. Among the plethora of problems that require public involvement is the site selection of a nuclear waste disposal site in the United Kingdom, which is discussed in this article. Previous ineffective attempts to locate a site provide evidence that the problem has a strong social dimension, and studies ascribe public opposition to a loss of public trust in governmental agencies and decisionmakers, and to a lack of public understanding of nuclear waste issues. Although the mental models approach has been successfully used in the effective communication of such risks as climate change, no attempt has been made to follow a prescriptive mental model approach to develop risk communication messages that inform lay people about nuclear waste disposal. After interviewing 20 lay people and 5 experts, we construct and compare their corresponding mental models to reveal any gaps and misconceptions. The mental models approach is further applied here to identify lay people's requirements regarding what they want to know about nuclear waste, and how this information should be presented so that it is easily understood. This article further describes how the mental models approach was used in the subsequent development of an online information system for the site selection of a nuclear waste repository in the United Kingdom, which is considered essential for the improvement of public understanding and the reestablishment of trust. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm...... territory, which they consider their place, but are unwilling to employ large-scale mobility themselves. Mobility is not of importance for their ethnic identity and some use paid herders to care for their livestock. By looking at both knowledge systems, we achieve a better understanding of pastoral mobility...

  14. Understanding jet noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabasov, S A

    2010-08-13

    Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.

  15. Understanding Contemporary Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of terrorism as it exists today and examines progress that has been made toward understanding its dimensions. Suggests how this subject can be explored in the classroom. Dispels misconceptions about terrorism by defining the term, and examines some causes of terrorism and strategies employed by terrorists. (KO)

  16. Understanding the structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    1994-01-01

    Urban forests are complex ecosystems created by the interaction of anthropogenic and natural processes. One key to better management of these systems is to understand urban forest structure and its relationship to forest functions. Through sampling and inventories, urban foresters often obtain structural information (e.g., numbers, location, size, and condition) on...

  17. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  18. Understanding modern transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729

    2009-01-01

    Proponents and opponents fiercely debate whether computer-mediated transparency has a positive effect on trust in the public sector. This article enhances our understanding of transparency by presenting three perspectives: a premodern, modern and post-modern perspective, and analyzing the basic

  19. Understanding Your Water Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    An easy to way to understand individual water use is to look at your water bill—not just the amount due, but how much water you used. Pull out your water bill and follow our steps to learn more about it.

  20. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  1. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  2. Text understanding for computers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenter, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing challenge for computers communicating with humans is to pass the Turing test, i.e., to communicate in such a way that it is impossible for humans to determine whether they are talking to a computer or another human being. The field of natural language understanding — which studies

  3. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  4. Understanding Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This curriculum module is designed for students who are taking high school chemistry. Students should already have some experience with the following: (1) Understanding and reading the pH scale; (2) Knowledge of the carbon cycle; (3) Using scientific notation to express large and small values; and (4) Reading chemical equations. This curriculum…

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ...

  6. Measuring Spreadsheet Formula Understandability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.F.J.; Pinzger, M.; Van Deursen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Spreadsheets are widely used in industry, because they are flexible and easy to use. Often they are used for business-critical applications. It is however difficult for spreadsheet users to correctly assess the quality of spreadsheets, especially with respect to the understandability.

  7. Understanding Dyscalculia for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sheila Rao

    2004-01-01

    Dyscalculia, a poor understanding of the number concept and the number system, is a learning problem affecting many individuals. However, less is known about this disability than about the reading disability, dyslexia, because society accepts learning problems in mathematics as quite normal. This article provides a summary of the research on…

  8. Understanding your capital options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher T

    2012-05-01

    When planning capital expenditures, hospitals and health systems should understand the following financing considerations: Traditional fixed-rate tax-exempt bonds; Variable-rate financing alternatives; Basel III Accord requirements; Direct tax-exempt bank loans; Total return swaps Taxable financings; Interest-rate swaps and collateral requirements

  9. Early Understanding of Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor- ... Centered Approach View this video on YouTube. Anthony L. Back, M.D., coaches other oncologists about how ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a link to this page included, e.g., “Understanding Cancer Prognosis was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.” Please note that blog posts that are written by individuals from outside the government may be owned by the writer, and graphics ...

  12. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  13. Preference segmentation of health care services: the old-fashioneds, value conscious, affluents and professional want-it-alls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodside, A G; Nielsen, R L; Walters, F; Muller, G D

    1988-06-01

    The results of a national segmentation study are reported. The findings extend the empirical work of Finn and Lamb and the benefit-seeking conjectures by Kotler and Clarke that consumers with preferences toward specific hospitals can be segmented into a few distinct groups. The groups described in the findings are identified as the value conscious, the affluents, the old-fashioneds, and the professional want-it-alls. Each segment has a unique demographic profile. The substantial importance of doctors' recommendations in influencing hospital choice is supported for all four consumer segments. Suggestions for additional research and hospital marketing strategies are provided.

  14. Dances With Denial: Have Medical Oncology Outpatients Conveyed Their End-of-Life Wishes and Do They Want To?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Amy; Douglas, Charles; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Zdenkowski, Nicholas; Pearce, Angela; Evans, Tiffany; Walsh, Justin

    2018-05-01

    Objectives: This study surveyed a sample of medical oncology outpatients to determine (1) the proportion who have already discussed and documented their end-of-life (EOL) wishes; (2) when and with whom they would prefer to convey their EOL wishes; (3) the EOL issues they would want to discuss; and (4) the association between perceived cancer status and advance care planning (ACP) participation. Methods: Adult medical oncology outpatients were approached in the waiting room of an Australian tertiary treatment center. Consenting participants completed a pen-and-paper survey assessing participation in ACP, preferences for conveying EOL wishes, timing of EOL discussions, and EOL issues they want to be asked about. Results: A total of 203 patients returned the survey (47% of eligible). EOL discussions occurred more frequently with support persons (47%) than with doctors (7%). Only 14% had recorded their wishes, and 45% had appointed an enduring guardian. Those who perceived their cancer as incurable were more likely to have participated in ACP. If facing EOL, patients indicated that they would want family involved in discussions (85%), to be able to write down EOL wishes (82%), and to appoint enduring guardians (91%). Many (45%) preferred the first discussion to happen when their disease became incurable. Slightly less than one-third thought discussions regarding EOL should be patient-initiated. Most agreed doctors should ask about preferred decision-making involvement (92%), how important it is that pain is managed well (95%), and how important it is to remain conscious (82%). Fewer (55%) wanted to be asked about the importance of care extending life. Conclusions: Many patients would like to have discussions regarding EOL care with their doctor and involve their support persons in this process. Only a small percentage of respondents had discussed EOL care with their doctors, recorded their wishes, or appointed an enduring guardian. The first step requires clinicians to

  15. Reward for food odors: an fMRI study of liking and wanting as a function of metabolic state and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Soussignan, Robert; Schaal, Benoist; Royet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Brain reward systems mediate liking and wanting for food reward. Here, we explore the differential involvement of the following structures for these two components: the ventral and dorsal striatopallidal area, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior insula and anterior cingulate. Twelve healthy female participants were asked to rate pleasantness (liking of food and non-food odors) and the desire to eat (wanting of odor-evoked food) during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective ratings and fMRI were performed in hunger and satiety states. Activations of regions of interest were compared as a function of task (liking vs wanting), odor category (food vs non-food) and metabolic state (hunger vs satiety). We found that the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum were differentially involved in liking or wanting during the hunger state, which suggests a reciprocal inhibitory influence between these structures. Neural activation of OFC subregions was correlated with either liking or wanting ratings, suggesting an OFC role in reward processing magnitude. Finally, during the hunger state, participants with a high body mass index exhibited less activation in neural structures underlying food reward processing. Our results suggest that food liking and wanting are two separable psychological constructs and may be functionally segregated within the cortico-striatopallidal circuit. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. "I want to be a daddy!": meanings of masculine identifications in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, K

    1987-07-01

    This paper suggests revisions in our understanding of feminine identity formation, the girl's negative oedipus complex, and masculine identifications in girls. Analytic material from the cases of three girls is used to explore the various origins and intrapsychic functions of masculine identifications at each phase of the girl's development. Accounts of feminine development based on such concepts as castration shock, primary femininity, primary identification with mother, or core gender identity are seen as oversimplified. Feminine and masculine identifications are neither primary nor secondary, but the product of a long line of development, of ongoing conflict resolution, and of defensive transformations.

  17. So you want to be a CEO: lessons from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, E D

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses graduate educational options for those seeking to become chief executive officers and examines the subject areas that are important on a practical level. It then discusses six areas that are essential to a successful manager: problem solving, critical thinking, and organizational behavior; breadth of knowledge; financial management; corporate culture; for profit and not for profit, and--politics--internal and external. Each area includes a lesson drawn from experience as a president and CEO. Readers should gain a level of understanding of the scope of responsibilities and skills necessary to succeed in today's health care environment.

  18. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  19. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  20. Towards Better Understanding QBism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2018-01-01

    Recently I posted a paper entitled "External observer reflections on QBism". As any external observer, I was not able to reflect all features of QBism properly. The comments I received from one of QBism's creators, C. A. Fuchs, were very valuable to me in better understanding the views of QBists. Some of QBism's features are very delicate and extracting them from articles of QBists is not a simple task. Therefore, I hope that the second portion of my reflections on QBism (or, strictly speaking, my reflections on Fuchs reflections on my earlier reflections) might be interesting and useful for other experts in quantum foundations and quantum information theory (especially, taking into account my previous aggressively anti-QBism position). In the present paper I correct some of my earlier posted critical comments on QBism. At the same time, other critical comments gained new validation through my recent deeper understanding of QBists views on a number of problems.

  1. Intention Understanding in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boria, Sonia; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi; Sparaci, Laura; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Santelli, Erica; Cossu, Giuseppe; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    When we observe a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup) done by another individual, we extract, according to how the motor act is performed and its context, two types of information: the goal (grasping) and the intention underlying it (e.g. grasping for drinking). Here we examined whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to understand these two aspects of motor acts. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, one group of high-functioning children with ASD and one of typically developing (TD) children were presented with pictures showing hand-object interactions and asked what the individual was doing and why. In half of the “why” trials the observed grip was congruent with the function of the object (“why-use” trials), in the other half it corresponded to the grip typically used to move that object (“why-place” trials). The results showed that children with ASD have no difficulties in reporting the goals of individual motor acts. In contrast they made several errors in the why task with all errors occurring in the “why-place” trials. In the second experiment the same two groups of children saw pictures showing a hand-grip congruent with the object use, but within a context suggesting either the use of the object or its placement into a container. Here children with ASD performed as TD children, correctly indicating the agent's intention. In conclusion, our data show that understanding others' intentions can occur in two ways: by relying on motor information derived from the hand-object interaction, and by using functional information derived from the object's standard use. Children with ASD have no deficit in the second type of understanding, while they have difficulties in understanding others' intentions when they have to rely exclusively on motor cues. PMID:19440332

  2. Understanding traditional African healing

    OpenAIRE

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of tradition...

  3. Understanding nuclear issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, G [Department of Atomic Physics, Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-09-01

    In our days technological progress for the benefit of society is slowed down by the fact that common citizens (opinion-forming media reporters, journalists, furthermore elected decision-makers) are underinformed about basic numerical facts concerning harms and benefits of high technology. Here a comparative risk study is presented about smoking, ozone hole, global warming, and ionizing radiation. This approach has turned out to be successful in educating the youth in Hungary; because school-going teenagers do understand numbers. (author)

  4. Understanding nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, G.

    1999-01-01

    In our days technological progress for the benefit of society is slowed down by the fact that common citizens (opinion-forming media reporters, journalists, furthermore elected decision-makers) are underinformed about basic numerical facts concerning harms and benefits of high technology. Here a comparative risk study is presented about smoking, ozone hole, global warming, and ionizing radiation. This approach has turned out to be successful in educating the youth in Hungary; because school-going teenagers do understand numbers. (author)

  5. Understanding Mediation Support

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz, David; Pring, Jamie; von Burg, Corinne; Zeller, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed increasing institutionalization of mediation support through the establishment of mediation support structures (MSS) within foreign ministries and secretariats of multilateral organizations. This study sheds light on this trend and aims to better understand the emergence, design and development of different MSS. This study analyzes six MSS, namely those established in the United Nations (UN), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Eu...

  6. The Understanding of libertarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Staśkiewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article treats of libertarianism. This school of political thought is based on methodological individualism, methodological subjectivism, anti-empiricism, apriorism. Libertarian philosophers demand almost absolute freedom in every area of life and that is why they are at the opposite pole to all totalitarian ideologies. The greatest influence on the understanding of libertarianism had Carl Menger, Murray Rothbard and David Nolan.

  7. Intention understanding in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boria

    Full Text Available When we observe a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup done by another individual, we extract, according to how the motor act is performed and its context, two types of information: the goal (grasping and the intention underlying it (e.g. grasping for drinking. Here we examined whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD are able to understand these two aspects of motor acts. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, one group of high-functioning children with ASD and one of typically developing (TD children were presented with pictures showing hand-object interactions and asked what the individual was doing and why. In half of the "why" trials the observed grip was congruent with the function of the object ("why-use" trials, in the other half it corresponded to the grip typically used to move that object ("why-place" trials. The results showed that children with ASD have no difficulties in reporting the goals of individual motor acts. In contrast they made several errors in the why task with all errors occurring in the "why-place" trials. In the second experiment the same two groups of children saw pictures showing a hand-grip congruent with the object use, but within a context suggesting either the use of the object or its placement into a container. Here children with ASD performed as TD children, correctly indicating the agent's intention. In conclusion, our data show that understanding others' intentions can occur in two ways: by relying on motor information derived from the hand-object interaction, and by using functional information derived from the object's standard use. Children with ASD have no deficit in the second type of understanding, while they have difficulties in understanding others' intentions when they have to rely exclusively on motor cues.

  8. Advances in understanding hypopituitarism

    OpenAIRE

    Stieg, Mareike R.; Renner, Ulrich; Stalla, G?nter K.; Kopczak, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of hypopituitarism has increased over the last three years. This review provides an overview of the most important recent findings. Most of the recent research in hypopituitarism has focused on genetics. New diagnostic techniques like next-generation sequencing have led to the description of different genetic mutations causative for congenital dysfunction of the pituitary gland while new molecular mechanisms underlying pituitary ontogenesis have also been described. Furtherm...

  9. Workarounds to computer access in healthcare organizations: you want my password or a dead patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Ross; Smith, Sean; Blythe, Jim; Kothari, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Workarounds to computer access in healthcare are sufficiently common that they often go unnoticed. Clinicians focus on patient care, not cybersecurity. We argue and demonstrate that understanding workarounds to healthcare workers' computer access requires not only analyses of computer rules, but also interviews and observations with clinicians. In addition, we illustrate the value of shadowing clinicians and conducing focus groups to understand their motivations and tradeoffs for circumvention. Ethnographic investigation of the medical workplace emerges as a critical method of research because in the inevitable conflict between even well-intended people versus the machines, it's the people who are the more creative, flexible, and motivated. We conducted interviews and observations with hundreds of medical workers and with 19 cybersecurity experts, CIOs, CMIOs, CTO, and IT workers to obtain their perceptions of computer security. We also shadowed clinicians as they worked. We present dozens of ways workers ingeniously circumvent security rules. The clinicians we studied were not "black hat" hackers, but just professionals seeking to accomplish their work despite the security technologies and regulations.

  10. What do parents want to know when considering autopsy for their child with cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Lori; Sweeney, Corinne; Baird, Kristin; Merchant, Melinda S; Warren, Katherine E; Corner, Geoffrey W; Roberts, Kailey E; Lichtenthal, Wendy G

    2014-08-01

    Research has suggested that autopsy in pediatrics is a valued way for parents to better understand and process their child's death, yet physicians often express hesitancy in discussing this topic with parents. To better assist clinicians with initiating discussion about this often sensitive topic, the current study examined bereaved parents' preferences about the timing and content of the autopsy discussion as well as reasons for considering autopsy. This study explored the views of 30 parents who lost a child to a variety of malignancies between 6 months and 6 years ago. Results showed that 36.7% of parents recalled having a discussion about autopsy, and the vast majority of those who did not recall a discussion (89.5%) would have considered an autopsy if it had been discussed. The majority of participants in this study indicated their preference to have the first conversation about autopsy when it becomes clear that cure is no longer possible. Findings suggest that educating parents about the clinical, emotional, and potential research benefits of autopsy and tissue procurement will ultimately help them make informed decisions and understand the importance of autopsy in medical progress. The future research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. "I Want to Feel Like a Full Man": Conceptualizing Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men's Sexual Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Lorraine K; Nielsen, Elly-Jean; McDermott, Daragh T; Davies, Nathan; Morrison, Todd G

    2018-01-01

    Current understandings of sexual difficulties originate from a model that is based on the study of heterosexual men and women. Most research has focused on sexual difficulties experienced by heterosexual men incapable of engaging in vaginal penetration. To better understand men's perceptions and experiences of sexual difficulties, seven focus groups and 29 individual interviews were conducted with gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 5), and heterosexual (n = 25) men. In addition, the extent to which difficulties reported by gay and bisexual men differ from heterosexual men was explored. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis applying an inductive approach. Two intercorrelated conceptualizations were identified: penis function (themes: medicalization, masculine identity, psychological consequences, coping mechanisms) and pain (themes: penile pain, pain during receptive anal sex). For the most part, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men reported similar sexual difficulties; differences were evident regarding alternative masculinity, penis size competition, and pain during receptive anal sex. The results of this study demonstrate the complexity of men's sexual difficulties and the important role of sociocultural, interpersonal, and psychological factors. Limitations and suggested directions for future research are outlined.

  12. ICYESS 2013: Understanding and Interpreting Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauser, F.; Niederdrenk, L.; Schemann, V.; Schmidt, A.; Suesser, D.; Sonntag, S.

    2013-12-01

    We will report the outcomes and highlights of the Interdisciplinary Conference of Young Earth System Scientists (ICYESS) on Understanding and Interpreting Uncertainty in September 2013, Hamburg, Germany. This conference is aimed at early career scientists (Masters to Postdocs) from a large variety of scientific disciplines and backgrounds (natural, social and political sciences) and will enable 3 days of discussions on a variety of uncertainty-related aspects: 1) How do we deal with implicit and explicit uncertainty in our daily scientific work? What is uncertain for us, and for which reasons? 2) How can we communicate these uncertainties to other disciplines? E.g., is uncertainty in cloud parameterization and respectively equilibrium climate sensitivity a concept that is understood equally well in natural and social sciences that deal with Earth System questions? Or vice versa, is, e.g., normative uncertainty as in choosing a discount rate relevant for natural scientists? How can those uncertainties be reconciled? 3) How can science communicate this uncertainty to the public? Is it useful at all? How are the different possible measures of uncertainty understood in different realms of public discourse? Basically, we want to learn from all disciplines that work together in the broad Earth System Science community how to understand and interpret uncertainty - and then transfer this understanding to the problem of how to communicate with the public, or its different layers / agents. ICYESS is structured in a way that participation is only possible via presentation, so every participant will give their own professional input into how the respective disciplines deal with uncertainty. Additionally, a large focus is put onto communication techniques; there are no 'standard presentations' in ICYESS. Keynote lectures by renowned scientists and discussions will lead to a deeper interdisciplinary understanding of what we do not really know, and how to deal with it. Many

  13. The Pay-What-You-Want game: What can be learned from the experimental evidence on Dictator and Trust Games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiff Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the Pay-What-You-Want game which represents the interaction between a buyer and a seller in a Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW situation. The PWYW game embeds the dictator game and the trust game as subgames. This allows us to use previous experimental studies with the dictator and the trust game to identify three factors that can influence the success of PWYW pricing in business practice: (i social context, (ii social information, and (iii deservingness. Only few cases of PWYW pricing for a longer period of time have been documented. By addressing repeated games, we isolate two additional factors which are likely to contribute to successful implementations of PWYW as a long term pricing strategy. These are (iv communication and (v the reduction of goal conflicts. The central contribution of this study is an attempt to bridge the gap between laboratory experiments and the research on PWYW pricing, which relies largely on evidence from the field. By reviewing the relevant experiments, this study identifies factors crucial for the success of PWYW pricing and provides guidance to developing long-term applications of PWYW pricing.

  14. Recruiting patients for postgraduate medical training in a community family planning clinic: how do patients want to be asked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    To look at patients' views about the way in which they are recruited to assist with postgraduate medical training (i.e. Who is the best person to ask patients to participate? When is the best time for patients to be asked?) and to compare these with clinical practice. Questionnaire surveys of 103 female family planning clinic (FPC) patients and 40 Diploma of the Faculty of Family Planning (DFFP) instructing doctors. Patients were recruited from the waiting room of a community FPC, and DFFP instructing doctors from the North West of England were recruited at an updating meeting. Patients preferred to be recruited by non-medical staff (i.e. receptionist and nurses). Few patients wanted to be asked by the training doctor. Only 9% would find it difficult to refuse a receptionist, 47% would find it difficult to refuse the instructing doctor and 65% would find it difficult to refuse the training doctor. In practice, the commonest person to recruit patients is the instructing doctor. Patients wanted to be given some time to consider the request; this was not always given. Patients may feel coerced into seeing training doctors because they find it difficult to refuse requests, particularly when they are being recruited by doctors. Non-medical staff may be more appropriate for the initial recruitment of patients. Patients need time to consider their involvement. The provision of written information may be useful. Further research is indicated to empower patients' decision-making and reduce the likelihood of coercion.

  15. “But All We Really Wanted was a Course!”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Fougt, Simon Skov

    2016-01-01

    in conducting traditional teaching, where ICT was never integrated in their subject teaching in relevant and appropriate, value-adding ways: First, the students’ level of the foreign language; second, an unstable interaction with consultants; third, the teachers’ struggle to find their roles; fourth, competing......This article describes a professional development project for teachers that aimed at developing innovative teaching with ICT in a 21st-century understanding of the term innovative. The article describes the result of the intervention and the practice-based method used for this professional...... development project. Data from teacher planning, observations, interviews and document study are used to describe the poor outcome for the 8th-grade foreign-language teachers involved. We suggest five reasons for why the teachers did not manage to live up to the criteria for innovative teaching but persisted...

  16. “But All We Really Wanted was a Course!”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Fougt, Simon Skov

    2016-01-01

    in conducting traditional teaching, where ICT was never integrated in their subject teaching in relevant and appropriate, valueadding ways: First, the students’ level of the foreign language; second, an unstable interaction with consultants; third, the teachers’ struggle to find their roles; fourth, competing......This article describes a professional development project for teachers that aimed at developing innovative teaching with ICT in a 21st-century understanding of the term innovative. The article describes the result of the intervention and the practice-based method used for this professional...... development project. Data from teacher planning, observations, interviews and document study are used to describe the poor outcome for the 8th-grade foreign-language teachers involved. We suggest five reasons for why the teachers did not manage to live up to the criteria for innovative teaching but persisted...

  17. You want to do what? My mother's choice to have direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Elizabeth A

    2012-06-01

    As a genetic counselor, I had mixed opinions when my mother told me of her intent to undergo genomewide, SNP-based direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing. I cautioned her that results could be misleading, could increase anxiety and were often of limited clinical validity or utility. I warned of the possibility of learning unintended health information and expressed concerns about how the information might be used by a private company. I told her about the variability in results among companies. Yet, she persisted in her desire, reminding me that she was an informed consumer. After reviewing her goals and understanding of the information she might receive, she elected to proceed. Despite my insistence that I would not be her personal genetic counselor, when the results came back, I found myself immersed in her genetic data. In this manuscript, I will examine how this personal experience challenged my perceptions of DTC testing.

  18. “But All We Really Wanted was a Course!”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Fougt, Simon Skov

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a professional development project for teachers that aimed at developing innovative teaching with ICT in a 21st-century understanding of the term innovative. The article describes the result of the intervention and the practice-based method used for this professional...... development project. Data from teacher planning, observations, interviews and document study are used to describe the poor outcome for the 8th-grade foreign-language teachers involved. We suggest five reasons for why the teachers did not manage to live up to the criteria for innovative teaching but persisted...... in conducting traditional teaching, where ICT was never integrated in their subject teaching in relevant and appropriate, valueadding ways: First, the students’ level of the foreign language; second, an unstable interaction with consultants; third, the teachers’ struggle to find their roles; fourth, competing...

  19. 'What women want': Using image theory to develop expectations of maternity care framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kim; Beatty, Shelley; Reibel, Tracy

    2015-05-01

    to develop, in consultation with women, a theoretically-grounded framework to guide the assessment of women's maternity-care experiences. qualitative research was undertaken with women to examine the appropriateness of Image Theory as a heuristic for understanding how women plan and evaluate their maternity-care experiences. maternity-care services in metropolitan and regional communities in Western Australia. an Episodes of Maternity Care Framework grounded in Image Theory was established that addressed various domains of women's perceptions and expectations of their maternity-care experience. previously-identified weaknesses of methods used to measure patient satisfaction were addressed and a valid framework for investigating women's perception of their maternity-services experiences was developed. This framework has the potential to contribute to the ongoing development and improvement of maternity-care service. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. We Need Action on Social Determinants of Health – but Do We Want It, too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Recently a number of calls have been made to mobilise the arsenal of political science insights to investigate – and point to improvements in – the social determinants of health (SDH), and health equity. Recently, in this journal, such a rallying appeal was made for the field of public administration. This commentary argues that, although scholarly potential should justifiably be redirected to resolve these critical issues for humanity, a key ingredient in taking action may have been neglected. This factor is ‘community.’ Community health has been a standard element of the public health and health promotion, even political, repertoire for decades now. But this commentary claims that communities are insufficiently charged, equipped or appreciated to play the role that scholarship attributes (or occasionally avoids to identify) to them. Community is too important to not fully engage and understand. Rhetorical tools and inquiries can support their quintessential role. PMID:27285516

  1. Take me where I want to go: Institutional prestige, advisor sponsorship, and academic career placement preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo L Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Placement in prestigious research institutions for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics PhD recipients is generally considered to be optimal. Yet some doctoral recipients are not interested in intensive research careers and instead seek alternative careers, outside but also within academe (for example teaching positions in Liberal Arts Schools. Recent attention to non-academic pathways has expanded our understanding of alternative PhD careers. However, career preferences and placements are also nuanced along the academic pathway. Existing research on academic careers (mostly research-centric has found that certain factors have a significant impact on the prestige of both the institutional placement and the salary of PhD recipients. We understand less, however, about the functioning of career preferences and related placements outside of the top academic research institutions. Our work builds on prior studies of academic career placement to explore the impact that prestige of PhD-granting institution, advisor involvement, and cultural capital have on the extent to which STEM PhDs are placed in their preferred academic institution types. What determines whether an individual with a preference for research oriented institutions works at a Research Extensive university? Or whether an individual with a preference for teaching works at a Liberal Arts college? Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of faculty in biology, biochemistry, civil engineering and mathematics at four different Carnegie Classified institution types (Research Extensive, Research Intensive, Master's I & II, and Liberal Arts Colleges, we examine the relative weight of different individual and institutional characteristics on institutional type placement. We find that doctoral institutional prestige plays a significant role in matching individuals with their preferred institutional type, but that advisor involvement only has an impact on those

  2. I wanted you to know: Breast cancer survivors' control of workplace communication about cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lynne; Kocum, Lucie; Loughlin, Catherine; Bryson, Lindsay; Dimoff, Jennifer K

    2015-10-01

    Of working women diagnosed with cancer, approximately one-third will have breast cancer. Communicating about their cancer plays an important role in their workplace experience. It is challenging but helpful in eliciting needed social support and accommodations. Fully understanding such communication experiences is important in order to facilitate the well-being and success of such women in their workplaces. A qualitative study permits a richer account of the details of these workplace communications, and a deeper understanding of how women manage the complex and multifaceted communication process. This study used thematic analysis of semistructured interviews from 19 women working full time at the time of their breast cancer diagnosis. We found 3 themes that encapsulated unfolding individual experiences, representing a complex interplay of challenges to maintaining a sense of personal control in workplace responses: challenges to control posed by the experience of sharing information in the workplace about the woman's cancer, women's very individual attempts to control how information about their cancer was shared, and the mixed responses of those who were told. The result was unique individual trajectories in which empathic responses tailored to the individual's needs and preferences were most helpful. These findings can provide guidance on managing cancer communication for survivors, and on how to best support and accommodate women workers with breast cancer, facilitating their ability to control how their cancer impacts their work experience. Our website (http://www.iwantedyoutoknow.ca/) provides a video, tip sheet, and other resources for facilitating supportive communication in the workplace. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Take me where I want to go: Institutional prestige, advisor sponsorship, and academic career placement preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Diogo L; Melkers, Julia; Newton, Sunni

    2017-01-01

    Placement in prestigious research institutions for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) PhD recipients is generally considered to be optimal. Yet some doctoral recipients are not interested in intensive research careers and instead seek alternative careers, outside but also within academe (for example teaching positions in Liberal Arts Schools). Recent attention to non-academic pathways has expanded our understanding of alternative PhD careers. However, career preferences and placements are also nuanced along the academic pathway. Existing research on academic careers (mostly research-centric) has found that certain factors have a significant impact on the prestige of both the institutional placement and the salary of PhD recipients. We understand less, however, about the functioning of career preferences and related placements outside of the top academic research institutions. Our work builds on prior studies of academic career placement to explore the impact that prestige of PhD-granting institution, advisor involvement, and cultural capital have on the extent to which STEM PhDs are placed in their preferred academic institution types. What determines whether an individual with a preference for research oriented institutions works at a Research Extensive university? Or whether an individual with a preference for teaching works at a Liberal Arts college? Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of faculty in biology, biochemistry, civil engineering and mathematics at four different Carnegie Classified institution types (Research Extensive, Research Intensive, Master's I & II, and Liberal Arts Colleges), we examine the relative weight of different individual and institutional characteristics on institutional type placement. We find that doctoral institutional prestige plays a significant role in matching individuals with their preferred institutional type, but that advisor involvement only has an impact on those with a

  4. Understanding Teen UX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitton, Daniel; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Bell, Beth

    2014-01-01

    UX is a widely explored topic within HCI and has a large practitioners' community. However, the users considered in research and practice, are most often adults -- since adults represent the largest technology market share. However teenagers represent a growing market of unique users, and more...... needs to be understood about this population, from a UX perspective. The theme of this workshop is Building a Bridge to the Future and the aim is to gather together academics and UX practitioners, interested in teen users specifically, in order to discuss experiences, understandings, insights...

  5. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...

  6. Understanding signal integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Thierauf, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides you with practical guidance on understanding and interpreting signal integrity (SI) performance to help you with your challenging circuit board design projects. You find high-level discussions of important SI concepts presented in a clear and easily accessible format, including question and answer sections and bulleted lists.This valuable resource features rules of thumb and simple equations to help you make estimates of critical signal integrity parameters without using circuit simulators of CAD (computer-aided design). The book is supported with over 120 illustratio

  7. Understanding the bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    that are identified to exist between the Internet and housing market bubbles: uncertainty and sentiments. The iteration between uncertainty and sentiments leads to the emergence of the third commonality: residue. The residue is the difference between the actors’ overall sentiment about exaggerated future prospects...... all boils down to the role pricing plays vis-à-vis the emergence of a new venture and its perceived value. Being in the midst of the global economic crisis provides us with a unique opportunity to refine the proposed model, especially by understanding its temporal and contextual boundaries....

  8. Understanding DSGE models

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Junior, Celso Jose

    2016-01-01

    While the theoretical development of DSGE models is not overly difficult to understand, practical application remains somewhat complex. The literature on this subject has some significant obscure points. This book can be thought of, firstly, as a tool to overcome initial hurdles with this type of modeling. Secondly, by showcasing concrete applications, it aims to persuade incipient researchers to work with this methodology. In principle, this is not a book on macroeconomics in itself, but on tools used in the construction of this sort of models. It strives to present this technique in a detail

  9. Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolstad, William M

    2011-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to computational statistics from a Bayesian point of view Providing a solid grounding in statistics while uniquely covering the topics from a Bayesian perspective, Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics successfully guides readers through this new, cutting-edge approach. With its hands-on treatment of the topic, the book shows how samples can be drawn from the posterior distribution when the formula giving its shape is all that is known, and how Bayesian inferences can be based on these samples from the posterior. These ideas are illustrated on common statistic

  10. Understanding Infusion Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jeff E

    2018-04-01

    Infusion systems are complicated electromechanical systems that are used to deliver anesthetic drugs with moderate precision. Four types of systems are described-gravity feed, in-line piston, peristaltic, and syringe. These systems are subject to a number of failure modes-occlusion, disconnection, siphoning, infiltration, and air bubbles. The relative advantages of the various systems and some of the monitoring capabilities are discussed. A brief example of the use of an infusion system during anesthetic induction is presented. With understanding of the functioning of these systems, users may develop greater comfort.

  11. Understanding disruptions in tokamaksa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid E.; Galkin, Sergei A.; Gerasimov, Sergei N.; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes progress achieved since 2007 in understanding disruptions in tokamaks, when the effect of plasma current sharing with the wall was introduced into theory. As a result, the toroidal asymmetry of the plasma current measurements during vertical disruption event (VDE) on the Joint European Torus was explained. A new kind of plasma equilibria and mode coupling was introduced into theory, which can explain the duration of the external kink 1/1 mode during VDE. The paper presents first results of numerical simulations using a free boundary plasma model, relevant to disruptions.

  12. Understanding Our Only Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Marra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In an imaginary dialogue between a professor and a layman about the future of cosmology, the said professor relates the paradoxical story of scientist Zee Prime, a bold thinker of a future civilization, stuck in a lonely galaxy, forever unaware of the larger universe. Zee Prime comes to acknowledge his position and shows how important it is to question standard models and status quo, as only the most imaginative ideas give us the chance to understand what he calls “our only universe” — the special place and time in which we live.

  13. Understanding MARC: Another Look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Chang

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available 無MARC format has been widely used and discussed in our profession. However, there appear to have a wide spread misunderstanding of its real structure and attributes. This article discuss the needs for us to understand it a little more. Also, it presents the general misconceptions about MARC, the compatibility of MARC, the structure of MARC, standardization and - data communication, and some major issues related to MARC format. In this library automation age, MARC is a key element in library services, and it deserves us to take another look.

  14. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  15. Students' understandings of electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady-Morris, Kathryn

    Electrochemistry is considered by students to be a difficult topic in chemistry. This research was a mixed methods study guided by the research question: At the end of a unit of study, what are students' understandings of electrochemistry? The framework of analysis used for the qualitative and quantitative data collected in this study was comprised of three categories: types of knowledge used in problem solving, levels of representation of knowledge in chemistry (macroscopic, symbolic, and particulate), and alternative conceptions. Although individually each of the three categories has been reported in previous studies, the contribution of this study is the inter-relationships among them. Semi-structured, task-based interviews were conducted while students were setting up and operating electrochemical cells in the laboratory, and a two-tiered, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument was designed to identify alternative conceptions that students held at the end of the unit. For familiar problems, those involving routine voltaic cells, students used a working-forwards problem-solving strategy, two or three levels of representation of knowledge during explanations, scored higher on both procedural and conceptual knowledge questions in the diagnostic instrument, and held fewer alternative conceptions related to the operation of these cells. For less familiar problems, those involving non-routine voltaic cells and electrolytic cells, students approached problem-solving with procedural knowledge, used only one level of representation of knowledge when explaining the operation of these cells, scored higher on procedural knowledge than conceptual knowledge questions in the diagnostic instrument, and held a greater number of alternative conceptions. Decision routines that involved memorized formulas and procedures were used to solve both quantitative and qualitative problems and the main source of alternative conceptions in this study was the overgeneralization of theory

  16. Understanding postoperative fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, E A; King, T C

    1978-07-01

    Performance characteristics of the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems in man postoperatively have received little investigative attention, despite the well known syndrome of postoperative fatigue. The impairmen in perception and psychomotor skills that has been shown to result from caloric restriction, bedrest, sedation and sleep deprivation suggests that a similar deficit may occur after surgical procedures. After a simple elective surgical procedure, maximal oxygen uptake decreases and the adaptability of heart rate to submaximal workloads is impaired. Similar deleterious effects on cardiorespiratory performance have been documented with starvation and bedrest; an understanding of cardiorespiratory performance postoperatively awaits further investigation. Maximal muscular force of contraction is also impaired by caloric restriction and bedrest, suggesting that similar effects may be seen in the postoperative state, although this has not been studied. A better understanding of the syndrome of postoperative fatigue could be achieved by a descriptive analysis of physiologic performance postoperatively. Such descriptive data could form the basis for objective evaluation of therapeutic measures intended to improve performance, such as nutritional supplementation and pharmacologic intervention. The observation that exercise with the patient in the supine position may decrease the impairment in maximal aerobic power otherwise expected in immobilized patients suggests that controlled exercise therapy may be of value in reducing physiologic impairment postoperatively.

  17. Understanding nurse practitioner autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Sandra A

    2015-02-01

    This Gadamerian hermeneutic study was undertaken to understand the meaning of autonomy as interpreted by nurse practitioners (NPs) through their lived experiences of everyday practice in primary health care. A purposive sample of nine NPs practicing in primary health care was used. Network sampling achieved a broad swath of primary care NPs and practice settings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews. Because NP autonomy is concerned with gender and marginalization, Gilligan's feminist perspective was utilized during interpretive analysis. Having Genuine NP Practice was the major theme, reflecting the participants' overall meaning of their autonomy. Practicing alone with the patient provided the context within which participants shaped the meaning of Having Genuine NP Practice. Having Genuine NP Practice had four subthemes: relationships, self-reliance, self-empowerment, and defending the NP role. The understanding of Having Genuine NP Practice will enable NPs to articulate their autonomy clearly and better influence healthcare reform. Implications for advanced practice nursing education include integrating findings into classroom discussion to prompt self-reflection of what autonomy means and socialization to the NP role. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. Understanding Lustre Internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [ORNL; Wang, Di [ORNL; Huang, He [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    Lustre was initiated and funded, almost a decade ago, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Office of Science and National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories to address the need for an open source, highly-scalable, high-performance parallel filesystem on by then present and future supercomputing platforms. Throughout the last decade, it was deployed over numerous medium-to-large-scale supercomputing platforms and clusters, and it performed and met the expectations of the Lustre user community. As it stands at the time of writing this document, according to the Top500 list, 15 of the top 30 supercomputers in the world use Lustre filesystem. This report aims to present a streamlined overview on how Lustre works internally at reasonable details including relevant data structures, APIs, protocols and algorithms involved for Lustre version 1.6 source code base. More importantly, it tries to explain how various components interconnect with each other and function as a system. Portions of this report are based on discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lustre Center of Excellence team members and portions of it are based on our own understanding of how the code works. We, as the authors team bare all responsibilities for all errors and omissions in this document. We can only hope it helps current and future Lustre users and Lustre code developers as much as it helped us understanding the Lustre source code and its internal workings.

  19. WE-EF-BRD-03: I Want It Now!: Advances in MRI Acquisition, Reconstruction and the Use of Priors to Enable Fast Anatomic and Physiologic Imaging to Inform Guidance and Adaptation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Y. [Mayo Clinic Arizona (United States)

    2015-06-15

    MRI-guided treatment is a growing area of medicine, particularly in radiotherapy and surgery. The exquisite soft tissue anatomic contrast offered by MRI, along with functional imaging, makes the use of MRI during therapeutic procedures very attractive. Challenging the utility of MRI in the therapy room are many issues including the physics of MRI and the impact on the environment and therapeutic instruments, the impact of the room and instruments on the MRI; safety, space, design and cost. In this session, the applications and challenges of MRI-guided treatment will be described. The session format is: Past, present and future: MRI-guided radiotherapy from 2005 to 2025: Jan Lagendijk Battling Maxwell’s equations: Physics challenges and solutions for hybrid MRI systems: Paul Keall I want it now!: Advances in MRI acquisition, reconstruction and the use of priors to enable fast anatomic and physiologic imaging to inform guidance and adaptation decisions: Yanle Hu MR in the OR: The growth and applications of MRI for interventional radiology and surgery: Rebecca Fahrig Learning Objectives: To understand the history and trajectory of MRI-guided radiotherapy To understand the challenges of integrating MR imaging systems with linear accelerators To understand the latest in fast MRI methods to enable the visualisation of anatomy and physiology on radiotherapy treatment timescales To understand the growing role and challenges of MRI for image-guided surgical procedures My disclosures are publicly available and updated at: http://sydney.edu.au/medicine/radiation-physics/about-us/disclosures.php.

  20. Qualitative analysis of how patients decide that they want risk-reducing mastectomy, and the implications for surgeons in responding to emotionally-motivated patient requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen L; Whiting, Demian; Fielden, Hannah G; Saini, Pooja; Beesley, Helen; Holcombe, Christopher; Holcombe, Susan; Greenhalgh, Lyn; Fairburn, Louise; Salmon, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary approaches to medical decision-making advise that clinicians should respect patients' decisions. However, patients' decisions are often shaped by heuristics, such as being guided by emotion, rather than by objective risk and benefit. Risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) decisions focus this dilemma sharply. RRM reduces breast cancer (BC) risk, but is invasive and can have iatrogenic consequences. Previous evidence suggests that emotion guides patients' decision-making about RRM. We interviewed patients to better understand how they made decisions about RRM, using findings to consider how clinicians could ethically respond to their decisions. Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 34 patients listed for RRM surgery and two who had decided against RRM. Patients generally did not use objective risk estimates or, indeed, consider risks and benefits of RRM. Instead emotions guided their decisions: they chose RRM because they feared BC and wanted to do 'all they could' to prevent it. Most therefore perceived RRM to be the 'obvious' option and made the decision easily. However, many recounted extensive post-decisional deliberation, generally directed towards justifying the original decision. A few patients deliberated before the decision because fears of surgery counterbalanced those of BC. Patients seeking RRM were motivated by fear of BC, and the need to avoid potential regret for not doing all they could to prevent it. We suggest that choices such as that for RRM, which are made emotionally, can be respected as autonomous decisions, provided patients have considered risks and benefits. Drawing on psychological theory about how people do make decisions, as well as normative views of how they should, we propose that practitioners can guide consideration of risks and benefits even, where necessary, after patients have opted for surgery. This model of practice could be extended to other medical decisions that are influenced by patients' emotions.

  1. Qualitative analysis of how patients decide that they want risk-reducing mastectomy, and the implications for surgeons in responding to emotionally-motivated patient requests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L Brown

    Full Text Available Contemporary approaches to medical decision-making advise that clinicians should respect patients' decisions. However, patients' decisions are often shaped by heuristics, such as being guided by emotion, rather than by objective risk and benefit. Risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM decisions focus this dilemma sharply. RRM reduces breast cancer (BC risk, but is invasive and can have iatrogenic consequences. Previous evidence suggests that emotion guides patients' decision-making about RRM. We interviewed patients to better understand how they made decisions about RRM, using findings to consider how clinicians could ethically respond to their decisions.Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 34 patients listed for RRM surgery and two who had decided against RRM.Patients generally did not use objective risk estimates or, indeed, consider risks and benefits of RRM. Instead emotions guided their decisions: they chose RRM because they feared BC and wanted to do 'all they could' to prevent it. Most therefore perceived RRM to be the 'obvious' option and made the decision easily. However, many recounted extensive post-decisional deliberation, generally directed towards justifying the original decision. A few patients deliberated before the decision because fears of surgery counterbalanced those of BC.Patients seeking RRM were motivated by fear of BC, and the need to avoid potential regret for not doing all they could to prevent it. We suggest that choices such as that for RRM, which are made emotionally, can be respected as autonomous decisions, provided patients have considered risks and benefits. Drawing on psychological theory about how people do make decisions, as well as normative views of how they should, we propose that practitioners can guide consideration of risks and benefits even, where necessary, after patients have opted for surgery. This model of practice could be extended to other medical decisions that are influenced by patients' emotions.

  2. What follow-up care and self-management support do patients with type 2 diabetes want after their first acute coronary event? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasteleyn, Marise J; Gorter, Kees J; van Puffelen, Anne L; Heijmans, Monique; Vos, Rimke C; Jansen, Hanneke; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2014-10-01

    Despite diabetes patients' efforts to control their disease, many of them are confronted with an acute coronary event. This may evoke depressive feelings and self-management may be complicated. According to the American Diabetes Association, the transition from hospital to home after an acute coronary event (ACE) is a high-risk time for diabetes patients; it should be improved. Before developing an intervention for diabetes patients with an ACE in the period after discharge from hospital, we want to gain a detailed understanding of patients' views, perceptions and feelings in this respect. Qualitative design. Two semi-structured focus groups were conducted with 14 T2DM patients (71% male, aged 61-77 years) with a recent ACE. One focus group with partners (67% male, aged 64-75 years) was held. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Patients believed that coping with an ACE differs between patients with and without T2DM. They had problems with physical exercise, sexuality and pharmacotherapy. Patients and partners were neither satisfied with the amount of information, especially on the combination of T2DM and ACE, nor with the support offered by healthcare professionals after discharge. Participants would appreciate tailored self-management support after discharge from hospital. Patients with T2DM and their partners lack tailored support after a first ACE. Our findings underpin the ADA recommendations to improve the transition from hospital to home. The results of our study will help to determine the exact content of a self-management support program delivered at home to help this specific group of patients to cope with both conditions. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Six key topics informal carers of patients with breathlessness in advanced disease want to learn about and why: MRC phase I study to inform an educational intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morag Farquhar

    Full Text Available Breathlessness is a common symptom of advanced disease placing a huge burden on patients, health systems and informal carers (families and friends providing daily help and support. It causes distress and isolation. Carers provide complex personal, practical and emotional support yet often feel ill-prepared to care. They lack knowledge and confidence in their caring role. The need to educate carers and families about breathlessness is established, yet we lack robustly developed carer-targeted educational interventions to meet their needs.We conducted a qualitative interview study with twenty five purposively-sampled patient-carer dyads living with breathlessness in advanced disease (half living with advanced cancer and half with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We sought to identify carers' educational needs (including what they wanted to learn about and explore differences by diagnostic group in order to inform an educational intervention for carers of patients with breathlessness in advanced disease.There was a strong desire among carers for an educational intervention on breathlessness. Six key topics emerged as salient for them: 1 understanding breathlessness, 2 managing anxiety, panic and breathlessness, 3 managing infections, 4 keeping active, 5 living positively and 6 knowing what to expect in the future. A cross-cutting theme was relationship management: there were tensions within dyads resulting from mismatched expectations related to most topics. Carers felt that knowledge-gains would not only help them to support the patient better, but also help them to manage their own frustrations, anxieties, and quality of life. Different drivers for education need were identified by diagnostic group, possibly related to differences in caring role duration and resulting impacts.Meeting the educational needs of carers requires robustly developed and evaluated interventions. This study provides the evidence-base for the content

  4. "I just want my life back!" - Men's narratives about living with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallinen, Merja; Mengshoel, Anne Marit

    2017-10-26

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain and an array of other symptoms. It is less common among men than among women and the results concerning the severity of men's symptoms are contradictory. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impacts of fibromyalgia on men's daily life and work ability. The data were collected through life story interviews of five men with fibromyalgia. The results of a narrative analysis are presented in a form of two model narratives: "Adjusting the life to match the illness" and "Being imprisoned by the pain". The first narrative is a description of finding a balance between the illness and wellness, whereas the second is an account of debilitating symptoms, unsuccessful treatment, and rehabilitation interventions. The results suggest that adjusting one's activities may help to manage the symptoms and to support work ability in many cases but for some patients the experience of feeling healthy or pain free might be nothing but a fading memory. Narrative approach is well applicable to rehabilitation of patients with fibromyalgia: an illness narrative may help the patient and professionals to understand the situation better and to set realistic and relevant goals for rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation In addition to chronic pain, men with fibromyalgia suffer from daytime tiredness and cognitive challenges that substantially interfere with their work ability and daily functioning. Vocational rehabilitation interventions, including e.g., adjustments of work tasks and hours, should be started early on to support work ability. The results indicate that psychosocial support is needed to improve health related quality of life of patients with severe and complex symptoms, especially if return-to-work is not an option. Men with fibromyalgia seem to lack peer support both in face-to face groups and in on-line groups. "All-male" support groups could be explored in rehabilitation settings in the future. Using a

  5. On the technical edge : inventing the perfect mousetrap only counts if somebody wants it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seskus-James, W.

    2001-06-04

    Micotan specializes in software and data products, normally at the request and requirements of oil companies. An example was discussed, where Opsco Energy Industries required a system that would allow wireline operators to e-mail data files from remote sites back to the office, cheaper and faster than what was available at the time. Micotan designed FieldMail, a system where the information is compressed, attached and e-mailed with the click of a key. Rather than having the software permanently left at the well site, it is built into laptops, therefore it becomes portable. In Alberta, the system uses Telus and saves on long-distance charges by connecting to the nearest town. Satellite telephones and land lines can also be used by FieldMail. The remote-control and remote-device fields seem ripe for FieldMail, but the sales are slow. Micotan hopes that word of mouth will spread the gospel and bring people knocking at the door. It is felt that what is required for the little guy to succeed in this business are a unique service that is based on sound technology and real economic fundamentals, a strong track record in wireless IP-based site monitoring and control, and a comprehensive understanding of the importance of the task. 3 figs.

  6. Making an informed choice in the catering environment: what do consumers want to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackison, D; Wrieden, W L; Anderson, A S

    2009-12-01

    Eating outside the home is common in the UK, but it remains difficult for consumers to make informed choices based on menu information. The present study examines the reported preferences for the provision of nutrition (salt, fat and energy) and ingredient information in six types of UK catering outlets. Participants completed a short postal survey, assessing their frequency of dining at specific catering establishments as well as their desire to see nutrition and ingredient information. The responses from 786 adults aged >or=18 years (of whom 65% claimed to be 'motivated to eat a healthy diet') indicated that over 40% reported eating at a catering outlet at least once a week. Over half said that they would wish to see information on ingredients and the salt content of menu items at all venues. Preference for information on energy and fat content was less popular and varied in the range 42-56% for energy and 47-59% for fat. It is notable that 43% of respondents said they would welcome information on energy content of menu items in restaurants. A significant proportion of consumers wish to see information on the ingredients and nutrition composition on menu items for sale in UK catering outlets. Such information is likely to raise an awareness and understanding of healthy food choices and assist the population in making informed choices about healthy eating.

  7. Global Analysis of Food and Nutrition: What the Human Body Wants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Foo, Mathias; Sung, Jaeyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2014-03-01

    There is currently an abundance of quantitative information regarding foods we consume, such as their total nutrient composition and daily nutritional requirements. In this study, we systematically analyzed such large-scale data of foods to better understand how the composition of foods affects their overall nutritional value. Herein, we constructed two types of networks that reflect nutritional data from about 700 food products: 1) The Food-food Network, in which each edge connects a pair of foods having similar nutritional contents; and 2) the Nutrient-nutrient Network, which is based on co-occurrence patterns of different nutrients across foods. By adopting the insight we obtained from the topological properties of these networks, we present a novel measure to quantify the overall nutritional value of a food, which we call the Nutritional Fitness (NF). Some nutrients can hinder foods from having high NF, acting as ``nutritional bottlenecks.'' Interestingly, a food's NF is not only affected by individual nutrients, but also pairs of nutrients. To this effect, foods with very high NFs tend to have unique nutrient pairs not observed from the majority of foods. To summarize, our study provides insight into how NF and nutrients are intricately related.

  8. Wanted: interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, and knowledge translation and exchange training for students of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Lipi; Banerjee, Ananya T; MacLennan, Mary E; Gorczynski, Paul F; Zinszer, Kate A

    2011-01-01

    Students vocalized their concern with public health training programs in Canada at the 2010 CPHA Centennial Conference. Given these concerns, we reviewed the objectives and curricula of public health graduate (master's) programs in Canada. Our objective was to understand to what extent public and population health graduate programs in Canada support interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary and knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) training. This was achieved through a review of all public and population health master's programs in Canada identified from the public health graduate programs listed on the Public Health Agency of Canada website (n = 33) plus an additional four programs that were not originally captured on the list. Of the 37 programs reviewed, 28 (76%) stated that interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary or cross-disciplinary training opportunities are of value to their program, with 12 programs (32%) providing multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary training opportunities in their curriculum. Only 14 (38%) of the 37 programs provided value statements of KTE activities in their program goals or course objectives, with 10 (27%) programs offering KTE training in their curriculum. This review provides a glimpse into how public health programs in Canada value and support interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary collaboration as well as KTE activities.

  9. So, you want to design an acute mental health inpatient unit: physical issues for consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Dinesh

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore important considerations when planning an acute mental health inpatient unit. Planning a mental health acute inpatient facility should be about more than just building a beautiful, fabulous facility. A novel architectural design, fancy gadgets, safe tapware, new lounge suites, good light and air circulation are all incredibly important and good architects and designers can inform us about new developments in architecture and design that we must incorporate in our design plans. However, to design a facility that is right for tomorrow, it is also important to spend time trying to understand what happens in the facility and how the new facility is going to make things different and better. Planning of a health facility should be about creating an environment that is not only pleasant, comfortable and safe but also one that would enable and facilitate better care. It is important to map processes before rather than after building a facility, so that this process mapping can inform design and we do not keep falling into the trap of building a beautiful new facility but losing the opportunity to make care better.

  10. Feeling bad about progress does not lead people want to change their health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, James P; Webb, Thomas L; Benn, Yael; Chang, Betty P I; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-02-01

    When do people decide to do something about problematic health behaviours? Theoretical models and pragmatic considerations suggest that people should take action when they feel bad about their progress - in other words, when they experience negative progress-related affect. However, the impact of progress-related affect on goal striving has rarely been investigated. Study 1 (N = 744) adopted a cross-sectional design and examined the extent to which measures of progress-related affect were correlated with intentions to take action. Study 2 (N = 409) investigated the impact of manipulating progress-related affect on intentions and behaviour in an experimental design. Study 1 found that, while engaging in health behaviours had the expected affective consequences (e.g. people felt bad when they were not eating healthily, exercising regularly or limiting their alcohol consumption), it was feeling good rather than bad about progress that was associated with stronger intentions. Study 2 replicated these findings. Participants induced to feel good about their eating behaviour had marginally stronger intentions to eat healthily than participants led to feel bad about their eating behaviour. The findings have implications for interventions designed to promote changes in health behaviour, as well as theoretical frameworks for understanding self-regulation.

  11. I Want Your Sext: Sexting and Sexual Risk in Emerging Adult Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mikaela Jessica; Powell, Adeya; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Sexting, sending, or receiving sexually suggestive or explicit messages/photos/videos, have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study is to understand factors associated with sexting among minority (e.g., African- American, Hispanic) emerging adult males and the association between sexting and sexual risk. We recruited 119 emerging adult heterosexual males and assessed sexting and sexual risk behaviors. Fifty-four percent of participants sent a sext, and 70% received a sext. Participants were more likely to sext with casual partners than with steady partners. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who sent sexts to steady partners had significantly more unprotected vaginal intercourse and oral sex. Participants who sent sexts to casual partners had significantly more partners, and participants who received sexts from casual partners had significantly more unprotected oral sex and sex while on substances. We found that sexting is a frequent and reciprocal behavior among emerging adults, and there were different patterns of significance for sexts with casual and steady partners.

  12. ``We also wanted to learn'': Narratives of change from adults literate in African languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudell, Joel; Cheffy, Ian

    2017-10-01

    This article discusses the impact of literacy programmes on those who learned to read and write in their own African languages. It draws on adult learners' reflections on the significance of literacy and numeracy in their everyday lives as evidenced in interviews conducted in 2014 and 2015 in rural sites in five African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Cameroon, Burkina Faso and Ghana. The research approach was influenced by the Most Significant Change (MSC) method of monitoring and evaluation, which collects and examines narratives that reveal beneficiaries' perceptions of change related to a given programme. This study emulates this approach in that it seeks to learn about perceived changes attributed to literacy acquisition from the perspectives of the beneficiaries, without imposing pre-established indicators. In the rural adult learners' view, literacy enabled lifelong learning outcomes that rivalled the results of primary schooling. Literacy programme graduates demonstrated extensive ongoing learning after they learned to read, write and calculate, consequently acquiring new literacy practices and new understandings of themselves. Even though many of those interviewed had been unable to attend school, they viewed the practices of reading and writing that they developed outside of school as equivalent to the practices of adults who had been educated in primary school.

  13. Female STEM majors wanted: The impact of certain factors on choice of a college major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Walter Michael

    Although females have made significant strides in educational achievements and substantial inroads into academic majors, such as business and medicine, they have made considerably less progress in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. This translates into a smaller number of female graduates prepared to work in the science career fields and results in American industry looking to other countries for its educated workforce. A mixed-methods research design was used to explore and understand the lived experiences and perceptions of faculty members and working STEM professionals in Northern and Central Virginia. Results indicated that although females are attaining STEM degrees and entering STEM fields in record numbers, obstacles such as a challenging STEM curriculum, bias, feelings of insecurity, lack of female role models, and inadequate preparation for the STEM workforce could impede the progress females have made. This research makes recommendations to the academic community and industry which may be used as retention and recruitment strategies for females considering a career in STEM. The ultimate goal is to significantly increase the number of highly skilled female graduates entering STEM fields, leading the U.S. to regain its previous position atop the world in technological innovation and leadership.

  14. 'What do patients want?' Tailoring medicines information to meet patients' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Amber; Tordoff, June; Smith, Alesha

    2017-11-01

    Medicines information leaflets can equip patients to be in control of their own healthcare and support the safe and effective use of medicines. The design and content of leaflets influences patients' willingness to read them, and poor examples can cause patient confusion and anxiety. Researchers examined the literature over the past 8 years to determine the content and design of medicine information leaflets that patients prefer in order to read, understand, and use them effectively. It was found that existing leaflets do not meet patients' needs and appear ineffective. Leaflets lack the information patients seek and may contain non-essential material, affecting patients' perception of, and willingness to read them. Additionally, the acceptable leaflet length varies between patients. Application of good design principles improves readability, comprehension, and ability to locate information. Medicine information leaflets must meet patients' needs and be well designed. Tailoring information leaflets to patient characteristics and requirements would enhance effectiveness. Passive provision of pre-printed leaflets is outdated, unvalued and ineffective. Using automated computer systems for leaflet tailoring with the ability to further adapt patients' information might be the best way forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. "Necesita una vacuna": what Spanish-speakers want in text-message immunization reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Chesser, Amy; Brannon, Jennifer; Lopez, Venessa; Shah-Haque, Sapna; Williams, Katherine; Hart, Traci

    2013-08-01

    Appointment reminders help parents deal with complex immunization schedules. Preferred content of text-message reminders has been identified for English-speakers. Spanish-speaking parents of children under three years old were recruited to develop Spanish text-message immunization reminders. Structured interviews included questions about demographic characteristics, use of technology, and willingness to receive text reminders. Each participant was assigned to one user-centered design (UCD) test: card sort, needs analysis or comprehension testing. Respondents (N=54) were female (70%) and averaged 27 years of age (SD=7). A card sort of 20 immunization-related statements resulted in identification of seven pieces of critical information, which were compiled into eight example texts. These texts were ranked in the needs assessment and the top two were assessed for comprehension. All participants were able to understand the content and describe intention to act. Utilizing UCD testing, Spanish-speakers identified short, specific text content that differed from preferred content of English-speaking parents.

  16. Understanding how culture influence emotions in consumer decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    is guided by anticipated emotions. Empirical results confirm that some emotions are preferred more than others and that studying discrete emotions may be important when trying to understand how other cultural dimensions than the traditionally studied influence emotions. It is confirmed that indeed also......The present research contributes to a limited researched area in consumer research. Little is known about how culture influence emotions in consumer decision-making. It is revealed that culture shapes how consumers ideally want to feel, and that this in turn influences preferences and choice, which...... Danes as other Western cultures prefer high arousal positive emotions over low arousal positive emotions, but it is also revealed that it could be crucial when studying the influence of culture on emotions in decision-making to distinguish between more than high and low arousal positive and negative...

  17. From understanding to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents some methodological considerations around the topic of the AFinLA 2012 Autumn Symposium: Multimodal discourses of participation. The aim is to shed theoretical and analytical light on embodied participation in material settings. The research is placed in a relational perspective...... in which entities (for example, the world, culture, society, organization and identities) emerge through entangled, layered practices in concrete circumstances. Understanding is not treated as a philosophical puzzle or as a purely linguistic phenomenon. Rather, it is conceptualized as an embodied......, multimodal process in which language together with bodily senses (vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste) and a sense of place contribute to a phenomenon being recognized (as shared). Participation can result in inclusion or exclusion, a claim which is discussed with the help of a pilot study from...

  18. Understanding engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Bill

    2001-01-01

    * Unique interactive style enables students to diagnose their strengths and weaknesses and focus their efforts where needed* Ideal for self-study and tutorial work, building from an initially supportive approach to the development of independent learning skills * Free website includes solutions to all exercises, additional topics and applications, guide to learning mathematics, and practice materialStudents today enter engineering courses with a wide range of mathematical skills, due to the many different pre-university qualifications studied. Bill Cox''s aim is for students to gain a thorough understanding of the maths they are studying, by first strengthening their background in the essentials of each topic. His approach allows a unique self-paced study style, in which students Review their strengths and weaknesses through self-administered diagnostic tests, then focus on Revision where they need it, to finally Reinforce the skills required.The book is structured around a highly successful ''transition'' ma...

  19. Understanding traditional African healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgobi, M G

    2014-09-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.

  20. Understanding person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew W; Bruce, Vicki

    2011-11-01

    Bruce and Young's (1986) theoretical framework was actually a synthesis of ideas contributed by several people. Some of its insights have stood the test of time - especially the importance of using converging evidence from as wide a range of methods of enquiry as possible, and an emphasis on understanding the demands that are made by particular face perception tasks. But there were also areas where Bruce and Young failed to obey their own edicts (emotion recognition), and some topics they simply omitted (gaze perception). We discuss these, and then look at how the field has been transformed by computing developments, finishing with a few thoughts about where things may go over the next few (25?) years. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Understanding Socio Technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Modularity has gained an increasing popularity as a central concept for exploring product structure, process structure, organization structure and supply chain structure. With the offset in system theory the predominant understanding of modularity however faces difficulties in explaining the social...... dimension of modularity like irrational behaviors, cultural differences, learning processes, social organization and institutional influences on modularity. The paper addresses this gab offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...

  2. Understanding ADHD through entification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    How do we perceive ourselves and what explanations are we drawing upon in order to understand ourselves as morally acting individuals? In this presentation, I focus on how we live with, accept, and work on parts of ourselves that we find less desirable or even pathological. Based on interviews wi...... of acknowledging that some actions are beyond control; and 2) a way of concretising problematic actions and parts of oneself in order to work on and subdue these traits and reactions....... as a part of the self, a kind of quirk, and on the other hand as separated from the self, a foreign agent. By making a parallel to phenomena as spirit possession, I discuss how the entification process can be understood as 1) a distancing to what is perceived as amoral actions and a liberating process...

  3. Understanding renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker

    2005-01-15

    Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. (Author)

  4. Understanding climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellous, J.L.; Gautier, C.; Andre, J.C.; Balstad, R.; Boucher, O.; Brasseur, G.; Chahine, M.T.; Chanin, M.L.; Ciais, P.; Corell, W.; Duplessy, J.C.; Hourcade, J.C.; Jouzel, J.; Kaufman, Y.J.; Laval, K.; Le Treut, H.; Minster, J.F.; Moore, B. III; Morel, P.; Rasool, S.I.; Remy, F.; Smith, R.C.; Somerville, R.C.J.; Wood, E.F.; Wood, H.; Wunsch, C.

    2007-01-01

    Climatic change is gaining ground and with no doubt is stimulated by human activities. It is therefore urgent to better understand its nature, importance and potential impacts. The chapters of this book have been written by US and French experts of the global warming question. After a description of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, GIEC in French) consensus, they present the past and present researches on each of the main component of the climate system, on the question of climatic change impacts and on the possible answers. The conclusion summarizes the results of each chapter. Content: presentation of the IPCC; greenhouse effect, radiation balance and clouds; atmospheric aerosols and climatic change; global water cycle and climate; influence of climatic change on the continental hydrologic cycle; ocean and climate; ice and climate; global carbon cycle; about some impacts of climatic change on Europe and the Atlantic Ocean; interaction between atmospheric chemistry and climate; climate and society, the human dimension. (J.S.)

  5. Understanding representations in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Representing computer applications and their use is an important aspect of design. In various ways, designers need to externalize design proposals and present them to other designers, users, or managers. This article deals with understanding design representations and the work they do in design....... The article is based on a series of theoretical concepts coming out of studies of scientific and other work practices and on practical experiences from design of computer applications. The article presents alternatives to the ideas that design representations are mappings of present or future work situations...... and computer applications. It suggests that representations are primarily containers of ideas and that representation is situated at the same time as representations are crossing boundaries between various design and use activities. As such, representations should be carriers of their own contexts regarding...

  6. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Gregory B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This research presents a systematic approach to evaluating the costs of integrating new generation and operational procedures into an existing power system, and the methodology is independent of the type of change or nature of the generation. The work was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy and performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to investigate three integration cost-related questions: (1) How does the addition of new generation affect a system's operational costs, (2) How do generation mix and operating parameters and procedures affect costs, and (3) How does the amount of variable generation (non-dispatchable wind and solar) impact the accuracy of natural gas orders? A detailed operational analysis was performed for seven sets of experiments: variable generation, large conventional generation, generation mix, gas prices, fast-start generation, self-scheduling, and gas supply constraints. For each experiment, four components of integration costs were examined: cycling costs, non-cycling VO&M costs, fuel costs, and reserves provisioning costs. The investigation was conducted with PLEXOS production cost modeling software utilizing an updated version of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 118-bus test system overlaid with projected operating loads from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Puget Sound Energy, and Public Service Colorado in the year 2020. The test system was selected in consultation with an industry-based technical review committee to be a reasonable approximation of an interconnection yet small enough to allow the research team to investigate a large number of scenarios and sensitivity combinations. The research should prove useful to market designers, regulators, utilities, and others who want to better understand how system changes can affect production costs.

  7. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A McDaniel

    Full Text Available In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization.We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales.Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative.Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  8. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  9. Why do the street children of Kathmandu do not want to live in rehabilitation homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Anoop Singh

    2013-12-01

    The general objective of the present study was to identify the factors associated with street children's decision to live in Rehabilitation homes. It was a cross sectional study with 118 respondents. Data were collected by snowball sampling using constructed questionnaire and focus group discussion was also done for in-depth understanding. Descriptive, Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression study was carried out based on the PRECEDE model to analyze the data. Lack of care (p-value = 0.005), attitude of the respondents (p-value = 0.004), strict rules within the organizations (p-value = 0.025) and resilience of the respondents (p-value = 0.001) were significantly associated with the decision of the children to live in rehabilitation homes. The results of the multivariate logistic regression confirmed that children who were weakly resilient were 4.5 times more likely (OR = 4.54, 95% CI: 1.28-16.06), moderately resilient were 4 times more likely to live in rehabilitation homes (OR = 4.24, 95% CI: 1.53-11.68), than strong resilient. Children with favorable attitude were 16 times more likely to join rehabilitation homes (OR = 16.30, 95% CI: 1.78-149.10) than those favorable ones. The results showed that the children had open access to rehabilitation programs and services, but they had an unfavorable attitude towards the organizations. Most of the children were resilient and well aware of their situation. Organizations were mostly seen by these children as a means of support, but not the only option to better their life, indicating that programs and services should be planned accordingly and should not focus on institutionalizing them as the only solution.

  10. Pregnancy intentions among female sex workers: recognising their rights and wants as mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jeannie; Feng, Cindy; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the prevalence and correlates of pregnancy intentions among female sex workers (FSWs). Cross-sectional analysis using data from an open prospective cohort of street and off-street FSWs in Vancouver, Canada, in partnership with local sex work and community agencies. FSWs were recruited through outreach to street and off-street locations (e.g. massage parlours, micro-brothels) and completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate correlates of pregnancy intention, based on a 'yes' or 'no' response to the question "Are you planning on have any (any more) children in the future?". Of the 510 women, 394 (77.3%) reported prior pregnancy, with 140 (27.5%) of the entire sample reporting positive pregnancy intentions. Regarding ethnicity, 35.3% were Caucasian and 26.3% were Asian/visible minority, with no differences in pregnancy intention by ethnicity or HIV status; 38.4% reported Canadian Aboriginal ancestry. In our final multivariable model, servicing clients in formal indoor settings, inconsistent condom use by clients, younger age, and intimate partner violence (IPV) were associated with pregnancy intention. FSWs may have pregnancy intention levels similar to that of women in other occupations. Policy changes are needed to improve FSWs' access to integrated HIV and reproductive health services and harm reduction services, particularly for FSWs experiencing IPV. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. School book: the present want to persist in this offering to the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Monteiro da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The schoolbook has assumed since a long time, a main role in the Portuguese education system, often despising other tools, what to say, different knowledge and its acquisition. For its active and powerful presence, its influence through their contents and teacher’s action, it has become crucial in the context of the classroom, both in presence and in absence. Through this article and following previous empirical research, either in doctoral seat, either by the production of textbooks, one anti-dogmatic view on the use of the schoolbook arises, producing a picture that should remain between certainties and uncertainties. Reflect on textbook, on its construction and production, on its use will be the same as trying to understand the legitimacy of the other, giving it a very special place in the entire educational context, not on which teaches or transmits, but which promotes and releases necessary for the emulation of creativity condition. This, it is decided by the link to the reality of the students, but, immediately, the abuser nature of the textbook as a single book and the only book in the classroom, to prevent as reality construction, complex and articulated. Throughout this analysis, it seems that the schoolbook has difficulty opening holes for clearance to the good pleasure of the scientific spirit, whatever subject is. How to reference this article Costa, F. J. M. da (2015. Manual escolar: que o presente quer persistir em oferecer ao futuro. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(1, pp. 25-40. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.001.003

  12. How the Brain Wants What the Body Needs: The Neural Basis of Positive Alliesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Jason A; Burrows, Kaiping; Kerr, Kara L; Bodurka, Jerzy; Khalsa, Sahib S; Paulus, Martin P; Simmons, W Kyle

    2017-03-01

    Discontinuing unhealthy behaviors, such as overeating or drug use, depends upon an individual's ability to overcome the influence of environmental reward cues. The strength of that influence, however, varies greatly depending upon the internal state of the body. Characterizing the relationship between interoceptive signaling and shifting drug cue valuation provides an opportunity for understanding the neural bases of how changing internal states alter reward processing more generally. A total of 17 cigarette smokers rated the pleasantness of cigarette pictures when they were nicotine sated or nicotine abstinent. On both occasions, smokers also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while performing a visceral interoceptive attention task and a resting-state functional connectivity scan. Hemodynamic, physiological, and behavioral parameters were compared between sated and abstinent scans. The relationships between changes in these parameters across scan sessions were also examined. Smokers rated cigarette pictures as significantly more pleasant while nicotine abstinent than while nicotine sated. Comparing abstinent with sated scans, smokers also exhibited significantly decreased mid-insula, amygdala, and orbitofrontal activity while attending to interoceptive signals from the body. Change in interoceptive activity within the left mid-insula predicted the increase in smoker's pleasantness ratings of cigarette cues. This increase in pleasantness ratings was also correlated with an increase in resting-state functional connectivity between the mid-insula and the ventral striatum and ventral pallidum. These findings support a model wherein interoceptive processing in the mid-insula of withdrawal signals from the body potentiates the motivational salience of reward cues through the recruitment of hedonic 'hot spots' within the brain's reward circuitry.

  13. Building teams in primary care: what do nonlicensed allied health workers want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, George W; Taché, Stephanie; Ward, Lisa; Chen, Ellen H; Hammer, Hali

    2011-01-01

    Nonlicensed allied health workers are becoming increasingly important in collaborative team care, yet we know little about their experiences while filling these roles. To explore their perceptions of working as health coaches in a chronic-disease collaborative team, the teamlet model, we conducted a qualitative study to understand the nature and dynamics of this emerging role. During semistructured interviews, 11 health coaches reflected on their yearlong experience in the teamlet model at an urban underserved primary care clinic. Investigators conducted a thematic analysis of transcriptions of the interviews using a grounded theory process. Four themes emerged: 1) health-coach roles and responsibilities included acting as a patient liaison between visits, providing patient education and cultural brokering during medical visits, and helping patients navigate the health care system; 2) communication and relationships in the teamlet model of care were defined by a triad of the patient, health coach, and resident physician; 3) interest in the teamlet model was influenced by allied health workers' prior education and health care roles; and 4) factors influencing the effectiveness of the model were related to clinical and administrative time pressures and competing demands of other work responsibilities. Nonlicensed allied health workers participating in collaborative teams have an important role in liaising between patients and their primary care physicians, advocating for patients through cultural brokering, and helping patients navigate the health care system. To maximize their job satisfaction, their selection should involve strong consideration of motivation to participate in these expanded roles, and protected time must be provided for them to carry out their responsibilities and optimize their effectiveness.

  14. Information transfer: what do decision makers want and need from researchers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Mary

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to undertake a systematic assessment of the need for research-based information by decision-makers working in community-based organizations. It is part of a more comprehensive knowledge transfer and exchange strategy that seeks to understand both the content required and the format/methods by which such information should be presented. Methods This was a cross-sectional telephone survey. Questions covered current practices, research use, and demographic information, as well as preferences for receiving research information. Three types of organizations participated: Children's Treatment Centres of Ontario (CTCs; Ontario Community Care Access Centres (CCACs; and District Health Councils (DHCs. The analysis used descriptive statistics and analyses of variance (ANOVA to describe and explore variations across organizations. Results The participation rate was 70%. The highest perception of barriers to the use of research information was reported by the CCAC respondents, followed by CTCs and DHCs. The CTCs and DHCs reported greater use of research evidence in planning decisions as compared to the CCACs. Four sources of information transfer were consistently identified. These were websites, health-related research journals, electronic mail, and conferences and workshops. Preferred formats for receiving information were executive summaries, abstracts, and original articles. Conclusion There were a number of similarities across organization type with respect to perceived barriers to research transfer, as well as the types of activities the organizations engaged in to promote research use in decision-making. These findings support the importance of developing interactive, collaborative knowledge transfer strategies, as well as the need to foster relationships with health care decision-makers, practitioners and policymakers.

  15. Taking account of what young women want from school sex education: two groups from Scotland and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sinead

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to explore what young women want from their school-based sex education. Qualitative methods were used to explore the perspectives of two groups of young women from Uganda and Scotland. Of particular importance to all the young women were: a diverse sex education curriculum appropriate to the ages of the students, being taught by an outside female facilitator, single-sex classes and access to a female teacher. Furthermore, they proposed that discussion between small groups of friends is very useful. The Scottish group said that having a young teacher, teaching about emotions and relationships and being guided through their own decision making is also important. The Ugandan group emphasized the importance of being taught by female family members and having written materials provided on sex education. The study showed that young women from different backgrounds have strong opinions about sex education, and are an important resource for policy makers.

  16. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Frederiksen M, Lynge E, Rebolj M. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03130.x. Background If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace...... cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management....... Selection criteria Studies asking women to state a preference between active follow-up and observation for the management of low-grade abnormalities on screening cytology or HPV tests. Data collection and analysis Information on study design, participants and outcomes was retrieved using a prespecified form...

  17. How to Retain the Trust of Patients and Families When We Will Not Provide the Treatment They Want.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Edmund G

    2015-01-01

    How might clinicians best try to retain the trust of patients and family members after clinicians oppose giving a treatment? If clinicians can maintain the trust of patients and families in these situations, this may soften what may be the greatest possible loss--the death of a loved one. I discuss what clinicians seeking to retain trust should not do--namely impose their values and reason wrongly--and introduce strategies that clinicians may use to reduce both. I present five principles that clinicians can follow to try to retain trust, with examples that illustrate each. I suggest specific interventions that clinicians can make, especially when they anticipate that a patient and/or family may, in time, want a treatment that is futile. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  18. What Are They Doing and What Do They Want: The Library Spaces Customer Survey at Edmonton Public Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Wortman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of its Library Spaces Business Plan initiative, for four weeks in early 2012 Edmonton Public Library (EPL conducted a survey of its customers about how they use the library’s spaces and what they want from their library spaces. Using both print and online versions, the survey received 1517 responses which collected both quantitative and qualitative data. Findings revealed the ongoing importance of collections and quiet in library spaces, as well as the growing importance of providing social and group space in the library. Results of the survey indicate EPL’s customers do not consider the spaces a separate aspect from the collections and services the library provides. The results of the survey also emphasized the importance of regularly consulting with customers about library spaces to ensure the spaces continue to fulfill their needs as the role of the library, and the space needs associated with it, evolve.

  19. When do people want to retire? The preferred retirement age gap between Eastern and Western Europe explained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter de Tavernier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Debates surrounding working longer focus mainly on increasing legal and effective retirement ages, leaving the preferred retirement age largely overlooked. There is a large East-West divide in Europe regarding the latter, with individuals in Eastern Europe wanting to retire earlier. We aim to explain this gap in terms of differences in working conditions and state-level legal conditions. Using the 2010 European Social Survey data on employed individuals aged 50-70 in 24 countries enriched with country-level information, we find that part of the explanation is found in the lower levels of job control found in Eastern Europe. Moreover, the results suggest that Karasek’s job demand/control model fits better in Western than Eastern European countries. Another explanation is found at the country level, where the legal retirement age accounts for a major part of the gap in preferred retirement ages between East and West.

  20. Metatheatricalizing Communal Exploitation in Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Ngugi wa Miriis’ I Will Marry When I want

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Akingbe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metatheatre often refers to the capability of a stage text and performance to ostensibly establish a gamut of commentaries needed to repudiate a pervading social and political quagmire, tellingly obtainable in societies under siege. Metatheatre is a long established theatre tradition which has been sufficiently calibrated in William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, put into a utilitarian proclivity in Anton Chekhov's The Seagull, and fully aestheticized in Jean Genet's The Balcony and The Blacks. It is also a tradition which has been successfully exploited in Wole Soyinka's Madmen and Specialists; Athol Fugard's Sizwe Bansi is Dead; Femi Osofisan's The Chattering and the Song and Segun Oyekunle's Katakata for Sofahead. Ngugi wa Thiong'o and Ngugi wa Mirii steeped a metatheatre into the interface of politics and religion in I Will Marry When I Want, in order to foreground the hypocrisy of Christianity as underscored by the exploitation of the downtrodden masses, by the land grabbing Christian elite of the Kenyan society. This paper will be examining how Ngugi wa Thiong'o and Ngugi wa Miriis' I Will Marry When I Want builds on the harvest of the oral, mimetic and metaphoric signification of myth, history and song, to launch a barrage of criticism against a backdrop of land theft. This appropriation is poignantly accentuated by a language of equivocation, usually associated with the Christian elite in Kenya. The paper will among other things emphasize that, the rapacious gluttony for land grabbing is indubitably faith driven, as clearly demonstrated by the Kenyan Christian elite in the play.

  1. What Do Smokers Want in A Smartphone-Based Cessation Application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Hallyburton, Matthew B; Pacek, Lauren R; Mitchell, John T; Vilardaga, Roger; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Joseph McClernon, F

    2017-08-03

    Fueled by rapid technological advances over the past decade, there is growing interest in the use of smartphones to aid in smoking cessation. Hundreds of applications have been developed for this purpose, but little is known about how these applications are accessed and used by smokers or what features smokers believe would be most useful. The present study sought to understand the prevalence of smartphone ownership and patterns of use among smokers as well as the perceived utility of various smartphone application features for smoking cessation that are currently in development or already available. Daily cigarette smokers (n = 224) reported on smartphone ownership, their patterns of smartphone usage, and perceived utility of features. Features were ranked according to perceived utility and differences in both perceived utility and general smartphone use patterns were examined as a function of demographic and smoking-related variables. Most smokers (80.4%) own a smartphone, but experience with smoking cessation applications is extremely rare (6.1%). Ownership and patterns of usage differed as a function of demographic and smoking-related variables. Overall, gain-framed features were rated as most useful, while loss-framed and interpersonal features were rated as least useful. Mobile health interventions have the potential to reach a large number of smokers but are currently underutilized. Additional effort is needed to ensure parity in treatment access. Gain-framed messages may be especially useful for engaging smokers, even if other features ultimately drive treatment effects. This study describes patterns of smartphone usage among smokers and identifies the smartphone application features smokers believe would be most useful during a quit attempt. Findings indicate which subgroups of smokers are most likely to be reached with mobile health interventions and suggests that inclusion of specific features may be helpful for engaging smokers in the smoking cessation

  2. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Ballerini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person’s being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.”

  3. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Understanding Organizational Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith O. Owen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To achieve their purposes, organizations must constantly learn, adapt, and grow, a process typically referred to as change. Research shows that only a relatively few change efforts achieve great success—most just get by while the majority fail to reach predefined performance goals and objectives. That the success of planned change is relatively rare led to the following questions: (a What facilitates or inhibits the change process? (b How do these facilitators and inhibitors evolve within an organization? and (c What are the implications of understanding this evolutionary process relative to achieving a more sustainable level of performance? This article addresses these questions and presents a holistic model for creating an open, fully transparent environment in which the many differences of potential relevance to a change are put in the open for analysis. The approach, the Full Dimensional Systems Model, assumes there are multiple, interrelated domains of influence that affect change and that these must each be appreciated and addressed simultaneously to achieve sustainable performance improvement.

  5. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  6. Understanding portable generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, A.; Hawkins, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Clarke, S. [Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    This factsheet is intended to help consumers select a small portable generator for emergency electrical needs. Interest in standby generators has been heightened ever since the prolonged power outage in Eastern Ontario and Southwestern Quebec during the 1998 ice storm and the concern over Y2K related outages. Farmers, in particular, have been reassessing their need for emergency electrical power supply. This document presents some of the factors that should be considered when purchasing and operating a portable generator in the 3 to 12 kW size. It provides a detailed review of power quality and describes the use of tractor-driven power-take-off generators of 15 kW and larger. Several manufacturers make portable generators in many sizes with a whole range of features. This document includes a table depicting generator Feature/Benefit analysis to help consumers understand the differences between features and benefits. A second table provides a check list for generator feature/benefits. Specific details for the operations of various generators are available from manufacturers, distributors and electrical contractors. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  7. Understanding autism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The "condition of possibility" of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as "loss" and "void." I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this "void."

  8. Advances in understanding hypopituitarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieg, Mareike R.; Renner, Ulrich; Stalla, Günter K.; Kopczak, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of hypopituitarism has increased over the last three years. This review provides an overview of the most important recent findings. Most of the recent research in hypopituitarism has focused on genetics. New diagnostic techniques like next-generation sequencing have led to the description of different genetic mutations causative for congenital dysfunction of the pituitary gland while new molecular mechanisms underlying pituitary ontogenesis have also been described. Furthermore, hypopituitarism may occur because of an impairment of the distinctive vascularization of the pituitary gland, especially by disruption of the long vessel connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary. Controversial findings have been published on post-traumatic hypopituitarism. Moreover, autoimmunity has been discussed in recent years as a possible reason for hypopituitarism. With the use of new drugs such as ipilimumab, hypopituitarism as a side effect of pharmaceuticals has come into focus. Besides new findings on the pathomechanism of hypopituitarism, there are new diagnostic tools in development, such as new growth hormone stimulants that are currently being tested in clinical trials. Moreover, cortisol measurement in scalp hair is a promising tool for monitoring cortisol levels over time. PMID:28299199

  9. Harnessing Our Inner Angels and Demons: What We Have Learned About Want/Should Conflicts and How That Knowledge Can Help Us Reduce Short-Sighted Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkman, Katherine L; Rogers, Todd; Bazerman, Max H

    2008-07-01

    Although observers of human behavior have long been aware that people regularly struggle with internal conflict when deciding whether to behave responsibly or indulge in impulsivity, psychologists and economists did not begin to empirically investigate this type of want/should conflict until recently. In this article, we review and synthesize the latest research on want/should conflict, focusing our attention on the findings from an empirical literature on the topic that has blossomed over the last 15 years. We then turn to a discussion of how individuals and policy makers can use what has been learned about want/should conflict to help decision makers select far-sighted options. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  10. Moving to understanding and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Deborah

    2010-05-01

    Creating an environment of inclusion for a culturally diverse nursing workforce is complex. The demographic shift in the country forecasted for over a decade has arrived. Today programs set up to recruit and retain multicultural and multilingual nursing staff are important organizational priorities. Employers want to build responsive and welcoming workplaces in which all feel engaged. This requires several things. Leaders must oversee system changes stimulated by a workforce similar to newly emerging cultural groups in their areas of service. The need exists for managers to possess non-ethnocentric management skills and are competent to take charge of teams motivated by a broad range of culture based values and beliefs. Diversity training, mentoring of staff and leadership development are benchmarks of an organization at the "tipping point" of change related to employing a diverse workforce.

  11. Understanding Peacebuilding as Essentially Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric de Coning

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available On a recent visit to Mogadishu I was again confronted with the tension between local ownership and international self-interest. On the one hand was the Somali President, who wanted to assert his sovereign authority and lead the peace process according to his vision for Somalia. On the other hand, there was a powerful but diverse international community that has the resources necessary to enhance peace, though such resources were accompanied by a set of ideas concerning what the Somali President should be doing. Officially everyone claimed to support the Federal Government of Somalia, but in reality each outside nation and organisation is engaged in Somalia for its own strategic political, security and economic needs and interests.

  12. Understanding Social Media Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José van Dijck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpin­ning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass me­dia logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmabil­ity, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increas­ingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance ex­isting mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relat­ively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between plat­forms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that

  13. Understanding "people" people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions.

  14. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. The quest for the understanding of Religious Studies: Seeing dragons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Religious Studies is concerned with studying religion or the absence thereof. The concept of religion has been discussed, disliked and dissected over centuries. Some have predicted the disappearance of religion, others have predicted the changing of location from the public to the private sphere and some even the re-emergence of religion. In trying to determine the place and relations of Religious Studies an understanding of what religion entails is necessary. It is clear that Religious Studies consists of a multiform subject field and a variety of disciplines with a multiplicity of issues, interests and topics together with a wide variety of approaches and methods. Some scholars have described religion as a �saturated phenomenon� trying to indicate how the diversity of elements described as religious came to shroud the true subject matter. All these hindrances on the road to comprehending religion are like dragons preventing one from completing a (holy! quest. This article does not want to provide new answers to an old debate. In this sense this article is not an attempt at slaying the dragons but identifying them. Three issues (dragons are discussed. How religion, the object of Religious Studies, should be viewed? What methods are employed by Religious Studies and the relatedness of Religious Studies to Theology? In the end the article wants to provide direction on how Religious Studies, as academic discipline, can collaborate with research in Theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article discusses the development of the subject of Religious Studies by providing a historic overview of sociological influences on the development. In this sense this article is not an attempt at slaying the dragons but identifying them. Three issues (dragons are discussed: how religion, the object of Religious Studies, should be viewed; what methods are employed by Religious Studies and the relatedness of Religious Studies to

  16. What do you want to be in ten years? - Advising meteorology students in the post-Twister era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, J. T.; Hempe, M.

    2012-12-01

    "What do you want to be in ten years?' This is a question we ask our students, freshmen and transfer, when they first arrive in the College student services center. Often the answer is "I don't know. I just want to be in meteorology." This response leads to a discussion of career opportunities in meteorology and related fields, including what might be called faux-careers, such as professional storm chasing and weather tour operations. (Students often have been misled by what they have seen in television shows.) Many students arrive on our doorstep with their heart set on a degree in meteorology, but lack knowledge of what the field is about or how challenging a meteorology degree program really is. We find ourselves spending a great deal of time convincing students that they need to explore the real opportunities in meteorology and related fields, which are many. Fortunately, because of the concentration of University and federal weather organizations in the National Weather Center and private sector weather companies in adjacent buildings, we are able to show concrete examples of real careers by means of tours, job shadowing, and introductions to alumni employed in these organizations. Also, as the students' progress in their studies, they discover the many opportunities for undergraduate employment, research experiences, and internships in these same organizations, through which they gain an appreciation for what constitutes a real career in modern meteorology. Further, many of today's careers in meteorology require a broad, global perspective. Unfortunately, many meteorology students have not traveled widely, but again have only seen what the media provides about distant lands and peoples. Accordingly, we encourage our undergraduate students to take advantage of our unique opportunities for overseas experiences in meteorology. Through arrangements with the met programs at the University of Reading (England), Monash University (Australia), and University of

  17. The Field Guide to ADHD: What They Don't Want You to Know. Psychiatry--Theory, Applications and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Blake

    2017-01-01

    In "The Field Guide to ADHD: What They Don't Want You to Know," Harding confronts with unusual candor and painstaking effort one of the most alarming and perilous crises of our time: ADHD. In confronting this crisis, Harding forces us to reconsider the assumptions underlying ADHD and how we think about medical diagnoses, disability,…

  18. Choosing a physician depends on how you want to feel: the role of ideal affect in health-related decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Tamara; Tsai, Jeanne L; Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Thomas, Ewart A C; Goldstein, Mary K

    2014-02-01

    When given a choice, how do people decide which physician to select? Although significant research has demonstrated that how people actually feel (their "actual affect") influences their health care preferences, how people ideally want to feel (their "ideal affect") may play an even greater role. Specifically, we predicted that people trust physicians whose affective characteristics match their ideal affect, which leads people to prefer those physicians more. Consistent with this prediction, the more participants wanted to feel high arousal positive states on average (ideal HAP; e.g., excited), the more likely they were to select a HAP-focused physician. Similarly, the more people wanted to feel low arousal positive states on average (ideal LAP; e.g., calm), the more likely they were to select a LAP-focused physician. Also as predicted, these links were mediated by perceived physician trustworthiness. Notably, while participants' ideal affect predicted physician preference, actual affect (how much people actually felt HAP and LAP on average) did not. These findings suggest that people base serious decisions on how they want to feel, and highlight the importance of considering ideal affect in models of decision making preferences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Consumer wants and use of ingredient and nutrition information for alcoholic drinks: A cross-cultural study in six EU countries Food Quality and Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    2017-01-01

    In the EU, alcoholic beverages are exempt from Regulation 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers (FIC) that requires food labels to contain both ingredient information and information on key nutrients. We investigate to which extent consumers want and use information...... and the Netherlands. The results have implications for both marketers of alcoholic drinks and for policies regarding information provision....

  20. What do service users with bipolar disorder want from a web-based self-management intervention? A qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nicholas J; Jones, Steven H; Lobban, Fiona A

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and recurrent severe mental health problem. A web-based self-management intervention provides the opportunity to widen access to psychological interventions. This qualitative study aims to identify what an ideal web-based intervention would look like for service users with BD. Twelve service users with BD were recruited in the UK and took part in a series of focus groups to inform and refine the development of a web-based self-management intervention. Reported here is a subset analysis of data gathered with the primary aim of identifying the needs and desires of service users for such an intervention for BD. We analysed service users' responses to questions about content, outcomes, format, barriers and support. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was employed. The data were ordered into four key themes: (1) gaining an awareness of and managing mood swings; (2) not just about managing mood swings: the importance of practical and interpersonal issues; (3) managing living within mood swings without losing the experience; (4) internet is the only format: freely accessible, instant and interactive; (5) professional and peer support to overcome low motivation and procrastination difficulties. The small group of participants are not representative of those living with BD. These findings have significantly enhanced our understanding of what service users with BD want from a web-based self-management intervention and have clear implications for the future development of such approaches. Service users desire a web-based self-management approach that gives them the techniques they need to not only manage their moods but also manage their lives alongside the disorder, including interpersonal and practical issues. Service users describe their primary outcome, not as a cure or reduction in their symptoms, but instead being able to live a fulfilling life alongside their condition. Service users see the internet as their