WorldWideScience

Sample records for wall-crossing flavored kinks

  1. Kink solitons in DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Zdravković, S; Daniel, M

    2012-01-01

    We here examine the nonlinear dynamics of artificial homogeneous DNA chain relying on the plain-base rotator model. It is shown that such dynamics can exhibit kink and antikink solitons of sine-Gordon type. In that respect we propose possible experimental assays based on single molecule micromanipulation techniques. The aim of these experiments is to excite the rotational waves and to determine their speeds along excited DNA. We propose that these experiments should be conducted either for the case of double stranded (DS) or single stranded (SS) DNA. A key question is to compare the corresponding velocities of the rotational waves indicating which one is bigger. The ratio of these velocities appears to be related with the sign of the model parameter representing ratio of the hydrogen-bonding and the covalent-bonding interaction within the considered DNA chain.

  2. Quantum Black Holes, Wall Crossing, and Mock Modular Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Dabholkar, Atish; Zagier, Don

    2012-01-01

    We show that the meromorphic Jacobi form that counts the quarter-BPS states in N=4 string theories can be canonically decomposed as a sum of a mock Jacobi form and an Appell-Lerch sum. The quantum degeneracies of single-centered black holes are Fourier coefficients of this mock Jacobi form, while the Appell-Lerch sum captures the degeneracies of multi-centered black holes which decay upon wall-crossing. The completion of the mock Jacobi form restores the modular symmetries expected from $AdS_3/CFT_2$ holography but has a holomorphic anomaly reflecting the non-compactness of the microscopic CFT. For every positive integral value m of the magnetic charge invariant of the black hole, our analysis leads to a special mock Jacobi form of weight two and index m, which we characterize uniquely up to a Jacobi cusp form. This family of special forms and another closely related family of weight-one forms contain almost all the known mock modular forms including the mock theta functions of Ramanujan, the generating funct...

  3. Theta series, wall-crossing and quantum dilogarithm identities

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by mathematical structures which arise in string vacua and gauge theories with N=2 supersymmetry, we study the properties of certain generalized theta series which appear as Fourier coefficients of functions on a twisted torus. In Calabi-Yau string vacua, such theta series encode instanton corrections from $k$ Neveu-Schwarz five-branes. The theta series are determined by vector-valued wave-functions, and in this work we obtain the transformation of these wave-functions induced by Kontsevich-Soibelman symplectomorphisms. This effectively provides a quantum version of these transformations, where the quantization parameter is inversely proportional to the five-brane charge $k$. Consistency with wall-crossing implies a new five-term relation for Faddeev's quantum dilogarithm $\\Phi_b$ at $b=1$, which we prove. By allowing the torus to be non-commutative, we obtain a more general five-term relation valid for arbitrary $b$ and $k$, which may be relevant for the physics of five-branes at finite chemical po...

  4. Kink fluctuation asymptotics and zero modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, A.A. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada and IUFFyM, Salamanca (Spain); Guilarte, J.M. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Salamanca (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper we propose a refinement of the heat-kernel/zeta function treatment of kink quantum fluctuations in scalar field theory, further analyzing the existence and implications of a zero-energy fluctuation mode. Improved understanding of the interplay between zero modes and the kink heat-kernel expansion delivers asymptotic estimations of one-loop kink mass shifts with remarkably higher precision than previously obtained by means of the standard Gilkey-DeWitt heat-kernel expansion. (orig.)

  5. Elasticity of a Filament with Kinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein

    2017-12-01

    Using the wormlike chain model, we analytically study the elasticity of a filament with kinks. We calculate the position probability density function and the force constant of a kinked filament with a general kink angle. Then, using the mathematical induction, we obtain the positional-orientational probability density function of a filament with regular kinks. For this filament, we compute the force constant in two different directions. In longitudinal direction of the filament, the force constant is proportional to the inverse of the number of the segments, i.e., 1 / m, while in transverse direction, it is proportional to 1/m^3.

  6. Kink motion in a curved Josephson junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter

    is investigated. The kink may be captured when a driving force, provided by a magnetic field, is applied to the kink. The approximate analytical tools are based on a variational approach of a Lagrangian. The variation is done with respect to collective coordinates, or slowly varying coefficients, in the 1D...

  7. Radial sine-Gordon kinks as sources of fast breathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, Jean Guy; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2013-01-01

    all outgoing radiation. As the kink shrinks toward r, before the collision, its motion is well described by a simple law derived from the conservation of energy. In two dimensions for r ≤ 2, the collision disintegrates the kink into a fast breather, while for r ≥ 4 we obtain a kink-breather metastable...

  8. Wall-crossing, Rogers dilogarithm, and the QK/HK correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Pioline, Boris

    2011-01-01

    When formulated in twistor space, the D-instanton corrected hypermultiplet moduli space in N=2 string vacua and the Coulomb branch of rigid N=2 gauge theories on $R^3 \\times S^1$ are strikingly similar and, to a large extent, dictated by consistency with wall-crossing. We elucidate this similarity by showing that these two spaces are related under a general duality between, on one hand, quaternion-Kahler manifolds with a quaternionic isometry and, on the other hand, hyperkahler manifolds with a rotational isometry, further equipped with a hyperholomorphic circle bundle with a connection. We show that the transition functions of the hyperholomorphic circle bundle relevant for the hypermultiplet moduli space are given by the Rogers dilogarithm function, and that consistency across walls of marginal stability is ensured by the motivic wall-crossing formula of Kontsevich and Soibelman. We illustrate the construction on some simple examples of wall-crossing related to cluster algebras for rank 2 Dynkin quivers. In...

  9. Unique removal of a kinked nasogastric tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Shwetanshu Narayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasogastric (NG tube insertion is a common clinical procedure used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. As the importance of enteral nutrition is being increasingly recognized; the use of NG tube insertion has steadily increased. Here, we present an interesting case in which a kinked NG tube was removed in a unique manner with “push and pull” technique without untoward trauma.

  10. Coffee and Its Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Baiq Rien

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely served beverage. Flavor mainly the aroma is the most important attribute to specialty coffee. Coffee flavor consisted of volatile and non volatile compounds. The compounds were influenced by several factors i.e. growth environment, physiology, harvesting, post-harvest, roasting process and preparation. Keywords: coffee, flavor

  11. Electronic and transport properties of kinked graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper Toft; Gunst, Tue; Bøggild, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Local curvature, or bending, of a graphene sheet is known to increase the chemical reactivity presenting an opportunity for templated chemical functionalisation. Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we investigate the reaction barrier reduction for the ads......Local curvature, or bending, of a graphene sheet is known to increase the chemical reactivity presenting an opportunity for templated chemical functionalisation. Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we investigate the reaction barrier reduction...... for the adsorption of atomic hydrogen at linear bends in graphene. We find a significant barrier lowering (≈15%) for realistic radii of curvature (≈20 Å) and that adsorption along the linear bend leads to a stable linear kink. We compute the electronic transport properties of individual and multiple kink lines......, and demonstrate how these act as efficient barriers for electron transport. In particular, two parallel kink lines form a graphene pseudo-nanoribbon structure with a semimetallic/semiconducting electronic structure closely related to the corresponding isolated ribbons; the ribbon band gap translates...

  12. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a $U(3)_\\chi$ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter $\\chi$ which transforms as triplet under $U(3)_\\chi$, and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator $\\phi$ with a coupling $\\lambda$. We identify a number of "flavor-safe" scenarios for the structure of $\\lambda$ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. For dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of $b$-...

  13. A note about a new class of two-kinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, T.S. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física A.D. Tavares,Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, R. São Francisco Xavier, 524, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 20550-013 (Brazil); Oliveira, H.P. de [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física A.D. Tavares,Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, R. São Francisco Xavier, 524, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 20550-013 (Brazil); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh,100 Allen Hall, 3941, O’Hara St., Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2015-06-18

    We present a model of two-kinks resulting from an explicit composition of two standards kinks of the ϕ{sup 4} model based on the procedure of ref. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.14.3520. The two-kinks have an additional parameter accounting for the separation of the standard kinks of ϕ{sup 4} model. We have shown that the two-kinks have two discrete internal modes besides the zeroth mode and the continuous spectrum. This new feature signalizes that the head-on collision a two-kinks/two-antikinks pair exhibits a rich and complex behavior due to the additional channel from which the energy of the system can be stored. We have exhibited the fractal structure associated with the main configurations after the collision. We have inferred the fractality as the imprint of the nonlinear exchange of energy into the two discrete internal modes.

  14. Nudged Elastic Band Simulations of Kink Pairs in Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cereceda, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marian, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-16

    Atomistic techniques have been used to calculate energy barriers for dislocation motion that control the strength (yield stress and flow stress) of the material. In particular, the calculations focus on the change in enthalpy as a straight dislocation moves through the crystal lattice (the Peierls barrier) and kink pair formation enthalpy that controls the thermally activated double-kink mechanism important at low to moderate stresses. A novel means of assessing kink widths within atomistic simulations is introduced.

  15. Kink and kink-like waves in pre-stretched Mooney-Rivlin viscoelastic rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper theoretically investigates kink and kink-like waves propagating in pre-stretched Mooney-Rivlin viscoelastic rods. In the constitutive modeling, the Cauchy stress tensor is assumed to consist of an elastic part and a dissipative part. The asymptotic method is adopted to simplify the nonlinear dynamic equations in the limit of finite-small amplitude and long wavelength. Using the reductive perturbation method, we further derive the well-known far-field equation (i.e. the KdV-Burgers equation, to which two kinds of explicit traveling wave solutions are presented. Examples are given to show the influences of pre-stretch and viscosity on the wave shape and wave velocity. It is shown that pre-stretch could be an effective method for modulating the two types of waves. In addition, such waves may be utilized to measure the viscosity coefficient of the material. The competition between the effects of pre-stretch and viscosity on the kink and kink-like waves is also revealed.

  16. Reassessing molecular sieving by kinked carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Hongwu; Wang, Lei; Ding, Jianning; Wang, Jinbao; Zheng, Yonggang; Ye, Hongfei; Liu, Zhen; Cheng, Guanggui; Ling, Zhiyong

    2011-12-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations for the transport of pure nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and their mixture in kinked single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), molecular sieving by the kinked model of SWCNTs is presented. The influences of gas pressure, temperature and the component ratio of N2 in the mixture on gas separation are investigated. Considering the tradeoff between the permeability and the purity of O2, the results show that a large gas pressure, 300-500 K of gas temperature and a low component ratio of N2 in the N2-O2 mixture can be advantageous to the efficiency of gas separation. The purity of O2 can be kept higher than 80% when the component ratio of N2 is lower than 3/4, which will be advantageous to the design of multi-level gas separation mechanisms. The findings may provide theoretical references for the design and manufacture of molecular sieving devices in engineering applications.

  17. Hemolytic anemia caused by kinking of dacron grafts implanted in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hemolytic anemia caused by a kinked Dacron graft is a rare complication after repair of acute aortic dissection. We present a case of hemolytic anemia due to kinking of previously implanted Dacron graft for ascending aorta dissection treated by surgery and replaced with new Dacron. Case Details: We report a ...

  18. Localized modes and phonon scattering of a lattice kink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, H.

    2006-01-01

    We consider a discrete sine-Gordon equation with a kappa phase shift. We analyze the stability of a lattice kappa kink which is the ground state of the system. The dependence of the localized mode frequency of a kappa kink on the topological charge is analyzed numerically and analytically. We show

  19. Kink shape solutions of the Maxwell-Lorentz system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Webb, G.M.; Brio, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the limit of high amplitude oscillating electromagnetic fields, a sequence of kink antikink shaped optical waves has been found in the Maxwell's equations coupled to a single Lorentz oscillator and with Kerr nonlinearity. The individual kinks and antikinks result from a traveling wave assumption...

  20. Kink dynamics in a topological straight phi4 lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, A B; Almeida, C A

    2001-09-01

    Recently proposed was a discretization for nonlinear Klein-Gordon field theories in which the resulting lattice preserves the topological (Bogomol'nyi) lower bound on the kink energy and, as a consequence, has no Peierls-Nabarro barrier even for large spatial discretizations (h approximately 1.0). It was then suggested that these "topological discrete systems" are a natural choice for the numerical study of continuum kink dynamics. Giving particular emphasis to the straight phi(4) theory, we numerically investigate kink-antikink scattering and breather formation in these topological lattices. Our results indicate that, even though these systems are quite accurate for studying free kinks in coarse lattices, for legitimate dynamical kink problems the accuracy is rather restricted to fine lattices (h approximately 0.1). We suggest that this fact is related to the breaking of the Bogomol'nyi bound during the kink-antikink interaction, where the field profile loses its static property as required by the Bogomol'nyi argument. We conclude, therefore, that these lattices are not suitable for the study of more general kink dynamics, since a standard discretization is simpler and has effectively the same accuracy for such resolutions.

  1. Near integrability of kink lattice with higher order interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun-Guo; Liu, Jia-Zhen; He, Song

    2017-11-01

    We make use of Manton’s analytical method to investigate the force between kinks and anti-kinks at large distances in 1+1 dimensional field theory. The related potential has infinite order corrections of exponential pattern, and the coefficients for each order are determined. These coefficients can also be obtained by solving the equation of the fluctuations around the vacuum. At the lowest order, the kink lattice represents the Toda lattice. With higher order correction terms, the kink lattice can represent one kind of generic Toda lattice. With only two sites, the kink lattice is classically integrable. If the number of sites of the lattice is larger than two, the kink lattice is not integrable but is a near integrable system. We make use of Flaschka’s variables to study the Lax pair of the kink lattice. These Flaschka’s variables have interesting algebraic relations and non-integrability can be manifested. We also discuss the higher Hamiltonians for the deformed open Toda lattice, which has a similar result to the ordinary deformed Toda. Supported by Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (ZR2014AQ007), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11403015, U1531105), S. He is supported by Max-Planck fellowship in Germany and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305235)

  2. Gravitational smoothing of kinks on cosmic string loops

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the effect of gravitational back reaction on cosmic string loops with kinks, which is an important determinant of the shape, and thus the potential observability, of string loops which may exist in the universe today. Kinks are not rounded off, but may be straightened out. In some loops, symmetries prevent even this process, so that the loop evaporates in a self-similar fashion and the kinks are unchanged. As an example, we give results for the rectangular Garfinkle-Vachaspati loop.

  3. Split SUSY Radiates Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgart, Matthew; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of Mini-Split Supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and WIMP dark matter. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  4. BPS state counting using wall-crossing, holomorphic anomalies and modularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wotschke, Thomas

    2013-05-15

    In this thesis we examine the counting of BPS states using wall-crossing, holomorphic anomalies and modularity. We count BPS states that arise in two setups: multiple M5-branes wrapping P x T{sup 2}, where P denotes a divisor inside a Calabi-Yau threefold and topological string theory on elliptic Calabi-Yau threefolds. The first setup has a dual description as type IIA string theory via a D4-D2-D0 brane system. Furthermore it leads to two descriptions depending on the size of P and T{sup 2} relative to each other. For the case of a small divisor P this setup is described by the (0,4) Maldacena-Strominger-Witten conformal field theory of a black hole in M-theory and for the case of small T{sup 2} the setup can by described by N=4 topological Yang-Mills theory on P. The BPS states are counted by the modified elliptic genus, which can be decomposed into a vector-valued modular form that provides the generating function for the BPS invariants and a Siegel-Narain theta function. In the first part we discuss the holomorphic anomaly of the modified elliptic genus for the case of two M5-branes and divisors with b{sup +}{sub 2}(P)=1. Due to the wall-crossing effect the change in the generating function is captured by an indefinite theta function, which is a mock modular form. We use the Kontsevich-Soibelman wall-crossing formula to determine the jumps in the modified elliptic genus. Using the regularisation procedure for mock modular forms of Zwegers, modularity can be restored at the cost of holomorphicity. We show that the non-holomorphic completion is due to bound states of single M5-branes. At the attractor point in the moduli space we prove the holomorphic anomaly equation, which is compatible with the holomorphic anomaly equations observed in the context of N=4 Yang-Mills theory on P{sup 2} and E-strings on a del Pezzo surface. We calculate the generating functions of BPS invariants for the divisors P{sup 2}, F{sub 0}, F{sub 1} and the del Pezzo surface dP{sub 8} and

  5. Untwisting twisted NJL2 kinks by a bare fermion mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Twisted kinks in the massless NJL2 model interpolate between two distinct vacua on the chiral circle. If one approaches the chiral limit from finite bare fermion masses m0, the vacuum is unique and twist cannot exist. This issue is studied analytically in the nonrelativistic limit, using a no-sea effective theory. We conclude that even in the massless limit, the interpretation of the twisted kink has to be revised. One has to attribute the fermion number of the valence state to the twisted kink. Fermion density is spread out over the whole space due to the massless pion field. The result can be pictured as a composite of a twisted kink (carrying energy, but no fermion number) and a partial winding of the chiral spiral (carrying fermion number, but no energy). This solves at the same time the puzzle of missing baryons with fermion number Nf

  6. Simulations of Edge Current Driven Kink Modes with BOUT + + code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Xia, T. Y.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.

    2013-10-01

    Edge kink modes (or peeling modes) play a key role in the ELMs. The edge kink modes are driven by peak edge current, which comes from the bootstrap current. We calculated sequences of equilibria with different edge current using CORSICA by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, with the 3-field BOUT + + code, we calculated the MHD instabilities driven by edge current. For linear low-n ideal MHD modes, BOUT + + results agree with GATO results. With the edge current increasing, the dominant modes are changed from high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes. The edge current provides also stabilizing effects on high-n ballooning modes. Furthermore, for edge current scan without keeping total current fixed, the increasing edge current can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes and cannot drive kink modes. The diamagnetic effect can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes, but has no effect on the low-n kink modes. Also, the nonlinear behavior of kink modes is analyzed. Work supported by China MOST grant 2013GB111000 and by China NSF grant 10975161. Also performed for USDOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Corfu lectures on wall-crossing, multi-centered black holes, and quiver invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Pioline, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The BPS state spectrum in four-dimensional gauge theories or string vacua with N=2 supersymmetries is well known to depend on the values of the parameters or moduli at spatial infinity. The BPS index is locally constant, but discontinuous across real codimension-one walls where some of the BPS states decay. By postulating that BPS states are bound states of more elementary constituents carrying their own degrees of freedom and interacting via supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we provide a physically transparent derivation of the universal wall-crossing formula which governs the jump of the index. The same physical picture suggests that at any point in moduli space, the total index can be written as a sum of contributions from all possible bound states of elementary, absolutely stable constituents with the same total charge. For D-brane bound states described by quivers, this `Coulomb branch formula' predicts that the cohomology of quiver moduli spaces is uniquely determined by certain `pure-Higgs' invariants,...

  8. Deformation mechanism of kink-step distorted coherent twin boundaries in copper nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobin Xing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the construction of nanotwinned (NT copper, inherent kink-like steps are formed on growth twin boundaries (TBs. Such imperfections in TBs play a crucial role in the yielding mechanism and plastic deformation of NT copper. Here, we used the molecular dynamic (MD method to examine the influence of kink-step characteristics in depth, including kink density and kink-step height, on mechanical behavior of copper nanowire (NW in uniaxial tension. The results showed that the kink-step, a stress-concentrated region, is preferential in nucleating and emitting stress-induced partial dislocations. Mixed dislocation of hard mode I and II and hard mode II dislocation were nucleated from kink-step and surface atoms, respectively. Kink-step height and kink density substantially affected the yielding mechanism and plastic behavior, with the yielding stress functional-related to kink-step height. However, intense kink density (1 kink per 4.4 nm encourages dislocation nucleation at kink-steps without any significant decline in tensile stress. Defective nanowires with low kink-step height or high kink density offered minimal resistance to kink migration, which has been identified as one of the primary mechanisms of plastic deformation. Defective NWs with refined TB spacing were also studied. A strain-hardening effect due to the refined TB spacing and dislocation pinning was observed for defective NWs. This study has implications for designing NT copper to obtain optimum mechanical performance.

  9. Flavor Violating Higgs Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni [Fermilab; Kopp, Joachim [Fermilab; Zupan, Jure [Cincinnati U.

    2013-03-05

    We study a class of nonstandard interactions of the newly discovered 125 GeV Higgs-like resonance that are especially interesting probes of new physics: flavor violating Higgs couplings to leptons and quarks. These interaction can arise in many frameworks of new physics at the electroweak scale such as two Higgs doublet models, extra dimensions, or models of compositeness. We rederive constraints on flavor violating Higgs couplings using data on rare decays, electric and magnetic dipole moments, and meson oscillations. We confirm that flavor violating Higgs boson decays to leptons can be sizeable with, e.g., h → τμ and h → τe branching ratios of (10%) perfectly allowed by low energy constraints. We estimate the current LHC limits on h → τμ and h → τe decays by recasting existing searches for the SM Higgs in the ττ channel and find that these bounds are already stronger than those from rare tau decays. We also show that these limits can be improved significantly with dedicated searches and we outline a possible search strategy. Flavor violating Higgs decays therefore present an opportunity for discovery of new physics which in some cases may be easier to access experimentally than flavor conserving deviations from the Standard Model Higgs framework.

  10. The Physics of Flavor is the Flavor of Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Fritzsch, H.

    2001-01-01

    Summary Talk: International Conference of Flavor Physics (ICFP 2001). Zhang-Jia-Jie. Hunan, China (May / June 2001) Summary Talk: International Conference of Flavor Physics (ICFP 2001). Zhang-Jia-Jie. Hunan, China (May / June 2001)

  11. Flavor physics: The flavor physics (P2) working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Artuso et al.

    2002-12-10

    Flavor physics has recently made striking advances. The Snowmass Flavor Physics Working Group has attempted to identify the important open questions in this field, and to describe the diverse future program that would address them.

  12. Flavor, fragrance, and odor analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsili, Ray

    2012-01-01

    ... solid-phase micro extraction procedures. It also presents important updates on GC-olfactometry as a tool for studying flavor synergy effects"-- "Sample preparation techniques for isolating and concentrating flavor and odor-active chemicals...

  13. Kink dynamics in a system of two coupled scalar fields in two space-time dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we examine the scattering processes among the members of a rich family of kinks which arise in a (1+1)-dimensional relativistic two scalar field theory. These kinks carry two different topological charges that determine the mutual interactions between the basic energy lumps (extended particles) described by these topological defects. Processes like topological charge exchange, kink-antikink bound state formation or kink repulsion emerge depending on the charges of the scattered particles. Two-bounce resonant windows have been found in the antikink-kink scattering processes, but not in the kink-antikink interactions.

  14. Multisensory Flavor Priming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard

    2016-01-01

    with a taxonomy of different priming situations. In food-related applications of flavor, both bottom-up (sensory) as well as top-down (expectations) processes are at play. Most of the complex interactions that this leads to take place outside the awareness of the perceiving subject. A model is presented where...

  15. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.

  16. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  17. Image simulations of kinked vortices for transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Pozzi, G.; Tonomura, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present an improved model of kinked vortices in high-Tc superconductors suitable for the interpretation of Fresnel or holographic observations carried out with a transmission electron microscope. A kinked vortex is composed of two displaced half-vortices, perpendicular to the film plane......, connected by a horizontal flux-line in the plane, resembling a connecting Josephson vortex (JV) segment. Such structures may arise when a magnetic field is applied almost in the plane, and the line tension of the fluxon breaks down under its influence. The existence of kinked vortices was hinted in earlier...... observations of high-Tc superconducting films, where the Fresnel contrast associated with some vortices showed a dumbbell like appearance. Here, we show that under suitable conditions the JV segment may reveal itself in Fresnel imaging or holographic phase mapping in a transmission electron microscope....

  18. Sausage and kink oscillations in astrophysical disk configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griv, Evgeny

    2011-05-13

    The development of hydrodynamic oscillations in various rotating astrophysical disks ranging from planetary rings to galaxies is studied analytically. The dispersion relation of wave propagation is derived. Modes of oscillation are examined from this dispersion relation that are suitable for obtaining information not just on oscillations but also on some instability properties of the disk-shaped structure. It is shown that unstable oscillations of different types, sausage compression and kink bending, may be excited effectively due to the Jeans gravitational instability and the kink transverse instability, respectively. The obtained results for the sausage oscillations may be applicable for such phenomena as the appearance of the in-plane spiral and circular structures, while the case for the kink mode is more relevant for the systematic vertical corrugations of astrophysical disks.

  19. Current Kink and Capacitance Frequency Dispersion in Silicon PIN Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Feng, Yajie; Liu, Qiaoli; Wang, Huaqiang; Li, Chong; Hu, Zonghai; He, Xiaoying

    2017-09-01

    Silicon PIN photodiodes in the visible wavelength range have been widely applied in aerospace, defense, security, medical, and scientific instruments because of their high sensitivity and low cost. In this paper, the phenomena of the current kink and the capacitance frequency dispersion are observed. Contamination at the p-type Ohmic contact interface is proposed to explain the current kink effect and capacitance frequency dispersion, according to the temperature-dependent I-V measurement results in which trap-assisted tunneling process demonstrated.

  20. FlavorDB: a database of flavor molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neelansh; Sethupathy, Apuroop; Tuwani, Rudraksh; Nk, Rakhi; Dokania, Shubham; Iyer, Arvind; Gupta, Ayushi; Agrawal, Shubhra; Singh, Navjot; Shukla, Shubham; Kathuria, Kriti; Badhwar, Rahul; Kanji, Rakesh; Jain, Anupam; Kaur, Avneet; Nagpal, Rashmi; Bagler, Ganesh

    2018-01-04

    Flavor is an expression of olfactory and gustatory sensations experienced through a multitude of chemical processes triggered by molecules. Beyond their key role in defining taste and smell, flavor molecules also regulate metabolic processes with consequences to health. Such molecules present in natural sources have been an integral part of human history with limited success in attempts to create synthetic alternatives. Given their utility in various spheres of life such as food and fragrances, it is valuable to have a repository of flavor molecules, their natural sources, physicochemical properties, and sensory responses. FlavorDB (http://cosylab.iiitd.edu.in/flavordb) comprises of 25,595 flavor molecules representing an array of tastes and odors. Among these 2254 molecules are associated with 936 natural ingredients belonging to 34 categories. The dynamic, user-friendly interface of the resource facilitates exploration of flavor molecules for divergent applications: finding molecules matching a desired flavor or structure; exploring molecules of an ingredient; discovering novel food pairings; finding the molecular essence of food ingredients; associating chemical features with a flavor and more. Data-driven studies based on FlavorDB can pave the way for an improved understanding of flavor mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. On the Simulation of Kink Bands in Fiber Reinforced Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim Dalsten; Mikkelsen, Lars P.; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    2007-01-01

    Simulations of kink band formation in fiber reinforced composites are carried out using the commercial finite element program ABAQUS. A smeared-out, plane constitutive model for fiber reinforced materials is implemented as a user subroutine, and effects of fiber misalignment on elastic and plastic...

  2. One-loop kink mass shifts: A computational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Izquierdo, A., E-mail: alonsoiz@usal.es [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Guilarte, J. Mateos [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2011-11-21

    In this paper we develop a procedure to compute the one-loop quantum correction to the kink masses in generic (1+1)-dimensional one-component scalar field theoretical models. The procedure uses the generalized zeta function regularization method helped by the Gilkey-de Witt asymptotic expansion of the heat function via Mellin's transform. We find a formula for the one-loop kink mass shift that depends only on the part of the energy density with no field derivatives, evaluated by means of a symbolic software algorithm that automates the computation. The improved algorithm with respect to earlier work in this subject has been tested in the sine-Gordon and {lambda}({phi}){sub 2}{sup 4} models. The quantum corrections of the sG-soliton and {lambda}({phi}{sup 4}){sub 2}-kink masses have been estimated with a relative error of 0.00006% and 0.00007% respectively. Thereafter, the algorithm is applied to other models. In particular, an interesting one-parametric family of double sine-Gordon models interpolating between the ordinary sine-Gordon and a re-scaled sine-Gordon model is addressed. Another one-parametric family, in this case of {phi}{sup 6} models, is analyzed. The main virtue of our procedure is its versatility: it can be applied to practically any type of relativistic scalar field models supporting kinks.

  3. Metal surfaces: Surface, step and kink formation energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollár, J.; Vitos, Levente; Johansson, B.

    2000-01-01

    We review the surface, step, and kink energies in monoatomic metallic systems. A systematic comparison is given between the theoretical results based on density functional theory and available experimental data. Our calculated values are used to predict the equilibrium shapes of small metal...

  4. Enantiospecific kinking of DNA by a partially intercalating metal complex

    KAUST Repository

    Reymer, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Opposite enantiomers of [Ru(phenanthroline) 3] 2+ affect the persistence length of DNA differently, a long speculated effect of helix kinking. Our molecular dynamics simulations confirm a substantial change of duplex secondary structure produced by wedge-intercalation of one but not the other enantiomer. This effect is exploited by several classes of DNA operative proteins. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  5. Flavor, fragrance, and odor analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsili, Ray

    2012-01-01

    .... Written from a practical, problem-solving perspective, it discusses the chemical structures of key flavor and fragrance compounds, contains numerous examples and chromatograms, and emphasizes novel...

  6. Kink instability suppression with stochastic cooling pickup and kicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Y.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2012-05-20

    The kink instability is one of the major beam dynamics issues of the linac-ring based electron ion collider. This head-tail type instability arises from the oscillation of the electron beam inside the opposing ion beam. It must be suppressed to achieve the desired luminosity. There are various ways to suppress the instability, such as tuning the chromaticity in the ion ring or by a dedicated feedback system of the electron beam position at IP, etc. However, each method has its own limitation. In this paper, we will discuss an alternative opportunity of suppressing the kink instability of the proposed eRHIC at BNL using the existing pickup-kicker system of the stochastic cooling system in RHIC.

  7. An Exploratory Study of a New Kink Activity: "Pup Play".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, Liam; McCormack, Mark

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the narratives and experiences of 30 gay and bisexual men who participate in a behavior known as "pup play." Never empirically studied before, we use in-depth interviews and a modified form of grounded theory to describe the dynamics of pup play and develop a conceptual framework with which to understand it. We discuss the dynamics of pup play, demonstrating that it primarily consists of mimicking the behaviors and adopting the role of a dog. We show that the majority of participants use pup play for sexual satisfaction. It is also a form of relaxation, demonstrated primarily through the existence of a "headspace." We classify pup play as a kink, and find no evidence for the framing of it as a form of zoophilia. We call for further research on pup play as a sexual kink and leisure activity from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives.

  8. Heavy flavor results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchese, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Heavy flavor particles produced in LHC $pp$ collisions at $7, 8,$ and $13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ constitute an excellent opportunity to test the standard model and probe for new physics effects. Recent results by the CMS Collaboration on heavy flavor production and decays are presented.

  9. Low-temperature dynamics of kinks on Ising interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karma, Alain; Lobkovsky, Alexander E.

    2005-03-01

    The anisotropic motion of an interface driven by its intrinsic curvature or by an external field is investigated in the context of the kinetic Ising model in both two and three dimensions. We derive in two dimensions (2D) a continuum evolution equation for the density of kinks by a time-dependent and nonlocal mapping to the asymmetric exclusion process. Whereas kinks execute random walks biased by the external field and pile up vertically on the physical 2D lattice, they execute hard-core biased random walks on a transformed 1D lattice. Their density obeys a nonlinear diffusion equation which can be transformed into the standard expression for the interface velocity, v=M[(γ+γ″)κ+H] , where M , γ+γ″ , and κ are the interface mobility, stiffness, and curvature, respectively. In 3D, we obtain the velocity of a curved interface near the ⟨100⟩ orientation from an analysis of the self-similar evolution of 2D shrinking terraces. We show that this velocity is consistent with the one predicted from the 3D tensorial generalization of the law for anisotropic curvature-driven motion. In this generalization, both the interface stiffness tensor and the curvature tensor are singular at the ⟨100⟩ orientation. However, their product, which determines the interface velocity, is smooth. In addition, we illustrate how this kink-based kinetic description provides a useful framework for studying more complex situations by modeling the effect of immobile dilute impurities.

  10. Disentangling heavy flavor at colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilten, Philip; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Thaler, Jesse; Williams, Mike

    2017-09-01

    We propose two new analysis strategies for studying charm and beauty quarks at colliders. The first strategy is aimed at testing the kinematics of heavy-flavor quarks within an identified jet. Here, we use the SoftDrop jet-declustering algorithm to identify two subjets within a large-radius jet, using subjet flavor tagging to test the heavy-quark splitting functions of QCD. For subjets containing a J /ψ or ϒ , this declustering technique can also help probe the mechanism for quarkonium production. The second strategy is aimed at isolating heavy-flavor production from gluon splitting. Here, we introduce a new FlavorCone algorithm, which smoothly interpolates from well-separated heavy-quark jets to the gluon-splitting regime where jets overlap. Because of its excellent ability to identify charm and beauty hadrons, the LHCb detector is ideally suited to pursue these strategies, though similar measurements should also be possible at ATLAS and CMS. Together, these SoftDrop and FlavorCone studies should clarify a number of aspects of heavy-flavor physics at colliders, and provide crucial information needed to improve heavy-flavor modeling in parton-shower generators.

  11. FlavorDB: a database of flavor molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Neelansh; Sethupathy, Apuroop; Tuwani, Rudraksh; NK, Rakhi; Dokania, Shubham; Iyer, Arvind; Gupta, Ayushi; Agrawal, Shubhra; Singh, Navjot; Shukla, Shubham; Kathuria, Kriti; Badhwar, Rahul; Kanji, Rakesh; Jain, Anupam; Kaur, Avneet

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flavor is an expression of olfactory and gustatory sensations experienced through a multitude of chemical processes triggered by molecules. Beyond their key role in defining taste and smell, flavor molecules also regulate metabolic processes with consequences to health. Such molecules present in natural sources have been an integral part of human history with limited success in attempts to create synthetic alternatives. Given their utility in various spheres of life such as food and ...

  12. Normal form for travelling kinks in discrete Klein-Gordon lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Iooss, Gerard; Pelinovsky, Dmitry

    2005-01-01

    We study travelling kinks in the spatial discretizations of the nonlinear Klein--Gordon equation, which include the discrete $\\phi^4$ lattice and the discrete sine--Gordon lattice. The differential advance-delay equation for travelling kinks is reduced to the normal form, a scalar fourth-order differential equation, near the quadruple zero eigenvalue. We show numerically non-existence of monotonic kinks (heteroclinic orbits between adjacent equilibrium points) in the fourth-order equation. Ma...

  13. Micro-Mechanical Analysis About Kink Band in Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composites Under Longitudinal Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mi; Guan, Zhidong; Wang, Xiaodong; Du, Shanyi

    2017-10-01

    Kink band is a typical phenomenon for composites under longitudinal compression. In this paper, theoretical analysis and finite element simulation were conducted to analyze kink angle as well as compressive strength of composites. Kink angle was considered to be an important character throughout longitudinal compression process. Three factors including plastic matrix, initial fiber misalignment and rotation due to loading were considered for theoretical analysis. Besides, the relationship between kink angle and fiber volume fraction was improved and optimized by theoretical derivation. In addition, finite element models considering fiber stochastic strength and Drucker-Prager constitutive model for matrix were conducted in ABAQUS to analyze kink band formation process, which corresponded with the experimental results. Through simulation, the loading and failure procedure can be evidently divided into three stages: elastic stage, softening stage, and fiber break stage. It also shows that kink band is a result of fiber misalignment and plastic matrix. Different values of initial fiber misalignment angle, wavelength and fiber volume fraction were considered to explore the effects on compressive strength and kink angle. Results show that compressive strength increases with the decreasing of initial fiber misalignment angle, the decreasing of initial fiber misalignment wavelength and the increasing of fiber volume fraction, while kink angle decreases in these situations. Orthogonal array in statistics was also built to distinguish the effect degree of these factors. It indicates that initial fiber misalignment angle has the largest impact on compressive strength and kink angle.

  14. Searches for lepton flavor violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, D.

    1986-04-01

    The present status of a selection of important lepton flavor violating (LFV) processes, mainly involving muon number violation, are briefly discussed, with indications of the special attractiveness of each. 44 refs., 11 figs. (LEW)

  15. Electrospun vascular grafts with anti-kinking properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in developing appropriate vascular substitutes is to produce a graft that adapts to the biological and mechanical conditions at the application or implantation site. One approach is the use of tissue engineered electrospun grafts pre-seeded with autologous cells. However, bending stresses during in vivo applications could lead to kinking of the graft which may result in life-threatening stenosis. The aim of this study was to develop an electrospun vascular graft consisting of biodegradable polymers which can reduce or prevent kinking, due to their higher flexibility. In order to improve the bendability of the grafts, various electrospinning collectors were designed using six different patterns. Subsequently, the grafts were examined for scaffold morphology, mechanical strength and bendability. Scaffolds spun on a collector structured with a v-shaped thread (flank angle of 120° showed a homogenous and reproducible fiber deposition as compared to the unstructured reference sample. The results of the tensile tests were comparable to the unstructured reference sample, supporting the first observation. Studies on bendability were performed using a custom made flow-bending test setup. It was shown that the flow through the v-shaped grafts was reduced to less than 45 % of the reference value even after bending the graft to an angle of 140°. In contrast, the flow through an unstructured graft was reduced to more than 50 % after bending to an angle of 55°. The presented data demonstrate the need for optimizing the bendability of the commonly used electrospun vascular grafts. Using of macroscopic v-shaped collectors is a promising solution to overcome the issue of graft kinking.

  16. Kinks dynamics in one-dimensional coupled map lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, B

    1994-01-01

    We examine the problem of the dynamics of interfaces in a one-dimensional space-time discrete dynamical system. Two different regimes are studied : the non-propagating and the propagating one. In the first case, after proving the existence of such solutions, we show how they can be described using Taylor expansions. The second situation deals with the assumption of a travelling wave to follow the kink propagation. Then a comparison with the corresponding continuous model is proposed. We find that these methods are useful in simple dynamical situations but their application to complex dynamical behaviour is not yet understood.

  17. Magnetic catalysis in flavored ABJM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V. [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxías (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Zoakos, Dimitrios [Centro de Física do Porto and Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-02-05

    We study the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking in the ABJM Chern-Simons matter theory with unquenched flavors in the Veneziano limit. We consider a magnetized D6-brane probe in the background of a flavored black hole which includes the backreaction of massless smeared flavors in the ABJM geometry. We find a holographic realization for the running of the quark mass due to the dynamical flavors. We compute several thermodynamic quantities of the brane probe and analyze the effects of the dynamical quarks on the fundamental condensate and on the phase diagram of the model. The dynamical flavors have an interesting effect on the magnetic catalysis. At zero temperature and fixed magnetic field, the magnetic catalysis is suppressed for small bare quark masses whereas it is enhanced for large values of the mass. When the temperature is non-zero there is a critical magnetic field, above which the magnetic catalysis takes place. This critical magnetic field decreases with the number of flavors, which we interpret as an enhancement of the catalysis.

  18. Fifty Shades of Stigma: Exploring the Health Care Experiences of Kink-Oriented Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldura, Jessica F; Arora, Ishika; Randall, Anna M; Farala, John Paul; Sprott, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    The term kink describes sexual behaviors and identities encompassing bondage, discipline, domination and submission, and sadism and masochism (collectively known as BDSM) and sexual fetishism. Individuals who engage in kink could be at risk for health complications because of their sexual behaviors, and they could be vulnerable to stigma in the health care setting. However, although previous research has addressed experiences in mental health care, very little research has detailed the medical care experiences of kink-oriented patients. To broadly explore the health care experiences of kink-oriented patients using a community-engaged research approach. As part of the Kink Health Project, we gathered qualitative data from 115 kink-oriented San Francisco area residents using focus groups and interviews. Interview questions were generated in collaboration with a community advisory board. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Themes relating to kink-oriented patients' experience with health and healthcare. Major themes included (i) kink and physical health, (ii) sociocultural aspects of kink orientation, (iii) the role of stigma in shaping health care interactions, (iv) coming out to health care providers, and (v) working toward a vision of kink-aware medical care. The study found that kink-oriented patients have genuine health care needs relating to their kink behaviors and social context. Most patients would prefer to be out to their health care providers so they can receive individualized care. However, fewer than half were out to their current provider, with anticipated stigma being the most common reason for avoiding disclosure. Patients are often concerned that clinicians will confuse their behaviors with intimate partner violence and they emphasized the consensual nature of their kink interactions. Like other sexual minorities, kink-oriented patients have a desire to engage with their health care providers in meaningful discussions about

  19. Coupled fermion-kink system in Jackiw-Rebbi model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, A.; Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Fisica, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    In this paper, we study Jackiw-Rebbi model, in which a massless fermion is coupled to the kink of λφ{sup 4} theory through a Yukawa interaction. In the original Jackiw-Rebbi model, the soliton is prescribed. However, we are interested in the back-reaction of the fermion on the soliton besides the effect of the soliton on the fermion. Also, as a particular example, we consider a minimal supersymmetric kink model in (1 + 1) dimensions. In this case, the bosonic self-coupling, λ, and the Yukawa coupling between fermion and soliton, g, have a specific relation, g = √(λ/2). As the set of coupled equations of motion of the system is not analytically solvable, we use a numerical method to solve it self-consistently. We obtain the bound energy spectrum, bound states of the system and the corresponding shape of the soliton using a relaxation method, except for the zero mode fermionic state and threshold energies which are analytically solvable. With the aid of these results, we are able to show how the soliton is affected in general and supersymmetric cases. The results we obtain are consistent with the ones in the literature, considering the soliton as background. (orig.)

  20. Degenerate vacua to vacuumless model and kink-antikink collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, F. C.; Gomes, Adalto R.; Nobrega, K. Z.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we investigate a Z2 symmetric model of one scalar field ϕ in (1 , 1) dimension. The model is characterized by a continuous transition from a potential V (ϕ) with two vacua to the vacuumless case. The model has kink and antikink solutions that minimize energy. Stability analysis is described by a Schrödinger-like equation with a potential that transits from a volcano-shape with no vibrational states (in the case of vacuumless limit) to a smooth valley with one vibrational state. We are interested in the structure of two-bounce windows present in kink-antikink scattering processes. The standard mechanism of Campbell-Schonfeld-Wingate (CSW) requires the presence of one vibrational state for the occurrence of two-bounce windows. We report that the effect of increasing the separation of vacua from the potential V (ϕ) has the consequence of trading some of the first two-bounce windows predicted by the CSW mechanism by false two-bounce windows. Another consequence is the appearance of false two-bounce windows of zero-order.

  1. Kink bands in thrust regime: Examples from Srinagar—Garhwal area ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deciphers the late stress systems involved in the development of kink bands in the perspective of thrust regime. In kink bands, the correlation coefficient for - plots is positive near thrusts and negative away from thrusts. The plots show nearly linear relationship near thrusts and non-linear relationship away from ...

  2. Kink bands in thrust regime: Examples from Srinagar–Garhwal area ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deciphers the late stress systems involved in the development of kink bands in the perspec- tive of thrust regime. In kink bands, the correlation coefficient for α–β plots is positive near thrusts and negative away from thrusts. The plots show nearly linear relationship near thrusts and non-linear rela- tionship away ...

  3. Kinking of the upper ureter in CT urography: anatomic and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Minobu; Nozaki, Taiki; Yoshida, Kyoko; Tateishi, Ukihide; Akita, Keiichi

    2016-12-01

    Although the course of the ureter is described as a straight descent in the retroperitoneum, kinking of the upper ureter is often seen at imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate kinking of the ureter and its underlying anatomico-clinical significance. We evaluated 176 computed tomography (CT) images and classified kinking into three grades: no/mild kinking as Grade 1, moderate as Grade 2, and severe as Grade 3. We defined the "crossing point" (CP) as where the ureter crosses over the gonadal vein and assessed its relation to the kinking. Fourteen halves from seven cadavers were used for examination. Approaching anteriorly, we macroscopically observed the ureter and surrounding structures. On CT, the rate of the radiologically "significant" kinking classified into either Grade 2 or 3 was 18.4 % on the right and 21.8 % on the left. All kinking was either at or above the level of the CP. In cadavers, the ureter was relatively mobile in the perirenal fat and then beginning at approximately the level of the CP became firmly fixed to the anteromedial aspect of the psoas major muscle. Kinking of the upper ureter is not a clinically significant finding and arises from the ureter having a relatively mobile portion in the perirenal space compared to its caudal portion. The fixation boundary can be identified by observing the CP.

  4. Kinks in the σ Band of Graphene Induced by Electron-Phonon Coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzola, Federico; Wells, Justin; Yakimova, Rosita

    2013-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals pronounced kinks in the dispersion of the band of graphene. Such kinks are usually caused by the combination of a strong electron-boson interaction and the cutoff in the Fermi-Dirac distribution. They are therefore not expected for the band of gra...

  5. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    _f=2$ and $N_f=3$ we reproduce earlier known results including the Dashen phase with spontaneous violation of the combined charge conjugation and parity symmetry, CP. For $N_f=4$ we find regions with and without spontaneous CP violation. We then generalize to an arbitrary number of flavors. Here......We study the alignment of the vacuum in gauge theories with $N_f$ Dirac fermions transforming according to a complex representation of the gauge group. The alignment of the vacuum is produced by adding a small mass perturbation to the theory. We study in detail the $N_f=2,3$ and $4$ case. For $N...... it is shown that at the point where $N_f-1$ flavors are degenerate with positive mass $m>0$ and the mass of the $N_f$'th flavor becomes negative and equal to $-m$ CP breaks spontaneously....

  6. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  7. Flavor Models In Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Valadez, J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of implementing flavor symmetries in the context of extra dimensions. To the particle content of the Standard Model we add an additional scalar (flavon) field and we assume that all the fields propagate in the extra-dimensional space-time. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value the flavor symmetry is effectively broken thus generating the Yukawa textures associated with the particles. An specific model in 5D that reproduces all fermion masses, mixing angles and ratios is presented.

  8. Calculation of quantum tunneling for a spatially extended defect: The dislocation kink in copper has a low effective mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs; Sethna, J.P.; Cheong, S.-A.

    2001-01-01

    , and quantum tunneling rates fur dislocation kinks and jogs in copper screw dislocations. We find that jugs are unlikely to tunnel, but the kinks should have large quantum fluctuations. The kink motion involves hundreds of atoms each shifting a tiny amount, leading to a small effective mass and tunneling...

  9. Brain mechanisms of flavor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Ueji, Kayoko

    2011-01-01

    Once the flavor of the ingested food (conditioned stimulus, CS) is associated with a preferable (e.g., good taste or nutritive satisfaction) or aversive (e.g., malaise with displeasure) signal (unconditioned stimulus, US), animals react to its subsequent exposure by increasing or decreasing ingestion to the food. These two types of association learning (preference learning vs. aversion learning) are known as classical conditioned reactions which are basic learning and memory phenomena, leading selection of food and proper food intake. Since the perception of flavor is generated by interaction of taste and odor during food intake, taste and/or odor are mainly associated with bodily signals in the flavor learning. After briefly reviewing flavor learning in general, brain mechanisms of conditioned taste aversion is described in more detail. The CS-US association leading to long-term potentiation in the amygdala, especially in its basolateral nucleus, is the basis of establishment of conditioned taste aversion. The novelty of the CS detected by the cortical gustatory area may be supportive in CS-US association. After the association, CS input is conveyed through the amygdala to different brain regions including the hippocampus for contextual fear formation, to the supramammillary and thalamic paraventricular nuclei for stressful anxiety or memory dependent fearful or stressful emotion, to the reward system to induce aversive expression to the CS, or hedonic shift from positive to negative, and to the CS-responsive neurons in the gustatory system to enhance the responsiveness to facilitate to detect the harmful stimulus.

  10. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Santopinto, E. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)]. e-mail: bijker@nucleares.unam.mx

    2008-12-15

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu, dd and ss) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of qq pairs leads automatically to an excess of d over u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  11. New Results on Flavor Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Ligeti, Zoltan

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in flavor physics is discussed. In particular, I review theoretical and experimental developments relevant for semileptonic B decays and the determination of |Vcb| and |Vub|, for exclusive rare decays, for nonleptonic b->c decays and tests of factorization, and for D meson mixing.

  12. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...

  13. Flavor Dependence of the S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Chiara, Stefano; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    of flavors, colors and matter representation. We show that S, normalized to the number of flavors, increases as we decrease the number of flavors and gives a direct measure of the anomalous dimension of the mass of the fermions. Our findings support the conjecture presented in [arXiv:1006.0207 [hep......-lat

  14. A New Landscape of Multiple Dispersion Kinks in a High-TcCuprate Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, H; Arita, M; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Ishikado, M; Fujita, K; Ishida, S; Uchida, S; Ino, A

    2017-07-06

    Conventional superconductivity is caused by electron-phonon coupling. The discovery of high-temperature superconductors raised the question of whether such strong electron-phonon coupling is realized in cuprates. Strong coupling with some collective excitation mode has been indicated by a dispersion "kink". However, there is intensive debate regarding whether the relevant coupling mode is a magnetic resonance mode or an oxygen buckling phonon mode. This ambiguity is a consequence of the energy of the main prominent kink. Here, we show a new landscape of dispersion kinks. We report that heavily overdoping a Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ superconductor results in a decline of the conventional main kink and a rise of another sharp kink, along with substantial energy shifts of both. Notably, the latter kink can be ascribed only to an oxygen-breathing phonon. Hence, the multiple phonon branches provide a consistent account of our data set on the multiple kinks. Our results suggest that strong electron-phonon coupling and its dramatic change should be incorporated into or reconciled with scenarios for the evolution of high-T c superconductivity.

  15. Arbitrarily large numbers of kink internal modes in inhomogeneous sine-Gordon equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, J.A., E-mail: jalbertgonz@yahoo.es [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Natural Sciences, Miami Dade College, 627 SW 27th Ave., Miami, FL 33135 (United States); Bellorín, A., E-mail: alberto.bellorin@ucv.ve [Escuela de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado Postal 47586, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); García-Ñustes, M.A., E-mail: monica.garcia@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059 (Chile); Guerrero, L.E., E-mail: lguerre@usb.ve [Departamento de Física, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Jiménez, S., E-mail: s.jimenez@upm.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada a las TT.II., E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, L., E-mail: lvazquez@fdi.ucm.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2017-06-28

    We prove analytically the existence of an infinite number of internal (shape) modes of sine-Gordon solitons in the presence of some inhomogeneous long-range forces, provided some conditions are satisfied. - Highlights: • We have found exact kink solutions to the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. • We have been able to study analytically the kink stability problem. • A kink equilibrated by an exponentially-localized perturbation has a finite number of oscillation modes. • A sufficiently broad equilibrating perturbation supports an infinite number of soliton internal modes.

  16. Sine-Gordon 2-pi-kink dynamics in the presence of small perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1983-01-01

    The influence of external driving forces on the 2π-kink solution to the sine-Gordon equation is examined. The analysis is based on the approach that the solution to the problem can be divided into a 2π-kink part and a background or vacuum part. The behavior of the 2π kink depends strongly on the ...... on the initial state of the vacuum. Excellent agreement between the analysis and numerical solution of representative initial-value problems is found....

  17. Head butting sheep: kink collisions in the presence of false vacua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Jennifer; Eto, Minoru; Haberichter, Mareike; Nitta, Muneto; Paranjape, M. B.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate numerically kink collisions in a 1 + 1 dimensional scalar field theory with multiple vacua. The domain wall model we are interested in involves two scalar fields and a potential term built from an asymmetric double well and (double) sine-Gordon potential together with an interaction term. Depending on the initial kink setup and impact velocities, the model allows for a wide range of scattering behaviours. Kinks can repel each other, annihilate, form true or false domain walls and reflect off each other.

  18. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)

  19. Suppressing supersymmetric flavor violations through quenched gaugino-flavor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James D.; Zhao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    Realizing that couplings related by supersymmetry (SUSY) can be disentangled when SUSY is broken, it is suggested that unwanted flavor and C P -violating SUSY couplings may be suppressed via quenched gaugino-flavor interactions, which may be accomplished by power-law running of sfermion anomalous dimensions. A simple theoretical framework to accomplish this is exemplified, where a strongly coupled conformal field theory is achieved after SUSY is softly broken. The defeated constraints are tallied. One key implication of the scenario is the expectation of enhanced top, bottom and tau production at the LHC, accompanied by large missing energy. Also, direct detection signals of dark matter may be more challenging to find than in conventional SUSY scenarios.

  20. Supersymmetry: Compactification, flavor, and dualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Benjamin Jones

    We describe several new research directions in the area of supersymmetry. In the context of low-energy supersymmetry, we show that the assumption of R-parity can be replaced with the minimal flavor violation hypothesis, solving the issue of nucleon decay and the new physics flavor problem in one stroke. The assumption of minimal flavor violation uniquely fixes the form of the baryon number violating vertex, leading to testable predictions. The NLSP is unstable, and decays promptly to jets, evading stringent bounds on vanilla supersymmetry from LHC searches, whereas the gravitino is long-lived, and can be a dark matter component. In the case of a sbottom LSP, neutral mesinos can form and undergo oscillations before decaying, leading to same sign tops, and allowing us to place constraints on the model in this case. We show that this well-motivated phenomenology can be naturally explained by spontaneously breaking a gauged flavor symmetry at a high scale in the presence of additional vector-like quarks, leading to mass mixings which simultaneously generate the flavor structure of the baryon-number violating vertex and the Standard Model Yukawa couplings, explaining their minimal flavor violating structure. We construct a model which is robust against Planck suppressed corrections and which also solves the mu problem. In the context of flux compactifications, we begin a study of the local geometry near a stack of D7 branes supporting a gaugino condensate, an integral component of the KKLT scenario for Kahler moduli stabilization. We obtain an exact solution for the geometry in a certain limit using reasonable assumptions about symmetries, and argue that this solution exhibits BPS domain walls, as expected from field theory arguments. We also begin a larger program of understanding general supersymmetric compactifications of type IIB string theory, reformulating previous results in an SL(2, R ) covariant fashion. Finally, we present extensive evidence for a new class of

  1. Dark Matter and Gauged Flavor Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Bishara, Fady; Kamenik, Jernej F; Stamou, Emmanuel; Zupan, Jure

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of flavored dark matter (DM). DM stability is guaranteed by an accidental ${\\mathcal Z}_3$ symmetry, a subgroup of the standard model (SM) flavor group that is not broken by the SM Yukawa interactions. We consider an explicit realization where the quark part of the SM flavor group is fully gauged. If the dominant interactions between DM and visible sector are through flavor gauge bosons, as we show for Dirac fermion flavored DM, then the DM mass is bounded between roughly $0.5$ TeV and $5$ TeV if the DM multiplet mass is split only radiatively. In general, however, no such relation exists. We demonstrate this using scalar flavored DM where the main interaction with the SM is through the Higgs portal. For both cases we derive constraints from flavor, cosmology, direct and indirect DM detection, and collider searches.

  2. Missugused on teie kogemused väikeklassidega? / Villu Mengel, Ana Kontor, Katrin Betlem, Riina Kink

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Küsimusele vastasid Sikupilli keskkooli direktor Villu Mengel, Tartu hariduse tugiteenuste keskuse eripedagoog Ana Kontor, Tabasalu ühisgümnaasiumi õppejuht-sotsiaalpedagoog Katrin Betlem, Keila kooli põhikooli õppejuht Riina Kink

  3. Flavor Beyond the Standard Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian F; Soreq, Yotam

    2012-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the observed pattern of quark masses is the consequence of a statistical distribution of Yukawa couplings within the multiverse. We employ the anthropic condition that only two ultra light quarks exist, justifying the observed richness of organic chemistry. Moreover, the mass of the recently discovered Higgs boson suggests that the top Yukawa coupling lies near the critical condition where the electroweak vacuum becomes unstable, leading to a new kind of flavor puzzle and to a new anthropic condition. We scan Yukawa couplings according to distributions motivated by high-scale flavor dynamics and find cases in which our pattern of quark masses has a plausible probability within the multiverse. Finally we show that, under some assumptions, these distributions can significantly ameliorate the runaway behavior leading to weakless universes.

  4. Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panico, Giuliano [IFAE and BIST, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,Bellaterra, Barcelona, 08193 (Spain); Pomarol, Alex [IFAE and BIST, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,Bellaterra, Barcelona, 08193 (Spain); CERN, Theory Division,Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Dept. de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,Bellaterra, Barcelona, 08193 (Spain)

    2016-07-20

    One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, f̄f. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in ΔF=2 and ΔF=1 flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.

  5. Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales

    CERN Document Server

    Panico, Giuliano

    2016-07-20

    One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, $\\bar ff$. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in $\\Delta F=2$ and $\\Delta F=1$ flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.

  6. Superluminal neutrino, flavor, and relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    Modified neutrino dispersion relations, which still obey the relativity principle, can have both a superluminal (muon-type) neutrino and a luminal (electron-type) neutrino, as long as neutrino-mass effects can be neglected. The idea is to allow for flavor-dependent deformed Lorentz transformations and an appropriate hierarchy of energy scales. If OPERA's result on a superluminal velocity of the muon-neutrino is confirmed, the model has a matching superluminal velocity of the corresponding cha...

  7. The Flavor World of Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Mennella, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Many of the chronic illnesses that plague modern society, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, derive in large part from poor food choices, dictated in part by flavor preferences. Against the advice and recommendations of health authorities worldwide, people eat too much salt, fat, and simple sugars and too few fruits and vegetables, even and especially among children. How can we account for patterns of food choice that are antithetical to health, and why is it so difficult to develo...

  8. Flavor Physics & CP Violation 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Flavor Physics & CP violation 2015" (FPCP 2015) was held in Nagoya, Japan, at Nagoya University, from May 25 to May 29 2015. This is the 13th meeting of the series of annual conferences started in Philadelphia, PA, USA in 2002. The aim of the conference is to review developments in flavor physics and CP violation, in both theory and experiment, exploiting the potential to study new physics at the LHC and future facilities. The topics include CP violation, rare decays, CKM elements with heavy quark decays, flavor phenomena in charged leptons and neutrinos, and also interplay between flavor and LHC high Pt physics. The FPCP2015 conference had more than 140 participants, including researchers from abroad and many young researchers (postdocs and students). The conference consisted of plenary talks and poster presentations. The plenary talks include 2 overview talks, 48 review talks, and 2 talks for outlook in theories and experiments, given by world leading researchers. There was also a special lecture by Prof. Makoto Kobayashi, one of the Nobel laureates in 2008. The poster session had 41 contributions. Many young researchers presented their works. These proceedings contain written documents for these plenary and poster presentations. The full scientific program and presentation materials can be found at http://fpcp2015.hepl.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp/. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for their invaluable assistance in coordinating the scientific program and in helping to identifying many speakers. Thanks are also due to the Local Organizing Committee for tireless efforts for smooth running of the conference and very enjoyable social activities. We also thank the financial supports provided by Japanese Scociety for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) unfer the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) "Probing New Physics with Tau-Lepton" (No. 26220706), by Nagoya University under the Program for Promoting the Enhancement of Research Universities, and

  9. Pi-kinks in a parametrically driven sine-Gordon chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Yuri S.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We consider the sine-Gordon chain driven by a high-frequency parametric force in the presence of loss. Using an analytical approach based on the method of averaging in fast oscillations, we predict that such a parametric force may support propagation of π kinks, which are unstable in the standard...... sine-Gordon model. The steady-state velocity of the π kinks is calculated, and the analytical results are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations....

  10. Analysis of compressive failure of layered materials by kink band broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    1999-01-01

    Failure by steady state kink band broadening in uni-directional fibre composites or layered materials is analysed. An incremental scheme for calculation of kink band broadening stresses and lock-up conditions in the band for arbitrary material behaviour is presented. The method is illustrated by ...... by material data which are representative for polymer matrix composites for which experimental work exists. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. External kink modes as a model for MHD activity associated with ELMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manickam, J.

    1992-01-01

    Tokamak plasmas in the high confinement mode of operation are known to exhibit edge localized activity referred to as ELMs. A model is proposed for the underlying cause in terms of the external kink mode. The build up of the current density near the plasma edge is shown to decrease the shear in the safety-factor, q, profile and lead to destabilization of the kink mode. The role of the plasma geometry and equilibrium profiles is discussed.

  12. Effect of Core Impurity on Kink Soliton Motion in Dislocation Line

    OpenAIRE

    G. Zheng; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.

    1996-01-01

    Modified Sine-Gordon equation is established to investigate the kink soliton motion affected by core impurities. The dragging force that the core impurities exert on the moving kink soliton is determined by computer simulation of diffusing of solute atoms in dislocation core. The soliton motion can be dissolves into two kinds of movement : the changing of soliton position and soliton shape. These two kinds of movements correspond to the longitude core diffusion(LCD) and transverse core diffus...

  13. Compact-like kink in a real electrical reaction-diffusion chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comte, J.C. [Laboratoire de Physiopathologie des Reseaux Neuronaux du Cycle Veille-Sommeil, CNRS UMR 5167, Faculte de Medecine Laennec 7, Rue Guillaume Paradin, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France)]. E-mail: comtejc@sommeil.univ-lyon1.fr; Marquie, P. [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Informatique et Image (LE2i) UMR CNRS 5158, Aile des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2006-07-15

    We demonstrate experimentally the compact-like kinks existence in a real electrical reaction-diffusion chain. Our measures show that such entities are strictly localized and consequently present a finite spatial extent. We show equally that the kink velocity is threshold-dependent. A theoretical quantification of the critical coupling under which propagation fails is also achieved and reveals that nonlinear coupling leads to a propagation failure reduction.

  14. Multiscale Fiber Kinking: Computational Micromechanics and a Mesoscale Continuum Damage Mechanics Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraez, Miguel; Bergan, Andrew C.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Lopes, Claudio S.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the fiber kinking phenomenon, which is known as the failure mechanism that takes place when a fiber reinforced polymer is loaded under longitudinal compression, is studied. A computational micromechanics model is employed to interrogate the assumptions of a recently developed mesoscale continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model for fiber kinking based on the deformation gradient decomposition (DGD) and the LaRC04 failure criteria.

  15. Excited de Sitter brane worlds localized by a kink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brihaye, Y.; Delsate, T.

    2012-07-01

    We reconsider, in five-dimensional space-time, the issue of thick brane localized in the extra dimension by a kink formed by a scalar field. The localization is achieved by a sine-Gordon potential. Apart from a fundamental brane (where the scalar field is a monotonic function of the extra dimension [R. Koley and S. Kar, Classical Quantum Gravity 22, 753 (2005)CQGRDG0264-938110.1088/0264-9381/22/4/008]), we show that a series of new solutions exist as well, labeled by the number of zeros of the scalar field. These solutions are regular, localized on the brane, and mirror-symmetric with respect to the extra dimension. They form a tower of “excited branes”. The study of some perturbations of the solutions reveals that the new solutions are not stable. Finally, fermions are coupled to the scalar field by means of a Yukawa potential and their localization in the background of the new solutions is examined. It turns out that the excited branes can localize left and right chiral fermions either on the brane and/or in the bulk but close to the brane.

  16. High-m Kink/Tearing Modes in Cylindrical Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, J W; Pusztai, I; Catto, P J; Barnes, M

    2014-01-01

    The global ideal kink equation, for cylindrical geometry and zero beta, is simplified in the high poloidal mode number limit and used to determine the tearing stability parameter, $\\Delta^\\prime$. In the presence of a steep monotonic current gradient, $\\Delta^\\prime$ becomes a function of a parameter, $\\sigma_0$, characterising the ratio of the maximum current gradient to magnetic shear, and $x_s$, characterising the separation of the resonant surface from the maximum of the current gradient. In equilibria containing a current "spike", so that there is a non-monotonic current profile, $\\Delta^\\prime$ also depends on two parameters: $\\kappa$, related to the ratio of the curvature of the current density at its maximum to the magnetic shear, and $x_s$, which now represents the separation of the resonance from the point of maximum current density. The relation of our results to earlier studies of tearing modes and to recent gyro-kinetic calculations of current driven instabilities, is discussed, together with pot...

  17. The Flavor World of Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Mennella

    2014-07-01

    Although some may view food choice as a cultural trait, not directly related to our biology, overwhelming evidence suggests that children’s biology makes them especially vulnerable to the current food environment of processed foods high in salt and refined sugars. Emerging research in humans and animal models suggests that, beginning very early in life, sensory experiences shape and modify flavor and food preferences and have far-reaching effects on behavior. Such early life experiences with healthy levels of salt and sweet tastes and repeated exposure to healthy food flavors may go a long way toward promoting healthy eating and growth, which could have a significant impact in addressing the many chronic illnesses associated with poor food choice. Yet because of the lack of research, many feeding practices are based on idiosyncratic parental behavior, family traditions, or medical lore, rather than research. One of the keys to continued advances and applications on how to develop good food habits comes from studying the fundamental principles underlying flavor learning, which provides an understanding and appreciation of essential aspect of cultural food practices and habits.

  18. Control and understanding of kink formation in InAs-InP heterostructure nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlvik Svensson, S; Jeppesen, S; Thelander, C; Samuelson, L; Linke, H; Dick, K A

    2013-08-30

    Nanowire heterostructures are of special interest for band structure engineering due to an expanded range of defect-free material combinations. However, the higher degree of freedom in nanowire heterostructure growth comes at the expense of challenges related to nanowire-seed particle interactions, such as undesired composition, grading and kink formation. To better understand the mechanisms of kink formation in nanowires, we here present a detailed study of the dependence of heterostructure nanowire morphology on indium pressure, nanowire diameter, and nanowire density. We investigate InAs-InP-InAs heterostructure nanowires grown with chemical beam epitaxy, which is a material system that allows for very abrupt heterointerfaces. Our observations indicate that the critical parameter for kink formation is the availability of indium, and that the resulting morphology is also highly dependent on the length of the InP segment. It is shown that kinking is associated with the formation of an inclined facet at the interface between InP and InAs, which destabilizes the growth and leads to a change in growth direction. By careful tuning of the growth parameters, it is possible to entirely suppress the formation of this inclined facet and thereby kinking at the heterointerface. Our results also indicate the possibility of producing controllably kinked nanowires with a high yield.

  19. Kinks, loops, and protein folding, with protein A as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokhotin, Andrey, E-mail: Andrei.Krokhotine@cern.ch [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Liwo, Adam, E-mail: adam@chem.univ.gda.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Maisuradze, Gia G., E-mail: gm56@cornell.edu; Scheraga, Harold A., E-mail: has5@cornell.edu [Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301 (United States); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours, France and Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-01-14

    The dynamics and energetics of formation of loops in the 46-residue N-terminal fragment of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A has been studied. Numerical simulations have been performed using coarse-grained molecular dynamics with the united-residue (UNRES) force field. The results have been analyzed in terms of a kink (heteroclinic standing wave solution) of a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation. In the case of proteins, the DNLS equation arises from a C{sup α}-trace-based energy function. Three individual kink profiles were identified in the experimental three-α-helix structure of protein A, in the range of the Glu16-Asn29, Leu20-Asn29, and Gln33-Asn44 residues, respectively; these correspond to two loops in the native structure. UNRES simulations were started from the full right-handed α-helix to obtain a clear picture of kink formation, which would otherwise be blurred by helix formation. All three kinks emerged during coarse-grained simulations. It was found that the formation of each is accompanied by a local free energy increase; this is expressed as the change of UNRES energy which has the physical sense of the potential of mean force of a polypeptide chain. The increase is about 7 kcal/mol. This value can thus be considered as the free energy barrier to kink formation in full α-helical segments of polypeptide chains. During the simulations, the kinks emerge, disappear, propagate, and annihilate each other many times. It was found that the formation of a kink is initiated by an abrupt change in the orientation of a pair of consecutive side chains in the loop region. This resembles the formation of a Bloch wall along a spin chain, where the C{sup α} backbone corresponds to the chain, and the amino acid side chains are interpreted as the spin variables. This observation suggests that nearest-neighbor side chain–side chain interactions are responsible for initiation of loop formation. It was also found that the individual

  20. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flavor variability and flavor stability of U.S.-produced whole milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, M A; Drake, M A; Gerard, P D

    2009-09-01

    Flavor variability and stability of U.S.-produced whole milk powder (WMP) are important parameters for maximizing quality and global competitiveness of this commodity. This study characterized flavor and flavor stability of domestic WMP. Freshly produced (water activity, and moisture through 12 mo storage. Selected volatiles were quantified using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography/mass-spectrometry: dimethyl sulfide, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-heptanone, heptanal, 1-octen-3-ol, octanal, 3-octen-2-one, and nonanal. Multiple linear regression with backwards elimination was applied to generate equations to predict grassy and painty flavors based on selected volatiles. All WMP were between 2% and 3% moisture and 0.11 and 0.25 water activity initially. WMP varied in initial flavor profiles with varying levels of cooked, milk fat, and sweet aromatic flavors. During storage, grassy and painty flavors developed while sweet aromatic flavor intensities decreased (P stability.

  2. Stabilization of kinetic internal kink mode by ion diamagnetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitou, H.; Kuramoto, T.; Kobayashi, T. [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan); Yagi, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Tokuda, S.; Matsumoto, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2000-04-01

    Ion diamagnetic effects on the m=1 (poloidal mode number) and n=1 (toroidal mode number) kinetic internal kink mode are studied numerically by the three-field gyro-reduced-MHD code in the cylindrical coordinates, GRM3F-CY. In the derivation of the gryo-reduced-MHD model including the ion diamagnetic effects, finite gyroradius effects of ions are added to the gyrokinetic Poisson equation (quasi-neutral condition) and the convection term of the conservation law of the ion density. It is found that the long wavelength approximation, ksub(perpendicular) {rho}{sub ti} << 1, where ksub(perpendicular) is the wavenumber perpendicular to the magnetic field and {rho}{sub ti} is the thermal ion gyroradius, fails to reproduce the correct dispersion relation; the formulation valid even for ksub(perpendicular) {rho}{sub ti} >> 1 is necessary. The results of numerical calculation coincide with the theory for |{omega}{sub *e}|+|{omega}{sub *i}| < 2{gamma}{sub 0}, where the growth rate reduces as the density gradient increases. Here {omega}{sub *e} and {omega}{sub *i} are electron and ion diamagnetic angular frequencies estimated at the rational surface of q=1 (q is a safety factor), respectively, and {gamma}{sub 0} is the growth rate for the uniform density. Very weak instability, however, is observed for |{omega}{sub *e}|+|{omega}{sub *i}| < 2{gamma}{sub 0}, where the theory predicts the complete stabilization. This residual instability appears since the region with the density gradient is limited in the radial direction and the stabilization by the outgoing drift-wave like mode becomes incomplete. (author)

  3. Flavor physics and CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Paoti; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, Wei-Shu

    2017-11-01

    We currently live in the age of the CKM paradigm. The 3 × 3 matrix that links (d , s , b) quarks to (u , c , t) in the charged current weak interaction, being complex and nominally with 18 parameters, can be accounted for by just 3 rotation angles and one CP violating (CPV) phase, with unitarity and the CKM phases triumphantly tested at the B factories. But the CKM picture is unsatisfactory and has too many parameters. The main aim of Flavor Physics and CP violation (FPCP) studies is the pursuit to uncover New Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Two highlights of LHC Run 1 period are the CPV phase ϕs of Bs mixing and Bs →μ+μ- decay, which were found to be again consistent with SM, though the saga is yet unfinished. We also saw the emergence of the P5‧ angular variable anomaly in B0 →K∗0μ+μ- decay and R K (∗) anomaly in B →K (∗)μ+μ- to B →K (∗)e+e- rate ratios, and the BaBar anomaly in B →D (∗) τν decays, which suggest possible New Physics in these flavor processes, pointing to extra Z‧, charged Higgs, or leptoquarks. Charmless hadronic, semileptonic, purely leptonic and radiative B decays continue to offer various further windows on New Physics. Away from B physics, the rare K → πνν decays and ε‧ / ε in the kaon sector, μ → e transitions, muon g - 2 and electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron, τ → μγ , μμμ , eee, and a few charm physics probes, offer broadband frontier windows on New Physics. Lastly, flavor changing neutral transitions involving the top quark t and the 125 GeV Higgs boson h, such as t → ch and h → μτ, offer a new window into FPCP, while a new Z‧ related or inspired by the P5‧ anomaly, could show up in analogous top quark processes, perhaps even link with low energy phenomena such as muon g - 2 or rare kaon processes. In particular, we advocate the potential new SM, the two Higgs doublet model without discrete symmetries to control flavor violation, as SM2. As we are

  4. Flavor physics of leptons and dipole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raidal, M.; van der Schaaf, A.; Bigi, I.; Mangano, M. L.; Semertzidis, Y.; Abel, S.; Albino, S.; Antusch, S.; Arganda, E.; Bajc, B.; Banerjee, S.; Biggio, C.; Blanke, M.; Bonivento, W.; Branco, G. C.; Bryman, D.; Buras, A. J.; Calibbi, L.; Ceccucci, A.; Chankowski, P. H.; Davidson, S.; Deandrea, A.; Demille, D. P.; Deppisch, F.; Diaz, M. A.; Duling, B.; Felcini, M.; Fetscher, W.; Forti, F.; Ghosh, D. K.; Giffels, M.; Giorgi, M. A.; Giudice, G.; Goudzovskij, E.; Han, T.; Harris, P. G.; Herrero, M. J.; Hisano, J.; Holt, R. J.; Huitu, K.; Ibarra, A.; Igonkina, O.; Ilakovac, A.; Imazato, J.; Isidori, G.; Joaquim, F. R.; Kadastik, M.; Kajiyama, Y.; King, S. F.; Kirch, K.; Kozlov, M. G.; Krawczyk, M.; Kress, T.; Lebedev, O.; Lusiani, A.; Ma, E.; Marchiori, G.; Masiero, A.; Masina, I.; Moreau, G.; Mori, T.; Muntel, M.; Neri, N.; Nesti, F.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Paradisi, P.; Petcov, S. T.; Picariello, M.; Porretti, V.; Poschenrieder, A.; Pospelov, M.; Rebane, L.; Rebelo, M. N.; Ritz, A.; Roberts, L.; Romanino, A.; Roney, J. M.; Rossi, A.; Rückl, R.; Senjanovic, G.; Serra, N.; Shindou, T.; Takanishi, Y.; Tarantino, C.; Teixeira, A. M.; Torrente-Lujan, E.; Turzynski, K. J.; Underwood, T. E. J.; Vempati, S. K.; Vives, O.

    2008-09-01

    This chapter of the report of the “Flavor in the era of the LHC” Workshop discusses the theoretical, phenomenological and experimental issues related to flavor phenomena in the charged lepton sector and in flavor conserving CP-violating processes. We review the current experimental limits and the main theoretical models for the flavor structure of fundamental particles. We analyze the phenomenological consequences of the available data, setting constraints on explicit models beyond the standard model, presenting benchmarks for the discovery potential of forthcoming measurements both at the LHC and at low energy, and exploring options for possible future experiments.

  5. Flavor physics of leptons and dipole moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raidal, M.; Kadastik, M.; Kajiyama, Y.; Muntel, M.; Rebane, L. [National Inst. for Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia); Schaaf, A. van der [Physik-Inst. der Univ. Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bigi, I. [Univ. of Notre Dame du Lac, Physics Dept., Notre Dame, IN (United States); Mangano, M.L.; Ceccucci, A.; Felcini, M.; Giudice, G.; Lebedev, O.; Masina, I. [CERN, Physics Dept., Geneva (Switzerland); Semertzidis, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Abel, S.; Underwood, T.E.J. [Durham Univ., Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Albino, S. [Univ. of Hamburg, II. Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Hamburg (Germany); Antusch, S.; Biggio, C. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Arganda, E.; Herrero, M.J.; Joaquim, F.R. [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Dept. de Fisica Teorica (Spain)]|[IFT/CSIC-UAM, Madrid (Spain); Bajc, B. [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Banerjee, S.; Roney, J.M. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Physics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Blanke, M. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)]|[TU Munich, Physics Dept., Garching (Germany); Bonivento, W.; Serra, N. [Univ. degli Studi di Cagliari (Italy)]|[INFN Cagliari, Monserrato (Italy); Branco, G.C.; Rebelo, M.N. [CERN, Physics Dept., Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Inst. Superior Tecnico, Dept. de Fisica (Portugal)]|[Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal); Bryman, D. [Univ. of British Columbia, TRIUMF, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Buras, A.J.; Duling, B.; Poschenrieder, A.; Tarantino, C. [TU Munich, Physics Dept., Garching (Germany); Calibbi, L. [SISSA (Italy)]|[INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)]|[Univ. de Valencia-CSIC, Dept. de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain)]|[Dipt. di Fisica ' G. Galilei' (Italy)]|[INFN, Padova (Italy); Chankowski, P.H. [Univ. of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Davidson, S.; Deandrea, A. [Univ. Lyon-1, IPNL, CNRS, Villeurbanne (France)] [and others

    2008-09-15

    This chapter of the report of the ''Flavor in the era of the LHC'' Workshop discusses the theoretical, phenomenological and experimental issues related to flavor phenomena in the charged lepton sector and in flavor conserving CP-violating processes. We review the current experimental limits and the main theoretical models for the flavor structure of fundamental particles. We analyze the phenomenological consequences of the available data, setting constraints on explicit models beyond the standard model, presenting benchmarks for the discovery potential of forthcoming measurements both at the LHC and at low energy, and exploring options for possible future experiments. (orig.)

  6. Parametric study on kink instabilities of twisted magnetic flux ropes in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Z. X.; Keppens, R.; Roussev, I. I.; Lin, J.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Twisted magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) in the solar atmosphere have been researched extensively because of their close connection to many solar eruptive phenomena, such as flares, filaments, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this work, we performed a set of 3D isothermal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations, which use analytical twisted MFR models and study dynamical processes parametrically inside and around current-carrying twisted loops. We aim to generalize earlier findings by applying finite plasma β conditions. Methods: Inside the MFR, approximate internal equilibrium is obtained by pressure from gas and toroidal magnetic fields to maintain balance with the poloidal magnetic field. We selected parameter values to isolate best either internal or external kink instability before studying complex evolutions with mixed characteristics. We studied kink instabilities and magnetic reconnection in MFRs with low and high twists. Results: The curvature of MFRs is responsible for a tire tube force due to its internal plasma pressure, which tends to expand the MFR. The curvature effect of toroidal field inside the MFR leads to a downward movement toward the photosphere. We obtain an approximate internal equilibrium using the opposing characteristics of these two forces. A typical external kink instability totally dominates the evolution of MFR with infinite twist turns. Because of line-tied conditions and the curvature, the central MFR region loses its external equilibrium and erupts outward. We emphasize the possible role of two different kink instabilities during the MFR evolution: internal and external kink. The external kink is due to the violation of the Kruskal-Shafranov condition, while the internal kink requires a safety factor q = 1 surface inside the MFR. We show that in mixed scenarios, where both instabilities compete, complex evolutions occur owing to reconnections around and within the MFR. The S-shaped structures in current distributions

  7. A-minor tertiary interactions in RNA kink-turns. Molecular dynamics and quantum chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réblová, Kamila; Šponer, Judit E; Špačková, Naďa; Beššeová, Ivana; Šponer, Jiří

    2011-12-01

    The RNA kink-turn is an important recurrent RNA motif, an internal loop with characteristic consensus sequence forming highly conserved three-dimensional structure. Functional arrangement of RNA kink-turns shows a sharp bend in the phosphodiester backbone. Among other signature interactions, kink-turns form A-minor interaction between their two stems. Most kink-turns possess extended A-minor I (A-I) interaction where adenine of the second A•G base pair of the NC-stem interacts with the first canonical pair of the C-stem (i.e., the receptor pair) via trans-sugar-edge/sugar-edge (tSS) and cis-sugar-edge/sugar-edge (cSS) interactions. The remaining kink-turns have less compact A-minor 0 (A-0) interaction with just one tSS contact. We show that kink-turns with A-I in ribosomal X-ray structures keep G═C receptor base pair during evolution while the inverted pair (C═G) is not realized. In contrast, kink-turns with A-0 in the observed structures alternate G═C and C═G base pairs in sequences. We carried out an extended set (~5 μs) of explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations of kink-turns to rationalize this structural/evolutionary pattern. The simulations were done using a net-neutral Na(+) cation atmosphere (with ~0.25 M cation concentration) supplemented by simulations with either excess salt KCl atmosphere or inclusion of Mg(2+). The results do not seem to depend on the treatment of ions. The simulations started with X-ray structures of several kink-turns while we tested the response of the simulated system to base substitutions, modest structural perturbations and constraints. The trends seen in the simulations reveal that the A-I/G═C arrangement is preferred over all three other structures. The A-I/C═G triple appears structurally entirely unstable, consistent with the covariation patterns seen during the evolution. The A-0 arrangements tend to shift toward the A-I pattern in simulations, which suggests that formation of the A-0 interaction is

  8. Characterization of kink actuators as compared to traditional chevron shaped Bent-Beam electrothermal actuators

    KAUST Repository

    Rawashdeh, E.

    2012-07-06

    This paper compares the design and performance of kink actuators, a modified version of the bent-beam thermal actuator, to the standard chevron-shaped designs. A variety of kink and chevron actuator designs were fabricated from polysilicon. While the actuators were electrically probed, these designs were tested using a probe station connected to a National Instruments (NI) controller that uses LabVIEW to extract the displacement results via image processing. The displacement results were then used to validate the thermal-electric-structural simulations produced by COMSOL. These results, in turn, were used to extract the stiffness for both actuator types. The data extracted show that chevron actuators can have larger stiffness values with increasing offsets, but at the cost of lower amplification factors. In contrast, kink actuators showed a constant stiffness value equivalent to the chevron actuator with the highest amplification factor. The kink actuator also had larger amplification factors than chevrons at all designs tested. Therefore, kink actuators are capable of longer throws at lower power levels than the standard chevron designs.

  9. Topological kink states at the tilt boundary in gated multi-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ah; Vaezi, Abolhassan; Liang, Yufeng; Ngai, Darryl; Yang, Li

    2013-03-01

    Search for new realization of symmetry protected topological states with protected edge states is an active area of research. We show that a tilt boundary in gapped multi-layer graphene supports topologically protected gapless kink states. We investigate such kink states from two perspectives: the microscopic perspective of tight-binding model and an ab-initio calculation on bilayer, and the perspective of symmetry protected topological (SPT) states for general multi-layer. We show that the bilayer tilt boundary supports gapless kink states that are undeterred by strain concentrated at the boundary. Further we establish the kink states as concrete examples of edge states of time-reversal symmetric Z-type SPT, protected by T and two U (1) symmetries in the absence of inter-valley mixing. Recent observations of such boundaries in multi-layer samples suggest that transport through these topological kink states might explain the long standing puzzle of sub-gap conductance. We discuss possible topological phase transitions upon breaking subset of symmetries from SPT perspective.

  10. ARPES study on the kink structure in σ-bands of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Keun Su

    2015-03-01

    Graphene has served as a prototypical model system for the study of electron-phonon interactions in low dimensions. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a powerful technique, which can not only visualize electron chirality, but also identify a signature of electron-boson interaction as a kink in dispersion. While ARPES spectra of graphene π-bands are known to show such kinked dispersion near the Fermi level, recently the similar kink features were also observed in σ-bands with binding energy greater than 4 eV [F. Mazzola et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 216806 (2013)]. This kink feature was attributed to a signature of electron-phonon interaction, but its microscopic origin remains unclear. In this work, we performed systematic ARPES measurements for graphene σ-bands with various photon energies and polarization conditions. Our results demonstrate a strong matrix-element effect that can explain the kink-like features in σ-bands, regardless of manybody interactions. This work was supported by Institute for Basic Science (IBS, Grant No. IBS-R014-D1).

  11. Characterization of Kink Actuators as Compared to Traditional Chevron Shaped Bent-Beam Electrothermal Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Foulds

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the design and performance of kink actuators, a modified version of the bent-beam thermal actuator, to the standard chevron-shaped designs. A variety of kink and chevron actuator designs were fabricated from polysilicon. While the actuators were electrically probed, these designs were tested using a probe station connected to a National Instruments (NI controller that uses LabVIEW to extract the displacement results via image processing. The displacement results were then used to validate the thermal-electric-structural simulations produced by COMSOL. These results, in turn, were used to extract the stiffness for both actuator types. The data extracted show that chevron actuators can have larger stiffness values with increasing offsets, but at the cost of lower amplification factors. In contrast, kink actuators showed a constant stiffness value equivalent to the chevron actuator with the highest amplification factor. The kink actuator also had larger amplification factors than chevrons at all designs tested. Therefore, kink actuators are capable of longer throws at lower power levels than the standard chevron designs.

  12. The Effect of a Twisted Magnetic Field on the Nature of Kink MHD Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, K.; Khalvandi, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    We consider a pressureless plasma in a thin magnetic-flux tube with a twisted magnetic field. We study the effect of twisted magnetic field on the nature of propagating kink waves. To do this, the restoring forces of oscillations in the linear ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) were obtained. In the presence of a twisted magnetic field, the ratio of the magnetic-tension force to the gradient of the magnetic pressure increases for the mode with negative azimuthal wave number, but it decreases for the mode with positive azimuthal wave number. For the kink mode with positive azimuthal mode number, the ratio of the forces is more affected by the twisted magnetic field in dense loops. For the kink mode with negative azimuthal mode number, the perturbed magnetic pressure is negligible under some conditions. The magnetic twist increases (diminishes) the damping of the kink waves with positive (negative) azimuthal mode number due to resonant absorption. Our conclusion is that introducing a twisted magnetic field breaks the symmetry between the nature of the kink waves with positive and negative azimuthal wave number, and the wave can be a purely Alfvénic wave in the entire loop.

  13. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  14. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  15. Patterns of flavor signals in supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, T. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Kyoto Univ. (Japan). YITP; Okada, Y. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba (Japan). Dept. of Particle and Nucelar Physics; Shindou, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Tanaka, M. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-11-15

    Quark and lepton flavor signals are studied in four supersymmetric models, namely the minimal supergravity model, the minimal supersymmetric standard model with right-handed neutrinos, SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory with right-handed neutrinos and the minimal supersymmetric standard model with U(2) flavor symmetry. We calculate b{yields}s(d) transition observables in B{sub d} and B{sub s} decays, taking the constraint from the B{sub s}- anti B{sub s} mixing recently observed at Tevatron into account. We also calculate lepton flavor violating processes {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma} and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} for the models with right-handed neutrinos. We investigate possibilities to distinguish the flavor structure of the supersymmetry breaking sector with use of patterns of various flavor signals which are expected to be measured in experiments such as MEG, LHCb and a future Super B Factory. (orig.)

  16. Collective neutrino flavor conversion: Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sovan [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Hansen, Rasmus [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Izaguirre, Ignacio [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Raffelt, Georg, E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Neutrino flavor evolution in core-collapse supernovae, neutron-star mergers, or the early universe is dominated by neutrino–neutrino refraction, often spawning “self-induced flavor conversion,” i.e., shuffling of flavor among momentum modes. This effect is driven by collective run-away modes of the coupled “flavor oscillators” and can spontaneously break the initial symmetries such as axial symmetry, homogeneity, isotropy, and even stationarity. Moreover, the growth rates of unstable modes can be of the order of the neutrino–neutrino interaction energy instead of the much smaller vacuum oscillation frequency: self-induced flavor conversion does not always require neutrino masses. We illustrate these newly found phenomena in terms of simple toy models. What happens in realistic astrophysical settings is up to speculation at present.

  17. [A fluoride-sensor for kink structure in DNA condensation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Ying-Bing; Li, Yu-Pu; Hu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Bloomfield has pointed out that the kink structure occurs for sharp bending during DNA condensation process, until now, which has not been proved by experiments. Using UV Spectrophotometer, the effects of fluoride and chlorine on the polyamine-DNA condensation system can be detected. Fluoride and chlorine both belong to the halogen family, but their effects on spermine-DNA condensation system are totally different. Fluoride ions make blue-shift and hyperchromicity appear in the spermine-DNA condensation system, but chlorine ions only make insignificant hyperchromicity happen in this system. Both fluoride ions and chlorine ions only make insignificant hyperchromicity happen in spermidine-DNA condensation system. Based on the distinguished character of fluoride, a fluoride-sensor for "kink" structure in DNA condensation was developed and the second kind of "kink" structure only appear in the spermine-DNA condensation system.

  18. Wall-touching kink mode calculations with the M3D code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breslau, J. A., E-mail: jbreslau@pppl.gov; Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08542 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This paper seeks to address a controversy regarding the applicability of the 3D nonlinear extended MHD code M3D [W. Park et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999)] and similar codes to calculations of the electromagnetic interaction of a disrupting tokamak plasma with the surrounding vessel structures. M3D is applied to a simple test problem involving an external kink mode in an ideal cylindrical plasma, used also by the Disruption Simulation Code (DSC) as a model case for illustrating the nature of transient vessel currents during a major disruption. While comparison of the results with those of the DSC is complicated by effects arising from the higher dimensionality and complexity of M3D, we verify that M3D is capable of reproducing both the correct saturation behavior of the free boundary kink and the “Hiro” currents arising when the kink interacts with a conducting tile surface interior to the ideal wall.

  19. A Continuum Damage Mechanics Model to Predict Kink-Band Propagation Using Deformation Gradient Tensor Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergan, Andrew C.; Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A new model is proposed that represents the kinematics of kink-band formation and propagation within the framework of a mesoscale continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model. The model uses the recently proposed deformation gradient decomposition approach to represent a kink band as a displacement jump via a cohesive interface that is embedded in an elastic bulk material. The model is capable of representing the combination of matrix failure in the frame of a misaligned fiber and instability due to shear nonlinearity. In contrast to conventional linear or bilinear strain softening laws used in most mesoscale CDM models for longitudinal compression, the constitutive response of the proposed model includes features predicted by detailed micromechanical models. These features include: 1) the rotational kinematics of the kink band, 2) an instability when the peak load is reached, and 3) a nonzero plateau stress under large strains.

  20. Study of lepton flavor violation in flavor symmetric models for lepton sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Omura, Yuji [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI),Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Takayama, Fumihiro [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yasuhara, Daiki [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-10-07

    Flavor symmetric model is one of the attractive Beyond Standard Models (BSMs) to reveal the flavor structure of the Standard Model (SM). A lot of efforts have been put into the model building and we find many kinds of flavor symmetries and setups are able to explain the observed fermion mass matrices. In this paper, we look for common predictions of physical observables among the ones in flavor symmetric models, and try to understand how to test flavor symmetry in experiments. Especially, we focus on the BSMs for leptons with extra Higgs SU(2){sub L} doublets charged under flavor symmetry. In many flavor models for leptons, remnant symmetry is partially respected after the flavor symmetry breaking, and it controls well the Flavor Changing Neutral Currents (FCNCs) and suggests some crucial predictions against the flavor changing process, although the remnant symmetry is not respected in the full lagrangian. In fact, we see that τ{sup −}→e{sup +}μ{sup −}μ{sup −}(μ{sup +}e{sup −}e{sup −}) and e{sup +}e{sup −}→τ{sup +}τ{sup −}(μ{sup −}μ{sup +}) processes are the most important in the flavor models that the extra Higgs doublets belong to triplet representation of flavor symmetry. For instance, the stringent constraint from the μ→eγ process could be evaded according to the partial remnant symmetry. We also investigate the breaking effect of the remnant symmetry mediated by the Higgs scalars, and investigate the constraints from the flavor physics: the flavor violating τ and μ decays, the electric dipole moments, and the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We also discuss the correlation between FCNCs and nonzero θ{sub 13}, and point out the physical observables in the charged lepton sector to test the BSMs for the neutrino mixing.

  1. PHENIX recent heavy flavor results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sanghoon

    2014-06-15

    Cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects provide an important ingredient to interpret the results from heavy-ion collisions. Such effects include nuclear shadowing, intrinsic parton transverse momentum broadening, and initial patron energy loss. The measurement of heavy quark production is a good probe to study the CNM effects particularly on gluons, since heavy quarks are mainly produced via gluon fusions at RHIC energy. The PHENIX experiment has an ability to study the CNM effects by measuring leptons from heavy-flavor decay in a broad kinematic range. Comparisons of the results measured in different rapidity regions allow us to study modification of gluon density function in the Au nucleus depending on parton fractional momentum x. In addition, comparisons to the results from heavy-ion collisions (Au + Au and Cu + Cu) measured by PHENIX provide an insight into the role of CNM effects in such collisions. Recent PHENIX results on heavy quark production are discussed in this presentation.

  2. Kink-antikink, trapping bags and five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity, with one warped extra-dimension, allows classes of solutions where two scalar fields combine either in a kink-antikink system or in a trapping bag configuration. While the kink-antikink system can be interpreted as a pair of gravitating domain walls with opposite topological charges, the trapping bag solution consists of a domain wall supplemented by a non-topological defect. In both classes of solutions, for large absolute values of the bulk coordinate (i.e. far from the core of the defects), the geometry is given by five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space.

  3. Selective spatial damping of propagating kink waves due to resonant absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Goossens, M.; Verth, G.

    2010-12-01

    Context. There is observational evidence of propagating kink waves driven by photospheric motions. These disturbances, interpreted as kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are attenuated as they propagate upwards in the solar corona. Aims: We show that resonant absorption provides a simple explanation to the spatial damping of these waves. Methods: Kink MHD waves are studied using a cylindrical model of solar magnetic flux tubes, which includes a non-uniform layer at the tube boundary. Assuming that the frequency is real and the longitudinal wavenumber complex, the damping length and damping per wavelength produced by resonant absorption are analytically calculated in the thin tube (TT) approximation, valid for coronal waves. This assumption is relaxed in the case of chromospheric tube waves and filament thread waves. Results: The damping length of propagating kink waves due to resonant absorption is a monotonically decreasing function of frequency. For kink waves with low frequencies, the damping length is exactly inversely proportional to frequency, and we denote this as the TGV relation. When moving to high frequencies, the TGV relation continues to be an exceptionally good approximation of the actual dependency of the damping length on frequency. This dependency means that resonant absorption is selective as it favours low-frequency waves and can efficiently remove high-frequency waves from a broad band spectrum of kink waves. The efficiency of the damping due to resonant absorption depends on the properties of the equilibrium model, in particular on the width of the non-uniform layer and the steepness of the variation in the local Alfvén speed. Conclusions: Resonant absorption is an effective mechanism for the spatial damping of propagating kink waves. It is selective because the damping length is inversely proportional to frequency so that the damping becomes more severe with increasing frequency. This means that radial inhomogeneity can cause solar

  4. The formation energy for steps and kinks on cubic transition metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Kollàr, Janos

    1999-01-01

    We have used our first-principles database of surface energies for metals in conjunction with the concept of vicinal surfaces to derive the energies of formation of monoatomic steps and corresponding kinks on close-packed surface facets of bcc and fee transition metals. The entries in the database...... allow for a direct calculation of the energies of a number of important steps. For the remaining steps and for all the kinks the energies of formation have been estimated from pair potential expansions of the entries in the database. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Classification of kink type solutions to the extended derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyller, J.; Fla, T.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Raman Extended Derivative Non Linear Schrodinger (R-EDNLS) equation which models single mode propagation in optical fibers, is shown to possess travelling and stationary kink envelope solutions of monotonic and oscillatory type. These structures have been called optical shocks in analogy...... with hydrodynamical shocks or optical double layers in analogy with electrostatic double layers in plasma physics. Hydrodynamical equations for the action density and local wave number are derived and shock wave solutions of the Rankine-Hugionot type are constructed. They are consistent with the kink structures when...

  6. Symptomatic spinal cord kinking due to focal adhesive arachnoiditis, with ossification of the ligamentum flavum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masashi; Yoshiiwa, Toyomi; Ishihara, Toshinobu; Kaku, Nobuhiro; Kawano, Masanori; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-15

    A case report. To describe a rare case of symptomatic spinal cord kinking due to focal adhesive arachnoiditis, with ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF). Spinal cord kinking without spinal surgery is rare, and symptomatic spinal cord kinking due to focal adhesive arachnoiditis, with OLF is even rarer. A 66-year-old female presented with numbness of the lower extremities and subsequently experienced gait disturbance due to motor weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed anterior displacement and kinking of the spinal cord from T11 to T12. Laminectomy and OLF resection were performed. The arachnoid membrane at the affected part was markedly thick and seemed cloudy. Adhesiolysis for arachnoid adhesion and release of spinal kinking were performed. She could walk with a cane 6 months postoperatively. One year postoperatively, thoracic computed tomography-myelography showed that the cord was repositioned in the dural sac, and that release of the spinal cord kink was maintained. Symptomatic spinal cord kinking due to focal adhesive arachnoiditis, with OLF is a rare clinical condition. It was difficult to diagnose the precise pathology of the spinal cord before surgery. Microsurgical arachnoidolysis resolved the spinal cord kinking, and no recurrence was noted within the follow-up period. N/A.

  7. Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; INFN, Firenze (Italy); Weiler, Andreas [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3){sub U} x SU(3){sub D} which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)

  8. Temperature dependence of first lattice corrections to the free-energy of kink compacton-bearing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yemele, David [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Dschang, BP 067 Dschang (Cameroon); Kofane, Timoleon C [Laboratoire de Mecanique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, BP 812 Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2005-03-16

    The free-energy of discrete nonlinear Klein-Gordon (NKG) systems with anharmonic interparticle interactions is derived by means of the transfer integral operator method, with the first lattice corrections and kink-kink interactions taken into account. Two particular substrate potentials are considered: the {phi}-four and the sine-Gordon (sG). We show that, in the general case where the system exhibits the kink soliton like excitations, the correction factors, due to the lattice discreteness, appearing in the free-energy and in the lattice corrected static kink soliton energy, depend on the temperature through a coupling of the interparticle anharmonicity strength to the temperature. Similarly, in the purely anharmonic NKG systems, characterized by the absence of the linear dispersion, where thermodynamic properties are sensitive to kink compactons, we find also that the correction factors are temperature dependent. In both cases, they decrease with increasing temperatures, although the correction factors verify different temperature laws.

  9. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine.

  10. Flavor evaluation of yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau and isolation of microorganisms contributing flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SongQing; Wei, HaiLiu; Guo, ShaSha; Li, Lin; Hou, Yi

    2011-02-01

    Yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau possesses the characters of high energy, abundant alimentation and a special flavor with certain medical and health care functions. In this paper the organoleptic flavor of yak butter was estimated, and 28 kinds of substance with different flavors were identified with the technique of coupling gas chromatography to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that there are many microorganisms in yak butter with natural inoculation, which contribute to the formation of its special flavors. It was found that three of these 15 microorganisms, identified as Saccharomycetaceae, Penicillium and Asperillus separately, contributed the most to flavors. The microorganisms are expected to be applied in the food industry, especially to produce dairy food with the unique flavor of yak butter. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Internal oscillation frequencies and anharmonic effects for the double sine-Gordon kink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1989-01-01

    A simple derivation of the small oscillation frequency around 4π-kink solutions of the double sine-Gordon equation is presented. Small corrections to these frequencies due to anharmonic effects are also numerically and analytically investigated. The analysis is based on energetic considerations...

  12. Kink degeneracy and rogue potential solution for the (3+1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... ... equation; homoclinic breather limit method; rational breather solution; kink degeneracy; rogue potential solution. PACS Nos 02.30.Jr; 04.20.Jb; 05.45.Yv. 1. Introduction. In recent years, solitary wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations have begun playing important roles in nonlinear science fields, ...

  13. Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G. Q., E-mail: ligq@ipp.ac.cn; Xia, T. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); FSC, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-10-15

    This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density.

  14. Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Xia, T. Y.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.

    2014-10-01

    This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density.

  15. Discrete kink dynamics in hydrogen-bonded chains: The one-component model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpan, V. M.; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2002-01-01

    We study topological solitary waves (kinks and antikinks) in a nonlinear one-dimensional Klein-Gordon chain with the on-site potential of a double-Morse type. This chain is used to describe the collective proton dynamics in quasi-one-dimensional networks of hydrogen bonds, where the on-site poten...

  16. Kink propagation and trapping in a two-dimensional curved Josephson junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorria, Carlos; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2004-01-01

    Sine-Gordon kink propagation in a curved planar waveguide is considered. The waveguide consists of two rectangular regions joined by a bent section of constant curvature. Transverse homogeneous and inhomogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are used. The latter models an energy-providing mechanism...

  17. Successive phase transitions and kink solutions in ϕ(8), ϕ(10), and ϕ(12) field theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Avinash; Christov, Ivan C; Saxena, Avadh

    2014-08-01

    We obtain exact solutions for kinks in ϕ(8), ϕ(10), and ϕ(12) field theories with degenerate minima, which can describe a second-order phase transition followed by a first-order one, a succession of two first-order phase transitions and a second-order phase transition followed by two first-order phase transitions, respectively. Such phase transitions are known to occur in ferroelastic and ferroelectric crystals and in meson physics. In particular, we find that the higher-order field theories have kink solutions with algebraically decaying tails and also asymmetric cases with mixed exponential-algebraic tail decay, unlike the lower-order ϕ(4) and ϕ(6) theories. Additionally, we construct distinct kinks with equal energies in all three field theories considered, and we show the coexistence of up to three distinct kinks (for a ϕ(12) potential with six degenerate minima). We also summarize phonon dispersion relations for these systems, showing that the higher-order field theories have specific cases in which only nonlinear phonons are allowed. For the ϕ(10) field theory, which is a quasiexactly solvable model akin to ϕ(6), we are also able to obtain three analytical solutions for the classical free energy as well as the probability distribution function in the thermodynamic limit.

  18. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs: Exploiting a Regression Kink Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars; Skipper, Niels

    This paper investigates price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs using drug purchase records for at 20% random sample of the Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting exogenous variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression ...

  19. Kink structures induced in nickel-based single crystal superalloys by high-Z element migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Jianxin [Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Mao, Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Jiang, Ying [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Feng, Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Zhenju; Li, Jixue; Zhang, Ze [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Han, Xiaodong [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Innovative kink structures generate at the γ/γ′ interfaces in the crept superalloy. • Clusters of heavy elements congregate at the apex of the kinks. • Dislocation core absorbs hexagonal structural high-Z elements. - Abstract: Here, we investigate a new type of kink structure that is found at γ/γ′ interfaces in nickel-based single crystal superalloys. We studied these structures at the atomic and elemental level using aberration corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The core of the dislocation absorbs high-Z elements (i.e., Co and Re) that adopt hexagonal arrangements, and it extrudes elements (i.e., Ni and Al) that adopt face centered cubic (fcc) structures. High-Z elements (i.e., Ta and W) and Cr, which is a low-Z element, are stabilized in body centered cubic (bcc) arrangements; Cr tends to behave like Re. High-Z elements, which migrate and adopt a hexagonal structure, induce kink formation at γ/γ′ interfaces. This process must be analyzed to fully understand the kinetics and dynamics of creep in nickel-based single crystal superalloys.

  20. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC KINK WAVES IN NONUNIFORM SOLAR FLUX TUBES: PHASE MIXING AND ENERGY CASCADE TO SMALL SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume, E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2015-04-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. The propagation and damping of these waves may play relevant roles in the transport and dissipation of energy in the solar atmospheric medium. However, in the atmospheric plasma dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy by viscosity or resistivity needs very small spatial scales to be efficient. Here, we theoretically investigate the generation of small scales in nonuniform solar magnetic flux tubes due to phase mixing of MHD kink waves. We go beyond the usual approach based on the existence of a global quasi-mode that is damped in time due to resonant absorption. Instead, we use a modal expansion to express the MHD kink wave as a superposition of Alfvén continuum modes that are phase mixed as time evolves. The comparison of the two techniques evidences that the modal analysis is more physically transparent and describes both the damping of global kink motions and the building up of small scales due to phase mixing. In addition, we discuss that the processes of resonant absorption and phase mixing are closely linked. They represent two aspects of the same underlying physical mechanism: the energy cascade from large scales to small scales due to naturally occurring plasma and/or magnetic field inhomogeneities. This process may provide the necessary scenario for efficient dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy in the solar atmospheric plasma.

  1. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Malarkey, C. S. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Saperas, N. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Churchill, M. E. A., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Campos, J. L., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA.

  2. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a...

  3. Theoretically Palatable Flavor Combinations of Astrophysical Neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Beacom, John F; Winter, Walter

    2015-10-16

    The flavor composition of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos can reveal the physics governing their production, propagation, and interaction. The IceCube Collaboration has published the first experimental determination of the ratio of the flux in each flavor to the total. We present, as a theoretical counterpart, new results for the allowed ranges of flavor ratios at Earth for arbitrary flavor ratios in the sources. Our results will allow IceCube to more quickly identify when their data imply standard physics, a general class of new physics with arbitrary (incoherent) combinations of mass eigenstates, or new physics that goes beyond that, e.g., with terms that dominate the Hamiltonian at high energy.

  4. Lectures on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamín

    2016-12-20

    These lectures on flavor physics are an introduction to the subject. First lec- ture: We discuss the meaning of flavor and the importance of flavor physics in restricting extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of Electroweak interactions. We explain the origin of the KM matrix and how its elements are determined. We discuss FCNC and the GIM mechanism, followed by how a principle of Minimal Flavor Violation leads to SM extensions that are safe as far as FCNC are concerned even if the new physics comes in at low, TeVish scales. This is illustrated by the example of B radiative decays ( b → sγ ). Second lecture: We then turn our attention to CP-violation. We start by presenting neutral meson mixing. Then we consider various CP-asymmetries, culminating in the theoretically clean interference between mixing and decay into CP eigenstates.

  5. Progress in Flavor Physics (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    We present a pedagogical introduction to quark flavor physics, within and beyond the Standard Model. Particular attention is devoted to the phenomenology of B and D decays, in view of recent and possible future results at the LHC experiments.

  6. Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Castañeda, R.; Gómez-Bock, M.; Mondragón, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.

  7. Lepton flavor violation at the CERN LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Recent results from Super Kamiokande suggest nu /sub mu /- nu /sub tau / mixing and hence lepton flavor violation. In supersymmetric models, this flavor violation may have implications for the pattern of slepton masses and mixings. Possible signals for this mixing in the decays of sleptons produced at the CERN LHC are discussed. The sensitivity expected is compared to that of rare decays such as tau to mu gamma. (22 refs).

  8. Lepton Flavor Violation Induced by Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Arcadi, Giorgio; Ferreira, C. P.; Goertz, Florian; Guzzo, M. M.; Farinaldo S. Queiroz; Santos, A. C. O.

    2017-01-01

    Guided by gauge principles we discuss a predictive and falsifiable UV complete model where the Dirac fermion that accounts for the cold dark matter abundance in our universe induces the lepton flavor violation (LFV) decays $\\mu \\rightarrow e\\gamma$ and $\\mu \\rightarrow e e e$ as well as $\\mu-e$ conversion. We explore the interplay between direct dark matter detection, relic density, collider probes and lepton flavor violation to conclusively show that one may have a viable dark matter candida...

  9. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, H.

    2007-12-15

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid {sup 3}He), the A and A{sup *} phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A{sup *} phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A{sup *} phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  10. The transverse and rotational motions of magnetohydrodynamic kink waves in the solar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, bus 2400, B-3001 Herverlee (Belgium); Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Verth, G., E-mail: marcel.goossens@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves have now been observed to be ubiquitous throughout the solar atmosphere. With modern instruments, they have now been detected in the chromosphere, interface region, and corona. The key purpose of this paper is to show that kink waves do not only involve purely transverse motions of solar magnetic flux tubes, but the velocity field is a spatially and temporally varying sum of both transverse and rotational motion. Taking this fact into account is particularly important for the accurate interpretation of varying Doppler velocity profiles across oscillating structures such as spicules. It has now been shown that, as well as bulk transverse motions, spicules have omnipresent rotational motions. Here we emphasize that caution should be used before interpreting the particular MHD wave mode/s responsible for these rotational motions. The rotational motions are not necessarily signatures of the classic axisymmetric torsional Alfvén wave alone, because kink motion itself can also contribute substantially to varying Doppler velocity profiles observed across these structures. In this paper, the displacement field of the kink wave is demonstrated to be a sum of its transverse and rotational components, both for a flux tube with a discontinuous density profile at its boundary, and one with a more realistic density continuum between the internal and external plasma. Furthermore, the Doppler velocity profile of the kink wave is forward modeled to demonstrate that, depending on the line of sight, it can either be quite distinct or very similar to that expected from a torsional Alfvén wave.

  11. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On a family of (1+1)-dimensional scalar field theory models: Kinks, stability, one-loop mass shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A., E-mail: alonsoiz@usal.es [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Mateos Guilarte, J. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    In this paper we construct a one-parametric family of (1+1)-dimensional one-component scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Inspired by the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models, we look at all possible extensions such that the kink second-order fluctuation operators are Schroedinger differential operators with Poeschl-Teller potential wells. In this situation, the associated spectral problem is solvable and therefore we shall succeed in analyzing the kink stability completely and in computing the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass exactly. When the parameter is a natural number, the family becomes the hierarchy for which the potential wells are reflectionless, the two first levels of the hierarchy being the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct a family of scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second-order kink fluctuation operators involve Poeschl-Teller potential wells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compute the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass with different methods.

  13. Verification of gyrokinetic particle simulation of current-driven instability in fusion plasmas. I. Internal kink mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClenaghan, J.; Lin, Z.; Holod, I.; Deng, W.; Wang, Z. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) capability has been extended for simulating internal kink instability with kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. The global simulation domain covers the magnetic axis, which is necessary for simulating current-driven instabilities. GTC simulation in the fluid limit of the kink modes in cylindrical geometry is verified by benchmarking with a magnetohydrodynamic eigenvalue code. Gyrokinetic simulations of the kink modes in the toroidal geometry find that ion kinetic effects significantly reduce the growth rate even when the banana orbit width is much smaller than the radial width of the perturbed current layer at the mode rational surface.

  14. Flavor Alignment via Shining in RS

    CERN Document Server

    Csáki, Csaba; Surujon, Ze'ev; Weiler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We present a class of warped extra dimensional models whose flavor violating interactions are much suppressed compared to the usual anarchic case due to flavor alignment. Such suppression can be achieved in models where part of the global flavor symmetry is gauged in the bulk and broken in a controlled manner. We show that the bulk masses can be aligned with the down type Yukawa couplings by an appropriate choice of bulk flavon field representations and TeV brane dynamics. This alignment could reduce the flavor violating effects to levels which allow for a Kaluza-Klein scale as low as 2-3 TeV, making the model observable at the LHC. However, the up-type Yukawa couplings on the IR brane, which are bounded from below by recent bounds on CP violation in the D system, induce flavor misalignment radiatively. Off-diagonal down-type Yukawa couplings and kinetic mixings for the down quarks are both consequences of this effect. These radiative Yukawa corrections can be reduced by raising the flavon VEV on the IR brane...

  15. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  16. Sub- and superluminal kink-like waves in the kinetic limit of Maxwell-Bloch equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janowicz, Maciej [Instytut Fizyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Holthaus, Martin, E-mail: mjanow@ifpan.edu.pl [Institut fuer Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-01-14

    Running-wave solutions to three systems of partial differential equations describing wave propagation in atomic media in the kinetic limit have been obtained. Those systems include approximations to (i) standard two-level Maxwell-Bloch equations; (ii) equations describing processes with saturated absorption in three-level systems and (iii) equations describing processes with reversed saturation in four-level systems. It has been shown that in all three cases kink-like solitary waves can emerge if the dynamical equation for the intensity includes a linear contribution to the Lambert-Beer law. Those solitary waves can propagate with either sub- or superluminal velocity of the edge of the kink, and in a direction which can be either the same as or opposite to that of the carrier wave. In addition, simple qualitative information about the behaviour of waves near the wavefronts has been obtained.

  17. Nonlinear evolution of the internal kink mode in toroidal geometry for shaped tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Hastie, R.J.; Hender, T.C.

    1987-09-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the internal kink mode is studied in toroidal geometry for noncircular cross section tokamak plasmas. The study is focused on very low shear and hollow q profiles with q(rho) greater than or equal to 1 for which the internal kink is unstable, in the latter case even at ..beta.. - 0. The nonlinear evolution is dominated by ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and the instability saturates, giving a quasi-helical shift to the magnetic axis. The nonlinear saturation is caused by increased field line bending. Time scales of 10/sup 3/ tau/sub Hp/ and axis shifts of 20% are reached when changes in q on the order of 3 x 10/sup -3/ from the marginal profile are produced. 25 refs., 27 figs.

  18. Kink propagation and trapping in a two dimensional curved sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter

    The sine-Gordon equation is one of the three classical nonlinear partial differential equations possessing soliton solutions in the case of one spatial dimension. Extending the sine-Gordon equation to two spatial dimensions is relevant for applications to the dynamics of large area Josephson...... junctions. In particular we have investigated Josephson waveguides consisting of two rectangular large area regions joined by a bent section of constant curvature. Transverse homogeneous and inhomogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are used. Numerical and approximate analytical tools have been used...... to investigate how kink shaped solitons of the sine-Gordon equation propagate through the bent section. We have found that the region with finite curvature acts as a potential barrier whose height and width depends on the radius of curvature of the waveguide. The kink transmission, reflection and trapping...

  19. Kink ratchet induced by a time-dependent symmetric field potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús; Quintero, Niurka R

    2016-07-01

    The ratchet effect of a sine-Gordon kink is investigated in the absence of any external force while the symmetry of the field potential at every time instant is maintained. The directed motion appears by a time shift of the sine-Gordon potential through a time-dependent additional phase. A symmetry analysis provides the necessary conditions for the existence of net motion. It is also shown analytically, by using a collective coordinate theory, that the novel physical mechanism responsible for the appearance of the ratchet effect is the coupled dynamics of the kink width with the background field. Biharmonic and dichotomic periodic variations of the additional phase of the sine-Gordon potential are considered. The predictions established by the symmetry analysis and the collective coordinate theory are verified by means of numerical simulations. Inversion and maximization of the resulting current as a function of the system parameters are investigated.

  20. A Model of Polarisation Rotations in Blazars from Kink Instabilities in Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nalewajko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple model of polarisation rotation in optically thin relativistic jets of blazars. The model is based on the development of helical (kink mode of current-driven instability. A possible explanation is suggested for the observational connection between polarisation rotations and optical/gamma-ray flares in blazars, if the current-driven modes are triggered by secular increases of the total jet power. The importance of intrinsic depolarisation in limiting the amplitude of coherent polarisation rotations is demonstrated. The polarisation rotation amplitude is thus very sensitive to the viewing angle, which appears to be inconsistent with the observational estimates of viewing angles in blazars showing polarisation rotations. Overall, there are serious obstacles to explaining large-amplitude polarisation rotations in blazars in terms of current-driven kink modes.

  1. Experimental identification of the kink instability as a poloidal flux amplification mechanism for coaxial gun spheromak formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S C; Bellan, P M

    2003-05-30

    The magnetohydrodynamic kink instability is observed and identified experimentally as a poloidal flux amplification mechanism for coaxial gun spheromak formation. Plasmas in this experiment fall into three distinct regimes which depend on the peak gun current to magnetic flux ratio, with (I) low values resulting in a straight plasma column with helical magnetic field, (II) intermediate values leading to kinking of the column axis, and (III) high values leading immediately to a detached plasma. Onset of column kinking agrees quantitatively with the Kruskal-Shafranov limit, and the kink acts as a dynamo which converts toroidal to poloidal flux. Regime II clearly leads to both poloidal flux amplification and the development of a spheromak configuration.

  2. Trends in CO Oxidation Rates for Metal Nanoparticles and Close-Packed, Stepped, and Kinked Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Tao; Mowbray, Duncan; Dobrin, Sergey

    2009-01-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we study trends in the CO oxidation activity for different metals and surfaces. Specifically, we show how the activity of (111) close-packed surfaces, (211) stepped surfaces, (532) kinked surfaces, 55 atom cuboctahedral clusters, and 12 atom cluster...... models changes with the coordination number of atoms at the active sites. This effect is shown to be electronic in nature, as low coordinated metal atoms, which bind reactants most strongly, have the highest energy metal d states....

  3. The Emergence of Kinked Flux Tubes as the Source of Delta-Spots on the Photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knizhnik, Kalman; Linton, Mark; Norton, Aimee Ann

    2017-08-01

    It has been observationally well established that the magnetic configurations most favorable to producing energetic flaring events reside in so called delta-spots. These delta-spots are a subclass of sunspots, and are classified as sunspots which have umbrae (dark regions in the interior of sunspots) with opposite magnetic polarities that share a common penumbra. They are characterized by strong rotation and an extremely compact magnetic configuration, and are observed to follow an inverse-Hale law. It has been shown that over 90% of X-class flares that occurred during solar cycles 22 and 23 originated in delta-spots (Guo, Lin & Deng, 2014). Understanding the origin of delta-spots, therefore, is a crucial step towards the ultimate goal of space weather forecasting. In this work, we argue that delta-spots arise during the emergence of kinked flux tubes into the corona, and that their unique properties are due to the emergence of knots present in the kink mode of twisted flux tubes. We present numerical simulations that study the emergence of both kink-stable and unstable flux tubes into the solar corona, and demonstrate quantitatively that their photospheric signatures are dramatically different, with the latter flux tubes demonstrating strong coherent rotation and a very tight flux distribution on the photosphere. We show that the coronal magnetic field resulting from the emergence of a kinked flux tube contains significantly more free energy than the unkinked case, potentially leading to more energetic flares. We discuss the implications of our simulations for observations.

  4. Emerging Translational Variance: Vacuum Polarization Energy of the ϕ6 Kink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weigel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient method to compute the vacuum polarization energy of static field configurations that do not allow decomposition into symmetric and antisymmetric channels in one space dimension. In particular, we compute the vacuum polarization energy of the kink soliton in the ϕ6 model. We link the dependence of this energy on the position of the center of the soliton to the different masses of the quantum fluctuations at negative and positive spatial infinity.

  5. Lepton Flavor Violation beyond the MSSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most extensions of the Standard Model lepton sector predict large lepton flavor violating rates. Given the promising experimental perspectives for lepton flavor violation in the next few years, this generic expectation might offer a powerful indirect probe to look for new physics. In this review we will cover several aspects of lepton flavor violation in supersymmetric models beyond the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. In particular, we will concentrate on three different scenarios: high-scale and low-scale seesaw models as well as models with R-parity violation. We will see that in some cases the LFV phenomenology can have characteristic features for specific scenarios, implying that dedicated studies must be performed in order to correctly understand the phenomenology in nonminimal supersymmetric models.

  6. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faedo, Antón F. [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica & Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mateos, David [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica & Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA),Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica & Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Tarrío, Javier [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles andInternational Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-04

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to N{sub f} quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of N{sub f} flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of N{sub c} color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  7. Experimental Identification of the Kink Instability as a Poloidal Flux Amplification Mechanism for Coaxial Gun Spheromak Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic kink instability is observed and identified experimentally as a poloidal flux amplification mechanism for coaxial gun spheromak formation. Plasmas in this experiment fall into three distinct regimes which depend on the peak gun current to magnetic flux ratio, with (I) low values resulting in a straight plasma column with helical magnetic field, (II) intermediate values leading to kinking of the column axis, and (III) high values leading immediately to a detached plasma...

  8. π-kink propagation in the damped Frenkel-Kontorova model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Bittner, K.; Clerc, M. G.; García-Ñustes, M. A.; Rojas, R. G.

    2017-08-01

    Coupled dissipative nonlinear oscillators exhibit complex spatiotemporal dynamics. Frenkel-Kontorova is a prototype model of coupled nonlinear oscillators, which exhibits coexistence between stable and unstable state. This model accounts for several physical systems such as the movement of atoms in condensed matter and magnetic chains, dynamics of coupled pendulums, and phase dynamics between superconductors. Here, we investigate kinks propagation into an unstable state in the Frenkel-Kontorova model with dissipation. We show that unlike point-like particles π-kinks spread in a pulsating manner. Using numerical simulations, we have characterized the shape of the π-kink oscillation. Different parts of the front propagate with the same mean speed, oscillating with the same frequency but different amplitude. The asymptotic behavior of this propagation allows us to determine the minimum mean speed of fronts analytically as a function of the coupling constant. A generalization of the Peierls-Nabarro potential is introduced to obtain an effective continuous description of the system. Numerical simulations show quite fair agreement between the Frenkel-Kontorova model and the proposed continuous description.

  9. Size-Induced Switching of Nanowire Growth Direction: a New Approach Toward Kinked Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde

    2016-04-26

    Exploring self-assembled nanostructures with controllable architectures has been a central theme in nanoscience and nanotechnology because of the tantalizing perspective of directly integrating such bottom-up nanostructures into functional devices. Here, the growth of kinked single-crystal In2O3 nanostructures consisting of a nanocone base and a nanowire tip with an epitaxial and defect-free transition is demonstrated for the first time. By tailoring the growth conditions, a reliable switching of the growth direction from [111] to [110] or [112] is observed when the Au catalyst nanoparticles at the apexes of the nanocones shrink below ≈100 nm. The natural formation of kinked nanoarchitectures at constant growth pressures is related to the size-dependent free energy that changes for different orientations of the nanowires. The results suggest that the mechanism of forming such kinked nanocone-nanowire nanostructures in well-controlled growth environment may be universal for a wide range of functional materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Detection of the Second Harmonic of Decay-less Kink Oscillations in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckenfield, T.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Pascoe, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2018-02-01

    EUV observations of a multi-thermal coronal loop, taken by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the Solar Dynamics Observatory, which exhibits decay-less kink oscillations are presented. The data cube of the quiet-Sun coronal loop was passed through a motion magnification algorithm to accentuate transverse oscillations. Time–distance maps are made from multiple slits evenly spaced along the loop axis and oriented orthogonal to the loop axis. Displacements of the intensity peak are tracked to generate time series of the loop displacement. Fourier analysis on the time series shows the presence of two periods within the loop: {P}1={10.3}-1.7+1.5 minutes and {P}2={7.4}-1.3+1.1 minutes. The longer period component is greatest in amplitude at the apex and remains in phase throughout the loop length. The shorter period component is strongest further down from the apex on both legs and displays an anti-phase behavior between the two loop legs. We interpret these results as the coexistence of the fundamental and second harmonics of the standing kink mode within the loop in the decay-less oscillation regime. An illustration of seismological application using the ratio P 1/2P 2 ∼ 0.7 to estimate the density scale height is presented. The existence of multiple harmonics has implications for understanding the driving and damping mechanisms for decay-less oscillations and adds credence to their interpretation as standing kink mode oscillations.

  11. On the Flavor Structure of Natural Composite Higgs Models & Top Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Azatov, Aleksandr; Perez, Gilad; Soreq, Yotam

    2014-01-01

    We explore the up flavor structure of composite pseudo Nambu-Goldstone-boson Higgs models, where we focus on the flavor anarchic minimal $SO(5)$ case. We identify the different sources of flavor violation in this framework and emphasise the differences from the anarchic Randall-Sundrum scenario. In particular, the fact that the flavor symmetry does not commute with the symmetries that stabilize the Higgs potential may constrain the flavor structure of the theory. In addition, we consider the interplay between the fine tuning of the model and flavor violation. We find that generically the tuning of this class of models is worsen in the anarchic case due to the contributions from the additional fermion resonances. We show that, even in the presence of custodial symmetry, large top flavor violating rate are naturally expected. In particular, $t\\to cZ$ branching ratio of order of $10^{-5}$ is generic for this class of models. Thus, this framework can be tested in the next run of the LHC as well as in other future...

  12. The distribution of fat in dried dairy particles determines flavor release and flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C W; Drake, M A

    2014-04-01

    Dried dairy ingredients are utilized in various food and beverage applications for their nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. Dried dairy ingredients include milk powders of varying fat content and heat treatment and buttermilk powder, along with both milk and whey proteins of varying protein contents. The flavor of these ingredients is the most important characteristic that determines consumer acceptance of the ingredient applications. Lipid oxidation is the main mechanism for off-flavor development in dried dairy ingredients. The effects of various unit operations on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients have been investigated. Recent research documented that increased surface free fat in spray dried WPC80 was associated with increased lipid oxidation and off-flavors. Surface free fat in spray-dried products is fat on the surface of the powder that is not emulsified. The most common emulsifiers present in dried dairy ingredients are proteins and phospholipids. Currently, only an association between surface free fat and lipid oxidation has been presented. The link between surface free fat in dried dairy ingredients and flavor and flavor stability has not been investigated. In this review, some hypotheses for the role of surface free fat on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients are presented along with proposed mechanisms. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  14. Quark Model Contributions to Parton Flavor Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, C. J.; Olivares, V.; Londergan, J. T.

    2003-04-01

    Simple Quark model calculations of the nucleon sea yield an excess of baru over bard anti-quarks, exactly opposite to what is observed. By calculating the effects of flavor-dependent corrections to the energies of the lowest lying four 4Q-barQ states in the sea, we investigate the extent to which the sign of the flavor asymmetry can be reversed in these models without the explicit introduction of mesonic degrees of freedom. Sea quark polarizations and charge asymmetries are also calculated.

  15. Systematic model building with flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plentinger, Florian

    2009-12-19

    The observation of neutrino masses and lepton mixing has highlighted the incompleteness of the Standard Model of particle physics. In conjunction with this discovery, new questions arise: why are the neutrino masses so small, which form has their mass hierarchy, why is the mixing in the quark and lepton sectors so different or what is the structure of the Higgs sector. In order to address these issues and to predict future experimental results, different approaches are considered. One particularly interesting possibility, are Grand Unified Theories such as SU(5) or SO(10). GUTs are vertical symmetries since they unify the SM particles into multiplets and usually predict new particles which can naturally explain the smallness of the neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. On the other hand, also horizontal symmetries, i.e., flavor symmetries, acting on the generation space of the SM particles, are promising. They can serve as an explanation for the quark and lepton mass hierarchies as well as for the different mixings in the quark and lepton sectors. In addition, flavor symmetries are significantly involved in the Higgs sector and predict certain forms of mass matrices. This high predictivity makes GUTs and flavor symmetries interesting for both, theorists and experimentalists. These extensions of the SM can be also combined with theories such as supersymmetry or extra dimensions. In addition, they usually have implications on the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe or can provide a dark matter candidate. In general, they also predict the lepton flavor violating rare decays {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} which are strongly bounded by experiments but might be observed in the future. In this thesis, we combine all of these approaches, i.e., GUTs, the seesaw mechanism and flavor symmetries. Moreover, our request is to develop and perform a systematic model building approach with flavor symmetries and

  16. Prospects of searches for Lepton Flavor Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, Douglas

    1997-10-01

    Although only null results have been reported so far, extraordinary experimental progress continues to be made in searches for lepton flavor violation involving a wide variety of processes like μ→ e γ, nuclear capture μ → e conversion, K^+arrowπ^+μ^+e^- and K^0_Larrowμ e. Furthermore, there are promising prospects for additional gains in sensitivity of many orders of magnitude. Why do these efforts continue unabated after 50 years of apparent failure? How is it possible to make large advances in this ``mature'' experimental field? These and other issues related to experiments searching for lepton flavor violation will be briefly reviewed.

  17. PHENIX Results on Heavy Flavor Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Richard S.; PHENIX Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured a suite of observables for open and closed heavy flavor in a variety of collision systems, p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, Au+Au, U+U, and at different beam energies. These results indicate substantial modification in the yields of quarkonia, including J / ψ, ψ‧, and ϒ states, and a substantial redistribution in momentum space of open heavy flavor quarks. We discuss the latest results and comparisons to theoretical interpretations.

  18. Gapless Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    In neutral cold quark matter that is sufficiently dense that the strange quark mass M_s is unimportant, all nine quarks (three colors; three flavors) pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all fermionic quasiparticles have a gap. We argue that as a function of decreasing quark chemical...... a linear combination Qtilde of electric and color charges, but it is a Qtilde-conductor with a nonzero electron density. These electrons and the gapless quark quasiparticles make the low energy effective theory of the gapless CFL phase and, consequently, its astrophysical properties are qualitatively...

  19. Short communication: Flavor and flavor stability of cheese, rennet, and acid wheys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2016-05-01

    Dried whey ingredients are valuable food ingredients but potential whey sources are underutilized. Previous work has established flavor and flavor stability differences in Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys, but little work has compared these whey sources to acid or rennet wheys. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare flavor and flavor stability among cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. Full-fat and fat-free Cheddar, rennet and acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt fluid wheys were manufactured in triplicate. Wheys were fat separated and pasteurized followed by compositional analyses and storage at 4°C for 48 h. Volatile compound analysis and descriptive sensory analysis were evaluated on all liquid wheys initially and after 24 and 48 h. Greek yogurt whey contained almost no true protein nitrogen (0.02% wt/vol) whereas other wheys contained 0.58%±0.4% (wt/vol) true protein nitrogen. Solids and fat content were not different between wheys, with the exception of Greek yogurt whey, which was also lower in solids content than the other wheys (5.6 vs. 6.5% wt/vol, respectively). Fresh wheys displayed sweet aromatic and cooked milk flavors. Cheddar wheys were distinguished by diacetyl/buttery flavors, and acid wheys (acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt) by sour aromatic flavor. Acid casein whey had a distinct soapy flavor, and acid and Greek yogurt wheys had distinct potato flavor. Both cultured acid wheys contained acetaldehyde flavor. Cardboard flavor increased and sweet aromatic and buttery flavors decreased with storage in all wheys. Volatile compound profiles were also distinct among wheys and changed with storage, consistent with sensory results. Lipid oxidation aldehydes increased in all wheys with storage time. Fat-free Cheddar was more stable than full-fat Cheddar over 48h of storage. Uncultured rennet casein whey was the most stable whey, as exhibited by the lowest increase in lipid oxidation products over time. These results

  20. Electric dipole moments with and beyond flavor invariants

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Smith; Selim Touati

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the flavor structure of quark and lepton electric dipole moments in the SM and beyond is investigated using tools inspired from Minimal Flavor Violation. While Jarlskog-like flavor invariants are adequate for estimating CP-violation from closed fermion loops, non-invariant structures arise from rainbow-like processes. Our goal is to systematically construct these latter flavor structures in the quark and lepton sectors, assuming different mechanisms for generating neutrino mass...

  1. Electric dipole moments with and beyond flavor invariants

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Christopher; Touati, Selim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the flavor structure of quark and lepton electric dipole moments in the SM and beyond is investigated using tools inspired from Minimal Flavor Violation. While Jarlskog-like flavor invariants are adequate for estimating CP -violation from closed fermion loops, non-invariant structures arise from rainbow-like processes. Our goal is to systematically construct these latter flavor structures in the quark and lepton sectors, assuming different mechanisms for generating neutrino mas...

  2. On Real Intrinsic Wall Crossings

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    We study moduli space stabilization of a class of BPS configurations from the perspective of the real intrinsic Riemannian geometry. Our analysis exhibits a set of implications towards the stability of the D-term potentials, defined for a set of abelian scalar fields. In particular, we show that the nature of marginal and threshold walls of stabilities may be investigated by real geometric methods. Interestingly, we find that the leading order contributions may easily be accomplished by translations of the Fayet parameter. Specifically, we notice that the various possible linear, planar, hyper-planar and the entire moduli space stabilities may easily be reduced to certain polynomials in the Fayet parameter. For a set of finitely many real scalar fields, it may be further inferred that the intrinsic scalar curvature defines the global nature and range of vacuum correlations. Whereas, the underlying moduli space configuration corresponds to a non-interacting basis at the zeros of the scalar curvature, where the...

  3. Wall-crossing made smooth

    CERN Document Server

    Pioline, Boris

    2015-01-01

    In $D=4,N=2$ theories on $R^{3,1}$, the index receives contributions not only from single-particle BPS states, counted by the BPS indices, but also from multi-particle states made of BPS constituents. In a recent work [arXiv:1406.2360], a general formula expressing the index in terms of the BPS indices was proposed, which is smooth across walls of marginal stability and reproduces the expected single-particle contributions. In this note, I analyze the two-particle contributions predicted by this formula, and show agreement with the spectral asymmetry of the continuum of scattering states in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics of two non-relativistic, mutually non-local dyons. This provides a physical justification for the error function profile used in the mathematics literature on indefinite theta series, and in the physics literature on black hole partition functions.

  4. Flavor Physics and CP Violation at LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Schopper, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Flavor Physics at LHC will contribute significantly to the search for New Physics via precise and complementary measurements of CKM angles and the study of loop decays. Here we present the expected experimental sensitivity and physics performance of the LHC experiments that will to B-physics.

  5. Biocatalytic production of flavors and fragrances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M.C.R.; Alessandrini, L.; Terraneo, G.

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of flavors and fragrances has to be done with great care. When these compounds are meant for consumption, no toxic chemicals are allowed during their preparation. For use in non-food additives, a high purity is required. Both constraints can be easily fulfilled when enzymes are used

  6. SuperB, the super flavor factory

    OpenAIRE

    Hitlin, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy flavor physics measurements, in particular B and τ physics results from the B Factories, currently provide strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard Model. SuperB, a next generation asymmetric collider with 50 to 100 times the luminosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, provide unique insights into New Physics phenomena seen at those machines.

  7. Unified flavor symmetry from warped dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Frank

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a model of warped extra-dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk, we propose a scenario which explains all the masses and mixings of the SM fermions. In this scenario, the same flavor symmetric structure is imposed on all the fermions of the Standard Model (SM, including neutrinos. Due to the exponential sensitivity on bulk fermion masses, a small breaking of this symmetry can be greatly enhanced and produce seemingly un-symmetric hierarchical masses and small mixing angles among the charged fermion zero-modes (SM quarks and charged leptons, thus washing out visible effects of the symmetry. If the Dirac neutrinos are sufficiently localized towards the UV boundary, and the Higgs field leaking into the bulk, the neutrino mass hierarchy and flavor structure will still be largely dominated and reflect the fundamental flavor structure, whereas localization of the quark sector would reflect the effects of the flavor symmetry breaking sector. We explore these features in an example based on which a family permutation symmetry is imposed in both quark and lepton sectors.

  8. Flavor compounds of popped amaranth seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Amaranth caudatus seeds were popped and studied for optimal popping conditions and flavor compounds. The optimum popping temperature for the seeds was 180C. At this temperature, the expansion volume, flake size and unpopped kernel proportion were 9.4¿11.3 cm3/g, 0.010¿0.012 cm/g and 10¿2%,

  9. SuperB, the super flavor factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitlin, D. G.

    2009-06-01

    Heavy flavor physics measurements, in particular B and τ physics results from the B Factories, currently provide strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard Model. SuperB, a next generation asymmetric collider with 50 to 100 times the luminosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, provide unique insights into New Physics phenomena seen at those machines.

  10. Heavy flavored jet modification in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084335

    2015-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy-flavor-tagged jets (from charm and bottom quarks) in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In this talk, we present the heavy flavor jet spectra and measurements of the nuclear modification factors in both PbPb and pPb as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, using the high statistics pp, pPb and PbPb data taken in 2011 and 2013. Finally, we also will present a proposal for c-jet tagging methodology to be used for the upcoming hi...

  11. Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Soon Yung; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2005-01-01

    Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF are reviewed. Selected results of top, beauty, charm physics and exotic states in about 200 pb{sup -1} data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented.

  12. Constraints on three flavor neutrino mixing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 54; Issue 1. Constraints on three flavor neutrino ... We summarize the constraints on three flavor neutrino mixing coming from data. We first map out the allowed region in ... Mohan Narayan1. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India ...

  13. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  14. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  15. 21 CFR 172.230 - Microcapsules for flavoring substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Microcapsules for flavoring substances. 172.230... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.230 Microcapsules for flavoring substances. Microcapsules may be safely used for encapsulating discrete particles of flavoring substances...

  16. School Nutrition Directors' Perspectives on Flavored Milk in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Bethany A.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Berlin, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The offering of flavored milk in schools is a controversial topic. U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations now require that flavored milk in schools is fat-free. The perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes of 21 school nutrition directors (SNDs) about the offering and student acceptance of lower-calorie, flavored milk were explored using a focus…

  17. Experimental overview on heavy-flavor production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelli, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Hadrons containing heavy-flavors are unique probes of the properties of the hot and dense QCD medium produced in heavy-ion collisions. Due to their large masses, heavy quarks are produced at the initial stage of the collision, almost exclusively via hard partonic scattering processes. Therefore, they are expected to experience the full collision history propagating through and interacting with the QCD medium. The parton energy loss, which is sensitive to the transport coefficients of the produced medium, can be studied experimentally by measuring the nuclear modification factor which accounts for the modification of the heavy-flavored hadron yield in Pb-Pb collisions with respect to pp collisions. In semi-central Pb-Pb collisions, the degree of thermalization of charm quarks in the QCD medium can be accessed via the measurement of the heavy flavor elliptic flow v2 at low pT. Furthermore, the measurement of heavy-flavors production in pp collisions allows testing the perturbative QCD calculations. The PHENIX and STAR Collaborations at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider and ALICE, CMS and ATLAS Collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider have measured the production of charmonium and bottonium states as well as open heavy flavor hadrons via their hadronic and semi-leptonic decays at mid-rapidity and in the semi-muonic decay channel at forward rapidity in pp, p-A and A-A collisions in an energy domain that ranges from \\sqrt{s} = 0.2 TeV to \\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV in pp collisions and from \\sqrt{{s}{{NN}}} = 0.2 TeV to \\sqrt{{s}{{NN}}} = 5.02 TeV in A-A collisions. In this contribution the latest experimental results will be reviewed.

  18. Food emulsions as delivery systems for flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Biliaderis, Costas G; Miao, Song

    2017-10-13

    Food flavor is an important attribute of quality food, and it largely determines consumer food preference. Many food products exist as emulsions or experience emulsification during processing, and therefore, a good understanding of flavor release from emulsions is essential to design food with desirable flavor characteristics. Emulsions are biphasic systems, where flavor compounds are partitioning into different phases, and the releases can be modulated through different ways. Emulsion ingredients, such as oils, emulsifiers, thickening agents, can interact with flavor compounds, thus modifying the thermodynamic behavior of flavor compounds. Emulsion structures, including droplet size and size distribution, viscosity, interface thickness, etc., can influence flavor component partition and their diffusion in the emulsions, resulting in different release kinetics. When emulsions are consumed in the mouth, both emulsion ingredients and structures undergo significant changes, resulting in different flavor perception. Special design of emulsion structures in the water phase, oil phase, and interface provides emulsions with great potential as delivery systems to control flavor release in wider applications. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of flavor release from emulsions, and how emulsions can behave as delivery systems for flavor compounds to better design novel food products with enhanced sensorial and nutritional attributes.

  19. Flavor physics and right-handed models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafaq, Saba

    2010-08-20

    The Standard Model of particle physics only provides a parametrization of flavor which involves the values of the quark and lepton masses and unitary flavor mixing matrix i.e. CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Masakawa) matrix for quarks. The precise determination of elements of the CKM matrix is important for the study of the flavor sector of quarks. Here we concentrate on the matrix element vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke. In particular we consider the effects on the value of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from possible right-handed admixtures along with the usually left-handed weak currents. Left Right Symmetric Model provide a natural basis for right-handed current contributions and has been studied extensively in the literature but has never been discussed including flavor. In the first part of the present work an additional flavor symmetry is included in LRSM which allows a systematic study of flavor effects. The second part deals with the practical extraction of a possible right-handed contribution. Starting from the quark level transition b{yields}c we use heavy quark symmetries to relate the helicities of the quarks to experimentally accessible quantities. To this end we study the decays anti B{yields}D(D{sup *})l anti {nu} which have been extensively explored close to non recoil point. By taking into account SCET (Soft Collinear Effective Theory) formalism it has been extended to a maximum recoil point i.e. {upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '} >>1. We derive a factorization formula, where the set of form factors is reduced to a single universal form factor {xi}({upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '}) up to hard-scattering corrections. Symmetry relations on form factors for exclusive anti B {yields} D(D{sup *})l anti {nu} transition has been derived in terms of {xi}({upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '}). These symmetries are then broken by perturbative effects. The perturbative corrections to symmetry-breaking corrections to first order in the strong

  20. Effect of New Physics in Astrophysical Neutrino Flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Carlos A; Katori, Teppei; Salvado, Jordi

    2015-10-16

    Astrophysical neutrinos are powerful tools for investigating the fundamental properties of particle physics through their flavor content. In this Letter, we perform the first general new physics study on ultrahigh energy neutrino flavor content by introducing effective operators. We find that, at the current limits on these operators, new physics terms cause maximal effects on the flavor content; however, the flavor content on the Earth is confined to a region related to the assumed initial flavor content. Furthermore, we conclude that a precise measure of the flavor content on the Earth will provide orders of magnitude improvement on new physics bounds. Finally, we discuss the current best fits of flavor content of the IceCube data and their interplay with new physics scenarios.

  1. Dynamics of internetwork chromospheric fibrils: Basic properties and magnetohydrodynamic kink waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooroogen, K.; Morton, R. J.; Henriques, V.

    2017-11-01

    Aims: Current observational instruments are now providing data with the necessary temporal and spatial cadences required to examine highly dynamic, fine-scale magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere. Using the spectroscopic imaging capabilities of the Swedish Solar Telescope, we aim to provide the first investigation on the nature and dynamics of elongated absorption features (fibrils) observed in Hα in the internetwork. Methods: We observe and identify a number of internetwork fibrils, which form away from the kilogauss, network magnetic flux, and we provide a synoptic view on their behaviour. The internetwork fibrils are found to support wave-like behaviour, which we interpret as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves. The properties of these waves, that is, amplitude, period, and propagation speed, are measured from time-distance diagrams and we attempt to exploit them via magneto-seismology in order to probe the variation of plasma properties along the wave-guides. Results: We found that the Internetwork (IN) fibrils appear, disappear, and re-appear on timescales of tens of minutes, suggesting that they are subject to repeated heating. No clear photospheric footpoints for the fibrils are found in photospheric magnetograms or Hα wing images. However, we suggest that they are magnetised features as the majority of them show evidence of supporting propagating MHD kink waves, with a modal period of 120 s. Additionally, one IN fibril is seen to support a flow directed along its elongated axis, suggesting a guiding field. The wave motions are found to propagate at speeds significantly greater than estimates for typical chromospheric sound speeds. Through their interpretation as kink waves, the measured speeds provide an estimate for local average Alfvén speeds. Furthermore, the amplitudes of the waves are also found to vary as a function of distance along the fibrils, which can be interpreted as evidence of stratification of the plasma in the neighbourhood of

  2. Damping time of transverse kink oscillations in active region coronal loops observed by AIA/SDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abedini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A coronal loop can be oscillated in various directions. A basic type of coronal loop oscillation is called transverse oscillation that can be caused by different factors, such as nearby active regions and flares. The damping of transverse oscillation may be produced by the dissipation mechanism or the wake of the traveling disturbance. The aim of this paper is to estimate the damping time of transverse (kink coronal loop oscillations and the quantitative dependence of these oscillations on their frequencies in the solar corona loops that are situated near an active region with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA onboard Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO. The observed data on 2014-Oct-17, consisting of 130 images with an interval of 24 seconds in the 171 A0 pass band is analyzed for evidence of transvers kink oscillations along the coronal loops and for estimate of physical parameters by fast Fourier transform (FFT of data times series. In this analyzed signatures of transvers oscillations that are damped rapidly were found, with oscillation periods in the range of P=2-9.5 minutes. Also, damping times and damping qualities of filtered intensities centered on the dominant frequencies are measured in the range of minutes and , respectively. The observational results of this study indicate that the damping times increase with increasing the oscillation periods, and are highly sensitive function of oscillation period, but damping qualities are not very sensitive to the oscillations period. The order of magnitude of the damping times and damping qualities that obtained from this analysis are in good agreement with previous findings by authors and the theoretical prediction for damping of fast kink mode oscillations.

  3. Seismology of contracting and expanding coronal loops using damping of kink oscillations by mode coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Russell, A. J. B.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Simões, P. J. A.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Fletcher, L.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: We extend recently developed seismological methods to analyse oscillating loops which feature a large initial shift in the equilibrium position and investigate additional observational signatures related to the loop environment and oscillation driver. Methods: We model the motion of coronal loops as a kink oscillation damped by mode coupling, accounting for any change in loop length and the possible presence of parallel harmonics in addition to the fundamental mode. We apply our model to a loop which rapidly contracts due to a post-flare implosion (SOL2012-03-09) and a loop with a large lateral displacement (SOL2012-10-20). Results: The seismological method is used to calculate plasma parameters of the oscillating loops including the transverse density profile, magnetic field strength, and phase mixing timescale. For SOL2012-03-09 the period of oscillation has a linear correlation with the contracting motion and suggests the kink speed remains constant during the oscillation. The implosion excitation mechanism is found to be associated with an absence of additional parallel harmonics. Conclusions: The improved Bayesian analysis of the coronal loop motion allows for accurate seismology of plasma parameters, and the evolution of the period of oscillation compared with the background trend can be used to distinguish between loop motions in the plane of the loop and those perpendicular to it. The seismologically inferred kink speed and density contrast imply sub-Alfvénic (MA = 0.16 ± 0.03) propagation of the magnetic reconfiguration associated with the implosion, as opposed to triggering by a wave propagating at the Alfvén speed.

  4. Results in a consecutive series of 83 surgical corrections of symptomatic stenotic kinking of the internal carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Caliò, Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of evidence to document the safety and efficacy of operative treatment of carotid stenosis, surgical indications for elongation and kinking of the internal carotid artery remain controversial. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of surgical correction of internal carotid artery kinking in patients with persistent hemispheric symptoms despite antiplatelet therapy. A consecutive series of 81 patients (mean age, 64 years) underwent 83 surgical procedures to correct kinking of the internal carotid artery either by shortening and reimplanting the vessel on the common carotid artery, inserting a bypass graft, or transposing the vessel onto the external carotid artery. Mean follow-up was 56 months (range, 15-135 months). Study endpoints were 30-day mortality and any stroke occurring during follow-up. No postoperative death was observed. The postoperative stroke rate was 1%. Primary patency, freedom from neurologic symptoms, and late survival at 5 years (x +/- standard deviation) were 89 +/- 4.1%, 92 +/- 4%, and 71 +/- 6%, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that surgical correction for symptomatic stenotic kinking of the internal carotid artery is safe and effective in relieving symptoms and preventing stroke. Operative correction should be considered as the standard treatment for patients with symptomatic carotid kinking that does not respond to antiplatelet therapy.

  5. Constructing Soliton and Kink Solutions of PDE Models in Transport and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod A. Vladimirov

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of our recent works directed towards discovery of a periodic, kink-like and soliton-like travelling wave solutions within the models of transport phenomena and the mathematical biology. Analytical description of these wave patterns is carried out by means of our modification of the direct algebraic balance method. In the case when the analytical description fails, we propose to approximate invariant travelling wave solutions by means of an infinite series of exponential functions. The effectiveness of the method of approximation is demonstrated on a hyperbolic modification of Burgers equation.

  6. The elastic T-stress for slightly curved or kinked cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dong-Feng; Li, Chen-Feng; Qing, Hai

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a solution for the elastic T-stress at the tip of a slightly curved or kinked crack based on a perturbation approach. Compared to other exact or numerical solutions the present solution is accurate for considerable deviations from straightness. The T-stress variation as crack...... extends along a curved trajectory is subsequently examined. It is predicted that T-stress always keeps negative during crack extension when the crack has an initial negative T-stress. In the case of a positive T-stress and non-zero first and second stress intensity factors initially accompanying the crack...

  7. Correlation functions in an exactly solvable terrace-ledge-kink model

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, D B; Latremoliere, F T

    1999-01-01

    We solve exactly a terrace-ledge-kink (TLK) model describing a vicinal section of a crystal surface at a microscopic level, with either repulsive or attractive interactions between the ledges. As expected there is a faceting, or reconstructive, phase transition, driven either by temperature or by the chemical potential, that controls the mean slope of the surface. In the rough phase we carry out a thorough investigation of microscopic thermal fluctuations of the interface. This is done by combining Bethe ansatz and Conformal Field Theory methods in order to calculate appropriately defined correlators.

  8. Compactons and kink-like solutions of BBM-like equations by means of factorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuru, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kuru@science.ankara.edu.tr

    2009-10-15

    In this work we study the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony like equations with a fully nonlinear dispersive term by means of the factorization technique. In this way we find the travelling wave solutions of this equation in terms of the Weierstrass function wp and its degenerated trigonometric and hyperbolic forms. Then, we obtain the pattern of periodic, solitary, compacton and kink-like solutions. We give also the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian, which are linked to the factorization, for the nonlinear second order ordinary differential equations associated to the travelling wave equations.

  9. Lepton flavor violation with light vector bosons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available New sub-GeV vector bosons with couplings to muons but not electrons have been discussed in order to explain the muon's magnetic moment, the gap of high-energy neutrinos in IceCube or the proton radius puzzle. If such a light Z′ not only violates lepton universality but also lepton flavor, as expected for example from the recent hint for h→μτ at CMS, the two-body decay mode τ→μZ′ opens up and for MZ′<2mμ gives better constraints than τ→3μ already with 20-year-old ARGUS limits. We discuss the general prospects and motivation of light vector bosons with lepton-flavor-violating couplings.

  10. Studies of Heavy Flavored Jets with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the mass and flavor of the initiating parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching with identified partons place powerful constraints on the thermodynamic and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. We present recent results of heavy flavor jet spectra and nuclear modification factors of jets associated to charm and bottom quarks in both pPb and PbPb collisions. New measurements to be presented include the dijet asymmetry of pairs of b-jets in PbPb collisions and a finalized c-jet measurement in pPb collisions based on new data collected during the 2015 heavy-ion run period at the LHC.

  11. Δ(54) flavor phenomenology and strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo-Pérez, Brenda [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico); HEBA Ideas S.A. de C.V.,Calculistas 37, Cd. Mx. 09400 (Mexico); Peinado, Eduardo; Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico)

    2016-12-23

    Δ(54) can serve as a flavor symmetry in particle physics, but remains almost unexplored. We show that in a classification of semi-realistic ℤ{sub 3}×ℤ{sub 3} heterotic string orbifolds, Δ(54) turns out to be the most natural flavor symmetry, providing additional motivation for its study. We revisit its phenomenological potential from a low-energy perspective and subject to the constraints of string models. We find a model with Δ(54) arising from heterotic orbifolds that leads to the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation for quarks and charged-leptons. Additionally, in the neutrino sector, it leads to a normal hierarchy for neutrino masses and a correlation between the reactor and the atmospheric mixing angles, the latter taking values in the second octant and being compatible at three sigmas with experimental data.

  12. KMI Lattice Project on 16-Flavor QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yasumichi; Aoyama, Tatsumi; Kurachi, Masafumi; Maskawa, Toshihide; Nagai, Kei-Ichi; Ohki, Hiroshi; Shibata, Aakihiro; Yamawaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2013-03-01

    It is well known that the SU(3) gauge theory with the fundamental 16-flavor fermion is governed by a non-trivial infrared fixed point in the 2-loop perturbation theory, while the theory has not been well investigated by non-perturbative lattice simulations. We investigate properties of 16-flavor QCD by lattice simulation with highly improved action setup (HISQ/tree) at two lattice spacings. We present preliminary results for the mass of the lightest pseudoscalar meson at non-zero fermion mass. We discuss the (finite-size) hyperscaling of our data, the mass anomalous dimension extracted from the scaling, and comparison of the anomalous dimension with the perturbation theory.

  13. Interpreting hints for lepton flavor universality violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Stangl, Peter; Straub, David M.

    2017-09-01

    We interpret the recent hints for lepton flavor universality violation in rare B meson decays. Based on a model-independent effective Hamiltonian approach, we determine regions of new physics parameter space that give a good description of the experimental data on RK and RK*, which is in tension with Standard Model predictions. We suggest further measurements that can help narrowing down viable new physics explanations. We stress that the measured values of RK and RK* are fully compatible with new physics explanations of other anomalies in rare B meson decays based on the b →s μ μ transition. If the hints for lepton flavor universality violation are the first signs of new physics, perturbative unitarity implies new phenomena below a scale of ˜100 TeV .

  14. Modified Higgs Physics from Composite Light Flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Delaunay, Cédric; Perez, Gilad

    2013-01-01

    We point out that Higgs rates into gauge bosons can be significantly modified in composite pseudo Nambu--Goldstone boson (pNGB) Higgs models if quarks belonging to the first two generation are relatively composite objects as well. Although the lightness of the latter a priori screen them from the electroweak symmetry breaking sector, we show, in an effective two-site description, that their partners can lead to order one shifts in radiative Higgs couplings to gluons and photons. Moreover, due to the pseudo-Goldstone nature of the Higgs boson, the size of these corrections is completely controlled by the degree of compositeness of the individual light quarks. The current measurements of flavor-blind Higgs decay rates at the LHC thus provide an indirect probe of the flavor structure of the framework of pNGB Higgs compositeness.

  15. Studies of heavy flavored jets with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the mass and flavor of the initiating parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching with identified partons place powerful constraints on the thermodynamic and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. We present recent results of heavy flavor jet spectra and nuclear modification factors of jets associated to charm and bottom quarks in both pPb and PbPb collisions. New measurements to be presented include the dijet asymmetry of pairs of b-jets in PbPb collisions and a finalized c-jet measurement in pPb collisions based on new data collected during the 2015 heavy-ion run period at the LHC.

  16. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at aroun...

  17. Comments on Charged Lepton Flavor Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    Charged lepton flavor violation has been of interest since the muon (and subsequently, the tau lepton) was identified as a heavy version of the electron. CLFV continues to be pursued vigorously with the hope that its observation would reveal new information relating to the generation puzzle or about physics beyond the Standard Model. Theories abound which incorporate hypothetical CLFV at potentially observable levels although the mass scales and couplings are unknown, and innovative experiments continue to push the boundaries of sensitivity.

  18. Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, Mario; /Frascati; Asner, David Mark; /Carleton U.; Bauer, Daniel Adams; /Imperial Coll., London; Becher, Thomas G.; /Fermilab; Beneke, M.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Bevan, Adrian John; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Blanke, Monika; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Bloise, C.; /Frascati; Bona, Marcella; /CERN; Bondar, Alexander E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Bozzi, Concezio; /INFN, Ferrara; Brod, Joachim; /Karlsruhe U.; Buras, Andrzej J.; /Munich, Tech. U.; Cabibbo, N.; /INFN, Rome /Rome U.; Carbone, A.; /INFN, Bologna; Cavoto, Gianluca; /INFN, Rome; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; /Los Alamos; Ciuchini, Marco; /INFN, Rome; Coleman, Jonathon P.; /SLAC; Cronin-Hennessy, Daniel P.; /Minnesota U.; Dalseno, J.P.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Glasgow U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Freiburg U. /Charles U. /Pisa U. /Vienna, OAW /Imperial Coll., London /Bergen U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Munich, Tech. U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Southampton U. /INFN, Rome /Nara Women' s U. /Florida U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Edinburgh U. /Warwick U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /KEK, Tsukuba /Bern U. /CERN /Munich, Tech. U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /CERN /Frascati /Brookhaven /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Munich, Tech. U. /Siegen U. /Imperial Coll., London /Victoria U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Fermilab /Washington U., St. Louis /Frascati /Warwick U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Madras /Melbourne U. /Princeton U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Fermilab /SLAC /York U., Canada /Brookhaven /UC, Irvine /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Valencia U., IFIC /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona U. /Warwick U. /Tata Inst. /Frascati /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Vienna U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LPT /Frascati /Munich, Tech. U. /Brookhaven /Bern U. /CERN /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Valencia U., IFIC /CERN /Kentucky U. /Oxford U. /Iowa State U. /Bristol U. /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /CERN /Orsay, LAL /Glasgow U. /INFN, Padua /Queen Mary, U. of London /Texas U. /LPHE, Lausanne /Fermilab /UC, Santa Cruz /Vienna, OAW /Cincinnati U. /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Ohio State U. /Purdue U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /Frascati /INFN, Rome /Padua U. /INFN, Rome /Bern U. /Karlsruhe U. /Brookhaven /CERN /Paris U., VI-VII /Zurich, ETH /Pisa U. /Frascati /Oxford U. /Orsay, LAL /INFN, Rome2 /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Princeton U. /Fermilab /Queen' s U., Kingston /KEK, Tsukuba /Melbourne U. /Brookhaven /Indiana U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Pisa U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe U. /Oxford U. /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Edinburgh U. /CERN

    2010-08-26

    In the past decade, one of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor. In this time frame, measurements and the theoretical interpretation of their results have advanced tremendously. A much broader understanding of flavor particles has been achieved, apart from their masses and quantum numbers, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. In the past, observations of CP violation were confined to neutral K mesons, but since the early 1990s, a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral B mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of K,D, and B mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near future, there will be a transition from the current to a new generation of experiments, thus a review of the status of quark flavor physics is timely. This report is the result of the work of the physicists attending the 5th CKM workshop, hosted by the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', September 9-13, 2008. It summarizes the results of the current generation of experiments that is about to be completed and it confronts these results with the theoretical understanding of the field which has greatly improved in the past decade.

  19. Flavor physics in the quark sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, M. [INFN LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Asner, D.M. [Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6 (Canada); Bauer, D. [Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Becher, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500 Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Beneke, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik E, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 (Germany); Bevan, A.J. [Queen Mary, University of London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Blanke, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Bloise, C. [INFN LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Bona, M. [CERN CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Bondar, A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, Prosp. Akademika Lavrentieva Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Bozzi, C. [INFN Sez. di Ferrara, Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico. Edificio C. Via Saragat, 1. 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Brod, J. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Liefer-und Besuchsanschrift: Kaiserstrasse 12 - 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Buras, A.J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cabibbo, N. [INFN Sez. di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00185 Roma (Italy); Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5 00185, Roma (Italy); Carbone, A. [INFN Sez. di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Cavoto, G. [INFN Sez. di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00185 Roma (Italy); Cirigliano, V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ciuchini, M. [INFN Sez. di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale, 84 00146 Roma (Italy); Coleman, J.P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Cronin-Hennessy, D.P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    In the past decade, one of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor. In this time frame, measurements and the theoretical interpretation of their results have advanced tremendously. A much broader understanding of flavor particles has been achieved; apart from their masses and quantum numbers, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. In the past, observations of CP violation were confined to neutral K mesons, but since the early 1990s, a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral B mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of K,D, and B mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near future, there will be a transition from the current to a new generation of experiments; thus a review of the status of quark flavor physics is timely. This report is the result of the work of physicists attending the 5th CKM workshop, hosted by the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', September 9-13, 2008. It summarizes the results of the current generation of experiments that are about to be completed and it confronts these results with the theoretical understanding of the field which has greatly improved in the past decade.

  20. ATLAS Heavy Flavor productions and decay properties

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Lidia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    First measurements of non-prompt J/psi fraction in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV and new results from RUN 1 data analysis are presented for heavy flavor production and decays. RUN 1 results include observation and measurement of Z + J/Ψ associated production, fs/fd measurements and the branching ratio measurement for Λb decays to Ψ(2S) + Λ and J/Ψ + Λ.

  1. Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Antonelli, Mario; Bauer, Daniel Adams; Becher, Thomas G.; Beneke, M.; Bevan, Adrian John; Blanke, Monika; Bloise, C.; Bona, Marcella; Bondar, Alexander E.; Bozzi, Concezio; Brod, Joachim; Buras, Andrzej J.; Cabibbo, N.; Carbone, A.; Cavoto, Gianluca; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Ciuchini, Marco; Coleman, Jonathon P.; Cronin-Hennessy, Daniel P.; Dalseno, J.P.; Davies, C.H.; Di Lodovico, Francesca; Dingfelder, Jochen C.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donati, Simone; Dungel, W.; Egede, Ulrik; Eigen, Gerald; Faccini, Riccardo; Feldmann, Thorsten; Ferroni, Fernando; Flynn, Jonathan M.; Franco, Enrico; Fujikawa, M.; Furic, Ivan K.; Gambino, Paolo; Gardi, E.; Gershon, Timothy John; Giagu, Stefano; Golowich, Eugene; Goto, Toru; Greub, C.; Grojean, Christophe; Guadagnoli, Diego; Haisch, U.A.; Harr, Robert Francis; Hoang, Andre H.; Hurth, Tobias; Isidori, Gino; Jaffe, D.E.; Juttner, Andreas; Jager, Sebastian; Khodjamirian, Alexander; Koppenburg, Patrick Stefan; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Krokovny, P.; Kronfeld, Andreas Samuel; Laiho, J.; Lanfranchi, G.; Latham, Thomas Edward; Libby, James F.; Limosani, A.; Lopes Pegna, David; Lu, Cai-Dian; Lubicz, Vittorio; Lunghi, Enrico; Luth, Vera G.; Maltman, K.; Marciano, William Joseph; Martin, Emilie Claire Mutsumi; Martinelli, Guido; Martinez-Vidal, Fernando; Masiero, A.; Mateu, V.; Mescia, Federico; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Moulson, Matthew; Neubert, Matthias; Neufeld, Helmut; Nishida, Shohei; Offen, Nils; Palutan, M.; Paradisi, Paride; Parsa, Z.; Passemar, Emilie; Patel, M.; Pecjak, B.D.; Petrov, Alexey A.; Pich, Antonio; Pierini, Maurizio; Plaster, Brad; Powell, Brian Alfred; Prell, Soeren Andre; Rademaker, J.; Rescigno, Marco; Ricciardi, Stefania; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, E.; Rotondo, Marcello; Sacco, Roberto; Schilling, Christopher James; Schneider, Olivier; Scholz, Enno E.; Schumm, Bruce Andrew; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, Alan Jay; Sciascia, Barbara; Serrano, Justine; Shigemitsu, J.; Shipsey, Ian P.J.; Sibidanov, A.L.; Silvestrini, Luca; Simonetto, Franco; Simula, Silvano; Smith, Christopher; Soni, A.; Sonnenschein, Lars; Sordini, Viola; Sozzi, Marco S.; Spadaro, Tommaso; Spradlin, Patrick Michael; Stocchi, Achille; Tantalo, Nazario; Tarantino, Cecilia; Telnov, Alexandre V.; Tonelli, Diego; Towner, I.S.; Trabelsi, K.; Urquijo, Phillip; Van de Water, R.S.; Van Kooten, Richard J.; Virto, Javier; Volpi, Guido; Wanke, R.; Westhoff, Susanne; Wilkinson, G.; Wingate, Matthew Bowen; Xie, Y.; Zupan, Jure

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor and measurements and theoretical interpretations of their results have advanced tremendously: apart from masses and quantum numbers of flavor particles, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. Till early 1990s observations of CP violation were confined to neutral $K$ mesons, but since then a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral $B$ mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of $K, D$, and $B$ mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near...

  2. Collective excitations of massive flavor branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Itsios

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the intersections of two sets of D-branes of different dimensionalities. This configuration is dual to a supersymmetric gauge theory with flavor hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which live on the defect of the unflavored theory determined by the directions common to the two types of branes. One set of branes is dual to the color degrees of freedom, while the other set adds flavor to the system. We work in the quenched approximation, i.e., where the flavor branes are considered as probes, and focus specifically on the case in which the quarks are massive. We study the thermodynamics and the speeds of first and zero sound at zero temperature and non-vanishing chemical potential. We show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition when the chemical potential approaches its minimal value and we obtain the corresponding non-relativistic critical exponents that characterize its critical behavior. In the case of (2+1-dimensional intersections, we further study alternative quantization and the zero sound of the resulting anyonic fluid. We finally extend these results to non-zero temperature and magnetic field and compute the diffusion constant in the hydrodynamic regime. The numerical results we find match the predictions by the Einstein relation.

  3. GR effects in supernova neutrino flavor transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Kneller, James P.

    2017-07-01

    The strong gravitational field around a proto-neutron star can modify the neutrino flavor transformations that occur above the neutrinosphere via three general relativistic (GR) effects: time dilation, energy redshift, and trajectory bending. Depending on the compactness of the central object, the neutrino self-interaction potential is up to three times as large as that without GR principally due to trajectory bending which increases the intersection angles between different neutrino trajectories, and time dilation which changes the fluxes. We determine whether GR effects are important for flavor transformation during the different epochs of a supernova by using multiangle flavor transformation calculations and consider a density profile and neutrino spectra representative of both the accretion and cooling phases. We find the GR effects are smaller during the accretion phase due to low compactness of the proto-neutron star and merely delay the decoherence; the neutrino bipolar oscillations during the cooling phase are also delayed due to the GR effects but the delay may be more important because the delay occurs at radii where it might alter the nucleosynthesis in the neutrino driven wind.

  4. Flavor mixing democracy and minimal CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Jean-Marc; Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2012-06-01

    We point out that there is a unique parametrization of quark flavor mixing in which every angle is close to the Cabibbo angle θC≃13° with the CP-violating phase ϕq around 1°, implying that they might all be related to the strong hierarchy among quark masses. Applying the same parametrization to lepton flavor mixing, we find that all three mixing angles are comparably large (around π/4) and the Dirac CP-violating phase ϕl is also minimal as compared with its values in the other eight possible parametrizations. In this spirit, we propose a simple neutrino mixing ansatz which is equivalent to the tri-bimaximal flavor mixing pattern in the ϕl→0 limit and predicts sin θ13=1/√{2}sin(ϕl/2) for reactor antineutrino oscillations. Hence the Jarlskog invariant of leptonic CP violation Jl=(sin ϕl)/12 can reach a few percent if θ13 lies in the range 7°⩽θ13⩽10°.

  5. Flavored Anesthetic Masks for Inhalational Induction in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Mathew, Preethy Joseph; Bhardwaj, Neerja

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of masking the odor of inhalational agents using fruit flavors on the anxiety behavior and compliance of children for inhalational induction. A prospective randomized double blind, placebo controlled study was conducted on 60 unpremedicated children in the age group of 4-12 y. Thirty children received anesthetic masks smeared with a flavor of child's choice while the other 30 children were induced using masks without flavor. Anxiety was assessed using modified Yale Pre-operative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) in the pre-op room and during inhalational induction. Mask acceptance was graded by Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC). The cost-effectiveness of flavored anesthetic masks was compared to that of commercially available pre-scented masks. The baseline anxiety in the two groups was comparable. The number of children demonstrating high levels of anxiety at anesthetic induction was similar in flavored and non-flavored mask groups (p 0.45). The compliance to mask induction was also equally good (p 0.99). The authors found significant difference in the cost of flavored mask (INR 56.45 per mask) as compared to commercially available pre-scented masks (INR 660 per mask). The authors observed a placebo effect that reduced the pre-op anxiety in the control group which probably made the quality of induction equivalent with flavored and non-flavored masks. Therefore, using a flavored anesthetic mask is cost-effective than using a commercially available pre-scented mask.

  6. Degenerate vacua to vacuumless model and kink–antikink collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Simas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate a Z2 symmetric model of one scalar field ϕ in (1,1 dimension. The model is characterized by a continuous transition from a potential V(ϕ with two vacua to the vacuumless case. The model has kink and antikink solutions that minimize energy. Stability analysis is described by a Schrödinger-like equation with a potential that transits from a volcano-shape with no vibrational states (in the case of vacuumless limit to a smooth valley with one vibrational state. We are interested in the structure of two-bounce windows present in kink–antikink scattering processes. The standard mechanism of Campbell–Schonfeld–Wingate (CSW requires the presence of one vibrational state for the occurrence of two-bounce windows. We report that the effect of increasing the separation of vacua from the potential V(ϕ has the consequence of trading some of the first two-bounce windows predicted by the CSW mechanism by false two-bounce windows. Another consequence is the appearance of false two-bounce windows of zero-order.

  7. Revascularization of the internal carotid artery for isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calió, Francesco G; Papaspyropoulos, Vassilios; Montesano, Giuseppe; D'Urso, Antonio

    2003-02-01

    The operation for isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking of the internal carotid artery is safe and effective in preventing stroke and relieving the symptoms of cerebral ischemia. A consecutive sample clinical study with a mean follow-up of 44 months. The surgical department of an academic tertiary care center and an affiliated secondary care center. Fifty-four patients with a mean age of 67 years underwent 55 revascularizations of the internal carotid artery. The surgical procedures consisted of the following: shortening and reimplantation in the common carotid artery in 36 cases, bypass grafting in 15 cases, and transposition into the external carotid artery in 4 cases. Cumulative survival, primary patency, and stroke-free and neurologic symptom-free rates expressed by standard life-table analysis. No patients died in the postoperative period. The postoperative stroke rate was 1.8%. The cumulative rates (SEs) at 5 years were as follows: survival, 70% (10.2%); primary patency, 89% (7.8%); overall stroke free, 92% (6.8%); ipsilateral stroke free, 96% (5.3%); neurologic symptom free, 90% (7.5%); and ipsilateral symptom free, 93% (6.5%). Revascularization of the internal carotid artery for the treatment of isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking is safe and effective in preventing stroke and relieving symptoms of cerebrovascular insufficiency.

  8. Kink dynamics in a parametric ϕ 6 system: a model with controllably many internal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, A.; Decker, R.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Christov, I. C.; Saxena, A.

    2017-12-01

    We explore a variant of the ϕ 6 model originally proposed in Phys. Rev. D 12 (1975) 1606 as a prototypical, so-called, "bag" model in which domain walls play the role of quarks within hadrons. We examine the steady state of the model, namely an apparent bound state of two kink structures. We explore its linearization, and we find that, as a function of a parameter controlling the curvature of the potential, an effectively arbitrary number of internal modes may arise in the point spectrum of the linearization about the domain wall profile. We explore some of the key characteristics of kink-antikink collisions, such as the critical velocity and the multi-bounce windows, and how they depend on the principal parameter of the model. We find that the critical velocity exhibits a non-monotonic dependence on the parameter controlling the curvature of the potential. For the multi-bounce windows, we find that their range and complexity decrease as the relevant parameter decreases (and as the number of internal modes in the model increases). We use a modified collective coordinates method [in the spirit of recent works such as Phys. Rev. D 94 (2016) 085008] in order to capture the relevant phenomenology in a semi-analytical manner.

  9. Anchoring and resulting primary stability of a kinked compared to a straight uncemented femoral stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, Markus; Rathje, Fabian; Layher, Frank; Matziolis, Georg

    2017-11-07

    The number of revision hip arthroplasties being performed is growing and implantation of a cementless stem has become established as the gold standard. For producing a primary stability, the press-fit procedure is the method of choice, but also can be achieved by multiple-point impactions. Specific femoral stems should follow the anatomical shape and provide a more extensive anchorage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the type, localization of the impaction and resulting primary stability of two different femoral revision stem designs (kinked vs. straight) after implantation via an endofemoral approach in the case of more extensive defects of the proximal femur. Cementless stems of two different designs were implanted in synthetic femurs. The specimens were analyzed by CT and tested considering axial/torsional stiffness and migration resistance in a servohydraulic testing machine. The present data do not show any significant differences between the two endofemorally implanted conical stems in contact area or in biomechanics with regard to migration and axial or torsional stiffness, despite having different designs. The location, type and length of the stem anchorage are not only influenced by the kinked or straight design, but in particular also by the surgical approach. Also in the case of an extensive proximal bone defect, in the endofemoral approach, both a conical and a three-point anchorage occur. Here, the length of the conical anchorage determines the primary stability and should be at least 55 mm.

  10. Kink Waves in Non-isothermal Stratified Solar Waveguides: Effect of the External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopin, I.; Nagorny, I.

    2017-10-01

    We study the effect of an external magnetic field on the properties of kink waves, propagating along a thin non-isothermal stratified and diverging magnetic flux tube. A wave equation, governing the propagation of kink waves under the adopted model is derived. It is shown that the vertical gradient of temperature introduces a spatially local cut-off frequency ω c . The vertical distribution of the cut-off frequency is calculated for the reference VAL-C model of the solar atmosphere and for different values of a ratio of external to internal magnetic fields. The results show that the cut-off frequency is negative below the temperature minimum due to the negative temperature gradient. In the chromosphere the cut-off frequency at a given height is smaller for a stronger external magnetic field. For the appropriate range of a ratio B e /B i ≈ 0-0.8, the cutoff lies in the range ω c ≈ 0.003-0.010 s-1 (periods 600 , ω 2/ω 1 < 2. This reduction grows for a larger ratio of temperature at the loop top to the temperature at the footpoints. Moreover, the effect of reduction is most pronounced for the steeper temperature profiles.

  11. Measurements of the canonical helicity evolution of a gyrating kinked plasma column

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Linden, Jens; Sears, Jason; Intrator, Thomas; You, Setthivoine

    2017-10-01

    Conversions between kinetic and magnetic energy occur over a wide range of plasma scales as exhibited in astrophysical and solar dynamos, and reconnection in the solar corona and laboratory experiments. Canonical flux tubes present the distinct advantage of reconciling all plasma regimes - e.g. kinetic, two-fluid, and MHD - with the topological concept of helicity: twists, writhes, and linkages. This poster presents the first visualization and analysis of the 3D dynamics of canonical flux tubes and their relative helicity evolution from experimental measurements. Ion and electron canonical flux tubes are visualized from Mach, triple, and Ḃ probe measurements at over 10,000 spatial locations of a gyrating kinked plasma column. The flux tubes co-gyrate with the peak density and electron temperature in and out of a measurement volume. The electron and ion canonical flux tubes twist with opposite handedness and the ion flux tube writhes around the electron flux tube. The relative cross helicity between the magnetic and ion flow vorticity flux tubes dominates the relative ion canonical helicity and is anticorrelated with the relative magnetic helicity. The 3D nature of the kink and a reverse eddy current affect the helicity evolution. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0010340 and the DOE Office of Science Graduate Student Research Program and prepared in part by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734669.

  12. Immature Flavor of Beer by Hydrogen Sulfide and its Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 俊明; タカハシ, トシアキ; TOSHIAKI, TAKAHASHI

    1993-01-01

    In the brewing industry, bottom fermeting brewer's yeast has produced hydrogen sulfide during the primary fermentation process. Hydrogen sulfide has given the unpleasant immature flavor such as rotten egg into the primary or secondary fermenting liquor. However, in the normaly produced final beer the immature flavor has disappeared in general. In spite of the above mentioned fact, sometimes the immature flavor based on the hydrogen sulfide have found in final beer during the imperfect control...

  13. Quantitation of Ten Flavor Compounds in Unburned Tobacco Products†

    OpenAIRE

    Lisko, Joseph G.; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2014-01-01

    Most research on unburned tobacco has focused on the harmful chemicals associated with the tobacco itself. However, certain flavor additives in tobacco products can pose additional health risks. Flavors like camphor, coumarin, pulegone, eugenol, methyl salicylate, menthol and diphenyl ether have exhibited biological activity and/or toxicity in both lab animals and humans. This publication presents a new GC/MS method for the quantitation of ten flavor compounds (eucalyptol, camphor, menthol, p...

  14. Resource factor in production of quality and safe flavored food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Епінетівна Фролова

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research of methods for establishing authenticity of essential oil of cumin and dill based on optical isomerism of components is presented in the article.In modern food technology more often used frozen raw, concentrates fruit and vegetables, growing issue of healthy products and this all require the use of flavors. Synthetic flavors can be dangerous to the human body. Usage of counterfeit natural flavors is dangerous.

  15. Flavor Tagging with Deep Neural Networks at Belle II

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II experiment is mainly designed to investigate the decay of B meson pairs from $\\Upsilon(4S)$ decays, produced by the asymmetric electron-positron collider SuperKEKB. The determination of the B meson flavor, so-called flavor tagging, plays an important role in analyses and can be inferred in many cases directly from the final state particles. In this talk a successful approach of B meson flavor tagging utilizing a Deep Neural Network is presented. Monte Carlo studies show a significant improvement with respect to the established category-based flavor tagging algorithm.

  16. Electronic Cigarettes on Twitter - Spreading the Appeal of Flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kar-Hai; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Soto, Daniel W

    2015-04-01

    Social media platforms are used by tobacco companies to promote products. This study examines message content on Twitter from e-cigarette brands and determines if messages about flavors are more likely than non-flavor messages to be passed along to other viewers. We examined Twitter data from 2 e-cigarette brands and identified messages that contained terms related to e-cigarette flavors. Flavor-related posts were retweeted at a significantly higher rate by e-cigarette brands (p = .04) and other Twitter users (p characteristic and their marketing should be monitored closely.

  17. Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery of a Conditioned Flavor Preference Based on Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarner, Nina L.; Frieman, Jerome; Mehiel, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    After rats were conditioned to prefer a flavor (CS+) paired with sucrose over another flavor (CS-) paired with saccharin, this conditioned flavor preference was extinguished by presenting the CS+ flavor without sucrose. These results were replicated in a second experiment in which spontaneous recovery of the extinguished flavor preference was…

  18. Precision Light Flavor Physics from Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David

    In this thesis we present three distinct contributions to the study of light flavor physics using the techniques of lattice QCD. These results are arranged into four self-contained papers. The first two papers concern global fits of the quark mass, lattice spacing, and finite volume dependence of the pseudoscalar meson masses and decay constants, computed in a series of lattice QCD simulations, to partially quenched SU(2) and SU(3) chiral perturbation theory (chiPT). These fits determine a subset of the low energy constants of chiral perturbation theory -- in some cases with increased precision, and in other cases for the first time -- which, once determined, can be used to compute other observables and amplitudes in chiPT. We also use our formalism to self-consistently probe the behavior of the (asymptotic) chiral expansion as a function of the quark masses by repeating the fits with different subsets of the data. The third paper concerns the first lattice QCD calculation of the semileptonic K0 → pi-l +nul ( Kl3) form factor at vanishing momentum transfer, f+Kpi(0), with physical mass domain wall quarks. The value of this form factor can be combined with a Standard Model analysis of the experimentally measured K0 → pi -l+nu l decay rate to extract a precise value of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix element Vus, and to test unitarity of the CKM matrix. We also discuss lattice calculations of the pion and kaon decay constants, which can be used to extract Vud through an analogous Standard Model analysis of experimental constraints on leptonic pion and kaon decays. The final paper explores the recently proposed exact one flavor algorithm (EOFA). This algorithm has been shown to drastically reduce the memory footprint required to simulate single quark flavors on the lattice relative to the widely used rational hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, while also offering modest O(20%) speed-ups. We independently derive the exact one flavor action, explore its

  19. Analysis of Bs flavor oscillations at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro Leonardo, Nuno Teotonio Viegas [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The search for and study of flavor oscillations in the neutral BsBs meson system is an experimentally challenging task. It constitutes a flagship analysis of the Tevatron physics program. In this dissertation, they develop an analysis of the time-dependent Bs flavor oscillations using data collected with the CDF detector. The data samples are formed of both fully and partially reconstructed B meson decays: Bs → Dsπ(ππ) and Bs → Dslv. A likelihood fitting framework is implemented and appropriate models and techniques developed for describing the mass, proper decay time, and flavor tagging characteristics of the data samples. The analysis is extended to samples of B+ and B0 mesons, which are further used for algorithm calibration and method validation. The B mesons lifetimes are extracted. The measurement of the B0 oscillation frequency yields Δmd = 0.522 ± 0.017 ps-1. The search for Bs oscillations is performed using an amplitude method based on a frequency scanning procedure. Applying a combination of lepton and jet charge flavor tagging algorithms, with a total tagging power ϵ'D2 of 1.6%, to a data sample of 355 pb-1, a sensitivity of 13.0 ps-1 is achieved. They develop a preliminary same side kaon tagging algorithm, which is found to provide a superior tagging power of about 4.0% for the Bs meson species. A study of the dilution systematic uncertainties is not reported. From its application as is to the Bs samples the sensitivity is significantly increased to about 18 ps-1 and a hint of a signal is seen at about 175. ps-1. They demonstrate that the extension of the analysis to the increasing data samples with the inclusion of the same side tagging algorithm is capable of providing an observation of Bs mixing beyond the

  20. KMI Lattice Project on 12-Flavor QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yasumichi; Aoyama, Tatsumi; Kurachi, Masafumi; Maskawa, Toshihide; Nagai, Kei-Ichi; Ohki, Hiroshi; Shibata, Akihiro; Yamawaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2013-03-01

    We study the SU(3) gauge theory with twelve flavors of the fundamental fermion. From the perturbative analysis, this theory is expected to be near the edge of the conformal window. The values of the critical exponents such as anomalous dimension are crucial to the walking technicolor scenario. We utilize the HISQ type action to reduce the discretization error and show our preliminary results on the bound state masses and decay constants at several lattice spacings. The finite volume scaling analysis in the conformal hypothesis is performed, from which we discuss anomalous dimension.

  1. Naturalness, SUSY heavy higgses and flavor constraints

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    I will demonstrate that supersymmetric (SUSY) higgses provide an important diagnostic for electroweak naturalness in the SUSY paradigm. I first review the naturalness problem of the Standard Model (SM) and SUSY as one of its most promising solutions. I study the masses of heavy Higgses in SUSY theories under broad assumptions, and show how they are constrained by their role in Electroweak symmetry breaking. I then show how Flavor Physics severely constrains large parts of SUSY parameter space, otherwise favored by naturalness. If SUSY Higgses are not discovered at relatively low mass during the next LHC run, this tension will further increase, disfavoring naturalness from SUSY.

  2. Warped flavor symmetry predictions for neutrino physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China,Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Rojas, Alma D.; Vaquera-Araujo, C.A.; Valle, J.W.F. [AHEP Group, Institut de Física Corpuscular - C.S.I.C./Universitat de València,Parc Cientific de Paterna, C/Catedratico José Beltrán, 2 E-46980 Paterna (València) (Spain)

    2016-01-04

    A realistic five-dimensional warped scenario with all standard model fields propagating in the bulk is proposed. Mass hierarchies would in principle be accounted for by judicious choices of the bulk mass parameters, while fermion mixing angles are restricted by a Δ(27) flavor symmetry broken on the branes by flavon fields.The latter gives stringent predictions for the neutrino mixing parameters, and the Dirac CP violation phase, all described in terms of only two independent parameters at leading order. The scheme also gives an adequate CKM fit and should be testable within upcoming oscillation experiments.

  3. Recent searches for lepton flavor violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, D.

    1986-09-01

    No process which does not conserve lepton number has been observed. However, since this empirical information is incorporated in the standard model in an ad hoc fashion, searches for reactions which exhibit lepton flavor violation (LFV) may lead to new approaches or new constraints to further development. In this paper, limits from searches for muon-electron and muon-positron conversion in the field of a nucleus and for reactions ..mu.. ..-->.. eX where X is a weakly interacting boson are discussed. A summary of the status of LFV searches is given.

  4. Finding mechanism of transitions in complex systems: formation and migration of dislocation kinks in a silicon crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Andreas; Pizzagalli, Laurent; Jónsson, Hannes

    2009-02-25

    We demonstrate how a saddle point search method can be used to study dislocation mobility in a covalent material-a non-trivial transition mechanism in a complex system. Repeated saddle point searches have been carried out by using the minimum mode following algorithm and dimer method in combination with several empirical potential functions for silicon in order to determine the mechanisms for the creation and migration of kinks on a non-dissociated screw dislocation in a silicon crystal. For the environment-dependent interatomic potential, three possible kink migration processes have been identified with activation energies of 0.17, 0.25, and 0.33 eV. The Lenosky potential gives a single, low energy migration mechanism with an activation energy of 0.07 eV, in good agreement with density functional theory results. The kink formation mechanism determined using this potential has an activation barrier of 1.2 eV. Calculations were also carried out with the Tersoff potential, Stillinger-Weber potential and Bolding-Andersen potential. The various potential functions give quite different results for the kink structure and the mechanism of transition.

  5. Turbulent spectra and spectral kinks in the transition range from MHD to kinetic Alfvén turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Voitenko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A weakly dispersive range (WDR of kinetic Alfvén turbulence is identified and investigated for the first time in the context of the MHD/kinetic turbulence transition. We find perpendicular wavenumber spectra ∝ k−3 and ∝ k−4 formed in WDR by strong and weak turbulence of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs, respectively. These steep WDR spectra connect shallower spectra in the MHD and strongly dispersive KAW ranges, which results in a specific double-kink (2-k pattern often seen in observed turbulent spectra. The first kink occurs where MHD turbulence transforms into weakly dispersive KAW turbulence; the second one is between weakly and strongly dispersive KAW ranges. Our analysis suggests that partial turbulence dissipation due to amplitude-dependent non-adiabatic ion heating may occur in the vicinity of the first spectral kink. The threshold-like nature of this process results in a conditional selective dissipation that affects only the largest over-threshold amplitudes and that decreases the intermittency in the range below the first spectral kink. Several recent counter-intuitive observational findings can be explained by the coupling between such a selective dissipation and the nonlinear interaction among weakly dispersive KAWs.

  6. Searching for flavor labels in food products: The influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eVelasco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labelled with specific flavors in a Stroop-like manner. Across two experiments, a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors is documented and we demonstrate that people are able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging is congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato than when it is incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato. In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color-word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.

  7. Flavor violating top decays and flavor violating quark decays of the Higgs boson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Itani, Ahmad; Nath, Pran; Zorik, Anas

    2017-08-01

    In the Standard Model, flavor violating decays of the top quark and of the Higgs boson are highly suppressed. Further, the flavor violating decays of the top and of the Higgs are also small in MSSM and not observable in current or in near future experiment. In this work, we show that much larger branching ratios for these decays can be achieved in an extended MSSM model with an additional vector-like quark generation. Specifically, we show that in the extended model, one can achieve branching ratios for t → h0c and t → h0u as large as the current experimental upper limits given by the ATLAS and the CMS Collaborations. We also analyze the flavor violating quark decay of the Higgs boson, i.e. h0 → sb¯ + b¯s and h0 → bd¯ + b¯d. Here again, one finds that the branching ratio for these decays can be as large as O(1)%. The analysis is done with inclusion of the CP phases in the Higgs sector, and the effect of CP phases on the branching ratios is investigated. Specifically, the Higgs sector spectrum and mixings are computed involving quarks and mirror quarks, squarks and mirror squarks in the loops consistent with the Higgs boson mass constraint. The resulting effective Lagrangian with inclusion of the vector-like quark generation induce flavor violating decays at the tree level. In the analysis, we also include the experimental constraints from the flavor changing quark decays of the Z boson. The test of the branching ratios predicted could come with further data from LHC13 and such branching ratios could also be accessible at future colliders such as the Higgs factories where the Higgs couplings to fermions will be determined with greater precision.

  8. SOLITONES KINK Y ANTIKENK EN LA ECUACIÓN DE SINE -GORDON

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Armando Segovia Chaves

    2012-01-01

    La ecuación de sine-Gordon es una ecuación diferencial no lineal, tiene grandes aplicaciones no solamente en la teoría de campos relativistas, sino también encuentra aplicación en la física del estado sólido y en el transporte de señales en la fibra óptica. En este trabajo se estudian dos soluciones que tiene esta ecuación  diferencial como lo son las soluciones tipo solitón kink y soluciones tipo solitón antikink. Para obtener dichas soluciones se realiza el modelamiento matemático y se repr...

  9. Scaled laboratory experiments explain the kink behaviour of the Crab Nebula jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C K; Tzeferacos, P; Lamb, D; Gregori, G; Norreys, P A; Rosenberg, M J; Follett, R K; Froula, D H; Koenig, M; Seguin, F H; Frenje, J A; Rinderknecht, H G; Sio, H; Zylstra, A B; Petrasso, R D; Amendt, P A; Park, H S; Remington, B A; Ryutov, D D; Wilks, S C; Betti, R; Frank, A; Hu, S X; Sangster, T C; Hartigan, P; Drake, R P; Kuranz, C C; Lebedev, S V; Woolsey, N C

    2016-10-07

    The remarkable discovery by the Chandra X-ray observatory that the Crab nebula's jet periodically changes direction provides a challenge to our understanding of astrophysical jet dynamics. It has been suggested that this phenomenon may be the consequence of magnetic fields and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, but experimental demonstration in a controlled laboratory environment has remained elusive. Here we report experiments that use high-power lasers to create a plasma jet that can be directly compared with the Crab jet through well-defined physical scaling laws. The jet generates its own embedded toroidal magnetic fields; as it moves, plasma instabilities result in multiple deflections of the propagation direction, mimicking the kink behaviour of the Crab jet. The experiment is modelled with three-dimensional numerical simulations that show exactly how the instability develops and results in changes of direction of the jet.

  10. Flavor relationships among muscles from the beef chuck and round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, J L; James, J M; Calkins, C R

    2006-10-01

    This research compared off-flavor notes and the relationship of pH and heme-iron content to off-flavor for different beef muscles. After grading, knuckles and shoulder clods were removed from 16 USDA Choice and 14 USDA Select beef carcasses, vacuum-packaged, and aged for 7 d. The rectus femoris (REC), vastus medalis (VAM), vastus lateralis (VAL), teres major (TER), infraspinatus (INF), and triceps brachii-long head (TRI) were separated, cut into steaks, and frozen (-16 degrees C). Sensory analysis was conducted using a trained taste panel, with steaks grilled to an internal temperature of 65 degrees C. Heme-iron concentration and pH were determined. The INF had lower (P muscles, and the VAL had the most intense (P muscle type. Heme-iron concentration did not differ among muscles. Three USDA Select carcasses had intense off-flavor in the muscles. Liver-like flavor was highly negatively correlated with off-flavor intensity for each of the muscles tested. Muscles rated a 5 or below (on an 8-point rating scale, where 1 = extremely intense off-flavor and 8 = no off-flavor) in off-flavor intensity and identified as liver-like by 30% or more of the panelists were grouped together and compared to normal muscles. Those in the liver-flavored group were less frequently identified as charred, probably because the liver-like flavor was so intense. There were no differences between the 2 groups for sour, metallic, bloody, oxidized, or fatty off-flavor notes. Regression equations containing the linear and quadratic functions of heme-iron concentration, muscle pH, and their interaction were established for the frequency of off-flavor notes within each muscle. The REC, TER, VAL, and VAM showed a relationship between pH, heme iron, and off-flavor intensity (P muscles tested. These data suggest that liver-like off-flavors are specific to individual animals, and that pH and heme iron are not strongly related to off-flavor notes.

  11. Free-standing kinked nanowire transistor probes for targeted intracellular recording in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Quan; Jiang, Zhe; Xu, Lin; Gao, Ruixuan; Mai, Liqiang; Lieber, Charles M.

    2014-02-01

    Recording intracellular (IC) bioelectrical signals is central to understanding the fundamental behaviour of cells and cell networks in, for example, neural and cardiac systems. The standard tool for IC recording, the patch-clamp micropipette is applied widely, yet remains limited in terms of reducing the tip size, the ability to reuse the pipette and ion exchange with the cytoplasm. Recent efforts have been directed towards developing new chip-based tools, including micro-to-nanoscale metal pillars, transistor-based kinked nanowires and nanotube devices. These nanoscale tools are interesting with respect to chip-based multiplexing, but, so far, preclude targeted recording from specific cell regions and/or subcellular structures. Here we overcome this limitation in a general manner by fabricating free-standing probes in which a kinked silicon nanowire with an encoded field-effect transistor detector serves as the tip end. These probes can be manipulated in three dimensions within a standard microscope to target specific cells or cell regions, and record stable full-amplitude IC action potentials from different targeted cells without the need to clean or change the tip. Simultaneous measurements from the same cell made with free-standing nanowire and patch-clamp probes show that the same action potential amplitude and temporal properties are recorded without corrections to the raw nanowire signal. In addition, we demonstrate real-time monitoring of changes in the action potential as different ion-channel blockers are applied to cells, and multiplexed recording from cells by independent manipulation of two free-standing nanowire probes.

  12. Electronic confinement in graphene quantum rings due to substrate-induced mass radial kink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, L. J. P.; da Costa, D. R.; Chaves, A.; Pereira, J. M., Jr.; Farias, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate localized states of a quantum ring confinement in monolayer graphene defined by a circular mass-related potential, which can be induced e.g. by interaction with a substrate that breaks the sublattice symmetry, where a circular line defect provides a change in the sign of the induced mass term along the radial direction. Electronic properties are calculated analytically within the Dirac-Weyl approximation in the presence of an external magnetic field. Analytical results are also compared with those obtained by the tight-binding approach. Regardless of its sign, a mass term Δ is expected to open a gap for low-energy electrons in Dirac cones in graphene. Both approaches confirm the existence of confined states with energies inside the gap, even when the width of the kink modelling the mass sign transition is infinitely thin. We observe that such energy levels are inversely proportional to the defect line ring radius and independent on the mass kink height. An external magnetic field is demonstrated to lift the valley degeneracy in this system and easily tune the valley index of the ground state in this system, which can be polarized on either K or {{K}\\prime} valleys of the Brillouin zone, depending on the magnetic field intensity. Geometrical changes in the defect line shape are considered by assuming an elliptic line with different eccentricities. Our results suggest that any defect line that is closed in a loop, with any geometry, would produce the same qualitative results as the circular ones, as a manifestation of the topologically protected nature of the ring-like states investigated here.

  13. Flavor content of nucleon form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Departamento de Estructura de la Materia, lnstituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, AP 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Santopinto, E [l.N.F.N. and Dipartimento di Fisica, via Dodecaneso 33, Genova, I-16146 (Italy)]. e-mail: bijkernucleares. unam. mx

    2007-12-15

    The flavor content of nucleon form factors is analyzed using two different theoretical approaches. The first is based on a phenomenological two-component model in which the external photon couples to both an intrinsic three-quark structure and a meson cloud via vector-meson dominance. The flavor content of the nucleon form factors is extracted without introducing any additional parameter. A comparison with recent data from parity-violating electron scattering experiments shows a good overall agreement for the strange form factors. A more microscopic approach is that of an unquenched quark model proposed by Geiger and Isgur which is based on valence quark plus glue dominance to which quark-antiquark pairs are added in perturbation. In the original version the importance of ss loops in the proton was studied. Here we present the formalism for a new generation of unquenched quark models which, among other extensions, includes the contributions of uu and dd loops. Finally, we discuss some preliminary results in the closure limit. (Author)

  14. Up Asymmetries From Exhilarated Composite Flavor Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Da Rold, Leandro; Grojean, Christophe; Perez, Gilad

    2013-01-01

    We present a class of warped extra dimension (composite Higgs) models which conjointly accommodates the t\\bar t forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron and the direct CP asymmetry in singly Cabibbo suppressed D decays first reported by the LHCb collaboration. We argue that both asymmetries, if arising dominantly from new physics beyond the Standard Model, hint for a flavor paradigm within partial compositeness models in which the right-handed quarks of the first two generations are not elementary fields but rather composite objects. We show that this class of models is consistent with current data on flavor and CP violating physics, electroweak precision observables, dijet and top pair resonance searches at hadron colliders. These models have several predictions which will be tested in forthcoming experiments. The CP asymmetry in D decays is induced through an effective operator of the form (\\bar u c)_{V+A}(\\bar s s)_{V+A} at the charm scale, which implies a larger CP asymmetry in the D^0\\to K^+K^...

  15. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  16. Flavor Gauge Models Below the Fermi Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, K. S. [Oklahoma State U.; Friedland, A. [SLAC; Machado, P. A.N. [Madrid, IFT; Mocioiu, I. [Penn State U.

    2017-05-04

    The mass and weak interaction eigenstates for the quarks of the third generation are very well aligned, an empirical fact for which the Standard Model offers no explanation. We explore the possibility that this alignment is due to an additional gauge symmetry in the third generation. Specifically, we construct and analyze an explicit, renormalizable model with a gauge boson, $X$, corresponding to the $B-L$ symmetry of the third family. Having a relatively light (in the MeV to multi-GeV range), flavor-nonuniversal gauge boson results in a variety of constraints from different sources. By systematically analyzing 20 different constraints, we identify the most sensitive probes: kaon, $D^+$ and Upsilon decays, $D-\\bar{D}^0$ mixing, atomic parity violation, and neutrino scattering and oscillations. For the new gauge coupling $g_X$ in the range $(10^{-2} - 10^{-4})$ the model is shown to be consistent with the data. Possible ways of testing the model in $b$ physics, top and $Z$ decays, direct collider production and neutrino oscillation experiments, where one can observe nonstandard matter effects, are outlined. The choice of leptons to carry the new force is ambiguous, resulting in additional phenomenological implications, such as non-universality in semileptonic bottom decays. The proposed framework provides interesting connections between neutrino oscillations, flavor and collider physics.

  17. Texture of semi-solids : sensory flavor-texture interactions for custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Rasing, F.; Wilkinson, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    Possible interactions between flavor and oral texture sensations were investigated for four flavorants, diacetyl, benzaldehyde, vanillin, and caffeine, added in two concentrations to model vanilla custard desserts. The flavorants affected viscosities and resulted in corresponding changes in

  18. Responses of the Autonomic Nervous System to Flavors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de René A.; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory flavor perception plays an important role in decision-making, for instance for food products. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses, such as heart rate and skin conductance responses, towards such flavor stimuli may provide insights into processes related to consumer acceptance

  19. Coactivation of Gustatory and Olfactory Signals in Flavor Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Maria G.; Shepard, Timothy G.; Wang, Miao-Fen

    2010-01-01

    It is easier to detect mixtures of gustatory and olfactory flavorants than to detect either component alone. But does the detection of mixtures exceed the level predicted by probability summation, assuming independent detection of each component? To answer this question, we measured simple response times (RTs) to detect brief pulses of one of 3 flavorants (sucrose [gustatory], citral [olfactory], sucrose–citral mixture) or water, presented into the mouth by a computer-operated, automated flow system. Subjects were instructed to press a button as soon as they detected any of the 3 nonwater stimuli. Responses to the mixtures were faster (RTs smaller) than predicted by a model of probability summation of independently detected signals, suggesting positive coactivation (integration) of gustation and retronasal olfaction in flavor perception. Evidence for integration appeared mainly in the fastest 60% of the responses, indicating that integration arises relatively early in flavor processing. Results were similar when the 3 possible flavorants, and water, were interleaved within the same session (experimental condition), and when each flavorant was interleaved with water only (control conditions). This outcome suggests that subjects did not attend selectively to one flavor component or the other in the experimental condition and further supports the conclusion that (late) decisional or attentional strategies do not exert a large influence on the gustatory–olfactory flavor integration. PMID:20032112

  20. A matter of taste: Improving flavor of fresh potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding for improved potato flavor has not been a high priority in US breeding programs. It is a difficult trait to breed for because it cannot be done in a high throughput manner and it requires an understanding of the complex biochemistry of flavor compounds and effects of cooking on those compou...

  1. Coactivation of gustatory and olfactory signals in flavor perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Maria G; Shepard, Timothy G; Wang, Miao-Fen; Marks, Lawrence E

    2010-02-01

    It is easier to detect mixtures of gustatory and olfactory flavorants than to detect either component alone. But does the detection of mixtures exceed the level predicted by probability summation, assuming independent detection of each component? To answer this question, we measured simple response times (RTs) to detect brief pulses of one of 3 flavorants (sucrose [gustatory], citral [olfactory], sucrose-citral mixture) or water, presented into the mouth by a computer-operated, automated flow system. Subjects were instructed to press a button as soon as they detected any of the 3 nonwater stimuli. Responses to the mixtures were faster (RTs smaller) than predicted by a model of probability summation of independently detected signals, suggesting positive coactivation (integration) of gustation and retronasal olfaction in flavor perception. Evidence for integration appeared mainly in the fastest 60% of the responses, indicating that integration arises relatively early in flavor processing. Results were similar when the 3 possible flavorants, and water, were interleaved within the same session (experimental condition), and when each flavorant was interleaved with water only (control conditions). This outcome suggests that subjects did not attend selectively to one flavor component or the other in the experimental condition and further supports the conclusion that (late) decisional or attentional strategies do not exert a large influence on the gustatory-olfactory flavor integration.

  2. The running coupling of QCD with four flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Fatih; Wolff, Ulli [Berlin Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Sommer, Rainer [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). NIC

    2010-06-15

    We have calculated the step scaling function and the running coupling of QCD in the Schroedinger functional scheme with four flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks. Comparisons of our non-perturbative results with 2-loop and 3-loop perturbation theory as well as with non-perturbative data for only two flavors are made. (orig.)

  3. Experimental Results of Heavy Flavor Production and Correlation at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Heavy flavor probes are essential tools to study the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions. The experiments at RHIC pioneered the measurements of production and correlation of heavy flavor probes. This paper presents highlights of these measurements and focus on the recent results.

  4. Heavy Flavor Results at RHIC - A Comparative Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Xin

    2012-01-01

    I review the latest heavy flavor measurements at RHIC experiments. Measurements from RHIC together with preliminary results from LHC offer us an opportunity to systematically study the sQGP medium properties. In the end, I will outlook a prospective future on precision heavy flavor measurements with detector upgrades at RHIC.

  5. The strong coupling regime of twelve flavors QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Tiago Nunes da; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the results recently reported in Ref.[1] [A. Deuzeman, M.P. Lombardo, T. Nunes da Silva and E. Pallante,"The bulk transition of QCD with twelve flavors and the role of improvement"] for the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf=12 fundamental flavors, and we add some numerical evidence and

  6. Proof of Concept of Kinematically Correct Neutrino Flavor Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J M

    2002-01-01

    Assuming neutrinos have a flavor-independent and small but nonzero rest mass, flavor oscillations can be demonstrated which fit the known data without violating any physical law. We require that the neutrino have observable substructure and an effective size, in at least one dimension, expanding after creation to exceed the range of the weak force. Thus, neutrinos are made truly analogous to kaons.

  7. Prenatal and postnatal flavor learning by human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, J A; Jagnow, C P; Beauchamp, G K

    2001-06-01

    Flavors from the mother's diet during pregnancy are transmitted to amniotic fluid and swallowed by the fetus. Consequently, the types of food eaten by women during pregnancy and, hence, the flavor principles of their culture may be experienced by the infants before their first exposure to solid foods. Some of these same flavors will later be experienced by infants in breast milk, a liquid that, like amniotic fluid, comprises flavors that directly reflect the foods, spices, and beverages eaten by the mother. The present study tested the hypothesis that experience with a flavor in amniotic fluid or breast milk modifies the infants' acceptance and enjoyment of similarly flavored foods at weaning. Pregnant women who planned on breastfeeding their infants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. The women consumed either 300 mL of carrot juice or water for 4 days per week for 3 consecutive weeks during the last trimester of pregnancy and then again during the first 2 months of lactation. The mothers in 1 group drank carrot juice during pregnancy and water during lactation; mothers in a second group drank water during pregnancy and carrot juice during lactation, whereas those in the control group drank water during both pregnancy and lactation. Approximately 4 weeks after the mothers began complementing their infants' diet with cereal and before the infants had ever been fed foods or juices containing the flavor of carrots, the infants were videotaped as they fed, in counterbalanced order, cereal prepared with water during 1 test session and cereal prepared with carrot juice during another. Immediately after each session, the mothers rated their infants' enjoyment of the food on a 9-point scale. The results demonstrated that the infants who had exposure to the flavor of carrots in either amniotic fluid or breast milk behaved differently in response to that flavor in a food base than did nonexposed control infants. Specifically, previously exposed infants exhibited fewer

  8. Flavor versus mass eigenstates in neutrino asymmetries: implications for cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Kinney, William H. [University at Buffalo, Department of Physics, Buffalo, NY (United States); Park, Wan-Il [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Chonbuk National University, Division of Science Education and Institute of Fusion Science, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We show that, if they exist, lepton number asymmetries (L{sub α}) of neutrino flavors should be distinguished from the ones (L{sub i}) of mass eigenstates, since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the flavor eigenstates cannot be directly applied to the mass eigenstates. Similarly, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) constraints on the mass eigenstates do not directly constrain flavor asymmetries. Due to the difference of mass and flavor eigenstates, the cosmological constraint on the asymmetries of neutrino flavors can be much stronger than the conventional expectation, but they are not uniquely determined unless at least the asymmetry of the heaviest neutrino is well constrained. The cosmological constraint on L{sub i} for a specific case is presented as an illustration. (orig.)

  9. Non-integrability and chaos with unquenched flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giataganas, Dimitrios; Zoubos, Konstantinos

    2017-10-01

    We study (non-)integrability and the presence of chaos in gravity dual backgrounds of strongly coupled gauge theories with unquenched flavor, specifically of the four-dimensional N=2 super Yang-Mills theory and the three-dimensional ABJM theory. By examining string motion on the geometries corresponding to backreacted D3/D7 and D2/D6 systems, we show that integrable theories with quenched flavor become non-integrable when the virtual quark loops are taken into account. For the string solutions in the backreacted D3/D7 system, we compute the leading Lyapunov exponent which turns out to saturate to a positive value as the number of flavors increases. The exponent depends very weakly on the number of flavors when they approach the number of colors. This suggests that once a particular flavor number in the theory is reached, a further increase does not lead to more severe chaotic phenomena, implying certain saturation effects on chaos.

  10. Flavor versus mass eigenstates in neutrino asymmetries: implications for cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Kinney, William H.; Park, Wan-Il

    2017-09-01

    We show that, if they exist, lepton number asymmetries (L_α ) of neutrino flavors should be distinguished from the ones (L_i) of mass eigenstates, since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the flavor eigenstates cannot be directly applied to the mass eigenstates. Similarly, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) constraints on the mass eigenstates do not directly constrain flavor asymmetries. Due to the difference of mass and flavor eigenstates, the cosmological constraint on the asymmetries of neutrino flavors can be much stronger than the conventional expectation, but they are not uniquely determined unless at least the asymmetry of the heaviest neutrino is well constrained. The cosmological constraint on L_i for a specific case is presented as an illustration.

  11. The breaking of flavor democracy in the quark sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, Harald; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Di

    2017-09-01

    The democracy of quark flavors is a well-motivated flavor symmetry, but it must be properly broken in order to explain the observed quark mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. We reconstruct the texture of flavor democracy breaking and evaluate its strength in a novel way, by assuming a parallelism between the Q=+2/3 and Q=-1/3 quark sectors and using a nontrivial parametrization of the flavor mixing matrix. Some phenomenological implications of such democratic quark mass matrices, including their variations in the hierarchy basis and their evolution from the electroweak scale to a super-high energy scale, are also discussed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375207) and National Basic Research Program of China (2013CB834300)

  12. Cajá-flavored drinks: a proposal for mixed flavor beverages and a study of the consumer profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed flavor beverages represent a trend that is gaining the allegiance of potential fruit juice consumers. The present study proposed to prepare mixed flavor beverages and verify their consumer acceptance. Cajá beverage (sample A was used as the standard. The other beverages were prepared by mixing the cajá-flavored product with other flavors: strawberry (B, pineapple (C, jabuticaba (D, mango (E and cashew (F. The consumer profiles in the two regions studied were similar. Overall beverages B, A and F were the most accepted, with scores of 7.7, 6.4 and 6.2, respectively. Internal Preference Mapping showed that most of the consumers were located near beverages A, B and F, confirming the acceptance results. The consumers indicated appearance and flavor as the most appreciated characteristics in beverages A, B and F. Beverages A, B and F presented higher total soluble solids contents and viscosities than the other beverages. Consumer segmentation did not depend on the different levels of familiarity with the cajá flavor. Thus the preparation of mixed flavor beverages of cajá-strawberry and cajá-cashew is an excellent proposal because it presents flavors with good potential for marketing in different regions of Brazil.

  13. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Bugarski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM, while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  14. Microencapsulation of flavors in carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  15. The flavor and CP problems in SUSY

    CERN Document Server

    Masiero, A

    2004-01-01

    Although direct searches of supersymmetry (SUSY) constitute the only way we have to clearly verify the existence of a low-energy SUSY extension of the standard model, yet, in particular in our pre-LHC era, it is of utmost importance to study any possible signal where SUSY manifests itself indirectly in discrepancies with the SM expectations in rare processes. In this talk we'll consider a wide range of flavor changing neutral current and/or CP violating phenomena where, indeed, SUSY contributions are comparable to the SM ones. Such analysis provides stringent constraints on different SUSY model parameter spaces and, at the same time, it individuates possible windows for SUSY signals in spite of all the existing constraints. Our attention will focus in particular on the CP violating processes which are the most sensitive place for SUSY effects in the vast class of rare phenomena of the SM.

  16. Stimulus collative properties and consumers’ flavor preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Duerlund, Mette; Bøegh-Petersen, Jannie

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated consumers’ hedonic response to flavor stimuli in light of Berlyne’s (1967) collative-motivational model of aesthetic preferences. According to this paradigm, sensory preferences are a function of a stimulus’ arousal potential, which is determined by its collative...... properties. The relationship between overall arousal potential and hedonic response takes the shape of an inverted “U”, reaching an optimum at a certain level of arousal potential. In three independent studies, using different sets of novel beers as stimuli, consumers’ reported their hedonic response......, whereas mixed results were obtained for familiarity and complexity. Additionally, in two of the studies the moderating role of relevant consumer characteristics – product knowledge, food neophobia and variety seeking tendency – was investigated. A consumer’s degree of product knowledge was found...

  17. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner

    2018-01-01

    If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ →ℓ‧ γ but rather ℓ →ℓ‧ X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z‧ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ →ℓ‧ + inv , but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ → eX , X → γγ , ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  18. Eight light flavors on large lattice volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Schaich, David

    2013-01-01

    I present first results from large-scale lattice investigations of SU(3) gauge theory with eight light flavors in the fundamental representation. Using leadership computing resources at Argonne, we are generating gauge configurations with lattice volumes up to $64^3\\times128$ at relatively strong coupling, in an attempt to access the chiral regime. We use nHYP-improved staggered fermions, carefully monitoring finite-volume effects and other systematics. Here I focus on analyses of the light hadron spectrum and chiral condensate, measured on lattice volumes up to $48^3\\times96$ with fermion masses as light as m=0.004 in lattice units. We find no clear indication of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in these observables. I discuss the implications of these initial results, and prospects for further physics projects employing these ensembles of gauge configurations.

  19. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  20. Flavored whey drinks: preparation and evaluation of selected parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Bobková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was the preparation of fermented flavored whey beverages using whey, probiotic cultures and suitable flavors. Whey fermentation by lactic acid bacteria appears to be an interesting alternative to improve the properties of whey and thus to offer its exceptional nutritional value, not only because of whey protein contained, but also due to the valuable products produced by microorganisms. Pasteurized whey was enriched by the addition of sheep culture ZS-25, which was isolated from sheep cheese and contains more varieties of species Lactococcus lactis, and also by the probiotic culture containing the microorganisms of Bifidobacterium sp., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus. We focused our attention to select the appropriate type and concentration of flavor as well. Sensory evaluation was performed by the committee consisting of five intentionally selected professionally qualified persons. Taste of fermented whey drink was main observed property. Assessment of prepared whey drinks was repeated four times, each group consisted of 5 samples according to the following structure: sample A - whey drink with culture without flavoring, sample B - whey drink with culture and exotic flavor, sample C - whey drink with the culture and flavor of cranberry-grape-strawberry, sample D - whey drink with the culture and peach-orange flavor, sample E - whey drink with the culture and strawberry flavor. Flavored fermented whey beverages were sensorially evaluated. The order of individual samples determined by the evaluators was statistically processed by the Friedman test. Table value for this test for five evaluators and 5 samples is 8.99. The calculated values for all four sensory evaluations we performed, were higher than 8.99, so we rejected the null hypothesis and proved that among the different flavored whey drinks it is statistically significant difference. Overall, the worst evaluated was whey drink without flavoring. As

  1. Flavor-Intensity Perception: Effects of Stimulus Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Lawrence E.; Shepard, Timothy G.; Burger, Kelly; Chakwin, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulus context affects judgments of intensity of both gustatory and olfactory flavors, and the contextual effects are modality-specific. Does context also exert separate effects on the gustatory and olfactory components of flavor mixtures? To answer this question, in each of 4 experiments, subjects rated the perceived intensity of 16 mixtures constructed by combining 4 concentrations of the gustatory flavorant sucrose with 4 concentrations of the retronasal olfactory flavorant citral. In 1 contextual condition of each experiment, concentrations of sucrose were relatively high and those of citral low; in the other condition, the relative concentrations of sucrose and citral reversed. There were 2 main results: First, consistent with earlier findings, in 5 of the 8 conditions, the ratings were consistent with linear addition of perceived sucrose and citral; departures from additivity appeared, however, in 3 conditions where the relative concentrations of citral were high. Second, changes in context produced contrast (adaptation-like changes) in perceived intensity: The contribution to perceived intensity of a given concentration of a flavorant was smaller when the contextual concentrations of that flavorant were high rather than low. A notable exception was the absence of contextual effects on the perceived intensity of near-threshold citral. These findings suggest that the contextual effects may arise separately in the gustatory and olfactory channels, prior to the integration of perceived flavor intensity. PMID:21930139

  2. Understanding the basic biology underlying the flavor world of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. MENNELLA, Alison K. VENTURA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health organizations worldwide recommend that adults and children minimize intakes of excess energy and salty, sweet, and fatty foods (all of which are highly preferred tastes and eat diets richer in whole grains, low- and non- fat dairy products, legumes, fish, lean meat, fruits, and vegetables (many of which taste bitter. Despite such recommendations and the well-established benefits of these foods to human health, adults are not complying, nor are their children. A primary reason for this difficulty is the remarkably potent rewarding properties of the tastes and flavors of foods high in sweetness, saltiness, and fatness. While we cannot easily change children’s basic ingrained biology of liking sweets and avoiding bitterness, we can modulate their flavor preferences by providing early exposure, starting in utero, to a wide variety of flavors within healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Because the flavors of foods mothers eat during pregnancy and lactation also flavor amniotic fluid and breast milk and become preferred by infants, pregnant and lactating women should widen their food choices to include as many flavorful and healthy foods as possible. These experiences, combined with repeated exposure to nutritious foods and flavor variety during the weaning period and beyond, should maximize the chances that children will select and enjoy a healthier diet [Current Zoology 56 (6: 834–841, 2010].

  3. The Flavor of the Composite Pseudo-Goldstone Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba; Weiler, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We study the flavor structure of 5D warped models that provide a dual description of a composite pseudo-Goldstone Higgs. We first carefully re-examine the flavor constraints on the mass scale of new physics in the standard Randall-Sundrum-type scenarios, and find that the KK gluon mass should generically be heavier than about 21 TeV. We then compare the flavor structure of the composite Higgs models to those in the RS model. We find new contributions to flavor violation, which while still are suppressed by the RS-GIM mechanism, will enhance the amplitudes of flavor violations. In particular, there is a kinetic mixing term among the SM fields which (although parametrically not enhanced) will make the flavor bounds even more stringent than in RS, and imply the KK gluon mass to be at least about 33 TeV. For both the RS and the composite Higgs models the flavor bounds could be stronger or weaker depending on the assumption on the value of the gluon boundary kinetic term. These strong bounds seem to imply that the...

  4. Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric monosodium glutamate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    The consumption of monosodium glutamate (MSG) solutions has been shown to reinforce preferences for MSG and for MSG-paired flavors in mice. These effects appear to have a strong postoral component, such that MSG detected in the gut is associated with concurrently consumed flavors. Two experiments investigated postoral MSG reward by infusing 400mM MSG intragastrically (IG) to C57BL/6 mice as they consumed a conditioned stimulus (CS+) flavor. An alternate CS- flavor was paired with IG water. In Experiment 1, the grape and cherry CS flavors were unsweetened, and intakes and preferences for the CS+ flavor were modest. Experiment 2 attempted to generate stronger preferences by adding 0.05% saccharin to the CS flavors. Sweet taste did enhance intakes during training and testing but did not significantly increase percent CS+ intake or persistence of the preference. However, only conditioning with the sweet CS+ resulted in the mice expressing a preference for oral MSG in an initial choice test with water. These findings extend recent studies demonstrating postoral MSG conditioning in rats.

  5. D3–D5 theories with unquenched flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Conde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the string duals of the defect theories generated when Nf flavor D5-branes intersect Nc color D3-branes along a 2+1 dimensional subspace. We work in the Veneziano limit in which Nc and Nf are large and Nf/Nc is fixed. By smearing the D5-branes, we find supergravity solutions that take into account the backreaction of the flavor branes and preserve two supercharges. When the flavors are massless the resulting metric displays an anisotropic Lifshitz-like scale invariance. The case of massive quarks is also considered.

  6. Review of recent heavy flavor measurements in STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomnitz Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-ion collisions at RHIC provide a unique environment to study the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. In particular, heavy quarks, which are produced during the early stages of a collision, provide an exceptional probe in understanding the hot and dense medium created in such collisions. The Heavy Flavor Tracker and Muon Telescope Detector at the STAR experiment at RHIC have been successfully installed since early 2014 and have significantly improved the experimental capabilities in measuring both open and hidden heavy flavor hadrons in heavy-ion collisions. We present an overview of recent heavy flavor results obtained at STAR using these two dedicated detectors.

  7. Flavor network and the principles of food pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Bagrow, James P.; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-12-01

    The cultural diversity of culinary practice, as illustrated by the variety of regional cuisines, raises the question of whether there are any general patterns that determine the ingredient combinations used in food today or principles that transcend individual tastes and recipes. We introduce a flavor network that captures the flavor compounds shared by culinary ingredients. Western cuisines show a tendency to use ingredient pairs that share many flavor compounds, supporting the so-called food pairing hypothesis. By contrast, East Asian cuisines tend to avoid compound sharing ingredients. Given the increasing availability of information on food preparation, our data-driven investigation opens new avenues towards a systematic understanding of culinary practice.

  8. Symmetry for Flavor-Kinematics Duality from an Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new representation of the nonlinear sigma model that exhibits a manifest duality between flavor and kinematics. The fields couple exclusively through cubic Feynman vertices which define the structure constants of an underlying kinematic algebra. The action is invariant under a combination of internal and spacetime symmetries whose conservation equations imply flavor-kinematics duality, ensuring that all Feynman diagrams satisfy kinematic Jacobi identities. Substituting flavor for kinematics, we derive a new cubic action for the special Galileon theory. In this picture, the vanishing soft behavior of amplitudes is a by-product of the Weinberg soft theorem.

  9. Energy and frequency dependence of the alpha particle redistribution produced by internal kink modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farengo, R. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Centro Atómico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, 8400 Bariloche, RN (Argentina); Ferrari, H. E. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Centro Atómico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, 8400 Bariloche, RN (Argentina); CONICET, 8400 Bariloche, RN (Argentina); Garcia-Martinez, P. L. [CONICET, 8400 Bariloche, RN (Argentina); Firpo, M.-C.; Ettoumi, W. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128, Palaiseau cedex (France); Lifschitz, A. F. [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91761 Palaiseau cedex (France)

    2014-08-15

    The redistribution of alpha particles due to internal kink modes is studied. The exact particle trajectories in the total fields, equilibrium plus perturbation, are calculated. The equilibrium has circular cross section and the plasma parameters are similar to those expected in ITER. The alpha particles are initially distributed according to a slowing down distribution function and have energies between 18 keV and 3.5 MeV. The (1, 1), (2, 2), and (2, 1) modes are included and the effect of changing their amplitude and frequency is studied. When only the (1, 1) mode is included, the spreading of high energy (E≳1 MeV) alpha particles increases slowly with the energy and mode frequency. At lower energies, the redistribution is more sensitive to the mode frequency and particle energy. When a (2, 1) mode is added, the spreading increases significantly and particles can reach the edge of the plasma. Trapped particles are the most affected and the redistribution parameter can have maxima above 1 MeV, depending on the mode frequency. These results can have important implications for ash removal.

  10. TORNADO-LIKE EVOLUTION OF A KINK-UNSTABLE SOLAR PROMINENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wensi; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming, E-mail: rliu@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-01-01

    We report on the tornado-like evolution of a quiescent prominence on 2014 November 1. The eastern section of the prominence first rose slowly, transforming into an arch-shaped structure as high as ∼150 Mm above the limb; the arch then writhed moderately in a left-handed sense, while the original dark prominence material emitted in the Fe ix 171 Å passband, and a braided structure appeared at the eastern edge of the warped arch. The unraveling of the braided structure was associated with a transient brightening in the EUV and apparently contributed to the formation of a curtain-like structure (CLS). The CLS consisted of myriad thread-like loops rotating counterclockwise about the vertical if viewed from above. Heated prominence material was observed to slide along these loops and land outside the filament channel. The tornado eventually disintegrated and the remaining material flew along a left-handed helical path constituting approximately a full turn, as corroborated through stereoscopic reconstruction, into the cavity of the stable, western section of the prominence. We suggest that the tornado-like evolution of the prominence was governed by the helical kink instability, and that the CLS formed through magnetic reconnections between the prominence field and the overlying coronal field.

  11. Tornado-like Evolution of a Kink-unstable Solar Prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wensi; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    We report on the tornado-like evolution of a quiescent prominence on 2014 November 1. The eastern section of the prominence first rose slowly, transforming into an arch-shaped structure as high as ˜150 Mm above the limb; the arch then writhed moderately in a left-handed sense, while the original dark prominence material emitted in the Fe ix 171 Å passband, and a braided structure appeared at the eastern edge of the warped arch. The unraveling of the braided structure was associated with a transient brightening in the EUV and apparently contributed to the formation of a curtain-like structure (CLS). The CLS consisted of myriad thread-like loops rotating counterclockwise about the vertical if viewed from above. Heated prominence material was observed to slide along these loops and land outside the filament channel. The tornado eventually disintegrated and the remaining material flew along a left-handed helical path constituting approximately a full turn, as corroborated through stereoscopic reconstruction, into the cavity of the stable, western section of the prominence. We suggest that the tornado-like evolution of the prominence was governed by the helical kink instability, and that the CLS formed through magnetic reconnections between the prominence field and the overlying coronal field.

  12. arXiv Investigating the "kink" plot as a signal of the onset of deconfinement

    CERN Document Server

    Naskręt, Michał

    One of the physics goals of the NA61/SHINE collaboration at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron is to study the phase diagram of hadronic matter. To this end, a series of heavy ion collision measurements are performed. It is believed that above a certain collision energy and system size a phase transition between hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma occurs. A number of observables has been developed to determine which of the phases was created at the early stage of the collision. This report discusses the dependence of the ratio of the mean number of produced pions to the mean number of wounded nucleons on the Fermi energy measure. For comparison with other measurements this is often presented in the form of the the "kink" plot. This plot is presented enriched with preliminary results for Ar+Sc central collisions at 13A, 19A, 30A, 40A, 75A and 150A GeV/c beam momentum. The results are finally compared to data from other experiments.

  13. Controlled dehydration of a ruthenium complex-DNA crystal induces reversible DNA kinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James P; Sanchez-Weatherby, Juan; Alberti, Cora; Quimper, Caroline Hurtado; O'Sullivan, Kyra; Brazier, John A; Winter, Graeme; Sorensen, Thomas; Kelly, John M; Cardin, David J; Cardin, Christine J

    2014-12-17

    Hydration-dependent DNA deformation has been known since Rosalind Franklin recognized that the relative humidity of the sample had to be maintained to observe a single conformation in DNA fiber diffraction. We now report for the first time the crystal structure, at the atomic level, of a dehydrated form of a DNA duplex and demonstrate the reversible interconversion to the hydrated form at room temperature. This system, containing d(TCGGCGCCGA) in the presence of Λ-[Ru(TAP)2(dppz)](2+) (TAP = 1,4,5,8-tetraazaphenanthrene, dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine), undergoes a partial transition from an A/B hybrid to the A-DNA conformation, at 84-79% relative humidity. This is accompanied by an increase in kink at the central step from 22° to 51°, with a large movement of the terminal bases forming the intercalation site. This transition is reversible on rehydration. Seven data sets, collected from one crystal at room temperature, show the consequences of dehydration at near-atomic resolution. This result highlights that crystals, traditionally thought of as static systems, are still dynamic and therefore can be the subject of further experimentation.

  14. Structure and Dynamics of Disruptive Kink Instabilities Measured by Fast Videography and Magnetics in HBT-EP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauel, M. E.; Bialek, J.; Brooks, J. W.; Levesque, J. P.; Navratil, G. A.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of kink instabilities, resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), and disruptions in the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) are studied using toroidal and poloidal arrays of magnetic field sensors and fast videography. The fast camera (Phantom v7.3) is most sensitive to light from the plasma edge and detects the structure of the plasma boundary for all types of MHD activity. Large helical ``plumes'' and ``bubbles'' are detected during disruptions (when helical perturbations can exceed 20% of the equilibrium poloidal field) and during kink mode precursors (when the mode amplitude can exceed 5% of the equilibrium field.) We present videos of the distorted plasma boundary and compare high-speed videos with computations of the helical boundary based on magnetic measurements. A variety of disruptions show ``plume''/``bubble'' structures reach 5 cm (or 30% of the plasma minor radius) from the plasma edge. The distortion and dynamics of the plasma boundary are discussed in relation to on-going investigations of scrape-off layer (SOL) currents during kink instabilities and disruptions. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  15. Can oral rehydration solution be safely flavored at home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijssen-Jordan, C

    1997-12-01

    To determine the concentration of sodium, potassium, glucose, and osmolality of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) which have been flavored with varying amounts of unsweetened Kool-Aid powder, Jell-O powder, apple juice, or orange juice. Descriptive. Alberta Children's Hospital Chemistry Laboratory. None. Addition of varying amounts of flavoring easily available in all households to commercially available unsweetened ORS. Concentrations of electrolytes, glucose, and osmolality. Addition of fruit juices or flavor powders to commercially produced ORS does alter the electrolyte content and osmolality. When limited amounts of flavoring or juice is added, the osmolality of the solution approaches iso-osmolality. Small amounts of unsweetened Kool-Aid powder, Jell-O powder, and apple or orange juice can be added to oral rehydration solutions without significantly altering electrolyte composition and osmolality.

  16. Working group report: Flavor physics and model building

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . While activities in flavor physics have been mainly focused on -physics, those in model building have been primarily devoted to neutrino physics. We present summary of working group discussions carried out during the workshop in the ...

  17. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  18. Report of the Quark Flavor Physics Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J N; Ritchie, J L; Cirigliano, V; Kettell, S; Briere, R; Petrov, A A; Schwartz, A; Skwarnicki, T; Zupan, J; Christ, N; Sharpe, S R; Van de Water, R S; Altmannshofer, W; Arkani-Hamed, N; Artuso, M; Asner, D M; Bernard, C; Bevan, A J; Blanke, M; Bonvicini, G; Browder, T E; Bryman, D A; Campana, P; Cenci, R; Cline, D; Comfort, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Datta, A; Dobbs, S; Duraisamy, M; El-Khadra, A X; Fast, J E; Forty, R; Flood, K T; Gershon, T; Grossman, Y; Hamilton, B; Hill, C T; Hill, R J; Hitlin, D G; Jaffe, D E; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Kagan, A L; Kaplan, D M; Kohl, M; Krizan, P; Kronfeld, A S; Lee, K; Littenberg, L S; MacFarlane, D B; Mackenzie, P B; Meadows, B T; Olsen, J; Papucci, M; Parsa, Z; Paz, G; Perez, G; Piilonen, L E; Pitts, K; Purohit, M V; Quinn, B; Ratcliff, B N; Roberts, D A; Rosner, J L; Rubin, P; Seeman, J; Seth, K K; Schmidt, B; Schopper, A; Sokoloff, M D; Soni, A; Stenson, K; Stone, S; Sundrum, R; Tschirhart, R; Vainshtein, A; Wah, Y W; Wilkinson, G; Wise, M B; Worcester, E; Xu, J; Yamanaka, T

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Quark Flavor Physics Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of quark flavor physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of strange, charm, and bottom quarks. The ability of these studies to reveal the effects of new physics at high mass scales make them an essential ingredient in a well-balanced experimental particle physics program.

  19. Flavor network and the principles of food pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Ahnert, Sebastian; Bagrow, James; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2011-03-01

    We construct and investigate a flavor network capturing the chemical similarity between the culinary ingredients. We found that Western cuisines have a statistically significant tendency to use ingredient pairs that share many flavor compounds, in line with the food pairing hypothesis used by some chefs and molecular gastronmists. By contrast, East Asian cuisine tend to avoid compound sharing ingredients. We identify key ingredients in each cuisine that help us to explore the differences and similarities between regional cuisines.

  20. Influence of flavor oscillations on neutrino beam instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, J. T., E-mail: titomend@ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 São Paulo SP (Brazil); Haas, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre RS (Brazil); Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    We consider the collective neutrino plasma interactions and study the electron plasma instabilities produced by a nearly mono-energetic neutrino beam in a plasma. We describe the mutual interaction between neutrino flavor oscillations and electron plasma waves. We show that the neutrino flavor oscillations are not only perturbed by electron plasmas waves but also contribute to the dispersion relation and the growth rates of neutrino beam instabilities.

  1. Heavy Flavor Measurements at RHIC in the Near Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Nu

    2006-12-01

    We discuss the recent results on open charm measurements at RHIC. The heavy flavor upgrade program for both PHENIX and STAR experiments are briefly discussed. The completion of the program will yield important information on light flavor thermalization of the partonic matter created in high-energy nuclear collisions at RHIC. A new era of RHIC is ahead of us with the progress of the upgrade program.

  2. PHENIX Results on Heavy-Flavor Yields at Forward Rapidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M.

    2016-12-01

    The PHENIX collaboration is actively pursuing a physics program to make precision open and closed heavy flavor measurements over a large rapidity range (- 2.2 production at all rapidities and are expanding our measurements of inclusive open heavy flavor to separated charm and beauty measurements carried out via single lepton measurements and through the separation of prompt and B → J / ψ + X production. We present the current status of these measurements.

  3. 14th Conference on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 edition of the Conference on Flavor Physics and CP Violation will be held at on the campus of the California Institute of Technology on 6-9 June. The FPCP conference series was founded in 2002 through the merger of the Heavy Flavor (HF) and B Physics and CP Violation (BPCP) conference series. A list of previous FPCP venues can be found here.

  4. New Physics at a Super Flavor Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Browder, Thomas E; Pirjol, Dan; Soni, Amarjit; Zupan, Jure

    2009-01-01

    The potential of a Super Flavor Factory (SFF) for searches of New Physics is reviewed. While very high luminosity B physics is assumed to be at the core of the program, its scope for extensive charm and tau studies are also emphasized. The possibility to run at the Upsilon(5S) as well as at the Upsilon(4S) is also very briefly discussed; in principle, this could provide very clean measurements of B_s decays. The strength and reach of a SFF is most notably due to the possibility of examining an impressive array of very clean observables. The angles and the sides of the unitarity triangle can be determined with unprecedented accuracy. These serve as a reference for New Physics (NP) sensitive decays such as B^+ ->tau^+ nu and penguin dominated hadronic decay modes, providing tests of generic NP scenarios with an accuracy of a few percent. Besides, very precise studies of direct and time dependent CP asymmetries in radiative B decays and forward-backward asymmetry studies in B -> X_s l^+ l^- and numerous null tes...

  5. Dark Z implication for flavor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fanrong [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529, R.O. (China); Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-06-25

    Dark Z/dark photon (Z{sup ′}) is one candidate of dark force carrier, which helps to interpret the properties of dark matter (DM). Other than conventional studies of DM including direct detection, indirect detection and collider simulation, in this work we take flavor physics as a complementary approach to investigate the features of dark matter. We give an exact calculation of the new type of penguin diagram induced by Z{sup ′} which further modifies the well-known X,Y,Z functions in penguin-box expansion. The measurement of rare decays B→K{sup (∗)}μ{sup +}μ{sup −} and B{sub s}→μ{sup +}μ{sup −} at LHC, together with direct CP violation ε{sup ′}/ε in K→ππ as well as K{sub L}→μ{sup +}μ{sup −}, are used to determine the parameter space. The size of coupling constant, however, is found to be O(1) which is much weaker than the known constraints.

  6. arXiv Lepton flavor universality violation without new sources of quark flavor violation

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenik, Jernej F.; Zupan, Jure

    2018-02-03

    We show that new physics models without new flavor violating interactions can explain the recent anomalies in the b→sℓ+ℓ- transitions. The b→sℓ+ℓ- arises from a Z′ penguin which automatically predicts the V-A structure for the quark currents in the effective operators. This framework can either be realized in a renormalizable U(1)′ setup or be due to new strongly interacting dynamics. The dimuon resonance searches at the LHC are becoming sensitive to this scenario since the Z′ is relatively light, and could well be discovered in future searches by ATLAS and CMS.

  7. Are salty liquid food flavorings in vitro antitumor substances?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO R.S. CARVALHO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative, cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of salty liquid synthetic flavorings of Butter, Cheddar Cheese and Onion. The antiproliferative potential (2.9-1500 µg/mL was assessed by MTT assay after 72h using the human tumor lines SF-295 (glioblastoma, OVCAR-8 (ovarian, HCT-116 (colon and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia and primary cultures of murine Sarcoma 180 (S180 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Allium cepa bulbs were exposed to growing respective doses (1 mL and 2 mL. Only Butter and Cheddar flavorings revealed cytotoxic activity on cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 125.4 µg/mL (Cheddar - HCT-116 to 402.6 µg/mL (Butter - OVCAR-8. Butter flavoring was the most cytotoxic on PBMC (136.3 µg/mL and increased cell division rate in relation to the mitotic index but did not cause cellular aberrations. Onion and Cheddar flavorings reduced the mitotic index after 24h and 48h exposure, but only Onion flavoring resulted in cellular aberrations and mitotic spindle abnormalities, such as anaphase and telophase bridges, micronucleated cells, conchicine-metaphases and amplifications. So, Butter, Onion and/or Cheddar flavorings caused significant changes in the division of meristematic cells of A. cepa and presented cytotoxic action even on decontrolled proliferating human tumor cells.

  8. Detecting gustatory-olfactory flavor mixtures: models of probability summation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Lawrence E; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Shepard, Timothy G; Shavit, Adam Y

    2012-03-01

    Odorants and flavorants typically contain many components. It is generally easier to detect multicomponent stimuli than to detect a single component, through either neural integration or probability summation (PS) (or both). PS assumes that the sensory effects of 2 (or more) stimulus components (e.g., gustatory and olfactory components of a flavorant) are detected in statistically independent channels, that each channel makes a separate decision whether a component is detected, and that the behavioral response depends solely on the separate decisions. Models of PS traditionally assume high thresholds for detecting each component, noise being irrelevant. The core assumptions may be adapted, however, to signal-detection theory, where noise limits detection. The present article derives predictions of high-threshold and signal-detection models of independent-decision PS in detecting gustatory-olfactory flavorants, comparing predictions in yes/no and 2-alternative forced-choice tasks using blocked and intermixed stimulus designs. The models also extend to measures of response times to suprathreshold flavorants. Predictions derived from high-threshold and signal-detection models differ markedly. Available empirical evidence on gustatory-olfactory flavor detection suggests that neither the high-threshold nor the signal-detection versions of PS can readily account for the results, which likely reflect neural integration in the flavor system.

  9. Flavored little cigar smoke induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in airway epithelia

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Arunava; Nethery, Rachel C.; Herring, Amy H.; Tarran, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Addition of flavors reduces the harsh taste of tobacco, facilitating the initiation and maintenance of addiction among youths. Flavored cigarettes (except menthol) are now banned. However, the legislation on little cigars remains unclear and flavored little cigars are currently available for purchase. Since inhaled tobacco smoke directly exerts toxic effects on the lungs, we tested whether non-flavored and flavored little cigar smoke exposure had the potential for harm in cultured pulmonary e...

  10. Chiral U(1) flavor models and flavored Higgs doublets: the top FB asymmetry and the W jj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, P.; Omura, Yuji; Yu, Chaehyun

    2012-01-01

    We present U(1) flavor models for leptophobic Z' with flavor dependent couplings to the right-handed up-type quarks in the Standard Model (SM), which can accommodate the recent data on the top forward-backward (FB) asymmetry and the dijet resonance associated with a W boson reported by CDF Collaboration. Such flavor-dependent leptophobic charge assignments generally require extra chiral fermions for anomaly cancellation. Also the chiral nature of U(1)' flavor symmetry calls for new U(1)'-charged Higgs doublets in order for the SM fermions to have realistic renormalizable Yukawa couplings. The stringent constraints from the top FB asymmetry at the Tevatron and the same sign top pair production at the LHC can be evaded due to contributions of the extra Higgs doublets. We also show that the extension could realize cold dark matter candidates.

  11. Flavors in the Soup: An Overview of Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Kurt E. Jung PhD, Purdue University, May 2016. Flavors in the Soup: An Overviewof Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS. Major Professor: Wei Xie.The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavorof the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function offlavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport propertiesof the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factorsof the heavy flavor tagged jets from charm and bottom quarks in both PbPb andpPb collisions can quantify such energy loss e↵ects. Specifically, pPb measurementsprovide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter e↵ect, whichis required to fully understand the hot and dense medium e↵ects on jets in PbPbcollisions. This dissertation presents the energy modification of b-jets in PbPb atppsN N = 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at sN N = 5.02 TeV, along with the first everpmeasurements of charm jets in pPb collisions at sN N = 5.0...

  12. Randall-Sundrum models vs. supersymmetry. The different flavor signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gori, Stefania

    2010-07-15

    The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model based on flavor symmetries and models with a warped extra dimension as first proposed by Randall and Sundrum represent two of the best founded theories beyond the Standard Model. They provide two appealing solutions both to the gauge hierarchy problem and to the Standard Model flavor hierarchy problems. In this thesis we focus on a particular Randall-Sundrum model based on the custodial symmetry SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x P{sub LR} in the bulk and on two Supersymmetric flavor models: the one based on a U(1) abelian flavor symmetry, the other on a SU(3) non abelian flavor symmetry. We first analyze and compare the flavor structure of the two frameworks, showing two possible ways to address the New Physics flavor problem: warped geometry and custodial protection vs. flavor symmetry. Subsequently, we study the impact of the new particles (Kaluza-Klein states in the Randall-Sundrum model and superpartners in Supersymmetry) in the K and B meson mixings and rare decays. We perform a global numerical analysis of the new physics effects in the models in question and we show that it is possible to naturally be in agreement with all the available data on {delta}F=2 observables, even fixing the energy scale of the models to the TeV range, in order to have new particles in the reach of the LHC. We then study distinctive patterns of flavor violation which can enable future experiments to distinguish the two frameworks. In particular, the specific correlations between the CP violating asymmetry in the B{sub s}{sup 0}- anti B{sub s}{sup 0} system, the rare decays B{sub s,d}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and K{yields}{pi}{nu}anti {nu} allow in principle for an experimental test of the Randall-Sundrum model and of the two Supersymmetric flavor models and a clear distinction between the two frameworks, once new data will be available. (orig.)

  13. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-02-25

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector,the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APSsensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay.

  14. A model-building approach to the origin of flavor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Erik

    2017-01-24

    In this thesis we link the recent anomalies reported in B meson and h→μτ decays to the smallness of neutrino masses and aspects of the flavor puzzle, including the hierarchy of the Yukawa couplings and the disparate fermion mixings. By formulating various new models we attempt to shed light on the potential common origin of the distinct measurements in the flavor sector. To this end, discrete symmetries are utilized in this work as the governing principle behind all fermion interactions. The first two models based on the S{sub 3} and the A{sub 4} symmetry, respectively, aim to unify the diverse fermion masses and mixings. Special features separate the frameworks from the flavor models in the literature that often lack testable predictions. While the first model provides interesting flavor-violating signatures in top quark decays, the second one ties the flavor to the grand unification scale in a novel way. In the three following models we focus on the anomalies that hint at lepton flavor and universality violation. We propose that the large flavor violation observed in h→μτ decays is dictated by the scalar mixing of an enlarged S{sub 4}-symmetric Higgs sector. By constructing two leptoquark models we show for the first time that leptoquark couplings shaped by a Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism can accommodate the B meson anomalies and simultaneously generate naturally-small neutrino masses. Emphasizing the importance of testability, we demonstrate how these models can be probed by future diphoton resonances, using the recent 750 GeV excess as an example scenario.

  15. Perceptions and Experiences with Flavored Non-Menthol Tobacco Products: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M.; Osman, Amira; Huang, Li-Ling; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2017-01-01

    Although a few countries have banned flavored cigarettes (except menthol), flavors in most tobacco products remain unregulated across the globe. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies examining perceptions of and experiences with flavored non-menthol tobacco products. Of 20 studies on flavored tobacco products included in our qualitative systematic review, 10 examined hookah, six examined e-cigarettes, two examined little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), and three examined other tobacco products, including cigarettes. The majority of studies, regardless of product type, reported positive perceptions of flavored tobacco products, particularly among young adults and adolescents. In six studies that assessed perceptions of harm (including hookah, LCCs, and other flavored tobacco products), participants believed flavored tobacco products to be less harmful than cigarettes. In studies that examined the role of flavors in experimentation and/or initiation (including three studies on e-cigarettes, one hookah study and one LCC study), participants mentioned flavors as specifically leading to their experimentation and/or initiation of flavored tobacco products. Given that many countries have not yet banned flavors in tobacco products, these findings add to existing research on why individuals use flavored tobacco products and how they perceive harm in flavored tobacco products, providing further support for banning non-menthol flavors in most tobacco products. PMID:28333107

  16. Flavor-nutrient learning in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Mitchell, Gemma L

    2007-01-30

    After we consume a novel food an association can form between its sensory characteristics (e.g., taste properties) and the effect it has on the body (rewarding). Associations of this kind underpin much of our everyday dietary behavior because they mediate both the affective quality of food (flavor-preference learning) and the amount that we choose to consume (learning satiation). Notwithstanding this fact, very few studies have successfully demonstrated the process of dietary learning in human adults. In addition, based on evidence from related research, we explored whether learning is less likely to occur in individuals who have high scores on a measure of dietary restraint. Female participants (N = 44) consumed two differently flavored desserts. Each was presented three times on separate days. One was formulated with a high-energy content (1882 kJ) and the other with a low-energy content (226 kJ). After training, we found little evidence for learned satiation. However, we did observe flavor-preference learning. Specifically, participants acquired a greater liking and desire-to-eat the dessert flavor that was paired with a higher energy density during training. Further analysis revealed that this effect on liking is qualified by dietary restraint. As predicted, unrestrained eaters demonstrated greater differential responding to the two desserts than did restrained eaters. These data provide further evidence for flavor-nutrient learning in adults and they highlight a hitherto unexplored and potentially important difference between restrained and unrestrained eaters.

  17. An optimization-based approach to calculating neutrino flavor evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Eve; Patwardhan, Amol V.; Johns, Lucas; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Fuller, George M.

    2017-10-01

    We assess the utility of an optimization-based data assimilation (D.A.) technique for treating the problem of nonlinear neutrino flavor transformation in core-collapse supernovae. D.A. uses measurements obtained from a physical system to estimate the state variable evolution and parameter values of the associated model. Formulated as an optimization procedure, D.A. can offer an integration-blind approach to predicting model evolution, which offers an advantage for models that thwart solution via traditional numerical integration techniques. Further, D.A. performs most optimally for models whose equations of motion are nonlinearly coupled. In this exploratory work, we consider a simple steady-state model with two monoenergetic neutrino beams coherently interacting with each other and a background medium. As this model can be solved via numerical integration, we have an independent consistency check for D.A. solutions. We find that the procedure can capture key features of flavor evolution over the entire trajectory, even given measurements of neutrino flavor only at the endpoint, and with an assumed known initial flavor distribution. Further, the procedure permits an examination of the sensitivity of flavor evolution to estimates of unknown model parameters, locates degeneracies in parameter space, and can identify the specific measurements required to break those degeneracies.

  18. Toxicity at the cellular level of artificial synthetic flavorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Monize Sousa Sales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of artificial synthetic flavoring agents Cookie and Tutti-frutti. To this end, root meristem cells of Allium cepa L. were exposed to these substances in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours using individual doses of 0.3; 0.6 and 0.9 mL and doses combined as follows: 0.3 mL + 0.3 mL; 0.6 mL and 0.9 mL + 0.6 mL + 0.9 mL. After applying the treatments, root meristems were fixed, hydrolyzed, stained and analyzed a total of 5,000 cells using an optical microscope to evaluate each dose and combined treatment. All three doses of Cookie flavoring and combined treatments significantly inhibited cell division of the tissue studied. Doses of Tutti-Frutti caused no change in cell division rate. In addition, doses of both flavorings and treatments combining these solutions induced cell aberrations in a significant number of cells to the A. cepa system. Therefore, under these analytical conditions, Cookie flavoring and combined doses were cytotoxic and genotoxic, and Tutti-Frutti flavoring, although non-cytotoxic, demonstrated genotoxic action.

  19. Heavy Flavor Production in Heavy Ion Collisions at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Studies of Heavy flavor production are of great interest in heavy ion collisions. In the produced medium, the binding potential between a quark and antiquark in quarkonium is screened by surrounding light quarks and antiquarks. Thus, the various quarkonium states are expected to be melt at different temperatures depending on their binding energies, which allows us to characterize the QCD phase transition. In addition, open heavy flavor production are relevant for flavor-dependence of the in-medium parton energy loss. In QCD, gluons are expected to lose more energy compared to quarks when passing through the QGP due to the larger color charge. Compared to light quarks, heavy quarks are expected to lose less radiative energy because gluon radiation is suppressed at angles smaller than the ratio of the quark mass to its energy. This dead cone effect (and its disappearance at high transverse momentum) can be studied using open heavy flavor mesons and heavy flavor tagged jets. With CMS detector, quarkonia, open he...

  20. Topics in three flavor chiral dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissler, Robin

    2007-07-01

    In this work, we investigate several processes in low-energy hadron physics by combining chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), the effective field theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at low energies, with a unitarization method based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Such so-called chiral unitary approaches are capable of describing processes in the three flavor sector of the strong interaction which involve substantial effects from final-state interactions and the excitation of (subthreshold) resonances, a domain where the perturbative framework of ChPT is not applicable. In part I of this work we study {eta} and {eta}' decays which constitute a perfect tool to examine symmetries and symmetry breaking patterns of QCD being incorporated in a model-independent fashion in ChPT. In particular, these decays allow to investigate the breaking of isospin symmetry due to the light quark mass difference m{sub d}-m{sub u} as well as effects of anomalies stemming from the quantum nature of QCD. For these reasons the decays of {eta} and {eta}' have also attracted considerable experimental interest. They are currently under investigation at several facilities including KLOE rate at DA{phi}NE, Crystal Ball at MAMI, WASA-at-COSY, VES at IHEP, and CLEO at CESR. In part II we investigate low-energy meson-baryon scattering in the strangeness S=-1 sector which is dominated by the {lambda}(1405) resonance immediately below the anti KN threshold. The anti KN interaction below threshold is of relevance for the quest of possible deeply bound anti K-nuclear clusters and has recently received an additional tight constraint: the K{sup -}p scattering length as determined from kaonic hydrogen by the KEK and the DEAR collaborations. Apart from successfully describing a large amount of experimental data and furnishing predictions for yet unmeasured quantities, our calculations allow to interrelate different experimental observables providing important consistency tests of experiments. E

  1. Gamma ray constraints on flavor violating asymmetric dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, I.; Panci, P.; Sannino, F.

    2012-01-01

    We show how cosmic gamma rays can be used to constrain models of asymmetric Dark Matter decaying into lepton pairs by violating flavor. First of all we require the models to explain the anomalies in the charged cosmic rays measured by PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S.; performing combined fits we...... determine the allowed values of the Dark Matter mass and lifetime. For these models, we then determine the constraints coming from the measurement of the isotropic gamma-ray background by Fermi for a complete set of lepton flavor violating primary modes and over a range of DM masses from 100 GeV to 10 Te......V. We find that the Fermi constraints rule out the flavor violating asymmetric Dark Matter interpretation of the charged cosmic ray anomalies....

  2. A flavor-safe composite explanation of $R_K$

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, Adrian

    2017-05-04

    In these proceedings we discuss a flavor-safe explanation of the anomaly found in $R_K= {\\cal B}(B \\to K \\mu^+ \\mu^-)/{\\cal B}(B \\to K e^+ e^-)$ by LHCb, within the framework of composite Higgs models. We present a model featuring a non-negligible degree of compositeness for all three generations of right-handed leptons, which leads to a violation of lepton-flavor universality in neutral current interactions while other constraints from quark- and lepton-flavor physics are met. Moreoever, the particular embedding of the lepton sector considered in this setup provides a parametrically enhanded contribution to the Higgs mass that can weak considerably the need for ultra-light top partners.

  3. Yeast diversity and native vigor for flavor phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrau, Francisco; Gaggero, Carina; Aguilar, Pablo S

    2015-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the yeast used widely for beer, bread, cider, and wine production, is the most resourceful eukaryotic model used for genetic engineering. A typical concern about using engineered yeasts for food production might be negative consumer perception of genetically modified organisms. However, we believe the true pitfall of using genetically modified yeasts is their limited capacity to either refine or improve the sensory properties of fermented foods under real production conditions. Alternatively, yeast diversity screening to improve the aroma and flavors could offer groundbreaking opportunities in food biotechnology. We propose a 'Yeast Flavor Diversity Screening' strategy which integrates knowledge from sensory analysis and natural whole-genome evolution with information about flavor metabolic networks and their regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Charged-Lepton Mixing and Lepton Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Guadagnoli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for calculating charged-lepton mixing matrices. These matrices are an essential ingredient for predicting lepton flavor-violating rates in the lepton number nonuniversal models recently proposed to explain anomalies in B-meson decays. The model is based on work on "constrained flavor breaking" by Appelquist, Bai and Piai relating the charged-lepton mass matrix, M_l, to those for the up and down-type quarks, M_{u,d}. We use our recent model of lepton nonuniversality to illustrate the magnitudes of flavor-violating B-decay rates that might be expected. Decays with mu tau final states generally have the highest rates by far.

  5. Latest Heavy Flavor Results from the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    Heavy quark production can be used as a stringent test of perturbative QCD in proton-proton collisions, and is a valuable reference for the study of heavy ion collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions, the measurement of heavy quark production provides a powerful tool for studying the properties of hot and dense matter created in these collisions. The PHENIX experiment has studied many important observables related to heavy flavor via leptonic measurements. Such observables include the invariant yield and azimuthal anisotropy of electrons from non-photonic sources and prompt single muons, both of which are dominated by decays of D and B mesons. Complimentary to single lepton measurements, PHENIX has measured invariant yield, flow, and polarization of various quarkonia states. Such measurements provide additional insight into heavy flavor production mechanisms. The most recent PHENIX heavy flavor results will be presented, and compared to various theoretical model predictions.

  6. SO(10) models for flavor with vector-like fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Shaikh

    2017-11-01

    In this work, unified models based on S O(10) symmetry is presented which provides insights into the flavor observables of charged fermions and the neutrinos. Unlike the conventional S O(10) models, the Higgs boson 10H belonging to the fundamental representation is not present in this new class of models. Instead vector-like fermions in the 16 + 16 ¯ representation is introduced to induce the flavor mixing. A variety of scenarios, both non-supersymmetric and supersymmetric, are studied involving a 126 ¯H Higgs boson. For symmetry breaking purpose, 126 ¯H Higgs is accompanied by either a 45H or a 210H of Higgs boson. Our analysis shows that this framework, by utilizing either type-I or type-II seesaw mechanism, an excellent fit to the fermion masses and mixings can be obtained with a limited number of parameters. To test and distinguish these flavor models, proton decay branching ratios are also computed.

  7. The effect of toothpicks containing flavoring and flavoring plus jambu extract (spilanthol) to promote salivation in patients -diagnosed with opioid-induced dry mouth (xerostomia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bennet; Davis, Kathy; Bigelow, Sandy; Healey, Patricia

    To determine if the use of toothpicks infused with flavoring and flavoring plus the food additive spilanthol (Xerosticks™) improve saliva flow in people with opioid-induced dry mouth. Time series, nonrandomized, double-blind within-subject design. Private practice/academic multidisciplinary pain and palliative care clinic. Ten subjects with opioid-induced dry mouth were recruited, and all finished the study. Salivary flow and pH were measured consecutively at baseline, following use of a mango-flavored toothpick, and again after use of a mango-flavored toothpick infused with spilanthol. Salivary flow rates and saliva pH were compared between flavored and baseline, between flavored + spilanthol and baseline, and between the flavored and flavored + spilanthol. Mouthfeel of each toothpick was assessed using the Bluestone Mouthfeel Questionnaire. The primary measure was salivary flow, and the secondary measures were salivary pH and mouthfeel. Saliva flow increased 440 percent over baseline with use of a flavored toothpick and 628 percent over baseline with similarly flavored toothpicks infused with spilanthol, and these differences are significant (p = 0.00002). Saliva pH increased with both toothpicks (p = 0.04). The addition of spilanthol produced a greater increase in salivary flow (p = 0.05) compared to control toothpicks with flavoring alone. Furthermore, addition of spilanthol improved the "mouthfeel" of the toothpick (p = 0.00001). Toothpicks infused with either flavoring or flavoring plus spilanthol are likely to be an effective remedy for opioid-induced dry mouth. Addition of spilanthol may improve effectiveness over flavoring alone and may be better ac-cepted because spilanthol appears to improve mouthfeel.

  8. The strong coupling constant of QCD with four flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Fatih

    2010-11-01

    In this thesis we study the theory of strong interaction Quantum Chromodynamics on a space-time lattice (lattice QCD) with four flavors of dynamical fermions by numerical simulations. In the early days of lattice QCD, only pure gauge field simulations were accessible to the computational facilities and the effects of quark polarization were neglected. The so-called fermion determinant in the path integral was set to one (quenched approximation). The reason for this approximation was mainly the limitation of computational power because the inclusion of the fermion determinant required an enormous numerical effort. However, for full QCD simulations the virtual quark loops had to be taken into account and the development of new machines and new algorithmic techniques made the so-called dynamical simulations with at least two flavors possible. In recent years, different collaborations studied lattice QCD with dynamical fermions. In our project we study lattice QCD with four degenerated flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks in the Schroedinger functional scheme and calculate the energy dependence of the strong coupling constant. For this purpose, we determine the O(a) improvement coefficient c{sub sw} with four flavors and use this result to calculate the step scaling function of QCD with four flavors which describes the scale evolution of the running coupling. Using a recursive finite-size technique, the {lambda} parameter is determined in units of a technical scale L{sub max} which is an unambiguously defined length in the hadronic regime. The coupling {alpha}{sub SF} of QCD in the so-called Schroedinger functional scheme is calculated over a wide range of energies non-perturbatively and compared with 2-loop and 3-loop perturbation theory as well as with the non-perturbative result for only two flavors. (orig.)

  9. Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joseph G.; Flanigan, Skye S.; LeBlanc, Mallory; Vallarino, Jose; MacNaughton, Piers; Stewart, James H.; Christiani, David C

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are > 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as ?popcorn lung.? There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes. Objective: We aimed to determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl and two other high-priority flavoring chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione and acetoin, are present i...

  10. Excited-Nucleon Spectroscopy with 2+1 Fermion Flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Saul; Foley, Justin; Morningstar, Colin; Wong, Ricky; Edwards, Robert G; Joo, Balint; Richards, David G; Juge, Jimmy; Lin, Huey-Lin; Mathur, Nilmani; Peardon, Micheal J

    2010-01-01

    We present progress made by the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration (HSC) in determining the tower of excited nucleon states using 2+1-flavor anisotropic clover lattices. The HSC has been investigating interpolating operators projected into irreducible representations of the cubic group in order to better calculate two-point correlators for nucleon spectroscopy; results are published for quenched and 2-flavor anisotropic Wilson lattices. In this work, we present the latest results using a new technique, distillation, which allows us to reach higher statistics than before. Future directions will be outlined at the end.

  11. Flavor mixing transformations for a uniformly accelerated observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasone, M.; Lambiase, G.; Luciano, G. G.

    2017-08-01

    We study flavor mixing transformations for a uniformly accelerated observer (Rindler observer) in the simplest case of two charged scalar fields with different masses. This is obtained starting from an analysis of boson field mixing in inertial frame (Minkowski frame) in the hyperbolic basis. As a consequence of the non-trivial interplay between the Bogolubov transformation related to flavor mixing and the one arising from the Rindler spacetime structure, the Fulling-Rindler condensate of the inertial vacuum gets deeply modified, losing its original thermal nature.

  12. The Effect of a Twisted Magnetic Field on the Phase Mixing of the Kink Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Zanyar; Karami, Kayoomars [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Street, P.O. Box 66177-15175, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soler, Roberto, E-mail: z.ebrahimi@uok.ac.ir [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2017-08-10

    There is observational evidence for the existence of a twisted magnetic field in the solar corona. This inspires us to investigate the effect of a twisted magnetic field on the evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves in coronal loops. With this aim, we solve the incompressible linearized MHD equations in a magnetically twisted nonuniform coronal flux tube in the limit of long wavelengths. Our results show that a twisted magnetic field can enhance or diminish the rate of phase mixing of the Alfvén continuum modes and the decay rate of the global kink oscillation depending on the twist model and the sign of the longitudinal ( k{sub z} ) and azimuthal ( m ) wavenumbers. Also, our results confirm that in the presence of a twisted magnetic field, when the sign of one of the two wavenumbers m and k {sub z} is changed, the symmetry with respect to the propagation direction is broken. Even a small amount of twist can have an important impact on the process of energy cascading to small scales.

  13. Axial-Compressive Behavior, Including Kink-Band Formation and Propagation, of Single p-Phenylene Terephthalamide (PPTA Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grujicic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of p-phenylene terephthalamide (PPTA single fibers when subjected to uniaxial compression is investigated computationally using coarse-grained molecular statics/dynamics methods. In order to construct the coarse-grained PPTA model (specifically, in order to define the nature of the coarse-grained particles/beads and to parameterize various components of the bead/bead force-field functions, the results of an all-atom molecular-level computational investigation are used. In addition, the microstructure/topology of the fiber core, consisting of a number of coaxial crystalline fibrils, is taken into account. Also, following our prior work, various PPTA crystallographic/topological defects are introduced into the model (at concentrations consistent with the prototypical PPTA synthesis/processing conditions. The analysis carried out clearly revealed (a formation of the kink bands during axial compression; (b the role of defects in promoting the formation of kink bands; (c the stimulating effects of some defects on the fiber-fibrillation process; and (d the detrimental effect of the prior compression, associated with fiber fibrillation, on the residual longitudinal-tensile strength of the PPTA fibers.

  14. “Uncovering the Kink Celebrating my Black Identity: Perceptions on Afro-Costa Ricans Natural Hair”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Hutchinson Miller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is no secret the racism within the Costa Rican society especially against people of African descent. While this racism is manifested in mostly overt ways it is nonetheless present, and continues to affect people of African descent in a myriad of ways including how they feel about their natural hair. From a very early age Afro-Costa Rican children learn to look down on their natural kink reinforced verbally and through images designed for them to hide, and dislike what is naturally theirs. As a result many embraced synthetic, and other ethnic group’s natural hair, preferring to pay any amount of money besides undergoing significant hair, and scalp ill-treatment all with the objective of hiding the natural kink. The main objective of this paper is to make visible the perceptions of Afro-Costa Ricans natural hair by both Afro, and mestizo ethnic groups, and enquire about some of the effects on people of African descent in Costa Rica. The exploratory research collected data from four focus groups of teenage mestizos, 20th century newspaper, one workshop, and questionnaires filled only by Afro-Costa Ricans.

  15. Error Field Assessment from Driven Rotation of Stable External Kinks at EXTRAP-T2R Reversed Field Pinch

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, F A; Brunsell, P R; Drake, J R; Olofsson, K E J

    2013-01-01

    A new non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch. Stable and marginally stable external kink modes of toroidal mode number n=10 and n=8, respectively, were generated, and their rotation sustained, by means of rotating magnetic perturbations of the same n. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the kink modes were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude. This behavior was used to precisely infer the amplitude and approximately estimate the toroidal phase of the EF. A subsequent scan permitted to optimize the toroidal phase. The technique was tested against deliberately applied as well as intrinsic error fields of n=8 and 10. Corrections equal and opposite to the estimated error fields were applied. The efficacy of the error compensation was indicated by the increased discharge duration and more uniform mo...

  16. Error field assessment from driven rotation of stable external kinks at EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, F. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.

    2013-04-01

    A new non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch. Stable and marginally stable external kink modes of toroidal mode number n = 10 and n = 8, respectively, were generated, and their rotation sustained, by means of rotating magnetic perturbations of the same n. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the kink modes were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude. This behaviour was used to precisely infer the amplitude and approximately estimate the toroidal phase of the EF. A subsequent scan permitted to optimize the toroidal phase. The technique was tested against deliberately applied as well as intrinsic EFs of n = 8 and 10. Corrections equal and opposite to the estimated error fields were applied. The efficacy of the error compensation was indicated by the increased discharge duration and more uniform mode rotation in response to a uniformly rotating perturbation. The results are in good agreement with theory, and the extension to lower n, to tearing modes and to tokamaks, including ITER, is discussed.

  17. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. 27 food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry......A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers the naturalness of a raspberry...... distribution of the R and S isomer. Two products were labelled to contain natural raspberry flavors but were found to contain almost equal amounts of both enantiomers indicating a presence of synthetic raspberry flavors only. Additionally, two products labelled to contain both raspberry juice and flavor showed...

  18. The order of the QCD transition with two light flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonati, Claudio; Cossu, Guido [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Pisa, largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127, Pisa (Italy); D' Elia, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146, Genova (Italy); Di Giacomo, Adriano [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Pisa, largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127, Pisa (Italy); Pica, Claudio [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    We report on the status of our analysis on the order of the finite temperature transition in QCD with two light flavors. Our new simulations on larger lattices give preliminary evidence of the first order nature of the transition also at small non-zero quark masses.

  19. Strong preference for mint snus flavor among research participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane M. Schneller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 allows the US FDA to regulate tobacco products, including the banning of characterizing flavors, such as fruit and candy, cigarettes. The availability of mint flavored snus may facilitate the use of the product if consumers find it more palatable with respect to taste, odor, pleasantness, and intensity. Methods: This study assessed product evaluation (PES, odor identification, odor intensity, and odor hedonics among 151 smokers enrolled in a clinical trial of snus substitution for cigarettes. Results: Far more participants selected Winterchill (N=110 than Robust (N=41, regardless of their menthol cigarette smoking status. Nicotine dependence was higher among those who selected Winterchill (4 vs 3 on Fagerstrom scale, p=0.017. Those who found Winterchill to be more satisfying, less aversive, and having a more intense, more pleasant odor than Robust were substantially more likely to select Winterchill for their one week trial. Conclusions: Findings indicate that subjective effect measures such as the PES and DEQ are capable of differentiating products in terms of flavor preference, and that smokers express a strong preference for mint flavored snus.

  20. Tevatron Results on Heavy Flavor Production and Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuri, Fabrizio [INFN, Pisa

    2014-09-02

    The most recent results on heavy flavor production and decays from the Tevatron experiments CDF and D0 are summarized and compared with some LHC experiment results. The collected data sample refers to the full Tevatron Run II operation and it corresponds to about 10 inverse fb of integrated luminosity per experiment.

  1. Flavor and taste compounds analysis in Chinese solid fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of free amino acid and volatile compounds were conducted to understand the changes in taste and flavor of five samples which were solid fermented. The values of bitter, sweet and MSG-like free amino acids in these soy sauces were significantly different. The taste of soy sauce was predominated by saltiness ...

  2. Food Color and Its Impact on Taste/Flavor Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, Charles; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Color is perhaps the single most important product-intrinsic sensory cue when it comes to setting our expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor of food and drink. To date, a large body of research has demonstrated that changing the hue or intensity/saturation of the color of a variety of

  3. Flavor conversion of cosmic neutrinos from hidden jets

    CERN Document Server

    Razzaque, Soebur

    2010-01-01

    High energy cosmic neutrino fluxes can be produced inside relativistic jets under the envelopes of collapsing stars. In the energy range E ~ (0.3 - 1e5) GeV, flavor conversion of these neutrinos is modified by various matter effects inside the star and the Earth. We present a comprehensive (both analytic and numerical) description of the flavor conversion of these neutrinos which includes: (i) oscillations inside jets, (ii) flavor-to-mass state transitions in an envelope, (iii) loss of coherence on the way to observer, and (iv) oscillations of the mass states inside the Earth. We show that conversion has several new features which are not realized in other objects, in particular interference effects ("L- and H- wiggles") induced by the adiabaticity violation. The neutrino-neutrino scattering inside jet and inelastic neutrino interactions in the envelope may produce some additional features at E > 1e4 GeV. We study dependence of the probabilities and flavor ratios in the matter-affected region on angles theta1...

  4. High-p{sub T} dilepton tails and flavor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greljo, Admir [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland); University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Science, Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Marzocca, David [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2017-08-15

    We investigate the impact of flavor-conserving, non-universal quark-lepton contact interactions on the dilepton invariant mass distribution in p p → l{sup +}l{sup -} processes at the LHC. After recasting the recent ATLAS search performed at 13 TeV with 36.1 fb{sup -1} of data, we derive the best up-to-date limits on the full set of 36 chirality-conserving four-fermion operators contributing to the processes and estimate the sensitivity achievable at the HL-LHC. We discuss how these high-p{sub T} measurements can provide complementary information to the low-p{sub T} rare meson decays. In particular, we find that the recent hints on lepton-flavor universality violation in b → sμ{sup +}μ{sup -} transitions are already in mild tension with the dimuon spectrum at high-p{sub T} if the flavor structure follows minimal flavor violation. Even if the mass scale of new physics is well beyond the kinematical reach for on-shell production, the signal in the high-p{sub T} dilepton tail might still be observed, a fact that has been often overlooked in the present literature. In scenarios where new physics couples predominantly to third generation quarks, instead, the HL-LHC phase is necessary in order to provide valuable information. (orig.)

  5. Caffeine increases liking and consumption of novel-flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Leah M; Swoboda, Christine; Bendlin, Ashley; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-06-01

    Caffeine has been shown to increase preference for beverages with which it is paired; however, it is not known if caffeine alters liking for foods with which it is paired indirectly. The purpose of the current experiment was to test the hypothesis that a caffeinated beverage paired with a novel-flavored yogurt will increase preference for that yogurt compared to one paired with placebo. We also tested the hypothesis that liking would increase more when caffeine was paired with high energy density yogurt. Men and women (n = 62) were randomized to receive a beverage containing placebo (PLA) or caffeine (CAF) and to consume a low (LED) or high energy density (HED), novel-flavored yogurt. Participants rated, ranked, and consumed seven novel-flavored yogurts and then had a target yogurt paired with either PLA or CAF over four consecutive days. In general, yogurt liking increased over time, the HED yogurt was liked more than the LED yogurt, and yogurt paired with caffeine was liked more than yogurt paired with placebo. Participants showed a significant increase in liking of LED yogurt paired with caffeine compared to those with LED yogurt paired with placebo. Caffeine administration may increase liking and consumption of novel-flavored foods, particularly if the food is not highly liked at baseline. This suggests that caffeine pairing may be a way to increase liking of LED foods, such as vegetables and fruit.

  6. Fruit flavor formation in wild and cultivated strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharoni, A.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years we have used various genomics tools to investigate ripening in strawberry, in particular the process of fruit flavor biogenesis. The combination of biochemical analysis, generation of a strawberry Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) collection and gene expression analysis using cDNA

  7. Runner Peanut Growth, Maturity, and Flavor Response to Prohexadione Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    One major challenge to producing runner market type peanuts in west Texas is the potential for early frost and poor crop maturity that could result in flavor problems. Prohexadione calcium is a plant growth regulator that inhibits the synthesis of gibberellic acid in peanut resulting in reduced vin...

  8. Towards flavored bound states beyond rainbows and ladders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bennich, B.; Rojas, E.; Melo, J. P. B. C. de [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, São Paulo 01506-000 SP (Brazil); Paracha, M. A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo 01506-000 SP, Brazil and Centre for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-11

    We give a snapshot of recent progress in solving the Dyson-Schwinger equation with a beyond rainbow-ladder ansatz for the dressed quark-gluon vertex which includes ghost contributions. We discuss the motivations for this approach with regard to heavy-flavored bound states and form factors and briefly describe future steps to be taken.

  9. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of ingredients prescribed for that specific natural cheese variety promulgated pursuant to section 401 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In addition a spiced and/or flavored standardized... standardized cheese shall include in addition to the varietal name of the natural cheese, a declaration of any...

  10. High pressure processing with hot sauce flavoring enhances sensory quality for raw oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the feasibility of flavoring raw oysters by placing them under pressure in the presence of selected flavorings. Hand-shucked raw oysters were processed at high pressure (600 MPa), in the presence or absence of (Sriracha®) flavoring, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel 3 an...

  11. Spin polarization versus color–flavor locking in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that spin polarization with respect to each flavor in three-flavor quark matter occurs instead of color–flavor locking at high baryon density by using the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model with four-point tensor-type interaction. Also, it is indicated that the order of phase transition between...

  12. Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Roura, E.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently

  13. Identification of a strawberry flavor gene candidate using an integrated genetic-genomic-analytical chemistry approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is interest in improving the flavor of commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) varieties. Fruit flavor is shaped by combinations of sugars, acids and volatile compounds. Many efforts seek to use genomics-based strategies to identify genes controlling flavor, and then designing ...

  14. Identification of flavor compounds and enhancement of flavor characteristics in space foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Yun, Hyejeong; Jung, Samooel; Jung, Yeonkook; Lee, Hyeonjeong [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    To minimize the deterioration of sensorial quality of irradiated bulgogi and dakgalbi, the microbial safety and volatiles were examined. The total aerobic bacterial population of dakgalbi was eliminated by 40 kGy of irradiation, But, the lipid oxidation and the contents of volatile basic nitrogen were significantly increased by 40 kGy of irradiation, and off-flavor was significantly higher in irradiated sample. The amount of volatile compounds was increased by irradiation including hexane, heptane, propanal, hexanal, pentanal, and nonanal Totally 7 natural materials and red wine were added into ground beef for manufacturing bulgogi and evaluated the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. When garlic, onion, or red wine were added into the ground beef with concentrations 1 to 5%, the RRS increased significantly. Also, garlic or onion used as ingredient of dakalbi significantly increased RRS against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytohenes garlic or red wine were selected to increase of RRS and combined with charcoal packaging to reduce the off-odor of ground beef by irradiation. The combination treatment of garlic or red wine with charcoal packaging reduced the total volatile compounds. Sensory evaluation confirmed that the use of combination treatment of natural materials with charcoal packaging enhance the sensorial quality of ground beef. As the result, it is possible to reduce the required irradiation dose by increasing RRS, which can minimize sensory deterioration of the products. And, charcoal packaging can reduce sensory deterioration

  15. Heavy Flavor Decays of the Z0 and a Search for Flavor Changing Neutral Currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, S

    2004-06-22

    Presented here are the results of a direct search for flavor changing neutral currents via the rare process Z{sup 0} {yields} bs and a measurement of R{sub bs} = {Lambda}(Z{sup 0} {yields} bs)/{Lambda}(Z{sup 0} {yields} hadrons). Because the decays Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b} and Z{sup 0} {yields} c{bar c} contribute significant backgrounds to Z{sup 0} {yields} bs, simultaneous measurements of R{sub b} = {Lambda}(Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b})/{Lambda}(Z{sup 0} {yields} hadrons) and R{sub c} = {Lambda}(Z{sup 0} {yields} c{bar c})/{Lambda}(Z{sup 0} {yields} hadrons) were also made. The standard double tag technique was extended and self calibrating tags were used for s, c, and b quarks. These measurements were made possible by the unique capabilities of the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC): The b and c tags relied upon the SLD's VXD3 307 megapixel CCD vertex detector for topological and kinematic reconstruction of the B and D decay vertices; the s tag identified K{sup {+-}} mesons using the particle identification capabilities of SLD's Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID), and K{sub S}{sup 0} mesons and {Lambda} hadrons by kinematic reconstruction of their decay vertices in SLD's 5120 channel central drift chamber (CDC) particle tracking system.

  16. Heavy Flavor Decays Of The Z(0) And A Search For Flavor Changing Neutral Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Walston, S E

    2004-01-01

    Presented here are the results of a direct search for flavor changing neutral currents via the rare process Z0 → bs and a measurement of Rbs=G&parl0;Z0→bs&parr0; G&parl0;Z0→ hadrons&parr0; . Because the decays Z0 → bb¯ and Z0 → cc¯ contribute significant backgrounds to Z 0 → bs, simultaneous measurements of Rb=G&parl0;Z0→b b&parr0;G&parl0;Z0→ hadrons&parr0; and Rc=G&parl0;Z0→c c&parr0;G&parl0;Z0→ hadrons&parr0; were also made. The standard double tag technique was extended and self calibrating tags were used for s, c, and b quarks. These measurements were made possible by the unique capabilities of the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC): The b and c tags relied upon the SLD's VXD3 307 megapixel CCD vertex detector for topological and kinematic reconstruction of the B and D decay vertices; the s tag identif...

  17. Bromofenóis simples relacionados ao "flavor" de organismos marinhos Brominated phenols as key flavor compounds found in marine organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the flavor is an important attribute of quality in marine fish and other seafoods, being the first and main factor of discrimination for the evaluation, later acceptance and preference of the product by the consumer. Recently, the simple bromophenols have been considered an important group of key flavor compounds occurring in a wide variety of seafood species like fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and algae. When present in high concentration, in seafood, the bromophenols produce an undesirable flavor and are associated with inferior quality. Meanwhile, when present in low concentration levels (for example ng g-1 these compounds produce a desirable marine - or ocean-like - flavor and enhance the existing flavor in seafood. Indeed, simple bromophenols are widespread in seafood but virtually absent in freshwater fish. Herein we present a review on these flavor components found in the marine environment.

  18. Understanding and improving flavor in snap beans: Screening the USDA Phaseolus core collection for pod sugar and flavor compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of our research is to gain knowledge regarding variation in sugar and flavor content among a sample of dry bean and green pod-type accessions from the USDA Phaseolus Germplasm Core Collection, Pullman, WA. Knowledge of the variation will allow better utilization of germplasm resources ...

  19. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [retention of flavor during freeze drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The retention of flavor during freeze drying was studied with model systems. Mechanisms by which flavor retention phenomena is explained were developed and process conditions specified so that flavor retention is optimized. The literature is reviewed and results of studies of the flavor retention behavior of a number of real food products, including both liquid and solid foods are evaluated. Process parameters predicted by the mechanisms to be of greatest significance are freezing rate, initial solids content, and conditions which result in maintenance of sample structure. Flavor quality for the real food showed the same behavior relative to process conditions as predicted by the mechanisms based on model system studies.

  1. Current saturation and kink effect in zero-bandgap double-gate silicene field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nishant; Choudhary, Sudhanshu

    2017-10-01

    Double gate silicene field effect transistor is investigated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) formalism. The results suggest that with an increase in gate bias, bandgap is introduced in silicene which results in reduction in device current. The increase in silicene bandgap is also related to the reduction in channel length. It is observed that drain to source current (IDS) saturates on increasing drain to source voltage (VDS). On increasing VDS beyond saturation region, at some value of VDS kink effect is seen which is due to switching in the type of carriers at the drain end due to ambipolar channel. Transconductance (gm) is seen to reduce with reduction in channel length, however, gm improves with reduced oxide thickness due to better gate controllability. The output characteristics do not change much with oxide thickness.

  2. Role of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 (PBP2) in the Antibiotic Susceptibility and Cell Wall Cross-Linking of Staphylococcus aureus: Evidence for the Cooperative Functioning of PBP2, PBP4, and PBP2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łęski, Tomasz A.; Tomasz, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Ceftizoxime, a beta-lactam antibiotic with high selective affinity for penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) of Staphylococcus aureus, was used to select a spontaneous resistant mutant of S. aureus strain 27s. The stable resistant mutant ZOX3 had an increased ceftizoxime MIC and a decreased affinity of its PBP2 for ceftizoxime and produced peptidoglycan in which the proportion of highly cross-linked muropeptides was reduced. The pbpB gene of ZOX3 carried a single C-to-T nucleotide substitution at nucleotide 1373, causing replacement of a proline with a leucine at amino acid residue 458 of the transpeptidase domain of the protein, close to the SFN conserved motif. Experimental proof that this point mutation was responsible for the drug-resistant phenotype, and also for the decreased PBP2 affinity and reduced cell wall cross-linking, was provided by allelic replacement experiments and site-directed mutagenesis. Disruption of pbpD, the structural gene of PBP4, in either the parental strain or the mutant caused a large decrease in the highly cross-linked muropeptide components of the cell wall and in the mutant caused a massive accumulation of muropeptide monomers as well. Disruption of pbpD also caused increased sensitivity to ceftizoxime in both the parental cells and the ZOX3 mutant, while introduction of the plasmid-borne mecA gene, the genetic determinant of the beta-lactam resistance protein PBP2A, had the opposite effects. The findings provide evidence for the cooperative functioning of two native S. aureus transpeptidases (PBP2 and PBP4) and an acquired transpeptidase (PBP2A) in staphylococcal cell wall biosynthesis and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. PMID:15716453

  3. Using sequence signatures and kink-turn motifs in knowledge-based statistical potentials for RNA structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Cigdem Sevim; Kim, Namhee; Schlick, Tamar

    2017-05-19

    Kink turns are widely occurring motifs in RNA, located in internal loops and associated with many biological functions including translation, regulation and splicing. The associated sequence pattern, a 3-nt bulge and G-A, A-G base-pairs, generates an angle of ∼50° along the helical axis due to A-minor interactions. The conserved sequence and distinct secondary structures of kink-turns (k-turn) suggest computational folding rules to predict k-turn-like topologies from sequence. Here, we annotate observed k-turn motifs within a non-redundant RNA dataset based on sequence signatures and geometrical features, analyze bending and torsion angles, and determine distinct knowledge-based potentials with and without k-turn motifs. We apply these scoring potentials to our RAGTOP (RNA-As-Graph-Topologies) graph sampling protocol to construct and sample coarse-grained graph representations of RNAs from a given secondary structure. We present graph-sampling results for 35 RNAs, including 12 k-turn and 23 non k-turn internal loops, and compare the results to solved structures and to RAGTOP results without special k-turn potentials. Significant improvements are observed with the updated scoring potentials compared to the k-turn-free potentials. Because k-turns represent a classic example of sequence/structure motif, our study suggests that other such motifs with sequence signatures and unique geometrical features can similarly be utilized for RNA structure prediction and design. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Three dimensional boundary displacement due to stable ideal kink modes excited by external n = 2 magnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willensdorfer, M.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, R.; Birkenmeier, G.; Brida, D.; Cavedon, M.; Denk, S. S.; Igochine, V.; Giannone, L.; Kirk, A.; Kirschner, J.; Medvedeva, A.; Odstrčil, T.; Ryan, D. A.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-11-01

    In low-collisionality (ν\\star) scenarios exhibiting mitigation of edge localized mode (ELMs), stable ideal kink modes at the edge are excited by externally applied magnetic perturbation (MP)-fields. In ASDEX Upgrade these modes can cause three-dimensional (3D) boundary displacements up to the centimeter range. These displacements have been measured using toroidally localized high resolution diagnostics and rigidly rotating n=2 MP-fields with various applied poloidal mode spectra. These measurements are compared to non-linear 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibria calculated by VMEC. Comprehensive comparisons have been conducted, which consider for instance plasma movements due to the position control system, attenuation due to internal conductors and changes in the edge pressure profiles. VMEC accurately reproduces the amplitude of the displacement and its dependencies on the applied poloidal mode spectra. Quantitative agreement is found around the low field side (LFS) midplane. The response at the plasma top is qualitatively compared. The measured and predicted displacements at the plasma top maximize when the applied spectra is optimized for ELM-mitigation. The predictions from the vacuum modeling generally fails to describe the displacement at the LFS midplane as well as at the plasma top. When the applied mode spectra is set to maximize the displacement, VMEC and the measurements clearly surpass the predictions from the vacuum modeling by a factor of four. Minor disagreements between VMEC and the measurements are discussed. This study underlines the importance of the stable ideal kink modes at the edge for the 3D boundary displacement in scenarios relevant for ELM-mitigation.

  5. Prospecting for new physics in the Higgs and flavor sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishara, Fady [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-05-01

    We explore two directions in beyond the standard model physics: dark matter model building and probing new sources of CP violation. In dark matter model building, we consider two scenarios where the stability of dark matter derives from the flavor symmetries of the standard model. The first model contains a flavor singlet dark matter candidate whose couplings to the visible sector are proportional to the flavor breaking parameters. This leads to a metastable dark matter with TeV scale mediators. In the second model, we consider a fully gauged SU(3)3 flavor model with a flavor triplet dark matter. Consequently, the dark matter multiplet is charged while the standard model fields are neutral under a remnant Z3 which ensures dark matter stability. We show that a Dirac fermion dark matter with radiative splitting in the multiplet must have a mass in the range [0:5; 5] TeV in order to satisfy all experimental constraints. We then turn our attention to Higgs portal dark matter and investigate the possibility of obtaining bounds on the up, down, and strange quark Yukawa couplings. If Higgs portal dark matter is discovered, we find that direct detection rates are insensitive to vanishing light quark Yukawa couplings. We then review flavor models and give the expected enhancement or suppression of the Yukawa couplings in those models. Finally, in the last two chapters, we develop techniques for probing CP violation in the Higgs coupling to photons and in rare radiative decays of B mesons. While theoretically clean, we find that these methods are not practical with current and planned detectors. However, these techniques can be useful with a dedicated detector (e.g., a gaseous TPC). In the case of radiative B meson decay B0 → (K* → Kππ) γ, the techniques we develop also allow the extraction of the photon polarization fraction which is sensitive to new physics contributions since, in the standard model, the right(left) handed

  6. Up sector of minimal flavor violation: top quark properties and direct D meson CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yang; Berger, Joshua; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Li, Ye

    2013-07-01

    Minimal Flavor Violation in the up-type quark sector leads to particularly interesting phenomenology due to the interplay of flavor physics in the charm sector and collider physics from flavor changing processes in the top sector. We study the most general operators that can affect top quark properties and D meson decays in this scenario, concentrating on two CP violating operators for detailed studies. The consequences of these effective operators on charm and top flavor changing processes are generically small, but can be enhanced if there exists a light flavor mediator that is a Standard Model gauge singlet scalar and transforms under the flavor symmetry group. This flavor mediator can satisfy the current experimental bounds with a mass as low as tens of GeV and explain observed D-meson direct CP violation. Additionally, the model predicts a non-trivial branching fraction for a top quark decay that would mimic a dijet resonance.

  7. Repeated exposure of infants at complementary feeding to a vegetable puree increases acceptance as effectively as flavor-flavor learning and more effectively than flavor-nutrient learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Eloïse; Issanchou, Sylvie; Chabanet, Claire; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-07-01

    Children's vegetable consumption is below the public health recommendations. This study aimed to compare learning mechanisms to increase vegetable acceptance in infants at complementary feeding, namely repeated exposure (RE), flavor-flavor learning (FFL), and flavor-nutrient learning (FNL); measure the stability of the learning effect; and examine the impact of infants' feeding history on vegetable acceptance. The study was composed of a preexposure test, an exposure period, a postexposure test, and tests at 2-wk, 3-mo, and 6-mo follow-ups. At pre- and postexposure, a basic artichoke purée and carrot purée were presented to 95 French infants (6.4 ± 0.8 mo). During the exposure period, infants were randomly split into 3 groups and were exposed 10 times to the basic (RE group; 2 kJ/g; n = 32), a sweet (FFL group; 2 kJ/g; n = 32), or an energy-dense (FNL group; 6 kJ/g; n = 31) artichoke purée 2 or 3 times/wk. To evaluate acceptance, intake (g) and liking were recorded at home by parents. Between pre- and postexposure, intake of the basic artichoke purée significantly increased in the RE (+63%) and FFL (+39%) groups but not in the FNL group; liking increased only in the RE group (+21%). After exposure, artichoke was as much consumed and as much liked as carrot only in the RE group. Learning of artichoke acceptance was stable up to 3 mo postexposure. Initial artichoke intake was significantly related to the number of vegetables offered before the study started. RE is as effective as and simpler to implement than FFL and more effective than FNL for increasing vegetable acceptance at complementary feeding.

  8. Flavored little cigar smoke induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arunava; Nethery, Rachel C; Herring, Amy H; Tarran, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Addition of flavors reduces the harsh taste of tobacco, facilitating the initiation and maintenance of addiction among youths. Flavored cigarettes (except menthol) are now banned. However, the legislation on little cigars remains unclear and flavored little cigars are currently available for purchase. Since inhaled tobacco smoke directly exerts toxic effects on the lungs, we tested whether non-flavored and flavored little cigar smoke exposure had the potential for harm in cultured pulmonary epithelia. We cultured Calu-3 lung epithelia on both 96-well plates and at the air-liquid interface and exposed them to smoke from non-flavored Swisher Sweets and flavored (sweet cherry, grape, menthol, peach and strawberry) Swisher Sweets little cigars. Irrespective of flavor, acute little cigar smoke exposure (10×35 ml puffs) significantly increased cell death and decreased the percentage of live cells. Chronic exposure (10×35 ml puffs per day for 4 days) of smoke to Calu-3 cultures significantly increased lactate dehydrogenase release, further indicating toxicity. To determine whether this exposure was associated with increased cell death/apoptosis, a protein array was used. Chronic exposure to smoke from all types of little cigars induced the activation of the two major apoptosis pathways, namely the intrinsic (mitochondrial-mediated) and the extrinsic (death receptor-mediated) pathways. Both flavored and non-flavored little cigar smoke caused similar levels of toxicity and activation of apoptosis, suggesting that flavored and non-flavored little cigars are equally harmful. Hence, the manufacture, advertisement, sale and use of both non-flavored and flavored little cigars should be strictly controlled.

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of plant flavors and fragrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzo, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E; Occhipinti, Andrea

    2013-06-19

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plant material with solvents like CO₂, propane, butane, or ethylene is a topic of growing interest. SFE allows the processing of plant material at low temperatures, hence limiting thermal degradation, and avoids the use of toxic solvents. Although today SFE is mainly used for decaffeination of coffee and tea as well as production of hop extracts on a large scale, there is also a growing interest in this extraction method for other industrial applications operating at different scales. In this review we update the literature data on SFE technology, with particular reference to flavors and fragrance, by comparing traditional extraction techniques of some industrial medicinal and aromatic crops with SFE. Moreover, we describe the biological activity of SFE extracts by describing their insecticidal, acaricidal, antimycotic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties. Finally, we discuss the process modelling, mass-transfer mechanisms, kinetics parameters and thermodynamic by giving an overview of SFE potential in the flavors and fragrances arena.

  10. 'Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking, with Flavor'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Essig, Rouven; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara

    2010-08-26

    We explore calculable models with low-energy supersymmetry where the flavor hierarchy is generated by quark and lepton compositeness, and where the composites emerge from the same sector that dynamically breaks supersymmetry. The observed pattern of Standard Model fermion masses and mixings is obtained by identifying the various generations with composites of different dimension in the ultraviolet. These 'single-sector' supersymmetry breaking models give rise to various spectra of soft masses which are, in many cases, quite distinct from what is commonly found in models of gauge or gravity mediation. In typical models which satisfy all flavor-changing neutral current constraints, both the first and second generation sparticles have masses of order 20 TeV, while the stop mass is a few TeV. In other cases, all sparticles obtain masses of order a few TeV predominantly from gauge mediation, even though the first two generations are composite.

  11. T{sub 13} flavor symmetry and decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiyama, Yuji, E-mail: yuji.kajiyama@kbfi.e [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Ravala 10, Tallinn 10143 (Estonia); Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2128 (Japan); Okada, Hiroshi, E-mail: HOkada@Bue.edu.e [Centre for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, Postal No. 11837, P.O. Box 43 (Egypt)

    2011-07-11

    We study a new flavor symmetric model with non-Abelian discrete symmetry T{sub 13}. The T{sub 13} group is isomorphic to Z{sub 13} x Z{sub 3}, and it is the minimal group having two complex triplets in the irreducible representations. We show that the T{sub 13} symmetry can derive lepton masses and mixings consistently. Moreover, if we assume a gauge-singlet fermionic decaying dark matter, its decay operators are also constrained by the T{sub 13} symmetry so that only dimension six operators of leptonic decay are allowed. We find that the cosmic-ray anomalies reported by PAMELA and Fermi-LAT are well explained by decaying dark matter controlled by the T{sub 13} flavor symmetry.

  12. The role of top in heavy flavor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewett, J.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The implications of the massive top quark on heavy flavor transitions are explored. We review the generation of quark masses and mixings and the determination techniques, and present the status of the elements of the weak mixing matrix. Purely leptonic decays of heavy mesons are briefly summarized. We present a general introduction to flavor changing neutral currents and an extensive summary of radiative and other rare decay modes. The physics of neutral meson mixing is reviewed and applied to each meson system. We describe the phenomenology of CP violation and how it may be measured in meson decays. Standard Model predictions are given in each case and the effects of physics beyond the Standard Model are also discussed. Throughout, we contrast these transitions in the K and B meson systems to those in the D meson and top-quark sectors.

  13. The Belle II experiment: fundamental physics at the flavor frontier

    CERN Document Server

    de la Cruz, Ivan Heredia

    2016-01-01

    After the major success of B-factories to establish the CKM mechanism and its proven potential to search for new physics, the Belle II experiment will continue exploring the physics at the flavor frontier over the next years. Belle II will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle, and allow for various precision measurements and searches of rare decays and particles. This paper introduces the B-factory concept and the flavor frontier approach to search for new physics. It then describes the SuperKEKB accelerator and the Belle II detector, as well as some of the physics that will be analyzed in Belle II, concluding with the experiment status and schedule.

  14. Flavor- and CP-violating physics from new supersymmetric thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2006-03-10

    Treating the minimal supersymmetric standard model as an effective theory, we study the implications of having dimension-five operators in the superpotential for flavor- and CP-violating processes, exploiting the linear decoupling of observable effects with respect to the new threshold scale c. We show that the assumption of weak-scale supersymmetry, when combined with the stringent limits on electric dipole moments and lepton-flavor-violating processes, provides sensitivity to Lambda as high as 10(7)-10(9) GeV (and up to 10(17) GeV through the theta term), while the next generation of experiments could directly probe the high-energy scales suggested by neutrino physics.

  15. Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter–neutrino resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ru Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star–neutron star or neutron star–black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter–neutrino resonances (MNRs can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino–electron and neutrino–neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy.

  16. Physical, Chemicals and Flavors of Some Varieties of Arabica Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Export of Arabica coffee was 28,100 tons/year or 8.28% total export of Indonesian coffee, most of them are specialty coffee. Beside their origin, variety and determine the of physical, chemical and flavors characters. The promising clones or varieties i.e. BP 416A, BP 418A, BP 430A, BP 431A, BP 432A, BP 507A, BP 508A, BP 509A, BP 511A, BP 513A, BP 516A, BP 517A and BP 518A still not be determined their quality This research was conducted to analyze their physicals, chemicals and flavors during 2 periods of harvesting (2004 and 2005, using AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762 as the control. Mature coffee berry was harvested, sorted manually, and depulped, cleaned manually and then fermented in plastic sacks during 36 hours. The fermented parchment was washed, and then sun dried, dehulled to get green coffee. Observations wre conducted on green coffee yield, husk content, color of green coffee, distribution of size, bulk density of green and roasted coffee, roasting characters, color of roasted beans, and pH, acidity and flavors. The results showed (a The lowest content of husk was BP 432A and the highest was USDA 762. The control varieties of AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762, showed husk content >15%, while those potential varieties were < 15% except BP 416A. (b Beans size >6,5 mm and more than 80% were BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A, BP 509A, P 88 and S 795. Green coffee of BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509A were uniform, but S 795 was not uniform. AS 1 and BP 416A and P 88 was one group; S 795 was one group with BP 542A; BP 509 was a group with BP 432A; but BP4 30A and USDA 762 were the other groups. (c Green coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color, but BP 542A was the darkest color. AS 1 and S 795 were a group with all potential varieties, except BP 542A. (d Roasted coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color and AS 1 was the darkest. In this case, AS 1 was a group with BP 430A, BP 509A and P 88, while S 795 was a group with BP 416A and BP 432A, but USDA 762 and BP 542A were

  17. Overview of Heavy-Flavored Jets at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the mass and flavor of the initiating parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching with identified partons place powerful constraints on the thermodynamic and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Furthermore, recent results that constrain the jet production mechanism will shed additional light on the contributions of leading and next-to-leading order heavy flavor jet production with regard to the global energy loss picture. To this end, we present recent results measuring spectra and nuclear modification factors of jets associated to charm and bottom quarks in both pPb and PbPb collisions, as well as measurements of dijet asymmetry of pairs of b-jets in PbPb collisions.

  18. Reducing Sodium in Foods: The Effect on Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Djin Gie; Miremadi, Fatemeh; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium is an essential micronutrient and, via salt taste, appetitive. High consumption of sodium is, however, related to negative health effects such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In industrialized countries, about 75% of sodium in the diet comes from manufactured foods and foods eaten away from home. Reducing sodium in processed foods will be, however, challenging due to sodium’s specific functionality in terms of flavor and associated palatability of foods (i.e., increase of saltiness, reduction of bitterness, enhancement of sweetness and other congruent flavors). The current review discusses the sensory role of sodium in food, determinants of salt taste perception and a variety of strategies, such as sodium replacers (i.e., potassium salts) and gradual reduction of sodium, to decrease sodium in processed foods while maintaining palatability. PMID:22254117

  19. Completing constrained flavor violation: lepton masses, neutrinos and leptogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cline, James M.; Diaz-Furlong, Alfonso; Ren, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Constrained flavor violation is a recent proposal for predicting the down-quark Yukawa matrix in terms of those for up quarks and charged leptons. We study the viability of CFV with respect to its predictions for the lepton mass ratios, showing that this remains a challenge, and suggest some possible means for improving this shortcoming. We then extend CFV to include neutrinos, and show that it leads to interesting predictions for hierachical heavy neutrinos, and leptogenesis dominated by dec...

  20. Flavor in the context of ancestral human diets

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Wrangham

    2014-01-01

    Given that nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution, to understand the evolutionary biology of human flavor perception we need to know what kinds of foods have been sufficiently important in the human past for natural selection to favor specific mechanisms for perceiving and digesting them. Humans share with great apes a long prehistory of specializing on eating ripe fruits. Wild ripe fruits have much less sugar and more fiber than domestic fruits, but are similar i...

  1. Quark flavor mixing, CP violation, and all that

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1988-04-01

    We review the present state of knowledge of the mixing of quark flavors under weak interactions and the associated explanation of CP violation inherent in the single nontrivial phase present in the three-generation mixing matrix. In this context we present the phenomenological basis for the increasing possibility that large CP violation asymmetries can be experimentally observed in the B meson system. 39 refs., 11 figs.,

  2. Broken flavor symmetries in high energy particle phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antaramian, Aram [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-02-22

    Over the past couple of decades, the Standard Model of high energy particle physics has clearly established itself as an invaluable tool in the analysis of high energy particle phenomenon. However, from a field theorists point of view, there are many dissatisfying aspects to the model. One of these, is the large number of free parameters in the theory arising from the Yukawa couplings of the Higgs doublet. In this thesis, we examine various issues relating to the Yukawa coupeng structure of high energy particle field theories. We begin by examining extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics which contain additional scalar fields. By appealing to the flavor structure observed in the fermion mass and Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, we propose a reasonable phenomenological parameterization of the new Yukawa couplings based on the concept of approximate flavor symmetries. It is shown that such a parameterization eliminates the need for discrete symmetries which limit the allowed couplings of the new scalars. New scalar particles which can mediate exotic flavor changing reactions can have masses as low as the weak scale. Next, we turn to the issue of neutrino mass matrices, where we examine a particular texture which leads to matter independent neutrino oscillation results for solar neutrinos. We, then, examine the basis for extremely strict limits placed on flavor changing interactions which also break lepton- and/or baryon-number. These limits are derived from cosmological considerations. Finally, we embark on an extended analysis of proton decay in supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theories. In such theories, the dominant decay diagrams involve the Yukawa couplings of a heavy triplet superfield. We argue that past calculations of proton decay which were based on the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) model require reexamination because the Yukawa couplings of that theory are known to be wrong.

  3. Open Heavy Flavor and Quarkonia Results at RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouicer Rachid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RHIC experiments carry out a comprehensive physics program which studies open heavy flavor and quarkonium production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The discovery at RHIC of large high-pT suppression and flow of electrons from heavy quarks flavors have altered our view of the hot and dense matter formed in central Au + Au collisions at SNN=200 GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and flow of heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. In recent years, the RHIC experiments upgraded the detectors; (1 PHENIX Collaboration installed silicon vertex tracker (VTX at mid-rapidity region and forward silicon vertex tracker (FVTX at the forward rapidity region, and (2 STAR Collaboration installed the heavy flavor tracker (HFT and the muon telescope detector (MTD both at the mid-rapidity region. With these new upgrades, both experiments have collected large data samples. These new detectors enhance the capability of heavy flavor measurements via precision tracking. The PHENIX experiments established measurements of ψ(1S and ψ(2S production as a function of system size, p + p, p + Al, p + Au, and 3He + Au collisions at SNN=200 GeV. In p/3He + A collisions at forward rapidity, we observe no difference in the ψ(2S/ψ(1S ratio relative to p + p collisions. At backward rapidity, where the comoving particle density is higher, we find that the ψ(2S is preferentially suppressed by a factor of two. STAR Collaboration presents the first J/ψ and ϒ measurements in the di-muon decay channel in Au + Au collisions at SNN=200 GeV at mid-rapidity at RHIC. We observe clear J/ψ RAA suppression and qualitatively well described by transport models simultaneously accounting for dissociation and regeneration processes.

  4. Search for Lepton Flavor Violating Decays of the Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    Kellams, Nathan Marshall

    2015-01-01

    We present the first direct search for lepton flavor violating (LFV) decays of the Higgs boson at CMS. LFV decays are permitted in many extensions of the standard model. Indirect constraints strongly limit branching ratios of the decay $H \\to e \\mu$, but allow $H \\to e \\tau$ and $H \\to \\mu \\tau$ up to 10\\%. We present results in all three channels using the full run 1 data set collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC.

  5. Flavor Identification and Intensity: Effects of Stimulus Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Emily S.; Parikh, Roshan; Veldhuizen, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments presented oral mixtures containing different proportions of the gustatory flavorant sucrose and an olfactory flavorant, either citral (Experiment 1) or lemon (Experiment 2). In 4 different sessions of each experiment, subjects identified each mixture as “mostly sugar” or “mostly citrus/lemon” or rated the perceived intensities of the sweet and citrus components. Different sessions also presented the mixtures in different contexts, with mixtures containing relatively high concentrations of sucrose or citral/lemon presented more often (skew sucrose or skew citral/lemon). As expected, in both experiments, varying stimulus context affected both identification and perceived intensity: Skewing to sucrose versus citral/lemon decreased the probability of identifying the stimuli as “mostly sugar” and reduced the ratings of sweet intensity relative to citrus intensity. Across both contextual conditions of both experiments, flavor identification associated closely with the ratio of the perceived sweet and citrus intensities. The results accord with a model, extrapolated from signal-detection theory, in which sensory events are represented as multisensory–multidimensional distributions in perceptual space. Changing stimulus context can shift the locations of the distributions relative to response criteria, Decision rules guide judgments based on both sensory events and criteria, these rules not necessarily being identical in tasks of identification and intensity rating. PMID:26830499

  6. Review of Heavy Flavor Physics at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giurgiu, Gavril; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2011-10-01

    The D0 and CDF detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron have each accumulated more that 9 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The corresponding large datasets enable the two experiments to perform unprecedented studies of heavy flavor hadron properties. We present recent D0 and CDF measurements, focusing on rare decays and CP violation in B-meson decays. Flavor Physics probes new phenomena by either searching for small deviations from the Standard Model (SM) based theoretical predictions or by measuring quantities which are highly suppressed within the SM. Searching for small deviations from the SM are performed using large strange, charm or bottom hadron samples, mostly by kaon experiments of B factories. Measurements of highly suppressed quantities, such as CP violation phases and asymmetries in the neutral B{sub s}-meson system or searches for rare B decays, are performed with the hope that new physics effects would be large enough to significantly affect the measured quantities and so, lead to observations of deviations from the SM expectations. The D0 and CDF detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron have each accumulated more that 9 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The corresponding large datasets enable the two experiments to perform unprecedented studies of heavy flavor hadron properties. We present recent D0 and CDF measurements, focusing on rare decays and CP violation in B-meson decays.

  7. Lepton-flavor universality limits in warped space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías, Eugenio; Quirós, Mariano; Salas, Lindber

    2017-10-01

    We explore the limits on lepton-flavor universality (LFU) violation in theories where the hierarchy problem is solved by means of a warped extra dimension. In those theories, LFU violation, in fermion interaction with Kaluza-Klein modes of gauge bosons, is provided ab initio when different flavors of fermions are differently localized along the extra dimension. As this fact arises from the mass pattern of quarks and leptons, LFU violation is natural in this class of theories. We analyze the experimental data pointing toward LFU violation, as well as the most relevant electroweak and flavor observables, and the LFU tests in the μ /e and τ /μ sectors. We find agreement with RK(*) and RD(*) data at 95% C.L., provided the third-generation left-handed fermions are composite (0.14

  8. Influence of the Flavored Cigarette Ban on Adolescent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtemanche, Charles J; Palmer, Makayla K; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-05-01

    This paper estimated the association between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2009 ban on flavored cigarettes (which did not apply to menthol cigarettes or tobacco products besides cigarettes) and adolescents' tobacco use. Regression modeling was used to evaluate tobacco use before and after the ban. The analyses controlled for a quadratic time trend, demographic variables, prices of cigarettes and other tobacco products, and teenage unemployment rate. Data from the 1999-2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys were collected and analyzed in 2016. The sample included 197,834 middle and high schoolers. Outcomes were past 30-day cigarette use; cigarettes smoked in the past 30 days among smokers; rate of menthol cigarette use among smokers; and past 30-day use of cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipes, any tobacco products besides cigarettes, and any tobacco products including cigarettes. Banning flavored cigarettes was associated with reductions in the probability of being a cigarette smoker (17%, pcigarettes smoked by smokers (58%, p=0.005). However, the ban was positively associated with the use by smokers of menthol cigarettes (45%, pcigarette ban did achieve its objective of reducing adolescent tobacco use, but effects were likely diminished by the continued availability of menthol cigarettes and other flavored tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. FLAVOR BIOGENERATION IN MANGABA (Hancornia speciosa Gomes FRUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narenda Narain

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the volatile flavoring substances are formed during maturation of fruit when it ripens. In this study, the mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes fruit was harvested at half-ripe and ripe stages of maturity and analyzed for its volatile components. The extracts were obtained from the fruit pulp by using simultaneous distillation and extraction technique. Several extraction parameters such as weight of the pulp, dilution with water, solvent volume and extraction period were standardized to obtain highly characteristic fruit aroma extracts. The extracts were analyzed for the identification of volatile compounds by using a system of high resolution gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer. Eighty-six components were separated out of which 46 compounds were positively identified. The volatile flavoring substances pertaining to classes of esters and terpenes increased from 6.19 to 35.487% and from 7.51 to 10.40%, respectively. The principal volatile compounds present in the pulp of ripe mangaba fruit were isopropyl acetate (19.23%, 3-hexanol (10.74%, linalool (7.38%, ä-limonene (2.43%, 3-pentanol (3.80%, 3-ethyl 2-buten-1-ol (2.53% and furfural (1.52%. Biogeneration of mangaba flavor is mainly characterized due to the presence of compounds pertaining to esters, aldehydes and terpenes.

  10. Hadron spectrum of QCD with one quark flavor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farchioni, Federico; Muenster, Gernot; Sudmann, Tobias; Wuilloud, Jair [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1; Montvay, Istvan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Scholz, Enno E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.

    2008-10-15

    The latest results of an ongoing project for the lattice simulation of QCD with a single quark flavor are presented. The Symanzik tree-level-improvedWilson action is adopted in the gauge sector and the (unimproved)Wilson action for the fermion. Results from new simulations with one step of Stout-smearing ({rho}=0.15) in the fermion action are discussed. The one-flavor theory is simulated by a polynomial hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm (PHMC) at {beta}=4.0 corresponding to a=0.13 fm, on 16{sup 3}.32 and 24{sup 3} .48 lattices; the box-size is L{approx_equal}2.1 fm and L{approx_equal}3.1 fm, respectively. At the lightest simulated quark mass the (partially quenched) pion mass is {proportional_to} 300 MeV. The masses of the lightest bound states are computed, including the flavor singlet scalar and pseudoscalar mesons {sigma}{sub s} and {eta}{sub s}, the scalar glueball 0{sup ++}, and the {delta}{sup ++} baryon. Relics of SUSY in the mass spectrum, expected from a large N{sub c} orientifold equivalence with the N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Flavor Identification and Intensity: Effects of Stimulus Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Emily S; Parikh, Roshan; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Marks, Lawrence E

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments presented oral mixtures containing different proportions of the gustatory flavorant sucrose and an olfactory flavorant, either citral (Experiment 1) or lemon (Experiment 2). In 4 different sessions of each experiment, subjects identified each mixture as "mostly sugar" or "mostly citrus/lemon" or rated the perceived intensities of the sweet and citrus components. Different sessions also presented the mixtures in different contexts, with mixtures containing relatively high concentrations of sucrose or citral/lemon presented more often (skew sucrose or skew citral/lemon). As expected, in both experiments, varying stimulus context affected both identification and perceived intensity: Skewing to sucrose versus citral/lemon decreased the probability of identifying the stimuli as "mostly sugar" and reduced the ratings of sweet intensity relative to citrus intensity. Across both contextual conditions of both experiments, flavor identification associated closely with the ratio of the perceived sweet and citrus intensities. The results accord with a model, extrapolated from signal-detection theory, in which sensory events are represented as multisensory-multidimensional distributions in perceptual space. Changing stimulus context can shift the locations of the distributions relative to response criteria, Decision rules guide judgments based on both sensory events and criteria, these rules not necessarily being identical in tasks of identification and intensity rating. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Identification of Gustatory–Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Effects of Linguistic Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments, using different ranges and numbers of stimuli, examined how linguistic labels affect the identification of flavor mixtures containing different proportions of sucrose (gustatory flavorant) and citral (olfactory flavorant). Both experiments asked subjects to identify each stimulus as having either “mostly sugar” or “mostly citrus.” In one condition, no labels preceded the flavor stimuli. In another condition, each flavor stimulus followed a label, either SUGAR or CITRUS, which, the subjects were informed, usually though not always named the stronger flavor component; that is, the labels were probabilistically valid. The results of both experiments showed that the labels systematically modified the identification responses: Subjects responded “sugar” or “citrus” more often when the flavor stimulus followed the corresponding label, SUGAR or CITRUS. But the labels hardly affected overall accuracy of identification. Accuracy was possibly limited, however, by both the confusability of the flavor stimuli per se and the way that confusability could limit the opportunity to discern the probabilistic associations between labels and individual flavor stimuli. We describe the results in terms of a decision-theoretic model, in which labels induce shifts in response criteria governing the identification responses, or possibly effect changes in the sensory representations of the flavorants themselves. PMID:23329730

  13. Influence of color on acceptance and identification of flavor of foods by adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayane Aparecida Araújo Dias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensory characteristics color and flavor of food play an important role not only in the selection, but also in the determination of consumption, satiation, and ingestion. With the objective to determine and evaluate the influence of color on the acceptance and identification of flavor of foods for adults, sensory analysis was performed on jellies by non-trained tasters of both sexes aged between 18 and 60 years (1750 tests. A hedonic scale and combinations of five colors (red, yellow, green, blue and purple and three flavors (strawberry, pineapple, and limes were used in the acceptance test totaling 15 samples. In the duo-trio discrimination test, together with the reference sample (R, one sample identical to the reference and another of identical color and different flavor were offered, and the judges were requested to identify the sample that was different from the reference sample. The colors used did not influence the acceptance of the samples (P > 0.05, and as there was not significant interaction between color and flavor. However, the limes flavor negatively influenced acceptance when compared to the other flavors. With regard to flavor differentiation, the colors used did not influence flavor identification (P > 0.05; However, differentiated behavior was identified between females and males, and the latter were more error-prone. Therefore, under the experimental conditions tested, color did not influence the acceptance and identification of the flavor of the samples by adults.

  14. Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A

    2015-10-02

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths.

  15. Diacetyl emissions and airborne dust from butter flavorings used in microwave popcorn production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylstein, Randy; Piacitelli, Chris; Grote, Ardith; Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    In microwave popcorn workers, exposure to butter flavorings has been associated with fixed obstructive lung disease resembling bronchiolitis obliterans. Inhalation toxicology studies have shown severe respiratory effects in rats exposed to vapors from a paste butter flavoring, and to diacetyl, a diketone found in most butter flavorings. To gain a better understanding of worker exposures, we assessed diacetyl emissions and airborne dust levels from butter flavorings used by several microwave popcorn manufacturing companies. We heated bulk samples of 40 different butter flavorings (liquids, pastes, and powders) to approximately 50 degrees C and used gas chromatography, with a mass selective detector, to measure the relative abundance of volatile organic compounds emitted. Air sampling was conducted for diacetyl and for total and respirable dust during the mixing of powder, liquid, or paste flavorings with heated soybean oil at a microwave popcorn plant. To further examine the potential for respiratory exposures to powders, we measured dust generated during different simulated methods of manual handling of several powder butter flavorings. Powder flavorings were found to give off much lower diacetyl emissions than pastes or liquids. The mean diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 64 and 26 times larger, respectively, than the mean of diacetyl emissions from powders. The median diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 364 and 72 times larger, respectively, than the median of diacetyl emissions from powders. Fourteen of 16 powders had diacetyl emissions that were lower than the diacetyl emissions from any liquid flavoring and from most paste flavorings. However, simulated handling of powder flavorings showed that a substantial amount of the airborne dust generated was of respirable size and could thus pose its own respiratory hazard. Companies that use butter flavorings should consider substituting flavorings with lower diacetyl emissions and the use of

  16. Studies of discrete and flavor symmetries in supersymmetric field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteux, Angelo

    In this thesis, we study supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model and particularly the phenomenological implications arising from discrete and flavor symmetries. Symmetries are frequently added to theories in order to simplify the treatment and to reach phenomenologically viable regions of the parameter space. At the beginning of the dissertation, an introduction is given on topics that will form the main body of the thesis: we introduce anomalies and instantons, discuss the supersymmetric flavor problem and flavor symmetries, illustrate gravitino interactions and review inflationary cosmology. After this introductory material, we discuss how imposing constraints such as anomaly freedom or anomaly universality on discrete R-symmetries relies on non-generic assumptions about the high-energy theory. We give examples of string theoretic models where the low-energy anomalies are non-universal and consider the implications of gauge coupling unification. We then use this insight to reconsider Abelian flavor symmetries that can account for the large hierarchies of the fermion masses and mixings. We describe in detail models without R-parity and determine textures for the R-parity-violating couplings; the consequences for LHC phenomenology are analyzed next. It is concluded that collider bounds are relaxed, especially for squarks. We continue the study of model of R-parity violation (RPV) by considering Dark Matter candidates in this framework, in particular gravitinos. If lighter than all other superpartners, the gravitino is an unstable, long-lived dark matter candidate. Additionally, this solves some problems with gravitinos interfering with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study the decay of gravitinos to antideuterons because of the low astrophysical background that this channel offers, and cast upper limits on RPV couplings. Specifically, we explore the consequences of flavor symmetries that set specific RPV textures and are able to constrain the gravitino mass

  17. A new vision for the science of human flavor perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon M Shepherd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conference was organized and welcomed by Lisa Sasson, representing the NYU Steinhardt School and its Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Public Health in cooperation with the NYU School of Dentistry. As a co-organizer, I added my welcome, and explained how the many disciplines brought together in the conference constituted a new vision for the science of human flavor perception, which can be summarized by the term “neurogastronomy” (1. The speakers and the disciplines they represent were bound together by several principles. First, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This is understood to apply to most research in biology; here we wished to show that it applies especially to the human behavior of choosing foods to eat, a view put forward most prominently by Richard Wrangham based on his book "Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human". We also wished to show that the sensory and motor apparatus of the mouth and nose need to be understood as adaptations through human evolution, as carefully documented by Daniel Lieberman, based on his recent "Evolution of the Human Head". Many of the speakers picked up this theme in their presentations. It is clear that an evolutionary framework must be part of understanding flavor and healthy eating. A second principle was that "Flavor is not in the food; it is created by the brain". Just as color is created out of different wavelengths of light by neural processing mechanisms in our brains, so is flavor created by neural processing mechanisms out of different molecules emitted by the food and drink in our mouths. This requires understanding neural mechanisms at all levels of organization of the brain, a vast field that our conference only began to address, starting with the sensory receptors and sensory systems as discussed by Gary Beauchamp for taste and Stuart Firestein for olfaction. Current research reported by Ivan De Araujo on sugars is dissociating their sweet

  18. On the flavor problem in strongly coupled theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Martin

    2012-11-28

    This thesis is on the flavor problem of Randall Sundrum models and their strongly coupled dual theories. These models are particularly well motivated extensions of the Standard Model, because they simultaneously address the gauge hierarchy problem and the hierarchies in the quark masses and mixings. In order to put this into context, special attention is given to concepts underlying the theories which can explain the hierarchy problem and the flavor structure of the Standard Model (SM). The AdS/CFT duality is introduced and its implications for the Randall Sundrum model with fermions in the bulk and general bulk gauge groups is investigated. It is shown that the different terms in the general 5D propagator of a bulk gauge field can be related to the corresponding diagrams of the strongly coupled dual, which allows for a deeper understanding of the origin of flavor changing neutral currents generated by the exchange of the Kaluza Klein excitations of these bulk fields. In the numerical analysis, different observables which are sensitive to corrections from the tree-level exchange of these resonances will be presented on the basis of updated experimental data from the Tevatron and LHC experiments. This includes electroweak precision observables, namely corrections to the S and T parameters followed by corrections to the Zb anti b vertex, flavor changing observables with flavor changes at one vertex, viz. B(B{sub d}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) and B(B{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}), and two vertices, viz. S{sub {psi}{phi}} and vertical stroke {epsilon}{sub K} vertical stroke, as well as bounds from direct detection experiments. The analysis will show that all of these bounds can be brought in agreement with a new physics scale {Lambda}{sub NP} in the TeV range, except for the CP violating quantity vertical stroke {epsilon}{sub K} vertical stroke, which requires {Lambda}{sub NP}=O(10) TeV in the absence of fine-tuning. The numerous modifications of the

  19. A Method for Classifying User-Reported Electronic Cigarette Liquid Flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, Jessica M; Veldheer, Susan; Hammett, Erin; Hrabovsky, Shari; Foulds, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Along with the growth in popularity of electronic cigarette devices (e-cigs), the variety of e-cig liquids (e-liquid) available to users has also grown. Although some studies have published data about the use of flavored e-liquid, there is no standardized way to group flavors, making it difficult to interpret the data and replicate results across studies. The current study describes a method to classify user-reported e-liquid flavors and presents the resulting proportion of users in each flavor group in a large online survey of e-cig users. Three thousand seven hundred sixteen participants completed an online survey about their e-cig use and responded to the following open-ended question regarding their use of e-liquid, "What is your favorite flavor and what brand of flavored liquid do you prefer?" Researchers used a 3 step method to determine the flavor attributes present in the e-liquids reported using an online search engine. Once all flavor attributes were identified, researchers used the constant comparative method to group the flavor attributes and delineate how to classify flavors with mixed components (eg, cinnamon Red Hots as a candy not a spice). The resulting classification scheme and proportions of e-liquids in each category were as follows: Tobacco (23.7%), Menthol/mint (14.8%), Fruit (20.3%), Dessert/sweets (20.7%), Alcohol (2.8%), Nuts/spices (2.0%), Candy (2.1%), Coffee/tea (4.3%), Beverage (3.1%), Unflavored (0.4%), and Don't Know/Other (5.8%). To better understand the use of flavored e-liquids, standardized methods to classify the flavors could facilitate data interpretation and comparison across studies. This study proposes a method for classifying the characterizing flavors in e-liquids used most commonly by experienced e-cig users. Current studies on the use of flavored e-liquid have used unclear methods to collect and report information on the use of flavors. This study adds a proposed method for classifying the flavors in the e-liquids used

  20. Flavor Pairing in Medieval European Cuisine: A Study in Cooking with Dirty Data

    CERN Document Server

    Varshney, Kush R; Wang, Jun; Myers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An important part of cooking with computers is using statistical methods to create new, flavorful ingredient combinations. The flavor pairing hypothesis states that culinary ingredients with common chemical flavor components combine well to produce pleasant dishes. It has been recently shown that this design principle is a basis for modern Western cuisine and is reversed for Asian cuisine. Such data-driven analysis compares the chemistry of ingredients to ingredient sets found in recipes. However, analytics-based generation of novel flavor profiles can only be as good as the underlying chemical and recipe data. Incomplete, inaccurate, and irrelevant data may degrade flavor pairing inferences. Chemical data on flavor compounds is incomplete due to the nature of the experiments that must be conducted to obtain it. Recipe data may have issues due to text parsing errors, imprecision in textual descriptions of ingredients, and the fact that the same ingredient may be known by different names in different recipes. ...

  1. Using Single Free Sorting and Multivariate Exploratory Methods to Design a New Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Molly; Sage, Emma; Velez, Martin; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The original Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel was developed by the Specialty Coffee Assn. of America over 20 y ago, and needed an innovative revision. This study used a novel application of traditional sensory and statistical methods in order to reorganize the new coffee Sensory Lexicon developed by World Coffee Research and Kansas State Univ. into scientifically valid clusters and levels to prepare a new, updated flavor wheel. Seventy-two experts participated in a modified online rapid free sorting activity (no tasting) to sort flavor attributes of the lexicon. The data from all participants were compiled and agglomeration hierarchical clustering was used to determine the clusters and levels of the flavor attributes, while multidimensional scaling was used to determine the positioning of the clusters around the Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel. This resulted in a new flavor wheel for the coffee industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  2. Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses Induced by Exposure to Commonly Used e-Cigarette Flavoring Chemicals and Flavored e-Liquids without Nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thivanka Muthumalage

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The respiratory health effects of inhalation exposure to e-cigarette flavoring chemicals are not well understood. We focused our study on the immuno-toxicological and the oxidative stress effects by these e-cigarette flavoring chemicals on two types of human monocytic cell lines, Mono Mac 6 (MM6 and U937. The potential to cause oxidative stress by these flavoring chemicals was assessed by measuring the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. We hypothesized that the flavoring chemicals used in e-juices/e-liquids induce an inflammatory response, cellular toxicity, and ROS production.Methods: Two monocytic cell types, MM6 and U937 were exposed to commonly used e-cigarette flavoring chemicals; diacetyl, cinnamaldehyde, acetoin, pentanedione, o-vanillin, maltol and coumarin at different doses between 10 and 1,000 μM. Cell viability and the concentrations of the secreted inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 (IL-8 were measured in the conditioned media. Cell-free ROS produced by these commonly used flavoring chemicals were also measured using a 2′,7′dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. These DCF fluorescence data were expressed as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 equivalents. Cytotoxicity due to the exposure to selected e-liquids was assessed by cell viability and the IL-8 inflammatory cytokine response in the conditioned media.Results: Treatment of the cells with flavoring chemicals and flavored e-liquid without nicotine caused cytotoxicity dose-dependently. The exposed monocytic cells secreted interleukin 8 (IL-8 chemokine in a dose-dependent manner compared to the unexposed cell groups depicting a biologically significant inflammatory response. The measurement of cell-free ROS by the flavoring chemicals and e-liquids showed significantly increased levels of H2O2 equivalents in a dose-dependent manner compared to the control reagents. Mixing a variety of flavors resulted in greater cytotoxicity and cell-free ROS levels compared to the

  3. Flavor Pairing in Medieval European Cuisine: A Study in Cooking with Dirty Data

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, Kush R.; Varshney, Lav R.; Wang, Jun; Myers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An important part of cooking with computers is using statistical methods to create new, flavorful ingredient combinations. The flavor pairing hypothesis states that culinary ingredients with common chemical flavor components combine well to produce pleasant dishes. It has been recently shown that this design principle is a basis for modern Western cuisine and is reversed for Asian cuisine. Such data-driven analysis compares the chemistry of ingredients to ingredient sets found in recipes. How...

  4. Generally Recognized as Safe: Uncertainty Surrounding E-Cigarette Flavoring Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Clara G; Hart, Joy L; Walker, Kandi L.; Rose Marie Robertson

    2017-01-01

    Despite scientific uncertainty regarding the relative safety of inhaling e-cigarette aerosol and flavorings, some consumers regard the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) designation as evidence of flavoring safety. In this study, we assessed how college students’ perceptions of e-cigarette flavoring safety are related to understanding of the GRAS designation. During spring 2017, an online questionnaire was administered to college students. Chi-square p-v...

  5. Solid-phase microextraction for the enantiomeric analysis of flavors in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeler, S E; Sun, G M; Datta, M; Stremple, P; Vickers, A K

    2001-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis and separation on a chiral cyclodextrin stationary phase was a rapid, reliable technique for profiling chiral aroma compounds in flavored alcoholic beverages. Several enantiomeric terpenes, esters, alcohols, norisoprenoids, and lactones were identified in berry-, peach-, strawberry-, and citrus-flavored wine and malt beverages (wine coolers). Using this technique, we were able to confirm the addition of synthetic flavoring to several beverages, consistent with label designations.

  6. Relationship between caffeine content and flavor with light intensity of several coffee Robusta clones

    OpenAIRE

    Novie Pranata Erdiansyah; Yusianto Yusianto

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is a refreshing beverage product and its price is determined by physical quality and flavor. An excellent coffee flavor is resulted only from qualified coffee beans, produced by well managed plantation. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of sunlight intensity entering coffee farm on flavor profiles and caffeine content of Robusta coffee. The experiment was conducted at the field experimental Kaliwining Estate of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCR...

  7. Relationship Between Caffeine Content and Flavor with Light Intensity of Several Coffee Robusta Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Pranata Erdiansyah, Novie; Yusianto, Yusianto

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is a refreshing beverage product and its price is determined by physical quality and flavor. An excellent coffee flavor is resulted only from qualified coffee beans, produced by well managed plantation. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of sunlight intensity entering coffee farm on flavor profiles and caffeine content of Robusta coffee. The experiment was conducted at the field experimental Kaliwining Estate of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCR...

  8. Formation of Poultry Meat Flavor by Heating Process and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is an important factor in the acceptance of food. Flavor of poultry meat is naturally formed through a specific process of heating, where various chemical reactions complex occurred among nonvolatile precursors in fatty tissue or in lean tissue. The main flavor in the form of volatile and nonvolatile components play a major influence on the acceptance of various processed meat, especially the taste. Removal of sulfur components decreases meat flavor (meaty, while removal of carbonyl compounds decrease the specific flavor and increases common flavor of the meat. Poultry meat has a fairly high fat content that easily generates lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation in poultry meat is a sign that the meat was damaged and caused off odor. Addition of antioxidants in the diet can inhibit lipid oxidation in the meat. Lipids interaction with proteins and carbohydrates is unavoidable during the thermal processing of food, causing the appearance of volatile components. The main reaction in meat flavor formation mechanism is Maillard reaction followed by Stecker reaction and degradation of lipids and thiamine. They involve in the reaction between carbonyl and amine components to form flavor compounds, which enhance the flavor of poultry meat.

  9. Enzymes of Penicillium roqueforti involved in the biosynthesis of cheese flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, J E; Hwang, D H

    1976-11-01

    The ripening of blue and Roquefort cheeses is accomplished by the concerted and controlled actions of enzymes of the mold Penicillium roqueforti. The properties and effects of the enzymes involved in flavor development (i.e., proteases, lipase and beta-ketoacid decarboxylase) are reviewed. The metabolic activities of both spores and mycelia of P. roqueforti in relation to fatty acid metabolism and flavor generation are discussed. The chemical composition of blue cheese flavor and the simulation of this flavor by fermentation and formulation are briefly surveyed. Some nutritional aspects of blue cheese are cited.

  10. Non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries of 10D SYM theory with magnetized extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hiroyuki [Department of Physics, Waseda University,Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ohki, Hiroshi [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI),Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sumita, Keigo; Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki [Department of Physics, Waseda University,Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-06-03

    We study discrete flavor symmetries of the models based on a ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (10D SYM) theory compactified on magnetized tori. We assume non-vanishing non-factorizable fluxes as well as the orbifold projections. These setups allow model-building with more various flavor structures. Indeed, we show that there exist various classes of non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries. In particular, we find that S{sub 3} flavor symmetries can be realized in the framework of the magnetized 10D SYM theory for the first time.

  11. Bidirectional Jejunojejunal Anastomosis Prevents Early Small Bowel Obstruction Due to the Kinking After Closure of the Mesenteric Defect in the Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Pierre; Alratrout, Hefzi; Siciliano, Iole; Keller, Philippe

    2018-01-11

    The closure of the mesenteric defects (CMD) in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces the risk of small bowel obstruction (SBO) due to internal hernia but might be associated with an increased risk of early SBO triggered by the jejunojejunal anastomosis (JJS) kinking. The aim of this study was to assess how enlarging the JJS with a bidirectional linear stapling can aid in avoiding the risk of early SBO by kinking. This retrospective cohort study concerns 1327 patients who underwent RYGB with CMD between May 2007 and August 2016. The first 626 patients (group A) had a unidirectional JJS. The following 701 patients (group B) had a bidirectional side-to-side JJS and a hand-sewn closure of the remaining defect. We compared early SBO between the two groups. Eleven (1.75%) early SBO due to the JJS kinking occurred in group A, whereas none occurred in group B (p = 0.0012). Thirty-nine early postoperative complications happened in group A versus 32 in group B (p = 0.17). Nine (1.2%) digestive bleedings occurred in group B versus two (0.3%) in group A (OR = 4.05 [0.87-18], p = 0.054). Average operating time was 81 min [37-330] in group A and 77 min [33-240] in group B. Enlarging the JJS with a bidirectional linear stapling is associated with a reduced risk of early SBO due to the anastomosis kinking. However, it could be related to an increased risk of digestive bleedings.

  12. Warped extra dimensions. Flavor, precision tests and Higgs physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertz, Florian

    2011-07-01

    In this thesis, the phenomenology of the Randall-Sundrum setup is investigated. In this context models with and without an enlarged SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x U(1){sub X} x P{sub LR} gauge symmetry, which removes corrections to the T parameter and to the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling, are compared with each other. The Kaluza-Klein decomposition is formulated within the mass basis, which allows for a clear understanding of various model-specific features. A complete discussion of tree-level flavor-changing effects is presented. Exact expressions for five dimensional propagators are derived, including Yukawa interactions that mediate flavor-off-diagonal transitions. The symmetry that reduces the corrections to the left-handed Zbb coupling is analyzed in detail. In the literature, Randall-Sundrum models have been used to address the measured anomaly in the tt forward-backward asymmetry. However, it is shown that this is not possible within a natural approach to flavor. The rare decays t{yields}cZ and t{yields}ch are investigated, where in particular the latter could be observed at the LHC. A calculation of {gamma}{sup B}{sub s12} in the presence of new physics is presented. It is shown that the Randall-Sundrum setup allows for an improved agreement with measurements of A{sup s}{sub SL}, S{sub {psi}}{sub {phi}}, and {delta}{gamma}{sub s}. For the first time, a complete one-loop calculation of all relevant Higgs-boson production and decay channels in the custodial Randall-Sundrum setup is performed, revealing a sensitivity to large new-physics scales at the LHC.

  13. Search for Lepton Flavor Violating $\\tau$ Decays into Three Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazaki, Y; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Aso, T; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barberio, E; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Belous, K S; Bhardwaj, V; Bitenc, U; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chang, M C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Chen, K F; Chen, W T; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C C; Chistov, R; Cho, I S; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Cole, S; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Das, A; Dash, M; Dragic, J; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Fratina, S; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Go, A; Gokhroo, G; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guler, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hastings, N C; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Heffernan, D; Higuchi, T; Hinz, L; Hoedlmoser, H; Hokuue, T; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, S; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Jacoby, C; Joshi, N J; Kaga, M; Kah, D H; Kaji, H; Kajiwara, S; Kakuno, H; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kibayashi, A; Kichimi, H; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, S K; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Korpar, S; Kozakai, Y; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumar, R; Kurihara, E; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Lange, J S; Leder, G; Lee, J; Lee, J S; Lee, M J; Lee, S E; Lesiak, T; Li, J; Limosani, A; Lin, S W; Liu, Y; Liventsev, D; MacNaughton, J; Majumder, G; Mandl, F; Marlow, D; Matsumura, T; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Mikami, Y; Mitaroff, W A; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Moloney, G R; Mori, T; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, I; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nakayama, H; Nakazawa, H; Natkaniec, Z; Neichi, K; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nishio, Y; Nishizawa, I; Nitoh, O; Noguchi, S; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ono, S; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Rorie, J; Rózanska, M; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Sakaue, H; Sasao, N; Sarangi, T R; Satoyama, N; Sayeed, K; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Schonmeier, P; Schümann, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Sekiya, A; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shang, L; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shinomiya, S; Shiu, J G; Shwartz, B; Singh, J B; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Somov, A; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Sugiyama, A; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tamura, N; Tanaka, M; Taniguchi, N; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, K; Uchida, Y; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Yu; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vervink, K; Villa, S; Vinokurova, A; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Wiechczynski, J; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, M; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A; Zwahlen, N

    2008-01-01

    We search for lepton-flavor-violating tau decays into three leptons (electron or muon) using 535 fb^{-1} of data collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. No evidence for these decays is observed and we set 90% confidence level upper limits on the branching fractions between 2.0x10^{-8} and 4.1x10^{-8}. These results improve the best previously published upper limits by factors from 4.9 to 7.0.

  14. Diffractive Higgs Production from Intrinsic Heavy Flavors in the Proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Kopeliovich, Boris; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, Jacques

    2006-03-31

    We propose a novel mechanism for exclusive diffractive Higgs production pp {yields} pHp in which the Higgs boson carries a significant fraction of the projectile proton momentum. This mechanism will provide a clear experimental signal for Higgs production due to the small background in this kinematic region. The key assumption underlying our analysis is the presence of intrinsic heavy flavor components of the proton bound state, whose existence at high light-cone momentum fraction x has growing experimental and theoretical support. We also discuss the implications of this picture for exclusive diffractive quarkonium and other channels.

  15. Recent heavy flavor measurements from PHENIX at RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachiya Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy flavor is a useful probe to study the property of the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. They are produced in the early stage of the collisions, and then propagate though QGP. Therefore, they carry information of QGP. PHENIX measures the separated bottom and charm production using the precise tracking by the silicon vertex detector installed at mid-rapidity and forward rapidity. In this article, we present the recent results of separated charm and bottom modification in Au+Au and Cu+Au collisions, and charmonia production in p+Al and p+Au collisions.

  16. Recent heavy flavor measurements from PHENIX at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    Heavy flavor is a useful probe to study the property of the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. They are produced in the early stage of the collisions, and then propagate though QGP. Therefore, they carry information of QGP. PHENIX measures the separated bottom and charm production using the precise tracking by the silicon vertex detector installed at mid-rapidity and forward rapidity. In this article, we present the recent results of separated charm and bottom modification in Au+Au and Cu+Au collisions, and charmonia production in p+Al and p+Au collisions.

  17. Heating (Gapless) Color-Flavor Locked Quark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukushima, Kenji; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2005-01-01

    We explore the phase diagram of neutral quark matter at high baryon density as a function of the temperature T and the strange quark mass Ms. At T=0, there is a sharp distinction between the insulating color-flavor locked (CFL) phase, which occurs where Ms^2/mu 0 and Delta_2->0) cross. Because we...... do not make any small-Ms approximation, if we choose a relatively strong coupling leading to large gap parameters, we are able to pursue the analysis of the phase diagram all the way up to such large values of Ms that there are no strange quarks present....

  18. Charmed meson decay constants in three-flavor lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, C.; Bernard, C.; DeTar, C.; Di Pierro, M.; Freeland, Elizabeth D.; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U.M.; Hetrick, J.E.; El-Khadra, Aida X.; Kronfeld, Andreas S.; Levkova, L.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Menscher, D.; Maresca, F.; Nobes, M.; Okamoto, M.; Renner, D.B.; Simone, J.; Sugar, R.; Toussaint, D.; Trottier, H.D.; /Art Inst. of Chicago /Columbia

    2005-06-01

    The authors present the first lattice QCD calculation with realistic sea quark content of the D{sup +}-meson decay constant f{sub D+}. They use the MILC Collaboration's publicly available ensembles of lattice gauge fields, which have a quark sea with two flavors (up and down) much lighter than a third (strange). They obtain f{sub D+} = 201 {+-} 3 {+-} 17 MeV, where the errors are statistical and a combination of systematic errors. They also obtain f{sub D{sub s}} = 249 {+-} 3 {+-} 16 MeV for the D{sub s} meson.

  19. Simulation of the electromagnetic wall response to plasma wall-touching kink and vertical modes with application to ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasiu, Calin; Zakharov, Leonid; Lackner, Karl; Hoelzl, Matthias; Strumberger, Erika

    2017-10-01

    Realistic simulations of electric current excitation in three-dimensional vessel structures by the plasma touching the walls are necessary to understand plasma disruptions in tokamak. In large tokamaks like ITER, the wall-touching kink modes cause large sideway forces on the vacuum vessel determined by the sharing of asymmetric electric current between the plasma and the wall. Our model covers both eddy currents, excited inductively by vertical modes, and source/sink currents due to current sharing between the plasma and the thin conducting wall. The developed finite element approach calculates the electromagnetic wall response to perturbation of magnetic fields and to current sharing between the plasma and the wall. The current density entering/exiting the wall surface from the plasma and the time derivative of the magnetic vector potential of the plasma are the input values. The magnetic field and the vector potential from the wall currents are returned as output. Our model has been checked against analytical examples of a multiply-connected domain of a real ITER wall.

  20. Adsorption, Desorption, Surface Diffusion, Lattice Defect Formation, and Kink Incorporation Processes of Particles on Growth Interfaces of Colloidal Crystals with Attractive Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Suzuki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Good model systems are required in order to understand crystal growth processes because, in many cases, precise incorporation processes of atoms or molecules cannot be visualized easily at the atomic or molecular level. Using a transmission-type optical microscope, we have successfully observed in situ adsorption, desorption, surface diffusion, lattice defect formation, and kink incorporation of particles on growth interfaces of colloidal crystals of polystyrene particles in aqueous sodium polyacrylate solutions. Precise surface transportation and kink incorporation processes of the particles into the colloidal crystals with attractive interactions were observed in situ at the particle level. In particular, contrary to the conventional expectations, the diffusion of particles along steps around a two-dimensional island of the growth interface was not the main route for kink incorporation. This is probably due to the number of bonds between adsorbed particles and particles in a crystal; the number exceeds the limit at which a particle easily exchanges its position to the adjacent one along the step. We also found novel desorption processes of particles from steps to terraces, attributing them to the assistance of attractive forces from additionally adsorbing particles to the particles on the steps.

  1. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (<0.001. The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  2. Sheepmeat flavor and the effect of different feeding systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Peter J; Frank, Damian; Singh, Tanoj K; Young, Owen A; Warner, Robyn D

    2013-04-17

    Lamb has a unique flavor, distinct from other popular red meats. Although flavor underpins lamb's popularity, it can also be an impediment to consumer acceptance. Lack of familiarity with sheepmeat flavor itself can be a barrier for some consumers, and undesirable feed-induced flavors may also compromise acceptability. Against the backdrop of climate uncertainty and unpredictable rainfall patterns, sheep producers are turning to alternatives to traditional grazing pasture systems. Historically, pasture has been the predominant feed system for lamb production in Australia and around the world. It is for this reason that there has been a focus on "pastoral" flavor in sheep meat. Pasture-associated flavors may be accepted as "normal" by consumers accustomed to meat from pasture-fed sheep; however, these flavors may be unfamiliar to consumers of meat produced from grain-fed and other feed systems. Over the past few decades, studies examining the impacts of different feeds on lamb meat quality have yielded variable consumer responses ranging from "no effect" to "unacceptable", illustrating the diverse and sometimes inconsistent impacts of different forages on sheepmeat flavor. Despite considerable research, there is no consensus on which volatiles are essential for desirable lamb aroma and how they differ compared to other red meats, for example, beef. In contrast, comparatively little work has focused specifically on the nonvolatile taste components of lamb flavor. Diet also affects the amount of intramuscular fat and its fatty acid composition in the meat, which has a direct effect on meat juiciness and texture as well as flavor, and its release during eating. The effect of diet is far from simple and much still needs to be learned. An integrated approach that encompasses all input variables is required to better understand the impact of the feed and related systems on sheepmeat flavor. This review brings together recent research findings and proposes some novel

  3. Critical exponents from AdS/CFT with flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Andreas; O'Bannon, Andy; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2009-09-01

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the thermodynamics of massive Script N = 2 supersymmetric hypermultiplet flavor fields coupled to Script N = 4 supersymmetric SU(Nc) Yang-Mills theory, formulated on curved four-manifolds, in the limits of large Nc and large 't Hooft coupling. The gravitational duals are probe D-branes in global thermal AdS. These D-branes may undergo a topology-changing transition in the bulk. The D-brane embeddings near the point of the topology change exhibit a scaling symmetry. The associated scaling exponents can be either real- or complex-valued. Which regime applies depends on the dimensionality of a collapsing submanifold in the critical embedding. When the scaling exponents are complex-valued, a first-order transition associated with the flavor fields appears in the dual field theory. Real scaling exponents are expected to be associated with a continuous transition in the dual field theory. For one example with real exponents, the D7-brane, we study the transition in detail. We find two field theory observables that diverge at the critical point, and we compute the associated critical exponents. We also present analytic and numerical evidence that the transition expresses itself in the meson spectrum as a non-analyticity at the critical point. We argue that the transition we study is a true phase transition only when the 't Hooft coupling is strictly infinite.

  4. A light stop with flavor in natural SUSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzzi, Roberto; Giveon, Amit; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Shacham, Tomer

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of a SM-like Higgs boson near 125 GeV and the flavor texture of the Standard Model motivate the investigation of supersymmetric quiver-like BSM extensions. We study the properties of such a minimal class of models which deals naturally with the SM parameters. Considering experimental bounds as well as constraints from flavor physics and Electro-Weak Precision Data, we find the following. In a self-contained minimal model — including the full dynamics of the Higgs sector — top squarks below a TeV are in tension with b → sγ constraints. Relaxing the assumption concerning the mass generation of the heavy Higgses, we find that a stop not far from half a TeV is allowed. The models have some unique properties, e.g. an enhancement of the h → boverline{b} , tau overline{tau} decays relative to the h → γγ one, a gluino about 3 times heavier than the stop, an inverted hierarchy of about 3 ÷ 20 between the squarks of the first two generations and the stop, relatively light Higgsino neutralino or stau NLSP, as well as heavy Higgses and a W ' which may be within reach of the LHC.

  5. Neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Abbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A dense neutrino medium such as that inside a core-collapse supernova can experience collective flavor conversion or oscillations because of the neutral-current weak interaction among the neutrinos. This phenomenon has been studied in a restricted, stationary supernova model which possesses the (spatial spherical symmetry about the center of the supernova and the (directional axial symmetry around the radial direction. Recently it has been shown that these spatial and directional symmetries can be broken spontaneously by collective neutrino oscillations. In this letter we analyze the neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model. Our results show that collective neutrino oscillations start at approximately the same radius in both the stationary and time-dependent supernova models unless there exist very rapid variations in local physical conditions on timescales of a few microseconds or shorter. Our results also suggest that collective neutrino oscillations can vary rapidly with time in the regimes where they do occur which need to be studied in time-dependent supernova models.

  6. Towards a Theory of Flavor from Orbifold GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Okui, Takemichi; Tucker-Smith, David; Hall, Lawrence; March-Russell, John; Okui, Takemichi; Smith, David

    2004-01-01

    We show that the recently constructed 5-dimensional supersymmetric $S^1/(Z_2\\times Z_2')$ orbifold GUT models allow an appealing explanation of the observed hierarchical structure of the quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. Flavor hierarchies arise from the geometrical suppression of some couplings when fields propagate in different numbers of dimensions, or on different fixed branes. Restrictions arising from locality in the extra dimension allow interesting texture zeroes to be easily generated. In addition the detailed nature of the SU(5)-breaking orbifold projections lead to simple theories where $b-\\tau$ unification is maintained but similar disfavored SU(5) relations for the lighter generations are naturally avoided. We find that simple 5d models based on $S^1/(Z_2\\times Z_2')$ are strikingly successful in explaining many features of the masses and mixing angles of the 2nd and 3rd generation. Successful three generation models of flavor including neutrinos are constructed by generalizing the $S^1/...

  7. Assembly of multi-flavored two-dimensional colloidal crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahynski, Nathan A; Zerze, Hasan; Hatch, Harold W; Shen, Vincent K; Mittal, Jeetain

    2017-08-16

    We systematically investigate the assembly of binary multi-flavored colloidal mixtures in two dimensions. In these mixtures all pairwise interactions between species may be tuned independently. This introduces an additional degree of freedom over more traditional binary mixtures with fixed mixing rules, which is anticipated to open new avenues for directed self-assembly. At present, colloidal self-assembly into non-trivial lattices tends to require either high pressures for isotropically interacting particles, or the introduction of directionally anisotropic interactions. Here we demonstrate tunable assembly into a plethora of structures which requires neither of these conditions. We develop a minimal model that defines a three-dimensional phase space containing one dimension for each pairwise interaction, then employ various computational techniques to map out regions of this phase space in which the system self-assembles into these different morphologies. We then present a mean-field model that is capable of reproducing these results for size-symmetric mixtures, which reveals how to target different structures by tuning pairwise interactions, solution stoichiometry, or both. Concerning particle size asymmetry, we find that domains in this model's phase space, corresponding to different morphologies, tend to undergo a continuous "rotation" whose magnitude is proportional to the size asymmetry. Such continuity enables one to estimate the relative stability of different lattices for arbitrary size asymmetries. Owing to its simplicity and accuracy, we expect this model to serve as a valuable design tool for engineering binary colloidal crystals from multi-flavored components.

  8. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plant Flavors and Fragrances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo E. Maffei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of plant material with solvents like CO2, propane, butane, or ethylene is a topic of growing interest. SFE allows the processing of plant material at low temperatures, hence limiting thermal degradation, and avoids the use of toxic solvents. Although today SFE is mainly used for decaffeination of coffee and tea as well as production of hop extracts on a large scale, there is also a growing interest in this extraction method for other industrial applications operating at different scales. In this review we update the literature data on SFE technology, with particular reference to flavors and fragrance, by comparing traditional extraction techniques of some industrial medicinal and aromatic crops with SFE. Moreover, we describe the biological activity of SFE extracts by describing their insecticidal, acaricidal, antimycotic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties. Finally, we discuss the process modelling, mass-transfer mechanisms, kinetics parameters and thermodynamic by giving an overview of SFE potential in the flavors and fragrances arena.

  9. Search for lepton-flavor violation at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Allfrey, P D; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behrens, U; Bell, M A; Bellagamba, L; Bellan, P M; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Büttner, C; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Cottrell, A; Cui, Y; D'Agostini, G; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Everett, A; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fry, C; Gabareen, A; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Goers, S; Goncalo, R; González, O; Gosau, T; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grigorescu, G; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Helbich, M; Hilger, E; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Horn, C; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Irrgang, P; Jakob, P; Jiménez, M; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kananov, S; Karshon, U; Karstens, F; Kataoka, M; Katkov, I I; Kcira, D; Keramidas, A; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhav, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, H; Kramberger, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kulinski, P; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Lammers, S; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, C; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukasik, J; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Ma, K J; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Malka, J; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Miglioranzi, S; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Noor, U; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Ota, O; Padhi, S; Palmonari, F; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Plamondon, M; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Ri, Y D; Rinaldi, L; Robins, S; Rosin, M; Ruspa, M; Ryan, P; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Santamarta, R; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Stösslein, U; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutiak, J; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tapper, A D; Targett, C; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Tyszkiewicz, A; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wang, M; Whitmore, J J; Whyte, J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wlasenko, M; Wolf, G; Yagues-Molina, A G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Za, L; Zambrana, M; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zhou, C; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, D S; Zotkin, S A; De Favereau, J; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J

    2005-01-01

    A search for lepton-flavor-violating interactions $e p \\to \\mu X $ and $e p\\to \\tau X $ has been performed with the ZEUS detector using the entire HERA I data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 130 pb^{-1}. The data were taken at center-of-mass energies, $\\sqrt{s}$, of 300 and 318 GeV. No evidence of lepton-flavor violation was found, and constraints were derived on leptoquarks (LQs) that could mediate such interactions. For LQ masses below $\\sqrt{s}$, limits were set on $\\lambda_{eq_1} \\sqrt{\\beta_{\\ell q}}$, where $\\lambda_{eq_1}$ is the coupling of the LQ to an electron and a first-generation quark $q_1$, and $\\beta_{\\ell q}$ is the branching ratio of the LQ to the final-state lepton $\\ell$ ($\\mu$ or $\\tau$) and a quark $q$. For LQ masses much larger than $\\sqrt{s}$, limits were set on the four-fermion interaction term $\\lambda_{e q_\\alpha} \\lambda_{\\ell q_\\beta} / M_{\\mathrm{LQ}}^2$ for LQs that couple to an electron and a quark $q_\\alpha$ and to a lepton $\\ell$ and a quark $q_\\beta$, wh...

  10. Lepton flavor violating non-standard interactions via light mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Yasaman [School of physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shoemaker, Ian M. [Department of Physics, Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics,Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics,The Pennsylvania State University, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Non-Standard neutral current Interactions (NSIs) of neutrinos with matter can alter the pattern of neutrino oscillation due to the coherent forward scattering of neutrinos on the medium. This effect makes long-baseline neutrino experiments such as NOνA and DUNE a sensitive probe of beyond standard model (BSM) physics. We construct light mediator models that can give rise to both lepton flavor conserving as well as Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) neutral current NSI. We outline the present phenomenological viability of these models and future prospects to test them. We predict a lower bound on Br(H→μτ) in terms of the parameters that can be measured by DUNE and NOνA, and show that the hint for H→μτ in current LHC data can be accommodated in our model. A large part of the parameter space of the model is already constrained by the bound on Br(τ→Z{sup ′}μ) and by the bounds on rare meson decays and can be in principle fully tested by improving these bounds.

  11. The strong coupling regime of twelve flavors QCD

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Tiago Nunes

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the results recently reported in Ref.[1] [A. Deuzeman, M.P. Lombardo, T. Nunes da Silva and E. Pallante,"The bulk transition of QCD with twelve flavors and the role of improvement"] for the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf=12 fundamental flavors, and we add some numerical evidence and theoretical discussion. In particular, we study the nature of the bulk transition that separates a chirally broken phase at strong coupling from a chirally restored phase at weak coupling. When a non-improved action is used, a rapid crossover is observed at small bare quark masses. Our results confirm a first order nature for this transition, in agreement with previous results we obtained using an improved action. As shown in Ref.[1], when improvement of the action is used, the transition is preceded by a second rapid crossover at weaker coupling and an exotic phase emerges, where chiral symmetry is not yet broken. This can be explained [1] by the non hermiticity of the improved lattice Transfer matrix, arising from the c...

  12. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-12-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of Beef by Electronic Tongue System TS-5000Z: Flavor Assessment, Recognition and Chemical Compositions According to Its Correlation with Flavor: e0137807

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xinzhuang Zhang; Yawei Zhang; Qingxiang Meng; Ning Li; Liping Ren

    2015-01-01

      The aim of this study was to assess the ability of electronic tongue system TS-5000Z to evaluate meat quality based on flavor assessment, recognition and correlation with the meat chemical composition...

  14. Evaluation of Beef by Electronic Tongue System TS-5000Z: Flavor Assessment, Recognition and Chemical Compositions According to Its Correlation with Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Xinzhuang Zhang; Yawei Zhang; Qingxiang Meng; Ning Li; Liping Ren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of electronic tongue system TS-5000Z to evaluate meat quality based on flavor assessment, recognition and correlation with the meat chemical composition. Meat was sampled from eighteen beef cattle including 6 Wagyu breed cattle, 6 Angus breed cattle and 6 Simmental breed cattle. Chemical composition including dry matter, crude protein, fat, ash, cholesterol and taurine and flavor of the meat were measured. The results showed that different breed...

  15. Higgs decay into two photons from a 3HDM with flavor symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, Alfredo, E-mail: fefo@ucol.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Colima (Mexico); Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics (Mexico); Bonilla, Cesar, E-mail: rasec.cmbd@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico–Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (Mexico); Anda, Francisco de, E-mail: franciscojosedea@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico); Delgado, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.delgado@nd.edu [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Hernández-Sánchez, Jaime, E-mail: jaimeh@ece.buap.mx [Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias de la Electrónica, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal 542, 72570 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-08-09

    In this short Letter we show that the excess of events in the decay of Higgs to two photons reported by ATLAS and CMS can be easily accommodated in a flavor renormalizable three Higgs doublet model (3HDM). The model is consistent with all fermion masses, mixing angles, and flavor changing neutral current constraints.

  16. The FEMA GRAS assessment of benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Marnett, L.J.; Munro, I.C.; Portoghese, P.S.; Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication is the eighth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of

  17. The FEMA GRAS assessment of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Marnett, L.J.; Munro, I.C.; Portoghese, P.S.; Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of

  18. Flavor enhancement of food as a stimulant for food intake in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    It is often speculated that the age related decline in taste and smell performance can add to the decreased food intake among elderly by causing a change in liking of food. Flavor enhancement (by adding a taste and/or an odor to enhance or intensify the flavor of the food) has been suggested to

  19. To like or not to like: Neural substrates of subjective flavor preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den I.; Dalenberg, J.R.; Renken, R.; Langeveld, van A.W.B.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; Horst, ter G.J.; Graaf, de C.; Boesveldt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Flavor preferences vary; what one enjoys may be disgusting to another. Previous research has indicated several brain regions associated with flavor preferences. However, by using different stimuli or different internal states to obtain differences in liking, results of these studies may be

  20. To like or not to like : Neural substrates of subjective flavor preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, I.; Dalenberg, J. R.; Renken, R.; van Langeveld, A. W. B.; Smeets, P. A. M.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; ter Horst, G. J.; de Graaf, C.; Boesveldt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Flavor preferences vary; what one enjoys may be disgusting to another. Previous research has indicated several brain regions associated with flavor preferences. However, by using different stimuli or different internal states to obtain differences in liking, results of these studies may be

  1. Flavor release of diacetyl and 2-heptanone from skimmed and full fat milk under mouth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odake, S.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2006-01-01

    To gain insight into the process of retronasal olfaction, flavor release from skimmed milk and full fat milk (containing 3.75% fat) was investigated using a model mouth system with a screw plunger. Large differences were determined in the quantity of flavor released using two different methods: with

  2. A possible solution of the flavor problem and radiative neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adulpravitchai, Adisorn

    2010-06-23

    In this thesis, we discuss two important problems of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM), namely the flavor problem and the reason for the smallness of neutrino masses. The first one might be related to the origin of non-abelian discrete flavor symmetries. We discuss the possibility of obtaining them from an underlying continuous flavor symmetry, i.e. SU(2) or SU(3) through spontaneous symmetry breaking. Moreover, we investigate their possible origin from an orbifold compactification. We discuss all non-abelian discrete symmetries, which can arise from an orbifold T{sup 2}/Z{sub N}. They are A{sub 4}, S{sub 4}, D{sub 4}, D{sub 3}, and D{sub 6}. We present the idea of combining the breaking of an orbifold GUT and the flavor symmetry arising from the orbifold. We demonstrate the construction in a 6d SUSY SO(10) x S{sub 4}. For the second problem, we propose a one-loop neutrino mass model in the left-right symmetric framework. We observe the transmitted hierarchy from the charged lepton masses to the right-handed neutrino masses, which we call ''Radiative Transmission of Lepton Flavor Hierarchy''. Finally, we study the phenomenological aspects of the model such as lepton flavor violation (LFV), flavor number violation (FNV), and flavor changing neutral currents (FCNCs). (orig.)

  3. Heavy flavor production and interactions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Wei

    2017-02-07

    This paper presents the CMS measurements of quarkonia and open heavy flavor production in \\pp, \\pPb, and \\PbPb collisions at \\sqrtsnn = 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. A brief outlook of the near-future CMS heavy flavor physics analyses is provided at the end.

  4. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe...

  5. Flavoring meds for children and adults so it goes down easy!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaleiro, Joe

    2003-05-01

    This article explores the options available to flavor medications, including using pantry and refrigerator items, some infant dosing gadgets, pharmacy flavorings, and compounded medications. And don't forget, the tips and tricks in this article should work for that occasional difficult adult who still thinks and acts like a kid!

  6. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... coloring. 381.119 Section 381.119 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring... coloring shall bear a statement stating that fact on the immediate container or, if there is none, on the...

  7. The Nutritional Role of Flavored and White Milk in the Diets of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L., III

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some schools are removing flavored milk from lunchrooms based on the perception that consumption has a negative impact on the overall dietary quality. The goal of this study was to assess the contribution of flavored and white milk in the diets of children. Methods: Intake data from children 2 to 18?years (N?=?7332) participating in…

  8. The FEMA GRAS assessment of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Lucas Gavin, C.; McGowen, M.M.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Feron, V.J.; Marnett, L.J.; Munro, I.C.; Porthogese, P.S.; Rietjens, I.; Smith, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    This publication is the thirteenth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions

  9. 27 CFR 19.372 - Receipt of spirits, wines and alcoholic flavoring materials for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 5215; or (4) Alcoholic flavoring materials. (b) Spirits and wines received in bulk containers or... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of spirits, wines... Spirits, Wines and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.372 Receipt of spirits, wines and alcoholic...

  10. Neutral B Flavor Tagging for the Measurement of Mixing-induced CP Violation at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Kakuno, H; Casey, B C K; Chen, K F; Hamasaki, H; Hazumi, M; Iijima, T; Katayama, N; Okabe, T; Sakai, Y; Sumisawa, K; Suzuki, J; Tomura, T; Ueno, K; Wang Chao Cheng; Watanabe, Y

    2004-01-01

    We describe a flavor tagging algorithm used in measurements of the CP violation parameter sin2phi_1 at the Belle experiment. Efficiencies and wrong tag fractions are evaluated using flavor-specific B meson decays into hadronic and semileptonic modes. We achieve a total effective efficiency of $ 28.8 +- 0.6 %.

  11. Challenges in relating concentrations of aromas and tastes with flavor features of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, Jorge; Negreira, Noelia; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2017-07-03

    Flavor sensations in food are highly influenced by the aroma and taste compounds. Reviewing the extensive literature of recent years in this field has shown that the reconstitution of flavor based on aroma and taste compounds poses numerous problems. These are of different nature and include among others (a) chemical transformations among these compounds, (b) changes in the concentrations of the compounds responsible for the perceived flavor, (c) interactions among the chemical compounds that enhance or reduce a specific flavor sensation, and finally, (d) the complexity of the different food matrices and its influence in the flavor perception. Another difficulty that flavor scientists must face is how to properly model and visualize the complex relationships existing between the chemical composition of foods and the flavor perception. These problems have repercussions on the reconstitution of the flavor signature of food based on the natural concentrations of its key aroma and taste compounds. Therefore, the main aim of this review is to deal with all these issues to propose potential solutions for a robust transformation in a science-based quality approach.

  12. Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; Flanigan, Skye S; LeBlanc, Mallory; Vallarino, Jose; MacNaughton, Piers; Stewart, James H; Christiani, David C

    2016-06-01

    There are > 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as "popcorn lung." There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes. We aimed to determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl and two other high-priority flavoring chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione and acetoin, are present in a convenience sample of flavored e-cigarettes. We selected 51 types of flavored e-cigarettes sold by leading e-cigarette brands and flavors we deemed were appealing to youth. E-cigarette contents were fully discharged and the air stream was captured and analyzed for total mass of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin, according to OSHA method 1012. At least one flavoring chemical was detected in 47 of 51 unique flavors tested. Diacetyl was detected above the laboratory limit of detection in 39 of the 51 flavors tested, ranging from below the limit of quantification to 239 μg/e-cigarette. 2,3-Pentanedione and acetoin were detected in 23 and 46 of the 51 flavors tested at concentrations up to 64 and 529 μg/e-cigarette, respectively. Because of the associations between diacetyl and bronchiolitis obliterans and other severe respiratory diseases observed in workers, urgent action is recommended to further evaluate this potentially widespread exposure via flavored e-cigarettes. Allen JG, Flanigan SS, LeBlanc M, Vallarino J, MacNaughton P, Stewart JH, Christiani DC. 2016. Flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes: diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin in a sample of 51 products, including fruit-, candy-, and cocktail-flavored e-cigarettes. Environ Health Perspect 124:733-739; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510185.

  13. Evaluation of Beef by Electronic Tongue System TS-5000Z: Flavor Assessment, Recognition and Chemical Compositions According to Its Correlation with Flavor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuang Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of electronic tongue system TS-5000Z to evaluate meat quality based on flavor assessment, recognition and correlation with the meat chemical composition. Meat was sampled from eighteen beef cattle including 6 Wagyu breed cattle, 6 Angus breed cattle and 6 Simmental breed cattle. Chemical composition including dry matter, crude protein, fat, ash, cholesterol and taurine and flavor of the meat were measured. The results showed that different breed cattle had different chemical compositions and flavor, which contains sourness, umami, saltiness, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste from astringency, aftertaste from bitterness and aftertaste from umami, respectively. A principal component analysis (PCA showed an easily visible separation between different breeds of cattle and indicated that TS-5000Z made a rapid identification of different breeds of cattle. In addition, TS-5000Z seemed to be used to predict the chemical composition according to its correlation with the flavor. In conclusion, TS-5000Z would be used as a rapid analytical tool to evaluate the beef quality both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on flavor assessment, recognition and chemical composition according to its correlation with flavor.

  14. Evaluation of Beef by Electronic Tongue System TS-5000Z: Flavor Assessment, Recognition and Chemical Compositions According to Its Correlation with Flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhuang; Zhang, Yawei; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Ning; Ren, Liping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of electronic tongue system TS-5000Z to evaluate meat quality based on flavor assessment, recognition and correlation with the meat chemical composition. Meat was sampled from eighteen beef cattle including 6 Wagyu breed cattle, 6 Angus breed cattle and 6 Simmental breed cattle. Chemical composition including dry matter, crude protein, fat, ash, cholesterol and taurine and flavor of the meat were measured. The results showed that different breed cattle had different chemical compositions and flavor, which contains sourness, umami, saltiness, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste from astringency, aftertaste from bitterness and aftertaste from umami, respectively. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed an easily visible separation between different breeds of cattle and indicated that TS-5000Z made a rapid identification of different breeds of cattle. In addition, TS-5000Z seemed to be used to predict the chemical composition according to its correlation with the flavor. In conclusion, TS-5000Z would be used as a rapid analytical tool to evaluate the beef quality both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on flavor assessment, recognition and chemical composition according to its correlation with flavor.

  15. Undesirable sulphur and carbonyl flavor compounds in UHT milk: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabbia, Alex; Buys, Elna M; De Kock, Henriette L

    2012-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature (UHT) processing leads to the formation of "cooked" and "flat" flavors in milk. These undesirable notes occur due to the volatile formation of a variety of sulphur containing compounds, methyl ketones and aliphatic aldehydes, derived from the constituents of the milk's matrix during thermal processing and storage. The "cooked" flavor of UHT milk is associated with the presence of a variety of sulphur containing compounds while the "stale" flavor is characterized by the dissipation of these sulphur volatiles and an increase of the formation and presence of both methyl ketones and aliphatic aldehydes over time. The extent to which the individual volatiles contribute to the overall flavor of UHT milk is not clear. The proposed formation of these volatiles, that is, the methods to control the intensity of "cooked" and "stale" flavors associated with UHT milk and extraction techniques for the isolation of these volatiles from milk, have been reviewed.

  16. Constraining RS Models by Future Flavor and Collider Measurements: A Snowmass Whitepaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agashe, Kaustubh [Maryland U.; Bauer, Martin [Chicago U., EFI; Goertz, Florian [Zurich, ETH; Lee, Seung J. [Korea Inst. Advanced Study, Seoul; Vecchi, Luca [Maryland U.; Wang, Lian-Tao [Chicago U., EFI; Yu, Felix [Fermilab

    2013-10-03

    Randall-Sundrum models are models of quark flavor, because they explain the hierarchies in the quark masses and mixings in terms of order one localization parameters of extra dimensional wavefunctions. The same small numbers which generate the light quark masses suppress contributions to flavor violating tree level amplitudes. In this note we update universal constraints from electroweak precision parameters and demonstrate how future measurements of flavor violation in ultra rare decay channels of Kaons and B mesons will constrain the parameter space of this type of models. We show how collider signatures are correlated with these flavor measurements and compute projected limits for direct searches at the 14 TeV LHC run, a 14 TeV LHC luminosity upgrade, a 33 TeV LHC energy upgrade, and a potential 100 TeV machine. We further discuss the effects of a warped model of leptons in future measurements of lepton flavor violation.

  17. Taste, Enjoyment, and Desire of Flavors Change After Sleeve Gastrectomy-Short Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vuuren, Michele A Janse; Strodl, Esben; White, Katherine M; Lockie, Philip David

    2017-06-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) incidence continues to increase worldwide because of its efficacy and low surgical risks. This study aimed to investigate satisfaction with eating and the change in taste perception, desire, and enjoyment of flavor changes and associations with extent of percentage excess weight loss (%excess weight loss (EWL)) post-LSG. One hundred six participants completed an online questionnaire 4 to 6 weeks as well as 6 to 8 months post-LSG bariatric surgery. The questionnaire included study-specific questions about changes in taste, desire, and enjoyment of eight major categories of flavor, as well as the Suter Quality of Alimentation Questionnaire to measure satisfaction with eating. The majority of participants reported a post-surgery increase in the intensity of the flavor of sweet (60, 55%) and fatty (57, 70%) at both time points, respectively. Participants also reported a decreased enjoyment for sweet (77, 61%) and fatty (77, 83%) flavors and decreased desire for fatty (83, 84%) and sweet (82, 68%) flavors at both time periods. This study found an increase in intensity of flavor of all eight taste modalities and a decrease in desire and enjoyment of all taste modalities except salty and savory flavors following surgery. Participants reported an increased acuity of spicy flavors and fatty tastes over time, and the desire and enjoyment of sweet, bitter, and metallic flavors increased over time. Changes in savory enjoyment over a 6- to 8-month period post-LSG were weakly associated with extent of % EWL at 6 months post-surgery. The participants reported average (40, 37%), good (33, 42%), and excellent (15, 11%) satisfaction with eating at both time points. This preliminary study indicates that subjective changes in taste, desire, and enjoyment of flavors of eight taste modalities are very common after LSG.

  18. Flavored e-cigarette use: Characterizing youth, young adult, and adult users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Harrell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12–17 years old, young adults (18–29 years old, and older adults (30+ years old. Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n = 3907 and young adult college students (n = 5482 in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n = 6051 nationwide were administered in 2014–2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and “usual” e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%, Texas young adult college students (95%, and young adults (71.2% nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco, while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03. Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.

  19. Flavored e-cigarette use: Characterizing youth, young adult, and adult users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, M B; Weaver, S R; Loukas, A; Creamer, M; Marti, C N; Jackson, C D; Heath, J W; Nayak, P; Perry, C L; Pechacek, T F; Eriksen, M P

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12-17 years old), young adults (18-29 years old), and older adults (30 + years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n = 3907) and young adult college students (n = 5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n = 6051) nationwide were administered in 2014-2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and "usual" e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%), Texas young adult college students (95%), and young adults (71.2%) nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco), while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03). Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy) may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.

  20. Short communication: The effect of liquid storage on the flavor of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Parker, Megan; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-06-01

    Unit operations in dried dairy ingredient manufacture significantly influence sensory properties and, consequently, their use and consumer acceptance in a variety of ingredient applications. In whey protein concentrate (WPC) manufacture, liquid can be stored as whey or WPC before spray drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage, composition, and bleaching on the flavor of spray-dried WPC80. Liquid whey was manufactured and subjected to the following treatments: bleached or unbleached and liquid whey or liquid WPC storage. The experiment was replicated 3 times and included a no-storage control. All liquid storage was performed at 4°C for 24h. Flavor of the final spray-dried WPC80 was evaluated by a trained panel and volatile compound analyses. Storage of liquids increased cardboard flavor, decreased sweet aromatic flavor, and resulted in increased volatile lipid oxidation products. Bleaching altered the effect of liquid storage. Storage of unbleached liquid whey decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and volatile lipid oxidation products compared with liquid WPC80 and no storage. In contrast, storage of bleached liquid WPC decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and associated volatile lipid oxidation products compared with bleached liquid whey or no storage. These results confirm that liquid storage increases off-flavors in spray-dried protein but to a variable degree, depending on whether bleaching has been applied. If liquid storage is necessary, bleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid whey and unbleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid WPC to mitigate off-flavors. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Airway epithelial cell exposure to distinct e-cigarette liquid flavorings reveals toxicity thresholds and activation of CFTR by the chocolate flavoring 2,5-dimethypyrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Cara L; Boitano, Scott

    2016-05-17

    The potential for adverse respiratory effects following exposure to electronic (e-) cigarette liquid (e-liquid) flavorings remains largely unexplored. Given the multitude of flavor permutations on the market, identification of those flavor constituents that negatively impact the respiratory tract is a daunting task. In this study we examined the impact of common e-liquid flavoring chemicals on the airway epithelium, the cellular monolayer that provides the first line of defense against inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants. We used the xCELLigence real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) as a primary high-capacity screening tool to assess cytotoxicity thresholds and physiological effects of common e-liquid flavoring chemicals on immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-). The RTCA was used secondarily to assess the capability of 16HBE14o- cells to respond to cellular signaling agonists following a 24 h exposure to select flavoring chemicals. Finally, we conducted biophysical measurements of well-differentiated primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE) cells with an Ussing chamber to measure the effects of e-cigarette flavoring constituents on barrier function and ion conductance. In our high-capacity screens five of the seven flavoring chemicals displayed changes in cellular impedance consistent with cell death at concentrations found in e-liquid. Vanillin and the chocolate flavoring 2,5-dimethylpyrazine caused alterations in cellular physiology indicative of a cellular signaling event. At subcytotoxic levels, 24 h exposure to 2,5-dimethylpyrazine compromised the ability of airway epithelial cells to respond to signaling agonists important in salt and water balance at the airway surface. Biophysical measurements of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine on primary MTE cells revealed alterations in ion conductance consistent with an efflux at the apical airway surface that was accompanied by a transient loss in transepithelial resistance. Mechanistic studies confirmed

  2. 27 CFR 19.206 - Curtailment and extension of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors. 19.206 Section 19.206 Alcohol, Tobacco... and extension of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors. (a) General. The premises of... permit the use of the facilities for the manufacture of eligible flavors. (b) Qualifying documents. When...

  3. Chilling-induced tomato flavor loss is associated with altered volatile synthesis and transient changes in DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial tomatoes are widely perceived by consumers as lacking flavor. A major part of that problem is a postharvest handling system that chills fruit. Low-temperature storage is widely used to slow ripening and reduce decay. However, chilling results in loss of flavor. Flavor-associated volatiles...

  4. 27 CFR 18.40 - Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. 18.40 Section 18.40 Alcohol, Tobacco... Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. A proprietor of a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar may alternate the use of...

  5. Astrophysical neutrinos flavored with beyond the Standard Model physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus W.; Lechner, Lukas; Ackermann, Markus; Kowalski, Marek; Winter, Walter

    2017-10-01

    We systematically study the allowed parameter space for the flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos measured at Earth, including beyond the Standard Model theories at production, during propagation, and at detection. One motivation is to illustrate the discrimination power of the next-generation neutrino telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2. We identify several examples that lead to potential deviations from the standard neutrino mixing expectation such as significant sterile neutrino production at the source, effective operators modifying the neutrino propagation at high energies, dark matter interactions in neutrino propagation, or nonstandard interactions in Earth matter. IceCube-Gen2 can exclude about 90% of the allowed parameter space in these cases, and hence will allow us to efficiently test and discriminate between models. More detailed information can be obtained from additional observables such as the energy dependence of the effect, fraction of electron antineutrinos at the Glashow resonance, or number of tau neutrino events.

  6. Search for flavor-changing-neutral-current D meson decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clement, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; De Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutíerrez, P; Gutíerrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Polozov, P; Pompo, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; vanden Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; SWang, M H L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-01-01

    We study the flavor-changing-neutral-current process c to u mu+ mu- using 1.3 fb^-1 of p p bar collisions at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV recorded by the D0 detector operating at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We see clear indications of the Ds+ and D+ to phi pi+ to mu+ mu- pi+ final states with significance greater than four standard deviations above background for the D+ state. We search for the continuum decay of D+ to pi+mu+mu- in the dimuon invariant mass spectrum away from the phi resonance. We see no evidence of signal above background and set a limit of B(D+ to pi+mu+mu-) < 3.9 x 10^-6 at the 90% C.L. This limit places the most stringent constraint on new phenomena in the c to u mu+ mu- transition.

  7. Search for Flavor-Changing-Neutral-Current D Meson Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Ancu, L. S.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Anzelc, M. S.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Arthaud, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Ay, C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, P.; Barberis, E.; Barfuss, A.-F.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellavance, A.; Benitez, J. A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Berntzon, L.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Biscarat, C.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Bolton, T. A.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Calfayan, P.; Calvet, S.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chan, K.; Chandra, A.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevallier, F.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Christofek, L.; Christoudias, T.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clément, B.; Coadou, Y.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cutts, D.; Ćwiok, M.; da Motta, H.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de, K.; de Jong, S. J.; de Jong, P.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Dominguez, A.; Dong, H.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Ford, M.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geist, W.; Gelé, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Ginther, G.; Gollub, N.; Gómez, B.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guo, J.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez, G.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haefner, P.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hansson, P.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegeman, J. G.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoeth, H.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Hossain, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jakobs, K.; Jarvis, C.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Juste, A.; Käfer, D.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalk, J. R.; Kalk, J. M.; Kappler, S.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, J.; Kasper, P.; Katsanos, I.; Kau, D.; Kaur, R.; Kaushik, V.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Khatidze, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Kirby, M. H.; Kirsch, M.; Klima, B.; Kohli, J. M.; Konrath, J.-P.; Kopal, M.; Korablev, V. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Krop, D.; Kryemadhi, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kvita, J.; Lacroix, F.; Lam, D.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lazoflores, J.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, W. M.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Lellouch, J.; Leveque, J.; Lewis, P.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Li, L.; Lietti, S. M.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobo, L.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lounis, A.; Love, P.; Lubatti, H. J.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madaras, R. J.; Mättig, P.; Magass, C.; Magerkurth, A.; Makovec, N.; Mal, P. K.; Malbouisson, H. B.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Maravin, Y.; Martin, B.; McCarthy, R.; Melnitchouk, A.; Mendes, A.; Mendoza, L.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, A.; Michaut, M.; Millet, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Molina, J.; Mommsen, R. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Moore, R. W.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulders, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Mundal, O.; Mundim, L.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Naumann, N. A.

    2008-03-01

    We study the flavor-changing-neutral-current process c→uμ+μ- using 1.3fb-1 of p pmacr collisions at s=1.96TeV recorded by the D0 detector operating at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We see clear indications of the charged-current mediated Ds+ and D+→ϕπ+→μ+μ-π+ final states with significance greater than 4 standard deviations above background for the D+ state. We search for the continuum neutral-current decay of D+→π+μ+μ- in the dimuon invariant mass spectrum away from the ϕ resonance. We see no evidence of signal above background and set a limit of B(D+→π+μ+μ-)<3.9×10-6 at the 90% C.L. This limit places the most stringent constraint on new phenomena in the c→uμ+μ- transition.

  8. [Formation of flavor of dry champignons (Agaricus bisporus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Mukhutdinova, S M; Zharikova, G G; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Medvedeva, I B

    2010-01-01

    The composition of aroma compounds of dry champignons (Agaricus bisporus L.) were identified using capillary gas chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 56 compounds were identified. It was found that the flavor of dry mushrooms was formed by the volatile compounds produced as a result of enzymatic and oxidative conversion of unsaturated fatty acids as well as in the Maillard reaction. Unsaturated alcohols and ketones containing eight carbon atoms determined the mushroom note of the product. The specific aroma of dry mushrooms was determined by a complex composition of substituted sulfur-, oxygen-, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds as well as by aliphatic carbonyl compounds and methional. It was found that the concentrations of volatile carbonylic and heterocyclic compounds increased after the addition of a mixture of amino acids to mushrooms before drying. As a result, the intensity of the aroma of dry mushrooms increased.

  9. Search for flavor-changing-neutral-current d meson decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutierrez, P; Gutierrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2008-03-14

    We study the flavor-changing-neutral-current process c-->u micro(+) micro(-) using 1.3 fb(-1) of pp[over ] collisions at square root s = 1.96 TeV recorded by the D0 detector operating at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We see clear indications of the charged-current mediated D(s)(+) and D(+)-->phipi(+) --> micro(+)micro(-)pi(+) final states with significance greater than 4 standard deviations above background for the D(+) state. We search for the continuum neutral-current decay of D(+)-->pi(+) micro(+) micro(-) in the dimuon invariant mass spectrum away from the phi resonance. We see no evidence of signal above background and set a limit of B(D(+) --> pi(+) micro(+) micro(-)) u micro(+) micro(-) transition.

  10. Flavor-active esters: adding fruitiness to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstrepen, Kevin J; Derdelinckx, Guy; Dufour, Jean-Pierre; Winderickx, Joris; Thevelein, Johan M; Pretorius, Isak S; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2003-01-01

    As they are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages, volatile esters constitute an important group of aromatic compounds in beer. In modern high-gravity fermentations, which are performed in tall cylindroconical vessels, the beer ester balance is often sub-optimal, resulting in a clear decrease in beer quality. Despite the intensive research aimed at unravelling the precise mechanism and regulation of ester synthesis, our current knowledge remains far from complete. However, a number of factors that influence flavor-active ester production have already been described, including wort composition, wort aeration and fermentor design. A thoughtful adaptation of these parameters allows brewers to steer ester concentrations and thus to control the fruity character of their beers. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the biochemistry behind yeast ester synthesis and discusses the different factors that allow ester formation to be controlled during brewery fermentation.

  11. Flavored alcoholic beverages: an international marketing campaign that targets youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, James F; Johnsson, Diane

    2005-09-01

    Flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) were first introduced into the alcohol market in the early I980s in the form of wine coolers. FABs are sweet, relatively low alcohol content beverages that are designed for "entry-level" drinkers. The alcohol industry has introduced new products and production methods to expand the category's popularity. Research suggests that they are popular with underage drinkers, particularly teenage girls, and that the industry uses marketing practices that appear to target youth. FABs are now marketed globally, and their production and marketing vary by country based on national regulatory restraints. In the United States, industry representations that the products are malt beverages for regulatory purposes appears to violate many state laws because the alcohol in the FABs is derived from distilled spirits. Recommendations for regulatory reform, including new legal definitions of FABs, increased taxes, and restrictions on availability, are applicable at both national and state levels.

  12. Vortex structure in superfluid color-flavor locked quark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alford Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The core region of a neutron star may feature quark matter in the color-flavor-locked (CFL phase. The CFL condensate breaks the baryon number symmetry, such that the phenomenon of superfluidity arises. If the core of the star is rotating, vortices will form in the superfluid, carrying the quanta of angular momentum. In a previous study we have solved the question of stability of these vortices, where we found numerical proof of a conjectured instability, according to which superfluid vortices will decay into an arrangement of so-called semi-superfluid fluxtubes. Here we report first results of an extension of our framework that allows us to study multi-vortex dynamics. This will in turn enable us to investigate the structure of semi-superfluid string lattices, which could be relevant to study pinning phenomena at the boundary of the core.

  13. Coffee fermentation and flavor--An intricate and delicate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiple critical endpoints in magnetized three flavor quark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Márcio; Costa, Pedro; Providência, Constança

    2018-01-01

    The magnetized phase diagram for three-flavor quark matter is studied within the Polyakov extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The order parameters are analyzed with special emphasis on the strange quark condensate. We show that the presence of an external magnetic field induces several critical endpoints (CEPs) in the strange sector, which arise due to the multiple phase transitions that the strange quark undergoes. The spinodal and binodal regions of the phase transitions are shown to increase with external magnetic field strength. The influence of strong magnetic fields on the isentropic trajectories around the several CEPs is analyzed. A focusing effect is observed on the region towards the CEPs that are related with the strange quark phase transitions. Compared to the chiral transitions, the deconfinement transition turns out to be less sensitive to the external magnetic field and the crossover nature is preserved over the whole phase diagram.

  15. The Role of Flavor Physics in the LHC Era

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Stephen Lars

    2014-01-01

    Although searches for new physics at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will probably dominate the the agenda of the experimental high energy physics community during the next decade or more, high-intensity experiments at the tau-charm and beauty thresholds will continue to play important complementary roles. These include the establishment of stringent constraints on proposed theories for beyond-the-Standard-Model physics and unique opportunities to address some new physics scenarios that are inaccessible at the LHC. In addition, in the event that the LHC does discover some new phenomena, high sensitivity flavor physics measurements could provide diagnostic clues as to the physics processes responsible for the observed effects. In this talk I present a few examples that illustrate the close inter-relation of new physics searches at the high-energy frontier and high-sensitivity measurements at the intensity frontier.

  16. Recent Results on Flavor Physics from BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Jose; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    The authors report an update to their previous measurement of the CKM element |V{sub ub}| using exclusive B {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu} decays. In the charm sector they have performed a measurement of f{sub D{sub s}} using D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays, they have measured the mixing parameter y{sub CP} using the lifetime ratio <{tau}{sub K{pi}}>/<{tau}{sub hh}> in D{sup 0} decays, and they have also searched for CP violation using T-odd correlations in D{sup 0} decays to K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. Finally, in the tau sector they have performed a search for the lepton flavor violating decays {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} e{sup {+-}}{gamma} and {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{gamma}.

  17. Probing flavor and CP in decays of beauty and charm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacht, Stefan

    2013-07-10

    In order to probe for new physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics, we explore decays of beauty and charm mesons. In the b sector we find ourselves in the realm of precision physics so that we can improve significantly the bounds on supersymmetric flavor violation from new theoretical and experimental progress in anti B → anti K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -}. From these bounds we derive several phenomenological implications, as bounds on Radiative Flavor Violation models that are partly even sharper than the ones from Kaon physics. In order to improve the bounds on new physics models from anti B → anti K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -} even more in the future, we extract subsequently anti B → anti K{sup *} form factor ratios from data at high invariant lepton pair masses. These are the current bottleneck for the advancement in precision. In the charm sector unexpectedly large CP violation was measured recently. Currently, the experimental situation is unsettled. We work here on the main problem that one cannot reliably calculate the hadronic part from first principles, i.e., cannot exclude possible enhancements from this source. We perform for the first time a comprehensive SU(3){sub F} analysis of D → P{sub 8}P{sub 8} decays including linear breaking in full generality. We find the SU(3){sub F} expansion to be indeed working. Furthermore, the fit shows a large triplet matrix element enhancement that cannot be excluded for sure without having a dynamical theory at hand. We show as a proof of principle that with significantly improved data we could disentangle the triplet model including the Standard Model from other new physics models. Using reasonable theoretical input from QCD factorization we can eliminate some of the many degrees of freedom of the pure SU(3){sub F} analysis. This can sharpen partially the correlation between D-decay CP asymmetries and branching ratios.

  18. Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagodawithana, Tilak W.; Nelles, Lynn; Trivedi, Nayan B.

    Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic systems that direct the humans to satisfy the body's protein need for their sustenance. Recent developments have resulted in a wide range of cost effective savory flavorings, the best known of which are autolyzed yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. New technologies have helped researchers to improve the savory characteristics of yeast extracts through the application of Maillard reaction and by generating specific flavor enhancers through the use of enzymes. An interesting parallel exists in the pet food industry, where a similar approach is taken in using animal protein hydrolysates to create palatability enhancers via Maillard reaction scheme. Protein hydrolysates are also utilized extensively as a source of nutrition to the elderly, young children and immuno-compromised patient population. These hydrolysates have an added advantage in having peptides small enough to avoid any chance of an allergenic reaction which sometimes occur with the consumption of larger sized peptides or proteins. Accordingly, protein hydrolysates are required to have an average molecular weight distribution in the range 800-1,500 Da to make them non-allergenic. The technical challenge for scientists involved in food and feed manufacture is to use an appropriate combination of enzymes within the existing economic constraints and other physical factors/limitations, such as heat, pH, and time, to create highly palatable, yet still nutritious and hypoallergenic food formulations.

  19. Trends in Sales of Flavored and Menthol Tobacco Products in the United States during 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Nicole M; Gammon, Doris; Loomis, Brett; Falvey, Kyle; Wang, Teresa W; King, Brian A; Rogers, Todd

    2017-06-01

    Flavors can mask the harshness of tobacco and make it appealing to young people. This study assessed flavored and menthol tobacco product sales at the national and state levels. Universal Product Code (UPC) tobacco sales data collected by Nielsen were combined for convenience stores and all-outlets-combined during October 22, 2011-January 9, 2016. Products were characterized as flavored, menthol, or non-flavored/non-menthol. Total unit sales, and the proportion of flavored and menthol unit sales, were assessed nationally and by state for seven tobacco products. Joinpoint Regression was used to assess trends in average monthly percentage change. Nationally, the proportion of flavored and menthol sales in 2015 was as follows: cigarettes (32.5% menthol), large cigars (26.1% flavored), cigarillos (47.5% flavored, 0.2% menthol), little cigars (21.8% flavored, 19.4% menthol), chewing tobacco (1.4% flavored, 0.7% menthol), moist snuff (3.0% flavored, 57.0% menthol), and snus (88.5% menthol). From 2011-2015, sales increased for flavored cigarillos and chewing tobacco, as well as for menthol cigarettes, little cigars, moist snuff and snus. Sales decreased for flavored large cigars, moist snuff and snus, and for menthol chewing tobacco. State-level variations were observed by product; for example, flavored little cigar sales ranged from 4.4% (Maine) to 69.3% (Utah) and flavored cigarillo sales ranged from 26.6% (Maine) to 63.0% (Maryland). Menthol and flavored sales have increased since 2011, particularly for the products with the highest number of units sold, and significant state variation exists. Efforts to restrict flavored tobacco product sales could reduce overall U.S. tobacco consumption. Flavors in tobacco products can mask the harshness of tobacco and make these products more appealing to young people. This is the first study to assess national and state-level trends in flavored and menthol tobacco product sales. These findings underscore the importance of

  20. PENGEMBANGAN AROMA DAN CITA RASA BAKSO DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN FLAVOR [Development of Aroma and Taste of Meat Ball Using Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia 2

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Bakso is one of the most popular meat product in Indonesia. This research studied of effect of addition of falvor to the quality of meat ball. The analysis included physical characteristics (specific gravity, hardness, shear, elasticity and color organoleptic test. The results showed that : according to consumer preference, the most like flavour that added in the meat ball were the flavour of beef Q. 1.%, beef Q 1.5%, Beef WIN 1.5% and beef Fat WIN 1.0%. the use of flavor did not cause differences in physical characteristics like specific gravity, hardness, shear, alasticity and color a-value. The use flavour in creased the price of bakso between Rp 4.5,- to Rp 18,-. According to comparison test, meat ball with beef Q 1.5% has the best score compared with Bakso Lapang Tembak (BLT in aroma, and with Bakso Pedagang Keliling (BPK has the best score in aroma, test and texture.

  1. Generally Recognized as Safe: Uncertainty Surrounding E-Cigarette Flavoring Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara G. Sears

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite scientific uncertainty regarding the relative safety of inhaling e-cigarette aerosol and flavorings, some consumers regard the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS designation as evidence of flavoring safety. In this study, we assessed how college students’ perceptions of e-cigarette flavoring safety are related to understanding of the GRAS designation. During spring 2017, an online questionnaire was administered to college students. Chi-square p-values and multivariable logistic regression were employed to compare perceptions among participants considering e-cigarette flavorings as safe and those considering e-cigarette flavorings to be unsafe. The total sample size was 567 participants. Only 22% knew that GRAS designation meant that a product is safe to ingest, not inhale, inject, or use topically. Of participants who considered flavorings to be GRAS, the majority recognized that the designation meant a product is safe to ingest but also considered it safe to inhale. Although scientific uncertainty on the overall safety of flavorings in e-cigarettes remains, health messaging can educate the public about the GRAS designation and its irrelevance to e-cigarette safety.

  2. Flavoring Compounds Dominate Toxic Aldehyde Production during E-Cigarette Vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystov, Andrey; Samburova, Vera

    2016-12-06

    The growing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) raises concerns about the possibility of adverse health effects to primary users and people exposed to e-cigarette vapors. E-Cigarettes offer a very wide variety of flavors, which is one of the main factors that attract new, especially young, users. How flavoring compounds in e-cigarette liquids affect the chemical composition and toxicity of e-cigarette vapors is practically unknown. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as safer alternatives to traditional cigarettes, several studies have demonstrated formation of toxic aldehydes in e-cigarette vapors during vaping. So far, aldehyde formation has been attributed to thermal decomposition of the main components of e-cigarette e-liquids (propylene glycol and glycerol), while the role of flavoring compounds has been ignored. In this study, we have measured several toxic aldehydes produced by three popular brands of e-cigarettes with flavored and unflavored e-liquids. We show that, within the tested e-cigarette brands, thermal decomposition of flavoring compounds dominates formation of aldehydes during vaping, producing levels that exceed occupational safety standards. Production of aldehydes was found to be exponentially dependent on concentration of flavoring compounds. These findings stress the need for a further, thorough investigation of the effect of flavoring compounds on the toxicity of e-cigarettes.

  3. Generally Recognized as Safe: Uncertainty Surrounding E-Cigarette Flavoring Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Clara G; Hart, Joy L; Walker, Kandi L; Robertson, Rose Marie

    2017-10-23

    Despite scientific uncertainty regarding the relative safety of inhaling e-cigarette aerosol and flavorings, some consumers regard the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) designation as evidence of flavoring safety. In this study, we assessed how college students' perceptions of e-cigarette flavoring safety are related to understanding of the GRAS designation. During spring 2017, an online questionnaire was administered to college students. Chi-square p-values and multivariable logistic regression were employed to compare perceptions among participants considering e-cigarette flavorings as safe and those considering e-cigarette flavorings to be unsafe. The total sample size was 567 participants. Only 22% knew that GRAS designation meant that a product is safe to ingest, not inhale, inject, or use topically. Of participants who considered flavorings to be GRAS, the majority recognized that the designation meant a product is safe to ingest but also considered it safe to inhale. Although scientific uncertainty on the overall safety of flavorings in e-cigarettes remains, health messaging can educate the public about the GRAS designation and its irrelevance to e-cigarette safety.

  4. Beer flavor provokes striatal dopamine release in male drinkers: mediation by family history of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; Albrecht, Daniel S; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A

    2013-08-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is increased by virtually all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. However, drug-associated cues are also known to provoke striatal DA transmission- a phenomenon linked to the motivated behaviors associated with addiction. To our knowledge, no one has tested if alcohol's classically conditioned flavor cues, in the absence of a significant pharmacologic effect, are capable of eliciting striatal DA release in humans. Employing positron emission tomography (PET), we hypothesized that beer's flavor alone can reduce the binding potential (BP) of [(11)C]raclopride (RAC; a reflection of striatal DA release) in the ventral striatum, relative to an appetitive flavor control. Forty-nine men, ranging from social to heavy drinking, mean age 25, with a varied family history of alcoholism underwent two [(11)C]RAC PET scans: one while tasting beer, and one while tasting Gatorade. Relative to the control flavor of Gatorade, beer flavor significantly increased self-reported desire to drink, and reduced [(11)C]RAC BP, indicating that the alcohol-associated flavor cues induced DA release. BP reductions were strongest in subjects with first-degree alcoholic relatives. These results demonstrate that alcohol-conditioned flavor cues can provoke ventral striatal DA release, absent significant pharmacologic effects, and that the response is strongest in subjects with a greater genetic risk for alcoholism. Striatal DA responses to salient alcohol cues may thus be an inherited risk factor for alcoholism.

  5. Magnetic-force-microscope Study of Interlayer _Kinks_ in Individual Vortices in Underdoped Cuprate YBa2Cu3O6 x Superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Lan

    2010-04-05

    We use magnetic force microscopy to both image and manipulate individual vortex lines threading single crystalline YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.4}, a layered superconductor. We find that when we pull the top of a pinned vortex, it may not tilt smoothly. Sometimes, we observe a vortex to break into discrete segments that can be described as short stacks of pancake vortices, similar to the 'kinked' structure proposed by Benkraouda and Clem. Quantitative analysis gives an estimate of the pinning force and the coupling between the stacks. Our measurements highlight the discrete nature of stacks of pancake vortices in layered superconductors.

  6. Flavor in the context of ancestral human diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wrangham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Given that nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution, to understand the evolutionary biology of human flavor perception we need to know what kinds of foods have been sufficiently important in the human past for natural selection to favor specific mechanisms for perceiving and digesting them. Humans share with great apes a long prehistory of specializing on eating ripe fruits. Wild ripe fruits have much less sugar and more fiber than domestic fruits, but are similar in tending to offer two main tastes, sweet mixed with sour. While a preference for sweetness is easily explained, the attraction of a sweet-sour combination is still uncertain. A plausible explanation is that because mild acidity inhibits microbial growth, it signals a low probability of toxins. Whatever the explanation, the human preference for a combination of sweet and sour tastes appears to be a strong response reflecting our frugivorous ancestry. However for at least 2 million years fruit-eating has been less important for humans than it is for most other primates. Humans specialized dietarily in two respects, composition and processing. First, though composition varies widely, for their body size humans select items of unusually high caloric density. Thus compared to great apes, hunter-gatherers consume less fiber and more starch and lipids. They do so by eating much less foliage and fruit than great apes do, and more roots and animal-derived foods including both meats and honey [1]. Although meat is often regarded as important because it provides protein, great ape diets provide more than enough protein from fruits and foliage alone: fat is a more critical component of meat. Honey from honey-bees Apis mellifera has a surprisingly large role in the human evolutionary diet, i.e. for African hunter-gatherers. It is a strongly preferred item which can be the predominant sources of calories: hunter-gatherers eat as much as 1 kg per day for weeks at a time

  7. Identifying Breeding Priorities for Blueberry Flavor Using Biochemical, Sensory, and Genotype by Environment Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Gilbert

    Full Text Available Breeding for a subjective goal such as flavor is challenging, as many blueberry cultivars are grown worldwide, and identifying breeding targets relating to blueberry flavor biochemistry that have a high degree of genetic control and low environmental variability are priorities. A variety of biochemical compounds and physical characters induce the sensory responses of taste, olfaction, and somatosensation, all of which interact to create what is perceived flavor. The goal of this study was to identify the flavor compounds with a larger genetic versus environmental component regulating their expression over an array of cultivars, locations, and years. Over the course of three years, consumer panelists rated overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor intensity of 19 southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum hybrids genotypes in 30 sensory panels. Significant positive correlations to overall liking of blueberry fruit (P<0.001 were found with sweetness (R2 = 0.70, texture (R2 = 0.68, and flavor (R2 = 0.63. Sourness had a significantly negative relationship with overall liking (R2 = 0.55. The relationship between flavor and texture liking was also linear (R2 = 0.73, P<0.0001 demonstrating interaction between olfaction and somatosensation. Partial least squares analysis was used to identify sugars, acids, and volatile compounds contributing to liking and sensory intensities, and revealed strong effects of fructose, pH, and several volatile compounds upon all sensory parameters measured. To assess the feasibility of breeding for flavor components, a three year study was conducted to compare genetic and environmental influences on flavor biochemistry. Panelists could discern genotypic variation in blueberry sensory components, and many of the compounds affecting consumer favor of blueberries, such as fructose, pH, β-caryophyllene oxide and 2-heptanone, were sufficiently genetically controlled that allocating resources for their

  8. Identifying Breeding Priorities for Blueberry Flavor Using Biochemical, Sensory, and Genotype by Environment Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jessica L.; Guthart, Matthew J.; Gezan, Salvador A.; Pisaroglo de Carvalho, Melissa; Schwieterman, Michael L.; Colquhoun, Thomas A.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.; Sims, Charles A.; Clark, David G.; Olmstead, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding for a subjective goal such as flavor is challenging, as many blueberry cultivars are grown worldwide, and identifying breeding targets relating to blueberry flavor biochemistry that have a high degree of genetic control and low environmental variability are priorities. A variety of biochemical compounds and physical characters induce the sensory responses of taste, olfaction, and somatosensation, all of which interact to create what is perceived flavor. The goal of this study was to identify the flavor compounds with a larger genetic versus environmental component regulating their expression over an array of cultivars, locations, and years. Over the course of three years, consumer panelists rated overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor intensity of 19 southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum hybrids) genotypes in 30 sensory panels. Significant positive correlations to overall liking of blueberry fruit (P<0.001) were found with sweetness (R2 = 0.70), texture (R2 = 0.68), and flavor (R2 = 0.63). Sourness had a significantly negative relationship with overall liking (R2 = 0.55). The relationship between flavor and texture liking was also linear (R2 = 0.73, P<0.0001) demonstrating interaction between olfaction and somatosensation. Partial least squares analysis was used to identify sugars, acids, and volatile compounds contributing to liking and sensory intensities, and revealed strong effects of fructose, pH, and several volatile compounds upon all sensory parameters measured. To assess the feasibility of breeding for flavor components, a three year study was conducted to compare genetic and environmental influences on flavor biochemistry. Panelists could discern genotypic variation in blueberry sensory components, and many of the compounds affecting consumer favor of blueberries, such as fructose, pH, β-caryophyllene oxide and 2-heptanone, were sufficiently genetically controlled that allocating resources for their breeding is

  9. The effect of sucralose on flavor sweetness in electronic cigarettes varies between delivery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbrook, Kathryn; Erythropel, Hanno C; DeWinter, Tamara M; Falinski, Mark; O'Malley, Stephanie; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie B; Green, Barry G

    2017-01-01

    The appeal of sweet electronic cigarette flavors makes it important to identify the chemical compounds that contribute to their sweetness. While volatile chemicals that produce sweet aromas have been identified in e-liquids, there are no published reports of sugars or artificial sweeteners in commercial e-liquids. However, the sweetener sucralose is marketed as an e-liquid additive to commercial flavors. The primary aims of the study were to determine if sucralose is delivered in sufficient concentration in the inhaled aerosol to enhance flavor sweetness, and whether the amount delivered depends on the e-liquid delivery system. Thirty-two adult smokers rated flavor intensity, sweetness, harshness and liking/disliking for 4 commercial flavors with and without sucralose (1%) using 2 e-cigarette delivery systems (cartridge and tank). Participants alternately vaped normally or with the nose pinched closed to block perception of volatile flavor components via olfaction. LC/MS was used to measure the concentration of sucralose in the e-liquid aerosols using a device that mimicked vaping. Sweetness and flavor intensity were perceived much more strongly when olfaction was permitted. The contribution of sucralose to sweetness was significant only for the cartridge system, and the chemical analysis showed that the concentration of sucralose in the aerosol was higher when the cartridge was used. Together these findings indicate that future regulation of sweet flavor additives should focus first on the volatile constituents of e-liquids with the recognition that artificial sweeteners may also contribute to flavor sweetness depending upon e-cigarette design.

  10. The effect of sucralose on flavor sweetness in electronic cigarettes varies between delivery devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Rosbrook

    Full Text Available The appeal of sweet electronic cigarette flavors makes it important to identify the chemical compounds that contribute to their sweetness. While volatile chemicals that produce sweet aromas have been identified in e-liquids, there are no published reports of sugars or artificial sweeteners in commercial e-liquids. However, the sweetener sucralose is marketed as an e-liquid additive to commercial flavors. The primary aims of the study were to determine if sucralose is delivered in sufficient concentration in the inhaled aerosol to enhance flavor sweetness, and whether the amount delivered depends on the e-liquid delivery system. Thirty-two adult smokers rated flavor intensity, sweetness, harshness and liking/disliking for 4 commercial flavors with and without sucralose (1% using 2 e-cigarette delivery systems (cartridge and tank. Participants alternately vaped normally or with the nose pinched closed to block perception of volatile flavor components via olfaction. LC/MS was used to measure the concentration of sucralose in the e-liquid aerosols using a device that mimicked vaping. Sweetness and flavor intensity were perceived much more strongly when olfaction was permitted. The contribution of sucralose to sweetness was significant only for the cartridge system, and the chemical analysis showed that the concentration of sucralose in the aerosol was higher when the cartridge was used. Together these findings indicate that future regulation of sweet flavor additives should focus first on the volatile constituents of e-liquids with the recognition that artificial sweeteners may also contribute to flavor sweetness depending upon e-cigarette design.

  11. Tobacco products sold by Internet vendors following restrictions on flavors and light descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Catherine L; Williams, Rebecca S; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-03-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act bans characterizing flavors (e.g., grape, strawberry) in cigarettes, excluding tobacco and menthol, and prohibits companies from using misleading descriptors (e.g., light, low) that imply reduced health risks without submitting scientific data to support the claim and obtaining a marketing authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This observational study examines tobacco products offered by Internet cigarette vendors (ICV) pre- and postimplementation of the ban on characterizing flavors in cigarettes and the restriction on misleading descriptors. Cross-sectional samples of the 200 most popular ICVs in 2009, 2010, and 2011 were identified. Data were analyzed in 2012 and 2013. In 2011 the odds for selling cigarettes with banned flavors or misleading descriptors were 0.40 times that for selling the products in 2009 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.18, 0.88). However, 89% of vendors continued to sell the products, including 95.8% of international vendors. Following the ban on characterizing flavors, ICVs began selling potential alternative products. In 2010, the odds for selling flavored little cigars were 1.71 (95% CI = 1.09, 2.69) times that for selling the product in 2009 and, for clove cigars, were 5.50 (95% CI = 2.36, 12.80) times that for selling the product in 2009. Noncompliance with the ban on characterizing flavors and restriction on misleading descriptors has been high, especially among international vendors. Many vendors appear to be circumventing the intent of the flavors ban by selling unbanned flavored cigars, in some cases in lieu of flavored cigarettes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effects of cyclodextrins on the flavor of goat milk and its yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, O A; Gupta, R B; Sadooghy-Saraby, S

    2012-02-01

    Goat milk fat includes several branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs), like 4-methyloctanoic acid, which when free, are responsible for goaty flavor. This flavor limits the market opportunities for goat milk. Prior research showed that cyclodextrins (CDs) can reduce goaty flavor, presumably by binding free fatty acids. This research extends that observation. In odor ranking trials in citrate buffer at pH 4.8, β-CD concentrations between 0% and 0.35% were increasingly effective in reducing odor intensity due to 4-methyloctanoic acid, but only when present in high molar excess. α-CD was also effective, but γ-CD was not. In lipase-treated goat milk only β-CD was effective but at much lower molar excess, a difference potentially explained by several factors. One was that BCFAs bind to CDs in marked preference to their straight chain isomers. Displacement experiments with phenolphthalein disproved that hypothesis. The ability of β-CD to reduce goaty flavor intensity extended to yogurt. An analytical panel showed that flavor of goat yogurt was reduced by addition of β-CD, but only if added before heating and fermentation. A hedonic trial showed that consumers preferred unsweetened and sweet/vanilla-flavored goat yogurt more when β-CD was included, P = 0.004 and 0.016, respectively. Males liked all yogurts more than females (P effects for sheepmeat flavor caused by BCFAs. β-Cyclodextrin masks goaty flavor in yogurt, and with its GRAS status means it could be used in commercial goat yogurts and similar products so the real or perceived nutritional advantages of goat milk are not lost to goaty flavor. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Assessment of Thermal and Textural Characteristics and Consumer Preferences of Lemon and Strawberry Flavored Fish Oil Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öǧütcü, Mustafa; Arifoglu, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, strawberry and lemon flavored fish oil organogels (FOO) were prepared with beeswax as the organogelator. The physical, thermal and textural characteristics as well as the consumer preferences of the flavored organogels were determined in comparison with fish oil and FOO containing no flavor. Furthermore, the stability of the organogels was evaluated during 90 day storage at 4°C. The results revealed that, structurally stable fish oil organogels as spreadable products might be formed and that flavoring of the gels enhances consumer preference. Thus, flavoring of fish oil organogels could be a challenge in increasing the consumption of fish oil.

  14. [Adriamycin and mitomycin dose-dependently downregulate X-kinked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in human bladder cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhen-fei; Li, Ming; Lai, Yong-qing; Yuan, Yi-ming; Liu, Gang; Chen, Liang; Gan, Lin; Na, Yan-qun

    2006-07-04

    To investigate the efficacy of inducing apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells by adriamycin and mitomycin and relevant mechanism. Human bladder cancer cells of the lines RT4, MGH-U1, FJ, and T24 were cultured. Adriamycin of the concentrations of 0.1, 1, and 10 microg/ml, and mitomycin of the concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 microg/ml were added into the culture fluid respectively. CCK-8 colorimetric assay was used to detect the survival rates of the cells so as to select the cell line sensitive and tolerable to the drugs. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis. Western blotting was used to detect the levels of X-kinked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and the cleavage of caspase-3 precursor. It was found that RT4 cells were the most sensitive and the T24 cells were the most tolerable to adriamycin and mitomycin. Treated with adriamycin of the concentrations of 0.1, 1, and 10 microg/ml for 24 hours, the apoptotic rates of the RT4 cells were 15.3% +/- 4.3%, 29.3% +/- 6.4%, and 45.0% +/- 5.5% respectively; and the apoptotic rates of the T24 cells were 7.3% +/- 3.1%, 12.5% +/- 4.3%, and 18.2% +/- 6.3% respectively, all significantly lower than those of the RT4 cells (P RT4 cells were 12.7% +/- 2.9%, 31.3% +/- 4.4%, and 48.9% +/- 5.8% respectively, and the apoptotic rates of the RT4 cells were 7.2% +/- 3.3%, 15.5% +/- 5.2%, and 21.2% +/- 4.4% respectively, all significantly lower than those of the RT4 cells (all P cell lines before the adriamycin and mitomycin treatment. After the treatment of adriamycin and mitomycin, the expression of XIAP was down-regulated dose-dependently, however, being weaker in the T24 cells than in the RT4 cells; and caspase-3 precursor cleavage was enhanced, however, being weaker in the T24 cells too. Adriamycin and mitomycin dose-dependently kill the human bladder cancer cells. Such cytotoxic effect may be realized through inducing the cell apoptosis which is associated with the down-regulation of XIAP and cleavage of

  15. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

    OpenAIRE

    Karami Nogourani, Maryam; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Kowsari Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2012-01-01

    Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women) healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for...

  16. Flavor preferences conditioned by nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that preferences are conditioned by nutritive (sucrose) but not by non-nutritive (sucralose) sweeteners in mice. Here we compared the effectiveness of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners to condition flavor preferences in three mouse strains. Isopreferred sucrose and sucralose solutions both conditioned flavor preferences in C57BL/6J (B6) mice but sucrose was more effective, consistent with its post-oral appetition action. Subsequent experiments compared flavor conditioning by fructose, which has no post-oral appetition effect in B6 mice, and a sucralose+saccharin mixture (SS) which is highly preferred to fructose in 24-h choice tests. Both sweeteners conditioned flavor preferences but fructose induced stronger preferences than SS. Training B6 mice to drink a flavored SS solution paired with intragastric fructose infusions did not enhance the SS-conditioned preference. Thus, the post-oral nutritive actions of fructose do not explain the sugar's stronger preference conditioning effect. Training B6 mice to drink a flavored fructose solution containing SS did not reduce the sugar-conditioned preference, indicating that SS does not have an off-taste that attenuates conditioning. Although B6 mice strongly preferred flavored SS to flavored fructose in a direct choice test, they preferred the fructose-paired flavor to the SS-paired flavor when these were presented in water. Fructose conditioned a stronger flavor preference than an isopreferred saccharin solution, indicating that sucralose is not responsible for the limited SS conditioning actions. SS is highly preferred by FVB/NJ and CAST/EiJ inbred mice, yet conditioned only weak flavor preferences. It is unclear why highly or equally preferred non-nutritive sweeteners condition weaker preferences than fructose, when all stimulate the same T1r2/T1r3 sweet receptor. Recent findings support the existence of non-T1r2/T1r3 glucose taste sensors; however, there is no evidence for receptors that

  17. Jet flavor tomography of quark gluon plasmas at RHIC and LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzatti, Alessandro; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2012-01-13

    A new Monte Carlo model of jet quenching in nuclear collisions, CUJET1.0, is applied to predict the jet flavor dependence of the nuclear modification factor for fragments f=π,D,B,e(-) from quenched jet flavors g,u,c,b in central collisions at RHIC and LHC. The nuclear modification factors for different flavors are predicted to exhibit a novel level crossing pattern over a transverse momentum range 5

  18. Analysis of flavor-related compounds from tabacco using SPME-GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.B.; Lee, S.G. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The flavor-related compounds contained in tobacco were analyzed by selected ion monitoring (SIM) method using headspace SPME gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Flavor-related compounds were estragole, pulegone, trans-anethole, safrole, piperonal, eugenol, methyleugenol, coumarin, trans-isoeugenol, trans-methyleugenol and myristicin More than one of the flavor-related compounds were detected in the range of 0.001-1.3 {mu}g/g from all brands of tobacco studied. The recovery was ranged from 89.1 to 102.9% and relative standard deviation was ranged from 2.6 to 25.2%. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Sensory and Instrumental Flavor Changes in Green Tea Brewed Multiple Times

    OpenAIRE

    Jeehyun Lee; Delores Chambers; Edgar Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Green teas in leaf form are brewed multiple times, a common selling point. However, the flavor changes, both sensory and volatile compounds, of green teas that have been brewed multiple times are unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine how the aroma and flavor of green teas change as they are brewed multiple times, to determine if a relationship exists between green tea flavors and green tea volatile compounds, and to suggest the number of times that green tea leaves can be br...

  20. Flavor Preferences in Animals: Role of Mouth and Gut Nutrient Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Sclafani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Food appetite and preference are greatly influenced by taste, odor, and texture stimuli that are integrated in the brain as flavor sensations. One of the most potent flavor elements is the sweet taste of sugar. In mammals, sugar taste is detected primarily by two receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, that join together to form a sweet taste receptor that responds to a variety of sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners [1]. The flavor of fat is also a source of food pleasure, which includes a taste component that influences the preference for fatty foods in some animals. The gustatory detection of fat is thought to involve lipid binding proteins including CD36, GPR120, and GPR40 located in taste receptor cells [1]. Another more subtle flavor component is umami, the taste of glutamate and certain nucleotides that adds a savory flavor to foods [1]. While many mammals have an innate preference for sweet and perhaps for fatty and umami tastes as well, most preferences for complex flavors are acquired in part through learned associations with the nutritional properties of foods. Social and cultural factors also contribute to learned flavor preferences, particularly in humans. Food is “tasted” not only in the mouth but also in the gut where there are taste receptors and other nutrient sensors that detect sugar, fat, and protein [2]. There is extensive research on how nutrients in the gut generate neural and hormonal “satiation” signals that terminate meals and maintain post-meal satiety. Less well known is that nutrient actions in the gut can stimulate eating and condition flavor preferences though a process referred to as “appetition” [3]. Appetition has been most intensively studied in laboratory rodents. In a prototypical experiment, mice are offered flavored non-nutritive solutions (CS, conditioned stimuli on alternate days with one flavor (CS+ paired with intragastric (IG infusions of a sugar solution and a different flavor (CS- paired with a