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Sample records for wall street surutakse

  1. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  2. Occupy Wall Street

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez,Francisca

    2011-01-01

    В статье рассматривается организованная антипотребительскими сообществами и направленная против негативных форм глобализации акция «Occupy Wall Street». Движение возникло осенью 2011 г. в США и стремительно распространилось по всему миру. Акции в поддержку движения были проведены еще в 82 странах. Автор, исследуя причины возникновения движения и источники его финансирования, приходит к выводу, что проект «Occupy Wall Street» может быть очередной уловкой глобалистов, цель которой «обезвредить»...

  3. OCCUPY WALL STREET VS. RHETORIC OF FEAR

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Vargas, Henry

    2014-01-01

    The response of Obama´s Administration to Occupy Wall Street movement is an instanceof institutional rhetoric of fear. For this reason, this paper offers a rhetorical approachof some of texts used by Occupy Wall Street and the interaction of this movement andAmerican Government. La respuesta de la Administración Obama al movimiento Occupy Wall Street es un claroejemplo de la aplicación de la retórica del miedo. Debido a esto, el presente artículo pretendeofrecer una aproximación retórica d...

  4. The Digital Evolution of Occupy Wall Street

    OpenAIRE

    Conover, Michael D.; Ferrara, Emilio; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation ...

  5. The digital evolution of occupy wall street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Michael D; Ferrara, Emilio; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  6. The digital evolution of occupy wall street.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Conover

    Full Text Available We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  7. Political Education--Occupy Wall Street's First Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie DiSalvo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While Occupy Wall Street (OWS is easily identified with direct action in the streets, equal recognition should be given to the vast amount of political education that took place. This article will give an overview of that and briefly assess its emphases and absences.

  8. Wall Street: money never sleeps : Motion picture (2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2011-01-01

    The Social Network : Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg creates the social networking site that would become known as Facebook, but is later sued by two brothers who claimed he stole their idea, and the cofounder who was later squeezed out of the business. Wall Street: money never sleeps : Now out of prison but still disgraced by his peers, Gordon Gekko works his future son-in-law, an idealistic stock broker, when he sees an opportunity to take down a Wall Street enemy and rebuild his empire.

  9. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  10. Occupy Wall Street: Examining a Current Event as It Happens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Elizabeth; Bauml, Michele; Field, Sherry; Ledbetter, Mary

    2012-01-01

    On September 17, 2011 (Constitution Day), Occupy Wall Street began as a protest movement when approximately 2,000 supporters assembled in lower Manhattan's Zuccotti Park. The group's concerns focused on the corporate role in the current financial crisis and economic inequality. Rhetoric both in support of and against the protest began to flood the…

  11. Forgetting History: Mediated Reflections on Occupy Wall Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Daubs

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how Occupy Wall Street (OWS protestors’ practices and stated understanding of media act on social perceptions of networked media. It stems from a discursive content analysis of online commentary from OWS protestors and supporters, using different sources from the first Adbusters blog in July 2011 until May 2012. We demonstrate how the belief in the myth of an egalitarian Internet was incorporated into the offline structure of OWS and led OWS participants to adopt rhetoric that distances the movement from past protest actions by stating the movement was “like the Internet”.

  12. The Wolf of Wall Street. Sopravvivere nello stato di natura

    OpenAIRE

    Addis, Maria Cristina; Tagliani, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    El cine contemporáneo ha profundizado en el retrato de la violencia del capitalismo financiero y The Wolf of Wall Street (2013) de Martin Scorsese denuncia el intento de establecer una representación plausible de las formas de vida y relaciones de poder que emergen de la globalización y de la volatilización de los mercados y de los bienes. El retorno a una dimensión salvaje y primordial de la violencia pone en escena un estado de naturaleza ajeno a las leyes que regulan el c...

  13. Occupy Wall Street: From Representation to Post-Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tormey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trying to assess something as recent and dynamic as Occupy Wall Street (OWS presents problems for political analysts. There is always a danger that by the time one has written in judgement the event-movement will have morphed into something quite different. For this reason alone we need to be careful about offering too definitive a judgment on what it represents, about what we think is new in the phenomenon as well as what we think presents linkages to the past. On the one hand, OWS is still in the process of becoming-something . On the other hand, though, we can see the outline of more or less familiar characteristics that might help orientate us towards something that is being greeted as a new departure.

  14. A combination of dopamine genes predicts success by professional Wall Street traders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Sapra

    Full Text Available What determines success on Wall Street? This study examined if genes affecting dopamine levels of professional traders were associated with their career tenure. Sixty professional Wall Street traders were genotyped and compared to a control group who did not trade stocks. We found that distinct alleles of the dopamine receptor 4 promoter (DRD4P and catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT that affect synaptic dopamine were predominant in traders. These alleles are associated with moderate, rather than very high or very low, levels of synaptic dopamine. The activity of these alleles correlated positively with years spent trading stocks on Wall Street. Differences in personality and trading behavior were also correlated with allelic variants. This evidence suggests there may be a genetic basis for the traits that make one a successful trader.

  15. Socializing space and politicizing financial innovation/destruction: some observations on Occupy Wall Street

    OpenAIRE

    Aalbers, Manuel B.

    2012-01-01

    This short paper discusses two issues related to the Occupy Wall Street movement. First, a local urban political geography is presented in which Liberty Plaza is not the accidental place of Occupy Wall Street but a deliberate one, not only because it is located between the towers of global capital, but also because it constitutes a so-called “privately owned public space” (POPS). Second, a global financial political geography is presented in which I argue that the imprecise demands of Occupy ...

  16. Between the street and the wall: the construction of an interface in gated communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Schwabe Meneguetti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Streets are fundamental open spaces to urban life and their landscape is conditioned by the occupation form and use of lots along it. However, recent urbanization processes have shown changes in the relationship between public and private spaces. Among these changes are the large gated communities within the urban fabric. They result in high and continuous walls, which reject the interface with the neighboring streets, thus negatively affecting urban environment quality. This paper aims to present a possibility to construct the interface between gated communities and outside streets. An experience of gated communities surrounded by multi-purpose lots built in the city of Maringá, Brazil, will be reported. The application of this typomorphology in several of these real estate enterprise has demonstrated significant improvement in the quality of the street landscape.

  17. Discerning urban spiritualities: Tahrir Square, Occupy Wall Street and the idols of global market capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvyn C. du Toit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Discernment might be said to be a process of searching for meaning in the light of an (un articulated Absolute. This search takes place in the tension between the private and public spheres of life, mostly mitigated by a community. Intermediate communities, such as churches or social movements, construct symbolic spirituality systems for its adherers to search for meaning in the light of an (unarticulated Absolute. The urban events of Occupy Wall Street and Tahrir Square also step into the tension between the public and private spheres of life, creating a (temporary symbolic spirituality system for its adherers. These events were attempts to construct alternatives to the meta-narrative of global market capitalism. As events attempting to symbolise an urban spirituality, Tahrir Square and Occupy Wall Street dissipated rapidly, effecting rather little change at the heart of global market capitalism. This article theorises a possible reason for these urban spiritualities� dissipation, namely an overlap with global market capitalism�s idols of instant gratification and technology.Interdisciplinary Implications: Viewing Occupy Walls Street and Tahrir Square as symbolic systems of spirituality further strengthens theological urban discourse whilst adding weight to viewing mass movements as spiritualities attempting discernment.

  18. Erasing the Material Base of Occupy Wall Street: When Soft Means Fail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Leary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When Occupy Wall Street proved able to reach mass circulation in 2011, it registered as a threat to the status quo in the United States, where corporate entities with close relation to government normally control the flow of discourse. The Occupy encampments, therefore, were intolerable, not merely an annoyance that could be ignored or ridiculed. Once Occupy’s anti-corporate rhetoric had spread widely, the mainstream media took steps to derail the mass appeal of Occupy’s oppositional discourse through accusations of incoherence and indecency. However, such “soft” means of organizing consent from the public were very weak in 2011 because of the 2008 economic collapse which had been provoked by Wall Street. With instruments of soft persuasion weak, the dominant group turned to instruments of hard persuasion — arrests, harassments, beatings, random grabs, and finally the orchestrated assault carried out on November 15th, an operation that saw the media censored and sequestered, at night, in the dark, with no filmed images, and all subway stations and street access blocked.

  19. Wall Street's assessment of plastic surgery--related technology: a clinical and financial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    2000-02-01

    Many plastic surgeons develop technologies that are manufactured by Wall Street-financed companies. Others participate in the stock market as investors. This study examines the bioengineered skin industry to determine whether it integrates clinical and financial information as Wall Street tenets would predict, and to see whether the financial performance of these companies provides any lessons for practicing plastic surgeons. In efficient markets, the assumptions on which independent financial analysts base their company sales and earnings projections are clinically reasonable, the volatility of a company's stock price does not irrationally differ from that of its industry sector, and the buy/sell recommendations of analysts are roughly congruent. For the companies in this study, these key financial parameters were compared with a benchmark index of 69 biotech companies of similar age and annual revenues (Student's t test). Five bioengineered skin companies were included in the study. Analysts estimated that each company would sell its product to between 24 and 45 percent of its target clinical population. The average stock price volatility was significantly higher for study companies than for those in the benchmark index (p penetration, significantly high price volatility, and significantly high discordance among professional analysts. In all cases, the market is inefficient-an unusual finding on Wall Street. A likely explanation for this market failure is a cycle of poor clinical correlation when assigning sales projections, which in turn leads to price volatility and discordance of buy/sell recommendations. This study's findings have implications for plastic surgeons who develop new technology or who participate in the equities markets as investors. Plastic surgeons who develop new medical devices or technology cannot universally depend on the market to drive clinically reasonable financial performance. Although inflated sales estimates have benefits in the

  20. WALLS OF CRISIS: STREET ART AND URBAN FABRIC IN CENTRAL ATHENS, 2000–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Leventis

    2014-11-01

    Unavoidably, artists became ever more political as their work emerged on the urban and architectural corpses. A sense of the unknown, of ‘what next’, waited at the end of the painted walls. It can be concluded that Athenian street art, always within its specific constructed sites and context, functioned as both an anticipation and a reflection of the socio-urban conditions and developments of the years from 2008 to 2012, and it remains key to the interpretation and understanding of what a whole generation hopes and expects from its city through these quickly changing socio-urban times and landscapes.

  1. Two Currencies - One Model? Evidence from the Wall Street Journal forecast poll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Ruelke, Jan Christoph; Frenkel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We use the foreign exchange forecasts of the Wall Street Journal poll to compare forecasters' expectation formation process for the exchange rates of the euro and the yen against the U.S. dollar for the period 1999 - 2005. We also contrast the expectation formation process with the actual exchange...... rate process. We find that most forecasters have stabilizing exchange rate expectations, but our results also indicate significant heterogeneity between forecasters. While the actual exchange rate process of the yen/dollar exchange rate is more stable than expected by the forecasters, the dollar....../euro exchange rate exhibits positive autocorrelation....

  2. A critical analysis of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street reform and consumer protection act

    OpenAIRE

    Clowes, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act which was passed into law in the United States on July 21, 2010 in response to the recent financial crisis. It particularly focuses on the parts of the bill related to the markets for structured financial products and credit ratings agencies. The paper reviews the issues that led to the crisis as well as the theory that helps to explain the causes of these issues. It then goes on to analyze the recently passed...

  3. How social media matter: Repression and the diffusion of the Occupy Wall Street movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chan S; Vasi, Ion Bogdan; Chang, Paul Y

    2017-07-01

    This study explores the role played by social media in reshaping the repression-mobilization relationship. Drawing on the case of the Occupy Wall Street movement, we examine the impact of Facebook and Twitter on the spatial diffusion of protests during a period of heightened state repression. Results from event history analyses suggest that the effects of repression on protest diffusion are contingent on the presence of social media accounts supporting the movement. We find that state repression at earlier protest sites encouraged activists to create Facebook and Twitter accounts in their own cities, which then served as important vehicles for the initiation of new Occupy protests. Moreover, results suggest that repression incidents can directly facilitate future protests in cities that already have Occupy Facebook accounts. This study highlights the potential of social media to both mediate and moderate the influence of repression on the diffusion of contemporary movements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Occupy Wall Street? Position-Blindness in the New Leftist Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Gagyi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The following I write as an Eastern European sociologist and activist, departing from the basic question of how local movements in my region might connect with Occupy Wall Street (OWS. By this time, it is evident that OWS has made an indelible mark on present-day discussions on globalisation and world order. Immanuel Wallerstein (2011, for example, has spoken directly of an ongoing transformation in world economy, asking whether the present crisis in the dominant model of capitalism-cum-democracy will be resolved through a shift towards a less democratic and more unequal system, or whether global social movements might help bring about a more equal and democratic social order. Keeping in sight the controversial lessons of the alter-globalism movement in Eastern Europe, I will argue that certain characteristics of the OWS movementthemselves pose an obstacle to the development of a truly global social movement

  5. Analyzing the quality of pedestrian street in the case of İstiklal Street in walled city of Famagusta

    OpenAIRE

    Shahideh, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Street is a very important urban element that determines the urban pattern and urban socio-economic life which the later can be improved greatly in “pedestrian street”. This kind of urban space can play a significant role in social life of people by providing a place for social activities of users. People interact with each other and their environment. Through this interaction; they need to be responded by the environment. In other words people expect to satisfy their needs through ...

  6. Frizzled to finance: one PhD's path from a Drosophila lab to Wall Street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Job

    2016-06-01

    An equity research analyst's job is to determine whether the price of a stock is likely to go up or down. For science-based businesses, particularly biotechnology companies, a PhD in the life sciences can be very helpful in making this determination. I transitioned from a postdoc position to working in equity research. Here I present information on how I made the transition, an overview of the day-to-day activities of an analyst, and thoughts on how to prepare to look for a job in finance. There are significant positives to working on Wall Street, including exposure to cutting-edge clinical/translational research, access to some of the best scientists in the world, a dynamic work environment, and compensation that generally exceeds academic salaries. This comes at the cost of some independence and the satisfaction of being able to call oneself a scientist. © 2016 Taylor. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. The physics of Wall Street a brief history of predicting the unpredictable

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2013-01-01

    After the economic meltdown of 2008, Warren Buffett famously warned, “beware of geeks bearing formulas.” But as James Weatherall demonstrates, not all geeks are created equal. While many of the mathematicians and software engineers on Wall Street failed when their abstractions turned ugly in practice, a special breed of physicists has a much deeper history of revolutionizing finance. Taking us from fin-de-siècle Paris to Rat Pack-era Las Vegas, from wartime government labs to Yippie communes on the Pacific coast, Weatherall shows how physicists successfully brought their science to bear on some of the thorniest problems in economics, from options pricing to bubbles. The crisis was partly a failure of mathematical modeling. But even more, it was a failure of some very sophisticated financial institutions to think like physicists. Models—whether in science or finance—have limitations; they break down under certain conditions. And in 2008, sophisticated models fell into the hands of people who didn’t...

  8. Challenging Social Class In American Political Discourse: Bernie Sanders, Occupy Wall Street, and the New Discourse of Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Nora Stranden

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how the dominant ideas about social class in American political discourse have been challenged by the rhetoric of the Bernie Sanders campaign in the 2016 presidential primary election. Through critical discourse analysis, I find that Bernie Sanders is the main bearer of a new discourse of inequality in American political and public discourse, which has its roots in the Occupy Wall Street movement in 2011 and previous developing strands from the 1990s and early 2000s.

  9. DISCOURSE, REFERENCIATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF POLITICAL IDENTITY: THE CASE OF OCCUPY WALL STREET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaysa Maria Braide de Moraes Cavalcante

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to undertake an analysis of identity construction of the Occupy Wall Street (OWS, North American movement that opposed the financial policy of capitalism and, consequently, the strong influence of the capital of the State. Thus, we aim to answer the question of how does the discursive construction of identity of this object of discourse, from the referential strategies mobilized in the text of the Statement of Autonomy, document approved by the General Assembly of movement. Our theoretical and methodological support consists of a link between the theory of discourse, the political scientist Ernesto Laclau (1990, 2011; LACLAU; MOUFFE, 2001 – especially his remarks about the relationship between discourse, antagonism and construction of political identities through an equivalence of logic –, and studies of referentiation from the perspective of authors such as Apothéloz e Reichler-Béguelin (1995, Koch (2005, 2015, Marcuschi (2007 e Ciulla e Silva (2008. Using as textual analysis category anaphoric expressions – without neglecting other elements, like some deictics, that interfere in the construction process of the discourse object in question – we attention to the fact that this construction sets the OWS as what Laclau calls empty significant whose identity is carved through the formation and expansion of a chain of equivalence, which is established from an antagonistic relationship. Finally, we discuss some issues concerning this identity construction mode in order to face the language not only as a way of materialization of social tensions but as the privileged place of social struggles brought about by these tensions.

  10. Occupy Wall Street in alternative and mainstream media : A comparative analysis of the social movement’s framing in the media

    OpenAIRE

    Negus, Andra Stefania

    2012-01-01

    The thesis provides an analysis of the different ways the Occupy Wall Street was presented by OccupyWallSt.org ( the movement’s own media source), and The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal and USA Today from July 2011 up to the end of June 2012. This was done by using Entman’ theory of media framing together with Castells’ network theory of power. The former provided a way of addressing the different types of frames that mainstream media utilize, while the latter offered an understandin...

  11. Walls of Crisis: Street Art and Urban Fabric in Central Athens, 2000–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Leventis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Street art, an offspring of the global metropolis and a product of its socio-urban fabric, has inevitably grown on, and been sustained by, urban architecture. Individual taggers and graffiti crews have proliferated in European cities since the 1980s. In the beginning, they mirrored their North American counterparts’ socio-political preoccupations that were a product of deteriorating socio-economic and socio-urban conditions in depressed sectors of metropolitan areas. In the early 1990s, however, with economic development and the beginnings of urban regeneration processes came the first large-scale mutation of tagging into ‘graffiti art’. With larger and more recognizable works, and visual rather than textual content, by the late 1990s graffiti was accepted by increasingly broader sections of urban population as ‘street art’. A new form of public art, street art could claim a legitimate part in the forming and transforming of urban identities in both their visual and their spatial iterations.

  12. From Tahrir to Puerta del Sol to Wall Street: The Transnational Diffusion of Social Movements in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Romanos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines social movement diffusion through a comparison between two processes: diffusion from the Arab Spring to the Spanish indignados, and from the latter to Occupy Wall Street. The comparison shows that the content and the channel of diffusion differ from one process to the other. The Spanish indignados received a sense of collective effi cacy from the Arab Spring essentially through indirect means. In the second process, the mediation of third parties facilitated the diffusion of more practical knowledge related to new forms of inclusivity and the occupation of public space. The comparison of these two processes suggests that ideational elements are easily transmitted through indirect channels, whereas behavioural innovations require interpersonal contact to be properly transmitted.

  13. Discussing Occupy Wall Street on Twitter: longitudinal network analysis of equality, emotion, and stability of public discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Pian-Pian; Zhu, Jonathan J H

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the quality of public discussion about social movements on Twitter and to understand the structural features and evolution of longitudinal discussion networks, we analyze tweets about the Occupy Wall Street movement posted over the course of 16 days by investigating the relationship between inequality, emotion, and the stability of online discussion. The results reveal that (1) the discussion is highly unequal for both initiating discussions and receiving conversations; (2) the stability of the discussion is much higher for receivers than for initiators; (3) the inequality of online discussions moderates the stability of online discussions; and (4) on an individual level, there is no significant relationship between emotion and political discussion. The implications help evaluate the quality of public discussion, and to understand the relationship between online discussion and social movements.

  14. Occupy Wall Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    oppositional social movement alongside a legitimizing countermovement, but also a new notion of political community as an ensemble of discursive practices that are endogenous to the constitution of political regimes from the “inside out.” These new political identities are bound by thin ties of political...... solidarity linked to the transformative capacities of the movement rather than thick ties of social solidarity....

  15. 75 FR 76706 - Acceptance of Public Submissions on a Study Mandated by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., Division of Risk, Strategy, and Financial Innovation, Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F Street, NE... to capture one set of information versus another? 40. Would there be a benefit to making the computer... COMMISSION SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Acceptance of Public Submissions on a Study Mandated by the...

  16. Urban streets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönfeld, von Kim Carlotta; Bertolini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating

  17. De Tahrir a Wall Street por la Puerta del Sol: la difusión transnacional de los movimientos sociales en perspectiva comparada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Romanos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo compara la difusión de la primavera árabe al movimiento 15M con la de este último a Occupy Wall Street. La comparación muestra que el contenido y el canal de la difusión fueron diferentes en uno y otro proceso. Los indignados españoles recibieron de la primavera árabe un sentido de eficacia de la acción colectiva a través fundamentalmente de medios indirectos. En el segundo proceso, la mediación de terceros facilitó la difusión de conocimientos más prácticos y complejos relacionados con nuevas formas de inclusividad y la ocupación del espacio público. La comparación sugiere que los elementos ideacionales se difunden fácilmente a través de canales indirectos mientras que las innovaciones conductuales precisan contactos personales para ser difundidas adecuadamente.

  18. Vývoj a politický dopad hnutí Tea Party a Occupy Wall Street v průběhu prezidentství Baracka Obamy

    OpenAIRE

    Hushegyi, Ádám

    2017-01-01

    Barack Obama's administration inherited one of the most severe economic crises in the history of the United States, which severely undermined the American public's confidence in the country's political and economic future. Declining trust in the federal government and its handling of the economic recession gave rise to two influential movements, the Tea Party and Occupy Wall Street, which were thoroughly critical of the country's leadership. Both movements made use of a strong populist rhetor...

  19. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  20. Wall Street comes to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    CERN will host an event on computing for finance on Wednesday, 21 November, 17:00-19:00, in the Main Auditorium. The event, co-organized by the EGEE project and CERN openlab, brings together four distinguished speakers from the banking industry and IT companies serving financial institutions. The finance sector is one of the driving forces for the use of distributed or Grid computing for business purposes. The speakers will provide insight into how different types of Grid computing – from local clusters to global networks - are being applied in the financial sector. In particular, the event will encourage discussion on how new developments in Grid computing emerging from the world of science can benefit financial institutions. The speakers will be Michael Yoo, Managing Director and Head of the Technical Council at UBS, Fred Gedling, Chief Technology Officer at DataSynapse, Adam Vile, Head of Grid, HPC and Technical Computing at E...

  1. Wall street's $6 billion mystery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Partnoy, Frank

    2014-01-01

    .... Consider the so-called 70 percent rule, an industry standard based on a 1979 finding that Amway was not a pyramid scheme in part because it required distributors to sell at least that percentage...

  2. Wall Street Crosses Memory Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Arvid O. I.; Iliewa, Zwetelina; Jaroszek, Lena

    Witnessing stock-market history in the making creates a vivid story, but does not provide valuable information. However, finance professionals extrapolate from personally witnessed returns, which we show by using a unique dataset about the timing of their career start in the finance industry. Thi...

  3. Wall Street Crosses Memory Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Arvid O. I.; Iliewa, Zwetelina; Jaroszek, Lena

    Witnessing stock market history in the making leaves behind a vivid story, but does not provide valuable information. Nevertheless, well-versed finance professionals extrapolate from witnessed returns when forming beliefs about expected returns which we show by using a unique dataset regarding pr...

  4. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  5. wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  6. Socializing space and politicizing financial innovation/destruction: some observations on Occupy Wall Street Socialisation de l’espace et politisation de l’innovation/destruction financière : quelques réflexions sur le mouvement “Occupy Wall Street”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel B. Aalbers

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This short paper discusses two issues related to the Occupy Wall Street movement. First, a local urban political geography is presented in which Liberty Plaza is not the accidental place of Occupy Wall Street but a deliberate one, not only because it is located between the towers of global capital, but also because it constitutes a so-called “privately owned public space” (POPS. Second, a global financial political geography is presented in which I argue that the imprecise demands of Occupy Wall Street are a result not so much of the heterogeneous base of the movement but of the still largely unknown and “under-understood” nature of finance.Ce court article est consacré à deux problèmes liés au mouvement “Occupy Wall Street”. En premier lieu, nous présentons une géographie politique urbaine au niveau local dans laquelle le choix de la Plaza Liberty n’est pas accidentel mais bien délibéré, non seulement en raison de sa localisation entre les tours du capital global mais également parce que cette place représente un “espace public aux mains du privé”. Dans un second temps, nous proposons une géographie politique de la finance globale, où nous défendons l’idée que les revendications assez floues du mouvement “Occupy Wall Street” résultent non pas tant du caractère hétérogène de sa base mais plutôt de la nature même de la finance, encore largement inconnue et “sous-comprise”.

  7. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  8. Street Harassment

    OpenAIRE

    Megha Dhillon; Suparna Bakaya

    2014-01-01

    This study attempted to understand street harassment as experienced by young women in Delhi. Interviews were conducted with 20 women between the ages of 18 and 30 years to understand the nature of harassment they faced, its perceived consequences, their ways of coping with it, and the changes they felt were needed for them to feel safer. Findings revealed that harassment occurred most often in crowded spots and in broa...

  9. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  10. Street Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital Ronell

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the fragile intersection where rumor and a more "authentic" modality of language can be shown to cross over into one another. Treating the relationship of Benjamin, Heidegger and Rousseau to rumoro-logical paranoia, "Street-Talk" interprets the epistemological teetering between the knowing and not-knowing around which Fama articulates her power. All three of these thinkers are shown to be exemplarily afflicted by rumorous utterances and share a drive to create, in their works, a rumor control center. Often these controls take over the features which they attempt to disown; thus the greatest moment of truth-telling appropriates the form of inferential small-talk. The essay analyzes a temporality of writing disclosed by Rousseau's Promenades in terms of an après-ma-mort structure. Finally, guided by Blanchot's insights and Huet's notion of monsterized publicity, the essay addresses the rapport of rumor to oeuvre: Ecce Fama .

  11. Street Harassment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Dhillon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to understand street harassment as experienced by young women in Delhi. Interviews were conducted with 20 women between the ages of 18 and 30 years to understand the nature of harassment they faced, its perceived consequences, their ways of coping with it, and the changes they felt were needed for them to feel safer. Findings revealed that harassment occurred most often in crowded spots and in broad daylight. High levels of harassment were attributed to factors like prevalent attitudes toward women and weak implementation of laws. Participants saw their lives as being restricted in several ways by the harassment. The police was seen as apathetic, and women took on themselves the responsibility for staying safe. Sometimes, women chose to defend themselves by moving away from harassers rather than confronting them due to fear of escalation. However, several participants felt that staying quiet allowed the perpetuation of harassment. The major change that women sought was more effective police functioning.

  12. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  13. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... safe? > Street drugs and pregnancy Street drugs and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  14. Street typology in Kathmandu and street transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijaya K. Shrestha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lively and pedestrian friendly streets of the Malla period and the unique streetscape of the Rana period, including streets in planned and haphazardly developed areas, are being rapidly transformed due to unmanaged urban growth, chaotic construction and a growing number of vehicles in Kathmandu. This has destroyed the physical form, reduced social activities, increased accidents and decreased pedestrian comfort on all types of streets. These negative consequences cannot be addressed through the existing legal and institutional frameworks of the urban development and traffic management authorities. Even recent street improvements have discouraged pedestrian movement, degraded the streetscape and replaced public spaces with traffic. This has further congested pedestrians and traffic in areas that were already crowded. To reverse this trend and to enhance the qualities of traditional streets of Kathmandu, a threefold urban design strategy is essential. This will decentralise business activities from urban centres, improve transitional spaces between streets (and sidewalks and ground floor activities of buildings on both sides of the streets, and strictly enforce traffic management, all supported by flexible design guidelines, incentives and consensus among various stakeholders.

  15. Urban Street Gang Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

  16. Comparing street demonstrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klandermans, P.G.; van Stekelenburg, J.; Walgrave, S.

    2014-01-01

    This introductory article provides a short account of the theoretical framework and the methodological set-up of a comparative study of street demonstrations. The following articles in this issue report results from this study. The data on over 90 street demonstrations and more than 17,000

  17. Widening Sesame Street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T. Kay

    1979-01-01

    Traces the developmental history of Sesame Street from the initial efforts to obtain funding and set goals to present day importation of programs to other countries. It is recommended that Sesame Street producers incorporate Piagetian theories on cognitive development in order to realize learning gains. (Author)

  18. Safe Streets in Tacoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebgen, Mary

    1990-01-01

    In Tacoma, Washington, the Safe Street Campaign united the schools, government agencies, labor groups, community and religious organizations, businesses, youth, and substance abuse agencies in responding to gangs and drugs. (MLF)

  19. Street-art

    OpenAIRE

    Rybnikářová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the street-art and graffiti phenomenon. The theoretical research is focused on presenting the essence and character of this art style, while also watching it from socio-cultural point of view and observing it in context of art history. The theoretical study is followed by the didactical part of thesis, where I present possibilities of using the street-art theme in art education programs in the school setting. My thesis is concluded with a discussion of a practica...

  20. Saving Mango Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza,…

  1. Street Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Streets for the United States. The Streets layer contains all roads plus all Road Network attributes such as direction of travel, lanes, dividers, speed...

  2. Renaming Zagreb Streets and Squares

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Stanić; Laura Šakaja; Lana Slavuj

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with changes in street names in the city of Zagreb. Taking the Lower Town (Donji grad) city area as an example, the first part of the paper analyses diachronic street name changes commencing from the systematic naming of streets in 1878. Analysis of official changes in street names throughout Zagreb’s history resulted in categorisation of five periods of ideologically motivated naming/name-changing: 1. the Croatia modernisation period, when the first official naming was put in...

  3. The Schoolchild Street Food Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Febry, Fatmalina

    2011-01-01

    Most of child's school street food do not meet health requirements and very risky to biological or chemical contamination. Street food found to contain a prohibited food additives such as borax, formalin, and dyes Rhodamin B. Therefore, the schoolchild street food safety is one of public health problem that needs serious attention, consistent and addressed jointly by the various parties.

  4. The Lives of Sesame Street: The Impact of Foreclosures on Young Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Danne E.; Shin, Minsun

    2009-01-01

    While significant attention has been paid to Wall Street investors and families impacted by the current subprime mortgage crisis in the USA, the lives of Sesame Street are minimally discussed. Children and their families are enduring a variety of consequences of foreclosures. The consequences can be hugely disruptive to the approximately 2 million…

  5. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: StreetScape Development, LLC, Libertyville, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    These single-family, HERS 45 homes incorporate 2×6 wood framed walls with R-20 open cell spray insulation and OSB. The builder, StreetScape Development, won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the custom builder category.

  6. Street as Public Space - Measuring Street Life of Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Normah; Ayu Abdullah, Yusfida; Hamdan, Hazlina

    2017-10-01

    Kuala Lumpur has envisioning in becoming World Class City by the year 2020. Essential elements of form and function of the urban environment are streets. Streets showcase the community and connect people. It’s one of the most comfortable social environment that provides aesthetical and interaction pleasure for everyone. Classified as main shopping streets in the local Kuala Lumpur urban design guidelines, Jalan Masjid India (JMI) has its uniqueness of shopping experience and social interaction. This conceptual paper will study the physical and cultural characteristics of the street that will generate the street character by mapping its original characters. The findings will focus on strengthening the methodology applied to promote improvements in evaluating it as a great public space. Results will also contribute to understanding the overall site context, the street connectivity, and urban dynamics. This paper is part of a larger study that addresses on transforming the sociability of public space.

  7. Trees as environmental modifier to improve street canyon for pedestrian activities in Muscat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhayer, Wael A.; Shaaban, Awni K.; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Street shading efficiency is a function of orientation and profile proportion of its height to width. Under high sun altitude conditions, minimization of solar irradiance within the urban environment may often be a significant criterion in urban design. This reduction in solar irradiance achieved when the obstruction angle is large (high H/W ratio, H=height, W=width). High H/W values often lessen the solar access to streets. The horizontal sprawl of Muscat region is an example of low H/W ratio represented the remarkable challenge that causes the lack of shading rates in the urban street. This characteristic proliferates the negative impact on the pedestrian activities in the urban street. This research aims to improve the morphology of the street to promote the pedestrian behavior. The amendment based on suggesting different configurations of trees to increase effective shading of the urban street in Muscat. The street canyon abstracted into a virtual elongated channel formed of floor and walls of equal heights on both sides. Four street orientations (E/W, N/S, NE/SW, NW/SE) and three H/W ratio (0.5,1 and 2) are considered sufficient representative of street typologies. A mathematical model developed for calculation of shading efficiency of each street canyon. The trees assumed in this study as canyon's modifier to adjust the low H/W ratio of a street canyon to a higher one. Local trees and other plants in Muscat were studied concerning their morphology. The analysis selected two case study in Muscat to investigate the shading performance of their street canyons subsequently propose the modifications to improve it. The research concluded that the suggested changes of the street canyon by using a particular type of trees could increase the H/W ratio of street canyon significantly.

  8. The Regulation of Street Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forkour, John Boulard; Samuelsen, Helle; Yeboah, Eric Henry

    2017-01-01

    the challenges and negotiating strategies of regulators of street-vended foods in Ghana and analyses the implication for their relationship with street food vendors. The paper reveals that regulators operate in a context of limited resources, leading to a general feeling of neglect. In coping, regulators adopt...

  9. Sesame Street: Socialization by Surrogate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsenthal, Norman A.

    This paper reviews some of the controversy surrounding "Sesame Street's" treatment of the socialization progress of preschool television viewers. Examined in detail are those portions of "Sesame Street" programs which contribute to children's learning of socially acceptable attitudes and behaviors. Some comparisons are made…

  10. Violence in the Street, Violence of the Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    While in his early and general theory of interaction rituals Randall Collins emphasised that social situations are both ’symbolic’ and ’material’, the latter dimension is largely absent from Collins’ theory of violence(Collins 2004; 1993: 214). Compared with criminology’s more recent situational...... studies of violence, it is noticeable that the analytical success of these studies is closely linked with understanding street violence as a spatial-situational phenomenon (Clarke 1997; Eck & Weisburd 1995; Bragand & Weisburd; 2010; Wikström et al. 2012; Sampson et al. 1997). In light of evidence...... for the spatial concentration of street violence, this paper takes its point of departure in a large study of Street Violence among youth in Copenhagen, Denmark (combining quantitative data from filed police reports (N = 501), data from CCTV (N=100) and qualitative analysis of selected cases of street violence...

  11. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  12. LED Street Lights in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    During winter nights in Alaska, streetlights often remain lit more than half the day, using energy all the while. Around the nation, communities are exploring the use of : light-emitting diode technology for lighting streets and reducing energy use. ...

  13. Sesame Street: Magic or Malevolence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Anne R.; Ratliff, Richard G.

    1972-01-01

    Despite its unusual potential, both educational and social, it seems that Sesame Street may be exposing children to unnecessary aggression...(which) often goes unpunished and, occasionally, is actively rewarded." (Author)

  14. Alexander Street goes open access

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, David; Makowski, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes two complementary OA (open access) initiatives launching in 2016 at Alexander Street. Contributing Collections will see 10% of all revenue generated dedicated to digitizing and making OA important archives. Premium Services offer member libraries the opportunity to upload and make OA locally generated content. While this article focuses on the discipline of anthropology, Alexander Street will extend these two models into history, music and theater later in 2016. 

  15. Alexander Street goes open access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes two complementary OA (open access initiatives launching in 2016 at Alexander Street. Contributing Collections will see 10% of all revenue generated dedicated to digitizing and making OA important archives. Premium Services offer member libraries the opportunity to upload and make OA locally generated content. While this article focuses on the discipline of anthropology, Alexander Street will extend these two models into history, music and theater later in 2016.

  16. Street Papers, Work, and Begging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Street papers are publications produced specifically for sale by the homeless and other vulnerable people in many countries around the world. Their social status is, however, often conspicuously unstable: ‘Get a job!’ has been reported as a common insult addressed to vendors, and street paper org......-loaded associations that position them and others in social space, and how the ‘experimental’ combination of business and social responsibilities tests social actors’ abilities to adapt to this practice....

  17. Safety of street: The role of street design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Suhaila Abdul; Wahab, Mohammad Hussaini; Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd.; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-10-01

    Living in the cities poses many challenges for the vulnerable group of user especially women where they are exposed to many issues related to safety. With the changing of lifestyle and demands, women are expected to play multiple roles in the society and working is one of the tasks. When women are expected to be working as men do, they are no longer occupied at one place. Women nowadays travel on a daily basis and being in the streets is one of the important activities. With the influx of diverse group of people into the country, our streets are dominated by different types of people from different background. Due to these factors, there are possibilities of challenges and threats for users especially women. Therefore, city spaces especially the street become an important public realm for women. The design of the street should be able to make women feel safe as these are the public space where they spend time getting to and from work. The way women perceived their environment might be different from men especially when they fear of crime. Perception of safety will affect the quality of life where fear is an important psychological factor in human life. Living in fear will restrict human's freedom. Therefore, this study aimed to explore women's perception of safety in the streets of Kuala Lumpur. The study adopted a mixed-method approach of qualitative and quantitative in order to understand the safety perception among women that will later establish the relationship between built environment and human psychology. 120 respondents were selected randomly around Jalan Benteng, Jalan Tun Perak, Jalan Melaka and Jalan Melayu. Questionnaire survey forms were distributed and structured observation was conducted at interval period at these streets to examined and assess women's behavior. Finding shows that fear does affect women's perception and physical design of the streets are important in affecting their behavior.

  18. Street Sweeping in Ibadan: Urbanising Yoruba Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of street sweeping activity on the quality of streets, the public perception and the challenges facing street sweepers in Ibadan. It presents the result of a questionnaire survey of street sweeping practice carried out in 2011 along six of the fourteen dual-carriage ways which traverse the five ...

  19. Hospitality Invites Sociability, Which Builds Cohesion: a Model for the Role of Main Streets in Population Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, Jacob M; Fullilove, Mindy Thompson

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of main streets to community social cohesion, a factor important to health. Prior work suggests that casual contact in public space, which we call "sociability," facilitates more sustained social bonds in the community. We appropriate the term "hospitality" to describe a main street's propensity to support a density of such social interactions. Hospitality is a result of the integrity and complex contents of the main street and surrounding area. We examine this using a typology we term "box-circle-line" to represent the streetscape (the box), the local neighborhood (the circle), and the relationship to the regional network of streets (the line). Through field visits to 50 main streets in New Jersey and elsewhere, and a systematic qualitative investigation of main streets in a densely interconnected urban region (Essex County, New Jersey), we observed significant variation in main street hospitality, which generally correlated closely with sociability. Physical elements such as street wall, neighborhood elements such as connectivity, inter-community elements such as access and perceived welcome, and socio-political elements such as investment and racial discrimination were identified as relevant to main street hospitality. We describe the box-circle-line as a theoretical model for main street hospitality that links these various factors and provides a viable framework for further research into main street hospitality, particularly with regard to geographic health disparities.

  20. Diurnal variation of NOx and ozone exchange between a street canyon and the overlying air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2014-04-01

    The diurnal variation of NOx and O3 exchange between a street canyon and the overlying air in two dimensions is investigated to understand reactive pollutant removal and entrainment across the roof level of the street canyon. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model used in this study is a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) model and includes the urban surface and radiation processes and the comprehensive chemical processes. The CFD model is used for the one-day simulation in which the easterly ambient wind blows perpendicular to the north-south oriented street canyon with a canyon aspect ratio of 1. In the morning when the surface temperature of the downwind building wall is higher than that of the upwind building wall, two counter-rotating vortices appear in the street canyon (flow regime II). In the afternoon when the surface temperature of the upwind building wall is higher than that of the downwind building wall, an intensified primary vortex appears in the street canyon (flow regime I). The NOx and O3 exchange is generally active in the region close to the building wall with the higher temperature regardless of flow regime. The NOx and O3 exchange by turbulent flow is dominant in flow regime II, whereas the NOx and O3 exchange by mean flow becomes comparable to that by turbulent flow in a certain period of flow regime I. The NOx and O3 exchange velocities are similar to each other in the early morning, whereas these are significantly different from each other around noon and in the afternoon. This behavior indicates that the exchange velocity is dependent on flow regime. In addition, the diurnal variability of O3 exchange velocity is found to be dependent on photochemistry rather than dry deposition in the street canyon. This study suggests that photochemistry as well as flow in a street canyon is needed to be taken into account when exchange velocities for reactive pollutants are estimated.

  1. Fast Money: Investment Literacy for Tomorrow's Wall Street Traders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Joel B.

    2011-01-01

    The author describes how investment research workshops were used to prepare students at Texas A&M University (TAMU) to compete in the 2008 Equitrader Collegiate Challenge. The Equitrader Collegiate Challenge is a simulated equity trading competition that enables students to match wits against the market and other contestants. This paper…

  2. Gender, risk and the Wall Street alpha male

    OpenAIRE

    Maclean, Kate

    2015-01-01

    From the outset, analyses of the 2008 financial crisis, in mainstream as well as feminist discussions, have been gendered. In particular, rampant risk taking in an unregulated environment, widely deemed to be a principle cause of the crash, has been associated with masculine characteristics. In this article I explore how the concepts of gender and risk entwine in two films on the financial crisis – The Other Guys and Margin Call. By looking at how gender is used to dramatise financial risk, I...

  3. Occupy Wall Street, the Global Crisis, and Antisystemic Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reifer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ancient discussion about the purposes of wealth and the conflict between oligarchy- rule of the rich - and democracy- the rule of the demos/the people comes to the fore once again within the current systemic crisis, from the Arab Spring to the Occupy protests, to the Arab Fall. Even as counterrevolution and growing regional and global turbulence - political, economic and military - appear to be triumphing over the new wave of democratic revolutions and rebellions, at least in the Arab world, with the threat of regional and global conflagration all too real, the underlying structural causes reality of a militarized capitalist world-system in deep crisis will ensure continued waves of antisystemic protests for years to come.

  4. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  5. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....... In this account, resistance is thus a creative act having its own dynamic and, most of all, aesthetic dimension. In fact, it is one such visibly artistic form of resistance that will be considered here, the case of street art as a tool of social protest and revolution in Egypt. Street art is commonly defined...... in sharp contrast with high or fine art because of its collective nature and anonymity, its different kind of aesthetics, and most of all its disruptive, ‘anti-social’ outcomes. With the use of illustrations, we will argue here that street art is prototypical of a creative form of resistance, situated...

  6. Street racing: a neglected research area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Smart, Reginald G

    2009-04-01

    To review: (1) the extent and frequency of street racing and its consequences; (2) the characteristics of street racers; (3) explanatory theories for street racing; (4) the legal issues; and (5) the best methods of preventing street racing. Review of academic and other literature. Very limited official statistics are available on street racing offenses and related collisions, in part because of the different jurisdictional operational definitions of street racing and the ability of police to determine whether street racing was a contributing factor. Some data on prevalence of street racing have been captured through social surveys and they found that between 18.8 and 69.0 percent of young male drivers from various international jurisdictions have reported street racing. Moreover, street racing is found to be associated with other risky behaviors, substance abuse, and delinquent activities. The limited evidence available on street racing suggests that it has increased in the last decade. Street racing is a neglected research area and the time has come to examine the prevalence and causes of street racing and the effectiveness of various street racing countermeasures.

  7. SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF STREET CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinović, Aleksandra; Batrnek Antonić, Daliborka; Perinović, Marija; Rončević, Nevenka

    2015-01-01

    Street children and youth are at risk of getting engaged in different behaviors including risky sexual behavior, which adversely affects their development and health. The aim of this study was to examine sexual behavior of street children and youth, and the risks and consequences associated with sexual behavior. A pilot study was conducted on a sample of 50 users of the Drop-in Centre for Street Children in Novi Sad, from 10 to 19 years of age. The study was conducted by a psychologist through structured interviews, with prior consent of the adolescent and parent. Among the respondents who were sexually active, 41.2% had had the first sexual intercourse by the age of 12, their median age at that time being 14 years, while the age at the time of the first sexual intercourse is 16 years in the general population of Serbia. The majority of sexually active adolescents had several partners, one male adolescent had sex with a person of the same sex, and one was paid for sex. Very few respondents used a condom. Among 15 male sexually active respondents, three (ages 11, 12 and 14) were forced to have unwanted sexual intercourse, and a quarter of adolescents (three boys and one girl) were forced to do something unwanted during sex. Despite a small and unrepresentative sample, the results of this study indicate serious problems and significant risks associated with sexual behavior of children and young people who live and work in streets. This pilot study suggests that it is necessary to conduct new research on sexual behavior of street children and youth on a representative sample and with appropriate methodology. The results of a new study should be used to plan and carry out appropriate preventive measures regarding sexual behavior of street children.

  8. Temperament characteristics of street and non-street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They have to be vigilant when sleeping on shop verandas, run down buildings, and trash-bins. Conclusion: These results support earlier research on street children. Counter to public opinion and hostility, the children are resilient, adaptable and flexibile in the face of adversity and remaining well adjusted as individuals.

  9. Analysis of Heliport Environmental Data: Indianapolis Downtown Heliport Wall Street Heliport. Volume 2. Wall Street Heliport Data Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    IWon INOICAft WIND j~q’~ ?VPE OF IANEUVER i APPROAIt1 LINE LVFUC~41 INOICArt WINfUO 91 AIRCRAFT ’IPE ’LONGC RANGCER LINE 4UMBERING OCCURS If vino CROSS...UP NS 1 / ~WATE FLIGHT CODE ’D DIRECTION DATA FROCESSED ST THE FAA TECHNICAL CENTER ATE VINO SPEEDATLMTIC CITY AIRPONt. 4 J 040S DCCURS IF WIND SPEED

  10. LEDs for Street Lighting—Here Today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-29

    Fact sheet that provides a brief overview of the viability of LED street lighting in municipalities and highlights case studies of two cities—Los Angeles and Seattle—that have invested in LED street lighting.

  11. COMMON GROUNDS BETWEEN PRINTMAKING AND STREET ART

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balamber, Burcak

    2016-01-01

    ... to street based artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat entering to the galleries, and transformed into an artistic manner of expression having aesthetic concerns by adopting a more inclusive definition ‘street art...

  12. Street tree structural differences and associated stormwater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure approaches leverage vegetation and soil to improve environmental quality. Municipal street trees are crucial components of urban green infrastructure because they provide stormwater interception benefits and other ecosystem services. Thus, it is important to understand the patterns and drivers of structural heterogeneity in urban street tree assemblages. In this study, we compared the forest structure of street trees across nine communities along both geographic and demographic gradients in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Specifically, we used a two-part statistical model to compare both the proportion of sampled street segments containing zero trees, and basal area magnitude for street segments with trees. We made community-scale comparisons based on street tree management, socioeconomics, and geographic setting. Then, using modeled stormwater interception estimates from i-Tree Streets, we investigated the implications of heterogeneity in street tree assemblages for stormwater interception benefits. The forest structure of street trees varied across communities in relation to management practices, namely participation in the Tree City USA program. As a consequence of this structural difference, we observed a stark discrepancy in estimated stormwater interception between Tree City USA participants (128.7 m3/km street length) and non-participants (59.2 m3/km street length). While street tree assemblages did not vary by community poverty s

  13. The ecology of street foods in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.; Hartog, den A.P.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Riet, van 't H.; Mwadime, R.K.N.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Very little is known about street foods in sub-Sahara Africa. We investigated the scope of the street food phenomenon in Nairobi, both in the past and present, with the aim of establishing circumstances surrounding its practice and its function in the urban food supply. We found that street food

  14. School Me, School Me Not, Street Me, Street Me Not…

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    School Me, School Me Not, Street Me, Street Me Not… (1099) David Thore Gravesen, Peter Hornbæk Frostholm ECER 2016, 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research, Session: 14 SES 10 A When picking leaves of a marguerite, whilst doing the “she loves me, she loves me not” game, you...... tend to let coincidence or perhaps destiny have a final say. But what are the determinants, when you face the thrill of having to choose your future? Youth is a period of transition and important decisions related to education and future engagement. For some, this challenge is fairly straightforward...... milieu. With a criminal gang-like behavior (Hoeben & Weerman 2013; Hviid 2007; Rasmussen 2012) involving petty crime and violence, one would think the group members would be indifferent towards their schooling and future careers. This was not the case. The informants proved to be very aware...

  15. Street art - vandalismus nebo umění?

    OpenAIRE

    Grabmüllerová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis ‚Street Art - Vandalism or Art?' deals with a world-wide phenomenon of contemporary art. The thesis focuses on the characterization of street art and history of street art (its origin and development) and analyzes the difference between street art and graffiti. The thesis presents street art techniques as well as notable street artists. The thesis also observes street art scene in the Czech Republic and depicts features that street art has in common with other art movements...

  16. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    pollutants. The maps show annual means of NO2, PM2.5 or PM10 for 2012. The user interface presents modelled air quality data on a map where the user can select map view, pan, zoom in and out, etc. It is also possible to get the air quality for a particular address by entering a specific address. Air quality...... concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...... DTU Transport as well as data on travel speeds based on GPS data from SpeedMap from the Danish Road Directorate. Modelled concentrations have been compared to fixed regional, urban background and street air quality monitoring stations to assess uncertainties, and to model results from about 30 streets...

  17. COMMON GROUNDS BETWEEN PRINTMAKING AND STREET ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Balamber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graffiti movement, born as a result of an effort of the youth, who felt themselves socially excluded and alone, to show their existence and identities during the 1960s, expanded its scope owing to street based artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat entering to the galleries, and transformed into an artistic manner of expression having aesthetic concerns by adopting a more inclusive definition ‘street art’. During this transformation of street art,street artists experimented with various methods from many different disciplines and hence created works in a wide range of varieties in terms of plastic and artistic values. Among these disciplines, printmakinghastaken its own place in street artas a discipline thatdeeply influenced street artists.Printmaking has fascinated street artists and become a part of their production process, not only with its philosophy sharing common grounds with street art and advantages in terms of its tecnical practices but also its unique plastic and linear values.Thanks to the opportunities of printmaking, street art has succeeded creating a tremendous impression worldwide, and even positioned itself into today’s greatest museums/gallery halls. This article aims to show how and in what way printmaking has influenced street art being in a transformation since the 1960s, and to put an emphasis on theimportance of printmaking on today’s street art.

  18. ADDITIONAL STREET BERBASIS APP INVENTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adib Adhi Prabowo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Seiring dengan perkembangan sistem operasi android, telah banyak aplikasi yang memanfaatkan fasilitas GPS dan Google Map, seperti untuk mencari rute, mendapatkan peta, mencari lokasi tertentu pada sebuah tempat. Akan tetapi seringkali pengguna perangkat bergerak kesulitan ketika ingin mengetahui beberapa tempat dan lokasi tertentu karena belum ada fasilitas yang menyediakan informasi lokasi suatu tempat. Walaupun ada informasi lokasi pada peta biasanya informasi yang diberikan lokasi tempat berskala besar, misalnya lokasi tempat wisata atau stasiun kereta api. Pengembangan aplikasi untuk skala kecil ini akan memberikan informasi yang dipresentasikan pada google map. Selama ini belum ada yang memberikan sebuah informasi lokasi tempat penting yang berskala kecil. Misalnya informasi lokasi  tambal ban, lokasi warung makan, lokasi laundry, dan lokasi bengkel motor. Oleh karena itu kami mencoba untuk mengembangkan aplikasi additional street berbasis android via App Inventor dengan bantuan google maps. Aplikasi additional street ini dapat memberikan informasi letak objek pada peta serta memberikan informasi jalan menuju lokasi tersebut dan detail informasi lokasi tersebut serta lokasi dari pengguna aplikasi tersebut. Kata Kunci: additional street, android, google maps, app inventor, GPS

  19. Renaming Zagreb Streets and Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stanić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with changes in street names in the city of Zagreb. Taking the Lower Town (Donji grad city area as an example, the first part of the paper analyses diachronic street name changes commencing from the systematic naming of streets in 1878. Analysis of official changes in street names throughout Zagreb’s history resulted in categorisation of five periods of ideologically motivated naming/name-changing: 1. the Croatia modernisation period, when the first official naming was put into effect, with a marked tendency towards politicisation and nationalisation of the urban landscape; 2. the period of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians/Yugoslavia, when symbols of the new monarchy, the idea of the fellowship of the Southern Slavs, Slavenophilism and the pro-Slavic geopolitical orientation were incorporated into the street names, and when the national idea was highly evident and remained so in that process; 3. the period of the NDH, the Independent State of Croatia, with decanonisation of the tokens of the Yugoslavian monarchy and the Southern Slavic orientation, and reference to the Ustashi and the German Nazi and Italian Fascist movement; 4. the period of Socialism, embedding the ideals and heroes of the workers’ movement and the War of National Liberation into the canonical system; and, 5. the period following the democratic changes in 1990, when almost all the signs of Socialism and the Communist/Antifascist struggle were erased, with the prominent presence of a process of installing new references to early national culture and historical tradition. The closing part of the paper deals with public discussions connected with the selection of a location for a square to bear the name of the first president of independent Croatia, Franjo Tuđman. Analysis of these public polemics shows two opposing discourses: the right-wing political option, which supports a central position for the square and considers the chosen area to

  20. School Me, School Me Not, Street Me, Street Me Not…

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    2016-01-01

    . It’s in the cards, so to speak, what path one shall choose. For others, contradictory cultural agendas in one’s everyday life arenas compete, resulting in difficult decision making, when having to mentally sort out – and not least – practically realize future aspirations. During the autumn months...... of the importance of schooling, and as a result of this awareness they were fixed in a limbo between managing the street codes of behavior whilst still holding on to the imperatives of school. This summer of 2016 we revisit the site to reunite with the key informants that inspired and nurtured our prior work...

  1. Structural value of Yerevan streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetisyan Arsen Grantovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The absence of the methods of urban analysis in the process of urban development of Yerevan is the reason of urban planning activities that tend to decrease the urban value of Yerevan territories. Meanwhile the studies in the sphere of urban planning and urban analysis prove the dependence of the life in the city on its structure and distribution of the functions. The mentioned issue highlights the importance of urban analysis. The paper discusses space syntax, which is one of the initial methods of urban analysis. The basic concept of Space syntax is based on the assumption that urban fabric can be presented and studied as a power graph. The method provides the measures that evaluate the land use, traffic and pedestrian movement, land value and even carbon emissions. The paper discusses also recent attempts of integration of space syntax method into GIS environment. GIS databases provide researchers with vast amount of urban data. Analyses presented in the current paper were performed on the basis of the open street map, which was imported from the GIS environment. With the application of space syntax methods analysis of connectivity, integration choice (betweenness and depth from the city center were performed to evaluate the structural value of Yerevan streets. Municipal regions of Yerevan were classified by the level of their accessibility and by their distances from the city center on the base of the results of depth measures from the city center. Evaluation of the street network aims to define the most integrated and centrally positioned parts of the city. These areas can be locations for the organization of sub centers of Yerevan in the municipal regions.

  2. Georges Charpak street sign unveiled

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    2011-01-01

    While it might not be the only French street named in honour of the late Georges Charpak, who passed away in September 2010 at the age of 87, the street chosen by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly is certainly the only one located directly opposite the CERN "campus". The road overlooks buildings on the CERN Meyrin site, where Georges Charpak spent most of his career as a physicist, conducting the research that won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1992.   From left to right: Sigurd Lettow, Dominique Charpak and the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. The unveiling took place on 17 October and was organised by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. George Charpak’s wife, Dominique, and Sigurd Lettow, CERN Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, attended what was an intimate and touching ceremony. The mayor’s speech at the event praised Georges’ commitment to scientific education. The highlight of the event, however, was a witty and humorous ...

  3. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Gromke, Christof; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ruck, Bodo

    2009-09-15

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant morphology, positioning and arrangement. We extend our previous work in this novel aspect of research to new configurations which comprise tree planting of different crown porosity and stand density, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building height ratio W/H=2 with perpendicular approaching wind. Sulfur hexafluoride was used as tracer gas to model the traffic emissions. Complementary to wind tunnel experiments, 3D numerical simulations were performed with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT using a Reynolds Stress turbulence closure for flow and the advection-diffusion method for concentration calculations. In the presence of trees, both measurements and simulations showed considerable larger pollutant concentrations near the leeward wall and slightly lower concentrations near the windward wall in comparison with the tree-less case. Tree stand density and crown porosity were found to be of minor importance in affecting pollutant concentration. On the other hand, the analysis indicated that W/H is a more crucial parameter. The larger the value of W/H the smaller is the effect of trees on pedestrian level concentration regardless of tree morphology and arrangement. A preliminary analysis of approaching flow velocities showed that at low wind speed the effect of trees on concentrations is worst than at higher speed. The investigations carried out in this work allowed us to set up an appropriate CFD modelling methodology for the study of the aerodynamic effects of tree planting in street canyons. The results obtained can be used by city planners for the design of tree planting in the urban environment with regard to air quality issues.

  4. GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN ADMINISTRATION AFTER THE FALL OF THE WALL OF WALL STREET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Norberto Ciceri Silvenses

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Product of the crisis of 2008 are critical to the curriculum and the training offered by MBAs programmes at prestigious American and European schools. This article explores a novel approach that relates to ethics, culture, and the enormous constraints to overcome to build conduct contrary to those observed in various decision-makers trained largely in these schools.

  5. Walkability, complete streets, and gender: Who benefits most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Wyatt A; Stump, Tammy K; Brown, Barbara B; Werner, Carol M; Smith, Ken R

    2017-11-01

    Does street walkability and a new complete street renovation relate to street use and gender composition? We audited two mixed-walkability complete streets ("complete less-urban" and "complete-urban"), one low-walkable street, and one high-walkable street at pre-renovation and twice post-renovation. Complete street users increased, especially for the complete-less urban street. Typically, the high-walkable street attracted the most and the low-walkable street attracted the fewest total people, males, and females; complete streets were in between. On blocks with people, females were only 29% of users; females were much less common on low- walkable streets. Street improvements might enhance gender equity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...... and flat, “ambiguous walls” combine softness, tectonics and three-dimensionality. The paper considers a selection of luminious surfaces and reflects on the extent of their ambiguous qualities. Initial ideas for new directions for the wall will be essayed through the discussion....

  7. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the streets.…

  8. Summary Street: Interactive Computer Support for Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade-Stein, David; Kintsch, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    Summary Street is educational software based on latent semantic analysis (LSA), a computer method for representing the content of texts. The classroom trial described here demonstrates the power of LSA to support an educational goal by providing automatic feedback on the content of students' summaries. Summary Street provides this feedback in an…

  9. MAPCERN links to Google Street View

    CERN Multimedia

    Matilda Heron

    2015-01-01

    CERN’s online maps, MAPCERN, now have the added bonus of Google Street View, thanks to the new release of images of many CERN sites captured by Google.   New Street View images of CERN sites have been added to MAPCERN, see bottom-right-hand image in the screenshot above.   Google Street View, an integrated service of Google Maps introduced in 2007, links 360-degree panoramic photos into a virtual tour. CERN and Google began collaborating on this Street View project in 2010 and now these Street View images have been embedded into MAPCERN, accessible by clicking the “Street View” tab in MAPCERN’s bottom-right-hand window. If you need to locate a building at CERN, or plan an operation on some equipment, you can save time by using the Street View images to check out the area in advance. The CERN Meyrin site has been fully mapped, as well as the surfaces of the eight LHC points, BA2 and BA3. New Street View images of CERN, including the Pr...

  10. Street as Sustainable City Structural Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyzerova, A. V.; Bagina, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    Sustainability in architecture is nowadays of particular significance in the course of globalization and information density. The technospehere spontaneous development poses a threat to the sustainability of traditional urban forms where a street is one of the essential forming elements in the urban structure. The article proposes to consider formally compositional street features in relation to one of the traditional streets in the historic center of Ekaterinburg. The study examines the street-planning structure, the development of its skeleton elements, silhouette and fabric elevation characteristics as well as the scale characteristics and visual complexity of objects. The study provided architectural and artistic aspects of street sustainability, and limits of the appropriate scale and composition consistency under which the compatibility of alternative compositional forms existing at different times is possible.

  11. Street Cries and the urban refrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Street cries, though rarely heard in North European cities today, testify to ways in which audible practices shape and structure urban space. As paradigmatic for what Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari call the refrain, the ritualized and stylized practice of street cries may point at the dynamics...... of space-making, through which the social and territorial construction of urban space is performed. The article draws on historical material documenting and describing street cries, particularly in Copenhagen round 1929 to 1935. Most notably, the composer Vang Holmboe and the architect Steen Eiler...... Rasmussen have investigated Danish street cries as respectably a musical and a spatial phenomenon. Such studies – from each their perspectives – can be said to explore the aesthetics of urban environments, since street calls are specifically developed and heard in the context of the city. Investigating...

  12. Street Children's Problems and Services in Indonesia : Centering on Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 眞一; Shin-ichi, Matsumoto; 桃山学院大学社会学部

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerning street children in Indonesia aims to clarify what street children are doing, why they have become street children and live in streets, and how they are supported in Indonesia, centering on Jakarta. As a result, this paper consists of five chapters. The first chapter is Introduction. The second chapter presents the description of current situation of street children, and the third chapter reviews the legislation on street children. The fourth chapter describes the care an...

  13. Effects of building aspect ratio, diurnal heating scenario, and wind speed on reactive pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Nelson Y O; Leung, Dennis Y C

    2012-01-01

    A photochemistry coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based numerical model has been developed to model the reactive pollutant dispersion within urban street canyons, particularly integrating the interrelationship among diurnal heating scenario (solar radiation affections in nighttime, daytime, and sun-rise/set), wind speed, building aspect ratio (building-height-to-street-width), and dispersion of reactive gases, specifically nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) such that a higher standard of air quality in metropolitan cities can be achieved. Validation has been done with both experimental and numerical results on flow and temperature fields in a street canyon with bottom heating, which justifies the accuracy of the current model. The model was applied to idealized street canyons of different aspect ratios from 0.5 to 8 with two different ambient wind speeds under different diurnal heating scenarios to estimate the influences of different aforementioned parameters on the chemical evolution of NO, NO2 and O3. Detailed analyses of vertical profiles of pollutant concentrations showed that different diurnal heating scenarios could substantially affect the reactive gases exchange between the street canyon and air aloft, followed by respective dispersion and reaction. Higher building aspect ratio and stronger ambient wind speed were revealed to be, in general, responsible for enhanced entrainment of O3 concentrations into the street canyons along windward walls under all diurnal heating scenarios. Comparatively, particular attention can be paid on the windward wall heating and nighttime uniform surface heating scenarios.

  14. Street children and political violence: a socio-demographic analysis of street children in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Angela; Donà, Giorgia

    2003-03-01

    The aims were: (1) to examine the profile of African street children and to assess the link between street children in Africa and political violence; (2) to undertake a systematic examination of causal factors of street children in postgenocide Rwanda; and (3) to situate this analysis in the context of the socio-cultural and political impact of the genocide on Rwandan communities. Observational mapping examined the profile and activities of Rwandan street children. Structured interviews were carried out with 290 children in four regional towns to obtain information on socio-demographic, familial, educational background, causal factors surrounding street life involvement, psychological well-being, and relationship to the street. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews examined the relationship between street children and the broader Rwandan society. Street children in Rwanda were predominantly adolescent boys, almost half of whom were homeless (42%), with a high proportion of orphaned children or children who had lost at least one parent. Two variables predicted homelessness: child's guardian and reason for being in street. Qualitative accounts of children conveyed the impact of death of family members, repatriation, imprisonment of parents, and poverty on their lives. The analysis highlighted the need for community based support for children in alternative guardianship care and for policies to support the reintegration of male youths in postconflict welfare strategies as prevention strategies for street migration.

  15. Characteristics of Vilnius street prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplinskas, S; Mårdh, P A

    2001-03-01

    Women prostituting in Vilnius City, Lithuania, were studied with regard to their socioeconomic background, drug and alcohol abuse, conditions for prostituting and for the carrier rate of sexually transmitted infectious agents. The 73 women studied represented a group of low-socioeconomic prostitutes with a great age span, i.e. 14-52 years. Forty-five per cent had one or more children. Roughly one-third were part-time prostitutes. Some had been trafficking for more than one decade. Some started trafficking at the age of 13, while the other extreme was a woman who began to prostitute at 51 years of age. This group of Vilnius street walkers had few customers per day. Eighteen were intravenous drug users and almost all abused alcohol. All, but one, had one or more sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Syphilis was diagnosed in 8 (13%) and another 10 (16%) had a serological scar of such an infection. HIV infections were not diagnosed. Condoms were not consistently used during their social contacts.

  16. Wall Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  17. Pühendusega isadele - Baker Street

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Üritusest 7. novembril Kuressaares Arensburg lounge-restoranis Muusa toimuvast isadepäevahõngulisest üritusest, esinevad Virgo Veldi & Band kavaga "Baker Street", erikülalisena Villu Veski. Saksofonistist Virgo Veldist

  18. Capturing the benefits of complete streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal information indicates that private investment and property value increases are associated : with featured Complete Streets projects. However, to date, little research has been done to confirm : these benefits. Much of the relevant literatur...

  19. Hiding in Plain Sight: Street artists online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Barbour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Identity and privacy concerns related to social media are the subject of widespread academic enquiry and mass media reporting. Although in most circumstances academic research tends to present identity play and online self­presentation as positive, media reporting in Australia makes much of the risks of identity theft, privacy breaches and online predators. This research explores the phenomenological experience of creating an online persona, focusing particularly on street artists. For street artists, the threat of unwanted exposure has to be balanced with the positive implications of sharing their creative work outside its geographical and temporal constraints. I argue that street artists use complex persona­creation strategies in order to both protect and promote themselves. The two street artists discussed in this article experience their engagement with social media and digital networks in ways that offer new insight into the opportunities and problems associated with the presentation of a persona online.

  20. Smart street lights using power line communication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Toit, P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available street light faults with the use of communication over the power line. The developed system communicates over power lines using modified frequency shift keying (FSK) modulation. The system used an LDR (light dependent resistor) based light sensor...

  1. F&G Street Marsh Contaminants Investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — F&G Street Marsh, located in San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Chula Vista, San Diego, California, is a tidally influenced wetland providing habitat for...

  2. OpenStreetMap over WMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přemysl Vohnout

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss the issues which we faced, while preparing WMS server with OpenStreetMap data of whole Europe. This article is divided into three sections. First is about mandatory applications which are required for working WMS service with OpenStreetMap data. Second is focused on tuning up PostgreSQL. Third is focused on rendering time improvement of layers.

  3. MAINTENANCE OF THE CARPARK AND STREET LIGHTING

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-FM Group

    2002-01-01

    The ST Division informs you that the control and maintenance of the carpark and street lighting will be carried out during the next few weeks. These lightings work normally by photocells but during these tests they will be turned on zone by zone during the day. So we ask the users not to be surprised to see the street lighting on during the day and thank them for their comprehension. ST-FM Group

  4. Street-Level Bureaucrats as Individual Policymakers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baviskar, Siddhartha; Winter, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized by chronic......Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized...

  5. [Sharing and distrusting: street merchants' view of children in street situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Suárez, Diana M; Giraldo-Puerta, Alexandra; Giraldo-Pineda, Álvaro; Forero-Pulido, Constanza

    2016-06-01

    Objective To understand the meanings, through the description of experiences that street merchants have of their interactions with children in a street situation in downtown of Medellin in 2013. Methodology Qualitative investigation with ethnographic approach. Observations were made in the zone at different times of the day. Twelve interviews with street merchants were held in their work places. Records were kept in a field journal. Results The street merchants and children in street situations share the same space. Both groups try to survive and their relationship is mediated by the trust-distrust that is established between them. The coexistence generates ambivalent feelings. For the street merchants, children in street situations are the result of abandonment by the family, the state and society. They live in a hard world in which they are exposed to a series of risks that they must face. Conclusion The interaction between street merchants and children in street situations is good to the extent that conflicts are avoided, establishing norms of coexistence. The element that determines this relationship is trust-distrust. In trust, strong affective ties are generated, considering each other family. Distrust generates a preventative attitude.

  6. Morphological characteristics of Street Workout practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Martinez, Javier; Plaza, Paula; Araneda, Alberto; Sánchez, Patricio; Almagiâ, Atilio

    2017-02-01

    The determination of the morphological characteristics of the most popular sports has allowed the evaluation and comparison between athletes, which has helped to improve their performance. The Street Workout is an emerging sport based on calisthenics, which recently has become popular. Despite its popularization, neither the morphologic profile nor the morphologic characteristics of Street Workout athletes has been determined. Determine the profile and morphological characteristics of Street-Workout athletes, through anthropometry. Fourteen athletes (22.7 ± 3.26 years) were recruited from the National Calisthenics Tournament 2015 in Chile. The athletes were evaluated following the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry to determine the somatotype, body composition, as well as indices of body composition such as body mass index, waist to hip ratio, waist to height ratio, fat/muscle mass and muscle/bone mass indexes. Street Workout practitioners presented a balanced-mesomorphic somatotype, a low fat mass and a high muscular development, with upper arms and trunk predominance. Regarding body composition indices, the values obtained allow us to classify them as a low-risk population of chronic non-communicable diseases. The present study sets a first antecedent of the morphological characteristics of Street Workout, determining that the Street Workout athletes presented balanced-mesomorphic somatotype and were classified as a healthy and athletic sample by their body composition indexes.

  7. Universal design characteristic on themed streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsritanto, Bangun IR; Indriastjario; Wijayanti

    2017-12-01

    People around the world can access the streets to fulfil their daily activities regardless of their gender, age, and abilities. The streetscape is an urban public space which is built to facilitate the basic needs of people as social being. The themed street is an urban streetscape designed and built in detail with a theme or special purpose in an of urban development process. Universal design facilitates the full range of human diversity as physical appearance, perception, cognitive abilities, sizes, and shapes. By designing for the diversity, the specialized streets become more functional and user-friendly. The purpose of this study is to examine several design characteristics of themed streets in several countries from three different continents using universal design principles for giving proper directions to develop more user-friendly streets. Literature review and case study were used as research methods. The literature review was extracted and compiled from manuscripts, streetscape design books, and from universal design principles. Furthermore, the constructed theory were used to examine the case studies of themed streets. The findings indicated that themed streets’ character design were strongly influenced by local cultural aspect even though the basic guidelines were universal design principles; the resumed design direction can be suggested universal along with the richness of local aspects.

  8. Psychiatric Morbidity among Street Children in Duhok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezar Ismet Taib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Due, in part, to family constraints in dealing with the economical burden of raising a family, a wave of street children is sweeping the developing world. Such children are prone to both somatic and mental illnesses. This is the first ever study that has been conducted to explore the psychopathology among street children in the Duhok Governorate. Methods The study was conducted between March 2004 and May 2005 in Duhok City among street children who attended the Zewa Center—the only center for street children in the region at the time of the study. Among a total of 107 eligible children, 100 agreed to participate (93% response rate. A modified family map (genogram was used to obtain demographic data from the children and their caregivers through semi-structured interviews. In addition, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID structured interviews were conducted with the children. Results The study found that 98% of children worked on the street because of the economic need and pressure on their families. There was high rate of parental illiteracy (90% of fathers and 95% of mothers, and 61% of respondents were shown to have at least one psychiatric disorder. A high percentage (57% of these children suffered from anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorders (29%. Ten percent had depression, and 5% had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusion Street children in Duhok seem to be working children due to their families’ needs.

  9. Designing safe and inclusive streets in India | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 nov. 2016 ... Safe streets play a crucial role in enabling livelihoods, mobility, and access to services. In fast-growing Indian cities such as Ahmedabad, streets are also the site of conflict. With incomes and vehicle ownership on the rise, traffic has replaced people as the central point of street design. Vehicle-focused street ...

  10. Substance abuse amongst the street children in Guwahati city, Assam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The nature of continuous exposure to the street and its associated life‑styles make street children vulnerable to the use of psychoactive substances. Aims: The aim of the present study is to study some social factors of street children in Guwahati city and to ascertain the substance use behavior of the street ...

  11. Street littering in Nigerian towns: towards framework for sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An aspect of solid waste management that has become almost intractable to local authorities in Nigeria is street littering. In a study carried out across the country in April/May 2008, this paper tried to expose some of the major factors that contribute to street littering. Six thousand subjects living along 120 streets (6 streets per ...

  12. Public Reactions to New Street Tree Planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Rae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MillionTreesNYC, which has the goal of planting one million trees in New York City by 2017, is intended to make New York City a greener, more sustainable city and is part of the Mayor’s comprehensive long term strategic plan, PlaNYC. Through planting a tree at every suitable sidewalk location in the city, the City of New York is transforming blocks and communities, and providing a variety of environmental, social and aesthetic benefits. This article examines the large scale municipal planting of new street trees and the reaction by some of the pubic to this planting.Trees offer benefits to the city overall, but the public may not understand these benefits or the street tree planting process. Between 2007 and 2009, the Department of Parks & Recreation planted 53,235 new street trees, and received 4,108 items of correspondence from the public. The majority of this correspondence consisted of public comments about the City’s new street tree planting policies and processes including placement objections, maintenance concerns, reports of resultant damage from tree planting operations, requests for new street trees and reports of tree conditions.This study describes the operational policies that guide New York City's municipal street tree planting, and results of content and spatial analysis of the correspondence. Qualitative analysis of the correspondence revealed the public perceptions and concerns related to the MillionTreesNYC program. Spatial analysis explored the relationship between the planting locations of new street trees and the locations of the citizen correspondence.Public reactions to this large scale municipal planting are related to the dual public and private nature of the sidewalk, issues of territoriality, responsibility, aesthetics and place attachment. Correspondence volume was associated with the scale of the new street tree block planting program, and the effectiveness of NYC’s 311 Customer Service Center. The discussion

  13. Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Andrew M.; White, Emma C.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2016-04-01

    Urban street trees provide many environmental, social, and economic benefits for our cities. This research explored the role of street trees in Melbourne, Australia, in cooling the urban microclimate and improving human thermal comfort (HTC). Three east-west (E-W) oriented streets were studied in two contrasting street canyon forms (deep and shallow) and between contrasting tree canopy covers (high and low). These streets were instrumented with multiple microclimate monitoring stations to continuously measure air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and mean radiant temperature so as to calculate the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) from May 2011 to June 2013, focusing on summertime conditions and heat events. Street trees supported average daytime cooling during heat events in the shallow canyon by around 0.2 to 0.6 °C and up to 0.9 °C during mid-morning (9:00-10:00). Maximum daytime cooling reached 1.5 °C in the shallow canyon. The influence of street tree canopies in the deep canyon was masked by the shading effect of the tall buildings. Trees were very effective at reducing daytime UTCI in summer largely through a reduction in mean radiant temperature from shade, lowering thermal stress from very strong (UTCI > 38 °C) down to strong (UTCI > 32 °C). The influence of street trees on canyon air temperature and HTC was highly localized and variable, depending on tree cover, geometry, and prevailing meteorological conditions. The cooling benefit of street tree canopies increases as street canyon geometry shallows and broadens. This should be recognized in the strategic placement, density of planting, and species selection of street trees.

  14. Wall Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-14

    Sydney, Australia. December 6, 1990. Lumley, J. L. A dynamical-systems-theory approach to the wall region. Environmental Engineering Laboratory, CSIRO...Nonlinear Science. Holmes, P. Editor in Chief, Nonlinear Scinece Today. Holmes, P. Reviewer for Physica D, J. Sound Vib., J. Phys., Q. Appl. Math, Phys...Spring, 1994; Organizing committee member. Holmes, P. Editorial Board Member: Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis; Journal of Nonlinear Scinece

  15. CLIMBING WALL

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI

  16. From the street to the store. The formalization of street vendors in Quito, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ferragut (Sergio); G.M. Gómez (Georgina)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ With the support of local and international organisations, the municipality of Quito, Ecuador, relocated approximately 6000 street vendors from the streets to eleven Popular Commercial Centres. The research examines the extent to which formalisation has al-tered their

  17. Road and Street Centerlines - COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN: Street Centerlines Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN is a line feature class that contains street centerlines maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  18. Influence of roadside hedgerows on air quality in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromke, Christof; Jamarkattel, Nabaraj; Ruck, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    Understanding pollutant dispersion in the urban environment is an important aspect of providing solutions to reduce personal exposure to vehicle emissions. To this end, the dispersion of gaseous traffic pollutants in urban street canyons with roadside hedges was investigated. The study was performed in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel using a reduced-scale (M = 1:150) canyon model with a street-width-to-building-height ratio of W/H = 2 and a street-length-to-building-height ratio of L/H = 10. Various hedge configurations of differing height, permeability and longitudinal segmentation (continuous over street length L or discontinuous with clearings) were investigated. Two arrangements were examined: (i) two eccentric hedgerows sidewise of the main traffic lanes and (ii) one central hedgerow between the main traffic lanes. In addition, selected configurations of low boundary walls, i.e. solid barriers, were examined. For a perpendicular approach wind and in the presence of continuous hedgerows, improvements in air quality in the center area of the street canyon were found in comparison to the hedge-free reference scenario. The pollutant reductions were greater for the central hedge arrangements than for the sidewise arrangements. Area-averaged reductions between 46 and 61% were observed at pedestrian head height level on the leeward side in front of the building for the centrally arranged hedges and between 18 and 39% for the two hedges arranged sidewise. Corresponding area-averaged reductions ranging from 39 to 55% and from 1 to 20% were found at the bottom of the building facades on the leeward side. Improvements were also found in the areas at the lateral canyon ends next to the crossings for the central hedge arrangements. For the sidewise arrangements, increases in traffic pollutants were generally observed. However, since the concentrations in the end areas were considerably lower compared to those in the center area, an overall improvement remained

  19. Gender differences in Brazilian street youth's family circumstances and experiences on the street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, M; Koller, S H; Reppold, C T; Kuschick, M B; Krum, F M; Bandeira, D R; Simões, C

    2000-11-01

    It has been proposed that homeless street girls are more likely to be from dysfunctional families and exhibit psychological distress than homeless street boys, reflecting cultural factors that result in differential norms for male and female behavior. The current analysis examined whether male and female street youth in a mid-sized Brazilian city differed in their family circumstances and day-to-day functioning on the street. The opportunity sample consisted of 33 male (mean age 14.3, range 10-17 years) and 33 female (mean age 14.6, range 11-18 years) street youth who participated in a sentence completion task and structured interview examining family experiences and ability to meet daily needs on the street. Consistent with the cultural hypothesis, girls described more negative family backgrounds than boys (e.g., they were more likely to have left home because of conflict or abuse, and reported more negative relationships with their parents). However, girls' functioning on the street was similar to, and in some cases more positive than, that of boys (e.g., fewer girls reported police violence and begging to earn money). The few gender differences that emerged in this study offer little support for the cultural hypothesis. The findings make sense if local factors, such as services available for male and female youth and public response to street youth, are considered. It appears that street youth differ in their experiences depending on local circumstances, highlighting the need for caution in generalizing about the situation of street youth in different countries.

  20. Large-eddy simulation of street canyons and urban microclimate using Uintah:MPMICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati Hayati, A.; Stoll, R., II; Harman, T.; Pardyjak, E.

    2014-12-01

    Urban microclimate plays an important role in urban water use, energy use, pollutant transport, and the general comfort and well-being of urban inhabitants. The microclimate interacts locally with urban morphology, water levels, properties of urban surfaces, and vegetation cover all of which contribute significantly to the strong spatial variability observed in urban areas. Considerable parts of urban open spaces take the form of street canyons. These urban street canyons play a remarkable role in creating urban microclimates. Within street canyons themselves, a wide variety of phenomena contribute to complex flow patterns. These include various flow structures such as wake fields, circulation zones, isolated roughness flow, wake interference and skimming flows. In addition, heat fluxes from the buildings and the surrounding area enhance the complexity of the flow field inside the canyon. Here, we introduce Uintah:MPMICE for the simulation of fluid structure interactions in urban flows. Uintah:MPMICE has been developed in a massively parallel computational infrastructure, uses material points to represent buildings, and the large-eddy simulation (LES) technique to represent momentum and scalar transport. To validate Uintah:MPMICE, simulations of typical street canyons are compared against published wind tunnel particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) data for the cases of step-up and step-down street canyons. Our findings show promising results in capturing major flow features, namely wake fields, recirculation zones, wake interference, vortex structures, and flow separation in street canyons. LES results demonstrate the ability of the simulations to predict flow topology details such as secondary circulation zones and wall-originating elevated shear layers in step-up and step-down cases, respectively. Furthermore, mean flow and variance statistics indicate sensitivity to inlet boundary conditions; upstream turbulence generation method, in particular, has a significant

  1. Notes on LED Installations in Street Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Spunei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study made on choosing LED street lighting installations, such that the quality requirements for exterior artificial lighting are fulfilled. We analyze two types of LED street lighting installations from a technical point of view, together with lighting level and brightness values obtained during the measurements. Following on the field measurements, the lighting quality parameters are calculated, and, for the lighting installation with the best performance, optimal mounting suggestions are made. The optimal quality parameters are calculated by simulations using the Dialux software. The same software and the same light sources we also compute an optimal street lighting by determining the size of the installation that provides the best lighting parameter values.

  2. Turbulent ventilation of a street canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings. The sta......A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings...... small, and this suggests that most of the velocity fluctuations were fairly local and not caused by unsteady street vortices. The observed velocities scaled with the ambient wind speed except under low-wind conditions....

  3. Risk behaviour of street children in Colombo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratna, B C V; Wijewardana, B V N

    2012-09-01

    Sri Lankan street children live in insecure and disadvantaged environments and have disrupted and poorly functioning families resulting in their poor socialisation. In this backdrop they are at high risk of adopting delinquent and antisocial behaviour and becoming victims of abuse. Despite recognition of this as a social problem, an in-depth exploration of their behaviour and its correlates has not been attempted. To describe risk behaviour among street children in Colombo city and the determinants of such behaviour. A cross sectional qualitative study in Colombo Fort, Pettah, Slave Island, and Maradana areas was conducted using focus group discussions (FGDs) with street children and semi-structured interviews (SSIs) with street children and key informants in their environment. Data generated were used to profile 283 children identified through referral sampling. An observation study was conducted to validate data generated through FGDs and SSIs. Semi-structured questionnaires, a moderator guide, an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and an observational checklist were used for SSIs, FGDs, profiling, and observational study, respectively. Majority of street children were boys and were aged 14 years or less. Nearly 18% lived alone without a guardian. Two thirds had never enrolled in a school. Many children were used for begging, neglecting their health vulnerabilities. Occupational risk behaviour included heavy manual labour, transportation and sale of illicit alcohol and narcotics, robbing/pick-pocketing, commercial sex work, and pimping. Recreational risk behaviour included abuse of alcohol/narcotics, smoking, sexual promiscuity, and patronising commercial sex workers. Increased awareness and strategies are required to minimise threats to street children and society.

  4. Street art, spaces and visual rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mondino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Street-art is a widespread urban phenomenon characterised by several different styles and concepts. This essay will introduce few artistic works, analysing the rhetoric strategies used. Artists create unpredictable narratives catching the audiences’ attention through various regimes of visibility and some figures of speech, such as hyperbole, apostrophe, and camouflage. Therefore, the relationship between street artworks and the audience can trigger a discourse of challenge, conflict or complicity showed by the practice of rewriting or deleting of urban art that we will study.

  5. Citygml and the Streets of New York - a Proposal for Detailed Street Space Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, C.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional semantic city models are increasingly used for the analysis of large urban areas. Until now the focus has mostly been on buildings. Nonetheless many applications could also benefit from detailed models of public street space for further analysis. However, there are only few guidelines for representing roads within city models. Therefore, related standards dealing with street modelling are examined and discussed. Nearly all street representations are based on linear abstractions. However, there are many use cases that require or would benefit from the detailed geometrical and semantic representation of street space. A variety of potential applications for detailed street space models are presented. Subsequently, based on related standards as well as on user requirements, a concept for a CityGML-compliant representation of street space in multiple levels of detail is developed. In the course of this process, the CityGML Transportation model of the currently valid OGC standard CityGML2.0 is examined to discover possibilities for further developments. Moreover, a number of improvements are presented. Finally, based on open data sources, the proposed concept is implemented within a semantic 3D city model of New York City generating a detailed 3D street space model for the entire city. As a result, 11 thematic classes, such as roadbeds, sidewalks or traffic islands are generated and enriched with a large number of thematic attributes.

  6. Active Transportation on a Complete Street: Perceived and Audited Walkability Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Wyatt A; Brown, Barbara B; Smith, Ken R; Brewer, Simon C; Amburgey, Jonathan W; McIff, Brett

    2017-09-05

    Few studies of walkability include both perceived and audited walkability measures. We examined perceived walkability (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-Abbreviated, NEWS-A) and audited walkability (Irvine-Minnesota Inventory, IMI) measures for residents living within 2 km of a "complete street"-one renovated with light rail, bike lanes, and sidewalks. For perceived walkability, we found some differences but substantial similarity between our final scales and those in a prior published confirmatory factor analysis. Perceived walkability, in interaction with distance, was related to complete street active transportation. Residents were likely to have active transportation on the street when they lived nearby and perceived good aesthetics, crime safety, and traffic safety. Audited walkability, analyzed with decision trees, showed three general clusters of walkability areas, with 12 specific subtypes. A subset of walkability items (n = 11), including sidewalks, zebra-striped crosswalks, decorative sidewalks, pedestrian signals, and blank walls combined to cluster street segments. The 12 subtypes yielded 81% correct classification of residents' active transportation. Both perceived and audited walkability were important predictors of active transportation. For audited walkability, we recommend more exploration of decision tree approaches, given their predictive utility and ease of translation into walkability interventions.

  7. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage ...

  8. Street-level Bureaucrats and Regulatory Deterrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren C.; J. May, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter considers the role of street-level bureaucrats in regulatory deterrence. The empirical foci are the degrees and ways with which regulatory inspectors shape regulated entities’ perceptions that noncompliance will be detected. These are examined using data about the enforcement of and ...

  9. [Agnosia for streets and defective root finding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Topographical disorientation is identified as a condition in which patients are unable to find their way in familiar surroundings, such as their home neighborhood or the admitting hospital after the onset of illness. I proposed to classify topographical disorientation into two categories: agnosia for streets (landmark agnosia) and defective root finding (heading disorientation). Patients with agnosia for streets are unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes. They can, however, morphologically perceive them and remember their way around familiar areas. The lesions are located in the right posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus, anterior half of the lingual gyrus and adjacent fusiform gyrus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions play a crucial role in the interaction between the visual information of streets and memories of them, which are thought to be retained in the right anterior part of the temporal lobe. In particular, the posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information. On the other hand, patients with defective root finding can identify familiar streets, but cannot remember their own location or positional relation between two points within a comparatively wide range not surveyable at one time. The lesions are located in the right retrosplenial cortex (Areas 29, 30), posterior cingulate cortex (Areas 23, 31) and precuneus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions are involved in the orientation function for navigating in wide spaces. In particular, the retrosplenial cortex is critical for encoding novel information.

  10. Implementation Regimes and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; T. Dinesen, Peter; J. May, Peter

    -government regimes foster greater policy commitment, attention to rules, and adherence among frontline workers than is the case for a local-government implementation regime. These lead to actions of street-level bureaucrats in central-government regimes that are more in line with national policies than those...

  11. Gender Aspects of Street Crossing Behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Aspects of Street Crossing Behaviour among Undergraduates: An Observational Study. 3. Theoretical Framework and Literature Review. Theory of Planned Behaviour. Many theories in the field of social psychology seek answers to the fundamental question of why people behave the way they do. One of the ...

  12. Programme Note: Street Children in Bucharest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, Gabriela

    1996-01-01

    Interviewed Bucharest street children, most between 11 and 15 years of age. Found that most left families, not institutions. Half were from intact families characterized by many children, an incarcerated parent, physical violence, sexual abuse, or alcoholism. Most worked either begging or in casual labor, and engaged in substance abuse.…

  13. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage ...

  14. The Earl Lee Street Art Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubba

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a catchy phrase with more to its meaning than first view. A slogan "All the girls love Earl Lee," appears in street art around the world. Earl Lee is a lovable, handsome man who owns the fictitious Earl Lube industries. Originally intended to bring a smile to people's faces at a time when there wasn't much to smile…

  15. Vortex Cloud Street during AMTEX 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Agee, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    Strong northerly flow across Cheju Island, Korea, during the 1975 Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX 75) resulted in a pronounced vortex cloud street to the lee of the island on February 17 1975. This pattern has been studied and explained in terms of classical von Karman eddies shed...

  16. HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG STREET FOOD VENDORS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    authorities to enforce food safety regulations, unlike vendors in institutions who are compelled to under- go medical examination and provide a certificate of fitness to operate. The proliferation of street food joints with increased patronage and role of these foods in social functions in the Tamale Metropolis have called for the ...

  17. Opportunities and constraints facing informal street traders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A small income and the limited ability of the government and the formal business sector to provide sufficient employment opportunities to people in the economically active age categories are two of the main reasons for informal trading in South African cities. As a result, the informal street trading sector plays an important ...

  18. Sesame Street Viewing Volunteer Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Robert T.; And Others

    This guide was prepared to aid volunteers working with preschool children who view the television program, "Sesame Street". The suggestions in this booklet grew out of a study called the "Sesame Mother Pilot Project," conducted in 1970-71 by the Institute for Educational Development. This guide is divided into nine main parts:…

  19. Microbiological assessment of ethnic street foods of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Kharel

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The risks associated with street foods may be controlled by educating vendors about hygienic conditions. In conclusion, street foods are important ethnic foods sold in popular tourist spots in India for marginal local vendors.

  20. Taking Back the Streets: Resisting #StreetHarassment in a New Era of (Virtual) Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Nina M.

    2016-01-01

    Whether on foot, bike, bus, or train, women are often targets of street harassment such as catcalls, unwanted touching, or leering. When women are forced to navigate harassment in the city, it limits their ability to access public spaces with the same freedom and ease as their male counterparts. As a planning issue, examining street harassment reveals serious concerns about gender justice, and can deepen our understanding of gender-based safety issues in public. Drawing on feminist theory, th...

  1. Taking it to the Streets: The Sunset Avenue Complete Street Reconstruction Project

    OpenAIRE

    Hazlett, John; Michal, Rich

    2016-01-01

    Butler University Sunset Avenue Street Reconstruction: A Green Infrastructure Case Study—In this presentation we will discuss Sunset Avenue, the primary transportation corridor for vehicular traffic that connects the Butler University campus with the surrounding residential neighborhood. Under a public-private partnership with the city, Sunset Avenue was redesigned based on a complete streets approach to accommodate pedestrians, bicycles, and vehicle traffic. In addition to multi-modal transp...

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF STREET VENDED FOODS IN COCHIN, KERALA INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi H Poojara1*and Krishna G2

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the availability of street foods in the city of Cochin. A survey was done to determine the availability in the selected ten wards. The data collected revealed that a total of 66 street food outlets were present which served more than fifty different preparations. The focus of the study was to examine the microbiological profile of street foods. The street foods were classified on the basis of degree of processing as unprocessed, semi processed and proc...

  3. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  4. An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    by the homeless adults on the street is most preferred (μ=3.26) while the government agencies were least on this ranking scale (μ=1.78).The study concluded that, despite the global shift from eradication of street children to providing support for them right on the streets, this paradigm shift has very weak roots in Nigeria.

  5. INTRODUCTION The term street children has many definitions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. The term street children has many definitions in different settings. Perhaps demonstrating the fact that street children are not a homogeneous group and that the particular circumstance dictates who should be included in the definition. Generally speaking, four categories of street children have been ...

  6. Reproductive health behaviour of street youth and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Street youth are predisposed to sexual and reproductive health challenges. Most of the street children live in severe deprivation, which make them liable to various forms of health risks. Street youth have risky sexual behaviours that increase the likelihood of adverse sexual and reproductive health ...

  7. Socio-demographic characteristics of street children in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the sociodemographic characteristics of the street children found in a group of rural communities. Method: This descriptive study is nested in a cross sectional analytical study of street children in a group of rural communities undergoing urbanization. A cluster sample of street children as defined by the ...

  8. Socio - demographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Involvement of children in street trading is inimical, contrary to the Rights of the Child, and threatens holistic child development. Objective: To describe the sociodemographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi. Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of children selling wares on the streets of ...

  9. Microbiological Safety of Street Vended Foods in Jigjiga City

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    CONCLUSION: This study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge among street food venders. The microbial ... of street foods sold in the City. KEY WORDS: Microbiological safety, Street vended foods, Isolation, Jigjiga ...... Cheesbrough M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. 2nd ed.

  10. Teachers' Perception Of Street Hawking In Ilorin Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the perception of teachers' on street hawking by children in Ilorin metropolis. Street Hawking as used in this study refers to children who sell goods or items on the streets of Ilorin. The study made use of one hundred and fifty participants. The data for the study was collected by means of a ...

  11. Psychosocial profile of institutionalised street children in Alexandria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Poverty, family breakdown, and domestic violence were the main reasons for street children having left home. Street children recorded significantly higher rates of substance use (9.8%) and conduct disorder (35.3%) compared to school children. In street children, smoking was a significant predictor of substance ...

  12. An Art of Resistance: From the Street to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Rooted in graffiti culture and its attitude toward the world, street art is regarded as a postgraffiti movement. Street art encompasses a wide array of media and techniques, such as traditional spray-painted tags, stickers, stencils, posters, photocopies, murals, paper cutouts, mosaics, street installations, performances, and video projections…

  13. Street children's vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Street children have largely been ignored in the fight against HIV and AIDS. While some initiatives exist, the nature of street life, probably has not allowed viable interventions to be implemented. However, this is a group of people that could qualify as a “most at risk” group. This study set out to explore street ...

  14. Street language. A multilingual youth register in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Appel, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study of street language, a multilingual youth register in the Netherlands. Nearly 300 secondary school students completed a questionnaire on their acquaintance with and use of street language. A subsample of students was also interviewed. Use of street language

  15. What Research Indicates about the Educational Effects of "Sesame Street."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This paper reviews the results of several studies that examined the educational effects of Sesame Street. Three studies by the Educational Testing Service on Sesame Street's first two seasons determined that among children who watched Sesame Street, those who watched the most scored highest on an achievement measure; frequent viewers made more…

  16. Bacteriological analysis of street foods in Pune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumber, Sushil K; Kaushik, K; Savy, S

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the bacteriological profile of street foods sold in various parts of Pune city. A total of 75 randomly collected food samples were included in the study. Samples were processed for the presence of bacterial pathogens only. 88% of the food samples analyzed confirmed the presence of bacterial pathogens, indicating the need for stricter implementation of food sanitation practices to reduce the possible risk of transmission of infection on consumption of these foods. Other aspects related to the trade of street foods in the city like the age and sex profile of food vendors, educational status and the hygienic aspects involved in the preparation, selling and consumption of these items were also reviewed.

  17. Street Theatre as Democratic Politics in Ahmedabad

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Caleb; Bajrange, Dakxin

    2014-01-01

    This work examines the politicized use of street theatre by an adivasi (indigenous) community in the city of Ahmedabad, India. We consider Chharas’ deployment of theatre as a socio-spatial tactic in two interlocking registers: first, as a means through which to enact a re-scripting of criminalized subjectivity in the post-colonial moment; second and equally, to advance the practice and potential for democratic politics—a space for constructive encounter and dialogue across difference. We argu...

  18. [Street food safety in Rome, Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Gianluigi; Nardone, Ida; Laurenti, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The Authors describe the results of inspections carried out in 22 street food outlets in the city of Rome, Italy, from 7 April to 28 May 2014. In general, structural requirements of outlets were met but some critical aspects related to hygiene, in particular of instruments, surfaces and worktops, were identified. Results suggest the need to ensure compliance with sanitation requirements of this particular type of food outlet, in order to ensure food safety and, consequently, consumers' health.

  19. An application of the thermo-radiative model SOLENE for the evaluation of street canyon energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idczak, Marcin [Department of Heating and Gas Systems, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 20, 00-653 Warszawa (Poland); Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides, UMR CNRS 6598, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, 1 rue de la Noe, BP 92101, F-44321 Nantes cedex 03 (France); Groleau, Dominique [CERMA, UMR CNRS 1563, Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Architecture de Nantes, 6 quai Francois Mitterrand - BP 16202 44262 Nantes cedex 2 (France); Mestayer, Patrice; Rosant, Jean-Michel; Sini, Jean-Francois [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides, UMR CNRS 6598, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, 1 rue de la Noe, BP 92101, F-44321 Nantes cedex 03 (France)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents a validation of the thermo-radiative model SOLENE and its application for analysing the street canyon energy balance. The validation data were selected from the temperature and radiation measurements obtained during the JAPEX campaign, previously described by Idczak et al.: a set of four lines of steel containers buildings composing three parallel street canyons at an approximate 1:5 scale. Reference weather data and micrometeorological conditions within the canyon were measured. Numerical simulations were carried out using the meteorological measurements as model inputs. The simulated surface temperatures and radiation fluxes are compared with the measurements for a full week period, with a focus on a day with clear sky conditions. The street canyon energy balance analysis demonstrates that the most energetic surface was the street ground due to its thick surface layer of tar-coated gravels while the walls had a low heat capacity. The thermal radiation balance was negative for all canyon surfaces. The sensible heat was transferred mainly from the canyon surfaces to the ambient air, but also from the air to the ground in the morning. The effective albedo of the canyon had a diurnal value of 0.20-0.25, but dropped to 0.10 in the afternoon when the ground strongly transformed the direct and reflected solar radiation into sensible heat. This narrow street configuration enhanced solar radiation absorption and longwave radiation trapping. (author)

  20. Self-Localization at Street Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Giovanni; Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James M

    2014-05-01

    There is growing interest among smartphone users in the ability to determine their precise location in their environment for a variety of applications related to wayfinding, travel and shopping. While GPS provides valuable self-localization estimates, its accuracy is limited to approximately 10 meters in most urban locations. This paper focuses on the self-localization needs of blind or visually impaired travelers, who are faced with the challenge of negotiating street intersections. These travelers need more precise self-localization to help them align themselves properly to crosswalks, signal lights and other features such as walk light pushbuttons. We demonstrate a novel computer vision-based localization approach that is tailored to the street intersection domain. Unlike most work on computer vision-based localization techniques, which typically assume the presence of detailed, high-quality 3D models of urban environments, our technique harnesses the availability of simple, ubiquitous satellite imagery (e.g., Google Maps) to create simple maps of each intersection. Not only does this technique scale naturally to the great majority of street intersections in urban areas, but it has the added advantage of incorporating the specific metric information that blind or visually impaired travelers need, namely, the locations of intersection features such as crosswalks. Key to our approach is the integration of IMU (inertial measurement unit) information with geometric information obtained from image panorama stitchings. Finally, we evaluate the localization performance of our algorithm on a dataset of intersection panoramas, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach.

  1. Asessing the air pollution distribution in busy street of Copenhagen in the further development of a street pollution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Poulsen, Maria B.

    pollution distributions in busy streets. The focus of the project is on nitrogen dioxide (NO¬2) for which concentrations in recent years have been exceeding EU limit values. The EU limit values have been exceeded since a change of lanes in the street moved traffic closer to the monitoring station. In order...... a detailed dataset for the spatial air pollution distribution in a very busy street, H.C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen; a street where a monitoring site has already been in place for many years. The dataset will be established for the further development of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM...

  2. Vocabulary Instruction on Sesame Street: A Content Analysis of the Word on the Street Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Anne L; Rahn, Naomi L

    2015-07-01

    Authors of this content analysis examined how Sesame Street's Word on the Street initiative aligns with research-based practices for selecting and teaching vocabulary to young children and considered how speech-language pathologists can use educational media to supplement traditional vocabulary instruction. Study authors used a well-established vocabulary selection hierarchy to analyze 170 target words across 7 seasons of Word on the Street to judge appropriateness for preschool vocabulary instruction. The authors then coded vocabulary instruction across 96 episodes to determine frequency and types of teaching strategies used within this educational program. Target word selection was appropriate in 77% of episodes. Some instructional strategies were used frequently (e.g., exposure to a word, examples, and nonexamples), whereas others were used rarely (e.g., definitions, active learning). Across episodes, there was substantial variability in how many opportunities children had to learn words. Vocabulary instruction during Word on the Street could be improved by targeting only high-utility words, maximizing learning opportunities during all segments, and increasing strategies that promote deep processing. Although research is needed to examine word learning during Word on the Street, speech-language pathologists may find selected segments targeting Tier 2 words useful for augmenting traditional intervention approaches.

  3. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M; Anderson, Andrew R; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F

    2017-12-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Entropies and Scaling Exponents of Street and Fracture Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agust Gudmundsson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many natural and man-made lineaments form networks that can be analysed through entropy and energy considerations. Here we report the results of a detailed study of the variations in trends and lengths of 1554 named streets and 6004 street segments, forming a part of the evolving street network of the city of Dundee in East Scotland. Based on changes in the scaling exponents (ranging from 0.24 to 3.89, the streets can be divided into 21 populations. For comparison, we analysed 221 active crustal fractures in Iceland that (a are of similar lengths as the streets of Dundee; (b are composed of segments; and (c form evolving networks. The streets and fractures follow power-law size distributions (validated through various statistical tests that can be partly explained in terms of the energies needed for their formation. The entropies of the 21 street populations and 9 fracture populations show strong linear correlations with (1 the scaling exponents (R2 = 0.845–0.947 for streets, R2 = 0.859 for fractures and with (2 the length ranges, that is, the differences between the longest and shortest streets/fractures, (R2 = 0.845–0.906 for streets, R2 = 0.927 for fractures.

  5. Why is the Karman vortex street so stable to the pairing instability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arratia, Cristobal; Mowlavi, Saviz; Gallaire, Francois

    2013-11-01

    An infinite double row of staggered point vortices was proposed by von Karman as a simplified model for the alternating vortex street forming in the wake of blunt bodies. This model, however, was found to be always unstable except against infinitesimal disturbances when the aspect ratio of the vortex street has a precise value, a puzzling result in clear contradiction with experience. Several authors including Saffman, Kida and Jimenez studied extensions to Karman's point vortex model, but it turned out that instability for all but a specific value of the parameters is generic in these inviscid models (Jimenez, JFM 1987). Here, we revisit this classical problem from a spatio-temporal instability perspective, which is required for taking into account the propagation speed of the vortex street. We show that the instability of the point vortex model is convective for a large range of parameters, and comparison of the model with different physically relevant cases will be shown. We also consider the absolute/convective nature of the pairing instability in a single row of inviscid point vortices. In both cases we study the effect of confining walls which can be taken into account as an infinite series of image vortices.

  6. Developing and testing a street audit tool using Google Street View to measure environmental supportiveness for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griew, Pippa; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Foster, Charlie; Coombes, Emma; Jones, Andy; Wilkinson, Paul

    2013-08-23

    Walking for physical activity is associated with substantial health benefits for adults. Increasingly research has focused on associations between walking behaviours and neighbourhood environments including street characteristics such as pavement availability and aesthetics. Nevertheless, objective assessment of street-level data is challenging. This research investigates the reliability of a new street characteristic audit tool designed for use with Google Street View, and assesses levels of agreement between computer-based and on-site auditing. The Forty Area STudy street VIEW (FASTVIEW) tool, a Google Street View based audit tool, was developed incorporating nine categories of street characteristics. Using the tool, desk-based audits were conducted by trained researchers across one large UK town during 2011. Both inter and intra-rater reliability were assessed. On-site street audits were also completed to test the criterion validity of the method. All reliability scores were assessed by percentage agreement and the kappa statistic. Within-rater agreement was high for each category of street characteristic (range: 66.7%-90.0%) and good to high between raters (range: 51.3%-89.1%). A high level of agreement was found between the Google Street View audits and those conducted in-person across the nine categories examined (range: 75.0%-96.7%). The audit tool was found to provide a reliable and valid measure of street characteristics. The use of Google Street View to capture street characteristic data is recommended as an efficient method that could substantially increase potential for large-scale objective data collection.

  7. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as

  8. Contribution of street foods to the dietary needs of street food vendors in Kampala, Jinja and Masaka districts, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namugumya, Brenda Shenute; Muyanja, Charles

    2012-08-01

    To assess the contribution of street foods to the energy and nutrient needs of street food vendors. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Food intake for the street food vendors was measured using the 24 h recall method and a semi-quantitative FFQ with emphasis on the source of all foods consumed. Kampala, Jinja and Masaka districts, Uganda. The study included 225 street food vendors trading in prepared cooked foods. The majority of vendors (87·6 %) were women with age range of 21-50 years. Traditional dishes were the most commonly prepared foods and classified into main meals, sauces, vegetables and snacks. The food groups consumed most commonly by street food vendors fall under energy-giving and body-building foods (0·26 (sd 0·81)). The mean daily intake of energy from street foods varied between 22·4 % and 25·6 % (2412 kJ). Carbohydrates contributed the highest proportion of energy (70·1 % to 93·4 %), followed by protein (38·6 % to 44·9 %) and fat (21·9 % to 26·3 %). Street food vendors obtained 24·0 % to 32·5 % of their RDA for Ca from street vended foods, with the lowest intake in Jinja (11·2 % to 23·9 %, P street foods were respectively above 74 % and 150 % of the RDA. The contribution of street foods to the RDA for Zn ranged from 81·9 % to 190·9 %, and from 3·5 % to 4·9 % for retinol. Fe intake from street vended foods was 40·9 % to 49·7 % of the RDA. Street foods contribute to sources of dietary energy and other nutrients among street food vendors in Uganda.

  9. The initiation of homeless youth into the street economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S

    2009-04-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based organizations. All participated in structured interviews and 25% participated in qualitative interviews. Almost all HY had participated in the street (81%) and formal economies (69%). Five main factors simultaneously influenced initiation into the street economy: social control/bonds, barriers to the formal economy (e.g., homelessness, educational deficits, mental health problems, incarceration, stigma), tangible and social/emotional benefits of the street economy, severe economic need, and the active recruitment of HY into the street economy by others. Qualitative and quantitative data sources were congruent. Intervention efforts are needed at multiple levels of influence to promote HY's success in the formal economy.

  10. A social work study on family patterns and street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between various family characteristics and street children in rural area as well as city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 150 street children, 75 from city and 75 from rural area, and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, place of residency and family size on street children. The results indicate that the city residence had more street children than rural residence did. In addition, there was a meaningful difference between the number of street children in low-income families and high-income families. Finally, the survey results indicate that big size families more likely suffered from street children than low size families did.

  11. [Street social education: historical, political and pedagogical bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Walter Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    This work is about street social education as a pedagogical system that started in Latin America in the late 1970s, as the street population formed mostly by children and adolescents called for attention. The first street social educators were 'pastoral' agents working at the praça da Sé a place with large numbers of street children in São Paulo. Based on the Liberation Theology and on the pedagogies developed by Paulo Freire, Celestine Freinet, Anton Makarenko, and Emília Ferreiro, the street educators developed a conceptual field and participated in the promulgation of the 1988 Federal Constitution, particularly by writing and introducing the 'Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente' (the 'Child and Adolescent Statute'). Street social education is currently latent and suffering the consequences of program discontinuity caused by successive changes of government. It is, therefore important to know the conceptual proposals.

  12. Simulation of wind-driven dispersion of fire pollutants in a street canyon using FDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesic, Dusica J; Blagojevic, Milan Dj; Zivkovic, Nenad V

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in urban areas attracts great attention due to increasing pollutant emissions and their negative effects on human health and environment. Numerous studies, such as those by Mouilleau and Champassith (J Loss Prevent Proc 22(3): 316-323, 2009), Xie et al. (J Hydrodyn 21(1): 108-117, 2009), and Yassin (Environ Sci Pollut Res 20(6): 3975-3988, 2013) focus on the air pollutant dispersion with no buoyancy effect or weak buoyancy effect. A few studies, such as those by Hu et al. (J Hazard Mater 166(1): 394-406, 2009; J Hazard Mater 192(3): 940-948, 2011; J Civ Eng Manag (2013)) focus on the fire-induced dispersion of pollutants with heat buoyancy release rate in the range from 0.5 to 20 MW. However, the air pollution source might very often be concentrated and intensive, as a consequence of the hazardous materials fire. Namely, transportation of fuel through urban areas occurs regularly, because it is often impossible to find alternative supply routes. It is accompanied with the risk of fire accident occurrences. Accident prevention strategies require analysis of the worst scenarios in which fire products jeopardize the exposed population and environment. The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of wind flow on air pollution and human vulnerability to fire products in a street canyon. For simulation of the gasoline tanker truck fire as a result of a multivehicle accident, computational fluid dynamics large eddy simulation method has been used. Numerical results show that the fire products flow vertically upward, without touching the walls of the buildings in the absence of wind. However, when the wind velocity reaches the critical value, the products touch the walls of the buildings on both sides of the street canyon. The concentrations of carbon monoxide and soot decrease, whereas carbon dioxide concentration increases with the rise of height above the street canyon ground level. The longitudinal concentration of the pollutants inside the street

  13. The Ballet of the Streets: Teaching about Cities at Street Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick A.; Spates, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The urban scholar Jane Jacobs once described city life as "the ballet of the streets." In more than a quarter century of joint teaching, the authors have used Jacobs' metaphor to help their students understand that cities are living organisms created and maintained, for good or ill, by the people who live and work in them. At heart their…

  14. The on-street parking premium and car drivers' choice between street and garage parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobus, M.B.W.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.; Rietveld, P.; van Ommeren, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a methodology to estimate the effect of parking prices on car drivers' choice between street and garage parking. Our key identifying assumption is that the marginal benefit of parking duration does not depend on this choice. The endogeneity of parking duration is acknowledged in the

  15. "Hitting the Streets": Youth Street Involvement as Adaptive Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tara A.

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in illegal street activities such as drug trafficking and violence are at high risk for school failure and other negative outcomes. Research often seeks to identify what is "wrong" with them, what makes them different from "normal" youth, but relatively few studies focus on variations in how youth engage in and…

  16. An Archaeology of the Street: A Cinegraphic Analysis of Streets in Urbino, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Blizard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the issues, questions, and discoveries of an experimental design studio, conducted in Urbino, Italy during spring semester of 2013. Utilizing high definition video cameras and their digital ecosystem of hardware and software, the students focused on uncovering the identity, or genetic code, of the street by examining its spatial and temporal extension. An archaeological method composed of traditional spatial analysis, typological studies, and cataloging of elements provided the initial framework for a cinegraphic inquiry. What emerged was a sense that the street was an urban artifact––a place itself rather than merely a conduit or path between places––whose spatial and temporal characteristics informed our perception of the city. The street, perhaps only understood in our movement through its sequential elements and spaces, seems critical in shaping the city’s identity. Traditional means of analysis by themselves are limited in that they only isolate fragments of a much more complex whole. Throughout the inquiry, we found that the digital analytical methods that were employed and the digital tools themselves provided new insight into the analytical process while expanding our understanding of the street and its relationship to the landscape and the larger urban fabric of Urbino. By extension, cinegraphic analysis may contribute to our ability to uncover the qualities and structure that constitute the identity of a city, or any place.

  17. Familial Characteristics of Street Children in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Khaniha, Ahmad Reza; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Mohammadian, Mehrdad; Bidaki, Reza; Pourrashidi Boshrabadi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The phenomenon of street children is one of the most important concerns facing global community. Identifying risk factors in such children could lead to crucial investigations to find their essential needs by intervention programs. The present study examined the family profile of street children in Tehran, Iran. Methods: The sample consisted of 576 street children who were evaluated by 15 examiners. Using multi-stage sampling, twenty-seven different areas of Tehran were divided int...

  18. Smoking Behaviors Of Street Childrens In Makassar Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Amiruddin, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Street children are vulnerable groups of risky behavior, one of which is smoking behavior. Smoking behavior is influenced by several factors. This study aims to describe smoking behavior of street children in Makassar and its relation with school status, living with parents, family history of smoking, peer influence, and level of religiosity of the street children. Method: The research design used was analytical observational cross sectional study. Research was carried out in J...

  19. Trees in the city: valuing street trees in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.H. Donovan; D.T. Butry

    2010-01-01

    We use a hedonic price model to simultaneously estimate the effects of street trees on the sales price and the time-on-market (TOM) of houses in Portland. Oregon. On average, street trees add $8,870 to sales price and reduce TOM by 1.7 days. In addition, we found that the benefits of street trees spill over to neighboring houses. Because the provision and maintenance...

  20. A Consumption Habit of Street Foods Among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Febry, Fatmalina

    2010-01-01

    A consumption habit of street foods among children have become a general habit in all level of socio-economic level in society. Steet foods generally do not fulfill a health standard and have more risk to contain chemical or biological substances. On the other hand, street food also benefits for children' nutritions if they choose healthy and proper foods. Therefore, roles of parents and teachers in school is necessary to deliver correct knowledge about healthy and nutritious street food to...

  1. Microbiological assessment of ethnic street foods of the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Kharel, Niki; Palni, Uma; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consumption of ethnic street foods is very popular in both Gangtok and Nainital in India, both being popular tourist resorts in the Indian Himalayas. Common ethnic street foods of Gangtok are samosa, kachori, puchkka, alu chop, vegetable momo, pork momo, alu-cheura, vegetable chowmein, jhal-muri, and sya-faley. Common ethnic street foods of Nainital are samosa, kachori, pani puri, alu tikki, vegetable momo, mutton momo, bread chop, vegetable chowmein, jhal-muri, and vegetable pako...

  2. [Addictive behavior of street children: interculturation and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommegne, T; Denoux, P; Bernoussi, A; Njiengwe, E F

    2014-09-01

    This research belongs to a more comprehensive study on the care of street children in Cameroon. The idea is to develop an analysis of the street pathology where symptoms such as addictive behavior and drug addiction can be found. Beside HIV AIDS, addictive behaviors are the main risk factors that many professionals have to face with while dealing with the street problems today. Through an intercultural approach, we examined the practices of addictive typology, their initiatory role and their function in the integration of the street system. We also analysed their importance in the survival strategies. After an overview of theoretical controversies that feed the debate on addictions, we questioned the impact of these practices on the street career through the prism of general theory of addictions, particularly the hedonic management model. Addiction helps to resist adversity, it helps to desist and then to begin a harmonious neo development despite the horrors of the street experience. We undertook a quantitative and qualitative study on a sample of 148 street children. We proposed to 128 of them a questionnaire focused on addictive behaviors and survival strategies in the street context. We notably evaluated the street career of 24 of them, using interviews and standardized tests to assess self-esteem (Coopersmith's SEI) frustration tolerance (Rosenweig's P-F) and self-efficacy (Sherer's SE Scale) in order to measure the impact of addictive behaviors on the resilience process. We found that the street career is essentially traumatic, and that addictive behaviors involving various integration strategies are strongly linked to the interculturation process through the identity strategies and the intercultural competences. Addiction itself is not significantly related to self-esteem issues but strongly impacts on self-efficacy and the ability to tolerate frustration. They allow the street children to withstand the street adversity but are a real obstacle to their

  3. Meeting the health care needs of street-involved youth

    OpenAIRE

    April S. Elliott

    2013-01-01

    Health care providers who see homeless or street-involved youth can help to reduce the impact of many risk factors – physical, mental, emotional and social – pertaining to street culture. The present statement describes the types and scale of homelessness in Canada, and reviews reasons why youth turn to the street, risks of the ‘street economy’ and barriers to health care. Common physical and mental health problems are considered, along with legal and ethical issues that may affect care. Prin...

  4. Into a Mapping of Copenhagen Street Lighting 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Asp, Claus; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    LED lighting is a new lighting component in urban Spaces. How does LED lighting change the visual experience of a street, how did it use to be and how will it become? The book presents a mapping method in which an overview map of light sources in the Copenhagen streets is combined with a video...... recording and a series of photos from a route, whick goes through different city parts and types of streets. The mapping is done in the crucial changing fase, in which the street lighting in Copenhagen is a mix of previously used light sources and LED....

  5. Intelligent street lighting in Oslo, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjoes, Tor [Norconsult AS (Norway)

    2007-07-01

    Over the last few years a lot of test and full scale intelligent street lighting installations have been installed both in Oslo as well as other municipalities. The experience gained and the developed skill within the field now opens up for rapid increase of the market. The technical challenges are not all solved, but the systems can demonstrate high quality performance although there have been some challenges to overcome. The per unit investment cost is of vital importance for the decision makers, the only way to battle this is by increasing the number of units installed annually, in this case the 6.000 units in Oslo is a good start.To really boost the market, there is still quite a long list of obstacles to overcome. But, there have also been quite good progress in this field. New standards from CIE will recommend adaptive lighting and hopefully later be adopted by CEN. New financing mechanism has been demonstrated within the E-street framework, and will in the future help streetholders with limited budgetary means to realise their projects. A strong will within the European community to save energy, hence introducing new legislations to reach their ambitious goals, gives a strong support for further development of the intelligent streetlight. The saving potential is substantial, 38 %TWh annually, and relatively easy to reach due to the relatively few decision makers within the market.

  6. Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelt, Kathryn; McLafferty, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Recent scholarship points to a protective association between green space and birth outcomes as well a positive relationship between blue space and wellbeing. We add to this body of literature by exploring the relationship between expectant mothers’ exposure to green and blue spaces and adverse birth outcomes in New York City. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the NYC Street Tree Census, and access to major green spaces served as measures of greenness, while proximity to waterfront areas represented access to blue space. Associations between these factors and adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, term birthweight, term low birthweight, and small for gestational age, were evaluated via mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models. The analyses were conducted separately for women living in deprived neighborhoods to test for differential effects on mothers in these areas. The results indicate that women in deprived neighborhoods suffer from higher rates adverse birth outcomes and lower levels of residential greenness. In adjusted models, a significant inverse association between nearby street trees and the odds of preterm birth was found for all women. However, we did not identify a consistent significant relationship between adverse birth outcomes and NDVI, access to major green spaces, or waterfront access when individual covariates were taken into account. PMID:28703756

  7. Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelt, Kathryn; McLafferty, Sara

    2017-07-13

    Recent scholarship points to a protective association between green space and birth outcomes as well a positive relationship between blue space and wellbeing. We add to this body of literature by exploring the relationship between expectant mothers' exposure to green and blue spaces and adverse birth outcomes in New York City. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the NYC Street Tree Census, and access to major green spaces served as measures of greenness, while proximity to waterfront areas represented access to blue space. Associations between these factors and adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, term birthweight, term low birthweight, and small for gestational age, were evaluated via mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models. The analyses were conducted separately for women living in deprived neighborhoods to test for differential effects on mothers in these areas. The results indicate that women in deprived neighborhoods suffer from higher rates adverse birth outcomes and lower levels of residential greenness. In adjusted models, a significant inverse association between nearby street trees and the odds of preterm birth was found for all women. However, we did not identify a consistent significant relationship between adverse birth outcomes and NDVI, access to major green spaces, or waterfront access when individual covariates were taken into account.

  8. How green are the streets? An analysis for central areas of Chinese cities using Tencent Street View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Extensive evidence has revealed that street greenery, as a quality-of-life component, is important for oxygen production, pollutant absorption, and urban heat island effect mitigation. Determining how green our streets are has always been difficult given the time and money consumed using conventional methods. This study proposes an automatic method using an emerging online street-view service to address this issue. This method was used to analyze street greenery in the central areas (28.3 km2 each) of 245 major Chinese cities; this differs from previous studies, which have investigated small areas in a given city. Such a city-system-level study enabled us to detect potential universal laws governing street greenery as well as the impact factors. We collected over one million Tencent Street View pictures and calculated the green view index for each picture. We found the following rules: (1) longer streets in more economically developed and highly administrated cities tended to be greener; (2) cities in western China tend to have greener streets; and (3) the aggregated green view indices at the municipal level match with the approved National Garden Cities of China. These findings can prove useful for drafting more appropriate policies regarding planning and engineering practices for street greenery. PMID:28196071

  9. How green are the streets? An analysis for central areas of Chinese cities using Tencent Street View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ying; Liu, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Extensive evidence has revealed that street greenery, as a quality-of-life component, is important for oxygen production, pollutant absorption, and urban heat island effect mitigation. Determining how green our streets are has always been difficult given the time and money consumed using conventional methods. This study proposes an automatic method using an emerging online street-view service to address this issue. This method was used to analyze street greenery in the central areas (28.3 km2 each) of 245 major Chinese cities; this differs from previous studies, which have investigated small areas in a given city. Such a city-system-level study enabled us to detect potential universal laws governing street greenery as well as the impact factors. We collected over one million Tencent Street View pictures and calculated the green view index for each picture. We found the following rules: (1) longer streets in more economically developed and highly administrated cities tended to be greener; (2) cities in western China tend to have greener streets; and (3) the aggregated green view indices at the municipal level match with the approved National Garden Cities of China. These findings can prove useful for drafting more appropriate policies regarding planning and engineering practices for street greenery.

  10. How green are the streets? An analysis for central areas of Chinese cities using Tencent Street View.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Long

    Full Text Available Extensive evidence has revealed that street greenery, as a quality-of-life component, is important for oxygen production, pollutant absorption, and urban heat island effect mitigation. Determining how green our streets are has always been difficult given the time and money consumed using conventional methods. This study proposes an automatic method using an emerging online street-view service to address this issue. This method was used to analyze street greenery in the central areas (28.3 km2 each of 245 major Chinese cities; this differs from previous studies, which have investigated small areas in a given city. Such a city-system-level study enabled us to detect potential universal laws governing street greenery as well as the impact factors. We collected over one million Tencent Street View pictures and calculated the green view index for each picture. We found the following rules: (1 longer streets in more economically developed and highly administrated cities tended to be greener; (2 cities in western China tend to have greener streets; and (3 the aggregated green view indices at the municipal level match with the approved National Garden Cities of China. These findings can prove useful for drafting more appropriate policies regarding planning and engineering practices for street greenery.

  11. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Kawada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation. The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive and CARS (negative. Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive.

  12. Street choice logit model for visitors in shopping districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Ko; Yamada, Takashi; Kishimoto, Tatsuya

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we propose two models for predicting people's activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction) model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation). The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that "have more shops, and are wider and lower". In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive) and CARS (negative). Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive).

  13. Health policy making for street children: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Saeieh, Sara Esmaelzadeh; Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh

    2017-08-17

    Background The phenomenon of street children is a bio-psychological and social issue that not only harms children, but also endangers the health of a society. In line with the national programs for the development and promotion of street children's health in Iran, health policy making and essential strategies for this group of children will be presented in this paper. This paper will discuss the main issues and challenges of street children's health and, also, health policy and guidelines for this population. Methods In this review study, the keywords; street children, health, challenges, policy, and health policy making were searched through PubMed, SID, Iranmedex, World Health Organization (WHO), Emro, the Cochran Library, Medline and Google scholar to collect data. The search resulted in 84 related resources from which 48 cases that were more relevant to this research and covered the issue more comprehensively, were used. All data published during 2002-2015 have been included in this paper. Results Key concepts including street children and their health, health policy, strategies to improve the health of street children, health policy approaches for street children, the WHO's strategies, and social support program for street children must be considered in the health policy making processes for street children, as precise identification of the relevant information makes planning more effective in health policy making for this group of children. Conclusion The phenomenon of street children is a growing problem in the world and it has turned into a serious concern in many countries including Iran. The findings of this study can be used for identifying necessary measures in order to use research outcomes more effectively in policy making processes and reforming street children's health policies in Iran.

  14. Socio-economic and hygiene features of street food vending in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were firstly to determine the health risks associated with street food vending, secondly to determine the opinions of street food customers on street food vendors, and thirdly to determine how street food vending contributes to the livelihood of street food vendors. Design. Primary research was done ...

  15. 75 FR 71744 - Fifth Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... COMMISSION Fifth Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application November 18, 2010. AGENCY: Securities... Finance Corp. (``Fifth Street''), Fifth Street Management LLC, Fifth Street Mezzanine Partners IV, L.P... regulated as a business development company (``BDC'') under the Act. Fifth Street is a specialty finance...

  16. Socio-economic and hygiene features of street food vending in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The objectives of the study were firstly to determine the health risks associated with street food vending, secondly to determine the opinions of street food customers on street food vendors, and thirdly to determine how street food vending contributes to the livelihood of street food vendors. Design. Primary ...

  17. Characteristics of the street children of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptekar, L

    1989-01-01

    Psychological characteristics of 56 Colombian male street children, aged 7 to 16, were examined from participant observations and results of three psychological tests given the children. The Kohs Block Design measured their intelligence; and the Human Figure Drawing and the Bender Gestalt measured emotional and neurological functioning. The test data showed the sample to be relatively healthy, intelligent, and emotionally intact. The children's relatively good scores on the tests may be understood by placing their abandonment in a cultural perspective, which includes the children's strong peer support system, their access to adult benefactors, and the fact that the children were developing in an orderly fashion from matrifocal families. The premise is made that by understanding the children more accurately more appropriate help may be given.

  18. Bay street looks at the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaseosa, O.

    1976-04-01

    The glamour is off frontier plays and the action is among junior and intermediate producers. That's the consensus of Bay Street analysts specializing in the oil sector. The mood of the investor is one of caution. He is only paying for current earnings and dividends. Disenchantment with the majors stems from a number of factors. The rapidly escalating cost, and limited success of frontier exploration plays, lack of government policy north of 60, the high visibility, and strictures on marketing expansion. But on the positive side, regulatory approval of a Mackenzie Valley Pipeline will enable investors to ascribe specific value to Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea reserves. Without regulatory approval of a pipeline these are considered speculative, despite the fact that they represent very real replacement of depleting conventional reserves. The views of several analysts are presented on other stocks in Canada and on American markets. (MCW)

  19. Playing with the city: street art and videogames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosca, Susana; Marquez, Israel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact that...

  20. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  1. Poverty alleviation from the perspective of street vendors in Lesoth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was to examine from the perspective of street vendors how they are fighting poverty and the extent of winning this endemic cankerworm. The findings of this paper are informed by a study carried in 2007 on poverty and street vendors in Lesotho. Questionnaires and focus group discussions were used ...

  2. HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this study assessed the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among street adolescents in the ...

  3. Street mirrors, surveillance, and urban communities in early modern Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ylimaunu, T.; Symonds, J.; Mullins, P.R.; Salmi, A.-K.; Nurmi, R.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Tranberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses street mirrors or ‘gossip mirrors’, in terms of urban social relations and surveillance. Street mirrors were introduced to coastal towns in Sweden and Finland in the 18th and early 19th centuries and may still be found in well-preserved towns with historic wooden centres. The

  4. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine ...

  5. A Repeated Observation Approach for Estimating the Street Homeless Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Risks of life on the street caused by inclement weather, harassment, and assault threaten the unsheltered homeless population. We address some challenges of enumerating the street homeless population by testing a novel capture-recapture (CR) estimation approach that models individuals' intermittent daytime visibility. We tested walking and…

  6. Potential role of street foods as micronutrients source among low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although more than 40% of Nairobi's lower-income groups consume street foods, there is paucity of information available for urban policy makers and programmers on the potential contribution of street foods to micronutrient intake. A cross-sectional survey and a non-repetitive 24-hour dietary recall were employed to ...

  7. Microbiological safety of street vended ayib in Jimma town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wide spread habit of street vended cheese consumption is a potential cause for food borne illness, besides the common factors such as over-crowding, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of street vended Ayib and the associated health risks to ...

  8. Psychosocial Skills Intervention for Substance Use amongst Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    psychoactive drug use among street children in a rapid assessment done in Lusaka (45%).4 It ... the law enforcement agencies on account of the information given to us. The clusters of street children in three wards ..... a prevention program, which taught drug refusal skills, anti-drug norms, personal self- management skills ...

  9. 79 lung function, oxygen saturation and symptoms among street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Therefore, a study of lung function, oxygen saturation and symptoms among female street sweepers and their control groups in Calabar, Nigeria was carried out. Ventilatory function tests were done using 200 female street sweepers whose length of service was less than two years and 200 sex, age, weight, and height ...

  10. A Semiotic Reading and Discourse Analysis of Postmodern Street Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Postmodern street art operates under a set of references that requires art educators and researchers to adopt alternative analytical frameworks in order to understand its meanings. In this article, we describe social semiotics, critical discourse analysis, and postmodern street performance as well as the relevance of the former two in interpreting…

  11. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  12. Street choice logit model for visitors in shopping districts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kawada, Ko; Yamada, Takashi; Kishimoto, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    .... The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes...

  13. Politely Disregarded: Street Fiction, Mass Incarceration, and Critical Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orman, Karin; Lyiscott, Jamila

    2013-01-01

    Due to prevailing attitudes about the prison industrial complex and African American and Latino/Latina communities, the literary production of urban street fiction has been politely disregarded by our society. Through the use of critical praxis, utilizing urban street fiction in the classroom is a necessary and urgent act of social justice. Street…

  14. Toxic Metals Profiles in Hair Samples from Street Roaming Animals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of toxic metals profiles in hair samples from street roaming animals in Yelwa-Yauri town, North Western, Nigeria was carried out. Hair samples for the analyses were collected from 108 animal (54 sheep and 54 goats) roaming the street of Yelwa-Yauri town and 45 samples from animals in the neighboring ...

  15. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... security programme (Bryan et al., 1988). However, consumers of street vended meat are little aware of the high health risks they face. Street foods are ..... and coughing among vendors can result in contamination of the products. In addition, hand picking of nose and improper washing of such hands before ...

  16. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption.

  17. Mental Health Problems in Residential Care for Street Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical Journal of Zambia ... The study prescribed in this paper therefore, aimed to explore the mental health problems of street children in residential care and examine the relationship between ... Methodology: The study utilized a sample of 74 street children (6 girls and 68 boys) in residential care aged 7-17 years.

  18. Psychosocial skills intervention for substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: An interactive psychosocial package may be effective for reducing psychoactive substance use amongst street children. However, further research will be needed to address stimulant use which was not affected by our intervention. Keywords: Street children, Psycho-social skills intervention, Substance use, ...

  19. Begging on the streets of Addis Ababa: An impact of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This was a 2-year interventional prospective study aimed at determining the frequency and pattern of musculoskeletal disability among beggars of the streets of Addis Ababa. It was part of a continuous multidisciplinary study that was trying to assess causes of street begging and looked for ways to stop it or at ...

  20. Sexual abuse among juvenile female street hawkers in Anambra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street hawking exposes young girls to all forms of hazards, including sexual abuse. This descriptive study examines the size of the problem and the consequences of sexual abuse on juvenile female street hawkers randomly recruited from two urban towns in Anambra State of Nigeria. Data was collected with semi ...

  1. An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria, being asignatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, 1989) promulgated the Child Rights Act 2003, which aimed at ameliorating the condition of street children in Nigeria. In line with this, there are emerging networks of support for street children. The extent to which these support networks are ...

  2. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  3. Sesame Street Around the World: The Japanese Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toru

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that Japanese children's lack of exposure to spoken English poses critical problems in their comprehension of the program content of Sesame Street. Concludes that these problems are responsible for Sesame Street being treated mainly as an English study program for older students rather than as an educational program for young children.…

  4. Charged Domain Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Campanelli, L.; Cea, P.; Fogli, G. L.; Tedesco, L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate Charged Domain Walls (CDW's), topological defects that acquire surface charge density $Q$ induced by fermion states localized on the walls. The presence of an electric and magnetic field on the walls is also discussed. We find a relation in which the value of the surface charge density $Q$ is connected with the existence of such topological defects.

  5. The Education Rights of Street-Involved Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Grover

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of certain key aspects of the practical and legal situation of street-involved children globally. The inadequate protection of these children under both domestic and international law is addressed. The diversity of the population of street-involved children is considered as is the fact that this group is composed of both legally stateless and de facto stateless children. The relationship of street involvement to child labor, various health risks and victimization is discussed. The educational needs of older street-involved children are addressed including their right to participate in decision-making regarding aspects of educational service design and delivery. The overall objective of this paper is to encourage those who are involved in, or could impact upon educational policy to include street-involved children in their educational planning implementation and advocacy efforts.

  6. The Deep Mapping of Pennine Street: A Cartographic Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Reddleman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pennine Street is a cartographic art experiment, twinning High Street 2012 in London with the Pennine Way, a long-distance footpath running between the Peak District and the Scottish Borders. Pennine Street was initially prompted by the London 2012 Olympic spectacle; more specifically, by the militarization of the Games through the proposed deployment of surface-to-air missiles at sites in London. The project initially took the form of three organized walks along the route of High Street 2012, from Aldgate to Stratford. Readings were made while walking on each occasion, and both photographic and textual collages emerged out of the initial walks. The project engages the idea of trespass as a political action, as both potent and futile, and traces the development of modes of photographic and textual “trespass”, or transgression. Textual collage is employed to investigate the possibility of articulating Pennine Street as a “space-between” the empirical and the imagined.

  7. Review on “Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution” by Anthony Sutton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malugin Sergey Borisovich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This book merges harmoniously in a broad historical research (which also includes journalism as well as radio and TV broadcasting devoted to the actions of foreign sponsors of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. Before the main topic of media publication and broadcast on the subject was the “German General Staff Headquarters” and its relations with Bolsheviks, this focus has recently shifted overseas. Moreover, the increase of historians’ attention to the “Jewish trace” which was left not only in the Bolshevik Party and the Comintern but also in the economic base of these organizations that is directly connected with the world’s banking system, should be noted.

  8. What happens in the ivory tower and how does it rate on Wall Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of higher education has traditionally not been exposed to and determined by market forces. Academic work has for centuries been deemed part of the creative domain and for that reason immeasurable. In South Africa, as in many countries abroad, public and political pressure on higher education institutions for ...

  9. Letters to the Senate Banking Committee about Wall Street Reform Legislation during the New Deal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Early in 1933, shortly after the election of President Franklin Roosevelt, the U.S. Senate Banking and Currency Committee began receiving hundreds of letters from concerned Americans. They were closely watching the committee's efforts to find and fix the causes of the Great Depression that had consumed the nation for more than three years. This…

  10. Financial disclosure and toxic products: encouraging wall street to anticipate product risk and exercise precaution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sanford; Byrne, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Amidst discussion by policymakers about how regulators' failure to ensure disclosure of risks contributed to the current financial crisis, we assess how emerging product toxicity risks are addressed in companies' financial reports. Will corporations blindside investors with "the next asbestos?" Existing disclosures are found lacking in the specificity needed to forewarn of liabilities and reputational damage from the use of potentially harmful materials-from nanotechnologies, to asthmagens, to perfluorinated compounds. Improved standards could protect investors while also enhancing corporate incentives to use safer materials. Reforms by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Financial Accounting Standards Board are recommended.

  11. Moving the Past Forward: From a Birmingham Jail to Occupy Wall Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieso, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    What do you do with the student who says she hates history, yet watches The History Channel every night? What do you do with the student who is underachieving in social science but has visited every battlefield in Virginia? Our curriculum frameworks and pacing guides suggest a chronological, fact-based approach to teaching and learning history,…

  12. Should Wall-Street be occupied ? an overlooked price externality of financial intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Eden, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Does an unregulated financial system absorb too many productive inputs? This paper studies this question in the context of a dynamic model with heterogeneous producers. In the absence of a financial system, the only way to purchase inputs is using internal funds. Producers are subject to idiosyncratic productivity shocks, and will decide to produce only if their productivity is high enough. Otherwise, they will hold money. A financial intermediation technology allows producers to purchase inp...

  13. An artificial walk down Wall Street : can intraday stock returns be predicted using artificial neural networks?

    OpenAIRE

    Bøvre, Jens Olve; Viervoll, Peder Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Financial markets are complex evolved dynamic systems. Due to its irregularity, financial time series forecasting is regarded as a rather challenging task. In recent years, artificial neural network applications in finance, for such tasks as pattern recognition, classification, and time series forecasting have dramatically increased. The objective of this paper is to present this powerful framework and attempt to use it to predict the stock return series of four publicly listed...

  14. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  15. Smoking Behaviors of Street Children in Makassar 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Amiruddin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Street children are vulnerable groups of risky behavior like smoking behavior. This study aims to describe smoking and relation with education, living with parents, family, peer influence, and religiosity. Study design was cross sectional study. The population was 990 street children with the sample of 277 street children. Sample selection in accidental sampling with criteria of respondents aged 10-19 years and Muslims. Data were analyzed with chi square test with confidence interval of 95% (α=0.05. Results show that 48% of street children have ever smoked and 37.2% of street children were still smoking in the last 30 days. Then, there is a relationship between living with parents (p=0.002 and levels of religiosity (p=0.023. However, there was no relationship with school status (p=0613, family history (p=0.874, and peer influence (p=0.157 with the smoking behavior of street children. This research suggests to give education about the dangers of smoking, provide religious values for them and involve them in religious social activities, family empowerment approach to parents to guide their children not to smoke, and optimize function of NGOs or shelters for street children.

  16. GSM Based Smart Street Light Monitoring and Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Omkar Natu; Prof. S.A.Chavan

    2013-01-01

    A Street light, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or walkway, which is turned on or lit at a certain time every night. Major advantages of street lighting includes: prevention of accidents and increase in safety. Studies have shown that darkness results in a large number of crashes and fatalities, especially those involving pedestrians; pedestrian fatalities are 3 to 6.75 times more likely in the dark than in daylight. St...

  17. Staying Preferences by Street Children in Surat City

    OpenAIRE

    Patel NB, Desai Toral, Bansal RK, Girish Thakar

    2011-01-01

    India houses the largest number of street children in the world. These children often live in abject poverty and squalid conditions. The present study aims to explore their staying preferences in the city of Surat and the reasons thereof. This cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 326 street children in Surat city. The study found that street children prefer to stay and work in Surat city as they perceive that Surat is a safer city; it is easier to earn money in this city; life ...

  18. Playing With the City: Street Art and Videogames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazques Marquez, Israel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...... that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related...

  19. A Solution for Street Lighting in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart Cities is a domain of great interest in the modern society. The aim of a smart urban environment is to increase citizens’ comfort and quality of life with minimum resources and power consumption and without affecting the natural environment. Street lighting is one of the main interests in such a smart environment. This thesis focuses on implementing a lighting control system that makes street lighting to be an autonomous and efficient part of the urban environment. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed using an OMNET++ network simulation. The results lead to the conclusion that the smart control system improves some drawbacks of a classic street lighting system.

  20. Finding Street Gang Members on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Lakshika; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Most street gang members use Twitter to intimidate others, to present outrageous images and statements to the world, and to share recent illegal activities. Their tweets may thus be useful to law enforcement agencies to discover clues about recent crimes or to anticipate ones that may occur. Finding these posts, however, requires a method to discover gang member Twitter profiles. This is a challenging task since gang members represent a very small population of the 320 million Twitter users. This paper studies the problem of automatically finding gang members on Twitter. It outlines a process to curate one of the largest sets of verifiable gang member profiles that have ever been studied. A review of these profiles establishes differences in the language, images, YouTube links, and emojis gang members use compared to the rest of the Twitter population. Features from this review are used to train a series of supervised classifiers. Our classifier achieves a promising F1 score with a low false positive rate. PMID:28713880

  1. Finding Street Gang Members on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Lakshika; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Most street gang members use Twitter to intimidate others, to present outrageous images and statements to the world, and to share recent illegal activities. Their tweets may thus be useful to law enforcement agencies to discover clues about recent crimes or to anticipate ones that may occur. Finding these posts, however, requires a method to discover gang member Twitter profiles. This is a challenging task since gang members represent a very small population of the 320 million Twitter users. This paper studies the problem of automatically finding gang members on Twitter. It outlines a process to curate one of the largest sets of verifiable gang member profiles that have ever been studied. A review of these profiles establishes differences in the language, images, YouTube links, and emojis gang members use compared to the rest of the Twitter population. Features from this review are used to train a series of supervised classifiers. Our classifier achieves a promising F 1 score with a low false positive rate.

  2. Freeform reflector design for LED street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Schreiber, Peter; Walkling, Andreas; Schierz, Christoph; Schwede, Maik; Gühne, Volker

    2011-10-01

    Faceted freeform reflectors were designed for intelligent street lighting with LED cluster arrays for main traffic roads. Special attention was paid to achieve highly efficient illumination on both wet and dry road surfaces. CIE reflection tables W4 and C2 were applied in the simulation for these two conditions, respectively. The reflector design started with plane facets, then - to avoid artifacts from the images of the individual LEDs - plane facets were replaced with cylindrical facets. To get even more flexibility for the design and optimization, freeform facets were employed, modeled by extruding two different conic curves together. Besides of achieving well-proportioned road luminance distribution, the basic shapes of the reflectors were formed to control stray light caused by multiple reflections within the reflector and by reflection of light from neighbor clusters within the cluster array. The merit functions include useful transmission of light to the road as well as overall and lengthwise uniformity according to road illumination standards. Due to the large amount of variables, the optimization was carried out sequentially facet by facet. The design loops included compromising with manufacturing limitations for plastics molding and thorough analysis of conformity with DIN EN 13201 standards for ME road lighting classes. The calculated reflector profiles are realized by plastic injection molding.

  3. Green walls in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical

  4. Iowa City street theater troupe gives voices to Palestinian women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillespie, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Iowa City Street Theater Troupe Gives Voices to Palestinian Women There has been a lot of bloodshed, many injustices, and many mistakes on both sides," she added, "so we are here to raise awareness...

  5. On Creativity and Humor: An Analysis of EASY STREET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Roy R.

    1974-01-01

    Author attempted to present a reasonable description of the film, Easy Street, with major antics numbered, then analyzed those in terms of Duncker and Koestler, thereby extending the latter's theory of bisociation. (Author/RK)

  6. Road and Street Centerlines - MDC_MajorRoads

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — An arc Feature Class (FC) of Miami-Dade County Major Streets. It contains 4 classes of roads: limited access highways, divided highways/major roads, federal/state...

  7. Implementing a Dynamic Street-Children's Program: Successes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementing a Dynamic Street-Children's Program: Successes and Challenges. ... the influence that early childhood dynamics of parentchild, parent-parent and ... they can influence the child's behaviour in both positive and negative ways.

  8. Sesame Street: Shaping Broadcast Television to Needs of the Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Edward L.

    1971-01-01

    The producer of Sesame Street" explains the research efforts directed toward finding an optimum fit between the child's needs and preferences and the show's instructional goals," and answers some criticisms from preschool educators. (Author/AA)

  9. For Sesame Street--a Role in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Edgar L.; Smith, C. Leland

    1975-01-01

    A unique program designed to give teacher-education candidates their first teaching experience with children of preschool age, using Sesame Street television programs as the curriculum focal point. (CS)

  10. Sesame Street Around the World: The Educational Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Thomas D.; Conner, Ross F.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluates seven studies concerned with the influence of Sesame Street on the development of learning skills in preschool children and provides a balance sheet of achievements, limitations and unanswered questions. (MH)

  11. Street trees reduce the negative effects of urbanization on birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The effects of streets on biodiversity is an important aspect of urban ecology, but it has been neglected worldwide. Several vegetation attributes (e.g. street tree density and diversity) have important effects on biodiversity and ecological processes. In this study, we evaluated the influences of urban vegetation—represented by characteristics of street trees (canopy size, proportion of native tree species and tree species richness)—and characteristics of the landscape (distance to parks and vegetation quantity), and human impacts (human population size and exposure to noise) on taxonomic data and functional diversity indices of the bird community inhabiting streets. The study area was the southern region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), a largely urbanized city in the understudied Neotropical region. Bird data were collected on 60 point count locations distributed across the streets of the landscape. We used a series of competing GLM models (using Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes) to assess the relative contribution of the different sets of variables to explain the observed patterns. Seventy-three bird species were observed exploiting the streets: native species were the most abundant and frequent throughout this landscape. The bird community's functional richness and Rao's Quadratic Entropy presented values lower than 0.5. Therefore, this landscape was favoring few functional traits. Exposure to noise was the most limiting factor for this bird community. However, the average size of arboreal patches and, especially the characteristics of street trees, were able to reduce the negative effects of noise on the bird community. These results show the importance of adequately planning the urban afforestation process: increasing tree species richness, preserving large trees and planting more native trees species in the streets are management practices that will increase bird species richness, abundance and community functional aspects

  12. Structure, function and value of street trees in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Natalie van Doorn; John de Goede

    2016-01-01

    This study compiled recent inventory data from 929,823 street trees in 50 cities to determine trends in tree number and density, identify priority investments and create baseline data against which the efficacy of future practices can be evaluated. The number of street trees increased from 5.9 million in 1988 to 9.1 million in 2014, about one for every four residents....

  13. HIV risk profile and prostitution among female street youths

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Amy E.; Boivin, Jean-François; Blais, Lucie; Haley, Nancy; Roy, Élise

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors among female street youths involved in prostitution and those with no history of prostitution. Youths aged 14 to 25 years were recruited into the Montreal Street Youth Cohort. Semiannually, youths completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Statistical analyses comparing characteristics and HIV risk factors for girls involved in prostitution and those never involved were carried out using param...

  14. Adams Morgan Parkway: Envisioning a Network of Green Streets

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Laura Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The footprint of urban streets have become conflict zones of interests; ranging from efficient automobile infrastructure, building restriction lines, economical interests, shy efforts to introduce nature, services, etc. How can we, as urban designers, retrieve a portion of this footprint to nature by taking advantage of the existing public parking areas and create a network of streets that speaks to the larger park network? Can a neighborhood like Adams Morgan serve as an example fo...

  15. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The City of Detroit is in the midst of a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing HPS sources to LED. This report provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far — and contains useful information about issues that arise during large-scale LED street lighting projects.

  16. Street trees reduce the negative effects of urbanization on birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos de Castro Pena

    Full Text Available The effects of streets on biodiversity is an important aspect of urban ecology, but it has been neglected worldwide. Several vegetation attributes (e.g. street tree density and diversity have important effects on biodiversity and ecological processes. In this study, we evaluated the influences of urban vegetation-represented by characteristics of street trees (canopy size, proportion of native tree species and tree species richness-and characteristics of the landscape (distance to parks and vegetation quantity, and human impacts (human population size and exposure to noise on taxonomic data and functional diversity indices of the bird community inhabiting streets. The study area was the southern region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil, a largely urbanized city in the understudied Neotropical region. Bird data were collected on 60 point count locations distributed across the streets of the landscape. We used a series of competing GLM models (using Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes to assess the relative contribution of the different sets of variables to explain the observed patterns. Seventy-three bird species were observed exploiting the streets: native species were the most abundant and frequent throughout this landscape. The bird community's functional richness and Rao's Quadratic Entropy presented values lower than 0.5. Therefore, this landscape was favoring few functional traits. Exposure to noise was the most limiting factor for this bird community. However, the average size of arboreal patches and, especially the characteristics of street trees, were able to reduce the negative effects of noise on the bird community. These results show the importance of adequately planning the urban afforestation process: increasing tree species richness, preserving large trees and planting more native trees species in the streets are management practices that will increase bird species richness, abundance and community

  17. Street trees reduce the negative effects of urbanization on birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, João Carlos de Castro; Martello, Felipe; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Armitage, Richard A; Young, Robert J; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    The effects of streets on biodiversity is an important aspect of urban ecology, but it has been neglected worldwide. Several vegetation attributes (e.g. street tree density and diversity) have important effects on biodiversity and ecological processes. In this study, we evaluated the influences of urban vegetation-represented by characteristics of street trees (canopy size, proportion of native tree species and tree species richness)-and characteristics of the landscape (distance to parks and vegetation quantity), and human impacts (human population size and exposure to noise) on taxonomic data and functional diversity indices of the bird community inhabiting streets. The study area was the southern region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), a largely urbanized city in the understudied Neotropical region. Bird data were collected on 60 point count locations distributed across the streets of the landscape. We used a series of competing GLM models (using Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes) to assess the relative contribution of the different sets of variables to explain the observed patterns. Seventy-three bird species were observed exploiting the streets: native species were the most abundant and frequent throughout this landscape. The bird community's functional richness and Rao's Quadratic Entropy presented values lower than 0.5. Therefore, this landscape was favoring few functional traits. Exposure to noise was the most limiting factor for this bird community. However, the average size of arboreal patches and, especially the characteristics of street trees, were able to reduce the negative effects of noise on the bird community. These results show the importance of adequately planning the urban afforestation process: increasing tree species richness, preserving large trees and planting more native trees species in the streets are management practices that will increase bird species richness, abundance and community functional aspects and

  18. Wholesale Price Discrimination between High Street Retailers and Online Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Aiura

    2007-01-01

    We analyze wholesale pricing and retail pricing when a monopolistic manufacturer sells its product to a high street retailer and an online electronic retailer, which have different selling qualities and marginal selling costs. We observe that (1) the wholesale price for an online electronic retailer is higher than that for a high street retailer if an online electronic retailer's selling cost advantage is greater than its selling quality disadvantage for all consumers buying products, and (2)...

  19. Tool and ideological knowledge in Street Outreach Office working process

    OpenAIRE

    Kami,Maria Terumi Maruyama; Larocca,Liliana Muller; Chaves,Maria Marta Nolasco; Piosiadlo,Laura Christina Macedo; Albuquerque,Guilherme Souza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify ideological knowledge and tool knowledgethat provide support to the Street Outreach Office working process. METHOD Qualitative and exploratory research. TwentyStreet Outreach Office professionals and six users collected the data, applying different semi-structured interview schedules for each category of participants. The resulting categories were analyzed in light of tool and ideological knowledge presented in the working process. RESULTS From the particip...

  20. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined...

  1. Typology of Street Substance Users' Communities in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Maarefvand, Masoomeh; Shirazi, Mohammad Sadegh; Peyravi, Raha; Farhoudian, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background There are different street substance users' communities (SSUCs). Typology of SSUCs in Tehran, Iran was approached in this qualitative study. Methods Using content analysis and saturation principles, 22 street-outreach workers were recruited and interviewed. Data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. Findings Three types of SSUCs were identified. SSUCs were different in geographic location, the community hierarchy, roles of residents and its function during a 24-hou...

  2. Effective Design Factors for Bicycle-Friendly Streets

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Asadi-Shekari; M. Moeinaddini; M. Zaly Shah; A. Hamzah

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle Level of Service (BLOS) is a measure for evaluating street conditions for cyclists. Currently, various methods are proposed for BLOS. These analytical methods however have some drawbacks: they usually assume cyclists as users that can share street facilities with motorized vehicles, it is not easy to link them to design process and they are not easy to follow. In addition, they only support a narrow range of cycling facilities and may not be applicable for all sit...

  3. The Continuation of Politics by Other Means. Neo-Fascist Graffiti and Street Art in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Velikonja

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses graffiti and street-art production by extreme right-wing groups in Slovenia. Classification of the main topics and identification of groups of authors is followed by a critical analysis. This production can be understood along the line of modern–postmodern fascism. Modern fascism is direct, exclusive, aggressive, while the postmodern one is even more dangerous, because it looks inclusive, conciliatory, and its language seems integrative. However, their final goal is identical: hierarchical, authoritarian, ethnically and culturally homogenous and corporative society. The basic finding of the study is that hate-speech on the walls and the policies of dominant institutions are basically the same, so we can speak about the continuation of the same politics by other means. Everything that is written in the graffiti has already been said from the pulpits of dominant politics. Finally, examples of »decontamination« of public spaces are listed, i.e. removal of extremist graffiti and street art or their creative subversion.

  4. Helping street kids cope with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, M

    1993-05-01

    In Brazil, more than 35,000 people have been diagnosed as having AIDS and 425,000 of the country's 150 million population are HIV seropositive. HIV infections continue to take place through infections in the blood supply and ongoing risky behavior associated with sexual relations and IV drug use. A marked lack of knowledge, prejudices and public myths persist about AIDS and despite the continued tide of HIV infection, Brazilians have been reluctant to shed the notion that AIDS is the problem of only discrete risk groups such as homosexuals and drug addicts. Few have changed their sexual behavior or use condoms regularly. Heterosexuals, however, especially women, are the fastest growing group of people with AIDS; 1 of every 6 Brazilians infected with HIV are women. In response, the health ministry has mounted an aggressive STD program which operates regionally in almost all 27 Brazilian states. Many nonprofit organizations have also risen to the challenge of AIDS and HIV infection, and reach out to various target audiences. BEMFAM, for example the major nonprofit family planning agency in Brazil, has become a leader in AIDS prevention. For the first time since its creation in 1965, the group distributed more condoms than oral contraceptive packages in 1992; 15.6 million and 2.9 million, respectively. SOS Crianca is another organization fighting against HIV and AIDS in Brazil. It has sent psychologists and social workers to plazas, alleys, and subway stations where street youths congregate to distribute condoms, counsel male and female prostitutes, educate them about their rights as minors, provide educational games to increase consciousness about health, and work to improve self-esteem.

  5. NUTRIENTS INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF STREET CHILDREN IN BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Patriasih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objectives of this research were to analyze food habits and nutrients intake, and health and nutritional status of street children. The research was carried out in the City of Bandung, West Java; Indonesia. A sample of 324 street children was selected randomly. The sample consisted of 232 boys and 92 girls. The data obtained from questionnaires. Means, standard deviation, frequency and proportion were calculated with a combination of software applications:  Microsoft Excel and Statistical Analysis System. The result showed the level of consumption adequacy did not meet the recommended dietary allowances i.e. with the shortage of 10-15%, this is an indication that the street children should be aware of their daily food consumption. The most common diseases suffered by the respondents were acute respiratory infections (ARI (47%. In addition, 22.7 % and 18.4 % of them suffered from diarrhoea and skin diseases, respectively. Blood haemoglobin status of street children shows that the incidence of anemia was 29.3%. Based on the classification of nutritional status, 42.7% and 80.4 % of street children were underweight and stunted, respectively. Key words: nutrients intake, nutritional status, street children

  6. The network analysis of urban streets: A dual approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Sergio; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito

    2006-09-01

    The application of the network approach to the urban case poses several questions in terms of how to deal with metric distances, what kind of graph representation to use, what kind of measures to investigate, how to deepen the correlation between measures of the structure of the network and measures of the dynamics on the network, what are the possible contributions from the GIS community. In this paper, the author considers six cases of urban street networks characterized by different patterns and historical roots. The authors propose a representation of the street networks based firstly on a primal graph, where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. In a second step, a dual graph, where streets are nodes and intersections are edges, is constructed by means of a generalization model named Intersection Continuity Negotiation, which allows to acknowledge the continuity of streets over a plurality of edges. Finally, the authors address a comparative study of some structural properties of the dual graphs, seeking significant similarities among clusters of cases. A wide set of network analysis techniques are implemented over the dual graph: in particular the authors show that the absence of any clue of assortativity differentiates urban street networks from other non-geographic systems and that most of the considered networks have a broad degree distribution typical of scale-free networks and exhibit small-world properties as well.

  7. Tool and ideological knowledge in Street Outreach Office working process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Terumi Maruyama Kami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify ideological knowledge and tool knowledgethat provide support to the Street Outreach Office working process. METHOD Qualitative and exploratory research. TwentyStreet Outreach Office professionals and six users collected the data, applying different semi-structured interview schedules for each category of participants. The resulting categories were analyzed in light of tool and ideological knowledge presented in the working process. RESULTS From the participant discourses the following ideological knowledge emerged: public policies and the needs of the person ina street situation and tool knowledge, as well as devices and tools for the care of people in street situations and a weekly schedule. CONCLUSION The focus on the working process discourse, supported by ideological knowledge, was verified. The structural dimension of the objective reality of the population in street situations was perceptible in the social determination of being situating on the street. When daily situations were revealed, the limitations to be overcome in the working process context were noticed.

  8. Drug use among street children and adolescents: what helps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yone Gonçalves de Moura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated to frequent and heavy drug use among street children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. A sample of 2,807 street children and adolescents from the 27 Brazilian state capital cities was analyzed. A World Health Organization questionnaire for non-students was adapted for use in Brazil. Data analysis was performed using logistic regression and decision tree models. Factors inversely associated with frequent and heavy drug use were: being age nine to 11 years (OR = 0.1; school attendance (OR = 0.3; daily time (one to five hours spent on the streets (OR = 0.3 and 0.4; not sleeping on the streets (OR = 0.4; being on the streets for less than one year (OR = 0.4; maintenance of some family bonds (OR = 0.5; presence on the streets of a family member (OR = 0.6; not suffering domestic violence (OR = 0.6; being female (OR = 0.8. All of these variables were significant at the p < 0.05 level. The findings suggest that being younger, having family bonds and engagement in school are important protective factors that affect drug use among this population and should be considered in the formulation of public policies.

  9. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  10. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  11. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...

  12. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  13. Violence and the code of the street: a study of social dynamics among street children in Makeevka, East Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naterer, Andrej

    2015-05-01

    This article explores violence among street children in Makeevka, Ukraine. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data gathered during longitudinal field research, extra-, intra-, and inter-group violence is analyzed with an emphasis on the child's situational interpretation and adoption of the code of the street through subsequent code/identity switching and subcultural reactions. The main findings suggest that street children subculture has developed a unique code based on the need to survive and on solidarity and reciprocity; violent acts emerging among them must be understood within this context. The influence of violence on the children's lives and street careers is considered, and alternative explanations of violence are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. The role of solvents in the lives of Kenyan street children: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organisations working to rehabilitate street children are criticised for failing to appreciate the social context of solvent dependence amongst street children. Dependence on glue is preceded by dependence on 'street families', therefore organisations working to rehabilitate street children need to ensure they work through, ...

  15. “I want to be able to walk the street without fear” : transforming justice for street harassment.

    OpenAIRE

    Fileborn, B.; Vera-Gray, F.

    2017-01-01

    The practices comprising the analytic category of street harassment are rarely responded to through either criminal or restorative justice approaches, and the possibilities for transformative justice have to date not been considered. In this article we advocate for a victim-centred justice response to street harassment, specifically examining the potential for transformative justice to function in this way. Drawing on data from a recent Australian study, we examine participants’ understanding...

  16. Competition for the Elements of the City Environment for Irkutsk’s Public Spaces: Street Furniture, Street Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Danilova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the contest «Street furniture. Street design», which was held this summer by manufacturing company «PalpNord», International research laboratory of study and design of the urban environment «Urban Planning School» and the Union of Architects of Russia. The winners and their projects are also listed in the article.

  17. Solar Walls in tsbi3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building....... This version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....

  18. Street art a jeho vliv na současnou českou malbu

    OpenAIRE

    Grabmüllerová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Street Art and Its Influence on Contemporary Czech Painting Street art as a concept refers to an artistic expression, which is, however, not defined by one homogenous technique or subject. The only attribute that conjoins the diverse forms and subjects of street art is a very specific urban area utilization. Although street art encompasses many diverse forms and techniques, the most prevalent ones are sticker art, street posters art, stencil graffiti, murals, traditional graffiti artwork, art...

  19. Role of childhood aerobic fitness in successful street crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock, Laura; Neider, Mark B; Lutz, Aubrey; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-04-01

    Increased aerobic fitness is associated with improved cognition, brain health, and academic achievement during preadolescence. In this study, we extended these findings by examining the relationship between aerobic fitness and an everyday real-world task: street crossing. Because street crossing can be a dangerous multitask challenge and is a leading cause of injury in children, it is important to find ways to improve pedestrian safety. A street intersection was modeled in a virtual environment, and higher-fit (n = 13, 7 boys) and lower-fit (n = 13, 5 boys) 8- to 10-yr-old children, as determined by V˙O(2max) testing, navigated trafficked roads by walking on a treadmill that was integrated with an immersive virtual world. Child pedestrians crossed the street while undistracted, listening to music, or conversing on a hands-free cellular phone. Cell phones impaired street crossing success rates compared with the undistracted or music conditions for all participants (P = 0.004), a result that supports previous research. However, individual differences in aerobic fitness influenced these patterns (fitness × condition interaction, P = 0.003). Higher-fit children maintained street crossing success rates across all three conditions (paired t-tests, all P > 0.4), whereas lower-fit children showed decreased success rates when on the phone, relative to the undistracted (P = 0.018) and music (P = 0.019) conditions. The results suggest that higher levels of childhood aerobic fitness may attenuate the impairment typically associated with multitasking during street crossing. It is possible that superior cognitive abilities of higher-fit children play a role in the performance differences during complex real-world tasks.

  20. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... is reduced. To investigate the possibilities, full-size wall elements with wooden cladding and different cavity design, type of cladding and type of wind barrier were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. During the exposure period parts of the vapour barrier...

  1. "Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

    2009-01-01

    This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…

  2. Pecan Street Grid Demonstration Program. Final technology performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-02-10

    This document represents the final Regional Demonstration Project Technical Performance Report (TPR) for Pecan Street Inc.’s (Pecan Street) Smart Grid Demonstration Program, DE-OE-0000219. Pecan Street is a 501(c)(3) smart grid/clean energy research and development organization headquartered at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). Pecan Street worked in collaboration with Austin Energy, UT, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the City of Austin, the Austin Chamber of Commerce and selected consultants, contractors, and vendors to take a more detailed look at the energy load of residential and small commercial properties while the power industry is undergoing modernization. The Pecan Street Smart Grid Demonstration Program signed-up over 1,000 participants who are sharing their home or businesses’s electricity consumption data with the project via green button protocols, smart meters, and/or a home energy monitoring system (HEMS). Pecan Street completed the installation of HEMS in 750 homes and 25 commercial properties. The program provided incentives to increase the installed base of roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, plug-in electric vehicles with Level 2 charging, and smart appliances. Over 200 participants within a one square mile area took advantage of Austin Energy and Pecan Street’s joint PV incentive program and installed roof-top PV as part of this project. Of these homes, 69 purchased or leased an electric vehicle through Pecan Street’s PV rebate program and received a Level 2 charger from Pecan Street. Pecan Street studied the impacts of these technologies along with a variety of consumer behavior interventions, including pricing models, real-time feedback on energy use, incentive programs, and messaging, as well as the corresponding impacts on Austin Energy’s distribution assets.The primary demonstration site was the Mueller community in Austin, Texas. The Mueller development, located less than three miles from the Texas State Capitol

  3. Compare the difference of architecture design in Hong Kong and Penang – Exterior wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen Tao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the exterior wall of architecture design of Hong Kong and Penang, it also analyzes how light pollution affects human life. As we know, Hong Kong prefers to use steel to build skyscrapers and middle or high rise buildings. However, Penang prefers to use concrete to do the construction. So, there are some advantages and disadvantages between the glass curtain wall and concrete wall in Hong Kong and Penang. The researcher used 400 samples to determine effect of the glass curtain wall and concrete wall on human life in Hong Kong and Penang separately. The result is light pollution created by glass curtain wall in Hong Kong is a serious problem to residents’ life. The glass curtain wall seriously glaze people’s eyes who drive or walk on the street. Thus, many car accidents were caused by this problem. The concrete wall is more often contaminated by fungus and difficult to clean. But, concrete wall is more natural and green for humans. Therefore, from the sustainable aspect that concrete is more healthy for humans, the previous researchers suggest that if the exterior wall is a mixture of both glass curtain and concrete it will not cause light pollution and will be easily involved in the natural environment.

  4. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have you: Learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ) Use estrogen cream in your vagina Try ... repair; Urinary incontinence - vaginal wall repair Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  5. Advanced walling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  6. Trees and Streets as Drivers of Urban Stormwater Nutrient Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Benjamin D; Finlay, Jacques C; Hobbie, Sarah E

    2017-09-05

    Expansion of tree cover is a major management goal in cities because of the substantial benefits provided to people, and potentially to water quality through reduction of stormwater volume by interception. However, few studies have addressed the full range of potential impacts of trees on urban runoff, which includes deposition of nutrient-rich leaf litter onto streets connected to storm drains. We analyzed the influence of trees on stormwater nitrogen and phosphorus export across 19 urban watersheds in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, U.S.A., and at the scale of individual streets within one residential watershed. Stormwater nutrient concentrations were highly variable across watersheds and strongly related to tree canopy over streets, especially for phosphorus. Stormwater nutrient loads were primarily related to road density, the dominant control over runoff volume. Street canopy exerted opposing effects on loading, where elevated nutrient concentrations from trees near roads outweighed the weak influence of trees on runoff reduction. These results demonstrate that vegetation near streets contributes substantially to stormwater nutrient pollution, and therefore to eutrophication of urban surface waters. Urban landscape design and management that account for trees as nutrient pollution sources could improve water quality outcomes, while allowing cities to enjoy the myriad benefits of urban forests.

  7. [The use of psychoactive substances among street teenagers in Ouagadougou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garanet, Franck; Bogono, Etienne; Ouédraogo, Ousmane; Mésenge, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study the determinants of psychoactive substance use among street teenagers living in Ouagadougou.Methods: Qualitative and quantitative cross-sectional study with street teenagers living on the Zogona campus in Ouagadougou, in September 2012. A focus group was then formed with eight members of the group.Results: The median age was 16 years (range: 12 to 20 years). The various psychotropic agents were tobacco, alcohol, gasoline, glue sniffing and cannabis. Seventeen of the 31 teenagers had already been admitted to a rehabilitation centre and none of them attended school at the time of data collection. However, 12 street teenagers had previously attended school. The main reasons for the presence of these teenagers in the street were “poverty in the family”, “death of the parents”, “Koranic school”. The main reasons reported by the teenagers for substance use were “to give oneself courage”, “to relieve hunger”, “to be like the others”, “to be accepted by the group”, “to protect oneself from the cold”. The main determinants of substance abuse were social exclusion, group membership, and group identification.Conclusion: Psychoactive substance use is an integral part of the life of street teenagers and is a major obstacle to social integration.

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STREET PATTERNS IN ISRAELI CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak OMER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Street patterns of Israeli cities were investigated by comparing three time periods of urban development: (I the late 19th century until the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948; (II 1948 until the 1980s; and (III the late 1980s until the present. These time periods are related respectively to the pre-modern, modern and late-modern urban planning approach. Representative urban street networks were examined in selected cities by means of morphological analysis of typical street pattern properties: curvature, fragmentation, connectivity, continuity and differentiation. The study results reveal significant differences between the street patterns of the three examined periods in the development of cities in Israel. The results show clearly the gradual trends in the intensification of curvature, fragmentation, complexity and hierarchical organization of street networks as well as the weakening of the network's internal and external connectivity. The implications of these changes on connectivity and spatial integration are discussed with respect to planning approaches.

  9. Neighborhood sampling: how many streets must an auditor walk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Tracy E; Cubbin, Catherine; Parmenter, Barbara; Medina, Ashley V; Lee, Rebecca E

    2010-03-12

    This study tested the representativeness of four street segment sampling protocols using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan (PEDS) in eleven neighborhoods surrounding public housing developments in Houston, TX. The following four street segment sampling protocols were used (1) all segments, both residential and arterial, contained within the 400 meter radius buffer from the center point of the housing development (the core) were compared with all segments contained between the 400 meter radius buffer and the 800 meter radius buffer (the ring); all residential segments in the core were compared with (2) 75% (3) 50% and (4) 25% samples of randomly selected residential street segments in the core. Analyses were conducted on five key variables: sidewalk presence; ratings of attractiveness and safety for walking; connectivity; and number of traffic lanes. Some differences were found when comparing all street segments, both residential and arterial, in the core to the ring. Findings suggested that sampling 25% of residential street segments within the 400 m radius of a residence sufficiently represents the pedestrian built environment. Conclusions support more cost effective environmental data collection for physical activity research.

  10. Ionospheric current system accompanied by auroral vortex streets

    CERN Document Server

    Hiraki, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    High resolution optical measurements have revealed that a sudden brightening of aurora and its deformation from an arc-like to a vortex street structure appear just at the onset of substorm. The instability of Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves reflected from the ionosphere has been studied by means of magnetohydrodynamic simulations in order to comprehend the formation of auroral vortex streets. Our previous work reported that an initially placed arc intensifies, splits, and deforms into a vortex street during a couple of minutes, and the prime key is an enhancement of the convection electric field. This study elaborated physics of the ionospheric horizontal currents related to the vortex street in the context of so-called Cowling polarization. One component is due to the perturbed electric field by Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves, and the other is due to the perturbed electron density (or polarization) in the ionosphere. It was found that, when a vortex street develops, upward/downward pair currents in its leading/trail...

  11. Energy and street foods (Bangladesh and Sri Lanka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Energy used by street food vendors is effectively replacing fuel consumption in the household, as studies have shown that street foods are often cheaper to buy than to prepare at home. Rapid urbanisation has led to a proliferation of these very small food outlets, particularly in the Asian subcontinent. Street foods provide employment and income to millions of people around the world, and provide low cost, affordable food to low income people. The project pilot tested improved biomass stoves with a selection of street food vendors. In Sri Lanka, laboratory tests were undertaken with the following three stoves: improved rice-husk burner, biomass gasifier, and double-mouth chimney stoves. From the pilot testing in Sri Lanka the key findings are that the efficient gasifier stove is not suitable for street food vendors, but there were some promising results from larger biomass stoves. In Bangladesh, the project piloted four types of biomass stove: single mouth, double mouth, bucket-type and institutional stove. As these were more established, the pilot focused on a method for reaching a larger number of beneficiaries, people were trained to make stoves in their own and in others' houses. Five workshops were held and over 540 stoves were built. Impact assessment exercises were undertaken in both countries. (author)

  12. Between the streets and the shelter: everyday reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa de Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The street situation population has been shown as a growing urban phenomenon, becoming an object of interest to public managers and academics. This paper presents the results of a research aimed at understanding the context of street situation residents, under current provisory institutional shelter care, analyzing why the streets have become the home for some people; how the process of development and adaptation of daily activities in this new reality occurred; when and why they decided to leave the streets and how this process of production of a new daily life occurred since the institutional care; and how they organize and plan their departure from the host service. To this end, open interviews and production of narratives of life stories were conducted with seven residents of an institutional shelter care, along with participant observation for one year in the same service, where staff, residents and institutional dynamics were systematically observed. The results show that the users of this service have gone through different paths in life, with a trace in common: the growing weakening of bonds and purchasing power. The service seems to contribute to the movement of departure from the streets and provides immediate host, welcoming and functional autonomy. However, the departure movement from the shelter - that would provide other autonomies, development of social supports and integrated assistance - appears in the life stories as a difficult process with little institutional support. This work highlights the need to build debates and proposals on the homelessness process.

  13. Neighborhood sampling: how many streets must an auditor walk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Ashley V

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study tested the representativeness of four street segment sampling protocols using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan (PEDS in eleven neighborhoods surrounding public housing developments in Houston, TX. The following four street segment sampling protocols were used (1 all segments, both residential and arterial, contained within the 400 meter radius buffer from the center point of the housing development (the core were compared with all segments contained between the 400 meter radius buffer and the 800 meter radius buffer (the ring; all residential segments in the core were compared with (2 75% (3 50% and (4 25% samples of randomly selected residential street segments in the core. Analyses were conducted on five key variables: sidewalk presence; ratings of attractiveness and safety for walking; connectivity; and number of traffic lanes. Some differences were found when comparing all street segments, both residential and arterial, in the core to the ring. Findings suggested that sampling 25% of residential street segments within the 400 m radius of a residence sufficiently represents the pedestrian built environment. Conclusions support more cost effective environmental data collection for physical activity research.

  14. Analyzing Thermal Characteristics of Urban Streets Using a Thermal Imaging Camera: A Case Study on Commercial Streets in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugie Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to continuing city growth and global warming over the past decades, urban heat island (UHI effects, referring to the phenomena wherein the ambient air temperatures in cities are higher than those in rural areas, have become a serious threat to urban populations. Impervious surfaces, buildings with low-albedo materials, and a lack of vegetated areas are the major causes of poor urban thermal environments, particularly during the summer. Previous research has focused primarily on the thermal characteristics of individual building units. Few studies consider the impact of the street-scale thermal environments on the surface temperature, which affects pedestrian thermal comfort. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of various physical elements on urban streets using thermal imaging cameras, and present policy implications for improving pedestrian thermal comfort. This study examines street-scale thermal environments of three major commercial streets: Garosu road, Serosu road, and Narosu road, in Seoul, Korea. This study conducted field measurements both during the day and the night in June 2017 in order to investigate changes in the urban surface temperatures across time. The results show that street trees are the most effective mitigation element for reducing surface temperatures. With regard to building use types, the highest surface temperatures are typically measured near restaurant buildings. Building façades that are dark-colored or partially covered with a metal contribute to high surface temperatures. Similarly, the temperatures of artificial turf or wooden decks on urban streets are also significantly high during the daytime. The thermal characteristics of various urban street elements should be considered to reduce the surface temperature and mitigate the urban heat island effect.

  15. Alcohol in urban streetscapes: a comparison of the use of Google Street View and on-street observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clews, Chris; Brajkovich-Payne, Roza; Dwight, Emily; Ahmad Fauzul, Ayob; Burton, Madeleine; Carleton, Olivia; Cook, Julie; Deroles, Charlotte; Faulkner, Ruby; Furniss, Mary; Herewini, Anahera; Huband, Daymen; Jones, Nerissa; Kim, Cho Wool; Li, Alice; Lu, Jacky; Stanley, James; Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George

    2016-05-26

    Alcohol-related harm is a major global health issue, and controls on alcohol marketing are one intervention utilized by governments. This study investigated the use of Google Street View (GSV) as a novel research method for collecting alcohol-related data in the urban environment. The efficacy of GSV and on-street observation by observer teams was compared by surveying 400 m stretches of 12 streets in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. Data on alcohol sale, alcohol-related advertising, health promotion materials, regulatory information and visible alcohol consumption were collected. A total of 403 retailers with evidence of alcohol sales and 1161 items of alcohol-related communication were identified in on-street observation. Of the latter, 1028 items (89 %) were for alcohol marketing and 133 (11 %) were for alcohol-related health promotion and alcohol regulation. GSV was found to be a less sensitive tool than on-street observation with only 50 % of the alcohol venues identified and 52 % of the venue-associated brand marketing identified. A high degree of inter-observer reliability was generally found between pairs of observers e.g., for the detection of alcohol retail venues the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.78 to 0.98) for on-street observation and 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.49 to 0.96) for using GSV. GSV does not seem suitable for the comprehensive study of the influences on alcohol consumption in the urban streetscape. However, it may still have value for large, static objects in the environment and be more time efficient than traditional on-street observation measures, especially when used to collect data across a wide geographical area. Furthermore, GSV might become a more useful research tool in settings with better image quality (such as more 'footpath views') and with more regularly updated GSV imagery.

  16. Spatial Character Analysis of Streets as Public Spaces: The Case of Izmit Hurriyet and Cumhuriyet Street, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbayraktar, Mehtap; Pekdemir, Merve; Mırzaliyeva, Gumru

    2017-10-01

    The word “public” was first used to refer to the theatre audience in France in the mid-17th century. In the 18th century, it turned into the meaning of “public space incorporating a large variety of people and composed of acquaintances and strangers”. The concepts of publicity, public space, and public realm have been studied and described by many researchers in the course of time. These descriptions show the development of public space as well. In the very general sense, public spaces are areas of personal and social happiness; collective living spaces of the society; areas of expression of natural and cultural variety; and key elements providing a ground for the establishment of an identity. In the United Nations’ report on public spaces, public space is addressed under six groups: 1. The spaces we intensely used in our daily life; 2. Green open public spaces; 3. Public activity spaces which users can go in without any difficulty, are open to public, and are under protection; 4. Public sector realm (social agreements in which the people are represented, contribute to collective goods, and trust in the administrators elected); 5. City as a public space; 6. Cyberspace. As cities grow, public spaces transform and diversify. Attempts are made to meet the changing needs through types of space developed. However, the character of the existing public spaces, the distribution of open spaces and parks and their inadequacy, the destruction of public space, and the things that are required to be done stand as important issues to be addressed. One of the public spaces going through transformation are streets which we intensely use in our daily life. In general, streets are defined as roads with buildings on both sides in settlements such as provinces and districts whose boundaries are determined by neighbouring buildings. Some researchers have defined streets based on their social functions. According to them, streets are meeting spaces; spaces to deal with

  17. Street Children in Tehran and Risk Factors for Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mohammadian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Economy,lack of welfare and social services, AIDS and civil war,and also substance abuse are predominant factors that attributes with street children.Method:576 street children of 10-19 years were evaluated.Data were gathered by demographic and substance use check list.Theses check lists were designed by the researchers and included some simple question about type and duration of substance use.Several psychiatrists confirmed the content of check list.Results:36.7% of the children had lifetime smoking of cigarette.The frequency of smoking in boys was significantly higher than girls (P<0.05.Conclusion:It should be noted that street children are at high risk group for using tobacco. Theses children are also exposed to the dangerous behaviors and sexually transmitted

  18. Improving poisoning diagnosis and surveillance of street pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2012-03-23

    An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, constitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report only organophosphate cases, resulting in severe under-reporting. The lack of data concerning the link between poisonings and street pesticides has led to the mistaken assumption that urban populations are not at risk from significant pesticide exposures and poisonings. Without accurate statistics, healthcare professionals and policy makers are unaware of the contribution of street pesticide poisonings to the overall health burden. Accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for notification and subsequent surveillance. An algorithm has been developed to enable healthcare professionals to improve the diagnosis and notification of pesticide poisonings.

  19. The topoligical relations of corner buildings in the street fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the role of the corner and corner buildings in the architectural relations of the street. Referring to affordance, legibility and Weber´s (1995) psychological approach to perceived architectural space, the paper discusses the value of clearly articulated corner constructions...... on moderate density, moderate height and conjoined buildings to create clearly defined, legible streets characteristic of an integrated urban fabric. As in furniture and product design, the handling of features such as junctions of the corner is a matter worthy of aesthetic consideration. This article looks...... at the morphology of street corner design. It examines the role of corners in the urban structure and reasons why they are no longer much used. A typology of corner building arrangement is proposed. This paper argues that certain morphologies make for better corner designs. It also argues that quantitative...

  20. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, W. S. N. W.; Said, I.

    2014-02-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables.

  1. KETERASINGAN DALAM FILM WALL-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadya Putra Nugraha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern society nowadays technological advances at first create efficiency in human life. Further development of the technology thus drown human in a routine and automation of work created. The State is to be one of the causes of man separated from fellow or the outside world and eventually experiencing alienation. The movie as a mass media function to obtain the movie and entertainment can be informative or educative function is contained, even persuasive. The purpose of this research was conducted to find out the alienation in the movie Wall E. The concepts used to analyze the movie Wall E this is communication, movie, and alienation. The concept of alienation of human alienation from covering its own products of human alienation from its activities, the human alienation from nature of his humanity and human alienation from each other. Paradigm used is a critical paradigm with type a descriptive research with qualitative approach. The method used is the analysis of semiotics Roland Barthes to interpretation the scope of social alienation and fellow humans in the movie.This writing research results found that alienation of humans with other humans influenced the development of the technology and how the human it self represented of technology, not from our fellow human beings. Masyarakat modern saat ini kemajuan teknologi pada awalnya membuat efisiensi dalam kehidupan manusia. Perkembangan selanjutnya teknologi justru menenggelamkan manusia dalam suatu rutinitas dan otomatisasi kerja yang diciptakan. Keadaan itulah yang menjadi salah satu penyebab manusia terpisah dari sesama atau dunia luar dan akhirnya mengalami keterasingan. Film sebagai media massa berfungsi untuk memperoleh hiburan dan dalam film dapat terkandung fungsi informatif maupun edukatif, bahkan persuasif. Tujuan Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui Keterasingan dalam film Wall E. Konsep-konsep yang digunakan untuk menganalisis film Wall E ini adalah komunikasi, film, dan

  2. Exploring the World using Street View 360 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    2016-12-01

    The phrase "A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words" is an idiom of unknown 20th century origin. There is some belief that the modern use of the phrase stems from an article in a 1921 issue of a popular trade journal, that used "One Look is Worth A Thousand Words" to promote the use of images in advertisements on the sides of streetcars. There is a certain irony to this as nearly a century later the camera technologies on "Street View cars" are collecting images that look everywhere at once. However, while it can be to fun drive along the World's streets, it was the development of Street View imaging systems that could be mounted on other modes of transport or capture platforms (Street View Special Collects) that opened the door for these 360 images to become a tool for exploration and storytelling. Using Special Collect imagery captured in "off-road" and extreme locations, scientists are now using Street View images to assess changes to species habitats, show the impact of natural disasters and even perform "armchair" geology. A powerful example is the imagery captured before and after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan. However, it is use of the immersive nature of 360 images that truly allows them to create wonder and awe, especially when combined with Virtual Reality (VR) viewers. Combined with the Street View App or Google Expeditions, VR provides insight into what it is like to swim with sealions in the Galapagos or climb El Capitan in Yosemite National Park. While these image could never replace experiencing these locations in real-life, they can inspire the viewer to explore and learn more about the many wonders of our planet. https://www.google.com/streetview/https://www.google.com/expeditions/

  3. Determining buried grid street system and native of the remains with GPR and petrography, in ancient Nysa city, Aydin - Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kadioglu, Musa; Kadioglu, Yusuf K.

    2010-05-01

    Nysa, is one of the most important ancient cities of the region of Caria in Anatolia (Asia Minor), was built on the slopes on the sides of the stream called Tekkecik, in a 3 km North of Sultanhisar, East of Aydın city of Turkey. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. There are important ruins on the site from the Hellenistic and the Roman periods and the Byzantine era. Now the Greek theatre and its walled entrance are intact. Other important remains are the gymnasium, stadium, library, temple, nymphaeum, bridge a tunnel like structure and the Byzantine churches in the West; the agora, Bouleuterion / Gerontikon, and the Roman public baths in the East. The first aim of the study was to determine the locations of the buried streets thought grid system according to the some excavated results already in the east and west side of the Nysa. Therefore the GPR studies were realized selected areas, which could include the streets, around the Bouleuterion / Gerontikon and at the South of the library. Two dimensional (2D) GPR data were measured on the parallel GPR profiles spaced 1m apart on each part of the study areas using 250 MHz shielded antennas. The processed parallel profile data set was formed through a solid 3D view by aligning the profiles respectively. A simplified amplitude-color range and appropriate opacity function were constructed to activate buried remains. Interactive interpretation was done with time slices and transparent sub-blocks of the 3D volume by arranging an opaque function. It was known that the maximum amplitudes represented the remains. So, weak amplitude range around the zero amplitude was eliminated by giving zero opacity value and transparent 3D imaging was obtained. The second known was that the amplitudes were decreased according to time. Therefore, amplitude scale could be weighted by a constant coefficient changing with the time range of

  4. The Permanence of Ephemeral: Tsoi Wall 23 years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Zaporozhets

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It became an academic convention to refer to ephemerality and temporality of graffiti and street-art. However studying some places as shaped by and known for these urban visuals, it is possible to consider them as con- stant and ever-present element of a city. A case under analysis is the Tsoi Wall, people’s memorial appeared in Moscow in 1990. The paper discusses how this city site gains its right to exist in multitude of cultural practices, interactions, and meanings assigned. The article reveals the role of creative sites for Soviet and Post-Soviet cities and explores who and why has been maintaining and protecting the Tsoi Wall for almost two decades.

  5. Air ventilation impacts of the "wall effect" resulting from the alignment of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, S. H. L.; Fung, J. C. H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Kot, S. C.

    The objective of this study is to investigate the air ventilation impacts of the so called "wall effect" caused by the alignment of high-rise buildings in complex building clusters. The research method employs the numerical algorithm of computational fluid dynamics (CFD - FLUENT) to simulate the steady-state wind field in a typical Hong Kong urban setting and investigate pollutant dispersion inside the street canyon utilizing a pollutant transport model. The model settings of validation study were accomplished by comparing the simulation wind field around a single building block to wind tunnel data. The results revealed that our model simulation is fairly close to the wind tunnel measurements. In this paper, a typical dense building distribution in Hong Kong with 2 incident wind directions (0° and 22.5°) is studied. Two performance indicators are used to quantify the air ventilation impacts, namely the velocity ratio ( VR) and the retention time ( T r) of pollutants at the street level. The results indicated that the velocity ratio at 2 m above ground was reduced 40% and retention time of pollutants increased 80% inside the street canyon when high-rise buildings with 4 times height of the street canyon were aligned as a "wall" upstream. While this reduction of air ventilation was anticipated, the magnitude is significant and this result clearly has important implications for building and urban planning.

  6. Institutional Trajectories of Street Youth in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Litichever

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores citizenship formation in institutional settings. Based on life stories and participant observation, it studies how street youth in Buenos Aires experience State institutions in charge of children and youth at risk. It analyzes the level of involvement, the demands, the expression of needs and negotiations that take place within various public institutions and explores how these interactions shape the process of citizenship formation. Results suggest three different institutional trajectories amongst street youth that lead to different processes of citizenship formation.

  7. Design of Automatic Intensity Varying Smart Street Lighting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Gupta, Shipra

    2017-08-01

    The paper is proposed with an aim of power conservation. In this era of development, it is essential to develop a streetlight that turns on and off automatically without human interference. To achieve this light sensor have been placed in each panel which turns the street light on and off automatically. For energy conservation cool-white LED’s have been used in street light panel and dimmer modules have been installed which changes the intensity of the streetlight depending on the darkness.

  8. Street navigation using visual information on mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Høilund, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Applications with street navigation have been recently introduced on mobile phone devices. A major part of existing systems use integrated GPS as input for indicating the location. However, these systems often fail or make abrupt shifts in urban environment due to occlusion of satellites. Further......Applications with street navigation have been recently introduced on mobile phone devices. A major part of existing systems use integrated GPS as input for indicating the location. However, these systems often fail or make abrupt shifts in urban environment due to occlusion of satellites...

  9. The 2nd Generation Street Children (SGSC) in Accra: Developing Teaching Strategies to Enhance Positive Learning Outcomes in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyini, Alhassan Abdul-Razak; Abosi, Okechuwu

    2011-01-01

    Ghana is witnessing an increasing number of 2nd generation street children (SGSC) living in the street of Accra, the capital city as a result of many factors including teenage pregnancy among street girls, ethnic conflicts and rural-urban migration. Street presents enormous risks to street children; they are excluded from safe-family environment,…

  10. From High Street To Social Street: Has Facebook Shaped Luxury Brands In India?

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka, P.V; Srinivasan, Dr. Padma

    2014-01-01

    Companies are increasingly using social media and other technologies to broaden the approach to idea generation and innovation, both within and outside the walls of the organization. It is doubly challenging when an organization tries to adopt Facebook as its all about transparency and individual empowerment which is not always aligned with the enterprise culture. The customers voice exposed by social media forces organizations to change and become more open and transparent in nature. ...

  11. Integrating shotcrete walls into the natural landscape by application of 'Green Walls'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medl, Alexandra; Kikuta, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    Steep slopes resulting from major road infrastructure constructions are increasingly perceived as disagreeable disturbance in the landscape. Thus, a tool to consider landscape aspects and integrate these slopes into the natural environment is required. The challenge is to establish a sustainable vegetation layer despite of adverse circumstances such as inclinations of almost 90⁰, exposed position of slopes near streets and lack of soil and water supply. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of an innovative greening technology for vertical structures (shotcrete wall) in terms of vegetation development on varying plant substrates and geotextiles. The field experiment in Steinach am Brenner, Tyrol, Austria, included testing three plant substrates on basis of nearby rocky excavation material ('Innsbrucker Quarzphyllit', 'Bündnerschiefer' and 'Zentralgneis') combined with compost. Additionally, five geotextiles (geogrid (3x4 mm), geogrid (9x10 mm), coir net, coir mat, geo mat) were applied for evaluation. All test combinations were evaluated regarding vegetation cover and biomass production from 2015 to 2016. Analyses of chemical properties were conducted for all plant substrates. Results showed highest vegetation cover ratio on 'Bündnerschiefer' and 'Innsbrucker Quarzphyllit', which can be explained by the favorable mineral composition (nutrient storage capacity) and chemical properties of compost (lower values of electrical conductivity and C/N ratio). In conclusion, the use of 'Green Walls' filled with 'Bündnerschiefer' or 'Innsbrucker Quarzphyllit' plant substrate in combination with netlike geotextiles proved best, since geo grid and coir net turned out as most successful one year after installation. 'Green Walls' are promising in terms of establishing an optimal vegetation cover on vertical structures and are well suited for integrating shotcrete walls into the landscape. The use of local excavation material for greening purposes can be

  12. Microbiological quality of selected street food items vended by school-based street food vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rahman, Shah Mahfuzur; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2013-09-16

    A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of local food items vended by the school-based street food vendors in Dhaka City. A total of 80 schools from 19 school-zones of Dhaka City and its outskirts were chosen for the study. A total of 110 food samples, one each from 110 school-based street food vendors, were collected for laboratory analysis. Face to face interviews were conducted with the food vendors using a pre-tested questionnaire. The food samples were analyzed for coliform counts in the Public Health Laboratory, Institute of Public Health, Dhaka, which is a national level central food testing laboratory in Bangladesh. Microbiological criteria recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) were considered to classify food samples as 'satisfactory' (total coliforms street food vendors with the presence of unsatisfactory levels of coliforms in their food items. Of the 110 school-based street food samples analyzed in the laboratory, 44% were unsatisfactory. Among different items of street vended foods, 54% of sliced fruits samples, 59% of jhalmuri samples, 29% of chotpotis samples, 53% of vajavuji samples, and all (100%) sharbat samples were unsatisfactory, while all samples from achar (100%) and ice cream (100%) were found to be satisfactory. Logistic regression models showed that the food samples collected from the vendors belonging to the age group '15-24 years' and the vendors possessing an educational status higher than primary level were less likely to be unsatisfactory, while the food samples collected from the vendors having a daily income of more than 200 Bangladeshi Taka (equivalent to 3.00 USD) were more likely to be unsatisfactory. Our study findings reflected poor microbiological quality for a considerable proportion of the school-based street vended foods indicating a health threat to the school children of Dhaka City. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, Dietrich; Moore, Guy D.

    2017-05-01

    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can "run away," that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ~ 1014. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ~ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.

  14. Single Parenthood Impact on Street Children in Ibadan Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Key words: Single Parenthood, Street Children, Anti-Social Behaviour,. Aggression, Nigeria. Introduction. The socialization of children is very important for the continuity of any culture; basically, parenting is one of the challenging social roles in Nigeria today. The family is said to be the most important agent of socialization,.

  15. Resistance and Its Consequences: The Street Culture of Punks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Stephen W.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the street life of an adolescent subculture through field study of the Canadian West Coast punk rock subculture. Demonstrates through observation of the members, their behavior and attitudes, and the reactions of others to them, that their activities both represent, and are consequences of, resistance to the dominant order. (Author/JS)

  16. Health problems of street children and women in Awassa, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred seventy eight (58.0%) of the children were homeless. Two hundred eighty (55.3%) of the street children reported one or more previous health problems. Malaria-like febrile illnesses (42.6%) followed by respiratory tract illnesses (33.1%) and diarrhoeal diseases (4.5%) were the major health problems reported.

  17. Reproductive health behaviour of street youth and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-03-30

    Mar 30, 2014 ... among homeless youth reported in. Ethiopia.[16]. This study tried to assess street youths‟ pattern of health service utilization and barrier and found out that only 15.1% of youth reported that they visited health institutions in the three months prior to the study, which is lower than the prevalence health service ...

  18. Study of Correlation Between Heavy Metal Concentration, Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    needs to evaluate heavy metal content of water and food, the metal content of street has to be evaluated ... were recorded. The samples (dust) were transferred to clean labeled polyethylene bags and were directly ..... cell membranes via anion transport system in to the cell, the compounds are readily reduced to trivalent.

  19. Estimation of air quality improvement at road and street intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, P.G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Traffic and Transport Planning

    1995-12-31

    There has always been a very great problem to quantify the detrimental exhaust air pollution related to the traffic flow, especially at road and street intersections. Until now model calculations have been developed mainly for the links between the intersections. In an attempt to remedy this situation the author has developed a method of estimating emissions on the micro level from motor vehicles at intersections as a help for infrastructural design related to improved environmental conditions. Very parsimonious knowledge exists regarding the deceleration and acceleration patterns at road- and street intersections. Not many surveys are done neither in Sweden nor within other countries. Evidently, the need for knowledge regarding deceleration and acceleration behaviour on the micro level has until now not been given priority. In traffic safety related research studies have been done describing the drivers` deceleration and acceleration behaviour and the vehicles` braking performance. Those results give deceleration data for extreme situations and are not useful for describing normal decelerations and accelerations at road- and street intersections. Environment related problems within the traffic flow analysis are now accentuating the need for the studying of special deceleration and acceleration behaviours in combination with an alternative design of the road and street infrastructure. There is a big difference in different vehicles` amount of emitted exhaust pollutions during the passing of intersections depending on the vehicles` speed levels related to their deceleration and acceleration levels. (author)

  20. Study of Correlation Between Heavy Metal Concentration, Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at evaluating heavy metal contents in street dust of five major roads within the trunk of Kano metropolis. The dust were collected from heavy traffic roads of the city which include Zaria road (ZR), Maiduguri road (MR), Katsina road (KR), Hadejia road (HR) and Bayero University Kano road ...

  1. Identifying the composition of street drug Nyaope using two different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Criminalization of trading and using of street drug Nyaope has had challenges in South Africa due to controversies about its composition. The high cost and complexity of its analysis using conventional chromatography methods also limit the testing availability in most routine laboratories. A state of the Art method with simple ...

  2. At risk and abandoned: street children, AIDS and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, S

    1995-01-01

    When Covenant House was established in the late 1960s, its mission was to end the harassment and murder of homeless street children by authorities in Latin America. At present, Covenant House Latin America is broadening its focus to encompass another form of societal violence against vulnerable youth--acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Street educators include information on AIDS as part of their outreach efforts, and Covenant House Crisis Centers provide AIDS counseling. Most of these young people are on the streets as a result of abandonment, child abuse, and poverty. A study of 143 street children in Guatemala ages 7-17 years found that 100% had been sexually abused, 53% by a family member. 71% currently had 1-2 sexual partners per day, 4% had 3-4 partners, and 25% reported more than 4 partners per day; none was using contraception. Covenant House seeks to publicize this latest form of violence against children and is urging adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which stipulates, among other things, that special care will be given to children who have been rendered vulnerable by separation from their families.

  3. Street Harassment in Cairo: A Symptom of Disintegrating Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... older men relaxing in cafes or on street corners, and a great number of military and police officials ..... ture, found in and supported by societies where the male sex exercises harassment only to prove ... where women's and children's movements were monitored and restricted by male members of the family, ...

  4. HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents in rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa .... Furthermore in Malaysia, it was found that levels of knowledge were higher (more than 90%) among adolescents enrolled in ..... Yaba: Lagos: St Luke Hospital and Maternity Ltd. 1999. 40. Pronyk PM ...

  5. speciation of heavy metals in street dust samples from sakarya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN STREET DUST SAMPLES FROM SAKARYA. I. ORGANIZED INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT USING THE BCR SEQUENTIAL. EXTRACTION PROCEDURE BY ICP-OES. Nilufer Ozcan and Huseyin Altundag*. Sakarya University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 54187, ...

  6. QUALITY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF URBAN STREET LIGHTING: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This uneven lighting which results is a hazard to road users. We modeled the evenness of light on the roads and in the process captured the uneven lighting that a road user passing the roads will experience. The results of the model and the actual measurement of the Street light that was taken for some time, showed that ...

  7. Street Harassment in Cairo: A Symptom of Disintegrating Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent decades, high unemployment rates among men have undermined the conditions for upholding the patriarchal structure. This article argues that street harassment is symptomatic of high unemployment rates and of a consequentially weakening patriarchal system. It identifies the everyday spectacle of male-to- ...

  8. Hygiene practices among street food vendors in Tamale Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activities of food vendors can increase the chances of food contamination with pathogenic microorganisms and mycotoxins. The study was conducted to assess the food hygiene practices among street food vendors in the Tamale Metropolis. Structured questionnaires, interviews and field observations were used to ...

  9. patterns of substance abuse among kenyan street children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten percent were habitual users of tobacco while 4% were regular users of cannabis or khat. The prevalence for use of hard drugs was low, cocaine 4 (8%) and Mandrax (methaqualone) 1 (2%). These findings are similar to those from Cameroon where solvent use was found mainly among street children. (Southern Af. J. of ...

  10. Street foods contribute to nutrient intakes among children from rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of Street Foods (SF) to the energy and nutrient intakes of young children in rural African communities has been understudied. Under the Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project, a microcredit and nutrition education intervention with caregivers of children 2-to ...

  11. Operational and locational characteristics of street vending in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable solutions to the problems associated with street vending could be achieved through attitudinal chan-ge, education and skill training, alternative employment opportunities and relocation to other satellite markets. The recommendation is to institute measures to prohibit the activities, and prevent the negative and ...

  12. Land Use Correlates of Street Children in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immense challenge to national security (Ngowanji et al, 2009). The phenomenon of street children has .... its strong defense. Most of these people took permanent residence in Ogbomoso, and by the end of 19th century, a continuous built-up compact settlement was evolved from the hamlet, covering an extensive area of ...

  13. Street Crossing: Observational Research and Developing Health Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Wyeth, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Students in communication, and particularly in advertising, are encouraged to value creativity. However, even in programs that value creativity, it can be difficult to encourage creativity in the process of research that guides communication efforts. The project described in this paper--"Street Crossing"--is used in upper-division and…

  14. Invisible Culture: Taking Art Education to the Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darts, David

    2011-01-01

    Art educators and administrators allowed a project to evolve based on the "street life" experiences of ordinarily invisible people. The goal was to create a space or number of spaces for celebrating the human spirit through art, music, dance, poetry, theater, and story while also providing a forum for exploring some of the social issues affecting…

  15. Main Street as Art Museum: Metaphor and Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    A walk down Main Street can be very much like a stroll through a museum gallery--visually rich, inviting unexpected choices, aesthetically rewarding. This article explores the concept of shop windows as visually ordered compositions, much like paintings and other art objects, and suggests some approaches to applying this concept in teaching a…

  16. Assessment and classification of hazardous street trees in University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten species of Samena senna affect the road, 33 species of Gliricidia sepium affect the walkway, 60 species of Delonix regia affect the building, 71 species of Samena senna cause street light obstruction and 6 species of Samena senna are affecting the underground cable..In conclusion the study revealed that all the ...

  17. Land use correlates of street children in Ogbomoso, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were also analyzed using pie chart, bar chart, graph and percentages. The study reveals that the incidence and categories of street children varies with land uses. It recommends, therefore that urban planners, governments as well as individuals have roles to play in proffering solutions to the menace. It also calls for ...

  18. Smart street lighting solution for remote rural areas of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Debdyut

    2017-09-01

    Though many smart street lighting solutions is available for urban areas, comparatively fewer solutions exist for rural areas. In the recent times, village streets have been illuminated with artificial lights as a part of rural development drive undertaken by the governments of respective countries. But, vehicle and pedestrian traffic is quite low through village roads. Hence, if light remains on all night long on such roads, then there is a huge wastage of energy. This calls for solutions to reduce this energy loss in an efficient manner. There are a lot of factors which must be kept in mind while designing solutions. Many villages lack the proper infrastructure to support new technologies. Communication facilities are limited, lack of local technically skilled labor, lack of security, etc. After evaluating these opportunities and challenges, an attempt has been made to devise a smart street lighting solution tailored for remote rural areas in India. One part of the solution discusses how intensity of the LED street lights can be varied according to the ambient lighting conditions using sensors and LED switching in LED matrix. An artificial intelligence (AI) has also been modelled to identify traffic conditions using PIR sensors and object identification through image processing and independently control the lights. It also tracks the performance and status of each light. It would send this data and necessary notifications to a distant control center for human evaluation. This solution is also applicable for other rural areas throughout the world.

  19. Designing safe and inclusive streets in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-17

    Nov 17, 2016 ... Vehicle-focused street design is limiting space for vendors, children, the elderly, and the disabled, while instances of violence against women are partly linked to ... Learn more about IDRC's research support to make cities safer through the Safe and Inclusive Cities partnership with the UK's Department for ...

  20. Streets Apart: Does Social Capital Vary with Neighbourhood Design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Wood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While neighbourhood differences in social capital have been mapped, few empirical studies have considered the nexus between specific physical characteristics of communities and social capital. In this study we hypothesised that social capital would be positively associated with a more walkable street network design, but inversely associated with negative experiences and perceptions of neighbourhood environments. Data was gathered through a random cross-sectional telephone survey of adults (n=339 from three suburbs with differing street network design. Although there was some relationship between street network layout and social capital, this was not always as hypothesised by previous studies. Perceived incivilities, lower levels of trust and support were among factors that may have countered some of the positive influences of a walkable street network design on social capital. Overall, our findings suggest that the built environment may influence neighbourhood social capital at both a real and perceived level. While the actual presence and type of facilities, neighbourhood design and walkability may impact on social capital formation and maintenance, so too can perceptions of the physical and social environment. Understanding the complex intertwining of physical neighbourhood features, perceptions and social dynamics is relevant to growing public policy interest in strengthening social capital for enhanced community wellbeing.

  1. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also termed

  2. America's New Street People: Implications for the Human Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Gerald R.

    1971-01-01

    This article describes the new street people, young, affluent establishment dropouts reflecting traditional American values who are denied or refuse conventional health and welfare services. An alternative health service model is described which provides not only medical services, but also individual and group therapy and draft, abortion, drug,…

  3. ANALYSING STREET TRAFFIC NOISE POLLUTION IN THE CITY OF YAZD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *F. Nejadkoorki, E. Yousefi, F. Naseri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is demonstrated that describes street traffic-induced noise pollution in 2008 in Yazd, Iran. Sound levels were measured using a Bruel and Kjaer-2260 sound level meter on 10 streets across the city over this period during the morning rush hour and different vehicle types were counted simultaneously at various sampling points. Geographical Information System was used to generate, store and retrieve the spatial data and map the sound levels using an interpolation technique. The minimum and maximum sound levels appeared to be 70.9 dBA and 80.7 dBA, respectively and these values were above the national legislated norm. Cars and motorcycles were the most commonly used vehicle type in the city, comprising 61.2% and 23.7 % of the total traffic volume, respectively. These data were followed by trucks, buses and bicycles. A number of parameters which were assumed to impact on noise pollution were collected and considered, including geographical position, elevation, the distance to the nearest intersection, street geometry and the numbers of vehicles according to class. The modelling demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between the average sound level and traffic flow (R2 = 0.5. The results showed that although street traffichas increased between 2002 and 2008, the sound levels in the city decreased slightly and this has been attributed to advances in vehicle design.

  4. Mental Health Problems In Residential Care For Street Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJZ

    problems (co-morbidity) and levels of stress. Methodology: The study utilized a sample of 74 street children (6 girls and 68 boys) in residential care aged 7-17 years. To collect data on children's mental health problems the Strengths and. Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was administered to agency carers and adolescents (if ...

  5. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... B5 - leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial .... consumer is a possible reason for the survival of these pathogens in suya ...

  6. The Impact of Hybrid Vehicles on Street Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, William; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Salisbury, Brad; Rozema, Randall

    2006-01-01

    The authors had three purposes: (a) to compare the sound output of a Toyota Corolla, a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE) with that of a hybrid vehicle (Prius) under conditions of acceleration and approach in relation to the potential decision of a pedestrian who is visually impaired to begin to cross the street, (b) to…

  7. Anthropometric and motor development profiles of street children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to the gross motor development, deficits were found with regard to running speed and agility, bilateral coordination and strength. Fine motor deficits were found in upper limb speed and dexterity, response speed and visual motor control. The neuromotor development of street children also showed deficits, ...

  8. From psychiatric ward to the streets and shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forchuk, C; Russell, G; Kingston-Macclure, S; Turner, K; Dill, S

    2006-06-01

    The issue of discharge from hospital ward to the streets is seldom explored in the literature, but all too commonly experienced by individuals experiencing psychiatric disorders. The Community University Research Alliance on Housing and Mental Health sought to determine how frequently people were discharged from psychiatric wards to shelters or the street in London, Ontario, Canada. A number of data sources were accessed to determine instances of discharges to shelters or the street. Data were analysed to determine the number of moves occurring between hospital and shelter or no fixed address. All datasets revealed the problem of discharge to shelters or the street occurred regularly. All data sources used have the difficulty of likely underestimating the extent of the problem. This type of discharge occurred at least 194 times in 2002 in London, Ontario, Canada. Policies that contribute to this problem include income-support policies, the reduction in psychiatric hospital beds and the lack of community supports. Without recognition, this problem is at risk of remaining invisible with no further improvements to the situation.

  9. Street food on the move: a socio-philosophical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloni, Marina

    2013-11-01

    In the last decade social and hard scientists have increasingly analysed the issue of street food, which is now become a question of common concern in international public discourse. However, considering present literature and investigations, a socio-philosophical approach to the issue under examination has been until now not properly developed. For this reason, this paper is not aimed at improving an empirical research on street food. Rather, it is interested in developing an innovative methodological approach, which assumes transcultural, intersectional, diachronic and interdisciplinary viewpoints in the analysis of the phenomenon. Taking as a background the very rich theoretical and empirical literature on food (which is difficult to be summarised in a few pages), the paper intends to strengthen a conceptual analysis of street food as a social construction and historical symbol, opening up new theoretical, comparative, sociological and pragmatic perspectives. The normative and critical content of street food refers thus ex negativo to the right to the quality of food and to have a decent and peaceful existence in both post-colonial and post-industrial societies in an interconnected global age. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effects of street tree shade on asphalt concrete pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J. Muchnick

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight street segments were paired into 24 high-and low-shade pairs in Modesto, California, U.S. Field data were collected to calculate a Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and Tree Shade Index (TSI) for each segment. Statistical analyses found that greater PCI was associated with greater TSI, indicating that tree shade was partially responsible for reduced pavement...

  11. Street level bureaucracy and the dilemmas of private entities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipsky's notion of “street-level bureaucrats” refers to public sector actors who provide service and sanction the public due to their ability to wield discretionary power. Hence are autonomous from government. Discretionary power enables them to shape public policy in pursuit of private agendas by inter alia creating artificial ...

  12. Single Parenthood Impact on Street Children in Ibadan Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Throughout the world, there are children who are drifted away from homes or families of orientations. They are commonly referred to as “runaway” children. This study examined single parenthood impact on street children in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria .The study made use of random sampling techniques and the data ...

  13. Study of Correlation Between Heavy Metal Concentration, Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating heavy metal contents in street dust of five major roads within the trunk of Kano metropolis. The dust were collected from heavy traffic roads of the city which include Zaria road (ZR), Maiduguri road (MR), Katsina road (KR), Hadejia road (HR) and Bayero University Kano road (BR).

  14. Education as a tool for empowering Kenya's street children for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education is an empowering process that enables those who have been marginalized in the social, economic, political and cultural spheres to claim their status as fully participating members of the society. Nevertheless, about 300,000 street children in. Kenya have had no formal education and are not proficient in the two ...

  15. Facility to evaluate street lightning solutionsin a realistic urban setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Munkgaard; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new large scale outdoor testing facility for street lighting solutions, that has been establish in Denmark for both research and demonstration purposes. The facility is fitted with lamp posts with an array of sensors and connections to allow for monitoring and control...

  16. Lung function, oxygen saturation and symptoms among street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic inhalation of dust impairs lung function and may cause respiratory symptoms. However, knowledge about the type of dust that can cause these problems is uncertain. Very little attention has been paid to the health of workers chronically exposed to dust raised by street sweeping without precautionary measures.

  17. Bacteria associated with street vended foods: implications to food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vended foods were analysed for the bacterial load and the presence of pathogenic and/or potentially pathogenic bacteria. The foods were collected randomly from ambulatory and stationary vendors and analysed individually and then categorized as meats, salads and carbohydrates. The microbial analysis indicated ...

  18. Food safety knowledge and practices of street foodvendors in Atbara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors in Atbara city between March and April, 2008. The questionnaires respondents were 28% male and 72% were female, 48% of them had primary school education while 42% were illiterates. The most prevalent isolated ...

  19. Microbiological Safety of Street Vended Foods in Jigjiga City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Food safety problems are particularly becoming an increasingly serious threat to public health in developing countries. This study was conducted to assess microbiological safety of street vended foods from May to November, 2014 in Jigjiga City. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to answer questions ...

  20. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background- Sexual abuse and exploitation of male children is one of the emerging social problems affecting the physical, social and psychological wellbeing of children in Addis Ababa. The magnitude of the problem seems much worse among the street boys because of their precarious living conditions. However, very ...

  1. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    male street children participated in interviewer administered questionnaire. Overall, a total of 186 children aged from 9-18 years participated in the study and they represent diverse religious beliefs and family background. Five specific sites (the main cross-country bus terminal, Gojam. Berenda, Mesalemiya, Sebategna and ...

  2. Antigenic analysis of some Nigerian street rabies virus using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors studied 12 street rabies virus isolates from 3 states of Nigeria using both the anti-nucleocapsid and anti-glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and cross-protection tests. It was observed that all the viruses were rabies having divergent antigenic presentation. Also noticed was an antigenic shift when the viruses ...

  3. Ocular morbidity among street children in Kathmandu Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Mukund; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Joshi, Niraj Dev

    2014-12-01

    Prevalence of ocular morbidity among street children is largely unknown. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ocular morbidity among street children in the Kathmandu Valley. A cross-sectional study consisting of an eye examination program among 569 street children aged younger than 18 years was conducted from March 2013 to February 2014. Children were included from 11 safe houses of 6 non-governmental organizations and an independent eye camp. Eye examination included visual acuity testing, anterior segment and posterior segment examination, retinoscopy and refraction, cover test, convergence, accommodation and color vision tests. Chi-square test was used to analyze the association of ocular morbidity with age, sex and living conditions. The majority of children (43.8%) were in the age group of 12-15 years, and the male to female ratio was 3.9:1. Uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity ≥6/9 in at least one eye was found in 89.8% and 98.4% of children, respectively. Total ocular morbidity was observed at 31.6%. The most common types of ocular morbidity were conjunctivitis (11.0%) and refractive error (11.6%). Ocular morbidity was more common in children over 15 years of age (40.9%; p morbidities in street children in the Kathmandu Valley.

  4. Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

  5. HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... Abstract. Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this study assessed the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among ...

  6. Toward seamless multiview scene analysis from satellite to street level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefevre, Sebastien; Tuia, Devis; Wegner, Jan Dirk; Produit, Timothee; Nassar, Ahmed Samy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss and review how combined multiview imagery from satellite to street level can benefit scene analysis. Numerous works exist that merge information from remote sensing and images acquired from the ground for tasks such as object detection, robots guidance, or scene

  7. The Impact of "Sesame Street" on Primary Pupils in Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, E. N.; And Others

    The extent to which pupils at the primary level view Sesame Street and The Electric Company television programs and their impact on learning were studied. Questionnaires were directed to parents of children in eight kindergartens and to principals of the 34 elementary schools in Vancouver. At their homes, 95% of the kindergarten pupils had watched…

  8. Quantifying urban street configuration for improvements in air pollution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeftens, Marloes; Beekhuizen, Johan; Beelen, Rob; Wang, Meng; Vermeulen, Roel; Brunekreef, Bert; Huss, Anke; Hoek, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    In many built-up urban areas, tall buildings along narrow streets obstruct the free flow of air, resulting in higher pollution levels. Input data to account for street configuration in models are difficult to obtain for large numbers of streets. We describe an approach to calculate indicators of this "urban canyon effect" using 3-dimensional building data and evaluated whether these indicators improved spatially resolved land use regression (LUR) models.Concentrations of NO2 and NOx were available from 132 sites in the Netherlands. We calculated four indicators for canyon effects at each site: (1) the maximum aspect ratio (building height/width of the street) between buildings on opposite sides of the street, (2) the mean building angle, which is the angle between the horizontal street level and the line of sight to the top of surrounding buildings, (3) median building angle and (4) "SkyView Factor" (SVF), a measure of the total fraction of visible sky. Basic LUR models were computed for both pollutants using common predictors such as household density, land-use and nearby traffic intensity. We added each of the four canyon indicators to the basic LUR models and evaluated whether they improved the model.The calculated aspect ratio agreed well (R2 = 0.49) with aspect ratios calculated from field observations. Explained variance (R2) of the basic LUR models without canyon indicators was 80% for NO2 and 76% for NOx, and increased to 82% and 78% respectively if SVF was included. Despite this small increase in R2, contrasts in SVF (10th-90th percentile) resulted in substantial concentration differences of 5.56 μg m-3 in NO2 and 10.9 μg m-3 in NOx.We demonstrated a GIS based approach to quantify the obstruction of free air flow by buildings, applicable for large numbers of streets. Canyon indicators could be valuable to consider in air pollution models, especially in areas with low- and high-rise canyons.

  9. Street children turn to sex-work to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Kenyan government currently deports tourists who are caught with child prostitutes and charges the children with prostitution. A harder treatment of foreigners caught with child prostitutes may soon emerge. The Undugu Society in Kenya, an organization working with street children, welcomes such changes. It teaches children practical skills, e.g., tailoring and carpentry. The Society has four schools and sponsors 1000 children to attend school or workshops. It sends social workers into the slums to counsel and gain the trust of street children as well as to encourage them to attend workshops. The Society has workshops on HIV transmission and emphasizes behavior change rather than condom use. Kenyan law prohibits adults from having sex with a child less than 18 years old. Juvenile courts deal with children caught engaging in solicitation of customers and/or prostitution. Children found guilty go to children's homes for rehabilitation into mainstream society. More and more countries of sex-tourists are punishing tourists who engage in sexual intercourse with minors in Kenya. Fear that high-profile cases will harm the multi-million-dollar tourist industry as well as lack of state resources makes Kenya reluctant to prosecute tourists. In 1994, most of Nairobi's 40,000 street children were engaged in prostitution. The leading centers of child prostitution are all tourist areas: Nairobi, Mombasa, Malindi, Lamu, and Diani. 80% of pornographic material in Kenya features children. Kenyan taxi drivers, tour guides, and hotel workers serve as middlemen in child prostitution. Urban poverty forces many children on to the streets. Rural children sent to urban areas to work as maids or servants in a rich house are often sexually abused. They then escape to the streets. Many child prostitutes come from poor families and have low literacy and no practical skills. AIDS orphans also become prostitutes to survive.

  10. Les battles de Street Dance : un entre-deux culturel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collinet, Cécile; Lessard, Coralie

    2013-01-01

    Street Dance's Battles: an ambivalent position Street Dance, danced form stemming from hip-hop culture, has been developing since the 1990's and is integrating more and more competitive confrontations named: Battles...

  11. Analyzing Street Art to Present the Heritage of George Town, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadatiseyedmahalleh, Seyedehelham; Rahman, Suraiyati; Abdullah, Aldrin

    2015-01-01

    Street art comprises all kinds of art developed in public locations. This form of art has spread to all heritage streets in George Town, the capital of Penang Island, which is also a known UNESCO World Heritage Site...

  12. The effect of information and values on acceptability of reduced street lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, Christine; Steg, Linda

    This research examined whether provision of information on the environmental impact of street lighting affects the acceptability and perceived social safety of reduced street lighting levels. We argued that such information should particularly affect acceptability and safety judgements of

  13. Keeping up appearances: Perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar

    2008-01-01

    to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health...... interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant...... observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic...

  14. Redesigning Main Streets in Small Communities: The Viagra of Transportation Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-16

    The national Main Street movement is building momentum. Over 1,200 small : communities across America have rediscovered their Main Streets with impressive : investment in time, energy and money. The tangible measures of return include: : economic gro...

  15. Voluntarias De Sesame Street: Manual Para Conducir Las Sesiones "Sesame Street" Con Ninos De Edad Pre-Escolar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Robert T.; And Others

    This guide was prepared to aid Spanish-speaking volunteers working with preschool children before, during, and after viewing the television program, "Sesame Street". The text is written in Spanish. Suggestions in this booklet grew out of a study called the Sesame Mother Pilot Project conducted in 1970-71 by the Institute for Educational…

  16. Sesame Street Viewing Volunteer's Guide: A Guide to be Used for Conducting Viewing Sessions of Sesame Street with Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Robert T.; Gillette, Pearl T.

    This guide was prepared to aid volunteers working with preschool children before, during, and after viewing the television program, "Sesame Street". Suggestions in this booklet grew out of a study called the Sesame Mother Pilot Project conducted in 1970-71 by the Institute for Educational Development. This guide is divided into nine main…

  17. Experiences of street harassment and associations with perceptions of social cohesion among women in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Paola A; Falb, Kathryn L.; Sara Hernández; Claudia Díaz-Olavarrieta; Jhumka Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To document the frequency and forms of street harassment and examine the association between street harassment experiences and perceptions of social cohesion. Materials and methods. Baseline survey data collected among women seeking care in public health clinics in Mexico City were used for analysis. Results. Nearly two-thirds (62.8%) of women reported experiencing some form of street harassment in the prior month; women with street harassment experiences reported significantly low...

  18. An Analysis of the Street-Children Phenomenon in the City of Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Alireza Afshani; Abbas Askari-Nodoushan; Mohammad Heydari; Mohammad Noorian Najafabadi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   In nearly all big cities around the world, the phenomenon of street children is one of the contemporary social issues. During past several decades, there is an increase in the volume of street children phenomenon around the world. The rising number of street children has many pathological and consequential negative impacts for children, youth, families, and the society at the whole . According to 2000 UN report, the number of street children is estimated between 100 to140 milli...

  19. Keeping Up Appearances: Perceptions of Street Food Safety in Urban Kumasi, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette,; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

    2008-01-01

    The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consum...

  20. Evaluating the Interference of Bicycle Traffic on Vehicle Operation on Urban Streets with Bike Lanes

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Ziyuan; Li, Zhibin; Wang, Yong; Ye, Mao; Fan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Many urban streets are designed with on-street bike lanes to provide right-of-way for bicycle traffic. However, when bicycle flow is large, extensive passing maneuvers could occupy vehicle lanes and thus cause interferences to vehicle traffic. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate how bicycle traffic affects vehicle operation on urban streets with bike lanes. Data were collected on six street segments in Nanjing, China. The cumulative curves were constructed to extract traffic fl...

  1. Alcohol in urban streetscapes: a comparison of the use of Google Street View and on-street observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Clews

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol-related harm is a major global health issue, and controls on alcohol marketing are one intervention utilized by governments. This study investigated the use of Google Street View (GSV as a novel research method for collecting alcohol-related data in the urban environment. Methods The efficacy of GSV and on-street observation by observer teams was compared by surveying 400 m stretches of 12 streets in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. Data on alcohol sale, alcohol-related advertising, health promotion materials, regulatory information and visible alcohol consumption were collected. Results A total of 403 retailers with evidence of alcohol sales and 1161 items of alcohol-related communication were identified in on-street observation. Of the latter, 1028 items (89 % were for alcohol marketing and 133 (11 % were for alcohol-related health promotion and alcohol regulation. GSV was found to be a less sensitive tool than on-street observation with only 50 % of the alcohol venues identified and 52 % of the venue-associated brand marketing identified. A high degree of inter-observer reliability was generally found between pairs of observers e.g., for the detection of alcohol retail venues the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.78 to 0.98 for on-street observation and 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.49 to 0.96 for using GSV. Conclusions GSV does not seem suitable for the comprehensive study of the influences on alcohol consumption in the urban streetscape. However, it may still have value for large, static objects in the environment and be more time efficient than traditional on-street observation measures, especially when used to collect data across a wide geographical area. Furthermore, GSV might become a more useful research tool in settings with better image quality (such as more ‘footpath views’ and with more regularly updated GSV imagery.

  2. Attitudes of street children to the network of support for them in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study findings show that 'of' the street children are the major targets by the network of the support since children 'on' the street are still being supported by their families and the assistance received by these children of the street from their peers and homeless adults is preferred to assistance from other support providers.

  3. Incidence, Type and Intensity of Abuse in Street Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Meena; Rathore, Prachi; Mathur, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey were to examine the prevalence, type and intensity of abuse in street children in Jaipur city, India. Method: Based on purposive random sampling, 200 street children, inclusive of equal number of boys and girls, were selected from the streets of Jaipur city, India, and administered an in-depth…

  4. Influence of local parameters on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Styliani; Malki-Epshtein, Liora; Martin Hyde Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    Ventilation within urban cities and street canyons and the associated air quality is a problem of increasing interest in the last decades. It is important for to minimise exposure of the population to traffic-related pollutants at street level. The residence time of pollutants within the street canyons depends on the meteorological conditions such as wind speed and direction, geometry layout and local parameters (position of traffic lane within the street). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the influence of traffic lane position on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within different street canyons geometries: symmetrical (equal building heights on both sides of the street), non-symmetrical (uniform building heights but lower on one side of the street) and heterogeneous (non-uniform building heights on both sides of the street) under constant meteorological conditions. Laboratory experiments were carried out within a water channel and simultaneous measurements of velocity field and concentration scalar levels within and above the street canyons using PIV and PLIF techniques. Traffic -related emissions were simulated using a line emission source. Two positions were examined for all street geometries: line emission source was placed in the centre of the street canyon; line emission source was placed off the centre of the street. TSI Incorporated.

  5. Microbiological quality of Street-Vended Foods and Ready-To-Eat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological quality and safety of street foods and ready-to-eat vegetables were assessed in some cities in Nigeria in order to ascertain their hygienic status. The foods include ... Need for routine monitoring of street vended foods and ready-to-eat vegetables by health agencies are advocated. Keywords: Street foods ...

  6. Beyond discourse and competence : Science and subjugated knowledge in street children studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigengack, Roy

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that street children studies (SCS) has reduced its central concept to a discursive construct, and the young street people themselves to capable 'agents'. One consequence is that street children are not recognized as distinct intergenerational groupings in society. The traditional

  7. Playing Sport In The Stormy Sea Of Street Life | Human | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, there are many street children in South Africa (SA). They have been robbed from the safe harbour of family life and on a daily basis experience the stormy sea of street life. Society has an obligation to intervene in the lives of these street children through, for example, quality education, basic health services and ...

  8. Street children in Mafikeng, North-West Province: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general perception, on the part of South African society, is that street children are a major social menace. Yet the reality is that, street children are a vulnerable group that suffer both psychological and physical violence including sexual abuse. This qualitative study investigated the social experiences of street children in ...

  9. The nature and challenges of street sweeping and Ado-Ekiti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the nature of street sweeping, the composition of litters, the socio-economic and health status of street sweepers and the public perception of the benefits and challenges of street sweeping in Ado-Ekiti. Primary data were obtained through direct personal observation, questionnaire administration and ...

  10. Hygienic and sanitary practices of vendors of street foods in Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The street food industry has an important role in the cities and towns of many developing countries in meeting the food demands of the urban dwellers. It feeds millions of people daily with a wide variety of foods that are relatively cheap and easily accessible. Street food sector symbolizes the street life in Africa and it ...

  11. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  12. Tool and ideological knowledge in Street Outreach Office working process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Maria Terumi Maruyama; Larocca, Liliana Muller; Chaves, Maria Marta Nolasco; Piosiadlo, Laura Christina Macedo; Albuquerque, Guilherme Souza

    2016-01-01

    To identify ideological knowledge and tool knowledgethat provide support to the Street Outreach Office working process. Qualitative and exploratory research. TwentyStreet Outreach Office professionals and six users collected the data, applying different semi-structured interview schedules for each category of participants. The resulting categories were analyzed in light of tool and ideological knowledge presented in the working process. From the participant discourses the following ideological knowledge emerged: public policies and the needs of the person ina street situation and tool knowledge, as well as devices and tools for the care of people in street situations and a weekly schedule. The focus on the working process discourse, supported by ideological knowledge, was verified. The structural dimension of the objective reality of the population in street situations was perceptible in the social determination of being situating on the street. When daily situations were revealed, the limitations to be overcome in the working process context were noticed. Identificar os saberes ideológicos e instrumentais que subsidiam o processo de trabalho do Consultório na Rua. Pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória. A coleta de dados foi realizada junto a 20 profissionais e seis usuários do Consultório na Rua de um município do sul do Brasil, por meio de entrevistas com roteiros semiestruturados distintos para cada categoria de participantes. As classes resultantes foram analisadas à luz dos saberes ideológicos e instrumentais presentes no processo de trabalho. Dos discursos dos participantes emergiram os saberes ideológicos: políticas públicas e necessidades da pessoa em situação de rua e os saberes instrumentais: dispositivos e instrumentos no cuidado à pessoa em situação de rua e agenda semanal. Constatou-se a centralidade dos discursos no processo de trabalho, sustentado pelos saberes ideológicos. A dimensão estrutural da realidade objetiva da população em

  13. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  14. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  15. Solar radiation and street temperature as function of street orientation. An analysis of the status quo and simulation of future scenarios towards sustainability in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Joao Pinelo

    2017-01-01

    A countrywide analysis shows that E-W orientation accounts for the highest overall street length with 37%. The second most frequent orientation is N-S (29%, the best performer. NW-SE and NE-SW both have frequencies of only 17%. Preference for a street grid with N-S, NW-SE, and NE-SW orientation would improve the thermal performance of streets and provide a continuous network of a comfortable pedestrian environment. We simulate two future scenarios based on avoiding new E-W streets, or not. We measure their potential reduction in thermal gain and conclude that a simple policy could reduce solar exposition in 40%.

  16. DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-10-18

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact pulsed power device where the pulse forming lines, switching, and vacuum wall are integrated into a single compact geometry. For this effort, we initiated a extensive compact pulsed power development program and have pursued the study of switching (gas, oil, laser induced surface flashover and photoconductive), dielectrics (ceramics and nanoparticle composites), pulse forming line topologies (asymmetric and symmetric Blumleins and zero integral pulse forming lines), and multilayered vacuum insulator (HGI) technology. Finally, we fabricated an accelerator cell for test on ETAII (a 5.5 MeV, 2 kA, 70 ns pulsewidth electron beam accelerator). We review our past results and report on the progress of accelerator cell testing.

  17. Partial domain wall partition functions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foda, O; Wheeler, M

    2012-01-01

    We consider six-vertex model configurations on an (n × N) lattice, n ≤ N, that satisfy a variation on domain wall boundary conditions that we define and call partial domain wall boundary conditions...

  18. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  19. [Experiences of street harassment and associations with perceptions of social cohesion among women in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Paola A; Falb, Kathryn L; Hernández, Sara; Díaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Gupta, Jhumka

    2017-01-01

    To document the frequency and forms of street harassment and examine the association between street harassment experiences and perceptions of social cohesion. Baseline survey data collected among women seeking care in public health clinics in Mexico City were used for analysis. Nearly two-thirds (62.8%) of women reported experiencing some form of street harassment in the prior month; women with street harassment experiences reported significantly lower perceived social cohesion (b=-0.46; 95%CI: -0.69,-0.22). Findings indicate reducing street harassment may have important implications for improving women's perceived social cohesion and their safety in Mexico City.

  20. Antibiotic Resistance and Integron of Vibrio cholerae Detection from School Street Foods in Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    DEASHINTA, NADIA; WATURANGI, DIANA ELIZABETH; YOGIARA,

    2007-01-01

    Street foods represent foods and beverages prepared by vendors in streets or other public places, i.e. schools. Food safety issues perceive street foods as a potential major public risk. Street foods contaminated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae may lead to serious poisoning to school-age children. In this study, 17 isolates of V. cholerae were obtained from nine (45%) of total 20 street foods samples collected in Jakarta. Five (29%) were confirmed to be V. cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa using bio...

  1. Light shining through walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  2. Microfluidics with fluid walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond J; Feuerborn, Alexander; Wheeler, James H R; Tan, Ann Na; Durham, William M; Foster, Kevin R; Cook, Peter R

    2017-10-10

    Microfluidics has great potential, but the complexity of fabricating and operating devices has limited its use. Here we describe a method - Freestyle Fluidics - that overcomes many key limitations. In this method, liquids are confined by fluid (not solid) walls. Aqueous circuits with any 2D shape are printed in seconds on plastic or glass Petri dishes; then, interfacial forces pin liquids to substrates, and overlaying an immiscible liquid prevents evaporation. Confining fluid walls are pliant and resilient; they self-heal when liquids are pipetted through them. We drive flow through a wide range of circuits passively by manipulating surface tension and hydrostatic pressure, and actively using external pumps. Finally, we validate the technology with two challenging applications - triggering an inflammatory response in human cells and chemotaxis in bacterial biofilms. This approach provides a powerful and versatile alternative to traditional microfluidics.The complexity of fabricating and operating microfluidic devices limits their use. Walsh et al. describe a method in which circuits are printed as quickly and simply as writing with a pen, and liquids in them are confined by fluid instead of solid walls.

  3. Street lighting changes the composition of invertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Gaston, Kevin J

    2012-10-23

    Artificial lighting has been used to illuminate the nocturnal environment for centuries and continues to expand with urbanization and economic development. Yet, the potential ecological impact of the resultant light pollution has only recently emerged as a major cause for concern. While investigations have demonstrated that artificial lighting can influence organism behaviour, reproductive success and survivorship, none have addressed whether it is altering the composition of communities. We show, for the first time, that invertebrate community composition is affected by proximity to street lighting independently of the time of day. Five major invertebrate groups contributed to compositional differences, resulting in an increase in the number of predatory and scavenging individuals in brightly lit communities. Our results indicate that street lighting changes the environment at higher levels of biological organization than previously recognized, raising the potential that it can alter the structure and function of ecosystems.

  4. Predicting water suppy and actual evapotranspiration of street trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessolek, Gerd; Heiner, Moreen; Trinks, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    It's well known that street trees cool air temperature in summer-time by transpiration and shading and also reduce runoff. However, it's difficult to analyse if trees have water shortage or not. This contribution focus on predicting water supply, actual evapotranspiration, and runoff by using easily available climate data (precipiation, potential evapotranspiration) and site characteristics (water retention, space, sealing degree, groundwater depth). These parameter were used as input data for Hydro-Pedotransfer-Functions (HPTFs) allowing the estimation of the annual water budget. Results give statements on water supply of trees, drought stress, and additional water demand by irrigation. Procedure also analyse, to which extent the surrounding partly sealed surfaces deliver water to the trees. Four representative street canyons of Berlin City were analysed and evaluated within in training program for M.A. students of „Urban Eco-system Science" at the Technische Universität Berlin.

  5. Street floods in Metro Manila and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar; Mendoza, Jerico; Cipriano, Fatima; Delmendo, Patricia Anne; Lacsamana, Micah Nieves; Moises, Marc Anthony; Pellejera, Nicanor; Punay, Kenneth Niño; Sabio, Glenn; Santos, Laurize; Serrano, Jonathan; Taniza, Herbert James; Tingin, Neil Eneri

    2017-09-01

    Urban floods from thunderstorms cause severe problems in Metro Manila due to road traffic. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived topography, flood simulations and anecdotal reports, the root of surface flood problems in Metro Manila is identified. Majority of flood-prone areas are along the intersection of creeks and streets located in topographic lows. When creeks overflow or when rapidly accumulated street flood does not drain fast enough to the nearest stream channel, the intersecting road also gets flooded. Possible solutions include the elevation of roads or construction of well-designed drainage structures leading to the creeks. Proposed solutions to the flood problem of Metro Manila may avoid paralyzing traffic problems due to short-lived rain events, which according to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) cost the Philippine economy 2.4billionpesos/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. How to integrate street-level bureaucracies into public management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter; Pedersen, John Storm

    the professionals in the public sector at the street-level such as social-workers, teachers, doctors, and other professionals have maintained autonomy regarding the provision, production and delivery of the specific core welfare services to the citizens as end users. By definition hard budget constraint...... and professionals´ autonomy do not fit well. To explore both theoretically and empirically the conflicts between hard budget constraint and professionals´ autonomy, the professionals´ provision, production and delivery of the services to the citizens with disability and socially disadvantaged people and the public...... management of the public spending on the services in Denmark is used as a case. Surprisingly, we find that the managers have been able to resolve the conflicts between the hard budget constraint and the professionals´ autonomy to a rather high degree. The managers have integrated the street...

  7. The Tragedy of V.S. Naipaul's Miguel Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanyar Kareem Abdul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad (V.S. Naipaul was born in Trinidad in 1932. His works have been an enduring focus between rich and poor, colonizer and colonized. In The New York Review of Books, Naipaul has been called '”a master of English prose,” which indicates his weight in modern literature, especially in post colonialism. The paper depicts a dark area and tragedy in Miguel Street throughout the characters and their dialogues. Naipaul is famous for his sad-given-tonic moment in his novels. The paper also provides examples and explanations behind the tragedy of the novel and what the characters suffer from: misunderstanding, poverty, or losing humanity that no more communication works out. Miguel Street is a place where all the tragic moments happen in the novel. Each section of the story ends with sadness and disappointment.

  8. Environmental behavioural modification programme for street children in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, G; Moloukhia, T M; Abd Elsalam, G; Abd Elatif, F

    2007-01-01

    An environmental behavioural modification programme was implemented in Alexandria city, Egypt, in order to help street children to change their behaviour, discover their abilities and develop and acquire new skills and knowledge. The programme included camping and field trips, recreational activities and games, role play and theatre, story-telling, life-skill activities, and gardening and animal care. Data were collected from observational sheets of adaptive behaviour and conversation sessions before and after the intervention on a sample of 35 street children aged between 7 and 15 years. The mean scores for each behavioural item and all items together before and after the intervention were significantly improved in a number of areas, except for speech disorders and substance use.

  9. Street vended food in developing world: hazard analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Street food vending has become an important public health issue and a great concern to everybody. This is due to widespread food borne diseases, due to the mushrooming of wayside food vendors who lack an adequate understanding of the basic food safety issues. Major sources contributing to microbial contamination are the place of preparation, utensils for cooking and serving, raw materials, time and temperature abuse of cooked foods and the personal hygiene of vendors. Various studies have identified the sources of food safety issues involved in street foods to be microorganism belonging to the genus Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Vibrio, Campylobacter, Listeria, Salmonella. Application of sound risk analysis policies is being advocated to provide a scientific base to the host of risk management option which India may need to explore to ensure public health and safety.

  10. The building at 18 Resavska street in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The building at 18 Resavska Street is an important and representative work of architecture among the relatively few surviving residential buildings from the late 19th and early 20th century in Belgrade. Despite the lack of direct documentary evidence for the date of construction and the authorship of the design, it has been dated to a period between 1883 and the beginning of the 20th century, and attributed to the renowned architect Jovan Ilkić. With its developed spatial plan and high status interior and exterior it ranks among more important designs representing all stylistic features of the architecture of academicism of the late 19th and early 20th century. The concept of the street façade relies on the tenets of Italian High Renaissance and Mannerist architecture, with a special emphasis on the use of architectural ornament and freestanding sculpture.

  11. Street and social media promotion : CASE: Gymnaestrada 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, Nina

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a case study research of the case organization Voimisteluliitto (the Finnish Gymnastics Federation). In more detail it analyses the promotion process for Gymnaestrada 2015, a huge gymnastics festival that is held in Helsinki in summer of 2015. The organization and the festival are introduced in the first part of the thesis. The empirical part was completed during summer 2014 and it consisted of the process or organising a street promotion event as well as producing content ...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of a Street Rabies Virus from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guoqing; Zhen F Fu

    2012-01-01

    A canine rabies virus (RABV) has been used as a street rabies virus in laboratory investigations. Its entire genome was sequenced and found to be closely related to that of canine RABV circulating in Mexico. Sequence comparison indicates that the virus is closely related to those in the “cosmopolitan” group, with high homology (89 to 93%) to clade I of rabies viruses. The virus is now termed dog rabies virus-Mexico (DRV-Mexico).

  13. Pixel-wise Segmentation of Street with Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bittel, Sebastian; Kaiser, Vitali; Teichmann, Marvin; Thoma, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pixel-wise street segmentation of photographs taken from a drivers perspective is important for self-driving cars and can also support other object recognition tasks. A framework called SST was developed to examine the accuracy and execution time of different neural networks. The best neural network achieved an $F_1$-score of 89.5% with a simple feedforward neural network which trained to solve a regression task.

  14. Urban microclimates and growth of sweetgum street trees

    OpenAIRE

    Kjelgren, Roger; Clark, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Microclimates characteristic of urban park, plaza, and canyon spaces were related to physiology and growth of even-aged sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) street trees. Microclimates, tree growth, and physiological responses were characterized diurnally and seasonally. Park and plaza sites received unobstructed sunlight while the canyon was limited to four hours of direct solar radiation in midsummer. Potential seasonal insolation was 44 per cent of the potential maximum at the canyon and ...

  15. Men’s stranger intrusions : rethinking street harassment.

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Gray, F.

    2016-01-01

    Women's experiences of intrusive men in public space, popularly termed ‘street harassment’, are the most understudied yet commonly experienced forms of violence against women. Despite acknowledgement of its importance, an explicit debate on naming – with an exploration of how language creates both openings and restrictions of what can be said – is yet to be had in the literature. This paper begins this conversation, detailing the benefits and challenges in current terminology, and exploring t...

  16. Latin American Street Gangs in Catalonia and Their Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Kazyrytski, Leanid

    2017-01-01

    The increased influx of immigrants from the countries of Latin America to the autonomous Spanish community of Catalonia had a considerable impact on its young people. This phenomenon filled city streets with groups of young migrants characterized by specific outfits and manners. Some groups of young migrants adopted the names of notorious criminal gangs from Central and North America and developed collective schemes of deviant behavior. The Catalonian police, together with mass media, view th...

  17. Benefits and costs of street trees in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.L. Soares; F.C. Rego; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; Q. Xiao

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that urban trees produce various types of benefits and costs. The computer tool i-Tree STRATUM helps quantify tree structure and function, as well as the value of some of these tree services in different municipalities. This study describes one of the first applications of STRATUM outside the U.S. Lisbon’s street trees are dominated by Celtis australis...

  18. LEAD: THE SILENT KILLER IN OUR FAVOURITE STREET FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Street vended foods are a very common consumable commodity across age and income groups. It covers a wide range of a variety of food items to suit every need, and are hugely popular all over the country. They can, however, contain toxic heavy metals, like lead, which can pose serious health hazards, including neuropathy, cardiovascular, renal as well as bone diseases. Source of lead can be various artificial food colorants used to increase the palatability of such food, and also automobile emission exhaust smoke that pollutes the street atmosphere, the very place where such food is prepared or kept ready to consume. Contamination with heavy metals is a serious threat because of their toxicity, bioaccumulation and bio magnifications in the food chain. This source of lead toxicity, however, is one aspect of the health hazards that has not been widely explored. The aim of this study is to increase awareness among general population, both consumers and vendors, regarding a very common but often overlooked source of heavy metal contamination. METHODOLOGY Lead was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry after digestion of food with 98% Nitric acid. RESULTS This present study measures the level of lead in various commonly consumed street vended food items across the streets of Kolkata, India, and shows that the range of its level is much higher than the WHO recommended level of lead in food materials. The level also has close association with the food colorant used. In conclusion, the gross lack of awareness among the general population, both at the vendor and the consumer level, regarding this particular health hazard related to the food they consume on a regular basis, needs to be addressed as a serious issue, and personal safety measures should be undertaken.

  19. Comparison of Vitality Between Two Streets of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Molavi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the urban spaces that make living in a city pleasant and the urban landscape delightful. Vitality, an indispensable feature in the life of a city, is an undeniable gap in many urban spaces today. Spaces lacking vitality make no passion to stop within them and no incentive to pass by them. Over time urban spaces are getting uncrowded and deprived of social life and this event puts the current urban spaces of a country seriously in danger. Given the vitality impact on desirability of urban spaces and the research concern toward this on-the-wane quality, two important streets of Tehran, Enghelab and Vali-e-Asr, were compared to investigate the effective factors in vitality more thoroughly and in terms of several needs of people in urban spaces. According to different spirits of the two streets as well as positive and negative effective factors, the amount of vitality criteria in both spaces was studied through surveys. In this regard, 200 questionnaires, prepared by the authors, have been analyzed. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis and the results were demonstrated in charts. These figures confirm the vitality potential of both spaces. However, it was concluded that the spirit in each of the spaces was different as the atmosphere of the Vali-e-Asr Street was commercial-recreational and the atmosphere of the Enghelab Street was commercial-cultural. The vitality amount of each of them is compared on the basis of their spirits. To strengthen the vitality and encourage people to engage more with the space, some suggestions have been finally presented.

  20. Architecture and Art Regulations for Karl Marx Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Mironenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The architecture and art regulations for Karl Marx Street and adjoining territories have been worked out for the Committee for town planning of the Irkutsk city administration. Basic provisions: facades of buildings and structures, outdoor advertising and information facilities, artistic illumination of buildings, elements of land improvements. The main principle is to preserve historical appearance and to create a contemporary and comfortable environment.

  1. Street Hawking: Oppressing the Girl Child or Family Economic Supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Fatima M.

    2009-01-01

    Street hawking in its simplest form is the selling of things along the roads and from one place to the other. In Nigeria this is done almost all the time by young children both males and females. The girl hawkers come to the cities in groups and then go in different directions of the city to hawk their goods. They remain in the city from the early…

  2. LEAD: THE SILENT KILLER IN OUR FAVOURITE STREET FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnajyoti; Ipsita

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Street vended foods are a very common consumable commodity across age and income groups. It covers a wide range of a variety of food items to suit every need, and are hugely popular all over the country. They can, however, contain toxic heavy metals, like lead, which can pose serious health hazards, including neuropathy, cardiovascular, renal as well as bone diseases. Source of lead can be various artificial food colorants used to increase the palatability of such...

  3. A simple model for calculating air pollution within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Laura E.; Mazzeo, Nicolás A.; Dezzutti, Mariana C.

    2014-04-01

    This paper introduces the Semi-Empirical Urban Street (SEUS) model. SEUS is a simple mathematical model based on the scaling of air pollution concentration inside street canyons employing the emission rate, the width of the canyon, the dispersive velocity scale and the background concentration. Dispersive velocity scale depends on turbulent motions related to wind and traffic. The parameterisations of these turbulent motions include two dimensionless empirical parameters. Functional forms of these parameters have been obtained from full scale data measured in street canyons at four European cities. The sensitivity of SEUS model is studied analytically. Results show that relative errors in the evaluation of the two dimensionless empirical parameters have less influence on model uncertainties than uncertainties in other input variables. The model estimates NO2 concentrations using a simple photochemistry scheme. SEUS is applied to estimate NOx and NO2 hourly concentrations in an irregular and busy street canyon in the city of Buenos Aires. The statistical evaluation of results shows that there is a good agreement between estimated and observed hourly concentrations (e.g. fractional bias are -10.3% for NOx and +7.8% for NO2). The agreement between the estimated and observed values has also been analysed in terms of its dependence on wind speed and direction. The model shows a better performance for wind speeds >2 m s-1 than for lower wind speeds and for leeward situations than for others. No significant discrepancies have been found between the results of the proposed model and that of a widely used operational dispersion model (OSPM), both using the same input information.

  4. Survival Strategy of Street Musician in Tampan District Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    ", Nurhamlin; Pardede, Toni

    2016-01-01

    This research carried out in Tampan District, Pekanbaru. This research aims to determine the characteristics and survival strategies of street musician. To obtain the necessary data in this study, the writer collected data to descend directly to the research location and do observation and in-depth interviews. The subjects of this research as many as seven person. Data obtained was processed in the descriptive qualitative analysis form. Technique determination sample of research using inciden...

  5. Symbolism of Street Art. Interview to La Fille Bertha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Garau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interview to the illustrator La Fille Bertha. She started her artistic career in her childhood, when she first used sketchbooks and pencils. Through her magical symbolism she has now reached European Street Art, and also in the world of Fashion and Design. Her creatures come from a dreamlike-magical dimension, producing a colourful oasis in the noisy urban greyness. She also took part in the XXI Triennale di Milano.

  6. Domain walls on the brane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; van der Schaar, JP; Papadopoulos, G

    1998-01-01

    We show that all branes admit worldvolume domain wall solutions. We find one class of solutions for which the tension of the brane changes discontinuously along the domain wall. These solutions are not supersymmetric. We argue that there is another class of domain wall solutions which is

  7. Build an Interactive Word Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Word walls visually display important vocabulary covered during class. Although teachers have often been encouraged to post word walls in their classrooms, little information is available to guide them. This article describes steps science teachers can follow to transform traditional word walls into interactive teaching tools. It also describes a…

  8. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  9. Indoor climbing walls in Prague

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzová, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the indoor climbing walls in climbing centers for the public in Prague. It creates an overview of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of indoor climbing walls in Prague. Thesis allowing ordinary users and the general public interested in climbing easier selection of the appropriate climbing wall according on their level, the safety requirements, background, but also the place of residence.

  10. Street dance: form of expressing identity in adolescents and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Petracovschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to foreground the counterculture phenomenon that is provides the basis for street dance and the reasons why young people practise it, as well as to analyse the styles of dance developed within this type of dance. The study was made between February and May 2010 in Timişoara on a number of 149 people practising street dance, 46 girls and 103 boys. The results of the research emphasise that the dancers mainly come from an inferior social background (49.66% or from a middle-class background (46.03% and have been regularly practising breakdance (83.89% for more than five years (32.88%. The effects of practising it can be observed on an overall basis as concerns physical condition, artistic sense, self knowledge, discipline but also culture and way of life. Conclusions show that people practise street dance due to its nonconformist and all alive style that continuously makes use of new moves, new trends but also due to it being a way of socialising within a group.

  11. OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Eric B.; Matthews, Greg D.; McNinch, Kevin; Poore, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    Phase One of the OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype (OSMCP) attempts to determine if the open source software developed for the OpenStreetMap (OSM, http://www.openstreetmap.org) can be used for data contributions and improvements that meet or exceed the requirements for integration into The National Map (http://www.nationalmap.gov). OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype Phase One focused on road data aggregated at the state level by the Kansas Data Access and Support Center (DASC). Road data from the DASC were loaded into a system hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) in Rolla, Missouri. U.S. Geological Survey editing specifications were developed by NGTOC personnel (J. Walters and G. Matthews, USGS, unpub. report, 2010). Interstate and U.S. Highways in the dataset were edited to the specifications by NGTOC personnel while State roads were edited by DASC personnel. Resulting data were successfully improved to meet standards for The National Map once the system and specifications were in place. The OSM software proved effective in providing a usable platform for collaborative data editing

  12. Transitioning to safer streets through an integrated and inclusive design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Doi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The demand for enhanced traffic safety has been growing with rapid increases in the elderly populations of super-aging societies. To cope with the increasing rates of traffic fatalities and injuries among the elderly, co-creative thinking and community-rooted approaches are becoming more important in shaping policy and actions for safer and sustainable transportation and traffic. To enhance safety, road space has to be designed as a social space with improved social usability to meet diversifying needs in the future. After discussing multifaceted aspects of an integrated design, this paper aims to identify a possible direction of transitioning to safer streets through an integrated and inclusive design that covers road design, built-environment and land use design, and community design. While detailing the rapidly increasing fatalities among elderly pedestrians crossing roads, this paper provides a set of logical ideas and arguments for changing the way we address traffic safety and proposes a governance framework for transitioning to safer streets with a focus on the habitus of unconscious separation and externalization of risk that spoils the compactness of road spaces and the appropriate priorities among traffic participants, thereby inhibiting the safety and autonomy of traffic participants on streets.

  13. Optimizing Street Canyon Orientation for Rajarhat Newtown, Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Bhaskar; Mukherjee, Mahua

    2017-12-01

    Air temperature in urban street canyons is increased due to the morphed urban geometry, increased surface area, decreased long wave radiation and evapo-transpiration, different thermo-physical properties of surface materials and anthropogenic heat which results in thermal discomfort. Outdoor thermal stress can be mitigated substantially by properly orienting the canyons. It is crucial for the urban planners and designers to orient street canyons optimally considering variable local climatic context. It is important especially for cities in warm humid climatic context as these cities receive higher insolation with higher relative humidity and low level macro wind flow. This paper examines influence of canyon orientation on outdoor thermal comfort and proposes the optimum canyon orientation for the Rajarhat Newtown, Kolkata - a city in warm humid climate zone. Different scenarios are generated with different orientations. Change in air temperature, wind speed, Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT) and Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) of different scenarios are compared to find out the optimum orientation by parametric simulation in ENVI_met. Analysing the simulation results it is observed that orientation angle between 30°-60° to north performs the best for the study area of the Rajarhat Newtown. The findings of this research will be helpful for the planners to orient the street canyons optimally for future development and extension of the Rajarhat Newtown, Kolkata.

  14. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottes, Steven A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, Cezary [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  15. Affordance-based individuation of junctions in Open Street Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Scheider

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an algorithm that can be used to identify automatically the subset of street segments of a road network map that corresponds to a junction. The main idea is to use turn-compliant locomotion affordances, i.e., restricted patterns of supported movement, in order to specify junctions independently of their data representation, and in order to motivate tractable individuation and classification strategies. We argue that common approaches based solely on geometry or topology of the street segment graph are useful but insufficient proxies. They miss certain turn restrictions essential to junctions. From a computational viewpoint, the main challenge of affordance-based individuation of junctions lies in its complex recursive definition. In this paper, we show how Open Street Map data can be interpreted into locomotion affordances, and how the recursive junction definition can be translated into a deterministic algorithm. We evaluate this algorithm by applying it to small map excerpts in order to delineate the contained junctions.

  16. A Study for Semantic Evaluation of Street Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Çiçek Kurdoğlu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The decline of green areas due to rapid urbanization has brought many problems to our cities. In order to overcome these problems, some systems enabling green continuity in cities are being studied. In these studies, ideas are carried out, concepts are discussed and projects and applications are put into practice to produce some approaches including greenways, urban forests, urban parks, considered as parts of these systems. Street trees occupy an important place within this green-area scenario. In this study, the contribution of street trees to city, citizens and open green-area system is investigated. For this purpose, students from the Department of Landscape Architecture and the Department of Forest Engineering (15 students from each department have evaluated some pictures of the city. Some analyses have been done on the data obtained through this assessment. Results showed that street trees create images that are interesting, full, continuous, effective and with identity and according to the result of non parametric correlation analysis performed on the data of implementation study, significant relationships has been identified between these parameters.

  17. Presence of Bacillus cereus in street foods in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murindamombe, Gervas Y; Collison, Ernest K; Mpuchane, Sisai F; Gashe, Berhanu A

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological safety and quality of street foods sold in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 148 point-of-sale composite street food samples were bought and analyzed between June 2001 and May 2002. The analysis focused on the level of contamination of various street foods with Bacillus cereus. The B. cereus (vegetative and spores), total spore, and total viable counts were determined on all the samples. Also B. cereus isolates from 444 individual point-of-sale food samples were characterized with respect to their biochemical profiles and enterotoxigenic properties. The B. cereus contamination rate for point-of-sale foods was 65%. The B. cereus counts ranged from not detectable to levels as high as 9.1 log CFU/g. Despite the high rate of contamination of some samples, generally, most samples had B. cereus counts of less than 4 log CFU/g; hence, they were of acceptable microbiological quality. Bacillus diarrheal enterotoxin was detected from 52 isolates from individual portions of meals using the B. cereus enterotoxin reversed passive latex agglutination kit. Results of the assay revealed that 59.6% of the B. cereus isolates were enterotoxigenic. Most of the enterotoxigenic isolates were obtained from vegetable samples.

  18. Attitudes of business people to proposed smokefree shopping streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimal; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the attitudes of business people toward a possible smokefree policy along a route of major shopping streets, the "Golden Mile" (GM) in central Wellington, New Zealand. Businesses on the GM (n = 303) were visited in June-July 2011. Either the owner or manager from each business was surveyed. A response rate of 65.6% (n = 198) was achieved, with 13.3% declining to participate, and further contact not being productive for 21.2%. Support for making the GM smokefree was 43.4% (95% CI = 36.7%-50.4%), with the remainder opposed. There was significantly higher support among business people who were nonsmokers versus smokers (relative risk = 2.95; 95% CI = 1.48-5.89). Overall, 83.3% (95% CI = 77.0%-88.0%) of respondents stated that a smokefree GM would have either a positive or negligible impact on their business (nonconcern), compared with a negative impact (at 16.7%). Nonconcern about the business impact of a smokefree GM was significantly greater for nonfood businesses (89.9%) versus food businesses (64.0%; p business people may reflect the negligible promotion of the idea in this setting. Nevertheless, the likely business impact of a smokefree streets policy was not a concern for the large majority of these business people, so this may not be a significant barrier to policy development. This type of study can contribute to the process for developing smokefree streets and other outdoor areas, by gauging sector support.

  19. Cell wall biology: perspectives from cell wall imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kieran J D; Marcus, Susan E; Knox, J Paul

    2011-03-01

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are important biomaterials that underpin plant growth, are major repositories for photosynthetically accumulated carbon, and, in addition, impact greatly on the human use of plants. Land plant cell walls contain in the region of a dozen major polysaccharide structures that are mostly encompassed by cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectic polysaccharides. During the evolution of land plants, polysaccharide diversification appears to have largely involved structural elaboration and diversification within these polysaccharide groups. Cell wall chemistry is well advanced and a current phase of cell wall science is aimed at placing the complex polysaccharide chemistry in cellular contexts and developing a detailed understanding of cell wall biology. Imaging cell wall glycomes is a challenging area but recent developments in the establishment of cell wall molecular probe panels and their use in high throughput procedures are leading to rapid advances in the molecular understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of individual cell walls and also cell wall differences at taxonomic levels. The challenge now is to integrate this knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity with an understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms that underpin cell wall properties and functions.

  20. Individuals with severely impaired vision can learn useful orientation and mobility skills in virtual streets and can use them to improve real street safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Ellen Lambert; Liu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality has great potential in training road safety skills to individuals with low vision but the feasibility of such training has not been demonstrated. We tested the hypotheses that low vision individuals could learn useful skills in virtual streets and could apply them to improve real street safety. Twelve participants, whose vision was too poor to use the pedestrian signals were taught by a certified orientation and mobility specialist to determine the safest time to cross the street using the visual and auditory signals made by the start of previously stopped cars at a traffic-light controlled street intersection. Four participants were trained in real streets and eight in virtual streets presented on 3 projection screens. The crossing timing of all participants was evaluated in real streets before and after training. The participants were instructed to say "GO" at the time when they felt the safest to cross the street. A safety score was derived to quantify the GO calls based on its occurrence in the pedestrian phase (when the pedestrian sign did not show DON'T WALK). Before training, > 50% of the GO calls from all participants fell in the DON'T WALK phase of the traffic cycle and thus were totally unsafe. 20% of the GO calls fell in the latter half of the pedestrian phase. These calls were unsafe because one initiated crossing this late might not have sufficient time to walk across the street. After training, 90% of the GO calls fell in the early half of the pedestrian phase. These calls were safer because one initiated crossing in the pedestrian phase and had at least half of the pedestrian phase for walking across. Similar safety changes occurred in both virtual street and real street trained participants. An ANOVA showed a significant increase of the safety scores after training and there was no difference in this safety improvement between the virtual street and real street trained participants. This study demonstrated that virtual reality

  1. Individuals with severely impaired vision can learn useful orientation and mobility skills in virtual streets and can use them to improve real street safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Lambert Bowman

    Full Text Available Virtual reality has great potential in training road safety skills to individuals with low vision but the feasibility of such training has not been demonstrated. We tested the hypotheses that low vision individuals could learn useful skills in virtual streets and could apply them to improve real street safety. Twelve participants, whose vision was too poor to use the pedestrian signals were taught by a certified orientation and mobility specialist to determine the safest time to cross the street using the visual and auditory signals made by the start of previously stopped cars at a traffic-light controlled street intersection. Four participants were trained in real streets and eight in virtual streets presented on 3 projection screens. The crossing timing of all participants was evaluated in real streets before and after training. The participants were instructed to say "GO" at the time when they felt the safest to cross the street. A safety score was derived to quantify the GO calls based on its occurrence in the pedestrian phase (when the pedestrian sign did not show DON'T WALK. Before training, > 50% of the GO calls from all participants fell in the DON'T WALK phase of the traffic cycle and thus were totally unsafe. 20% of the GO calls fell in the latter half of the pedestrian phase. These calls were unsafe because one initiated crossing this late might not have sufficient time to walk across the street. After training, 90% of the GO calls fell in the early half of the pedestrian phase. These calls were safer because one initiated crossing in the pedestrian phase and had at least half of the pedestrian phase for walking across. Similar safety changes occurred in both virtual street and real street trained participants. An ANOVA showed a significant increase of the safety scores after training and there was no difference in this safety improvement between the virtual street and real street trained participants. This study demonstrated that

  2. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  3. A Research on Permeability Concept at an Urban Pedestrian Shopping Street: A Case of Trabzon Kunduracilar Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Yavuz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research in which components of permeability concept is tried to be set forth, presents the results of a field study conducted on a pedestrian-shopping street in Trabzon, a coastal city in the eastern Black Sea Region. The criteria affecting permeability are dealt with in physical, functional and perceptual properties. Accordingly, three hypotheses are proposed in this article. The study was a two-stage survey. The first survey is prepared to determine user preferences. With the second survey prepared in the light of the data obtained from the first one, characteristics defining the permeability concept were sought for. As a result, permeability level of a street is found to be closely related with the physical, functional and perceptual properties providing such permeability and, permeability is determined to be best provided by considering all the three properties together, and new perspective to the concept of permeability is brought with this model.

  4. The Awakening of a Sunni Street : A study of causes and consequences of Sunni Muslim street mobilization in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Tyssen, Tora Systad

    2012-01-01

    Following the Shia-dominated February 14th uprising in Bahrain, groups of Sunni Muslims counter-mobilized in the streets. In reaction to the uprising and the state’s failed attempts at containing it, they voiced demands for political reform. This was something new to the political dynamics of the country. Traditionally Sunni Muslim groups in general have been loyal to the Sunni government, whereas the Shia Muslims, which constitute the majority of the population, have dominated the opposition...

  5. An investigation on the effect of street morphology to ambient air quality using six real-world cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jialei; Gao, Zhi; Ding, Wowo; Yu, Ying

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are vulnerable to air pollution mainly caused by vehicle emissions, which are therefore closely related to pedestrians' health. Previous studies have showed that air quality in street canyons is associated with street morphology, though the majority of them have focused on idealized street models. This paper attempts to investigate the relationship of street morphology to air quality for 6 irregular real-world cases selected from America, Europe, and China, i.e. Manhattan, Paris, Barcelona, Berlin, London and Nanjing. Each street is analyzed as a set of slices to propose a couple of morphology indices for quantitatively assessing the actual street morphology. Pollutant transport rate of mean flows and turbulent diffusion, net escape velocity and age of air are obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to assess the ventilations and pollutant dispersion within street canyons with a parallel approaching wind. The results show that the street morphology characteristics, including the street width, lateral openings and intersections, are closely related to the air flows in street canyons. The air quality improves with a decreasing aspect ratio of central street owing to a larger vertical exchange through the street roof, which suggests an open central street is of better air quality. The lateral openings and intersections of streets have important effects on the air flows in street canyons, and the effects are particularly pronounced when the street widths are similar. The street continuity ratio indicates street continuity. It relates to the openings and the symmetry of a street and impacts on the air flows and pollutant dispersion through the lateral openings of the central street. The street spatial closure ratio is determined by the street continuity ratio and the aspect ratio of the central street. When the aspect ratio of central street is not excessively high, higher values of street continuity ratio and spatial closure ratio

  6. Steel Construction of Modern Building of Former Sports Hall at Chopin Street in Zielona Góra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalak Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernism in architecture of the lubuskie voivodeship is not dominating style. Objects created in the period of its greatest popularity are still fighting for recognition of their value as historical monuments. One of such facilities in Zielona Góra is building at Chopin street, where today is The Teacher Training Centre. However, originally object was intended to be a sports hall. The topic worth of further analysis is the construction of the building. The skeleton is a unique steel frame, made in 1930 by the famous pre-war company Fabrik und für Brückenbau Eisenkonstruktionen BEUCHELT & Co. Grünberg in Schlesien. In order to build walls the brick technology was used. It is a rarely seen combination that indicates the attempt to experiment with new solutions by engineers of the era of modernism.

  7. Steel Construction of Modern Building of Former Sports Hall at Chopin Street in Zielona Góra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Modernism in architecture of the lubuskie voivodeship is not dominating style. Objects created in the period of its greatest popularity are still fighting for recognition of their value as historical monuments. One of such facilities in Zielona Góra is building at Chopin street, where today is The Teacher Training Centre. However, originally object was intended to be a sports hall. The topic worth of further analysis is the construction of the building. The skeleton is a unique steel frame, made in 1930 by the famous pre-war company Fabrik und für Brückenbau Eisenkonstruktionen BEUCHELT & Co. Grünberg in Schlesien. In order to build walls the brick technology was used. It is a rarely seen combination that indicates the attempt to experiment with new solutions by engineers of the era of modernism.

  8. The Threads They Follow: Bank Street Teachers in a Changing World. Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lit, Ira; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This summary report is one of five publications from the larger study, "Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education." This report focuses on graduates of Bank Street College Graduate School of Education teacher certification programs by examining the quality of their preparation, their teaching…

  9. The Preparation, Professional Pathways, and Effectiveness of Bank Street Graduates. Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Eileen; Zheng, Xinhua; Lit, Ira; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This technical report is one of five publications from the larger study, "Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education." This report documents the influence of Bank Street teacher preparation programs based upon surveys of graduates, surveys of comparison teachers, surveys of employers, and an analysis…

  10. Wind-induced single-sided natural ventilation in buildings near a long street canyon: CFD evaluation of street configuration and envelope design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Z.T.; Mak, C.M.

    2018-01-01

    an urban context, this study investigates the wind-induced single-sided natural ventilation in buildings near a long street canyon under a perpendicular wind direction using CFD method. Four aspect ratios (AR) of the street canyon, from 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0, are investigated to examine the influence...

  11. Book Review of "My Street Money: A Street-Level View of Managing Your Money from the Heart to the Bank"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Nelson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In his book, My Street Money: A Street-Level View of Managing Your Money from the Heart to the Bank, Louis Barajas delivers a set of sound principles and actionable steps for an audience who consider themselves average citizens with traditional values.

  12. Book Review of "My Street Money: A Street-Level View of Managing Your Money from the Heart to the Bank"

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey S. Nelson

    2011-01-01

    In his book, My Street Money: A Street-Level View of Managing Your Money from the Heart to the Bank, Louis Barajas delivers a set of sound principles and actionable steps for an audience who consider themselves average citizens with traditional values.

  13. Planning codes and the design of the street interface : Reading the impact of spatial configuration on street life using micro-scale tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Carvalho Filho, L.M.; van Nes, A.

    2017-01-01

    This contribution is part of a PhD research. The study investigates the factors related to the vitality of street life in Brazilian cities. To what extent play urban form a part in forging the vitality of street life and why? What is the impact of the urban planning regime on the relation between

  14. Street-level noise in an urban setting: assessment and contribution to personal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlexander, Tara P; Gershon, Robyn R M; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-02-28

    The urban soundscape, which represents the totality of noise in the urban setting, is formed from a wide range of sources. One of the most ubiquitous and least studied of these is street-level (i.e., sidewalk) noise. Mainly associated with vehicular traffic, street level noise is hard to ignore and hard to escape. It is also potentially dangerous, as excessive noise from any source is an important risk factor for adverse health effects. This study was conducted to better characterize the urban soundscape and the role of street level noise on overall personal noise exposure in an urban setting. Street-level noise measures were obtained at 99 street sites located throughout New York City (NYC), along with data on time, location, and sources of environmental noise. The relationship between street-level noise measures and potential predictors of noise was analyzed using linear and logistic regression models, and geospatial modeling was used to evaluate spatial trends in noise. Daily durations of street-level activities (time spent standing, sitting, walking and running on streets) were estimated via survey from a sample of NYC community members recruited at NYC street fairs. Street-level noise measurements were then combined with daily exposure durations for each member of the sample to estimate exposure to street noise, as well as exposure to other sources of noise. The mean street noise level was 73.4 dBA, with substantial spatial variation (range 55.8-95.0 dBA). Density of vehicular (road) traffic was significantly associated with excessive street level noise levels. Exposure duration data for street-level noise and other common sources of noise were collected from 1894 NYC community members. Based on individual street-level exposure estimates, and in consideration of all other sources of noise exposure in an urban population, we estimated that street noise exposure contributes approximately 4% to an average individual's annual noise dose. Street-level noise

  15. Street children in Pakistan: a situational analysis of social conditions and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moazzam; Shahab, Saqib; Ushijima, Hiroshi; de Muynck, Aime

    2004-10-01

    This paper examines the social conditions and nutritional status of street children in Pakistan. Nutritional status is evaluated by an assessment of height and weight relative to age. A heterogeneous sample of 108 street children in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad was studied. One hundred and one of them were children "on the street" having regular family contact; seven were "of the street", without any family contact. Most street children came from large families which had recently moved to the city in search of economic opportunities. Their parents had low education levels and were either unemployed or employed in unskilled occupations. Poverty clearly was an important factor. The majority of the children moved to the street to augment family income. Most of the children were males (81%) and the average age at beginning life on the street was under 10 years. The majority was working 8-12 h daily with an average income of Rs. 40-60 per day (USD 1 = Rs. 60). Important issues were parental exploitation, police harassment, abuse, and the impact of other street peers in their lives. The distribution of height-for-age relative to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference standard showed that 20% were stunted and 12% had wasting. Wasting was equal between sexes, while fewer girls than boys were stunted. The study concludes that the issue of street children in Rawalpindi and Islamabad is mainly one of "children on the street," while "children of the street" are an exceptional phenomenon. It was noted that, with some exceptions, street children in other world regions share similar risk factors and backgrounds. Findings from this study will facilitate both the identification of high-risk families, i.e. those whose children are likely to take to the street, and timely preventive and rehabilitative measures.

  16. Solar radiation and street temperature as function of street orientation. An analysis of the status quo and simulation of future scenarios towards sustainability in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joao Pinelo

    2017-11-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of street orientation towards the development of a comfortable microclimate for pedestrians in Bahrain. Increasing walkability is a global agenda to address issues such as a) transportation, b) energy consumption, c) health, and d) air pollution, all of which are topics of the sustainability agenda. Thermal comfort is one of the pre-requisites for walkability. In warm climates, this is a challenging goal. Street design is paramount for pedestrian comfort in warm climates. The roles of street orientation and aspect ratio are of particular importance as they determine the intake of solar radiation into the urban canyon. We investigate the state of affairs in Bahrain, by measuring the frequency with which the street orientations E-W, N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE, currently occur. Research suggests that the street orientation E-W presents the lesser performance for mitigating the effects of heat gain. The ideal grid orientation would, therefore, be N-S, and NE-SW - NW-SE, avoiding street segments with E-W orientation. A countrywide analysis shows that E-W orientation accounts for the highest overall street length with 37%. The second most frequent orientation is N-S (29%), the best performer. NW-SE and NE-SW both have frequencies of only 17%. Preference for a street grid with N-S, NW-SE, and NE-SW orientation would improve the thermal performance of streets and provide a continuous network of a comfortable pedestrian environment. We simulate two future scenarios based on avoiding new E-W streets, or not. We measure their potential reduction in thermal gain and conclude that a simple policy could reduce solar exposition in 40%.

  17. Chaos and Cosmos on The Streets of Gostivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Turk Niskač

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the streets in Gostivar, Macedonia, and how its young Albanian and Macedonian inhabitants perceive them. I am interested in how the ethnic division in the town influences perceptions and behavior. Macedonian girls are exposed to verbal sexual advances and harassment by Albanians, whereas boys are exposed to occasional fights. On the other hand, among Albanian youth the fear of the Other is not as present as among the Macedonians. In seeking the reasons for this situation, I deal with the concepts of chaos and cosmos, social control, gossip, cultural differences, kinship, and patriarchy. The streets are one of the spaces where identification takes place, and gender and ethnic identities are related to interactions in the streets. By defining boundaries in space, people create and maintain the boundaries between “us” and “them.” Identities are built in the process of interaction with others. The process of identification is connected to defining the similarities and differences in relation to “us.” People place themselves in the center, in the sphere of the cosmos, which they relate to home, the known, order, safety, and cleanliness. They place the Other in the sphere of chaos because the Other represents the distant, the foreign, the unknown, disorder, danger, and uncleanness. Public opinion is important in maintaining identities and boundaries. Girls in particular must safeguard their honor, which is constantly under surveillance. Identification is maintained by avoiding the space of the Other. Individuals avoid it in order to maintain their good name in the eyes of their group. Through the constant maintenance of the identities and boundaries between “us” and “them,” or between cosmos and chaos, one can trace the fear of losing one’s own identity. Each side is afraid that they might become like “them.”

  18. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or =3 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene.

  19. Effect of asymmetrical street canyons on pedestrian thermal comfort in warm-humid climate of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Algeciras, José; Tablada, Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Walkability and livability in cities can be enhanced by creating comfortable environments in the streets. The profile of an urban street canyon has a substantial impact on outdoor thermal conditions at pedestrian level. This paper deals with the effect of asymmetrical street canyon profiles, common in the historical centre of Camagüey, Cuba, on outdoor thermal comfort. Temporal-spatial analyses are conducted using the Heliodon2 and the RayMan model, which enable the generation of accurate predictions about solar radiation and thermal conditions of urban spaces, respectively. On these models, urban settings are represented by asymmetrical street canyons with five different height-to-width ratios and four street axis orientations (N-S, NE-SW, E-W, SE-NW). Results are evaluated for daytime hours across the street canyon, by means of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET index) which allows the evaluation of the bioclimatic conditions of outdoor environments. Our findings revealed that high profiles (façades) located on the east-facing side of N-S streets, on the southeast-facing side of NE-SW streets, on the south-facing side of E-W street, and on the southwest-facing side of SE-NW streets, are recommended to reduce the total number of hours under thermal stress. E-W street canyons are the most thermally stressed ones, with extreme PET values around 36 °C. Deviating from this orientation ameliorates the heat stress with reductions of up to 4 h in summer. For all analysed E-W orientations, only about one fifth of the street can be comfortable, especially for high aspect ratios (H/W > 3). Optimal subzones in the street are next to the north side of the E-W street, northwest side of the NE-SW street, and southwest side of the SE-NW street. Besides, when the highest profile is located on the east side of N-S streets, then the subzone next to the east-facing façade is recommendable for pedestrians. The proposed urban guidelines enable urban planners to create

  20. Street youth in Colombia: lifestyle, attitudes and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J

    1994-01-01

    Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that

  1. America Saves! Energizing Main Street's Small Businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, James [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The America Saves! Energizing Main Street Small Businesses project engaged the 1,200-member National Main Street Center (NMSC) network of downtown organizations and other local, regional, and national partners to test a methodology for sharing customized energy efficiency information with owners of commercial buildings smaller than 50,000 square feet. Led by the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s Preservation Green Lab, the project marshalled local staff and volunteers to gather voluntarily-disclosed energy use information from participating businesses. This information was analyzed using a remote auditing tool (validated by the National Renewable Energy Lab) to assess energy savings opportunities and design retrofit strategies targeting seven building types (food service and sales, attached mixed-use, strip mall, retail, office, lodging, and schools). The original project design contemplated extensive leveraging of the Green Button protocol for sharing annualized utility data at a district scale. Due the lack of adoption of Green Button, the project partners developed customized approaches to data collection in each of twelve pilot communities. The project team encountered considerable challenges in gathering standardized annual utility data from local partners. After overcoming these issues, the data was uploaded to a data storehouse. Over 450 properties were benchmarked and the remote auditing tool was tested using full building profiles and utility records for more than 100 commercial properties in three of the pilot communities. The audit tool demonstrated potential for quickly capturing, analyzing, and communicating energy efficiency opportunities in small commercial buildings. However, the project team found that the unique physical characteristics and use patterns (partial vacancy, periodic intensive uses) of small commercial buildings required more trouble-shooting and data correction than was anticipated. In addition, the project revealed that

  2. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    The City of Detroit is undertaking a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) sources to light-emitting diode (LED). Detroit’s well-publicized financial troubles over the last several years have added many hurdles and constraints to this process. Strategies to overcome these issues have largely been successful, but have also brought some mixed results. This document provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far.

  3. El street art y la paradoja de la industria cultural

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán, Rosana

    2013-01-01

    El escrito aborda el street art, en particular los esténcils, las pegatinas y los stickers, a partir de tres casos puntuales: la exposición de esténcils de xoooox en el Circleculture Gallery (Berlín, 2008); la exposición Mayday, de Shepard Fairey, en Deitch Projects (New York City, 2010), y la obra Habladurías, de Rö Barragán, expuesta en el Teatro Argentino y en la Galería de Arte Vincent de la ciudad de La Plata. Desde estos ejemplos, el artículo reflexiona sobre el modo en que la...

  4. REDESIGN OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS ON HIGHWAYS, STREETS AND AVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi OGUCHI

    2008-01-01

    The handling of transport demands, especially in urban areas with traffic congestion, is important because the prediction of demand is very difficult under such conditions the true demand possibly becoming a potentiality caused by traffic congestion. One of the solutions of this difficulty is also proposed. The junction treatments, including traffic signal control, dominate over the LOS of the road transport system network in urban streets and avenues. The process of design, control, and operation of junctions at critical intersections is proposed. A tentative evaluation method for highway LOS is also discussed.

  5. STREET FIGHTER DE LAS CALLES A LOS ENFRENTAMIENTOS EN LINEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Garfias Frías

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se enfoca en las relaciones lúdicas que se dan a través del videojuego como mediador entre los usuarios. Específicamente se enfoca en la manera en que los videojugadores construyen rituales en torno a Street Fighter, una de las sagas de videojuegos de peleas cuerpo a cuerpo, más importantes de la industria. El punto central es ver cómo se manifiesta este fenómeno en entornos físicos como los locales de maquinitas y cómo se dio el cambio a los enfrentamientos en entornos virtuales.

  6. The Joyride -from stables to streets : Moderni ratsastusvaatemallisto urbaanille harrastajalle

    OpenAIRE

    Toivanen, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli modernin ratsastusvaatemalliston suunnitteleminen kaupunkilaiselle harrastajalle. Tavoitteena oli myös luoda mallisto, jonka tuotteet sopisivat casual- ja street –käyttöön. Ekologiset ja eettiset arvot ovat työn tekijälle tärkeitä ja ne on otettu huomioon malliston suunnittelussa. Mallisto on suunniteltu tekijän omalle, kuvitteelliselle tuotemerkille. Tekijä on harrastanut ratsastusta yli kaksikymmentä vuotta. Oman harrastuspohjansa lisäksi hän hankki tietoa mal...

  7. Never innocent victims: street sex workers in Canadian print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strega, Susan; Janzen, Caitlin; Morgan, Jeannie; Brown, Leslie; Thomas, Robina; Carriére, Jeannine

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, street sex workers and their families garnered considerable media attention through extensive coverage of disappeared and murdered women in Western Canada. The research presented here examines whether recent media accounts differ from past coverage given that families and friends of disappeared and unaccounted for women inserted themselves into media discussions and circulated alternative readings of their stories. We found that coverage was dominated by two discourses: Vermin-victim discourse demonstrates the tensions between historically dominant conceptualizations and more recent ideas promulgated by families; and risky lifestyle discourse is related to neo-liberal ideologies about personal choice and responsibility.

  8. The Code of the Street and Romantic Relationships: A dyadic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.; Stewart, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its publication, Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street thesis has found support in studies connecting disadvantage to the internalization of street-oriented values and an associated lifestyle of violent/deviant behavior. This primary emphasis on deviance in public arenas has precluded researchers from examining the implications of the code of the street for less public arenas, like intimate relationships. In an effort to understand if and how the endorsement of the street code may infiltrate such relationships, the present study examines the associations between the code of the street and relationship satisfaction and commitment among young adults involved in heterosexual romantic relationships. Using a dyadic approach, we find that street code orientation, in general, negatively predicts satisfaction and commitment, in part due to increased relationship hostility/conflict associated with the internalization of the code. Gender differences in these associations are considered and discussed at length. PMID:23504000

  9. The impact of living on the streets on latency children's friendships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Luís A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is a study to evaluate friendships in latency street boys of Porto Alegre, RGS, Brazil. METHODS: A sample of 30 latency street boys was compared with a sample of 51 latency boys living with their low income families, using the Cornell Interview of Peers and Friends (CIPF. RESULTS: The two groups had a significantly different CIPF global scores, and the boys of the street group had the highest mean score. Also, boys of the street had significantly lower developmental appropriateness, self-esteem and social skills scores than boys living with a family. CONCLUSIONS: The urgent need for intervention street children, especially on boys of the street, is emphasized.

  10. SLP-2D: A new Lagrangian particle model to simulate pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, J. L.; Martín, F.

    In this paper, pollutant dispersion inside a street canyon is simulated using SLP-2D (street Lagrangian particles). SLP-2D is a Lagrangian particle model developed by Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), and it uses wind flow data provided by FLUENT CFD simulations to compute particle trajectories. The simulations presented are divided into two parts. In the first part Meroney, et al. [1996. Study of line source characteristics for 2-D physical modeling of pollutant dispersion in street canopies. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 62, 37-56] wind tunnel experiment is analyzed and we find good agreement between computed and experimental results. In the second part, dispersion inside real street canyons from Stockholm (Hornsgatan Street) and Berlin (Frankfurter Alee) is studied. Field data have been provided by street emission ceilings (SEC) team for use in SEC intercomparison model exercise.

  11. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    The theory for concrete structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer materials has been developing for approximately two decades, and there are at the present time numerous guidelines covering strengthening of many commonly encountered structural building elements. Strengthening of in......-plane loaded walls and disks is however not included in any guidelines, and only a small fraction of scientists have initiated research within this topic. Furthermore, studies of the principal behavior and response of a strengthened disk has not yet been investigated satisfactorily, and this is the principal...... that describes a unit width strip of a strengthened disk. The unit width strip is named a strengthened concrete tension member and contains a single tensile crack and four debonding cracks. Analysis of the member results in closed form expressions for the load-crack opening relationship. Further analysis...

  12. Great Wall of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface

  13. Cell wall evolution and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Ulrik Fangel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls display a considerable degree of diversity in their compositions and molecular architectures. In some cases the functional significance of a particular cell wall type appears to be easy to discern: secondary cells walls are often heavy reinforced with lignin that provides the required durability; the thin cell walls of pollen tubes have particular compositions that enable their tip growth; lupin seed cell walls are characteristically thickened with galactan used as a storage polysaccharide. However, more frequently the evolutionary mechanisms and selection pressures that underpin cell wall diversity and evolution are unclear. The rapidly increasing availability of transcriptome and genome data sets, development of high-throughput methods for cell wall analyses, and expansion of molecular probe sets, are providing new insights into the diversity and occurrence of cell wall polysaccharides and associated biosynthetic genes. Such research is important for refining our understanding of some of the fundamental processes that enabled plants to colonise land and subsequently radiate so comprehensively. The study of cell wall structural diversity is also an important aspect of the industrial utilization of global polysaccharide bio-resources.

  14. The use of photography as emancipatory action: an experience report with people in street situation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana de Oliveira Perez; Regina Célia Fiorati; Leonardo Martins Kebbe; Beatriz Cardoso Lobato

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to present a reflection on the experience of the use of photography by the occupational therapist with the people living in the streets of a Specialized Reference Center for Social Assistance to People in Street Situation - CREAS-POP of a municipality in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The Photography Workshop aimed to provide an insertion and a different relationship with the urban space and population to the person living in the streets. Participants were asked to photograph somet...

  15. The Empowerment of Marginalized Community (Street Vendors for Developing Creative Economy in Payakumbuh City West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYAMSIR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aimed to find a model for empowerment of the marginalized community of street vendors for developing creative economy in Payakumbuh City, West Sumatra. While specifically this study aimed to get an overview of: 1 the City Government’s efforts in the empowerment of street vendors, and 2 the degree of success of the empowerment program of street vendors by the City Government. This study uses qualitative approach. Data collected through questionnaire, interview, observation, and documentation study in several government agencies and the street vendors in Payakumbuh, West Sumatra Province. Respondents in this study consisted of street vendors with business types of vegetables, fruits, accessories, foods, beverages, and other culinary merchants.Using frequency and percentage tests on responses by 445 respondents of street vendors and some informants in Payakumbuh city, West Sumatra, this study tested some aspects of marginalized community empowerment program Payakumbuh City. The findings of this study indicate that: 1 The empowerment of marginal urban communities (street vendors by Payakumbuh Government has been running quite well; and 2 The level of success of the street vendors empowerment programs by the Payakumbuh Government during the time is still categorized as quite well, especially when it is measured based on capital movement of the street vendors.

  16. Acoustic characteristics of urban streets in relation to scattering caused by building facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onaga, Hiroshi; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2007-01-01

    ) the effect of scattering on the SPL appears as an increase at short distances and as a decrease at great distances. The range of the increase in SPL is larger in high-facade streets. In low-facade streets, the primary effect of scattering on SPL is a decrease in SPL. (2) In low-facade streets...... the reverberation time is determined by the sum of absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient. In contrast, in high-facade streets, the reverberation time is determined by the absorption coefficient. (3) The simulated result for the reverberation time shows good agreement with measured value in actual...

  17. Analyzing Street Art to Present the Heritage of George Town, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehelham Sadatiseyedmahalleh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Street art comprises all kinds of art developed in public locations. This form of art has spread to all heritage streets in George Town, the capital of Penang Island, which is also a known UNESCO World Heritage Site. However, instead of its heritage, food, and interesting past life and structure, the rapid multiplication of street art in George Town has created a new and unusual art that attracts tourists. Street art has spread to small roads and heritage streets in the city. This art increases the awareness of spectators by introducing them to the rich history of these streets and inducing a lively concept in the inner city of George Town. Accordingly, the impact of iron rod sculptures and murals, which comprises approximately 90% of street art in George Town, were determined to explore and identify the effects of this street art on this world heritage site. The findings were obtained from 263 out of 306 questionnaires accomplished by tourists in George Town. The results confirm that tourists prefer murals over iron rod sculptures. Iron rod sculptures are designed to tell the history of the street, whereas murals are designed to create aesthetic value. The findings indicated that similar to iron rod sculptures, more control should be exercised on the subjects of murals.

  18. a Method of Generating Panoramic Street Strip Image Map with Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianen, Chen; Yamamoto, Kohei; Tachibana, Kikuo

    2016-06-01

    This paper explores a method of generating panoramic street strip image map which is called as "Pano-Street" here and contains both sides, ground surface and overhead part of a street with a sequence of 360° panoramic images captured with Point Grey's Ladybug3 mounted on the top of Mitsubishi MMS-X 220 at 2m intervals along the streets in urban environment. On-board GPS/IMU, speedometer and post sequence image analysis technology such as bundle adjustment provided much more accuracy level position and attitude data for these panoramic images, and laser data. The principle for generating panoramic street strip image map is similar to that of the traditional aero ortho-images. A special 3D DEM(3D-Mesh called here) was firstly generated with laser data, the depth map generated from dense image matching with the sequence of 360° panoramic images, or the existing GIS spatial data along the MMS trajectory, then all 360° panoramic images were projected and stitched on the 3D-Mesh with the position and attitude data. This makes it possible to make large scale panoramic street strip image maps for most types of cities, and provides another kind of street view way to view the 360° scene along the street by avoiding the switch of image bubbles like Google Street View and Bing Maps Streetside.

  19. Improving street food vending in South Africa: achievements and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holy, A; Makhoane, F M

    2006-09-01

    Until the late 1990s there were limited scientific data on the microbiological quality and safety of street-vended foods in South Africa, while information was already available in other developing countries, including those within the African region. At that time street-vended foods were perceived as unsafe and street food vending in South Africa was regarded as a practice, which should be outlawed. The first comprehensively documented scientific research into the safety of street-vended foods in South Africa was carried out through university-based research. This research found that street food vendors in South Africa were capable of producing relatively safe foods, with low bacterial counts, although there was still a need for proper hygiene conditions and access to basic sanitary facilities. The Department of Health of South Africa, when coordinating an FAO Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) project on Improving Street Foods in South Africa, drew similar conclusions. This article provides information of the efforts by universities and health authorities in South Africa towards improving the safety and promoting the sale of street-vended foods. It is shown that a successful transition from street food vending being perceived as a nuisance by health authorities can be made to these authorities promoting and improving street food vending instead.

  20. [Main characteristics of the street food sector in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabo, K M; Toe, L Pare; Savadogo, L G B; Tarnagda, Z; Zeba, A N; Zongo, I; Rouamba, J; Toe, A; Ouédraogo, D; Ouédraogo, J B

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the sector of food sold in the streets of Bobo-Dioulasso and identify relevant information for action, a survey on knowledge and practices of street food vendors and consumers was conducted in June 2005. Data have been collected in 928 street food selling posts. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 874 street vendors and 2474 consumers. Street food sites are concentrated in places where administration and trade activities are usually running. The street food seller is a married and illiterate woman of 32 years old. Cereals (48.5%), meat (33.9%), milk (9.6%) and fruits (4.4%) are the basic consumables. The street food consumer is a non married man, 27 years old working in profit-making activity. Consumers use many criteria to choose the place to eat, at times or permanently. The street food sector represents a source of income and induces change in household eating habits. Street food in Bobo-Dioulasso needs to be better organised, by using an holistic approach that involves all the actors.