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Sample records for wall movement assessed

  1. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front...... through the render and into the brick. The test specimen is placed between the source and the detector. The test specimens are all scanned before they are exposed to water. In that way the loss of counts from the dry scan to the wet scan qualitatively shows the presence of water. The results show nearly...... no penetration of water through the render and into the brick, and the results are independent of the start condition of the test specimens. Also drying experiments are performed. The results show a small difference in the rate of drying, in favour of the bricks without render....

  2. Ventricle wall movements and cerebrospinal fluid flow in hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Richard D; Basati, Sukhraaj; Sweetman, Brian; Guo, Xiaodong; Linninger, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    The dynamics of fluid flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) are poorly understood. Normally, CSF flows out of the brain through the ventricles. However, ventricular enlargement during NPH may be caused by CSF backflow into the brain through the ventricles. A previous study showed this reversal of flow; in the present study, the authors provide additional clinical data obtained in patients with NPH and supplement these data with computer simulations to better understand the CSF flow and ventricular wall displacement and emphasize its clinical implications. Three NPH patients and 1 patient with aqueductal stenosis underwent cine phase-contrast MR imaging (cine MR imaging) for measurement of CSF flow and ventricle wall movement during the cardiac cycle. These data were compared to data previously obtained in 8 healthy volunteers. The CSF flow measurements were obtained at the outlet of the aqueduct of Sylvius. Calculation of the ventricular wall movement was determined from the complete set of cine MR images obtained axially at the middle of the lateral ventricle. The data were obtained before and after CSF removal with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt with an adjustable valve. To supplement the clinical data, a computational model was used to predict the transmural pressure and flow. In healthy volunteers, net CSF aqueductal flow was 1.2 ml/minute in the craniocaudal direction. In patients with NPH, the net CSF flow was in the opposite direction--the caudocranial direction--before shunt placement. After shunting, the magnitude of the abnormal fluid flow decreased or reversed, with the flow resembling the normal flow patterns observed in healthy volunteers. The authors' MR imaging-based measurements of the CSF flow direction and lateral ventricle volume size change and the results of computer modeling of fluid dynamics lead them to conclude that the directional pattern and magnitude of CSF flow in patients with NPH may be an indication of the disease state. This has

  3. Ultrasound analysis of the uterine wall movement for improved electrohysterographic measurement and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabotti, Chiara; de Lau, Hinke; Haazen, Nicole; Oei, Guid; Mischi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy, analysis of the electrohysterogram (EHG), which measures the uterine electrical activity, can provide a fundamental contribution for the assessment of uterine contractions and the diagnosis of preterm labor. However, several aspects concerning uterine physiology and its link with EHG measurements are still unclear. As a consequence, the EHG is not yet part of the clinical practice. There is general consensus that modeling and analysis of the EHG can be improved only by understanding and integrating the main properties of the uterine physiology at different levels, e:g:, cellular, tissue, and organ, and of different nature, e:g:, electrical, mechanical, and structural. In this study, we use transabdominal ultrasound (US) measurements to investigate the mechanical changes that the uterus undergoes during pregnancy under the effect of contractions. We refer to this measurement as mechanohysterogram. Analysis of the mechanohysterogram highlights, for the first time, two phenomena that can influence EHG signal interpretation, namely, changes in uterine wall thickness during contractions and respiration-induced uterine wall movements. Our results suggest that these phenomena can affect the interpretation of the EHG and should therefore be taken into account for accurate modeling and assessment of the uterine electrical activity.

  4. Coccygeal movement: Assessment with dynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Roberto [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Piazza Miraglia, 80138 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: Roberto.grassi@unina2.it; Lombardi, Giulio [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Piazza Miraglia, 80138 Naples (Italy); Reginelli, Alfonso [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Piazza Miraglia, 80138 Naples (Italy); Capasso, Francesco [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Piazza Miraglia, 80138 Naples (Italy); Romano, Francesco [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Piazza Miraglia, 80138 Naples (Italy); Floriani, Irene [Clinical Trial Unit, Oncology Department, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ' Mario Negri' , Milan (Italy); Colacurci, Nicola [Department of Gynecologic Obstetric and Reproduction Sciences, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: Chronic coccygodynia is a difficult problem diagnostically and therapeutically. Moreover, there is no deep knowledge especially in the field of imaging of chronic coccygodynia. In this study several possible measurements are proposed, which all are able to demonstrate coccygeal movement during defecation, in order to assess coccygeal mobility using dynamic MRI during maximum contraction and during straining-evacuation. Materials and methods: A dynamic MRI study of the pelvic floor was performed in 112 patients. Five methods of measurement were assessed. Coccygeal movements were determined through the evaluation of three angles pair and two different distances measured during the phase of maximum contraction and during the phase of straining-evacuation. Results were compared according to age, sex, parity and experience of minor trauma. No patient included in the study had coccygodynia. Measurements taken by two radiologist were compared to determine interobserver agreement. Results: The maximum measurement values of the two distances are homogeneous, between 9 and 9.4 mm. The maximum measurement values of the three angles showed a difference that is between 21 deg. and 38 deg. Two of three angles showed a major measurement values in the funtional texts. In only one patient the coccyx was not mobile. Conclusion: Our dynamic MRI study indicates that the coccyx is mobile during defecation and that it is possible to demonstrate coccygeal excursions by assessing the difference between its positions at maximum contraction and during straining-evacuation. The measurement methods used in this study for evaluating coccygeal movements resulted in variably sized observed differences, but all yielded statistically significant results in demonstrating coccygeal excursion. Among the five measurement methods, two resulted in the largest differences. Our data indicate no correlation between coccygeal movements and age, sex, parity, minor trauma and coccygodynia.

  5. MOVEMENT SKILL ASSESSMENT OF TYPICALLY DEVELOPING PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: A REVIEW OF SEVEN MOVEMENT SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Cools

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of movement is often overlooked because it is such a natural part of human life. It is, however, crucial for a child's physical, cognitive and social development. In addition, experiences support learning and development of fundamental movement skills. The foundations of those skills are laid in early childhood and essential to encourage a physically active lifestyle. Fundamental movement skill performance can be examined with several assessment tools. The choice of a test will depend on the context in which the assessment is planned. This article compares seven assessment tools which are often referred to in European or international context. It discusses the tools' usefulness for the assessment of movement skill development in general population samples. After a brief description of each assessment tool the article focuses on contents, reliability, validity and normative data. A conclusion outline of strengths and weaknesses of all reviewed assessment tools focusing on their use in educational research settings is provided and stresses the importance of regular data collection of fundamental movement skill development among preschool children.

  6. How social media matter: Repression and the diffusion of the Occupy Wall Street movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chan S; Vasi, Ion Bogdan; Chang, Paul Y

    2017-07-01

    This study explores the role played by social media in reshaping the repression-mobilization relationship. Drawing on the case of the Occupy Wall Street movement, we examine the impact of Facebook and Twitter on the spatial diffusion of protests during a period of heightened state repression. Results from event history analyses suggest that the effects of repression on protest diffusion are contingent on the presence of social media accounts supporting the movement. We find that state repression at earlier protest sites encouraged activists to create Facebook and Twitter accounts in their own cities, which then served as important vehicles for the initiation of new Occupy protests. Moreover, results suggest that repression incidents can directly facilitate future protests in cities that already have Occupy Facebook accounts. This study highlights the potential of social media to both mediate and moderate the influence of repression on the diffusion of contemporary movements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sriranjani

    Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned

  8. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  9. Movement recognition technology as a method of assessing spontaneous general movements in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMarcroft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants.Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This paper aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment.

  10. Wall Paint Exposure Assessment Model (WPEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    WPEM uses mathematical models developed from small chamber data to estimate the emissions of chemicals from oil-based (alkyd) and latex wall paint which is then combined with detailed use, workload and occupancy data to estimate user exposure.

  11. Assessing corrosion of MSE wall reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to extract reinforcement coupons from select MSE walls and document the extent of corrosion. In doing this, a baseline has been established against which coupons extracted in the future can be compared. A secon...

  12. A New Type of Magnetic Actuator Capable of Wall-Climbing Movement Using Inertia Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yaguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new type of a magnetic actuator that operates on a resonance energy of a mass-spring model by using an electromagnetic force. The magnetic actuator is moved by the difference in an inertia force during one period of vibration. Experimental result demonstrates that a horizontal speed of the magnetic actuator was 7.4 mm/s with load mass of 50 g. We considered a method of a cable-free movement of the actuator by using two iron rails and four permanent magnets. The magnetic actuator is able to move stably a ceiling plane and a wall plane. This actuator is able to move on the plane of the magnetic materials only a function generator and a power amplifier.

  13. The Effect of Viscosity of PDMS Based Silicone-Oil Tamponade Agents on the Movement Relative to the Eye Wall during Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yau Kei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicone oil tamponade is used as vitreous substitute to treat complicated retinal diseases. It provides support to the retina and acts against contraction of the retina and as such plays a vital role in preventing eyes from certain blindness. Silicone oil however has a tendency to emulsify and is accountable to inflammation and glaucoma. In in-vitro study, it was found that using silicone-oil with higher viscosity reduce the occurrences of emulsifications. In this study, an eye model chamber was used to capture the movement of silicone oil bubbles inside the model eye chamber by rapid serial photography. A few tamponades derived from the same material but with different shear viscosities were used. Our objective of this experiment is to investigate the effect of viscosity of tamponade to the movement of tamponade relative to retinal phase in model eye chambers mimicking saccadic eye movements. Our experiment confirms that shear viscosity determines the relative movement between the silicone bubble and the chamber wall. The higher the viscosity, the smaller the movement of tamponade relative to the chamber wall. We suggested that using much viscous tamponade may reduce the onset of emulsification due to the reduction of relative movement.

  14. 3D cardiac wall thickening assessment for acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A.; Chan, B. T.; Lim, E.; Liew, Y. M.

    2017-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most severe form of coronary artery disease leading to localized myocardial injury and therefore irregularities in the cardiac wall contractility. Studies have found very limited differences in global indices (such as ejection fraction, myocardial mass and volume) between healthy subjects and AMI patients, and therefore suggested regional assessment. Regional index, specifically cardiac wall thickness (WT) and thickening is closely related to cardiac function and could reveal regional abnormality due to AMI. In this study, we developed a 3D wall thickening assessment method to identify regional wall contractility dysfunction due to localized myocardial injury from infarction. Wall thickness and thickening were assessed from 3D personalized cardiac models reconstructed from cine MRI images by fitting inscribed sphere between endocardial and epicardial wall. The thickening analysis was performed in 5 patients and 3 healthy subjects and the results were compared against the gold standard 2D late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images for infarct localization. The notable finding of this study is the highly accurate estimation and visual representation of the infarct size and location in 3D. This study provides clinicians with an intuitive way to visually and qualitatively assess regional cardiac wall dysfunction due to infarction in AMI patients.

  15. Sonographic assessment of splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C.F. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: Christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de; Jedrzejczyk, M.; Ignee, A. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The intestinal wall can be visualized using high resolution transabdominal ultrasound. The normal intestinal wall thickness in the terminal ileum, cecum, and right and left colon is <2 mm when examined with graded compression. It is important to appreciate that a contracted intestinal segment can be misinterpreted as a thickened wall. Vascularisation can be mainly displayed in the second hyperechoic layer (submucosal layer) as well as vessels penetrating the muscularis propria. Imaging of the gastrointestinal wall is dependent on the experience of the examiner as well dependent on the equipment used. Acute or chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall is accompanied by increased perfusion of the mesentery, which can be displayed non-quantitatively with colour duplex. In contrast, ischemia is characterised by hypoperfusion of the mesenteric arteries and the bowel wall. The most promising sonographic approach in assessing splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall is combining the analysis of superior and inferior mesenteric inflow by pulsed Doppler scanning (systolic and diastolic velocities, resistance index) with the end-organ vascularity by colour Doppler imaging diminishing the influence of examination technique only displaying bowel wall vascularity. Colour Doppler imaging has been described as helpful in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly in patients with Crohn's disease, celiac disease, mesenteric artery stenosis and other ischemic gastrointestinal diseases, graft versus host disease and hemorrhagic segmental colitis.

  16. Assessing Freedom of Movement for Counterinsurgency Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    advantage of the accord to undermine the legitimacy of the GVN and possibly to improve FoM for the remnants of the guerrilla forces operating in the south...Economically disadvantaged Afghans may not have the ability to purchase a car, so car sales may not tell the assessment staff much about the largest segment of...September 16, 2011: http://www.defense.gov/transcripts/transcript.aspx?transcriptid=4812 Kilcullen, David, “ Globalisation and the Development of

  17. Assessing forest resources in Denmark using wall-to-wall remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Johannes

    then be applied to estimate resources on both small and large scales. Numerous studies have investigated the possibilities of using remote sensing data for forest monitoring at plot or single tree levels. However, experience of estimating these properties for larger areas, for example regional or country...... assessments, is lacking. In this thesis wall-to-wall remote sensing data (from aerial images, airborne LiDAR, and space-borne SAR) were combined with ground reference data (from NFI plots and tree species experiments) to build and evaluate models estimating properties such as basal area, timber volume......, the thesis extends the application of remote sensing methods to estimate important variables with relevance to water catchment management....

  18. Quantification of Human Movement for Assessment in Automated Exercise Coaching

    CERN Document Server

    Hagler, Stuart; Bajczy, Ruzena; Pavel, Misha

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of human movement is a challenge in many areas, ranging from physical therapy to robotics. We quantify of human movement for the purpose of providing automated exercise coaching in the home. We developed a model-based assessment and inference process that combines biomechanical constraints with movement assessment based on the Microsoft Kinect camera. To illustrate the approach, we quantify the performance of a simple squatting exercise using two model-based metrics that are related to strength and endurance, and provide an estimate of the strength and energy-expenditure of each exercise session. We look at data for 5 subjects, and show that for some subjects the metrics indicate a trend consistent with improved exercise performance.

  19. An assessment for the erosion rate of DEMO first wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, M. Z.

    2018-01-01

    In a fusion reactor a significant fraction of plasma particles lost from the confined volume will reach the vessel wall. The recombination of these charged species, electrons and ions of hydrogen isotopes, is a source of neutral molecules and atoms, recycling back into the plasma. Here they participate, in particular, in charge-exchange (c-x) collisions with the plasma ions and, as a result, atoms of high energies with chaotically oriented velocities are generated. A significant fraction of these hot neutrals will hit the wall, leading, as well as the outflowing fuel and impurity ions, to its erosion, limiting the reactor operation time. The rate of the wall erosion in DEMO is assessed by applying a one-dimensional model which takes into account the transport of charged and neutral species across the flux surfaces in the main part of the scrape-off layer, beyond the X-point vicinity and divertor, and by considering the shift of the centers of flux surfaces, their elongation and triangularity. Atoms generated by c-x of recycling neutrals are modeled kinetically to define firmly their energy spectrum, being of particular importance for the erosion assessment. It is demonstrated the erosion rate of the DEMO wall armor of tungsten will have a pronounced ballooning character with a significant maximum of 0.3 mm per full power year at the low field side, decreasing with an increase in the anomalous perpendicular transport in the ‘far’ SOL or the plasma density at the separatrix.

  20. Bladder wall movement evaluation during prostatic irradiation; Evaluation des mouvements de la paroi vesicale lors de l'irradiation prostatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Q.; Fredj, H.; Crequit, P.; Almokhles, H.; Sahli, B.; Murariv, C.; Lagrange, J.L.; Bogalhas, F. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, APHP, Creteil (France); Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Creteil (France); Thariat, J. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice (France); Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for the evaluation of bladder wall movements during prostate irradiation. Six patients have been treated by three-dimensional conformational irradiation. Positioning has been controlled by a daily CBCT before and weekly CBCT after the sessions. Different levels have been defined to measure the bladder wall movements. It appears that the movement of the bladder lower part is less than that of the upper part. The movement of the dome and of the front wall is the most important. The authors discuss the implications of these movements for the internal target volume and for the tumour treatment depending on tumour location. Short communication

  1. Reliability of clinician scoring of the functional movement screen to assess movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobierski, Lisa M; Fayson, Shirleeah D; Minthorn, Lindsay M; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Welch, Cailee E

    2015-05-01

    Clinical Scenario: Injuries are inevitable in the physically active population. As a part of preventive medicine, health care professionals often seek clinical tools that can be used in real time to identify factors that may predispose individuals to these injuries. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS), a clinical tool consisting of 7 individual tasks, has been reported as useful in identifying individuals in various populations that may be susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries. If factors that may predispose physically active individuals to injury could be identified before participation, clinicians may be able to develop a training plan based on FMS scores, which could potentially decrease the likelihood of injury and overall time missed from physical activities. However, in order for a screening tool to be used clinically, it must demonstrate acceptable reliability. Focused Clinical Question: Are clinicians reliable at scoring the FMS, in real time, to assess movement patterns of physically active individuals?

  2. Moisture Durability Assessment of Selected Well-insulated Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report presents the results from studying the hygrothermal performance of two well-insulated wall assemblies, both complying with and exceeding international building codes (IECC 2015 2014, IRC 2015). The hygrothermal performance of walls is affected by a large number of influential parameters (e.g., outdoor and indoor climates, workmanship, material properties). This study was based on a probabilistic risk assessment in which a number of these influential parameters were simulated with their natural variability. The purpose of this approach was to generate simulation results based on laboratory chamber measurements that represent a variety of performances and thus better mimic realistic conditions. In total, laboratory measurements and 6,000 simulations were completed for five different US climate zones. A mold growth indicator (MGI) was used to estimate the risk of mold which potentially can cause moisture durability problems in the selected wall assemblies. Analyzing the possible impact on the indoor climate due to mold was not part of this study. The following conclusions can be reached from analyzing the simulation results. In a hot-humid climate, a higher R-value increases the importance of the airtightness because interior wall materials are at lower temperatures. In a cold climate, indoor humidity levels increase with increased airtightness. Air leakage must be considered in a hygrothermal risk assessment, since air efficiently brings moisture into buildings from either the interior or exterior environment. The sensitivity analysis of this study identifies mitigation strategies. Again, it is important to remark that MGI is an indicator of mold, not an indicator of indoor air quality and that mold is the most conservative indicator for moisture durability issues.

  3. Daily physical activity assessment: what is the importance of upper limb movements vs whole body movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumahara, H; Tanaka, H; Schutz, Y

    2004-09-01

    The movement of the upper limbs (eg fidgeting-like activities) is a meaningful component of nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). This study examined the relationship between upper limb movements and whole body trunk movements, by simultaneously measuring energy expenditure during the course of the day. A cross-sectional study consisting of 88 subjects with a wide range in body mass index (17.3-32.5 kg/m(2)). The energy expenditure over a 24-h period was measured in a large respiratory chamber. The body movements were assessed by two uniaxial-accelerometers during daytime, one on the waist and the other on the dominant arm. The accelerometry scores from level 0 (=immobile) up to level 9 (=maximal intensity) were recorded. The activities of subjects were classified into eight categories: walking at two speeds on a horizontal treadmill (A & B), ambling (C), self-care tasks (D), desk work (E), meals (F), reading (G), watching TV (H). There was a significant relationship between the accelerometry scores from the waist (ACwaist) and that from the wrist (ACwrist) over the daytime period (R(2)=0.64; P<0.001). The ACwrist was systematically higher than the ACwaist during sedentary activities, whereas it was the reverse for walking activities. ACwrist to ACwaist ratio of activities E-H were above 1.0 and for walking activities (A-C) were below 1.0. A multiple regression analysis for predicting daytime energy expenditure revealed that the explained variance improved by 2% only when the ACwrist was added as a second predictor in addition to the ACwaist. This indicates that the effect of the ACwrist for predicting energy expenditure was of limited importance in our conditions of measurement. The acceleration of the upper limbs which includes fidgeting is more elevated than that of the whole body for sitting/lying down activities. However, their contribution to energy expenditure is lower than whole body trunk movements, thus indicating that the weight-bearing locomotion

  4. In vivo monitoring of mRNA movement in Drosophila body wall muscle cells reveals the presence of myofiber domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M C van Gemert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In skeletal muscle each muscle cell, commonly called myofiber, is actually a large syncytium containing numerous nuclei. Experiments in fixed myofibers show that mRNAs remain localized around the nuclei in which they are produced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we generated transgenic flies that allowed us to investigate the movement of mRNAs in body wall myofibers of living Drosophila embryos. We determined the dynamic properties of GFP-tagged mRNAs using in vivo confocal imaging and photobleaching techniques and found that the GFP-tagged mRNAs are not free to move throughout myofibers. The restricted movement indicated that body wall myofibers consist of three domains. The exchange of mRNAs between the domains is relatively slow, but the GFP-tagged mRNAs move rapidly within these domains. One domain is located at the centre of the cell and is surrounded by nuclei while the other two domains are located at either end of the fiber. To move between these domains mRNAs have to travel past centrally located nuclei. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that the domains made visible in our experiments result from prolonged interactions with as yet undefined structures close to the nuclei that prevent GFP-tagged mRNAs from rapidly moving between the domains. This could be of significant importance for the treatment of myopathies using regenerative cell-based therapies.

  5. In vivo monitoring of mRNA movement in Drosophila body wall muscle cells reveals the presence of myofiber domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Alice M C; van der Laan, Annelies M A; Pilgram, Gonneke S K; Fradkin, Lee G; Noordermeer, Jasprina N; Tanke, Hans J; Jost, Carolina R

    2009-08-17

    In skeletal muscle each muscle cell, commonly called myofiber, is actually a large syncytium containing numerous nuclei. Experiments in fixed myofibers show that mRNAs remain localized around the nuclei in which they are produced. In this study we generated transgenic flies that allowed us to investigate the movement of mRNAs in body wall myofibers of living Drosophila embryos. We determined the dynamic properties of GFP-tagged mRNAs using in vivo confocal imaging and photobleaching techniques and found that the GFP-tagged mRNAs are not free to move throughout myofibers. The restricted movement indicated that body wall myofibers consist of three domains. The exchange of mRNAs between the domains is relatively slow, but the GFP-tagged mRNAs move rapidly within these domains. One domain is located at the centre of the cell and is surrounded by nuclei while the other two domains are located at either end of the fiber. To move between these domains mRNAs have to travel past centrally located nuclei. These data suggest that the domains made visible in our experiments result from prolonged interactions with as yet undefined structures close to the nuclei that prevent GFP-tagged mRNAs from rapidly moving between the domains. This could be of significant importance for the treatment of myopathies using regenerative cell-based therapies.

  6. New actigraphic assessment method for periodic leg movements (PLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazenwadel, J; Pollmächer, T; Trenkwalder, C; Oertel, W H; Kohnen, R; Künzel, M; Krüger, H P

    1995-10-01

    A new actigraphic method by which periodic leg movements (PLM) can be measured is presented. Data acquistion and analysis were brought into line to distinguish short-lasting repetive leg movements from random motor restlessness. The definition of PLM follows the generally accepted criteria for PLM scoring. Thirty restless legs patients, all also suffering from PLM, were investigated three times by polysomnography, including tibialis anterior surface electromyography and actigraphy. A high correlation (reliability) was found for the number of PLM per hour spent in bed between the two methods. Furthermore, the actigraph records PLM specifically. An index of random motor restlessness is not sufficient for a reliable PLM according. In addition, periodic movements in sleep (PMS) and PLM show comparable variability in general. The actigraphic assessment of PLM, however, gives a better measure because PMS recordings may result in a substantial underestimation of PLM when sleep efficiency is reduced. This method is an ambulatory assessment tool that can also be used for screening purposes.

  7. Haemodynamic assessment of human coronary arteries is affected by degree of freedom of artery movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Yong, Andy S C; Chang, Michael; Ng, Martin K C; Behnia, Masud; Kritharides, Leonard

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal haemodynamic parameters are associated with atheroma plaque progression and instability in coronary arteries. Flow recirculation, shear stress and pressure gradient are understood to be important pathogenic mediators in coronary disease. The effect of freedom of coronary artery movement on these parameters is still unknown. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations were carried out in 25 coronary artery models derived from authentic human coronaries in order to investigate the effect of degree of freedom of movement of the coronary arteries on flow recirculation, wall shear stress (WSS) and wall pressure gradient (WPG). Each FSI model had distinctive supports placed upon it. The quantitative and qualitative differences in flow recirculation, maximum wall shear stress (MWSS), areas of low wall shear stress (ALWSS) and maximum wall pressure gradient (MWPG) for each model were determined. The results showed that greater freedom of movement was associated with lower MWSS, smaller ALWSS, smaller flow recirculation zones and lower MWPG. With increasing percentage diameter stenosis (%DS), the effect of degree of freedom on flow recirculation and WSS diminished. Freedom of movement is an important variable to be considered for computational modelling of human coronary arteries, especially in the setting of mild to moderate stenosis. 3D: Three-dimensional; 3DR: Three-dimensional Reconstruction; 3D-QCA: Three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography; ALWSS: Areas of low wall shear stress; CAD: Coronary artery disease; CFD: Computational fluid dynamics; %DS: Diameter stenosis percentage; EPCS: End point of counter-rotating streamlines; FSI: Fluid-structure interaction; IVUS: Intravascular ultrasound; LAD: Left anterior descending; MWSS: Maximum wall shear stress; SST: Shear stress transport; TAWSS: Time-averaged wall shear stress; WSS: wall shear stress; WPG: Wall pressure gradient; MWPG: Maximum wall pressure gradient; FFR: Fractional flow reserve; i

  8. Assessing periodicity of periodic leg movements during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Christian; Gast, Heidemarie; Schindler, Kaspar; Müller, Markus; Amor, Frédérique; Hess, Christian W; Mathis, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Periodic leg movements (PLM) during sleep consist of involuntary periodic movements of the lower extremities. The debated functional relevance of PLM during sleep is based on correlation of clinical parameters with the PLM index (PLMI). However, periodicity in movements may not be reflected best by the PLMI. Here, an approach novel to the field of sleep research is used to reveal intrinsic periodicity in inter movement intervals (IMI) in patients with PLM. Three patient groups of 10 patients showing PLM with OSA (group 1), PLM without OSA or RLS (group 2) and PLM with RLS (group 3) are considered. Applying the "unfolding" procedure, a method developed in statistical physics, enhances or even reveals intrinsic periodicity of PLM. The degree of periodicity of PLM is assessed by fitting one-parameter distributions to the unfolded IMI distributions. Finally, it is investigated whether the shape of the IMI distributions allows to separate patients into different groups. Despite applying the unfolding procedure, periodicity is neither homogeneous within nor considerably different between the three clinically defined groups. Data-driven clustering reveals more homogeneous and better separated clusters. However, they consist of patients with heterogeneous demographic data and comorbidities, including RLS and OSA. The unfolding procedure may be necessary to enhance or reveal periodicity. Thus this method is proposed as a pre-processing step before analyzing PLM statistically. Data-driven clustering yields much more reasonable results when applied to the unfolded IMI distributions than to the original data. Despite this effort no correlation between the degree of periodicity and demographic data or comorbidities is found. However, there are indications that the nature of the periodicity might be determined by long-range interactions between LM of patients with PLM and OSA.

  9. Assessing periodicity of periodic leg movements during sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eRummel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS consist of involuntary periodic movements of the lower extremities. The debated functional relevance of PLMS is based on correlation of clinical parameters with the PLMS index (PLMI. However, periodicity in movements may not be reflected best by the PLMI. Here, an approach novel to the field of sleep research is used to reveal intrinsic periodicity in inter movement intervals (IMI in patients with PLMS. Methods: Three patient groups of 10 patients showing PLMS with OSA (group 1, PLMS without OSA or RLS (group 2 and PLMS with RLS (group 3 were considered. Applying the ``unfolding'' procedure, a method developed in statistical physics, enhanced or even revealed intrinsic periodicity of PLMS. The degree of periodicity of PLMS was assessed by fitting one-parameter distributions to the unfolded IMI distributions. Finally, it was investigated whether the shape of the IMI distributions allows to separate patients into different groups. Results: Despite applying the unfolding procedure, periodicity was neither homogeneous within nor considerably different between the three clinically defined groups. Data-driven clustering revealed more homogeneous and better separated clusters. However, they consisted of patients with heterogeneous demographic data and comorbidities, including RLS {em and} OSA. Conclusions: The unfolding procedure may be necessary to enhance or reveal periodicity. Thus this method is proposed as a pre-processing step before analyzing PLMS statistically. Data-driven clustering yields much more reasonable results when applied to the unfolded IMI distributions than to the original data. Despite this effort no correlation between the {em degree} of periodicity and demographic data or comorbidities was found. However, there were indications that the {em nature} of the periodicity might be determined by long-range interactions between LM of patients with PLMS and OSA.

  10. Kinematic assessment of stereotypy in spontaneous movements in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karch, Dominik; Kang, Keun-Sun; Wochner, Katarzyna; Philippi, Heike; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Pietz, Joachim; Dickhaus, Hartmut

    Movement variation constitutes a crucial feature of infant motor development. Reduced variation of spontaneous infant movements, i.e. stereotyped movements, may indicate severe neurological deficit at an early stage. Hitherto evaluation of movement variation has been mainly restricted to subjective

  11. Experimental Assessment of Mechanical Night Ventilation on Inner Wall Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenhui, Ji; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Wang, Houhua

    2016-01-01

    The cooling potential of night ventilation largely depends on the heat exchange at the internal room surfaces. During night time, increased heat transfer on a vertical wall is expected due to cool supply air that flows along the internal wall surface from the top of the wall. This paper presents ...

  12. From Tahrir to Puerta del Sol to Wall Street: The Transnational Diffusion of Social Movements in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Romanos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines social movement diffusion through a comparison between two processes: diffusion from the Arab Spring to the Spanish indignados, and from the latter to Occupy Wall Street. The comparison shows that the content and the channel of diffusion differ from one process to the other. The Spanish indignados received a sense of collective effi cacy from the Arab Spring essentially through indirect means. In the second process, the mediation of third parties facilitated the diffusion of more practical knowledge related to new forms of inclusivity and the occupation of public space. The comparison of these two processes suggests that ideational elements are easily transmitted through indirect channels, whereas behavioural innovations require interpersonal contact to be properly transmitted.

  13. wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  14. Actin Cytoskeleton and Golgi Involvement in Barley stripe mosaic virus Movement and Cell Wall Localization of Triple Gene Block Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoun-Sub Lim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV induces massive actin filament thickening at the infection front of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. To determine the mechanisms leading to actin remodeling, fluorescent protein fusions of the BSMV triple gene block (TGB proteins were coexpressed in cells with the actin marker DsRed: Talin. TGB ectopic expression experiments revealed that TGB3 is a major elicitor of filament thickening, that TGB2 resulted in formation of intermediate DsRed:Talin filaments, and that TGB1 alone had no obvious effects on actin filament structure. Latrunculin B (LatB treatments retarded BSMV cell-to-cell movement, disrupted actin filament organization, and dramatically decreased the proportion of paired TGB3 foci appearing at the cell wall (CW. BSMV infection of transgenic plants tagged with GFP-KDEL exhibited membrane proliferation and vesicle formation that were especially evident around the nucleus. Similar membrane proliferation occurred in plants expressing TGB2 and/or TGB3, and DsRed: Talin fluorescence in these plants colocalized with the ER vesicles. TGB3 also associated with the Golgi apparatus and overlapped with cortical vesicles appearing at the cell periphery. Brefeldin A treatments disrupted Golgi and also altered vesicles at the CW, but failed to interfere with TGB CW localization. Our results indicate that actin cytoskeleton interactions are important in BSMV cell-to-cell movement and for CW localization of TGB3.

  15. Beyond the Museum Walls : Situating Art in Virtual Space (Polemic Overlay and Three Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince Dziekan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of digital communication’s profound effects on social relations and institutions, this paper explores the influence of digitisation on our notions of art through the design of its institutions. No longer can the museum, as the primary technology of art, be viewed as just a physical container. With the additional of the hidden infrastructure of electronic and multimedia technologies that are to be found “behind the walls”, as it were, the architectural issues of negotiating spaces and manipulating locative settings for displaying artworks are as much virtual as physical.As a contribution to the negotiation of a distributed aesthetics, this paper entertains the possibility that transplanting art to the virtual site of the Internet disrupts our understanding of art itself. From presence on the gallery wall to the plane of the screen, if this translation offers an alternative way of seeing, then what does the Web offer to a different apperception of art? How to position the digital in the discourse surrounding art and the role it plays within contemporary cultural practice?In an attempt to ground these concerns, I will frame the subsequent discussion by focussing my attention upon one particularly representative instance: The National Gallery of Victoria’s Ian Potter Gallery of Australian Art; recognising in this localised, site-specific experience a microexample of a much more ubiquitous phenomenon.

  16. Homeschooling in America: Capturing and Assessing the Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This book is the definitive study on homeschooling in the United States, delving into a movement that impacts more students nationwide than the entire charter school movement. In 2010, more than 2 million students were homeschooled. This book explores: (1) The history of homeschooling in America; (2) How this movement has grown in credibility and…

  17. Assisting doctors on assessing movements in infants using motion tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we consider the possibilities of having an automatic computer-based system for tracking the movements of infants. An existing motion tracking system is used to process recorded video sequences containing both color and spatial information of the infant's body pose and movements....... The system uses these sequences of data to estimate the underlying skeleton of the infant and parametrize the movements. Post-processing of these parameters can yield objective measurements of an infant's movement patterns. This could e.g. be quantification of (a)symmetry and recognition of certain gestures...... the task of the clinicians, but the system should instead be considered as a tool for easy extraction of objective measurements describing the movements and as well as a screening tool for highlighting certain patterns in the movements....

  18. Assessment of Soil Arching Factor for Retaining Wall Pile Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Despite the prevalence of the soldier piles retaining wall systems as temporary and even permanent shoring systems along state highways, relatively little is known on the effect of the foreslope bench width and the slope inclination on the arching ca...

  19. Evaluation of optical data gained by ARAMIS-measurement of abdominal wall movements for an anisotropic pattern design of stress-adapted hernia meshes produced by embroidery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, A.; Bittrich, L.; Hahn, J.; Spickenheuer, A.

    2017-10-01

    For the sustainable repair of abdominal wall hernia the application of hernia meshes is required. One reason for the relapse of hernia after surgery is seen in an inadequate adaption of the mechanical properties of the mesh to the movements of the abdominal wall. Differences in the stiffness of the mesh and the abdominal tissue cause tension, friction and stress resulting in a deficient tissue response and subsequently in a recurrence of a hernia, preferentially in the marginal area of the mesh. Embroidery technology enables a targeted influence on the mechanical properties of the generated textile structure by a directed thread deposition. Textile parameters like stitch density, alignment and angle can be changed easily and locally in the embroidery pattern to generate a space-resolved mesh with mechanical properties adapted to the requirement of the surrounding tissue. To determine those requirements the movements of the abdominal wall and the resulting distortions need to be known. This study was conducted to gain optical data of the abdominal wall movements by non-invasive ARAMIS-measurement on 39 test persons to estimate direction and value of the major strains.

  20. Integrated analysis environment for the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Norberto Fischer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD, a chronic and usually permanent condition found in children, is characterized by motor impairment that interferes with a child's activities of daily living and with academic achievement. One of the most popular tests for the quantitative diagnosis of DCD is the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC. Based on the Battery's standardized scores, it is possible to identify children with typical development, children at risk of developing DCD, and children with DCD. This article describes a computational system we developed to assist with the analysis of results obtained in the MABC test. The tool was developed for the web environment and its database provides integration of MABC data. Thus, researchers around the world can share data and develop collaborative work in the DCD field. In order to help analysis processes, our system provides services for filtering data to show more specific sets of information and present the results in textual, table, and graphic formats, allowing easier and more comprehensive evaluation of the results.

  1. Preliminary Results Of Hydrodynamic Responses To Ship Movements And Weather Conditions Along The Coastal Walls Of Shallow Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Cagatay, Namık; Ozeren, Sinan; Sarı, Erol; Eris, Kadir; Vardar, Denizhan; Arslan, Tugce; Basegmez, Koray

    2016-04-01

    Water-level variations in coastal areas and shallow channels take place under the influence of more complex factors, compared to those in deeper areas. Atmospheric pressure, wind, and wave interactions with bottom morphological characteristics are some important natural features while human-induced factors are usually maritime traffic and manoeuvres the ships. While weather conditions cause long-term changes in water level, water level interactions in near shore areas, can occur very quickly depending on the ship manoeuvres and squat characteristics, and these rapid changes can lead to unpredictable water level lowering. Such rapid changes may cause various dangerous incidents and ship accidents, particularly in areas where rapid water oscillations occur. Improper calculations of propulsion power or orientation of the ship body, especially in the areas where geological and morphological characteristics permit fast water movements, are the most important additional causes of accidents due to sudden water level decreases. For an example, even though a 200-m-long vessel can complete its 35° rotation in a circular area with radius of 250 m, if it is calm and sufficiently deep, this diameter increases 5 times at the shallow waters also depending on the hydrodynamic flow conditions. In 2005, "Gerardus Mercator" has bumped into the inside bottom wall of the channel with a low speed (4 knots) turn of when she had just made a 200° turn. Seven years later the cruise ship "Costa Concordia" struck a rock, before she drifted and grounded, in the calm seas of the coast of Isola del Giglio in Italy, due to a combined effects of waves generated by side waves of ship manoeuvres, atmospheric pressure and squat specifications as well. The waves reflected from the seawalls complicate the navigation problems which should be examined in detail. Thus, three prototype models with various angular seawall features were prepared, simple in shape with perpendicular and sloped seawalls with

  2. A Systematic Method of Assessing the Durability of Wood-Frame Wall Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacasse, Michael A.; Morelli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , a limit-states design approach is described that forms the basis of a performance assessment method for wood-frame wall assemblies. The approach is based on the requirements set out in ISO 13823. The approach, developed for the Moisture Management of Exterior Wall Systems (MEWS) project, is described......The long-term performance in respect to moisture management within any wall assembly depends on the hygrothermal response of the wall. Critical factors in estimating the longevity of wood-frame structures include limiting the temperature range, wood moisture content, and time of exposure...... to conditions suitable for the onset, growth, and propagation of mold and rot to occur. The intent in constructing highly insulted wood-frame walls is evidently to reduce energy usage in buildings, but the energy savings as might accrue necessarily cannot be achieved if these walls fail prematurely due...

  3. Assessing the pulmonary toxicity of single-walled carbon nanohorns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Rachel M [ORNL; Voy, Brynn H [ORNL; Glass-Mattie, Dana F [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Saxton, Arnold [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Donnel, Robert L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) may be pose a pulmonary hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs), a relatively new carbon-based nanomaterial that is structurally similar to SWCNTs. Mice were exposed to 30 g of surfactant-suspended SWCNHs by pharyngeal aspiration and sacrificed 24 hours or 7 days post exposure. Total and differential cell counts and cytokine analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid demonstrated a mild inflammatory response which was mitigated by day 7 post exposure. Whole lung microarray analysis demonstrated that SWCNH-exposure did not lead to robust changes in gene expression. Finally, histological analysis showed no evidence of granuloma formation or fibrosis following SWCNH aspiration. These combined results suggest that SWCNH is a relatively innocuous nanomaterial when delivered to mice in vivo using aspiration as a delivery mechanism.

  4. Assessing the pulmonary toxicity of single-walled carbon nanohorns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Rachel M [ORNL; Voy, Brynn H [ORNL; Glass-Mattie, Dana F [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Saxton, Arnold [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Donnel, Robert L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) may pose a pulmonary hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs), a relatively new carbon-based nanomaterial that is structurally similar to SWCNTs. Mice were exposed to 30 {micro}g of surfactant-suspended SWCNHs or an equal volume of vehicle control by pharyngeal aspiration and sacrificed 24 hours or 7 days post-exposure. Total and differential cell counts and cytokine analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid demonstrated a mild inflammatory response which was mitigated by day 7 post-exposure. Whole lung microarray analysis demonstrated that SWCNH-exposure did not lead to robust changes in gene expression. Finally, histological analysis showed no evidence of granuloma formation or fibrosis following SWCNH aspiration. These combined results suggest that SWCNH is a relatively innocuous nanomaterial when delivered to mice in vivo using aspiration as a delivery mechanism.

  5. Ocular pursuit movement assessment by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadera, W; Karlik, S J; Viirre, E; Bloom, J N

    1994-01-01

    We describe a new technique for generating cinematic magnetic resonance images. This method produces more physiological imaging of extraocular muscles than our previous method. In addition, this technique provides more comfort for the study subject and results in less head movement artifact.

  6. Difference in visual processing assessed by eye vergence movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé Puig, Maria; Puigcerver, Laura; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Supèr, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Orienting visual attention is closely linked to the oculomotor system. For example, a shift of attention is usually followed by a saccadic eye movement and can be revealed by micro saccades. Recently we reported a novel role of another type of eye movement, namely eye vergence, in orienting visual attention. Shifts in visuospatial attention are characterized by the response modulation to a selected target. However, unlike (micro-) saccades, eye vergence movements do not carry spatial information (except for depth) and are thus not specific to a particular visual location. To further understand the role of eye vergence in visual attention, we tested subjects with different perceptual styles. Perceptual style refers to the characteristic way individuals perceive environmental stimuli, and is characterized by a spatial difference (local vs. global) in perceptual processing. We tested field independent (local; FI) and field dependent (global; FD) observers in a cue/no-cue task and a matching task. We found that FI observers responded faster and had stronger modulation in eye vergence in both tasks than FD subjects. The results may suggest that eye vergence modulation may relate to the trade-off between the size of spatial region covered by attention and the processing efficiency of sensory information. Alternatively, vergence modulation may have a role in the switch in cortical state to prepare the visual system for new incoming sensory information. In conclusion, vergence eye movements may be added to the growing list of functions of fixational eye movements in visual perception. However, further studies are needed to elucidate its role.

  7. Difference in visual processing assessed by eye vergence movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Solé Puig

    Full Text Available Orienting visual attention is closely linked to the oculomotor system. For example, a shift of attention is usually followed by a saccadic eye movement and can be revealed by micro saccades. Recently we reported a novel role of another type of eye movement, namely eye vergence, in orienting visual attention. Shifts in visuospatial attention are characterized by the response modulation to a selected target. However, unlike (micro- saccades, eye vergence movements do not carry spatial information (except for depth and are thus not specific to a particular visual location. To further understand the role of eye vergence in visual attention, we tested subjects with different perceptual styles. Perceptual style refers to the characteristic way individuals perceive environmental stimuli, and is characterized by a spatial difference (local vs. global in perceptual processing. We tested field independent (local; FI and field dependent (global; FD observers in a cue/no-cue task and a matching task. We found that FI observers responded faster and had stronger modulation in eye vergence in both tasks than FD subjects. The results may suggest that eye vergence modulation may relate to the trade-off between the size of spatial region covered by attention and the processing efficiency of sensory information. Alternatively, vergence modulation may have a role in the switch in cortical state to prepare the visual system for new incoming sensory information. In conclusion, vergence eye movements may be added to the growing list of functions of fixational eye movements in visual perception. However, further studies are needed to elucidate its role.

  8. Automatic Human Movement Assessment With Switching Linear Dynamic System: Motion Segmentation and Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Baptista, Roberto; Bo, Antonio P L; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Performance assessment of human movement is critical in diagnosis and motor-control rehabilitation. Recent developments in portable sensor technology enable clinicians to measure spatiotemporal aspects to aid in the neurological assessment. However, the extraction of quantitative information from such measurements is usually done manually through visual inspection. This paper presents a novel framework for automatic human movement assessment that executes segmentation and motor performance parameter extraction in time-series of measurements from a sequence of human movements. We use the elements of a Switching Linear Dynamic System model as building blocks to translate formal definitions and procedures from human movement analysis. Our approach provides a method for users with no expertise in signal processing to create models for movements using labeled dataset and later use it for automatic assessment. We validated our framework on preliminary tests involving six healthy adult subjects that executed common movements in functional tests and rehabilitation exercise sessions, such as sit-to-stand and lateral elevation of the arms and five elderly subjects, two of which with limited mobility, that executed the sit-to-stand movement. The proposed method worked on random motion sequences for the dual purpose of movement segmentation (accuracy of 72%-100%) and motor performance assessment (mean error of 0%-12%).

  9. Threshold for ion movements in wood cell walls below fiber saturation observed by X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Sophie-Charlotte Gleber; Stefan Vogt; Gabriela M. Rodriguez Lopez; Joseph E. Jakes

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion of chemicals and ions through the wood cell wall plays an important role in wood damage mechanisms. In the present work, free diffusion of ions through wood secondary walls and middle lamellae has been investigated as a function of moisture content (MC) and anatomical direction. Various ions (K, Cl, Zn, Cu) were injected into selected regions of 2 ìm thick...

  10. Cognitive Assessment of Movement-Based Computer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility that dance games such as Dance Dance Revolution or StepMania enhance the cognitive abilities that are critical to academic achievement. These games appear to place a high cognitive load on working memory requiring the player to convert a visual signal to a physical movement up to 7 times per second. Players see a pattern of directions displayed on the screen and they memorise these as a dance sequence. Other researchers have found that attention span and memory ability, both cognitive abilities required for academic achievement, are improved through the use of physical movement and exercise. This paper reviews these claims and documents tool development for on-going research by the author.

  11. Can selected functional movement screen assessments be used to identify movement deficiencies that could affect multidirectional speed and jump performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Schultz, Adrian B; Jordan, Corrin A; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Luczo, Tawni M

    2015-01-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) includes lower-body focused tests (deep squat [DS], hurdle step, in-line lunge) that could assist in identifying movement deficiencies affecting multidirectional sprinting and jumping, which are important qualities for team sports. However, the hypothesized relationship with athletic performance lacks supportive research. This study investigated relationships between the lower-body focused screens and overall FMS performance and multidirectional speed and jumping capabilities in team sport athletes. Twenty-two healthy men were assessed in the FMS, and multidirectional speed (0- to 5-m, 0- to 10-m, 0- to 20-m sprint intervals; 505 and between-leg turn differences, modified T-test and differences between initial movement to the left or right); and bilateral and unilateral multidirectional jumping (vertical [VJ], standing long [SLJ], and lateral jump) tests. Pearson's correlations (r) were used to calculate relationships between screening scores and performance tests (p ≤ 0.05). After the determination of any screens relating to athletic performance, subjects were stratified into groups (3 = high-performing group; 2 = intermediate-performing group; 1 = low-performing group) to investigate movement compensations. A 1-way analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) determined any between-group differences. There were few significant correlations. The DS did moderately correlate with between-leg 505 difference (r = -0.423), and bilateral VJ (r = -0.428) and SLJ (r = -0.457). When stratified into groups according to DS score, high performers had a 13% greater SLJ when compared with intermediate performers, which was the only significant result. The FMS seems to have minimal capabilities for identifying movement deficiencies that could affect multidirectional speed and jumping in male team sport athletes.

  12. “Hizmet” movement assessed by Russian media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamedov Zaur Imalverdi oglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the articles from periodicals – the governmental newspaper “Rossiyskaya Gazeta”, the moderate and liberal newspaper “Izvestiya”, and the popular analytical magazine “Expert” – on the topic of the Turkish movement of “Hizmet” activity. During the research the author studies the “Hizmet's” image in the Russian newspaper and the development of forming the public opinion about it.

  13. The qualitative assessment of general movements in preterm, term and young infants - Review of the methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einspieler, C; Prechtl, HFR; Ferrari, F; Cioni, G; Bos, AF

    1997-01-01

    We describe the state of the art of Prechtl's method for the qualitative assessment of general movements as a diagnostic tool for early detection of brain dysfunction, After discussing the optimal technique for video recording general movements in preterm, term and young infants, attention is

  14. Assessment of Prosocial-Altruistic Behavior of Members and Non-Members of the Scout Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Olivares, Rosario; Pino, M. Jose; Herruzo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences in prosocial altruistic behavior between children and young students who belong to the scout movement and those who do not belong to this or any other similar movement. The prosocial altruistic behavior has been assessed with questionnaires for the school: self-evaluation, teacher, classmate,…

  15. Assessing Expressive Movement: Measuring Student Learning Outcomes in the General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butke, Marla A.

    2014-01-01

    Expressive movement, created by students to demonstrate musical elements and artistry, provides a valid assessment opportunity for general music teachers. This purposeful movement, "plastique animée", was developed by Swiss composer, Émile Jaques-Dalcroze, in the early 20th century. "Plastique animée" can serve as a useful…

  16. The role of the carotid sinus in the reduction of arterial wall stresses due to head movements--potential implications for cervical artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, F M; Soellinger, M; Baumgartner, R W; Poulikakos, D; Boesiger, P; Kurtcuoglu, V

    2009-04-16

    Spontaneous dissection of the cervical internal carotid artery (sICAD) is a major cause of stroke in young adults. A tear in the inner part of the vessel wall triggers sICAD as it allows the blood to enter the wall and develop a transmural hematoma. The etiology of the tear is unknown but many patients with sICAD report an initiating trivial trauma. We thus hypothesised that the site of the tear might correspond with the location of maximal stress in the carotid wall. Carotid artery geometries segmented from magnetic resonance images of a healthy subject at different static head positions were used to define a path of motion and deformation of the right cervical internal carotid artery (ICA). Maximum head rotation to the left and rotation to the left combined with hyperextension of the neck were investigated using a structural finite element model. A role of the carotid sinus as a geometrically compliant feature accommodating extension of the artery is shown. At the extreme range of the movements, the geometrical compliance of the carotid sinus is limited and significant stress concentrations appear just distal to the sinus with peak stresses at the internal wall on the posterior side of the vessel following maximum head rotation and on the anteromedial portion of the vessel wall following rotation and hyperextension. Clinically, the location of sICAD initiation is 10-30 mm distal to the origin of the cervical ICA, which corresponds with the peak stress locations observed in the model, thus supporting trivial trauma from natural head movements as a possible initiating factor in sICAD.

  17. Percent wall thickness evaluated by Gd-DTPA enhanced cine MRI as an indicator of local parietal movement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Masaharu [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac disease, the basic pathology of which consists of a decrease in left ventricular dilation compliance due to uneven hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in monitoring uneven parietal hypertrophy and kinetics in HCM patients. The present study was undertaken in 47 HCM patients who showed asymmetrical septal hypertrophy to determine if percent thickness can be an indicator of left ventricular local movement using cine MRI. Longest and shortest axis images were acquired by the ECG synchronization method using a 1.5 T MR imager. Cardiac function was analyzed based on longest axis cine images, and telediastolic and telesystolic parietal thickness were measured based on shorter axis cine images at the papillary muscle level. Parietal movement index and percent thickness were used as indicators of local parietal movement. The correlation between these indicators and parietal thickness was evaluated. The percent thickness changed at an earlier stage of hypertrophy than the parietal movement index, thus it is thought to be useful in detecting left ventricular parietal movement disorders at an early stage of HCM. (author)

  18. Assessing forest resources in Denmark using wall-to-wall remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Johannes

    Forests act as a multifunctional, natural, renewable resource, and thus play an important role for many different stakeholders. They are not only providers of wood resources, but also fulfil functions such as providing a buffer from noise, habitat for fauna, contributing to air and water quality...... to regional, private owners or the local forest administrators may collect information about their forests by sampling or complete enumeration. This information is usually used for forest management decisions, but is unsuited for assessment of regional forest resources. On a regional to countrywide scale......, the thesis extends the application of remote sensing methods to estimate important variables with relevance to water catchment management....

  19. Assessment of dry-stone terrace wall degradation with a 3D approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuma, Hakan; Camera, Corrado; Faka, Marina; Bruggeman, Adriana; Hermon, Sorin

    2016-04-01

    In the Mediterranean basin, terracing is a common element of agricultural lands. Terraces retained by dry-stone walls are used to conserve arable soil, delay erosion processes and retain rainfall runoff. Currently, agricultural land abandonment is widespread in the Mediterranean region leading to terrace wall failure due to lack of maintenance and consequently an increase in soil erosion. The objective of this study is to test the applicability of digital 3D documentation on mountainous agricultural areas for assessing changes in terrace wall geometry, including terrace wall failures and associated soil erosion. The study area is located at 800-1100 m above sea level, in the Ophiolite complex of the Troodos Mountains in Cyprus. Average annual precipitation is 750 mm. Two sites with dry-stone terraces were selected for this study. The first site had a sequence of three terrace walls that were surveyed. The uppermost terrace wall was collapsed at several locations; the middle at few locations; and the lowest was still intact. Three fieldwork campaigns were conducted at this site: during the dry season (initial conditions), the middle and end of the wet season. The second site had one terrace wall that was almost completely collapsed. This terrace was restored during a communal terrace rehabilitation event. Two fieldwork campaigns were conducted for this terrace: before and after the terrace wall restoration. Terrace walls were documented with a set of digital images, and transformed into a 3D point cloud (using web-based services and commercial software - Autodesk 123D catch and Menci Software uMap, respectively). A set of points, registered with the total station and geo-referenced with a GPS, enabled the scaling of the 3D model and aligning the terrace walls within the same reference system. The density (distance between each point) of the reconstructed point clouds is 0.005 m by Umap and 0.025 m by 123D Catch. On the first site, the model analysis identified wall

  20. Automated image segmentation and registration of vessel wall MRI for quantitative assessment of carotid artery vessel wall dimensions and plaque composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Ronald van 't

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to develop methods for automated segmentation, registration and classification of the carotid artery vessel wall and plaque components using multi-sequence MR vessel wall images to assess atherosclerosis. First, a general introduction into atherosclerosis and

  1. Electrophysiologic Assessments of Involuntary Movements: Tremor and Myoclonus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Dong Park

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tremor is defined as a rhythmical, involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part. Although neurological examination reveals information regarding its frequency, regularity, amplitude, and activation conditions, the electrophysiological investigations help in confirming the tremor, in differentiating it from other hyperkinetic disorders like myoclonus, and may provide etiological clues. Accelerometer with surface electromyogram (EMG can be used to document the dominant frequency of a tremor, which may be useful as certain frequencies are more characteristic of specific etiologies than others hyperkinetic disorders. It may show rhythmic bursts, duration and activation pattern (alternating or synchronous. Myoclonus is a quick, involuntary movement. Electrophysiological studies may helpful in the evaluation of myoclonus, not only for confirming the clinical diagnosis but also for understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms. Electroencephalogram (EEG-EMG correlates can give us important information about myoclonus. Jerk-locked back-averaging and evoked potentials with recording of the long-latency, long-loop reflexes are currently available to study the pathophysiology of myoclonus.

  2. Approach to Assessing the Long-term Performance of Wall Assemblies – Durability of Low-rise Wood-frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacasse, Michael A.; Morelli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The long-term performance or durability of wall assemblies in respect to the moisture management of components of which comprise the wall depends on the hygrothermal response of the wall to local climate loads. Critical factors in estimating the longevity of wood frame structures include limiting...... the temperature range, wood moisture content and time of exposure to conditions suitable for the onset, growth and propagation of mould and rot to occur. Several approaches to assessing the vulnerability of wood frame structures to deterioration have been developed in recent years some of which suggest applying...... in which the LSD approach is applied to low-rise wood-frame walls, as are built in North America, and that incorporate drainage components, such components forming part of a rain screen wall assembly. The use of this approach permits determining whether wall assemblies incorporating novel components...

  3. Economic assessment of single-walled carbon nanotube processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, J. A.; Tanwani, A.; Healy, M. L.; Dahlben, L. J.

    2010-02-01

    The carbon nanotube market is steadily growing and projected to reach 1.9 billion by 2010. This study examines the economics of manufacturing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using process-based cost models developed for arc, CVD, and HiPco processes. Using assumed input parameters, manufacturing costs are calculated for 1 g SWNT for arc, CVD, and HiPco, totaling 1,906, 1,706, and 485, respectively. For each SWNT process, the synthesis and filtration steps showed the highest costs, with direct labor as a primary cost driver. Reductions in production costs are calculated for increased working hours per day and for increased synthesis reaction yield (SRY) in each process. The process-based cost models offer a means for exploring opportunities for cost reductions, and provide a structured system for comparisons among alternative SWNT manufacturing processes. Further, the models can be used to comprehensively evaluate additional scenarios on the economics of environmental, health, and safety best manufacturing practices.

  4. Assessment of efficiency of windbreak and dust suppression walls for coal terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovaya, I. V.; Olishevskiy, A. T.; Lazareva, L. P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper analyzes the methods for measuring atmospheric concentrations of coal dust and assesses the impact of operating activities of the coal terminal at the port of Vanino on the atmospheric air. The authors suggest an installation diagram of windbreak and dust suppression walls for the coal terminal at the port of Vanino; analyze the efficiency of such walls with regard to coal storage conditions, coal characteristics, and storage area; and put forward measures to further reduce the environmental impact of the terminal.

  5. High prevalence of dysfunctional, asymmetrical, and painful movement in elite junior Australian Football players assessed using the Functional Movement Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Chalmers, Samuel; Debenedictis, Thomas A; Townsley, Samuel; Lynagh, Matthew; Gleeson, Cara; Zacharia, Andrew; Thomson, Stuart; Magarey, Mary

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of dysfunctional, asymmetrical, and painful movement in junior Australian Football players using the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). Cross-sectional study. Elite junior male Australian Football players (n=301) aged 15-18 years completed pre-season FMS testing. The FMS consists of 7 sub-tests: deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability push-up (TSPU) and rotary stability. The shoulder mobility, TSPU, and rotary stability tests were combined with an accompanying clearing test to assess pain. Each sub-test was scored on an ordinal scale from 0 to 3 and summed to give a composite score out of 21. Composite scores ≤14 were operationally defined as indicating dysfunctional movement. Players scoring differently on left and right sides were considered asymmetrical. Players reported whether they missed any games due to injury in the preceding 22 game season. Sixty percent of players (n=182) had composite scores ≤14, 65% of players (n=196) had at least one asymmetrical sub-test, and 38% of players (n=113) had at least one painful sub-test. Forty-two percent of players (n=126) missed at least one game in the previous season due to injury. Previous injury did not influence composite score (p=0.951) or asymmetry (p=0.629). Players reporting an injury during the previous season were more likely to experience pain during FMS testing (odds ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval 1.23-3.18; p=0.005). Junior Australian Football players demonstrate a high prevalence of dysfunctional, asymmetrical, and painful movement during FMS testing. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tooth movement out of the bony wall using augmented corticotomy with nonautogenous graft materials for bone regeneration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Kye-Bok; Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Roitman, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to compare the effects of augmented corticotomy with those of different nonautogenous bone graft materials combined with orthodontic tooth movement in dogs...

  7. Artery Wall Assessment Helps Predict Kidney Transplant Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Hernández

    Full Text Available Kidney transplant recipients have high cardiovascular risk, and vascular inflammation may play an important role. We explored whether the inflammatory state in the vessel wall was related to carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT and patient survival following kidney transplantation.In this prospective observational cohort study we measured c-IMT and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in the inferior epigastric artery in 115 kidney transplant candidates. Another c-IMT measurement was done 1-year post-transplantation in 107. By stepwise multiple regression analysis we explored factors associated with baseline c-IMT and their changes over time. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was constructed to identify risk factors for mortality.A worse cardiovascular profile (older age, smoker, diabetic, carotid plaque, systolic blood pressure and vascular calcification and higher VCAM-1 levels were found in patients in the highest baseline c-IMT tertile, who also had a worse survival. Factors independently related to baseline c-IMT were age (β=0.369, P<0.0001, fasting glucose (β=0.168, P=0.045, smoking (β=0.228, P=0.003 and VCAM-1 levels (β=0.244, P=0.002. Independent factors associated with c-IMT measurement 1-year post-transplantation were baseline c-IMT (β=-0.677, P<0.0001, post-transplant diabetes (β=0.225, P=0.003 and triglycerides (β=0.302, P=0.023. Vascular VCAM-1 levels were associated with increased risk of mortality in bivariate and multivariate Cox regression. Notably, nearly 50% of patients showed an increase or maintenance of high c-IMT 1 year post-transplantation and these patients experienced a higher mortality (13 versus 3.5%; P=0.021.A worse cardiovascular profile and a higher vascular VCAM-1 protein levels at time of KT are related to subclinical atheromatosis. This could lead to a higher post-transplant mortality. Pre-transplant c IMT, post-transplant diabetes and triglycerides at 1-year post

  8. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl T. Woods, Harry G. Banyard, Ian McKeown, Job Fransen, Sam Robertson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Talent identification (TID is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF. This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18 AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives. Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA, consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs, single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs, and a push up (six movement criterions. Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02. Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE = -0.89(0.44; p < 0.05, with a score of 4.5 classifying 64% and 88% of the talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent

  9. Evaluation of statin therapy on endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits by automatic measurement of arterial wall movement using ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani-Cherati, Tavoos; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Vajhi, Alireza; Rostami, Abdorrazzagh

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate arterial endothelial function, assessed as acetylcholine-mediated dilation (AMD), in a hypercholesterolemic atherosclerotic rabbit model to investigate the effects of atorvastatin in the atherosclerotic process, using a new computerized analysis model and ultrasound images. Twenty-seven rabbits were fed a high-cholesterol (2%) diet for 6 wk and then divided into three groups for an additional 9 wk: Group A received regular chow food, group B received a 2% cholesterol-rich diet plus atorvastatin drug, and group C received regular chow food plus atorvastatin. Ultrasound examinations of endothelial function of the rabbit abdominal aorta artery were performed immediately after the 6 weeks (0 wk) and then 3, 6 and 9 wk after that. For off-line analysis, a computerized analysis method for evaluating instantaneous changes in the wall of the rabbit abdominal aorta was used. As parameters of improvement resulting from treatment, endothelium-dependent acetylcholine-induced dilation and endothelium-independent nitroglycerin-induced dilation were evaluated in treated rabbits. Differences among groups were tested using analysis of variance. On histopathology, intima-media thickness decreased after treatment in all groups. There were no significant differences in arterial diameter and blood velocity changes among treated rabbits at 0, 3, 6 and 9 wk of treatment in all groups, except in end-diastolic velocity, radial strain percentage, pulse index and resistance index in group C. In group A, AMD did not significantly improve after 3, 6 and 9 wk, as compared with 0 wk. Atorvastatin treatment significantly increased AMD (18%) at 3 wk in group B, compared with week 0. AMD significantly increased after 3 (26%), 6 (124%) and 9 (182%) wk in group C, compared with 0 wk. It is concluded that the new automatic method enables accurate and repeated evaluation of endothelial function during the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Also, the

  10. Motion control skill assessment based on kinematic analysis of robotic end-effector movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ke; Xing, Yuan; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Shuxin; Li, Aimin; Li, Jinhua

    2018-02-01

    The performance of robotic end-effector movements can reflect the user's operation skill difference in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. This study quantified the trade-off of speed-accuracy-stability by kinematic analysis of robotic end-effector movements to assess the motion control skill of users with different levels of experience. Using 'MicroHand S' system, 10 experts, 10 residents and 10 novices performed single-hand test and bimanual coordination test. Eight metrics based on the movements of robotic end-effectors were applied to evaluate the users' performance. In the single-hand test, experts outperformed other groups except for movement speed; in the bimanual coordination test, experts also performed better except for movement time and movement speed. No statistically significant difference in performance was found between residents and novices. The kinematic differences obtained from the movements of robotic end-effectors can be applied to assess the motion control skill of users with different skill levels. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Threshold for ion movements in wood cell walls below fiber saturation observed by X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinka, Samuel L.; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Vogt, Stefan; Rodriguez Lopez, Gabriela M.; Jakes, Joseph E.

    2015-05-01

    Diffusion of chemicals and ions through the wood cell wall plays an important role in wood damage mechanisms. In the present work, free diffusion of ions through wood secondary walls and middle lamellae has been investigated as a function of moisture content (MC) and anatomical direction. Various ions (K, Cl, Zn, Cu) were injected into selected regions of 2 mu m thick wood sections with a microinjector and then the ion distribution was mapped by means of X-ray fluorescence microscopy with submicron spatial resolution. The MC of the wood was controlled in situ by means of climatic chamber with controlled relative humidity (RH). For all ions investigated, there was a threshold RH below which the concentration profiles did not change. The threshold RH depended upon ionic species, cell wall layer, and wood anatomical orientation. Above the threshold RH, differences in mobility among ions were observed and the mobility depended upon anatomical direction and cell wall layer. These observations support a recently proposed percolation model of electrical conduction in wood. The results contribute to understanding the mechanisms of fungal decay and fastener corrosion that occur below the fiber saturation point.

  12. Tooth Movement out of the Bony Wall Using Augmented Corticotomy with Nonautogenous Graft Materials for Bone Regeneration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Kye-Bok; Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Roitman, Igor

    2014-01-01

    ... took place only after the teeth had relapsed. However, no histologic studies have demonstrated the regeneration or reestablishment of the cortical plate [5, 6]. Corticotomy-facilitated tooth movement with alveolar bone augmentation may facilitate the retention of the periodontal ligament, thereby preventing bony dehiscence and gingival recession [7...

  13. Teachers, Micro-Credentials, and the Performance Assessment Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Dan; Berry, Barnett

    2017-01-01

    Micro-credentials, a new form of personalized professional development for teachers, offer a unique solution to the challenge of training school staff to design and implement performance assessments. In a relatively short period of time, micro-credentials have shown promise in enabling a more personalized, effective method of promoting teacher…

  14. Approach to Assessing the Long-term Performance of Wall Assemblies – Durability of Low-rise Wood-frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacasse, Michael A.; Morelli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    a limit-states design (LSD) approach to the performance assessment of the assembly. In this paper emphasis is placed on a further development of the LSD approach within the context of requirements set out in ISO 13823 “General principles on the design of structures for durability”. An example is presented...... in which the LSD approach is applied to low-rise wood-frame walls, as are built in North America, and that incorporate drainage components, such components forming part of a rain screen wall assembly. The use of this approach permits determining whether wall assemblies incorporating novel components...

  15. Tooth Movement out of the Bony Wall Using Augmented Corticotomy with Nonautogenous Graft Materials for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Kye-Bok Lee; Dong-Yeol Lee; Hyo-Won Ahn; Seong-Hun Kim; Eun-Cheol Kim; Igor Roitman

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to compare the effects of augmented corticotomy with those of different nonautogenous bone graft materials combined with orthodontic tooth movement in dogs. Decortication was performed on the buccal bone surface of 6 male beagle dogs that were randomly assigned to receive grafts of deproteinized bovine bone mineral, irradiated cortical bone, or synthetic bone. Immediate orthodontic force was applied to the second and third premolars ...

  16. Assessment of movement distribution in the lumbar spine using the instantaneous axis of rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Won [Trine University, Angola (Indonesia)

    2014-12-15

    The position of the torso and the magnitude of exertion are thought to influence the distribution pattern of intervertebral movements within the lumbar spine. Abnormal intervertebral movements have been correlated with the risk of spine injuries. Since the capability to measure movement distribution within the lumbar spine noninvasively is limited, a convenient method to diagnose joint motion function was proposed. The goal of this research was to test the efficacy of the instantaneous axis of rotation for assessment of the distribution of movement within the lumbar spine. The proposed method was evaluated in the bio mechanical model. The results showed that the location of instantaneous axis of rotation lowered with increased trunk exertion force, and slightly moved higher with increased trunk angle. Recognizing that abnormal location of the instantaneous axis of rotation correlated with spinal pain, these results suggest potential the location of the instantaneous axis of rotation relates to the risk of low back pain on distributed spinal kinematics.

  17. Emerging technology for transonic wind-tunnel-wall interference assessment and corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P. A.; Kemp, W. B., Jr.; Garriz, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Several nonlinear transonic codes and a panel method code for wind tunnel/wall interference assessment and correction (WIAC) studies are reviewed. Contrasts between two- and three-dimensional transonic testing factors which affect WIAC procedures are illustrated with airfoil data from the NASA/Langley 0.3-meter transonic cyrogenic tunnel and Pathfinder I data. Also, three-dimensional transonic WIAC results for Mach number and angle-of-attack corrections to data from a relatively large 20 deg swept semispan wing in the solid wall NASA/Ames high Reynolds number Channel I are verified by three-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes free-air solutions.

  18. Assessment of the abdominal wall function after pedicled TRAM flap surgery for breast reconstruction: Use of modified mesh repair for the donor defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyriac, Chacko; Sharma, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Gurpreet

    2010-07-01

    The pedicled TRAM flap has been a workhorse of autologous breast reconstruction for decades. However, there has been a rising concern about the abdominal wall donor site morbidity with the use of conventional TRAM flap. This has generally been cited as one of the main reasons for resorting to "abdominal wall friendly" techniques. This study has been undertaken to assess the abdominal wall function in patients with pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. The entire width of the muscle and the overlying wide disk of anterior rectus sheath were harvested with the TRAM flap in all our patients and the anterior rectus sheath defect was repaired by a Proline mesh. Abdominal wall function was studied in 21 patients who underwent simultaneous primary unipedicled TRAM flap reconstruction after mastectomy for cancer. In all the patients, the abdominal wall defect was repaired using wide sheet of Proline mesh both as inlay and onlay. The assessment tools included straight and rotational curl ups and a subjective questionnaire. The abdominal wall was also examined for any asymmetry, bulge, or hernia. The minimal follow-up was 6 months postoperative. The objective results were compared with normal unoperated volunteers. The harvesting the TRAM flap certainly results in changes to the anterior abdominal wall that can express themselves to a variable degree. A relatively high incidence of asymptomatic asymmetry of the abdomen was seen. There was total absence of hernia in our series even after a mean follow-up period of 15.5 months. A few patients were only able to partially initiate the sit up movement and suffered an important loss of strength. In most patients, synergists took over the functional movement but as the load increased, flexion and rotation performances decreased. The lack of correlation between exercise tests and the results of the questionnaire suggests that this statistically significant impairment was functionally not important. The patients encountered

  19. Assessment of the abdominal wall function after pedicled TRAM flap surgery for breast reconstruction: Use of modified mesh repair for the donor defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyriac Chacko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pedicled TRAM flap has been a workhorse of autologous breast reconstruction for decades. However, there has been a rising concern about the abdominal wall donor site morbidity with the use of conventional TRAM flap. This has generally been cited as one of the main reasons for resorting to "abdominal wall friendly" techniques. This study has been undertaken to assess the abdominal wall function in patients with pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. The entire width of the muscle and the overlying wide disk of anterior rectus sheath were harvested with the TRAM flap in all our patients and the anterior rectus sheath defect was repaired by a Proline mesh. Materials and Methods: Abdominal wall function was studied in 21 patients who underwent simultaneous primary unipedicled TRAM flap reconstruction after mastectomy for cancer. In all the patients, the abdominal wall defect was repaired using wide sheet of Proline mesh both as inlay and onlay. The assessment tools included straight and rotational curl ups and a subjective questionnaire. The abdominal wall was also examined for any asymmetry, bulge, or hernia. The minimal follow-up was 6 months postoperative. The objective results were compared with normal unoperated volunteers. Results and Conclusions: The harvesting the TRAM flap certainly results in changes to the anterior abdominal wall that can express themselves to a variable degree. A relatively high incidence of asymptomatic asymmetry of the abdomen was seen. There was total absence of hernia in our series even after a mean follow-up period of 15.5 months. A few patients were only able to partially initiate the sit up movement and suffered an important loss of strength. In most patients, synergists took over the functional movement but as the load increased, flexion and rotation performances decreased. The lack of correlation between exercise tests and the results of the questionnaire suggests that this statistically

  20. SPECT imaging evaluation in movement disorders: far beyond visual assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badiavas, Kosmas [General Hospital, Medical Physics Department, Thessaloniki (Greece); Molyvda, Elisavet; Psarrakos, Kyriakos [Medical Physics Dept., General Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Iakovou, Ioannis; Karatzas, Nikolaos [Medical Physical Dept., Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsolaki, Magdalini [3. Neurology Clinic, Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with {sup 123}I-FP-CIT is of great value in differentiating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) from those suffering from essential tremor (ET). Moreover, SPECT with {sup 123}I-IBZM can differentiate PD from Parkinson's ''plus'' syndromes. Diagnosis is still mainly based on experienced observers' visual assessment of the resulting images while many quantitative methods have been developed in order to assist diagnosis since the early days of neuroimaging. The aim of this work is to attempt to categorize, briefly present and comment on a number of semi-quantification methods used in nuclear medicine neuroimaging. Various arithmetic indices have been introduced with region of interest (ROI) manual drawing methods giving their place to automated procedures, while advancing computer technology has allowed automated image registration, fusion and segmentation to bring quantification closer to the final diagnosis based on the whole of the patient's examinations results, clinical condition and response to therapy. The search for absolute quantification has passed through neuroreceptor quantification models, which are invasive methods that involve tracer kinetic modelling and arterial blood sampling, a practice that is not commonly used in a clinical environment. On the other hand, semi-quantification methods relying on computers and dedicated software try to elicit numerical information out of SPECT images. The application of semi-quantification methods aims at separating the different patient categories solving the main problem of finding the uptake in the structures of interest. The semi-quantification methods which were studied fall roughly into three categories, which are described as classic methods, advanced automated methods and pixel-based statistical analysis methods. All these methods can be further divided into various subcategories. The plethora of

  1. Emission of ammonia from indoor concrete wall and assessment of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Z; Dong, Y; Wang, Z; Zhu, T

    2006-04-01

    Addition of urea-based antifreeze admixtures during cement mixing can make it possible to produce concrete cement in construction of buildings in cold weather; this, however, has led to increasing indoor air pollution due to continuous transformation and emission from urea to gaseous ammonia in indoor concrete wall. It is believed that ammonia is harmful to human body and exposure to ammonia can cause some serious symptoms such as headaches, burns, and even permanent damage to the eyes and lungs. In order to understand the emission of ammonia from indoor concrete wall in civil building and assess the health risk of people living in these buildings, the experimental pieces of concrete wall were first prepared by concreting cement and urea-based antifreeze admixtures to simulate the indoor wall in civil building in this work. Then environmental chamber was adopted for studying the effect of temperature, relative humility and air exchange rate on emission of ammonia from experimental pieces of concrete wall. Also the field experiment was made at selected rooms in given civil buildings. Exposure and potential dose of adult and children exposed to indoor/outdoor ammonia in summer and in winter are calculated and evaluated by using Scenario Evaluation Approach. The results indicated that high air exchange rate leads to decreased ammonia concentration, and elevation of temperature causes increasing ammonia concentration and volatilizing rate in chamber. The complete emission of ammonia from the wall containing urea-based antifreeze admixtures needs more than 10 years in general. Ventilating or improving air exchange can play a significant role in reducing ammonia concentration in actual rooms in field experiments. Urea-based antifreeze admixtures in concrete wall can give rise to high exposure and potential dose, especially in summer. Generally, adults have a high potential dose than children, while children have personal average dose rate beyond adults in the same

  2. Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Eusebio; Eguizabal, Alma; Pontón, Alejandro; Díez, Marta Calvo; Fernando Val-Bernal, José; Mayorga, Marta; Revuelta, José M.; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2013-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography images of human thoracic aorta from aneurysms reveal elastin disorders and smooth muscle cell alterations when visualizing the media layer of the aortic wall. These disorders can be employed as indicators for wall degradation and, therefore, become a hallmark for diagnosis of risk of aneurysm under intraoperative conditions. Two approaches are followed to evaluate this risk: the analysis of the reflectivity decay along the penetration depth and the textural analysis of a two-dimensional spatial distribution of the aortic wall backscattering. Both techniques require preprocessing stages for the identification of the air-sample interface and for the segmentation of the media layer. Results show that the alterations in the media layer of the aortic wall are better highlighted when the textural approach is considered and also agree with a semiquantitative histopathological grading that assesses the degree of wall degradation. The correlation of the co-occurrence matrix attains a sensitivity of 0.906 and specificity of 0.864 when aneurysm automatic diagnosis is evaluated with a receiver operating characteristic curve.

  3. Linking movement and reproductive history of brook trout to assess habitat connectivity in a heterogeneous stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Coombs, Jason A.; Nislow, Keith H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    1. Defining functional connectivity between habitats in spatially heterogeneous landscapes is a particular challenge for small-bodied aquatic species. Traditional approaches (e.g. mark–recapture studies) preclude an assessment of animal movement over the life cycle (birth to reproduction), and movement of individuals may not represent the degree of gene movement for fecund species.

  4. Linking movement and reproductive history of brook trout to assess habitat connectivity in a heterogeneous stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoichiro Kanno; Benjamin H. Letcher; Jason A. Coombs; Keith H. Nislow; Andrew R. Whiteley

    2014-01-01

    Defining functional connectivity between habitats in spatially heterogeneous landscapes is a particular challenge for small-bodied aquatic species. Traditional approaches (e.g. mark-recapture studies) preclude an assessment of animal movement over the life cycle (birth to reproduction), and movement of individuals may not represent the degree of gene movement for...

  5. Using Pre-Assessment and In-Class Questions to Change Student Understanding of Molecular Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Shi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how different types of molecules move through cell membranes is a fundamental part of cell biology. To identify and address student misconceptions surrounding molecular movement through cell membranes, we surveyed student understanding on this topic using pre-class questions, in-class clicker questions, and subsequent exam questions in a large introductory biology course. Common misconceptions identified in student responses to the pre-class assessment questions were used to generate distractors for clicker questions. Two-tier diagnostic clicker questions were used to probe incoming common student misconceptions (first tier and their reasoning (second tier. Two subsequent lectures with assessment clicker questions were used to help students construct a new framework to understand molecular movement through cell membranes. Comparison of pre-assessment and post-assessment (exam performance showed dramatic improvement in students’ understanding of molecular movement: student answers to exam questions were 74.6% correct with correct reasoning while only 1.3% of the student answers were correct with correct reasoning on the pre-class assessment. Our results show that students’ conceptual understanding of molecular movement through cell membranes progressively increases through discussions of a series of clicker questions and suggest that this clicker-based teaching strategy was highly effective in correcting common student misconceptions on this topic.

  6. Tooth Movement out of the Bony Wall Using Augmented Corticotomy with Nonautogenous Graft Materials for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye-Bok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to compare the effects of augmented corticotomy with those of different nonautogenous bone graft materials combined with orthodontic tooth movement in dogs. Decortication was performed on the buccal bone surface of 6 male beagle dogs that were randomly assigned to receive grafts of deproteinized bovine bone mineral, irradiated cortical bone, or synthetic bone. Immediate orthodontic force was applied to the second and third premolars for buccal tipping for 6 weeks. The pocket depth and width of keratinized tissue (WKT were measured. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The probing depth, WKT, and ratio of the area of new bone to that of total bone on the buccal side were not significantly different between groups. All groups had considerable new bone formation on the pressure side. New bone formation on the buccal side and buccal plate formation in the coronal direction along the root surfaces were induced by the bone-derived and PDL-derived mesenchymal matrix, respectively. The angular change between groups was significantly different (P < 0.001. Augmented corticotomy using nonautogenous graft materials facilitated tooth movement without fenestrations and accelerated new bone formation on the pressure side.

  7. Tooth movement out of the bony wall using augmented corticotomy with nonautogenous graft materials for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kye-Bok; Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Roitman, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to compare the effects of augmented corticotomy with those of different nonautogenous bone graft materials combined with orthodontic tooth movement in dogs. Decortication was performed on the buccal bone surface of 6 male beagle dogs that were randomly assigned to receive grafts of deproteinized bovine bone mineral, irradiated cortical bone, or synthetic bone. Immediate orthodontic force was applied to the second and third premolars for buccal tipping for 6 weeks. The pocket depth and width of keratinized tissue (WKT) were measured. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The probing depth, WKT, and ratio of the area of new bone to that of total bone on the buccal side were not significantly different between groups. All groups had considerable new bone formation on the pressure side. New bone formation on the buccal side and buccal plate formation in the coronal direction along the root surfaces were induced by the bone-derived and PDL-derived mesenchymal matrix, respectively. The angular change between groups was significantly different (P materials facilitated tooth movement without fenestrations and accelerated new bone formation on the pressure side.

  8. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic wall thickening using multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Thomas S. [Department of Radiology, Diagnostic Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: tskaarup@yahoo.com; Kofoed, Klaus F. [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: kkofoed@dadlnet.dk; Moller, Daniel V. [Department of Cardiology, Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: DVEGA@gmx.net; Ersboll, Mads [Department of Cardiology, Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: ersboell@stud.ku.dk; Kuehl, Tobias [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: tobiaskh@gmail.com; Recke, Peter von der [Department of Radiology, Diagnostic Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: peter.von.der.recke@rh.regionh.dk; Kober, Lars [Department of Cardiology, Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: lk@heart.dk; Nielsen, Michael B. [Department of Radiology, Diagnostic Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: mbn@dadlnet.dk; Kelbaek, Henning [Department of Cardiology, Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: henning.kelbaek@rh.regionh.dk

    2009-10-15

    Background: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the heart provides both anatomical and functional information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of left ventricular contractile function in relation to two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Materials and methods: Sixty-four patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent ECG-gated 64-slice MDCT and TTE. Regional left ventricular contractile function was measured by percent systolic wall thickening (SWT) in 16 myocardial segments using MDCT, and compared with visual evaluation of wall motion score (WMS) by TTE. Global SWT by MDCT was calculated as the mean SWT of all myocardial segments and compared with wall motion index (WMI) by TTE. Results: Eight hundred and eleven segments (81%) were classified as normokinetic, 142 (14%) as hypokinetic, 41 (4%) as akinetic and 5 (0.5%) as dyskinetic by TTE. A significant inverse linear trend was found between regional SWT by MDCT and WMS by TTE (p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity for the identification of regional abnormalities of contractile function were 76% and 78%, respectively. A linear correlation between global SWT by MDCT and WMI by TTE was found (r = -0.8, p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity for the identification of WMI > 1.5 using global SWT was 91% and 94%, respectively. Conclusion: Quantification of systolic wall thickening by MDCT provides functional information, which is well correlated to visual assessment of global left ventricular contractile function by TTE.

  9. Comparison of 2D versus M-mode echocardiography for assessing fetal myocardial wall thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Martínez, Alvaro; García-Otero, Laura; Soveral, Iris; Guirado, Laura; Valenzuela-Alcaraz, Brenda; Torres, Ximena; Rodriguez-Lopez, Mérida; Gratacos, Eduard; Gómez, Olga; Crispi, Fàtima

    2018-02-11

    M-mode and 2D have been proposed for evaluating fetal myocardial thickness. However, studies comparing the performance of both modalities are lacking. We aimed to compare 2D versus M-mode reproducibility for assessing myocardial wall thicknesses. A prospective study including 45 healthy fetuses from low-risk pregnancies evaluated between 18 and 41 weeks of gestation. Left and right ventricular free-wall and septal myocardial thicknesses were measured at end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) in transverse 4-chamber view using 2D and M-mode. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was evaluated by the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Both techniques were compared by t-test of the CCC. 2D and M-mode demonstrated excellent and similar intraobserver repeatability, with the best concordance in ES septal thickness (M-mode CCC 0.956 versus 2D-mode CCC 0.914). Interobserver reproducibility demonstrated also a high concordance, optimal in ES left ventricular free wall (M-mode 0.925 versus 2 D 0.855). Comparison of both techniques demonstrated a high concordance in all measurements, except for ED septal thickness with better reproducibility using M-mode (CCC 0.954 versus 0.847, p = .017). 2D and M-mode can be used in a reproducible manner for measuring fetal myocardial thickness, with a slightly better performance of M-mode for assessing ED septal wall thickness.

  10. 75 FR 2845 - Interstate Movement of Garbage from Hawaii; Availability of an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... waste (MSW) annually in plastic airtight bales that are either palletized or containerized in 20- and 40... programmatic environmental assessment (REA) titled ``Regional Movement of Plastic-baled Municipal Solid Waste... evaluated the environmental effects of transporting baled MSW by tug boat and barge across the Pacific Ocean...

  11. Improving participatory resilience assessment by cross-fertilizing the Resilience Alliance and Transition Movement approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My M. Sellberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience is currently being widely promoted and applied by environmental and development organizations. However, their application of resilience often lacks theoretical backing and evaluation. This paper presents a novel cross-fertilization of two commonly used approaches for applying resilience thinking: the grassroots movement of Transition Towns and the Resilience Alliance's Resilience Assessment. We compared these approaches through a text analysis of their key handbooks and combined them in a series of participatory workshops with a local partner active in the Transition Movement. Our results demonstrate that despite sharing a number of key features, these two approaches have complementary strengths and weaknesses. Strengths of the Transition Movement include its motivating overarching narrative of the need to transform in response to global sustainability challenges, as well as practical tools promoting learning and participation. The Resilience Assessment's conceptual framework and structured process generated context-specific understanding of resilience, but provided little guidance on navigating transformation processes. Combining the Resilience Assessment's theory on complex systems with the Transition Movement's methods for learning also generated synergies in fostering complexity thinking. Based on these findings, we believe that integrating strengths from both approaches could be widely useful for practitioners seeking to apply resilience for sustainable development. Our study also highlights that methods for assessing resilience can be improved by combining insights from science and practice.

  12. Final Report: Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowsell, David Leon [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report documents the Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation. The review followed the approved Plan of Action (POA) and Implementation Plan (IP) using the identified core requirements. The activity was limited scope focusing on the control rod drives functional isolation and fuel element movement. The purpose of this review is to ensure the facility's readiness to move fuel elements thus supporting inspection and functionally isolate the control rod drives to maintain the required shutdown margin.

  13. Quantitative assessment based on kinematic measures of functional impairments during upper extremity movements: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Dimbwadyo-Terrer, Iris; Trincado-Alonso, Fernando; Monasterio-Huelin, Félix; Torricelli, Diego; Gil-Agudo, Angel

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative measures of human movement quality are important for discriminating healthy and pathological conditions and for expressing the outcomes and clinically important changes in subjects' functional state. However the most frequently used instruments for the upper extremity functional assessment are clinical scales, that previously have been standardized and validated, but have a high subjective component depending on the observer who scores the test. But they are not enough to assess motor strategies used during movements, and their use in combination with other more objective measures is necessary. The objective of the present review is to provide an overview on objective metrics found in literature with the aim of quantifying the upper extremity performance during functional tasks, regardless of the equipment or system used for registering kinematic data. A search in Medline, Google Scholar and IEEE Xplore databases was performed following a combination of a series of keywords. The full scientific papers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the review. A set of kinematic metrics was found in literature in relation to joint displacements, analysis of hand trajectories and velocity profiles. These metrics were classified into different categories according to the movement characteristic that was being measured. These kinematic metrics provide the starting point for a proposed objective metrics for the functional assessment of the upper extremity in people with movement disorders as a consequence of neurological injuries. Potential areas of future and further research are presented in the Discussion section. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Uncertainty assessment of a dike with an anchored sheet pile wall using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rippi Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch design codes for the dikes with retaining walls rely on Finite Element Analysis (FEM in combination with partial safety factors. However, this can lead to conservative designs. For this reason, in this study, a reliability analysis is carried out with FEM calculations aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of reliability analysis for a dike with an anchored sheet pile wall modelled in the 2D FEM, Plaxis. Sensitivity and reliability analyses were carried out and enabled by coupling the uncertainty package, OpenTURNS and Plaxis. The most relevant (ultimate limit states concern the anchor, the sheet pile wall, the soil body failure (global instability and finally the system. The case was used to investigate the applicability of the First Order Reliability Method (FORM and Directional Sampling (DS to analysing these limit states. The final goal is to estimate the probability of failure and identify the most important soil properties that affect the behaviour of each component and the system as a whole. The results of this research can be used to assess and optimize the current design procedure for dikes with retaining walls.

  15. Performance assessments for radioactive waste repositories; the rate of movement of faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Newell J.

    1982-01-01

    Performance assessments of mined repositories for radioactive waste require estimates of the likelihood of fault movements and earthquakes that may affect the repository and its surrounding ground water flow system. Some previous assessments have attempted to estimate the rate of formation of new faults; some have relied heavily on historic seismicity or the time of latest movement on faults. More appropriate emphasis is on the identification of faults that have been active or may have been active under the present teconic regime in a broad region and on estimates of the long-term rate of movement of such faults. Faults that have moved under the current stress field, even at low rates, are likely to move again during the time the wastes will remain toxic. A continuum exists for the present rate of movement of faults which ranges from 10 mm per year for obviously active faults along the western margin of the North American plate to as low as 10 -4 mm per year for recently documented faults in the Atlantic Coast province. On the basis of regional consistency in movement rates and constraints imposed by geomorphology, I derive upper bounds for the rates of occurrence of fault offsets for various crustal stress provinces in the conterminous United States. These upper bounds are not meant to substitute for detailed studies of specific faults and seismicity at specific sites. They can help to reduce the considerable uncertainty that attaches to all estimates of future tectonic activity. The principal uncertainty in their estimation is the manner in which total slip across faults is distributed among discrete events especially in regions in which the rate of movement is very low.

  16. Nursing time to program and assess deep brain stimulators in movement disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunka, Karen; Suchowersky, Oksana; Wood, Susan; Derwent, Lorelei; Kiss, Zelma H T

    2005-08-01

    The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia is increasing. Although some published literature describes the methods for DBS programming, the time and nursing requirements to run a DBS surgical program have not been examined previously. For this study, we prospectively recorded the time required for both assessments and programming of the DBS from the preoperative period to 1 year after surgery in a variety of patients. Results showed that the mean total time spent programming the stimulator and assessing these patients ranged from 18.0-36.2 hours per patient. It took twice as long to program the stimulator in patients with Parkinson's disease as it did in patients with essential tremor or dystonia. When setting up a program for movement disorders surgery, nursing time spent on patient assessment and programming should be considered in the workload.

  17. On-screen vector-based ultrasound assessment of vesical neck movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A P; DeLancey, J O; Zwica, L M; Ashton-Miller, J A

    2001-07-01

    We sought to develop a vector-based assessment to determine the magnitude and direction of bladder neck movements, as well as to assess whether probe movement relative to the pubis needs to be taken into account. Ten nulliparous continent, 10 primiparous continent, and 10 primiparous stress-incontinent women were recruited. Perineal ultrasound scanning was performed in standing women while they were resting, performing the Valsalva maneuver, coughing, and performing Kegel exercises. A direct on-screen assessment of bladder neck displacement from rest to the peak of dynamic activity relative to the pubic axis was made. Transducer movement was assessed by measuring the displacement of the pubic bone. The method was feasible because measurements were possible in all 30 subjects. Vesical neck and pubic point movement in millimeters (+/- SD) and the percentage error if pubic point movement is not accounted for are as follow: strain, vesical neck 16.9 +/- 6.1 and pubic point 4.8 +/- 3.9, 28%; cough, vesical neck 10.2 +/- 5.4, pubic point 2.9 +/- 3.4, 33%; Kegel exercise, vesical neck 7.0 +/- 3.6 and pubic point 0.7 +/- 1.4, 37%. Similar discrepancies in angle were found and are presented. Uncorrected direction of vesical neck and pubic point movement in degrees and the percentage error if pubic point movement is not accounted for are as follow: strain, vesical neck 169.4 +/- 18.5 and pubic point 214.0 +/- 56.7, 18%; cough, vesical neck 162.0 +/- 12.8, pubic point 238.4 +/- 27.4, 22%; Kegel exercise, vesical neck -0.9 +/- 12.7 and pubic point -4.8 +/- 20.6, 87%. Test-retest reliability correlations were more than an r value of 0.7 in all measures and 86% of the measurements greater than 0.8. The vector-based system provides a simple method for quantifying distance and direction of vesical neck motion, as well as localizing the resting vesical neck position.

  18. Isometric abdominal wall muscle strength assessment in individuals with incisional hernia: a prospective reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K. K.; Kjær, Michael; Jorgensen, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the reliability of measurements obtained by the Good Strength dynamometer, determining isometric abdominal wall and back muscle strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia (VIH) and healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall. Methods Ten patients with VIH and ten...... and extension showed excellent test–retest reliability for both patients with VIH (ICC 0.91 and 0.99) and healthy controls (ICC 0.97 and 0.96). Bland and Altman plots showed that no systematic bias was present for neither truncal flexion nor extension when assessing reliability. For patients with VIH...... and IPAQ was found. Conclusions The Good Strength dynamometer provided a reliable, low-cost measure of truncal flexion and extension in patients with VIH....

  19. Computer-based assessment of left ventricular wall stiffness in patients with ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Teo, S. K.; Tan, R. S.; Lim, C. W.; Zhong, L.

    2013-02-01

    Ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) is a degenerative disease of the myocardial tissue accompanied by left ventricular (LV) structural changes such as interstitial fibrosis. This can induce increased passive stiffness of the LV wall. However, quantification of LV passive wall stiffness in vivo is extremely difficult, particularly in ventricles with complex geometry. Therefore, we sought to (i) develop a computer-based assessment of LV passive wall stiffness from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in terms of a nominal stiffness index (E*); and (ii) investigate whether E* can offer an insight into cardiac mechanics in IDCM. CMR scans were performed in 5 normal subjects and 5 patients with IDCM. For each data sample, an in-house software was used to generate a 1-to-1 corresponding mesh pair of the LV from the ED and ES phases. The E* values are then computed as a function of local ventricular wall strain. We found that E* in the IDCM group (40.66 - 215.12) was at least one order of magnitude larger than the normal control group (1.00 - 6.14). In addition, the IDCM group revealed much higher inhomogeneity of E* values manifested by a greater spread of E* values throughout the LV. In conclusion, there is a substantial elevated ventricular stiffness index in IDCM. This would suggest that E* could be used as discriminator for early detection of disease state. The computational performance per data sample took approximately 25 seconds, which demonstrates its clinical potential as a real-time cardiac assessment tool.

  20. Assessment Of Mass Movements Driven By Exceptional Meteorological Events Throughout The Use Of DINSAR In Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiotti, Filippo; Arben, Kociu; Tilch, Nils

    2013-12-01

    The main focus of this paper it ´s to elaborate a cost effective strategy for SAR images processing in the aim of assess the Austrian mass movement cadastre through the use of open source software. A new method, aimed at verify the best compromise between statistical probability to detect movements on the ground, temporal and geometric decorrelation, attenuation of the electromagnetic wave by the atmosphere for DINSAR products, is proposed. A comparison of DINSAR displacement maps with GEORIOS (georisken Österreich) cadastre, geological, geomorphological and geotechnical available data were carried out. The ability to detect very slow deformation phenomena was positively assessed. However the possibility to associate precursory vertical displacements to on-going slope degradation processes requires a more detailed advanced DINSAR investigation.

  1. Factors associated with visually assessed quality of movement during a lateral step-down test among individuals with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi; Moran, Uria; Efergan, Arye; Geffen, Yehuda; Finestone, Aharon S

    2014-12-01

    Cross-sectional. To determine what physical measures are associated with visually assessed quality of movement among patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP). An altered movement pattern has been implicated as a risk factor for PFP. An understanding of physical measures associated with an altered movement pattern could potentially help guide prevention and management efforts in patients with PFP. Seventy-nine (40 women) Israel Defense Forces soldiers referred to physical therapy with a diagnosis of PFP were included. Movement pattern was assessed visually during a lateral step-down test and rated as "good" or "moderate," based on previously established criteria. Weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM); hip internal and external rotation ROM; and hip abduction, hip external rotation, and knee extension strength were also assessed. Differences in physical measures between those with good versus moderate quality of movement were assessed. Weight-bearing DF ROM was more limited among participants with a moderate quality of movement compared to those with a good quality of movement (Pexternal rotator and knee extensor muscle strength compared with those with a moderate quality of movement (Ptest. Lower hip muscle strength may be associated with lower quality of movement among patients with relatively greater ankle DF ROM.

  2. Isometric abdominal wall muscle strength assessment in individuals with incisional hernia: a prospective reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2016-12-01

    To determine the reliability of measurements obtained by the Good Strength dynamometer, determining isometric abdominal wall and back muscle strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia (VIH) and healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall. Ten patients with VIH and ten healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall were each examined twice with a 1 week interval. Examination included the assessment of truncal flexion and extension as measured with the Good Strength dynamometer, the completion of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the self-assessment of truncal strength on a visual analogue scale (SATS). The test-retest reliability of truncal flexion and extension was assessed by interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman graphs. Finally, correlations between truncal strength, and IPAQ and SATS were examined. Truncal flexion and extension showed excellent test-retest reliability for both patients with VIH (ICC 0.91 and 0.99) and healthy controls (ICC 0.97 and 0.96). Bland and Altman plots showed that no systematic bias was present for neither truncal flexion nor extension when assessing reliability. For patients with VIH, no significant correlations between objective measures of truncal strength and IPAQ or SATS were found. For healthy controls, both truncal flexion (τ 0.58, p = 0.025) and extension (τ 0.58, p = 0.025) correlated significantly with SATS, while no other significant correlation between truncal strength measures and IPAQ was found. The Good Strength dynamometer provided a reliable, low-cost measure of truncal flexion and extension in patients with VIH.

  3. pH within pores in plant fiber cell walls assessed by Fluorescence Ratio Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidayat, Budi Juliman; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2013-01-01

    The pH within cell wall pores of filter paper fibers and hemp fibers was assessed by Fluorescence Ratio Imaging (FRIM). It was found that the Donnan effect affected the pH measured within the fibers. When the conductivity of the added liquid was low (0. 7 mS), pH values were lower within the cell...... wall than in the bulk solution. This was not the case at high conductivity (22 mS). The occurrence of the Donnan effect allowed the pH values within pores in normal regions of the cell wall to be compared to the pH in regions with misaligned microfibrils (dislocations) when FRIM was carried out...... pretreated wheat straw only when conducted in a low conductivity solution and only for xylanase, not cellulases. The hydrolysis experiments indicate that under typical conditions where conductivity is high, the Donnan effect does not lower the pH close to the substrate to an extent that affects enzymatic...

  4. Examination of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Uptake and Toxicity from Dietary Exposure: Tracking Movement and Impacts in the Gastrointestinal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Bisesi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that exposure of fish to pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs by oral gavage, causes no overt toxicity, and no appreciable absorption has been observed. However, in the environment, SWCNTs are likely to be present in dietary sources, which may result in differential impacts on uptake and biological effects. Additionally, the potential of these materials to sorb nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids while present in the gastrointestinal (GI tract may lead to nutrient depletion conditions that impact processes such as growth and reproduction. To test this phenomenon, fathead minnows were fed a commercial diet either with or without SWCNTs for 96 h. Tracking and quantification of SWCNTs using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF imaging during feeding studies showed the presence of food does not facilitate transport of SWCNTs across the intestinal epithelia. Targeting genes shown to be responsive to nutrient depletion (peptide transporters, peptide hormones, and lipases indicated that pept2, a peptide transporter, and cck, a peptide hormone, showed differential mRNA expression by 96 h, a response that may be indicative of nutrient limitation. The results of the current study increase our understanding of the movement of SWCNTs through the GI tract, while the changes in nutrient processing genes highlight a novel mechanism of sublethal toxicity in aquatic organisms.

  5. A Support Analysis Framework for mass movement damage assessment: applications to case studies in Calabria (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, O.; Gullã, G.

    2009-03-01

    The analysis of data describing damage caused by mass movements in Calabria (Italy) allowed the organisation of the Support Analysis Framework (SAF), a spreadsheet that converts damage descriptions into numerical indices expressing direct, indirect, and intangible damage. The SAF assesses damage indices of past mass movements and the potential outcomes of dormant phenomena re-activations. It is based on the effects on damaged elements and is independent of both physical and geometric phenomenon characteristics. SAF sections that assess direct damage encompass several lines, each describing an element characterised by a value fixed on a relative arbitrary scale. The levels of loss are classified as: L4: complete; L3: high; L2: medium; or L1: low. For a generic line l, the SAF multiplies the value of a damaged element by its level of loss, obtaining dl, the contribution of the line to the damage. Indirect damage is appraised by two sections accounting for: (a) actions aiming to overcome emergency situations and (b) actions aiming to restore pre-movement conditions. The level of loss depends on the number of people involved (a) or the cost of actions (b). For intangible damage, the level of loss depends on the number of people involved. We examined three phenomena, assessing damage using the SAF and SAFL, customised versions of SAF based on the elements actually present in the analysed municipalities that consider the values of elements in the community framework. We show that in less populated, inland, and affluent municipalities, the impact of mass movements is greater than in coastal areas. The SAF can be useful to sort groups of phenomena according to their probable future damage, supplying results significant either for insurance companies or for local authorities involved in both disaster management and planning of defensive measures.

  6. A Support Analysis Framework for mass movement damage assessment: applications to case studies in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of data describing damage caused by mass movements in Calabria (Italy allowed the organisation of the Support Analysis Framework (SAF, a spreadsheet that converts damage descriptions into numerical indices expressing direct, indirect, and intangible damage.

    The SAF assesses damage indices of past mass movements and the potential outcomes of dormant phenomena re-activations. It is based on the effects on damaged elements and is independent of both physical and geometric phenomenon characteristics.

    SAF sections that assess direct damage encompass several lines, each describing an element characterised by a value fixed on a relative arbitrary scale. The levels of loss are classified as: L4: complete; L3: high; L2: medium; or L1: low. For a generic line l, the SAF multiplies the value of a damaged element by its level of loss, obtaining dl, the contribution of the line to the damage.

    Indirect damage is appraised by two sections accounting for: (a actions aiming to overcome emergency situations and (b actions aiming to restore pre-movement conditions. The level of loss depends on the number of people involved (a or the cost of actions (b.

    For intangible damage, the level of loss depends on the number of people involved.

    We examined three phenomena, assessing damage using the SAF and SAFL, customised versions of SAF based on the elements actually present in the analysed municipalities that consider the values of elements in the community framework. We show that in less populated, inland, and affluent municipalities, the impact of mass movements is greater than in coastal areas.

    The SAF can be useful to sort groups of phenomena according to their probable future damage, supplying results significant either for insurance companies or for local authorities involved in both disaster management and planning of defensive measures.

  7. Assessing the impact of marine wind farms on birds through movement modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masden, Elizabeth A; Reeve, Richard; Desholm, Mark; Fox, Anthony D; Furness, Robert W; Haydon, Daniel T

    2012-09-07

    Advances in technology and engineering, along with European Union renewable energy targets, have stimulated a rapid growth of the wind power sector. Wind farms contribute to carbon emission reductions, but there is a need to ensure that these structures do not adversely impact the populations that interact with them, particularly birds. We developed movement models based on observed avoidance responses of common eider Somateria mollissima to wind farms to predict, and identify potential measures to reduce, impacts. Flight trajectory data that were collected post-construction of the Danish Nysted offshore wind farm were used to parameterize competing models of bird movements around turbines. The model most closely fitting the observed data incorporated individual variation in the minimum distance at which birds responded to the turbines. We show how such models can contribute to the spatial planning of wind farms by assessing their extent, turbine spacing and configurations on the probability of birds passing between the turbines. Avian movement models can make new contributions to environmental assessments of wind farm developments, and provide insights into how to reduce impacts that can be identified at the planning stage.

  8. Assessing the impact of marine wind farms on birds through movement modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Reeve, Richard; Desholm, Mark; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in technology and engineering, along with European Union renewable energy targets, have stimulated a rapid growth of the wind power sector. Wind farms contribute to carbon emission reductions, but there is a need to ensure that these structures do not adversely impact the populations that interact with them, particularly birds. We developed movement models based on observed avoidance responses of common eider Somateria mollissima to wind farms to predict, and identify potential measures to reduce, impacts. Flight trajectory data that were  collected post-construction of the Danish Nysted offshore wind farm were used to parameterize competing models of bird movements around turbines. The model most closely fitting the observed data incorporated individual variation in the minimum distance at which birds responded to the turbines. We show how such models can contribute to the spatial planning of wind farms by assessing their extent, turbine spacing and configurations on the probability of birds passing between the turbines. Avian movement models can make new contributions to environmental assessments of wind farm developments, and provide insights into how to reduce impacts that can be identified at the planning stage. PMID:22552921

  9. Assessing secondary science students' knowledge of molecule movement, concentration gradients, and equilibrium through multiple contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Background: Studies have shown that students' knowledge of osmosis and diffusion and the concepts associated with these processes is often inaccurate. This is important to address, as these concepts not only provide the foundation for more advanced topics in biology and chemistry, but are also threaded throughout both state and national science standards. Purpose: In this study, designed to determine the completeness and accuracy of three specific students' knowledge of molecule movement, concentration gradients, and equilibrium, I sought to address the following question: Using multiple evaluative methods, how can students' knowledge of molecule movement, concentration gradients, and equilibrium be characterized? Sample: This study focuses on data gathered from three students - Emma, Henry, and Riley - all of whom were gifted/honors ninth-grade biology students at a suburban high school in the southeast United States. Design and Methods: Using various qualitative data analysis techniques, I analyzed multiple sources of data from the three students, including multiple-choice test results, written free-response answers, think-aloud interview responses, and student drawings. Results: Results of the analysis showed that students maintained misconceptions about molecule movement, concentration gradients, and equilibrium. The conceptual knowledge students demonstrated differed depending on the assessment method, with the most distinct differences appearing on the multiple-choice versus the free-response questions, and in verbal versus written formats. Conclusions: Multiple levels of assessment may be required to obtain an accurate picture of content knowledge, as free-response and illustrative tasks made it difficult for students to conceal any misconceptions. Using a variety of assessment methods within a section of the curriculum can arguably help to provide a deeper understanding of student knowledge and learning, as well as illuminate misconceptions that may have

  10. Congenital prosopagnosia in a child: Neuropsychological assessment, eye movement recordings and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzamiglio, M R; De Luca, M; Di Vita, A; Palermo, L; Tanzilli, A; Dacquino, C; Piccardi, L

    2017-04-01

    Here we report the assessment and treatment of a 6-year-old boy (L.G.) who was referred to us for congenital prosopagnosia (CP). We investigated his performance using a test battery and eye movement recordings pre- and post-training. L.G. showed deficits in recognising relatives and learning new faces, and misrecognition of unfamiliar people. Eye movement recordings showed that L.G. focused on the lower part of stimuli in naming tasks based on familiar or unfamiliar incomplete or complete faces. The training focused on improving his ability to explore internal features of faces, to discriminate specific facial features of familiar and unfamiliar faces, and to provide his family with strategies to use in the future. At the end of the training programme L.G. no longer failed to recognise close and distant relatives and classmates and did not falsely recognise unknown people.

  11. The pectoralis minor muscle and shoulder movement-related impairments and pain: Rationale, assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Nuno; Cruz, Joana

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive shortening or tightness of the pectoralis minor muscle (PMm) is one of the potential biomechanical mechanisms associated with altered scapular alignment at rest and scapular motion during arm elevation (scapular dyskinesis) in patients with shoulder complaints. This masterclass briefly reviews the role of the PMm in shoulder movement-related impairments and provides a critical overview of the assessment of PMm tightness and the conventional approaches to increase its resting length and extensibility. A rehabilitation approach focused on PMm stretching and simultaneous optimization of the kinematic chain of arm elevation is also discussed, hoping to improve the management of shoulder movement-related impairments and pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment Of Slope Covers Vulnerability To Shallow Mass Movements Using Sinmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demczuk, Piotr; Zydroń, Tymoteusz; Franczak, Łukasz

    2014-06-01

    In Flysch Carpathians mass movements are a significant factor that causes changes in the morphology of slopes and, in many cases, causes also economic damage. A complicated geological structure of the area, high height differences and high rainfall, which is the main factor initiating mass movements, are mainly listed among the basic conditions for such type of processes to occur. Infiltration of rainfall in the soil profile can lead to a loss of stability in two ways (Crosta 1998). Infiltration process can cause an increase in the groundwater level when there are low intensity rainfalls. High intensity rainfalls can cause creating of perched water table in the area of moving quench front, therefore in many publications in the field of geotechnics and engineering geology (among others: Crosta 1998; Li et al. 2006; Rahardjo et al. 2007, 2010; Tu et al. 2009) assessment of vulnerability of slope covers to mass movements does not focus only on the strength parameters of the soil, but it also takes infiltration of rainfall into consideration. Because of a recent development of spatial information systems, slope stability evaluation is more often done in relation to large areas, comprising river basins or even regions (Montgomery and Dietrich 1994; Morrissey et al. 2001; Meisina and Scarabelli 2007). One of the generally used in GIS environment phy sical model of water distribution in the soil profile that allows to determine slope stability is SINMAP (Pack et al. 1999). An attempt to do a preliminary assessment of vulnerability of surface slope covers from the area of Nowy Wiśnicz commune to mass movements using SINMAP model was made and presented in the paper, along with the verification of modeling results with actual existing landslides

  13. Analysis of reaching movements of upper arm in robot assisted exercises. Kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching single-joint movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuppariello, Luigi; D'Addio, Giovanni; Romano, Maria; Bifulco, Paolo; Lanzillo, Bernardo; Pappone, Nicola; Cesarelli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Robot-mediated therapy (RMT) has been a very dynamic area of research in recent years. Robotics devices are in fact capable to quantify the performances of a rehabilitation task in treatments of several disorders of the arm and the shoulder of various central and peripheral etiology. Different systems for robot-aided neuro-rehabilitation are available for upper limb rehabilitation but the biomechanical parameters proposed until today, to evaluate the quality of the movement, are related to the specific robot used and to the type of exercise performed. Besides, none study indicated a standardized quantitative evaluation of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, so the RMT is still far to be considered a standardised tool. In this paper a quantitative kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, considering also the effect of gravity on the quality of the movements, is proposed. We studied a group of 10 healthy subjects and results indicate that our advised protocol can be useful for characterising normal pattern in reaching movements.

  14. Use of response envelopes for seismic margin assessment of reinforced concrete walls and slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ile, Nicolas; Frau, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.frau@cea.fr

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Proposal of a method for application of the elliptical envelope to RC shell elements. • Proposal of new algorithms for the seismic margin evaluation for RC shell elements. • Verification of a RC wall 3D structure, using the proposed assessment approach. - Abstract: Seismic safety evaluations of existing nuclear facilities are usually based on the assumption of structural linearity. For the design basis earthquake (DBE), it is reasonable to apply a conventional evaluation of the seismic safety of building structures and carry out a linear elastic analysis to assess the load effects on structural elements. Estimating the seismic capacity of a structural element requires an estimation of the critical combination of responses acting in this structural element and compare this combination with the capacity of the element. By exploiting the response-spectrum-based procedure for predicting the response envelopes in linear structures formulated by Menun and Der Kiureghian (2000a), algorithms are developed for the seismic margin assessment of reinforced concrete shell finite elements. These algorithms facilitate the comparison of the response-spectrum-based envelopes to prescribed capacity surfaces for the purpose of assessing the safety margin of this kind of structures. The practical application of elliptical response envelopes in case of shell finite elements is based on the use of layer models such as those developed by Marti (1990), which transfer the generalized stress field to three layers under the assumption that the two outer layers carry membrane forces and the internal layer carries only the out-of-plane shears. The utility of the assessment approach is discussed with reference to a case study of a 3D structure made of reinforced concrete walls.

  15. Assessment of dyssynchronous wall motion during acute myocardial ischemia using velocity vector imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Kasumi; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Asuka; Uranishi, Ayumi; Ishikura, Fuminobu; Beppu, Shintaro

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of velocity vector imaging (VVI) for detecting acute myocardial ischemia and whether VVI can accurately demonstrate the spatial extent of ischemic risk area. Using a tracking algorithm, VVI can display velocity vectors of regional wall motion overlaid onto the B-mode image and allows the quantitative assessment of myocardial mechanics. However, its efficacy for diagnosing myocardial ischemia has not been evaluated. In 18 dogs with flow-limiting stenosis and/or total occlusion of the coronary artery, peak systolic radial velocity (V(SYS)), radial velocity at mitral valve opening (V(MVO)), peak systolic radial strain, and the percent change in wall thickening (%WT) were measured in the normal and risk areas and compared to those at baseline. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting the stenosis and occlusion were analyzed in each parameter. The area of inward velocity vectors at mitral valve opening (MVO) detected by VVI was compared to the risk area derived from real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE). Twelve image clips were randomly selected from the baseline, stenosis, and occlusions to determine the intra- and inter-observer agreement for the VVI parameters. The left circumflex coronary flow was reduced by 44.3 +/- 9.0% during stenosis and completely interrupted during occlusion. During coronary artery occlusion, inward motion at MVO was observed in the risk area. Percent WT, peak systolic radial strain, V(SYS), and V(MVO) changed significantly from values at baseline. During stenosis, %WT, peak systolic radial strain, and V(SYS) did not differ from those at baseline; however, V(MVO) was significantly increased (-0.12 +/- 0.60 cm/s vs. -0.96 +/- 0.55 cm/s, p = 0.015). Sensitivity and specificity of V(MVO) for detecting ischemia were superior to those of other parameters. The spatial extent of inward velocity vectors at MVO correlated well with that of the risk area derived from MCE

  16. Towards a Western European “Social Movement Society”? An Assessment: 1981–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Quaranta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some social movements scholars argue that contemporary democracies are becoming “social movements societies”: citizens are often mobilized to make claims; protest actions are progressively becoming part of institutional politics; and protest has diffused to new constituents. In other words, participants in protest activities are more difficult to be identified. This article aims to provide an updated assessment of the “social movement society” thesis in Western Europe, with a focus on the expansion, institutionalization, and, in particular, to the diffusion of political protest to new groups. Using the European Values Study, which spans from 1981 to 2009, it is found that in Western Europe forms of protest are more popular than in the past, that a partial institutionalization has occurred, and that traditionally disengaged individuals protest more compared to the past. However, the process of “normalization” of the political protester has yet to be completed, given that differences in the levels of engagement still exist among social groups.

  17. Progress in the engineering design and assessment of the European DEMO first wall and divertor plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Thomas R., E-mail: tom.barrett@ukaea.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Ellwood, G.; Pérez, G.; Kovari, M.; Fursdon, M.; Domptail, F.; Kirk, S.; McIntosh, S.C.; Roberts, S.; Zheng, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, L.V. [KIT, INR, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); You, J.-H. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion, PPPT, Boltzmann Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Reiser, J.; Rieth, M. [KIT, IAM, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Visca, E.; Mazzone, G. [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Arbeiter, F. [KIT, INR, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Domalapally, P.K. [Research Center Rez, Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec – Řež (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The engineering of the plasma facing components for DEMO is an extreme challenge. • PFC overall requirements, methods for assessment and designs status are described. • Viable divertor concepts for 10 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux appear to be within reach. • The first wall PFC concept will need to vary poloidally around the wall. • First wall coolant, structural material and PFC topology are open design choices. - Abstract: The European DEMO power reactor is currently under conceptual design within the EUROfusion Consortium. One of the most critical activities is the engineering of the plasma-facing components (PFCs) covering the plasma chamber wall, which must operate reliably in an extreme environment of neutron irradiation and surface heat and particle flux, while also allowing sufficient neutron transmission to the tritium breeding blankets. A systems approach using advanced numerical analysis is vital to realising viable solutions for these first wall and divertor PFCs. Here, we present the system requirements and describe bespoke thermo-mechanical and thermo-hydraulic assessment procedures which have been used as tools for design. The current first wall and divertor designs are overviewed along with supporting analyses. The PFC solutions employed will necessarily vary around the wall, depending on local conditions, and must be designed in an integrated manner by analysis and physical testing.

  18. Quantitative Assessment of the Arm/Hand Movements in Parkinson’s Disease Using a Wireless Armband Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Spasojević

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for quantitative assessment of the arm/hand movements in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD, from sensor data acquired with a wearable, wireless armband device (Myo sensor. We propose new Movement Performance Indicators that can be adopted by practitioners for the quantitative evaluation of motor performance and support their clinical evaluations. In addition, specific Movement Performance Indicators can indicate the presence of the bradykinesia symptom. The study includes seventeen PD patients and sixteen age-matched controls. A set of representative arm/hand movements is defined under the supervision of movement disorder specialist. In order to assist the evaluations, and for progress monitoring purposes, as well as for assessing the amount of bradykinesia in PD, a total set of 84 Movement Performance Indicators are computed from the sensor readings. Subsequently, we investigate whether wireless armband device, with the use of the proposed Movement Performance Indicators can be utilized: (1 for objective and precise quantitative evaluation of the arm/hand movements of Parkinson’s patients, (2 for assessment of the bradykinesia motor symptom, and (3 as an adequate low-cost alternative for the sensor glove. We conducted extensive analysis of proposed Movement Performance Indicators and results are indicating following clinically relevant characteristics: (i adequate reliability as measured by ICC; (ii high accuracy in discrimination between the patients and controls, and between the disease stages (support to disease diagnosis and progress monitoring, respectively; (iii substantial difference in comparison between the left-hand and the right-hand movements across controls and patients, as well as between disease stage groups; (iv statistically significant correlation with clinical scales (tapping test and UPDRS-III Motor Score; and (v quantitative evaluation of bradykinesia symptom. Results suggest that the proposed

  19. A clinically relevant in vivo model for the assessment of scaffold efficacy in abdominal wall reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey CY Chan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An animal model that allows for assessment of the degree of stretching or contraction of the implant area and the in vivo degradation properties of biological meshes is required to evaluate their performance in vivo. Adult New Zealand rabbits underwent full thickness subtotal unilateral rectus abdominis muscle excision and were reconstructed with the non-biodegradable Peri-Guard®, Prolene® or biodegradable Surgisis® meshes. Following 8 weeks of recovery, the anterior abdominal wall tissue samples were collected for measurement of the implant dimensions. The Peri-Guard and Prolene meshes showed a slight and obvious shrinkage, respectively, whereas the Surgisis mesh showed stretching, resulting in hernia formation. Surgisis meshes showed in vivo biodegradation and increased collagen formation. This surgical rabbit model for abdominal wall defects is advantageous for evaluating the in vivo behaviour of surgical meshes. Implant area stretching and shrinkage were detected corresponding to mesh properties, and histological analysis and stereological methods supported these findings.

  20. Ptosis assessment spectacles: a new method of measuring lid position and movement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandwala, Mona; Dey, Sarju; Harcourt, Cassie; Wood, Clive; Jones, Carole A

    2011-01-01

    Accurate assessment of eyelid position and movement is vital in planning the surgical correction of ptosis. Conventional measurements taken using a millimeter ruler are considered the gold standard, although in young children this can be a difficult procedure. The authors have designed ptosis assessment spectacles with a measuring millimeter scale marked on the center of the lens to facilitate accurate assessment of eyelid position and function in children. The purpose of the study was to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of eyelid measurement using these ptosis assessment spectacles. Fifty-two children aged 2-12 years were recruited in this study. Each child underwent 2 sets of measurements. The first was undertaken by an ophthalmologist in the conventional manner using a ruler, and the second set made with ptosis assessment spectacles. On each occasion the palpebral aperture, skin crease, and levator function were recorded in millimeters. A verbal analog scale was used to assess parent satisfaction with each method. Clinically acceptable reproducibility was shown with the ruler and the spectacles for all measurements: palpebral aperture, skin crease, and levator function. Parents significantly preferred the glasses for measurement, as compared with the ruler (p spectacles are as accurate as conventional methods of measurement, but are easier to use. Children tolerate these spectacles well, and most parents preferred them to the ruler.

  1. Assessing the impact of movement consequences on the development of early reaching in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L Williams

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on infant reaching has shown that providing infants with repeated opportunities to reach for objects aids the emergence and progression of reaching behavior. This study investigated the effect of movement consequences on the process of learning to reach in pre-reaching infants. Thirty-five infants aged 2.9 months at the onset of the study were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Two groups received a 14-day intervention to distinct reaching tasks: (1 in a contingent group, a toy target moved and sounded upon contact only, and (2 in a continuous group, the toy moved and sounded continuously, independent of hand-toy contact. A third control group did not receive any intervention; this group’s performance was assessed only on two days at a 15-day interval. Results revealed that infants in the contingent group made the most progress over time compared to the two other groups. Infants in this group made significantly more overall contacts with the sounding/moving toy, and they increased their rate of visually-attended target contacts relative to non-visually-attended target contacts compared to the continuous and control groups. Infants in the continuous group did not differ from the control group on the number of hand-toy contacts nor did they show a change in visually-attended target versus non-visually-attended target contacts ratio over time. However, they did show an increase in movement speed, presumably in an attempt to attain the moving toy. These findings highlight the importance of contingent movement consequences as a critical reinforcer for the selection of action and motor learning in early development. Through repeated opportunities to explore movement consequences, infants discover and select movements that are most successful to the task-at-hand. This study further demonstrates that distinct sensory-motor experiences can have a significant impact on developmental trajectories and can influence the skills young infants

  2. A new approach combining analytical methods for workplace exposure assessment of inhalable multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, P.C.; Kuijpers, E.; Bekker, C.; Godderis, L.; Lan, Q.; Jedynska, A.D.; Vermeulen, R.; Pronk, A.

    2017-01-01

    To date there is no consensus about the most appropriate analytical method for measuring carbon nanotubes (CNTs), hampering the assessment and limiting the comparison of data. The goal of this study is to develop an approach for the assessment of the level and nature of inhalable multi-wall CNTs

  3. A simulation environment for validating ultrasonic blood flow and vessel wall imaging based on fluid-structure interaction simulations: ultrasonic assessment of arterial distension and wall shear rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swillens, Abigail; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; Lovstakken, Lasse; Segers, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a commonly used vascular imaging tool when screening for patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, current blood flow and vessel wall imaging methods are hampered by several limitations. When optimizing and developing new ultrasound modalities, proper validation is required before clinical implementation. Therefore, the authors present a simulation environment integrating ultrasound and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations, allowing construction of synthetic ultrasound images based on physiologically realistic behavior of an artery. To demonstrate the potential of the model for vascular ultrasound research, the authors studied clinically relevant imaging modalities of arterial function related to both vessel wall deformation and arterial hemodynamics: Arterial distension (related to arterial stiffness) and wall shear rate (related to the development of atherosclerosis) imaging. An in-house code ("TANGO") was developed to strongly couple the flow solver FLUENT and structural solver ABAQUS using an interface quasi-Newton technique. FIELD II was used to model realistic transducer and scan settings. The input to the FSI-US model is a scatterer phantom on which the US waves reflect, with the scatterer displacement derived from the FSI flow and displacement fields. The authors applied the simulation tool to a 3D straight tube, representative of the common carotid artery (length: 5 cm; and inner and outer radius: 3 and 4 mm). A mass flow inlet boundary condition, based on flow measured in a healthy subject, was applied. A downstream pressure condition, based on a noninvasively measured pressure waveform, was chosen and scaled to simulate three different degrees of arterial distension (1%, 4%, and 9%). The RF data from the FSI-US coupling were further processed for arterial wall and flow imaging. Using an available wall tracking algorithm, arterial distensibility was assessed. Using an autocorrelation estimator, blood velocity and shear

  4. Primary Response Assessment Method for Concept Design of Monotonous Thin-Walled Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zanic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept design methodology for monotonous, tapered thin-walled structures (wing/fuselage/ship/bridge is presented including modules for: model generation; loads; primary (longitudinal and secondary (transverse strength calculations; structural feasibility (buckling/fatigue/ultimate strength criteria; design optimization modules based on ES/GA/FFE; graphics. A method for primary strength calculation is presented in detail. It provides the dominant response field for design feasibility assessment. Bending and torsion of the structure are modelled with the accuracy required for concept design. A ‘2.5D-FEM’ model is developed by coupling a 1D-FEM model along the ‘monotonity’ axis and a 2D-FEM model(s transverse to it. The shear flow and stiffness characteristics of the cross-section for bending and pure/restrained torsion are given, based upon the warping field of the cross-section. Examples: aircraft wing and ship hull. 

  5. Assessment of hypervapotron heat sink performance using CFD under DEMO relevant first wall conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domalapally, Phani, E-mail: p_kumar.domalapally@cvrez.cz

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Performance of Hypervapotron heat sink was tested for First wall limiter application. • Two different materials were tested Eurofer 97 and CuCrZr at PWR conditions. • Simulations were performed to see the effect of the different inlet conditions and materials on the maximum temperature. • It was found that CuCrZr heat sink performance is far better than Eurofer heat sink at the same operating conditions. - Abstract: Among the proposed First Wall (FW) cooling concepts for European Demonstration Fusion Power Plant (DEMO), water cooled FW is one of the options. The heat flux load distribution on the FW of the DEMO reactor is not yet precisely defined. But if the heat loads on the FW are extrapolated from ITER conditions, the numbers are quite high and have to be handled none the less. The design of the FW itself is challenging as the thermal conductivity ratio of heat sink materials in ITER (CuCrZr) and in DEMO (Eurofer 97) is ∼10–12 and the operating conditions are of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) in DEMO instead of 70 °C and 4 MPa as in ITER. This paper analyzes the performance of Hypervapotron (HV) heat sink for FW limiter application under DEMO conditions. Where different materials, temperatures, heat fluxes and velocities are considered to predict the performance of the HV, to establish its limits in handling the heat loads before reaching the upper limits from temperature point of view. In order to assess the performance, numerical simulations are performed using commercial CFD code, which was previously validated in predicting the thermal hydraulic performance of HV geometry. Based on the results the potential usage of HV heat sink for DEMO will be assessed.

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities Using Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Intravenous Ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, Cynthia H.

    Healthy portions of the left ventricle (LV) can often compensate for regional dysfunction, thereby masking regional disease when global indices of LV function are employed. Thus, quantitation of regional function provides a more useful method of assessing LV function, especially in diseases that have regional effects such as coronary artery disease. This dissertation studied the ability of a phase -matched dual-energy digital subtraction angiography (DE -DSA) technique to quantitate changes in regional LV systolic volume. The potential benefits and a theoretical description of the DE imaging technique are detailed. A correlated noise reduction algorithm is also presented which raises the signal-to-noise ratio of DE images by a factor of 2 -4. Ten open-chest dogs were instrumented with transmural ultrasonic crystals to assess regional LV function in terms of systolic normalized-wall-thickening rate (NWTR) and percent-systolic-thickening (PST). A pneumatic occluder was placed on the left-anterior-descending (LAD) coronary artery to temporarily reduce myocardial blood flow, thereby changing regional LV function in the LAD bed. DE-DSA intravenous left ventriculograms were obtained at control and four levels of graded myocardial ischemia, as determined by reductions in PST. Phase-matched images displaying changes in systolic contractile function were created by subtracting an end-systolic (ES) control image from ES images acquired at each level of myocardial ischemia. The resulting wall-motion difference signal (WMD), which represents a change in regional systolic volume between the control and ischemic states, was quantitated by videodensitometry and compared with changes in NWTR and PST. Regression analysis of 56 data points from 10 animals shows a linear relationship between WMD and both NWTR and PST: WMD = -2.46 NWTR + 13.9, r = 0.64, p < 0.001; WMD = -2.11 PST + 18.4, r = 0.54, p < 0.001. Thus, changes in regional ES LV volume between rest and ischemic states, as

  7. Mapping mass movement processes using terrestrial LIDAR: a swift mechanism for hazard and disaster risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnica-Peña, Ricardo; Murillo-García, Franny; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-05-01

    The impact of disasters associated with mass movement processes has increased in the past decades. Either triggered by earthquakes, volcanic activity or rainfall, mass movement processes have affected people, infrastructure, economic activities and the environment in different parts of the world. Extensive damage is particularly linked to rainfall induced landslides due to the occurrence of tropical storms, hurricanes, and the combination of different meteorological phenomenon on exposed vulnerable communities. Therefore, landslide susceptibility analysis, hazard and risk assessments are considered as significant mechanisms to lessen the impact of disasters. Ideally, these procedures ought to be carried out before disasters take place. However, under intense or persistent periods of rainfall, the evaluation of potentially unstable slopes becomes a critical issue. Such evaluations are constrained by the availability of resources, capabilities and scientific and technological tools. Among them, remote sensing has proved to be a valuable tool to evaluate areas affected by mass movement processes during the post-disaster stage. Nonetheless, the high cost of imagery acquisition inhibits their wide use. High resolution topography field surveys consequently, turn out to be an essential approach to address landslide evaluation needs. In this work, we present the evaluation and mapping of a series of mass movement processes induced by hurricane Ingrid in September, 2013, in Teziutlán, Puebla, México, a municipality situated 265 km Northeast of Mexico City. Geologically, Teziutlán is characterised by the presence, in the North, of siltstones and conglomerates of the Middle Jurassic, whereas the central and Southern sectors consist of volcanic deposits of various types: andesitic tuffs of Tertiary age, and basalts, rhyolitic tuffs and ignimbrites from the Quaternary. Major relief structures are formed by the accumulation of volcanic material; lava domes, partially buried

  8. Classification of lower extremity movement patterns based on visual assessment: reliability and correlation with 2-dimensional video analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Steger-May, Karen; Koh, Christine; Royer, Nat K; Graci, Valentina; Salsich, Gretchen B

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal movement patterns have been implicated in lower extremity injury. Reliable, valid, and easily implemented assessment methods are needed to examine existing musculoskeletal disorders and investigate predictive factors for lower extremity injury. To determine the reliability of experienced and novice testers in making visual assessments of lower extremity movement patterns and to characterize the construct validity of the visual assessments. Cross-sectional study. University athletic department and research laboratory. Convenience sample of 30 undergraduate and graduate students who regularly participate in athletics (age = 19.3 ± 4.5 years). Testers were 2 experienced physical therapists and 1 novice postdoctoral fellow (nonclinician). We took videos of 30 athletes performing the single-legged squat. Three testers observed the videos on 2 occasions and classified the lower extremity movement as dynamic valgus, no change, or dynamic varus. The classification was based on the estimated change in frontal-plane projection angle (FPPA) of the knee from single-legged stance to maximum single-legged squat depth. The actual FPPA change was measured quantitatively. We used percentage agreement and weighted κ to examine tester reliability and to determine construct validity of the visual assessment. The κ values for intratester and intertester reliability ranged from 0.75 to 0.90, indicating substantial to excellent reliability. Percentage agreement between the visual assessment and the quantitative FPPA change category was 90%, with a κ value of 0.85. Visual assessments were made reliably by experienced and novice testers. Additionally, movement-pattern categories based on visual assessments were in excellent agreement with objective methods to measure FPPA change. Therefore, visual assessments can be used in the clinic to assess movement patterns associated with musculoskeletal disorders and in large epidemiologic studies to assess the association between lower

  9. Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability of pressure biofeedback unit for assessing lumbopelvic stability during 6 lower limb movement tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Daniel Camara; Lauria, Alessandra Christoff; Pereira, André Roberto Scarpelli; Andrade, Guilherme Trivellato; Ferreira, Manuela Loureiro; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique; Van Dillen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess examiners' intrarater and interrater reliability to use a pressure biofeedback unit (PBU) during 6 lower limb movement tests based on Movement System Impairment classification model for low back pain (LBP) in people with nonspecific LBP. Thirty subjects (13 men and 17 women) with chronic nonspecific LPB were assessed during 6 lower limb movement tests based on Movement System Impairment classification using a PBU. Each test was performed twice by 2 assessors with a 48-hour interval between test sessions. Reliability indices of PBU measures (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) were calculated. Intrarater reliability for hip and knee movement tests was good to excellent (ICC(3,3), 0-.60-0.95). Interrater reliability for hip and knee movement tests was fair to excellent (ICC(2,3), 0.40-0.86). Standard error of the measurement and smallest detectable change for the movement tests ranged from 1.4 to 11.3 mm Hg and from 3.9 to 31.3 mm Hg, respectively. The results of this study indicate that trained examiners can reliably perform PBU measures for patients with chronic LBP. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinematic analysis of preterm newborns' spontaneous movements for postural activity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halek, Jan; Muckova, Anita; Svoboda, Zdenek; Janura, Miroslav; Marikova, Jana; Horakova, Katerina; Kantor, Lumir; Nemcova, Nina

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this pilot study were to assess the potential use of 3D videography for analyzing the motion of the body center of mass (COM) in newborns and to determine differences in spontaneous movements between preterm and full-term infants. The group comprised 10 preterm newborns (gestational age at birth between 26 and 37 weeks; birth weight 800 to 2960 g; gestational age at the time of examination 34 to 39 weeks) and 10 full-term infants (gestational week 38 to 41; birth weight 2810 to 4360 g). To determine the range of motion of the COM, 3D videography was used (2 cameras, 25 Hz). When recording their movements, the infants were in the supine position, calm and awake. The recordings were processed using the APAS software. Selected points on the body were marked to obtain data for calculating the basic parameters of COM trajectories. The range of motion of the COM in both craniocaudal and anteroposterior directions was significantly greater in premature infants (P preterm babies. This was also valid for the velocity of motion of the COM in the craniocaudal direction (P preterm infants. Basic kinematic characteristics of the motion of the COM (range, variability, velocity) are greater in preterm infants.

  11. [Coordination patterns assessed by a continuous measure of joints coupling during upper limb repetitive movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draicchio, F; Silvetti, A; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the coordination patterns between elbow, shoulder and trunk in a motor task consisting of reaching out, picking up a cylinder, and transporting it back by using the Dynamical Systems Theory and calculating the continuous relative phase (CRP), a continuous measure of the coupling between two interacting joints. We used an optoelectronic motion analysis system consisting of eight infra-red ray cameras to detect the movements of nine skin-mounted markers. We calculated the root square of the adjusted coefficient of determination, the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC), in order to investigate the repeatability of the joints coordination. The data confirm that the CNS establishes both synergic (i.e. coupling between shoulder and trunk on the frontal plane) and hierarchical (i.e. coupling between elbow-shoulder-trunk on the horizontal plane) relationships among the available degrees of freedom to overcome the complexity due to motor redundancy. The present study describes a method to investigate the organization of the kinematic degrees of freedom during upper limb multi-joint motor tasks that can be useful to assess upper limb repetitive movements.

  12. Assessment of the Quality of Movement for Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Kiseljak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the work is to verify if there exists a significant difference in the quality of movement measured via virtual reality (VR technology between two groups of patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Grouping is made according to geographic regions; Group 1 is from Zagreb, Group 2 from Vukovar. Another goal of the work is to verify whether there is a significant improvement from initial to final measurements over a one year period in the results of all patients from both groups. Hypothesis: there is no significant difference in the quality of movement between two groups of patients, as obtained through VR tests. The second hypothesis is that there is no significant difference in the results of specific VR tests for AIS between initial and final measurements of all the examinee; respectively, the conventional therapy program in both groups doesn’t produce significant results in the direction of improvement. The sample: each group is comprised of 5 patients with AIS diagnosis, between the ages of 12–18, of both genders. The patients have a double scoliotic curve with Cobb value between 37 and 46 degrees, and are being treated with classical physiotherapeutic methods for AIS, at clinics in Zagreb and Vukovar. Methodology: VR tests for assessment of the quality of movement are a part of the System for Diagnosis and Control in Kinesiology (SYDACK constructed at the Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, as described in the dissertation: VR in physiotherapy of patients with AIS (Filipović, 2011. SYDACK is an original Croatian product, containing 4 VR tests for evaluating the quality of movement: diagonal sliding to the right, diagonal sliding to the left, sliding and hip elevation. Results are analyzed via a t-test for small independent samples and a t-test for small dependent samples. In 93.75% cases there is no significant difference between results of the two groups, as obtained by all 4 VR tests. The analysis

  13. Canadian Agility and Movement Skill Assessment (CAMSA: Validity, objectivity, and reliability evidence for children 8–12 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E. Longmuir

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The Canadian Agility and Movement Skill Assessment is a feasible measure of selected fundamental, complex and combined movement skills, which are an important building block for childhood physical literacy. Moderate-to-excellent objectivity was demonstrated for children 8–12 years of age. Test–retest reliability has been established over an interval of at least 1 week. The time and skill scores can be accurately estimated by 1 trained examiner.

  14. Assessment of dual plane PIV measurements in wall turbulence using DNS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Marusic, Ivan; Longmire, Ellen K.

    2006-08-01

    Experimental dual plane particle image velocimetry (PIV) data are assessed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a similar flow with the aim of studying the effect of averaging within the interrogation window. The primary reason for the use of dual plane PIV is that the entire velocity gradient tensor and hence the full vorticity vector can be obtained. One limitation of PIV is the limit on dynamic range, while DNS is typically limited by the Reynolds number of the flow. In this study, the DNS data are resolved more finely than the PIV data, and an averaging scheme is implemented on the DNS data of similar Reynolds number to compare the effects of averaging inherent to the present PIV technique. The effects of averaging on the RMS values of the velocity and vorticity are analyzed in order to estimate the percentage of turbulence intensity and enstrophy captured for a given PIV resolution in turbulent boundary layers. The focus is also to identify vortex core angle distributions, for which the two-dimensional and three-dimensional swirl strengths are used. The studies are performed in the logarithmic region of a turbulent boundary layer at z + = 110 from the wall. The dual plane PIV data are measured in a zero pressure gradient flow over a flat plate at Re τ = 1,160, while the DNS data are extracted from a channel flow at Re τ = 934. Representative plots at various wall-normal locations for the RMS values of velocity and vorticity indicate the attenuation of the variance with increasing filter size. Further, the effect of averaging on the vortex core angle statistics is negligible when compared with the raw DNS data. These results indicate that the present PIV technique is an accurate and reliable method for the purposes of statistical analysis and identification of vortex structures.

  15. Numerical assessment of functionally graded tungsten/EUROFER coating system for first wall applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, D.D., E-mail: dandna.qu@partner.kit.edu; Basuki, W.W.; Aktaa, J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings with W/EUROFER functional graded (FG) interlayers on EUROFER substrates are investigated by means of finite element (FE) simulations as first wall (FW) application. • The FE simulations consider elasto-perfectly plastic and elasto-viscoplastic material models and the fabrication phase and operation phase. • The effects of FG-interlayers thicknesses on mitigating the residual stress and inelastic strain are studied. • Allowable number of cycles is calculated based on creep damage accumulation. - Abstract: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels, e.g. EUROFER, are to be used as structural material for the first wall (FW) of future fusion power plants. The interaction between the plasma and the FW, especially physical sputtering, will limit the FW lifetime under normal operation. Therefore, a tungsten coating should be selected to protect the FW due to its low sputtering yield, low activation, high melting point and high thermal conductivity. However, the mismatch of thermo-physical properties between W and EUROFER induces large residual thermal stresses and even failure of components. Functionally graded material (FGM) is considered as an appropriate solution to mitigate the high residual stresses. In this work, W coatings on EUROFER substrates with W/EUROFER FG-layer (the coating system) are investigated by means of finite element (FE) simulations considering elasto-perfectly plastic and elasto-viscoplastic material models. For determining optimal parameters of the coating system the vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) fabrication process and the operation phase of the fusion reactor are simulated. Based on the FE results creep assessment of the coating system is performed demonstrating the gain in lifetime to be expected when using a FG-layer and investigating its dependence on the thickness of the FG-layer.

  16. NON-INVASIVE METHODS OF THE WORK-UP FOR ASSESSMENT OF MORPHOLOGIC AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE SIGMOID WALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Mashkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged colonic congestion in children with chronic constipation and dolichosigma are characterized  by a permanent imbalance of gut microflora, secondary inflammation and degeneration of the sigmoid wall. There is plenty of research papers on the optic non-invasive diagnostics in medicine, based on spectrophotometry and laser spectral analysis. Aim: To study morphologic and functional state  of the sigmoid wall for detection of inflammation  and  degeneration in the  sigmoid  wall and  optimization  of treatment of children with dolichosigma  and long-standing constipation. Materials and methods: From 2009 to 2014, 30 children with dolichosigma  were seen in the Department of Pediatric surgery of MONIKI. All patients  were  hospitalized  after unsuccessful conservative  treatment in in-patient  clinics of the Moscow Region. The children underwent a set of investigations  for objective assessment of degree of the secondary  inflammatory and degenerative abnormalities  in the sigmoid wall, such as microbiological assessment, cytological assessment and fluorescent  diagnostics.  Results:  There  was  no   caused  by dolichosigma. It maintains  chronic inflammation  and  may play an indirect  role in abnormalities  of gut  motor  function. Inflammatory and  degenerative abnormalities  were  confirmed by a cytological investigation  of wall-adjacent biopsy of the  sigma. The results of the  complex assessment showed  moderate inflammation  and degeneration in the  sigmoid wall in 20 children; subsequent conservative treatment of chronic colostasis was effective. Ten children had advanced secondary inflammatory and degenerative abnormalities of the  sigmoid  wall, with high  levels of elastin and collagen in the colon wall. Surgery was performed in 6 children with the highest degree of fibrous transformation of the sigma. Conclusion: Complex assessment of the sigmoid wall, including

  17. Single passive leg movement-induced hyperemia: a simple vascular function assessment without a chronotropic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Massimo; Layec, Gwenael; Trinity, Joel; Hart, Corey R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Richardson, Russell S

    2017-01-01

    Passive leg movement (PLM)-induced hyperemia is a novel approach to assess vascular function, with a potential clinical role. However, in some instances, the varying chronotropic response induced by PLM has been proposed to be a potentially confounding factor. Therefore, we simplified and modified the PLM model to require just a single PLM (sPLM), an approach that may evoke a peripheral hemodynamic response, allowing a vascular function assessment, but at the same time minimizing central responses. To both characterize and assess the utility of sPLM, in 12 healthy subjects, we measured heart rate (HR), stroke volume, cardiac output (CO), mean arterial pressure (MAP), leg blood flow (LBF), and calculated leg vascular conductance (LVC) during both standard PLM, consisting of passive knee flexion and extension performed at 1 Hz for 60 s, and sPLM, consisting of only a single passive knee flexion and extension over 1 s. During PLM, MAP transiently decreased (5 ± 1 mmHg), whereas both HR and CO increased from baseline (6.0 ± 1.1 beats/min, and 0.8 ± 0.01 l/min, respectively). Following sPLM, MAP fell similarly (5 ± 2 mmHg; P = 0.8), but neither HR nor CO responses were identifiable. The peak LBF and LVC response was similar for PLM (993 ± 189 ml/min; 11.9 ± 1.5 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively) and sPLM (878 ± 119 ml/min; 10.9 ± 1.6 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively). Thus sPLM represents a variant of the PLM approach to assess vascular function that is more easily performed and evokes a peripheral stimulus that induces a significant hyperemia, but does not generate a potentially confounding, chronotropic response, which may make sPLM more useful clinically. Using the single passive leg movement (PLM) technique, a variant of the vascular function assessment PLM, we have identified a novel peripheral vascular assessment method that is more easily performed than PLM, which, by not evoking potentially confounding central hemodynamic responses, may be more

  18. Biomechanical Assessment of Reaching Movements in Post-Stroke Patients During a Robot-Aided Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mazzoleni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to describe a method for the assessment of the motor performance in post-stroke subjects who have been undergone a robot-aided upper limb rehabilitation treatment. The motivation for adopting such methodology relies on the need of quantitative methods for the evaluation of the effects of robot-aided rehabilitation treatments, which assumes great importance from the clinical point of view. The method is based on the analysis of biomechanical parameters computed from force data recorded during the execution of planar reaching movements. Data from 17 chronic post-stroke patients and 5 healthy subjects were analysed. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method, which can contribute to quantitatively evaluate the effects of a robot-mediated therapy on the upper limb of chronic post-stroke subjects.

  19. Array-Based Ultrawideband through-Wall Radar: Prediction and Assessment of Real Radar Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Maaref

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new through-the-wall (TTW radar demonstrator for the detection and the localisation of people in a room (in a noncooperative way with the radar situated outside but in the vicinity of the first wall. After modelling the propagation through various walls and quantifying the backscattering by the human body, an analysis of the technical considerations which aims at defining the radar design is presented. Finally, an ultrawideband (UWB frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW radar is proposed, designed, and implemented. Some representative trials show that this radar is able to localise and track moving people behind a wall in real time.

  20. Testing Orofacial Abilities of Children Who Stutter: The Movement, Articulation, Mandibular and Sensory Awareness (MAMS) Assessment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Susanne; Rieger, Martina; Donlan, Chris; Howell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to introduce a new assessment designed to measure the orofacial abilities of children who stutter (CWS), the Movement, Articulation, Mandibular and Sensory Awareness (MAMS) Orofacial Assessment. The new instrument was developed and validated to measure orofacial abilities in a comprehensive manner. Design:…

  1. Assessment of wall elasticity variations on intraluminal haemodynamics in descending aortic dissections using a lumped-parameter model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenick, Paula A; Bijnens, Bart H; Segers, Patrick; García-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Descending aortic dissection (DAD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Aortic wall stiffness is a variable often altered in DAD patients and potentially involved in long-term outcome. However, its relevance is still mostly unknown. To gain more detailed knowledge of how wall elasticity (compliance) might influence intraluminal haemodynamics in DAD, a lumped-parameter model was developed based on experimental data from a pulsatile hydraulic circuit and validated for 8 clinical scenarios. Next, the variations of intraluminal pressures and flows were assessed as a function of wall elasticity. In comparison with the most rigid-wall case, an increase in elasticity to physiological values was associated with a decrease in systolic and increase in diastolic pressures of up to 33% and 63% respectively, with a subsequent decrease in the pressure wave amplitude of up to 86%. Moreover, it was related to an increase in multidirectional intraluminal flows and transition of behaviour as 2 parallel vessels towards a vessel with a side-chamber. The model supports the extremely important role of wall elasticity as determinant of intraluminal pressures and flow patterns for DAD, and thus, the relevance of considering it during clinical assessment and computational modelling of the disease.

  2. An assessment of the potential for neck injury due to padding of aircraft interior walls for head impact protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report describes a short test program to assess the potential for neck injury induced by placing padding on the interior walls of an aircraft cabin to reduce the possibility of a head injury during a crash. Such padding is a possible mechanism o...

  3. Power of counter movement jumps with external load--coherence of three assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmersson, Marie; Edvardsson, Ida; Tornberg, Åsa B

    2015-04-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coherence between three different methods assessing the power driven from a counter movement jump (CMJ); the Powertimer 300-series contact mat (C-mat), the MuscleLab 4010 infrared mat (IR-mat) and the MuscleLab 4010 linear encoder (M-encoder), and to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the M-encoder. Twenty-two males and 29 female, elite athletes performed two test sessions with three days in between. Each test session included counter movement jumps (CMJ) performed on a Smith-machine with external loads of 40 kg. Jump height and flight time were assessed with C-mat and IR-mat, and power was additionally assessed with C-mat. Variables analyzed from the M-encoder were average power (AP), average force (AV), average velocity (AV), and distance (D). The results from the C-mat were systematically higher than the ones obtained from the M-encoder and IR-mat. The correlation between the C-mat, M-encoder and the IR-mat was strong (r(p)= 0.95-0.98). The results showed a high test-retest reliability for all indices assessed with the M-encoder, AP (r(p)= 0.97, p < 0.001; TE% = 3.9%), AF (r(p) = 0.99, p < 0.001; TE% = 1.4%). Furthermore, the AV had high values (r(p) = 0.94, p < 0.001; TE% = 2.9%) as well as D (r(p) = 0.87, p < 0.001; TE% = 5.4%). It is important to use the same equipment in both pre- and post-testing, since all three methods were reliable, coherent but not interchangeable to each other.

  4. MRI assessment of the posterior acetabular wall fracture in traumatic dislocation of the hip in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Ivan F.; Kloen, Peter; Helfet, David L. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Potter, Hollis G. [MRI Department, Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Traumatic hip dislocations associated with posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum in the pediatric population are in general a consequence of high-energy trauma. After expeditious reduction, instability mandates for further diagnosis and intervention. Plain radiographs or computerized tomography (CT) scans can misjudge the involvement of the posterior wall of the acetabulum due to the partially calcified nature of the pediatric bone. We present two cases of pediatric traumatic hip dislocation associated with posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum. In both cases, obvious postreduction instability was noted without conclusive findings of etiology on plain X-rays or CT scans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed an extensive posterior wall traumatic involvement in both cases and helped to decide in favor of open reduction of the hip and internal fixation of the posterior wall fragment. (orig.)

  5. An assessment of fungal wall heteromannans as a phylogenetically informative character in ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Juan Antonio; Prieto, Alicia; Bernabé, Manuel; Hawksworth, David L

    2010-11-01

    The fungal wall contains a small proportion of alkali-extractable water-soluble heteromannans (F1SS). They are the glycidic moiety of glycoproteins that have important roles in the biology of fungi. A considerable number of these polysaccharides has been described, differing in composition or linkage types. Their structure is similar in all species of a well-delimited genus, and teleomorphs and their corresponding anamorphs. Therefore, these polysaccharides have been used as chemotaxonomic markers at the genus level. Here we review cases where they have been found to resolve relationships around the genus level, and assess their phylogenetic informativeness in the delineation of taxa at family and higher ranks in the ascomycetes by comparison with molecular trees. Generally, the correlation is extremely good, from the species to the class level, though there are some divergences. In particular, comparisons suggest that the concept of the Sordariomycetes may eventually require revision as more molecular data become available. An analysis of the different chemical structures of these polysaccharides can lead to the proposal and testing of phylogenetic hypotheses, in a parallel manner to those generated from molecular trees. These molecules serve as an independent character similar to morphological or molecular characters.

  6. Quantitative assessment of motor speech abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusz, Jan; Hlavnička, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Bušková, Jitka; Ulmanová, Olga; Růžička, Evžen; Šonka, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) are at substantial risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) or related neurodegenerative disorders. Speech is an important indicator of motor function and movement coordination, and therefore may be an extremely sensitive early marker of changes due to prodromal neurodegeneration. Speech data were acquired from 16 RBD subjects and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Objective acoustic assessment of 15 speech dimensions representing various phonatory, articulatory, and prosodic deviations was performed. Statistical models were applied to characterise speech disorders in RBD and to estimate sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between RBD and control subjects. Some form of speech impairment was revealed in 88% of RBD subjects. Articulatory deficits were the most prominent findings in RBD. In comparison to controls, the RBD group showed significant alterations in irregular alternating motion rates (p = 0.009) and articulatory decay (p = 0.01). The combination of four distinctive speech dimensions, including aperiodicity, irregular alternating motion rates, articulatory decay, and dysfluency, led to 96% sensitivity and 79% specificity in discriminating between RBD and control subjects. Speech impairment was significantly more pronounced in RBD subjects with the motor score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale greater than 4 points when compared to other RBD individuals. Simple quantitative speech motor measures may be suitable for the reliable detection of prodromal neurodegeneration in subjects with RBD, and therefore may provide important outcomes for future therapy trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of accessible facilities for disabled passenger movement in aerodrome terminals in Klang Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, M. Z.; Hasnol., J. N. E.; Hamid, N. B.; Ismail, N.; Zawawi, M. H.; Zainal, M. Z.

    2017-09-01

    The effectiveness of accessibility in public transport has prompted a great deal of weakness and confines many disabled from moving around unreservedly. As far as the built-up environment is concerned, it is important that it should be barrier-free and adapted to fulfill the needs of all people equally. The consideration of equal accessibility to outdoor environments is still lacking. These cause the problems with poor accessibility, the disabled people face more challenges and difficulties while travelling and using the public transport. Therefore, the aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of accessible facilities for disabled movement in aerodrome terminals in Klang Valley. An assessment rating was developed from an established guideline to assess the disabled facilities provided in the Aerodrome Terminal 1 and Aerodrome Terminal 2 by using manual observation and measurement technique. Based on the results obtained, the facility for disabled people in both aerodrome terminals are moderate. Aerodrome Terminal 1 is averagely 63.46% while for Aerodrome Terminal 2 is 67.31%. Results demonstrated that effort is needed by the respective agencies and there was a demand on re-designing the current facility, so that disabled people will not face any difficulty while traveling through public transport stations or terminals.

  8. The prediction of mining induced movements in building structures and the development of improved methods of subsidence impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur Waddington [Mine Subsidence Engineering Consultants Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    The major aims of this research project were to develop improved methods of assessing the likely damage to building structures and to more clearly define what constitutes a 'safe, serviceable and repairable' level of damage. It was anticipated that such methods would avoid the sterilisation of valuable coal resources. The research work was based upon measured impacts on building structures, which were recorded as longwalls were mined at Tahmoor Colliery and historical claims data provided by the Mine Subsidence Board for the Newcastle and Southern Coalfields. The research project involved - A state-of-the-art review; Collection of historical claims data from the records of the Mine Subsidence Board; Initial surveys of the ground above and around longwall panels; Initial surveys of building foundations above longwall panels; Pre-mining condition surveys and structural assessments of building structures; Recording of building movements and conditions during the mining period; Recording of ground movements during the mining period; Study and analysis of ground movements; Study and analysis of building movements; Review and statistical analysis of historical claims data; Correlation of building movements and levels of damage with NCB damage assessment curves; Development of improved methods for the prediction of building movements; Development of improved methods for the assessment of subsidence impacts; Study of available methods for the rectification of tilt; and Review of 'safe, serviceable and repairable' criteria. The final output from the research project is this detailed report on the findings of the research work, which includes new methods for the assessment of mining subsidence impacts on building structures.

  9. Computerized method for arm movement assessment in Parkinson's disease and cerebellar syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Olivera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical setting, the symptoms of the impaired motor behavior in patients with different neurological diseases are identified by classical tests incorporated in clinical neurological examination. New computerized methods for objective motor assessment have been recently suggested in the literature. We developed computerized method for assessment and evaluation of arm movement in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD in early phase and in patients with cerebellar syndrome. Method is based on automatic acquisition of hand coordinates during drawing of line and circle, and offline analysis of kinematic parameters (time duration, path length, mean and maximal velocity, velocity profile, and precision. Clinical application is in recognition and follow-up of the impaired kinematic parameters, specific for these two groups of patients. AIM We propose computerized method that consists of two motor tasks: Task 1- drawing a line defined with end points; and Task 2 - drawing a circle defined by referential model. The first task was rather simple with defined direction, and the second included continuous change of the direction that required permanent adjustment. The aim was to detect which kinematic parameters were particularly different in PD and in patients with cerebellar syndrome in relation to healthy controls, and then to apply this method as an additional instrument in clinical evaluation. METHODS Hand trajectories were assessed during simple self-paced 1 point-to-point movement-Task 1; and 2 circle-Task 2, by cordless magnetic mouse in a hand on digitizing board (Drawing board III, 305x457 mm, GTCO Cal Comp Inc. The subjects were seated in a relaxed manner on the chair adjusted to the table height, and instructed not to correct drawn line during performance of a task. The first session was for practicing the tests only, and in the next session, the subjects repeated 5 times each task. All sessions were videotaped with CCD camera. Testing

  10. MRI assessment of the posterior acetabular wall fracture in traumatic dislocation of the hip in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubel, Ivan F.; Kloen, Peter; Potter, Hollis G.; Helfet, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Traumatic hip dislocations associated with posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum in the pediatric population are in general a consequence of high-energy trauma. After expeditious reduction, instability mandates for further diagnosis and intervention. Plain radiographs or computerized tomography

  11. Assessment of the heat carrier movement in the primary coolant circuit by its own momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadalev, Stoyan, E-mail: kadalev@inrne.bas.bg

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We model the heat carrier flow alteration after the circulation pump(s) stop. • The general mathematical model used is described in details. • The model is adapted and applied to a particular example research reactor. • Assessment is presented in detail, step by step with references. • The information provided is enough to apply calculations to another facility. - Abstract: In the presented paper is considered the approach to an assessment of the heat carrier flow alteration in the primary water–water reactor coolant circuit after the circulation pump(s) stop. This topic is highly relevant trough advanced and increased nuclear safety requirements because such a process is observed in case of black-out accident or damaged pump(s). The general mathematical model used is described; enabling preparation of this evaluation adapted and applied to a particular example facility namely a pool type research reactor. The factors influencing to the heat carrier movement by its own momentum are examined. The evaluation measures and includes the factors influencing the heat carrier flow rate from the moment the pump(s) stops down to a negligible value. Assessment is presented in detail, step by step and where needed with references to specific data and/or formulae from reference books to allow repetition of the calculations and/or apply to another facility. The calculations are presented utilizing all necessary data according to the design and technological documentation. No account is given to the pressure of the natural circulation caused by the residual heat generation in the fuel after the reactor scram system extinction of the fission reaction.

  12. Assessment of spinal movement reduction by thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P J; Bos, R P; Derksen, J C; de Vries, J

    2000-01-01

    Bracing is a common modality in treating spinal fractures. Its objective is to reduce spinal movements and to stabilize the fracture. Until now, factual insight into the movement-reducing properties of Thoraco-Lumbar-Sacral Orthoses (TLSOs) has been missing. Two common TLSOs (e.g., Jewett and Voigt-Bähler) were tested for their movement-reducing properties in two small groups of healthy subjects. In the first study, maximal gross spinal movements, with and without a TLSO, were measured by means of a Portable Posture Registration Set (PPRS) in three different planes. In the second study, maximal segmental vertebral movements in the regions T10 to L4 were measured via X-rays. With few notable exceptions, wearing a TLSO, as measured by the PPRS and X-ray techniques, significantly reduced the segmental as well as gross spinal movements. However, the amount of movement reduction varied greatly from subject-to-subject and was sometimes small. Unfortunately, data are lacking on the amount of movement reduction that is clinically relevant.

  13. Strategic Culture and Strategic Studies: An Alternative Framework for Assessing al-Qaeda and the Global Jihad Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    14, 2010). Accessed at the website of the SITE Intelligence Group. 71 Shultz: Assessing al-Qaeda and the Global Jihad Movement Jacob Kipp, “The...Art of War: Doctrine, Strategy, and Tactics, edited by Harriet Fast Scott and William Scott (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1982). See especially Parts III-V

  14. Does a detailed assessment of poor repertoire general movements help to identify those infants who will develop normally?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Y; Einspieler, C; Marschik, PB; Bos, AF; Prechtl, HFR

    Background: The assessment of the quality of general movements (GMs) in young infants is a reliable and valid diagnostic tool for detecting brain dysfunction early in Life. Poor repertoire GMs are the most frequently observed abnormal GMs during the preterm, term and early postterm period. However,

  15. Compensatory Trunk Movements in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis Accuracy and Reproducibility of a Body-Fixed Sensor-Based Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reininga, Inge H. F.; Stevens, Martin; Wagenmakers, Robert; Boerboom, Alexander L.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    Reininga IHF, Stevens M, Wagenmakers R, Boerboom AL, Groothoff JW, Bulstra SK, Zijlstra W: Compensatory trunk movements in patients with hip osteoarthritis; Accuracy and reproducibility of a body-fixed sensor-based assessment. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2011;90:681-687. This study examined the accuracy

  16. The Reliability of Classification Decisions for the Furtado-Gallagher Computerized Observational Movement Pattern Assessment System--FG-COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Ovande, Jr.; Gallagher, Jere D.

    2012-01-01

    Mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) is an important factor in preventing weight gain and increasing physical activity. To master FMS, performance evaluation is necessary. In this study, we investigated the reliability of a new observational assessment tool. In Phase I, 110 video clips of children performing five locomotor, and six…

  17. Reliability and Responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition Test in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Jui-Hsing; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (MABC-2) Test for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: One hundred and forty-four Taiwanese children with DCD aged 6 to 12 years (87 males, 57 females) were tested on…

  18. Assessment of walking, running, and jumping movement features by using the inertial measurement unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yin-Shin; Ho, Chin-Shan; Shih, Yo; Chang, Su-Yu; Róbert, Füle János; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2015-05-01

    To observe various modes of lower limb locomotion, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was used. Digital signals were used to identify signal characteristics that help to distinguish among locomotion modes and intensity levels. A wireless IMU was installed on the outside of shoes and three forms of locomotion (walking, running, and jumping) were assessed at two intensity levels (low and high) to observe the acceleration, foot angular velocity variations, and characteristics of the curve variations in the anteroposterior, mediolateral, and superior-inferior directions. Most interactions between intensity and locomotion were statistically significant, except for the acceleration in the anteroposterior direction and on the horizontal plane. In addition, as the intensity increased, the values of all the parameters increased. Thus, both the acceleration values and range of angular velocity variation can be used to distinguish the intensity levels. Moreover, the results indicated that the angular velocity in the frontal axis, which is the sequence of the plantar/dorsiflexion movements, can also be used to identify different locomotion. Uniaxial acceleration or the range of angular velocity variation could be used to identify locomotion intensities, whereas the characteristics of the uniaxial angular velocity curve could be used to identify the locomotion modes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Musculoskeletal Simulation for Assessment of Effect of Movement-Based Structure-Modifying Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Tuan Dao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The better understanding of the complex mechanism between neural motor control and its resulting joint kinematics and muscle forces allows a better elucidation of the mechanisms behind body growth, aging progression, and disease development. This study aimed at investigating the impact of movement-based structure-modifying treatment strategies on joint kinematics, muscle forces, and muscle synergies of the gait with instrumented implant. A patient-specific musculoskeletal model was used to quantitatively assess the deviations of joint and muscle behaviors between the normal gait and 4 gait modifications (bouncy, medial thrust, midcrouch, and mtp (i.e., gait with forefoot strike. Moreover, muscle synergy analysis was performed using EMG-based nonnegative matrix factorization. Large variation of 19 degrees and 190 N was found for knee flexion/extension and lower limb muscle forces, respectively. EMG-based muscle synergy analysis revealed that the activation levels of the vastus lateralis and tibialis anterior are dominant for the midcrouch gait. In addition, an important contribution of semimembranosus to the medial thrust and midcrouch gaits was also observed. In fact, such useful information could allow a better understanding of the joint function and muscle synergy strategies leading to deeper knowledge of joint and muscle mechanisms related to neural voluntary motor commands.

  20. Goniometry and linear assessments to monitor movement outcomes: are they reliable tools in burn survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Dale; Finlay, Vidya; Wu, Andy; Wood, Fiona

    2009-02-01

    Despite common use and theoretical construct validity, goniometry is not reported to be reliable for the measurement of burn-affected joint range of motion. Similarly, a number of simple objective measures commonly used to document hand mobility have eluded this rigour. This study aimed to examine the within sessions of intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of active joint range of motion measurement in patients with burns. Intra-rater reliability: One physical therapist (PT) recorded duplicate measurements on each burn-affected joint after a 5-min interval in a subset of patients (n=21). Inter-rater reliability: Four qualified PTs took part in repeated measures testing of 45 patients on the same day. Intra-rater reliability was excellent with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs>.99) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)=.99-1.0. Inter-rater reliability was also excellent with ICCs>.94 (95% CIs=.90-.99). The minimum detectable change using goniometry at the ankle was > or =5 degrees and for all other joints tested was > or =9 degrees. For linear hand measures a change of >1cm and thumb opposition > or =1/2 of one scale point indicated measurable difference. This study demonstrated excellent intra-rater and inter-rater reliability and measurement of clinically relevant change for all measurements when applied with a standardised protocol. Therefore, assessing joint range of motion (ROM) with a goniometer or hand movement with linear or scale measurements can provide accurate, objective measures in the burns population.

  1. Using Eye Movements to Assess Language Comprehension in Toddlers Born Preterm and Full Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Elizabeth C; Marchman, Virginia A; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M

    2017-01-01

    To assess language skills in children born preterm and full term by the use of a standardized language test and eye-tracking methods. Children born ≤32 weeks' gestation (n = 44) were matched on sex and socioeconomic status to children born full term (n = 44) and studied longitudinally. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III) were administered at 18 months (corrected for prematurity as applicable). The Looking-While-Listening Task (LWL) simultaneously presents 2 pictures and an auditory stimulus that directs the child's attention to one image. The pattern of eye movements reflects visual processing and the efficiency of language comprehension. Children born preterm were evaluated on LWL 3 times between 18 and 24 months. Children born full term were evaluated at ages corresponding to chronological and corrected ages of their preterm match. Results were compared between groups for the BSID-III and 2 LWL measures: accuracy (proportion of time looking at target) and reaction time (latency to shift gaze from distracter to target). Children born preterm had lower BSID-III scores than children born full term. Children born preterm had poorer performance than children born full term on LWL measures for chronological age but similar performance for corrected age. Accuracy and reaction time at 18 months' corrected age displaced preterm-full term group membership as significant predictors of BSID-III scores. Performance and rate of change on language comprehension measures were similar in children born preterm and full term compared at corrected age. Individual variation in language comprehension efficiency was a robust predictor of scores on a standardized language assessment in both groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Empirical Study Assessing the Still Unknown One For One Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Sánchez-Hernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the one for one movement is been adopted by dozens of companies around the world to improve the quality of life of society. Companies into this movement have the mission to donate the same units that they sell to people in need. The movement could be considered a new business model working to create purchasing with meaning that support worthy causes such as helping save and restore sight. Thanks to this movement thousands of basic articles for assuring human dignity are being donated. Things to improve life conditions, such shoes, books or glasses, are starting to be provided by companies committed to the movement because their clients are willing to contribute for a fairer world. However, at the moment the movement seems to be understudied and not so popular between traditional consumers. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the movement and to reflect about their future analyzing the opinions of a group of students in the area of Management.

  3. The Endpoint Hypothesis: A Topological-Cognitive Assessment of Geographic Scale Movement Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippel, Alexander; Li, Rui

    Movement patterns of individual entities at the geographic scale are becoming a prominent research focus in spatial sciences. One pertinent question is how cognitive and formal characterizations of movement patterns relate. In other words, are (mostly qualitative) formal characterizations cognitively adequate? This article experimentally evaluates movement patterns that can be characterized as paths through a conceptual neighborhood graph, that is, two extended spatial entities changing their topological relationship gradually. The central questions addressed are: (a) Do humans naturally use topology to create cognitive equivalent classes, that is, is topology the basis for categorizing movement patterns spatially? (b) Are ‘all’ topological relations equally salient, and (c) does language influence categorization. The first two questions are addressed using a modification of the endpoint hypothesis stating that: movement patterns are distinguished by the topological relation they end in. The third question addresses whether language has an influence on the classification of movement patterns, that is, whether there is a difference between linguistic and non-linguistic category construction. In contrast to our previous findings we were able to document the importance of topology for conceptualizing movement patterns but also reveal differences in the cognitive saliency of topological relations. The latter aspect calls for a weighted conceptual neighborhood graph to cognitively adequately model human conceptualization processes.

  4. Assessment of Motor Control during Three-Dimensional Movements Tracking with Position-Varying Gravity Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Active movements are important in the rehabilitation training for patients with neurological motor disorders, while weight of upper limb impedes movements due to muscles weakness. The objective of this study is to develop a position-varying gravity compensation strategy for a cable-based rehabilitation robot. The control strategy can estimate real-time gravity torque according to position feedback. Then, the performance of this control strategy was compared with the other two kinds of gravity compensation strategies (i.e., without compensation and with fixed compensation during movements tracking. Seven healthy subjects were invited to conduct tracking tasks along four different directions (i.e., upward, forward, leftward, and rightward. The performance of movements with different compensation strategies was compared in terms of root mean square error (RMSE between target and actual moving trajectories, normalized jerk score (NJS, mean velocity ratio (MVR of main motion direction, and the activation of six muscles. The results showed that there were significant effects in control strategies in all four directions with the RMSE and NJS values in the following order: without compensation > fixed compensation > position-varying compensation and MVR values in the following order: without compensation < fixed compensation < position-varying compensation (p < 0.05. Comparing with movements without compensation in all four directions, the activation of muscles during movements with position-varying compensation showed significant reductions, except the activations of triceps and in forward and leftward movements, the activations of upper trapezius and middle parts of deltoid in upward movements and the activations of posterior parts of deltoid in all four directions (p < 0.05. Therefore, with position-varying gravity compensation, the upper limb cable-based rehabilitation robotic system might assist subjects to perform movements with higher quality and

  5. Assessment of Motor Control during Three-Dimensional Movements Tracking with Position-Varying Gravity Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao; Yang, Qianqian; Chen, Ying; Song, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Active movements are important in the rehabilitation training for patients with neurological motor disorders, while weight of upper limb impedes movements due to muscles weakness. The objective of this study is to develop a position-varying gravity compensation strategy for a cable-based rehabilitation robot. The control strategy can estimate real-time gravity torque according to position feedback. Then, the performance of this control strategy was compared with the other two kinds of gravity compensation strategies (i.e., without compensation and with fixed compensation) during movements tracking. Seven healthy subjects were invited to conduct tracking tasks along four different directions (i.e., upward, forward, leftward, and rightward). The performance of movements with different compensation strategies was compared in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) between target and actual moving trajectories, normalized jerk score (NJS), mean velocity ratio (MVR) of main motion direction, and the activation of six muscles. The results showed that there were significant effects in control strategies in all four directions with the RMSE and NJS values in the following order: without compensation > fixed compensation > position-varying compensation and MVR values in the following order: without compensation < fixed compensation < position-varying compensation (p < 0.05). Comparing with movements without compensation in all four directions, the activation of muscles during movements with position-varying compensation showed significant reductions, except the activations of triceps and in forward and leftward movements, the activations of upper trapezius and middle parts of deltoid in upward movements and the activations of posterior parts of deltoid in all four directions (p < 0.05). Therefore, with position-varying gravity compensation, the upper limb cable-based rehabilitation robotic system might assist subjects to perform movements with higher quality and improve the

  6. Assessment of the gastric wall with computed tomography (CT). Evaluation de la paroi gastrique par tomodensitometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelelli, G.; Macarini, L. (Policlinico, Piazza G. Cesare, Bari (IT))

    1989-01-01

    A CT study of the stomach was carried out on 122 patients: 50 normals, 44 carcinomas, 8 lymphomas, 4 polyps, 2 leiomyomas, 14 varices. In order to evaluate the gastric wall, the stomach was filled with 400 cc of water. In normal patients, the technique proposed enabled a good study of the gastric wall, improving the visualization of the inner surface. Even if small in size, lesions in patients affected by pathology were recognizable in all cases. It was also possible to recognize small pathological parietal thickening and the mucous or submucous extension of the lesions. The results obtained suggest that filling the stomach with water is a technique to be recommended for CT evaluation of the gastric wall.

  7. Noninvasive Evaluation of Bladder Wall Mechanical Properties as a Function of Filling Volume: Potential Application in Bladder Compliance Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nenadic

    Full Text Available We propose a novel method to monitor bladder wall mechanical properties as a function of filling volume, with the potential application to bladder compliance assessment. The proposed ultrasound bladder vibrometry (UBV method uses ultrasound to excite and track Lamb waves on the bladder wall from which its mechanical properties are derived by fitting measurements to an analytical model. Of particular interest is the shear modulus of bladder wall at different volumes, which we hypothesize, is similar to measuring the compliance characteristics of the bladder.Three experimental models were used: 1 an ex vivo porcine model where normal and aberrant (stiffened by formalin bladders underwent evaluation by UBV; 2 an in vivo study to evaluate the performance of UBV on patients with clinically documented compliant and noncompliant bladders undergoing UDS; and 3 a noninvasive UBV protocol to assess bladder compliance using oral hydration and fractionated voiding on three healthy volunteers.The ex vivo studies showed a high correlation between the UBV parameters and direct pressure measurement (R2 = 0.84-0.99. A similar correlation was observed for 2 patients with compliant and noncompliant bladders (R2 = 0.89-0.99 undergoing UDS detrusor pressure-volume measurements. The results of UBV on healthy volunteers, performed without catheterization, were comparable to a compliant bladder patient.The utility of UBV as a method to monitor changes in bladder wall mechanical properties is validated by the high correlation with pressure measurements in ex vivo and in vivo patient studies. High correlation UBV and UDS in vivo studies demonstrated the potential of UBV as a bladder compliance assessment tool. Results of studies on healthy volunteers with normal bladders demonstrated that UBV could be performed noninvasively. Further studies on a larger cohort are needed to fully validate the use of UBV as a clinical tool for bladder compliance assessment.

  8. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic wall thickening using multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas S; Kofoed, Klaus F; Møller, Daniel V

    2009-01-01

    echocardiography (TTE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent ECG-gated 64-slice MDCT and TTE. Regional left ventricular contractile function was measured by percent systolic wall thickening (SWT) in 16 myocardial segments using MDCT, and compared...... global SWT by MDCT and WMI by TTE was found (r=-0.8, p1.5 using global SWT was 91% and 94%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Quantification of systolic wall thickening by MDCT provides functional information, which is well correlated to visual...

  9. Preclinical assessment of CNS drug action using eye movements in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Hugh; Rattner, Amir; Nathans, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The drug development process for CNS indications is hampered by a paucity of preclinical tests that accurately predict drug efficacy in humans. Here, we show that a wide variety of CNS-active drugs induce characteristic alterations in visual stimulus–induced and/or spontaneous eye movements in mice. Active compounds included sedatives and antipsychotic, antidepressant, and antiseizure drugs as well as drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, morphine, and phencyclidine. The use of quantitative eye-movement analysis was demonstrated by comparing it with the commonly used rotarod test of motor coordination and by using eye movements to monitor pharmacokinetics, blood-brain barrier penetration, drug-receptor interactions, heavy metal toxicity, pharmacologic treatment in a model of schizophrenia, and degenerative CNS disease. We conclude that eye-movement analysis could complement existing animal tests to improve preclinical drug development. PMID:21821912

  10. [Assessment of central hemodynamic properties of the arterial wall in women with previous preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polónia, Jorge; Olival, Catarina; Ribeiro, Sílvia; Silva, José A; Barbosa, Loide

    2014-06-01

    We investigated viscoelastic properties of the arterial wall in women with previous preeclampsia (PE) compared to those with normal pregnancy (NP). In a cross-sectional study 45 women with previous PE and 55 with NP were included, matched for age (PE 38±6 vs. NP 38±5 years, NS) and body mass index: (PE 25±4 vs. NP 26±4 kg/m(2), NS) studied, respectively, 76±34 and 86±48 months after delivery. We assessed arterial distensibility - pulse wave velocity (PWV, Complior) and reflected waves (augmentation pressure [AP], mmHg) and augmentation index (AIx) - in the central pressure wave and blood pressure (BP) on 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). PE showed higher (p<0.01) peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP): PE 131±18 vs. NP 121±19, and central SBP: PE 122±18 vs. NP 110±19 mmHg, with less amplification of central-peripheral pressure: PE 10±4 vs. NP 12±5, p=0.041, and higher (p<0.05) AP: PE 10±3 vs. NP 8±2, and AIx: PE 26±5 vs. NP 20±5 mmHg, but PE and NP did not differ in pulse wave velocity. On ABPM, PE (n=39) vs. NP (n=33) had higher nighttime SBP: PE 121±10 vs. NP 108±10 mmHg and lower percentage nocturnal SBP fall: PE 11±6 vs. NP 18±11%, both p<0.02. During follow-up, the need for antihypertensive medication was seven times higher in PE than in NP. Women with previous PE have a greater risk of hypertension, higher nighttime BP values, blunted nocturnal BP fall and changes in central pressure suggestive of increased reflected waves and peripheral vascular resistance. These factors may contribute to their higher cardiovascular risk after pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Uncertainty assessment of a dike with an anchored sheet pile wall using FEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rippi, Aikaterini; Nuttall, Jonathan; Teixeira, Ana; Schweckendiek, T.; Lang, M.; Klijn, F.; Samuels, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch design codes for the dikes with retaining walls rely on Finite Element Analysis (FEM) in combination with partial safety factors. However, this can lead to conservative designs. For this reason, in this study, a reliability analysis is carried out with FEM calculations aiming to

  12. An assessment of CFD-based wall heat transfer models in piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sircar, Arpan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Paul, Chandan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Ferreyro-Fernandez, Sebastian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Imren, Abdurrahman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Haworth, Daniel C [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-04-26

    The lack of accurate submodels for in-cylinder heat transfer has been identified as a key shortcoming in developing truly predictive, physics-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that can be used to develop combustion systems for advanced high-efficiency, low-emissions engines. Only recently have experimental methods become available that enable accurate near-wall measurements to enhance simulation capability via advancing models. Initial results show crank-angle dependent discrepancies with respect to previously used boundary-layer models of up to 100%. However, available experimental data is quite sparse (only few data points on engine walls) and limited (available measurements are those of heat flux only). Predictive submodels are needed for medium-resolution ("engineering") LES and for unsteady Reynolds-averaged simulations (URANS). Recently, some research groups have performed DNS studies on engine-relevant conditions using simple geometries. These provide very useful data for benchmarking wall heat transfer models under such conditions. Further, a number of new and more sophisticated models have also become available in the literature which account for these engine-like conditions. Some of these have been incorporated while others of a more complex nature, which include solving additional partial differential equations (PDEs) within the thin boundary layer near the wall, are underway. These models will then be tested against the available DNS/experimental data in both SI (spark-ignition) and CI (compression-ignition) engines.

  13. Correlation between posterior vaginal wall defects assessed by clinical examination and by defecography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Annette G.; van der Hulst, Victor P.; Birnie, Erwin; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the accuracy of clinical examination and the indications for defecography in patients with primary posterior wall prolapse. Fifty-nine patients with primary pelvic organ prolapse were evaluated with a questionnaire, clinical examination and defecography. Defecography was used as

  14. The qualitative assessment of general movements in preterm, term and young infants--review of the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einspieler, C; Prechtl, H F; Ferrari, F; Cioni, G; Bos, A F

    1997-11-24

    We describe the state of the art of Prechtl's method for the qualitative assessment of general movements as a diagnostic tool for early detection of brain dysfunction. After discussing the optimal technique for video recording general movements in preterm, term and young infants, attention is focused on the proper analysis of this spontaneous motor pattern. Recently, a group of active researchers in the field reached consensus on the various qualities of normal and abnormal general movements. These definitions are reported here in full. Since it is a newly introduced method careful investigation into its reliability is required. Various groups of investigators have obtained data which demonstrate the robust character of the method (interscorer agreement: 78-98%). Finally, we discuss the validity of this early assessment method on the basis of the reports published so far. While the method's sensitivity is similar in all age groups studied (preterm, term, first month, second month, and third month age epochs), and averages 94.5%, the specificity of the method is age-dependent. It is low during the early ages, increases gradually and reaches 82 to 100% at 3 months post-term. This phenomenon is explained by spontaneous recovery of early dysfunction. In contrast, consistent abnormalities of general movements are linked to neurological deficits found at the 2 year follow-up.

  15. Airway wall thickness of allergic asthma caused by weed pollen or house dust mite assessed by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Li, Guangrun; Sun, Yuemei; Li, Jian; Tang, Ningbo; Dong, Liang

    2015-03-01

    Little was known about Airway wall thickness of asthma patients with different allergen allergy. So we explored the possible difference of Airway wall thickness of asthma patients mono-sensitized to weed pollen or HDM using high-resolution computed tomography. 85 severe asthma patients were divided into weed pollen group and HDM group according to relevant allergen. 20 healthy donors served as controls. Airway wall area, percentage wall area and luminal area at the trunk of the apical bronchus of the right upper lobe were quantified using HRCT and compared. The values of pulmonary function were assessed as well. There were differences between HDM group and weed pollen group in WA/BSA,WA% and FEF25-75% pred, and no significant difference in FEV1%pred, FEV1/FVC and LA/BSA. In weed pollen group, WA/BSA was observed to correlate with the duration of rhinitis, whereas in HDM group, WA/BSA and LA/BSA was observed to correlate with the duration of asthma. In weed pollen group, FEV1/FVC showed a weak but significant negative correlation with WA%, but in HDM group FEV1/FVC showed a significant positive correlation with WA% and a statistical negative correlation with LA/BSA. FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75% pred were higher and WA/BSA and LA/BSA were lower in healthy control group than asthma group. FEV1%pred and WA% was no significant difference between asthma patients and healthy subjects. There are differences between HDM mono-sensitized subjects and weed pollen mono-sensitized subjects, not only in airway wall thickness, but also small airway obstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain Computer Interface: Assessment of Spinal Cord Injury Patient towards Motor Movement through EEG application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Syahrull Hi-Fi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG associated with motor task have been comprehensively investigated and it can also describe the brain activities while spinal cord injury (SCI patient with para/tetraplegia performing movement with their limbs. This paper reviews on conducted research regarding application of brain computer interface (BCI that offer alternative for neural impairments community such as spinal cord injury patient (SCI which include the experimental design, signal analysis of EEG band signal and data processing methods. The findings claim that the EEG signals of SCI patients associated with movement tasks can be stimulated through mental and motor task. Other than that EEG signal component such as alpha and beta frequency bands indicate significance for analysing the brain activity of subjects with SCI during movements.

  17. Weighted-peak assessment of occupational exposure due to MRI gradient fields and movements in a nonhomogeneous static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreuccetti, D; Contessa, G M; Falsaperla, R; Lodato, R; Pinto, R; Zoppetti, N; Rossi, P

    2013-01-01

    A procedure for assessing occupational exposure due to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gradient magnetic fields and movement-induced effects in the static magnetic field is proposed and tested. The procedure was based on the application of the weighted-peak method in time domain. It was tested in two 1.5 T total-body and one 3 T head-only scanner MRI facilities in Rome (Italy). Exposure due to switched gradient fields was evaluated in locations inside the magnet room where operators usually stay during particular medical procedures (e.g., cardiac examinations of anesthetized patients); MRI sequences were selected to approach as far as possible a representative worst case exposure scenario. Movement-induced effects were evaluated considering the actual movements of volunteer operators during work activity, by measuring the perceived time-varying magnetic field by a head-worn probe. The analysis of results was based on ICNIRP 1998 and 2010 guidelines, following a weighted-peak approach and including an ad hoc extension to the latter ones, needed to verify compliance in the frequency range 0-1 Hz. Exposures due to switched gradient fields in 1.5 T MRI scanners mostly resulted noncompliant with ICNIRP 1998 occupational reference levels, being, at the same time, always compliant with ICNIRP 2010 ones. Gradient field levels and ICNIRP indexes were significantly lower for the 3 T unit, due to its small dimensions, as that unit was a head-only scanner. Movement-induced effects resulted potentially noncompliant only in the case the operator moved the head inside the bore of a 1.5 T scanner. The procedure had proven to be a sound approach to exposure assessment in MRI. Its testing allowed to draw some general considerations about exposures to gradient magnetic fields and movement-induced effects.

  18. Photogrammetric Assessment Of Knee Joint Movements During Gait Using Cinephotography And Direct Linear Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, A. R.; Klossner, T. K.; Baumann, J. U.

    1986-07-01

    Human knee joint movements during walking were analyzed in time and in the three dimensions of space by photogrammetry using highspeed cinecameras and direct linear transformation. Triangular models for the thigh and shank were used instead of the usual stick diagrams. The results are demonstrated in a normal subject and in a typical patient with a movement disorder (spastic diplegia). High accuracy of measurements was achieved. The positioning of the shank and thigh is better demonstrated by such modelling than by stop motion images of the life subject.

  19. The acetabular wall index for assessing anteroposterior femoral head coverage in symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenrock, Klaus A; Kistler, Lea; Schwab, Joseph M; Büchler, Lorenz; Tannast, Moritz

    2012-12-01

    Understanding acetabular pathomorphology is necessary to correctly treat patients with hip complaints. Existing radiographic parameters classify acetabular coverage as deficient, normal, or excessive but fail to quantify contributions of anterior and posterior wall coverage. A simple, reproducible, and valid measurement of anterior and posterior wall coverage in patients with hip pain would be a clinically useful tool. We (1) introduce the anterior wall index (AWI) and posterior wall index (PWI), (2) report the intra- and interobserver reliability of these measurements, and (3) validate these measurements against an established computer model. We retrospectively reviewed 87 hips (63 patients) with symptomatic hip disease. A validated computer model was used to determine total anterior and posterior acetabular coverage (TAC and TPC) on an AP pelvis radiograph. Two independent observers measured the AWI and PWI on each film, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. Pearson correlation was used to determine the strength of linear dependence between our measurements and the computer model. Intra- and interobserver ICCs were 0.94 and 0.99 for the AWI and 0.81 and 0.97 for the PWI. For validation against the computer model, Pearson r values were 0.837 (AWI versus TAC) and 0.895 (PWI versus TPC). Mean AWI and PWI were 0.28 and 0.81 for dysplastic hips, 0.41 and 0.91 for normal hips, 0.61 and 1.15 for hips with a deep acetabulum. Our data suggest these measures will be helpful in evaluating anterior and posterior coverage before and after surgery but need to be evaluated in asymptomatic individuals without hip abnormalities to establish normal ranges. Level III, diagnostic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. A finite element study of balloon expandable stent for plaque and arterial wall vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-07-01

    The stresses induced within plaque tissues and arterial layers during stent expansion inside an atherosclerotic artery can be exceeded from the yield stresses of those tissues and, consequently, lead to plaque or arterial layer rupture. The distribution and magnitude of the stresses in each component involved in stenting might be clearly different for different plaque types and different arterial layers. In this study, a nonlinear finite element simulation was employed to investigate the effect of plaque composition (calcified, cellular, and hypocellular) on the stresses induced in the arterial layers (intima, media, and adventitia) during implantation of a balloon expandable coronary stent into a stenosed artery. The atherosclerotic artery was assumed to consist of a plaque and normal/healthy arterial tissues on its outer side. The results indicated a significant influence of plaque types on the maximum stresses induced within the plaque wall and arterial layers during stenting but not when computing maximum stress on the stent. The stress on the stiffest calcified plaque wall was in the fracture level (2.38 MPa), whereas cellular and hypocellular plaques remain stable owing to less stress on their walls. Regardless of plaque types, the highest von Mises stresses were observed on the stiffest intima layer, whereas the lowest stresses were seen to be located in less stiff media layer. The computed stresses on the intima layer were found to be high enough to initiate a rupture in this stiff layer. These findings suggest a higher risk of arterial vascular injury for the intima layer, while a lower risk of arterial injury for the media and adventitia layers.

  1. Wall Street's assessment of plastic surgery--related technology: a clinical and financial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    2000-02-01

    Many plastic surgeons develop technologies that are manufactured by Wall Street-financed companies. Others participate in the stock market as investors. This study examines the bioengineered skin industry to determine whether it integrates clinical and financial information as Wall Street tenets would predict, and to see whether the financial performance of these companies provides any lessons for practicing plastic surgeons. In efficient markets, the assumptions on which independent financial analysts base their company sales and earnings projections are clinically reasonable, the volatility of a company's stock price does not irrationally differ from that of its industry sector, and the buy/sell recommendations of analysts are roughly congruent. For the companies in this study, these key financial parameters were compared with a benchmark index of 69 biotech companies of similar age and annual revenues (Student's t test). Five bioengineered skin companies were included in the study. Analysts estimated that each company would sell its product to between 24 and 45 percent of its target clinical population. The average stock price volatility was significantly higher for study companies than for those in the benchmark index (p penetration, significantly high price volatility, and significantly high discordance among professional analysts. In all cases, the market is inefficient-an unusual finding on Wall Street. A likely explanation for this market failure is a cycle of poor clinical correlation when assigning sales projections, which in turn leads to price volatility and discordance of buy/sell recommendations. This study's findings have implications for plastic surgeons who develop new technology or who participate in the equities markets as investors. Plastic surgeons who develop new medical devices or technology cannot universally depend on the market to drive clinically reasonable financial performance. Although inflated sales estimates have benefits in the

  2. Assessing mechanical deconstruction of softwood cell wall for cellulosic biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinxue

    Mechanical deconstruction offers a promising strategy to overcome biomass recalcitrance for facilitating enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated substrates with zero chemicals input and presence of inhibitors. The goal of this dissertation research is to gain a more fundamental understanding on the impact of mechanical pretreatment on generating digestible micronized-wood and how the physicochemical characteristics influence the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of micronized wood. The initial moisture content of feedstock was found to be the key factor affecting the development of physical features and enzymatic hydrolysis of micronized wood. Lower moisture content resulted in much rounder particles with lower crystallinity, while higher moisture content resulted in the milled particles with larger aspect ratio and crystallinity. The enzymatic hydrolysis of micronized wood was improved as collectively increasing surface area (i.e., reducing particle size and aspect ratio) and decreasing crystallinity during mechanical milling pretreatment. Energy efficiency analysis demonstrated that low-moisture content feedstock with multi-step milling process would contribute to cost-effectiveness of mechanical pretreatment for achieving more than 70% of total sugars conversion. In the early stage of mechanical pretreatment, the types of cell fractures were distinguished by the initial moisture contents of wood, leading to interwall fracture at the middle lamella region for low moisture content samples and intrawall fracture at the inner cell wall for high moisture content samples. The changes in cell wall fractures also resulted in difference in the distribution of surface chemical composition and energy required for milling process. In an effort to exploit the underlying mechanism associated with the reduced recalcitrance in micronized wood, we reported the increased enzymatic sugar yield and correspondingly structural and accessible properties of micronized feedstock. Electronic

  3. Orthodontic decompensation in skeletal Class III malocclusion: redefining the amount of movement assessed by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Zuega Cappellozza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT is essential for tridimensional planning of orthognathic surgery, as it allows visualization and evaluation of bone structures and mineralized tissues. Tomographic slices allow evaluation of tooth inclination and individualization of movement performed during preoperative decompensation. The aim of this paper was to assess maxillary and mandibular incisors inclination pre and post orthodontic decompensation in skeletal Class III malocclusion.Methods:The study was conducted on six individuals with skeletal Class III malocclusion, surgically treated, who had Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic scans obtained before and after orthodontic decompensation. On multiplanar reconstruction view, tomographic slices (axial, coronal and sagittal were obtained on the long axis of each incisor. The sagittal slice was used for measurement taking, whereas the references used to assess tooth inclination were the long axis of maxillary teeth in relation to the palatal plane and the long axis of mandibular teeth in relation to the mandibular plane.Results:There was significant variation in the inclination of incisors before and after orthodontic decompensation. This change was of greater magnitude in the mandibular arch, evidencing that natural compensation is more effective in this arch, thereby requiring more intensive decompensation.Conclusion:When routinely performed, the protocols of decompensation treatment in surgical individuals often result in intensive movements, which should be reevaluated, since the extent of movement predisposes to reduction in bone attachment levels and root length.

  4. Feasibility of Using Microsoft Kinect to Assess Upper Limb Movement in Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Chen

    Full Text Available Although functional rating scales are being used increasingly as primary outcome measures in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, sensitive and objective assessment of early-stage disease progression and drug efficacy remains challenging. We have developed a game based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor, specifically designed to measure active upper limb movement. An explorative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of this new tool in 18 ambulant SMA type III patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Upper limb movement was analysed elaborately through derived features such as elbow flexion and extension angles, arm lifting angle, velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were found in the active range of motion between ambulant SMA type III patients and controls. Hand velocity was found to be different but further validation is necessary. This study presents an important step in the process of designing and handling digital biomarkers as complementary outcome measures for clinical trials.

  5. Video-task assessment of learning and memory in Macaques (Macaca mulatta) - Effects of stimulus movement on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of stimulus movement on learning, transfer, matching, and short-term memory performance were assessed with 2 monkeys using a video-task paradigm in which the animals responded to computer-generated images by manipulating a joystick. Performance on tests of learning set, transfer index, matching to sample, and delayed matching to sample in the video-task paradigm was comparable to that obtained in previous investigations using the Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus. Additionally, learning, transfer, and matching were reliably and significantly better when the stimuli or discriminanda moved than when the stimuli were stationary. External manipulations such as stimulus movement may increase attention to the demands of a task, which in turn should increase the efficiency of learning. These findings have implications for the investigation of learning in other populations, as well as for the application of the video-task paradigm to comparative study.

  6. [Assessment of the risk of arm repetitive movements among workers in the motor vehicle glass finishing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, C R N; Talarico, G; Varone, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate risk associated with biomechanical overload of the upper limbs in workers exposed to repetitive movements, employed to the finishing of glasses for motor vehicles. The risk assessment was performed using the OCRA method (OCRA index for every worker and Check-List OCRA for every workstation) and the results have been distributed for exposure levels. Altogether the results suggested the existence of risk associated with repetitive movements of the upper limbs and different risk classes (high, medium, light, very light). OCRA index and Check-List OCRA values showed together high risk in the workers with age and employment duration great (respectively 20.68% e 27.58% of workers), with especially involvement of the women, employed to jobs with high frequency.

  7. Formal training in general movement assessment is required to effectively evaluate infants with perinatal asphyxia in outpatient settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Annemette K; Greisen, Gorm; Haugsted, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: General movement assessment (GMA) can help to identify children with a high risk of developing neurological dysfunction, such as cerebral palsy, and certified training is provided in this specialism. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and reliability of using video...... recordings to assess GMA, in a busy Danish outpatient clinic. METHODS: The study comprised 30-term infants born with perinatal asphyxia, who were video recorded at three months. They were assessed by two certified GMA observers and re-assessed two weeks later. Interobserver and intra-observer agreements were.......62-1.00; p video recordings were completed within our multidisciplinary outpatient clinic without delay. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated...

  8. Restrained shrinkage of masonry walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, G.P.A.G. van; Rots, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    State of the art computational rnechanics, in combination with experimental programmes have a lot to offer in providing insight, characterization of total behaviour and predictive ability of structural masonry. Here numerical research towards rationalizing masonry wall movement joint positioning and

  9. Assessment of wall friction model in multi-dimensional component of MARS with air–water cross flow experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jin-Hwa [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chi-Jin [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Recently, high precision and high accuracy analysis on multi-dimensional thermal hydraulic phenomena in a nuclear power plant has been considered as state-of-the-art issues. System analysis code, MARS, also adopted a multi-dimensional module to simulate them more accurately. Even though it was applied to represent the multi-dimensional phenomena, but implemented models and correlations in that are one-dimensional empirical ones based on one-dimensional pipe experimental results. Prior to the application of the multi-dimensional simulation tools, however, the constitutive models for a two-phase flow need to be carefully validated, such as the wall friction model. Especially, in a Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) system, the injected emergency core coolant (ECC) on the upper part of the downcomer interacts with the lateral steam flow during the reflood phase in the Large-Break Loss-Of-Coolant-Accident (LBLOCA). The interaction between the falling film and lateral steam flow induces a multi-dimensional two-phase flow. The prediction of ECC flow behavior plays a key role in determining the amount of coolant that can be used as core cooling. Therefore, the wall friction model which is implemented to simulate the multi-dimensional phenomena should be assessed by multidimensional experimental results. In this paper, the air–water cross film flow experiments simulating the multi-dimensional phenomenon in upper part of downcomer as a conceptual problem will be introduced. The two-dimensional local liquid film velocity and thickness data were used as benchmark data for code assessment. And then the previous wall friction model of the MARS-MultiD in the annular flow regime was modified. As a result, the modified MARS-MultiD produced improved calculation result than previous one.

  10. Recommendations for standardizing validation procedures assessing physical activity of older persons by monitoring body postures and movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Aminian, Kamiar; Chastin, Sebastien F M; de Bruin, Eling D; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Bussmann, Johannes B J

    2014-01-10

    Physical activity is an important determinant of health and well-being in older persons and contributes to their social participation and quality of life. Hence, assessment tools are needed to study this physical activity in free-living conditions. Wearable motion sensing technology is used to assess physical activity. However, there is a lack of harmonisation of validation protocols and applied statistics, which make it hard to compare available and future studies. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to formulate recommendations for assessing the validity of sensor-based activity monitoring in older persons with focus on the measurement of body postures and movements. Validation studies of body-worn devices providing parameters on body postures and movements were identified and summarized and an extensive inter-active process between authors resulted in recommendations about: information on the assessed persons, the technical system, and the analysis of relevant parameters of physical activity, based on a standardized and semi-structured protocol. The recommended protocols can be regarded as a first attempt to standardize validity studies in the area of monitoring physical activity.

  11. Recommendations for Standardizing Validation Procedures Assessing Physical Activity of Older Persons by Monitoring Body Postures and Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Lindemann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is an important determinant of health and well-being in older persons and contributes to their social participation and quality of life. Hence, assessment tools are needed to study this physical activity in free-living conditions. Wearable motion sensing technology is used to assess physical activity. However, there is a lack of harmonisation of validation protocols and applied statistics, which make it hard to compare available and future studies. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to formulate recommendations for assessing the validity of sensor-based activity monitoring in older persons with focus on the measurement of body postures and movements. Validation studies of body-worn devices providing parameters on body postures and movements were identified and summarized and an extensive inter-active process between authors resulted in recommendations about: information on the assessed persons, the technical system, and the analysis of relevant parameters of physical activity, based on a standardized and semi-structured protocol. The recommended protocols can be regarded as a first attempt to standardize validity studies in the area of monitoring physical activity.

  12. Validity and Reliability of Field-Based Measures for Assessing Movement Skill Competency in Lifelong Physical Activities: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulteen, Ryan M; Lander, Natalie J; Morgan, Philip J; Barnett, Lisa M; Robertson, Samuel J; Lubans, David R

    2015-10-01

    It has been suggested that young people should develop competence in a variety of 'lifelong physical activities' to ensure that they can be active across the lifespan. The primary aim of this systematic review is to report the methodological properties, validity, reliability, and test duration of field-based measures that assess movement skill competency in lifelong physical activities. A secondary aim was to clearly define those characteristics unique to lifelong physical activities. A search of four electronic databases (Scopus, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, and PubMed) was conducted between June 2014 and April 2015 with no date restrictions. Studies addressing the validity and/or reliability of lifelong physical activity tests were reviewed. Included articles were required to assess lifelong physical activities using process-oriented measures, as well as report either one type of validity or reliability. Assessment criteria for methodological quality were adapted from a checklist used in a previous review of sport skill outcome assessments. Movement skill assessments for eight different lifelong physical activities (badminton, cycling, dance, golf, racquetball, resistance training, swimming, and tennis) in 17 studies were identified for inclusion. Methodological quality, validity, reliability, and test duration (time to assess a single participant), for each article were assessed. Moderate to excellent reliability results were found in 16 of 17 studies, with 71% reporting inter-rater reliability and 41% reporting intra-rater reliability. Only four studies in this review reported test-retest reliability. Ten studies reported validity results; content validity was cited in 41% of these studies. Construct validity was reported in 24% of studies, while criterion validity was only reported in 12% of studies. Numerous assessments for lifelong physical activities may exist, yet only assessments for eight lifelong physical activities were included in this review

  13. Environmental assessment: low wall conveyor haulage demonstration program, Lewis County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, R.M.

    1978-06-01

    The low wall conveyor haulage demonstration program is a new method for surface mining of coal developed by Skelly and Loy, engineers-consultants for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the experimental demonstration project is to achieve improved production and better resource recovery while enhancing and facilitating reclamation and land restoration. The low wall conveyor haulage method, which incorporates portable conveyor units to transport overburden material instead of using haul trucks, has potential economic, environmental and health advantages over other surface coal mining operations. The potential environmental advantages are: The length of open pit is less, thus decreasing the duration of time the pit is exposed to the elements; less heavy duty haulage equipment is used; routing of topsoil and burial of toxic materials becomes easier by use of a radial stacker; and backfilling and grading operations are more efficient with the use of a radial stacker. This mining method integrates mining and reclamation into a single unitized operation. Economically, investment in portable conveyors and maintenance of machinery should be less than costs associated with maintenance of haul trucks and scheduling should be somewhat less complicated. The inherent congestion of the pit area is greatly reduced. Mitigating measures to minimize adverse environmental impacts during demonstration program include sediment and drainage control structures, backfilling mineral extraction area to original contour, restoration and revegetation of the disturbed area, decreasing the length of open pit, and no downslope placement of spoil. Environmental monitoring during the demonstration program will include system monitoring, head-of-hollow fill stability monitoring, surface-water quality monitoring, ground-water monitoring, aquatic ecology surveys, wildlife surveys, and air quality monitoring.

  14. Assessment of anaesthetic adequacy with upper facial and abdominal wall EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloheimo, M; Edmonds, H L; Wirtavuori, K; Tammisto, T

    1989-03-01

    We compared changes in biopotentials arising from upper facial (FEMG) and abdominal (AEMG) muscles associated with alterations in alveolar enflurane concentration and neuromuscular block. Induction of anaesthesia significantly reduced both FEMG and AEMG mean amplitudes (-60% and -43%, respectively). Neuromuscular blocker-induced abolition of the electrically evoked thenar EMG response did not prevent FEMG and/or AEMG activation during endotracheal intubation. Decreasing the alveolar enflurane concentration was associated with an increase in FEMG amplitude prior to visible signs of arousal in half of the patients. Movement and other signs of inadequate anaesthesia were associated with distinct increases in FEMG amplitude in 29 out of 30 patients. Recovery from neuromuscular block during unchanged alveolar enflurane concentration was associated with increasing amplitudes of both FEMG and AEMG. Finally, very low-amplitude FEMG recordings were always associated with relaxed abdominal muscles.

  15. Assessment of the process of movement of Xylella fastidiosa within susceptible and resistant grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, C; Lindow, S E

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the processes contributing to symptoms and resistance to Pierce's disease of grape, we examined the movement and multiplication of a green fluorescent protein-marked strain of Xylella fastidiosa in the stems and petioles of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chenin Blanc, Roucaneuf, and Tampa grape cultivars that differ in their susceptibility to this disease. X. fastidiosa achieved much lower population sizes and colonized fewer xylem vessels in the stem of resistant cultivars compared with more susceptible cultivars. In contrast, X. fastidiosa achieved similarly high population sizes and colonized a similar proportion of the vessels in petioles of susceptible and resistant cultivars, suggesting that, compared with the stem, X. fastidiosa is relatively unrestricted in its movement and growth within the petiole. There was not a direct relationship between the population size of X. fastidiosa in the stem and the proportion of vessels colonized; a much higher population size of the pathogen was observed in susceptible cultivars than expected based on the proportion of vessels colonized. The high population sizes of X. fastidiosa in stems of susceptible genotypes were associated with both a high number of infected vessels and a much higher extent of colonization of those vessels that become infested than in more resistant cultivars. The formation of large cellular aggregates in vessels is not required for X. fastidiosa to move laterally in the stem to adjacent vessels because most vessels harbored only small assemblages, especially in resistant cultivars such as Roucaneuf, in which some intervessel movement was detected. Resistance to Pierce's disease is apparently not due to inhibitory compounds that circulate in the xylem because they might be expected to operate similarly in all tissues.

  16. Assessment of arm movements during gait in stroke - the Arm Posture Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gudrun M; Frykberg, Gunilla E; Grip, Helena; Broström, Eva W; Häger, Charlotte K

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply the Arm Posture Score (APS) to a stroke population, since comprehensive measures to quantify arm swing in the affected and non-affected arms during gait are lacking. A further aim was to investigate how gait speed and upper limb function estimated by clinical measures are related to the APS in the stroke group. The APS is the summarized root mean square deviation (RMSD) from normal, based on kinematics. Four arm movements (sagittal and frontal planes) as well as six arm movements (incorporating transversal plane) were included in the calculation of APS, referred to as APS4 and APS6, respectively. The study population consisted of 25 persons with stroke and 25 age- and gender-matched controls. The APS measures were significantly different between the affected and non-affected arms, as well as between the affected arm and the non-dominant arm of the controls (p≤0.001). Spasticity significantly influenced both APS measures, while speed only had a significant effect on the APS4. The APS measures correlated significantly to clinical measures of upper limb function. Both APS measures seem to be useful indices to quantify and discriminate between impaired and normal arm swing during gait after stroke. The variability of rotational arm movements needs to be studied further before considering the additional value of the APS6 over the APS4. When interpreting the APS, complementary kinematics should be taken into account, as the single value of the APS gives no information about the direction of the deviation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Objective assessment of movement competence in children using wearable sensors: An instrumented version of the TGMD-2 locomotor subtest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Maria Cristina; Pacini Panebianco, G; Polman, R; Stagni, R

    2017-07-01

    Movement competence (MC) is defined as the development of sufficient skill to assure successful performance in different physical activities. Monitoring children MC during maturation is fundamental to detect early minor delays and define effective intervention. To this purpose, several MC assessment batteries are available. When evaluating movement strategies, with the aim of identifying specific skill components that may need improving, widespread MC assessment is limited by high time consumption for scoring and the need for trained operators to ensure reliability. This work aims to facilitate and support the assessment by designing, implementing and validating an instrumented version of the TGMD-2 locomotor subtest based on Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) to quantify MC in children rapidly and objectively. 45 typically developing children, aged 6-10, performed the TGMD-2 locomotor subtest (six skills). During the tests, children wore five IMUs mounted on lower back, on ankles and on wrists. Sensor and video recordings of the tests were collected. Three expert evaluators performed the standard assessment of TGMD-2. Using theoretical and modelling approaches, algorithms were implemented to automatically score children tests based on IMUs' data. The automatic assessment, compared to the standard one, showed an agreement higher than 87% on average on the entire group for each skill and a reduction of time for scoring from 15 to 2min per participant. Results support the use of IMUs for MC assessment: this approach will allow improving the usability of MC assessment, supporting objectively evaluator decisions and reducing time requirement for the evaluation of large groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulation of bending stress variation in long buried thick-walled pipes under the earth’s movement using combined linear dynamics and beam theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salau Tajudeen A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported a simulation approach to the understanding of the interactions between a buried pipe and the soil system by computing the bending stress variation of harmonically-excited buried pipes. The established principles of linear dynamics theory and simple beam theory were utilised in the analysis of the problem of buried pipe bending stress accumulation and its dynamics. With regards to the parameters that influence the bending stress variations, the most important are the isolation factor, uniform external load, and the corresponding limiting conditions. The simulated mathematical expressions, containing static and dynamic parameters of the buried pipe and earth, were coded in Fortran programming language and applied in the simulation experiment. The results obtained showed that harmonically-excited buried thick-walled pipe became stable and effective when the ratio of the natural frequency of vibration to the forced frequency is greater than 2.0, whenever the damped factor is used as the control parameter for the maximum bending stress. The mirror image of the stress variation produces variation in the location of the maximum bending stress in quantitative terms. The acceptable pipe materials for the simulated cases must have yield strength in bending greater than or equal to 13.95 MPa. The results obtained in this work fill a gap in the literature and will be useful to pipeline engineers and designers, as well as to environmental scientists in initialising and controlling environmental issues and policy formulation concerning the influence of buried pipe on the soil and water in the environment.

  19. Distribution of the August 24, 2016 Amatrice (Central Italy) earthquake-induced slope movements pointing out the existence of hanging wall/footwall effects in near-fault regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekkas, Efthymios; Mavroulis, Spyridon; Taflampas, Ioannis; Carydis, Panayotis

    2017-04-01

    On August 24, 2016 an Mw 6.0 earthquake struck Central Italy resulting in 299 fatalities, 388 injuries and about 3000 homeless and many earthquake environmental effects. Based on mapping of the 2016 Amatrice earthquake-induced slope movements, it is clearly shown that their distribution in the hanging wall (HW) and the footwall (FW) of the seismic fault are quite different resulting in an asymmetric distribution around the causative fault and the observed coseismic surface ruptures and accompanied structures. These differences refer to the observed number, concentration and scale of recorded slope movements in the HW and FW of Mt. Vettore and Laga Mts. faults. Slope movements in the FW were observed in seven localities within the Pretare and Arcuata del Tronto areas and in a site east of Amatrice town. Slope movements north of Pretare affected Lias to Miocene pelagic deposits and Upper Tortonian-Lower Messinian turbidite deposits, while those in Arcuata del Tronto area and east of Amatrice affected only Upper Tortonian-Lower Messinian turbidite deposits. Their distance from the aforementioned faults was short, ranging from 1.5 to 3 km. They were of low concentration and of small scale resulting in negligible to slight damage to road network. In contrast, slope movements in the HW were much more (98 localities) than those in the FW. They affected Lias to Miocene pelagic deposits and Upper Tortonian-Lower Messinian turbidite deposits along slopes in the road leading from Pescara del Tronto village to Norcia town and Upper Tortonian-Lower Messinian turbidite deposits within the Amatrice basin and more specifically in Amatrice and Accumoli areas. Their distance from the aforementioned faults was larger, ranging from 0 to 15 km. They were comparatively of higher concentration and of larger scale causing severe damage to buildings and infrastructures and increasing human fatalities in Amatrice, Accumoli and Pescara del Tronto villages founded on top of flat hills. In

  20. Eye Movement Analysis and Cognitive Assessment. The Use of Comparative Visual Search Tasks in a Non-immersive VR Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Pedro J; Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Morais, Diogo; Pavlovic, Matthew; Smyth, Olivia; Maia, Inês; Gomes, Tiago

    2017-03-23

    An adequate behavioral response depends on attentional and mnesic processes. When these basic cognitive functions are impaired, the use of non-immersive Virtual Reality Applications (VRAs) can be a reliable technique for assessing the level of impairment. However, most non-immersive VRAs use indirect measures to make inferences about visual attention and mnesic processes (e.g., time to task completion, error rate). To examine whether the eye movement analysis through eye tracking (ET) can be a reliable method to probe more effectively where and how attention is deployed and how it is linked with visual working memory during comparative visual search tasks (CVSTs) in non-immersive VRAs. The eye movements of 50 healthy participants were continuously recorded while CVSTs, selected from a set of cognitive tasks in the Systemic Lisbon Battery (SLB). Then a VRA designed to assess of cognitive impairments were randomly presented. The total fixation duration, the number of visits in the areas of interest and in the interstimulus space, along with the total execution time was significantly different as a function of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. The present study demonstrates that CVSTs in SLB, when combined with ET, can be a reliable and unobtrusive method for assessing cognitive abilities in healthy individuals, opening it to potential use in clinical samples.

  1. Comparing children with and without dyslexia on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Test of Gross Motor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Nancy; Pabreja, Priya; Neeld, Kevin; Carrio, Victor

    2007-08-01

    Dyslexia is the most commonly occurring learning disability in the United States, characterized by difficulties with word recognition, spelling, and decoding. A growing body of literature suggests that deficits in motor skill performance exist in the dyslexic population. This study compared the performance of children with and without dyslexia on different subtests of the Test of Gross Motor Development and Movement Assessment Battery for Children and assessed whether there were developmental changes in the scores of the dyslexic group. Participants included 26 dyslexic children (19 boys and 7 girls; 9.5 yr. old, SD = 1.7) and 23 age- and sex-matched typically developing (17 boys and 6 girls; 9.9 yr. old, SD = 1.3) children as a control group. Mann-Whitney U tests indicated that the dyslexic group performed significantly lower than the control group only on the Total Balance subtest of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Additionally, the young dyslexic group performed significantly better on the Total Balance subtest, compared to the older dyslexic group. These results suggest that cerebellar dysfunction may account for differences in performance.

  2. Assessing the permeability of landscape features to animal movement: using genetic structure to infer functional connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J Anderson

    Full Text Available Human-altered environments often challenge native species with a complex spatial distribution of resources. Hostile landscape features can inhibit animal movement (i.e., genetic exchange, while other landscape attributes facilitate gene flow. The genetic attributes of organisms inhabiting such complex environments can reveal the legacy of their movements through the landscape. Thus, by evaluating landscape attributes within the context of genetic connectivity of organisms within the landscape, we can elucidate how a species has coped with the enhanced complexity of human altered environments. In this research, we utilized genetic data from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus in conjunction with spatially explicit habitat attribute data to evaluate the realized permeability of various landscape elements in a fragmented agricultural ecosystem. To accomplish this we 1 used logistic regression to evaluate whether land cover attributes were most often associated with the matrix between or habitat within genetically identified populations across the landscape, and 2 utilized spatially explicit habitat attribute data to predict genetically-derived Bayesian probabilities of population membership of individual chipmunks in an agricultural ecosystem. Consistency between the results of the two approaches with regard to facilitators and inhibitors of gene flow in the landscape indicate that this is a promising new way to utilize both landscape and genetic data to gain a deeper understanding of human-altered ecosystems.

  3. Assessment: Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders (an evidence-based review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D.M.; Blitzer, A.; Brashear, A.; Comella, C.; Dubinsky, R.; Hallett, M.; Jankovic, J.; Karp, B.; Ludlow, C.L.; Miyasaki, J.M.; Naumann, M.; So, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To perform an evidence-based review of the safety and efficacy of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in the treatment of movement disorders. Methods A literature search was performed including MEDLINE and Current Contents for therapeutic articles relevant to BoNT and selected movement disorders. Authors reviewed, abstracted, and classified articles based on American Academy of Neurology criteria (Class I–IV). Results The highest quality literature available for the respective indications was as follows: blepharospasm (two Class II studies); hemifacial spasm (one Class II and one Class III study); cervical dystonia (seven Class I studies); focal upper extremity dystonia (one Class I and three Class II studies); focal lower extremity dystonia (one Class II study); laryngeal dystonia (one Class I study); motor tics (one Class II study); and upper extremity essential tremor (two Class II studies). Recommendations Botulinum neurotoxin should be offered as a treatment option for the treatment of cervical dystonia (Level A), may be offered for blepharospasm, focal upper extremity dystonia, adductor laryngeal dystonia, and upper extremity essential tremor (Level B), and may be considered for hemifacial spasm, focal lower limb dystonia, and motor tics (Level C). While clinicians’ practice may suggest stronger recommendations in some of these indications, evidence-based conclusions are limited by the availability of data. PMID:18458230

  4. A Longitudinal Electromyography Study of Complex Movements in Poststroke Therapy. 1: Heterogeneous Changes Despite Consistent Improvements in Clinical Assessments

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    Negin Hesam-Shariati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poststroke weakness on the more-affected side may arise from reduced corticospinal drive, disuse muscle atrophy, spasticity, and abnormal coordination. This study investigated changes in muscle activation patterns to understand therapy-induced improvements in motor-function in chronic stroke compared to clinical assessments and to identify the effect of motor-function level on muscle activation changes. Electromyography (EMG was recorded from five upper limb muscles on the more-affected side of 24 patients during early and late therapy sessions of an intensive 14-day program of Wii-based Movement Therapy (WMT and for a subset of 13 patients at 6-month follow-up. Patients were classified according to residual voluntary motor capacity with low, moderate, or high motor-function levels. The area under the curve was calculated from EMG amplitude and movement duration. Clinical assessments of upper limb motor-function pre- and post-therapy included the Wolf Motor Function Test, Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Motor Activity Log Quality of Movement scale. Clinical assessments improved over time (p < 0.01 with an effect of motor-function level (p < 0.001. The pattern of EMG change by late therapy was complex and variable, with differences between patients with low compared to moderate or high motor-function levels. The area under the curve (p = 0.028 and peak amplitude (p = 0.043 during Wii-tennis backhand increased for patients with low motor-function, whereas EMG decreased for patients with moderate and high motor-function levels. The reductions included movement duration during Wii-golf (p = 0.048, moderate; p = 0.026, high and Wii-tennis backhand (p = 0.046, moderate; p = 0.023, high and forehand (p = 0.009, high and the area under the curve during Wii-golf (p = 0.018, moderate and Wii-baseball (p = 0.036, moderate. For the pooled data over time, there was an effect of motor-function (p = 0.016 and an

  5. Validade preditiva do movement assessment of infants para crianças pré-termo brasileiras Predictive validity of the Movement Assessment of Infants (MAI for Brazilian preterm children

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    Ana Amélia Cardoso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A validade preditiva da Avaliação do Movimento do Bebê (Movement Assessment of Infants - MAI, para detecção precoce de paralisia cerebral, foi analisada em 89 crianças brasileiras nascidas com idade gestacional 13 e > 10 pontos de risco. Os melhores índices preditivos foram obtidos aos 8 meses e para o ponto de corte > 13 pontos de risco. Um critério menos restritivo (> 10 pontos pode ser útil para predição de transtornos da coordenação motora, na idade escolar.The predictive validity of the Movement Assessment of Infants (MAI for the detection of cerebral palsy was analyzed in 89 Brazilian infants, born with gestational age 13 and > 10. The best predictive values were obtained at 8 months, with a cut off > 13 risk points. A less restrictive criteria (> 10 points might be useful for the prediction of motor coordination problems at school age.

  6. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis and other current concepts in the radiological assessment of acute pancreatitis

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    Cunha, Elen Freitas de Cerqueira [Image Memorial/DASA and Diagnoson Medicina Diagnostica, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Pereira, Fabio Payao; Blasbalg, Roberto; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USPU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2014-05-15

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition caused by intracellular activation and extravasation of inappropriate proteolytic enzymes determining destruction of pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissues. This is a fairly common clinical condition with two main presentations, namely, endematous pancreatitis - a less severe presentation - and necrotizing pancreatitis - the most severe presentation that affects a significant part of patients. The radiological evaluation, particularly by computed tomography, plays a fundamental role in the definition of the management of severe cases, especially regarding the characterization of local complications with implications in the prognosis and in the definition of the therapeutic approach. New concepts include the subdivision of necrotizing pancreatitis into the following presentations: pancreatic parenchymal necrosis with concomitant peripancreatic tissue necrosis, and necrosis restricted to peripancreatic tissues. Moreover, there was a systematization of the terms acute peripancreatic fluid collection, pseudocyst, post-necrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collections and walled-off pancreatic necrosis. The knowledge about such terms is extremely relevant to standardize the terminology utilized by specialists involved in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. (author)

  7. Assessment of aortic wall stiffness in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavil, Yusuf; Oztürk, Mehmet Akif; Ureten, Kemal; Sen, Nihat; Kaya, Mehmet Güngör; Cemri, Mustafa; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate aortic wall stiffness and its relation between the aortic stiffness and the left ventricular function in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). The study population was composed of 31 patients with FMF in attack-free period (12 men, 19 women; mean age: 36+/-7 years) and 27 healthy subjects (10 men, 17 women; mean age: 34+/-7 years) who had volunteered to participate. Aortic stiffness indices, aortic strain and distensibility, were calculated from the aortic diameters measured by echocardiography and blood pressure obtained by sphygmomanometry. There were significant differences between the control and the patient group in aortic strain (mean (SD), 7.23+/-2.14 versus 4.91+/-1.66%, p=0.01) and distensibility (4.02+/-1.42 versus 2.84+/-1.46, 10(-6)cm(2)dyn(-1), p=0.001). Although there was no correlation between the aortic stiffness parameters and the left ventricular function parameters, there were significant negative correlations between the disease duration and aortic strain index (r=-0.29, p<0.001), and between the disease duration and distensibility (r=-0.32, p<0.001). Aortic stiffness measurements were found abnormal in patients with FMF. We have also demonstrated that there were significant correlations between aortic stiffness parameters and disease duration.

  8. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis and other current concepts in the radiological assessment of acute pancreatitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Elen Freitas de Cerqueira; Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Pereira, Fábio Payão; Blasbalg, Roberto; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition caused by intracellular activation and extravasation of inappropriate proteolytic enzymes determining destruction of pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissues. This is a fairly common clinical condition with two main presentations, namely, endematous pancreatitis - a less severe presentation -, and necrotizing pancreatitis - the most severe presentation that affects a significant part of patients. The radiological evaluation, particularly by computed tomography, plays a fundamental role in the definition of the management of severe cases, especially regarding the characterization of local complications with implications in the prognosis and in the definition of the therapeutic approach. New concepts include the subdivision of necrotizing pancreatitis into the following presentations: pancreatic parenchymal necrosis with concomitant peripancreatic tissue necrosis, and necrosis restricted to peripancreatic tissues. Moreover, there was a systematization of the terms acute peripancreatic fluid collection, pseudocyst, post-necrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collections and walled-off pancreatic necrosis. The knowledge about such terms is extremely relevant to standardize the terminology utilized by specialists involved in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. PMID:25741074

  9. SVM-based classification of LV wall motion in cardiac MRI with the assessment of STE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Juan; Garreau, Mireille; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Paredes, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated method to classify normal/abnormal wall motion in Left Ventricle (LV) function in cardiac cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), taking as reference, strain information obtained from 2D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE). Without the need of pre-processing and by exploiting all the images acquired during a cardiac cycle, spatio-temporal profiles are extracted from a subset of radial lines from the ventricle centroid to points outside the epicardial border. Classical Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used to classify features extracted from gray levels of the spatio-temporal profile as well as their representations in the Wavelet domain under the assumption that the data may be sparse in that domain. Based on information obtained from radial strain curves in 2D-STE studies, we label all the spatio-temporal profiles that belong to a particular segment as normal if the peak systolic radial strain curve of this segment presents normal kinesis, or abnormal if the peak systolic radial strain curve presents hypokinesis or akinesis. For this study, short-axis cine- MR images are collected from 9 patients with cardiac dyssynchrony for which we have the radial strain tracings at the mid-papilary muscle obtained by 2D STE; and from one control group formed by 9 healthy subjects. The best classification performance is obtained with the gray level information of the spatio-temporal profiles using a RBF kernel with 91.88% of accuracy, 92.75% of sensitivity and 91.52% of specificity.

  10. Uncertainty induced by chest wall thickness assessment methods on lung activity estimation for plutonium and americium: a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggio, D; Lechaftois, X; Franck, D

    2015-03-01

    In vivo lung counting aims at assessing the retained activity in the lungs. The calibration factor relating the measured counts to the worker's specific retained lung activity can be obtained by several means and strongly depends on the chest wall thickness. Here we compare, for 374 male nuclear workers, the activity assessed with a reference protocol, where the material equivalent chest wall thickness is known from ultrasound measurements, with two other protocols. The counting system is an array of four germanium detectors.It is found that non site-specific equations for the assessment of the chest wall thickness induce large biases in the assessment of activity. For plutonium isotopes or (241)Am the proportion of workers for whom the retained activity is within ± 10% of the reference one is smaller than 10%.The use of site-specific equations raises this proportion to 20% and 58% for plutonium and (241)Am, respectively.Finally, for the studied population, when site-specific equations are used for the chest wall thickness, the standard uncertainties for the lung activity are 42% and 12.5%, for plutonium and (241)Am, respectively. Due to the relatively large size of the studied population, these values are a relatively robust estimate of the uncertainties due to the assessment of the chest wall thickness for the current practice at this site.

  11. Shoulder functional assessments in persons with chronic neck/shoulder pain and healthy subjects: Reliability and effects of movement repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomond, Karen V; Côté, Julie N

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining reliable functional capacity measures from injured workers is an essential part of the return to work (RTW) process. The present study compares shoulder functional outcomes between healthy individuals and others with neck/shoulder pain, assesses reliability and examines the influence of repetitive movements on shoulder function. Subjects performed trials of flexion and abduction active range of motion (ROM), and cumulative power output (PO) in a pushing/pulling task on the Baltimore Therapeutic Equipment Simulator II in two consecutive sessions. Tasks were assessed before and after performing a repetitive arm task, during which heart rate (HR) was recorded, until scoring 8 on the Borg CR-10 scale or on a 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain. Persons with chronic neck/shoulder pain (intensity ≥ 3/10 for > 3 months) (n = 16) and an age- and sex-matched control group (n = 16). Functional shoulder measures demonstrated strong inter-session reliability, except PO in the pain group. Average repetitive task duration was shorter in the pain group (4 min vs. 7 min). The protocol detected both pain- and time-related impairments, with HR and PO being sensitive to movement duration and ROM to pain.

  12. Functional Movement ScreenTM and history of injury in assessment of potential risk of injury among team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodownik, Robert; Ogonowska-Slodownik, Anna; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia

    2017-09-29

    Handball is known to be one of the team sports representing the highest risk of injury. Several investigators have tried to identify injury risk factors in team sports including handball and suggested the need to develop an optimal tool to capture and quantify the potential risk of injury. The aim of the study was to evaluate potential risk of injury among handball players. It was a mixed design study. Handball players from 1st and 2nd division were evaluated (n = 30) using the Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMSTM). Additionally, self-reported history of injury was collected during FMSTM evaluation and after 6 months. Competitive level, training experience, playing position, anthropometric features, symmetry of movement patterns and history of previous injury were analysed while assessing the potential risk of injury. Significant difference between the right and left side (upper limb) was revealed for Shoulder Mobility Test (U = 308.5, p = 0.014). Odds Ratio analysis revealed that having previous injury in the last 12 months is the only statistically significant injury risk factor (OR = 13.71, p = 0.02). Based on this study we can assume that previous injury history reports are crucial in predicting injuries. FMSTM can help in identifying a typical adaptation in throwing shoulder among handball players, but should not be used alone to assess injury risk.

  13. An investigation on vulnerability assessment of steel structures with thin steel shear wall through development of fragility curves

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    Mohsen Gerami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fragility curves play an important role in damage assessment of buildings. Probability of damage induction to the structure against seismic events can be investigated upon generation of afore mentioned curves. In current research 360 time history analyses have been carried out on structures of 3, 10 and 20 story height and subsequently fragility curves have been adopted. The curves are developed based on two indices of inter story drifts and equivalent strip axial strains of the shear wall. Time history analysis is carried out in Perform 3d considering 10 far field seismograms and 10 near fields. Analysis of low height structures revealed that they are more vulnerable in accelerations lower than 0.8 g in near field earthquakes because of higher mode effects. Upon the generated fragility curves it was observed that middle and high structures have more acceptable performance and lower damage levels compared to low height structures in both near and far field seismic hazards.

  14. Longitudinal assessment of probable rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnarå, K A; Dietrichs, E; Toft, M

    2015-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is frequently present in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and may have prognostic implications. There are few longitudinal studies of RBD in patients with PD. Our aim was to investigate whether RBD was a persistent feature in a follow-up study of 107 patients with PD. After a mean follow-up time of 3 years, 96 patients were available for reassessment. Probable RBD (pRBD) was diagnosed by the REM sleep behaviour disorder screening questionnaire. At follow-up, pRBD was found in 49% of the patients, versus 38% at baseline. The pRBD status remained unchanged in three-quarters of the patients, whilst 17% had new pRBD symptoms. Disease duration was longer in the pRBD group, 9.4 vs. 7.6 years (P = 0.02). Probable RBD is a persistent feature in PD and probably increases over time. © 2015 EAN.

  15. Separating movement and gravity components in an acceleration signal and implications for the assessment of human daily physical activity.

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    Vincent T van Hees

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human body acceleration is often used as an indicator of daily physical activity in epidemiological research. Raw acceleration signals contain three basic components: movement, gravity, and noise. Separation of these becomes increasingly difficult during rotational movements. We aimed to evaluate five different methods (metrics of processing acceleration signals on their ability to remove the gravitational component of acceleration during standardised mechanical movements and the implications for human daily physical activity assessment. METHODS: An industrial robot rotated accelerometers in the vertical plane. Radius, frequency, and angular range of motion were systematically varied. Three metrics (Euclidian norm minus one [ENMO], Euclidian norm of the high-pass filtered signals [HFEN], and HFEN plus Euclidean norm of low-pass filtered signals minus 1 g [HFEN+] were derived for each experimental condition and compared against the reference acceleration (forward kinematics of the robot arm. We then compared metrics derived from human acceleration signals from the wrist and hip in 97 adults (22-65 yr, and wrist in 63 women (20-35 yr in whom daily activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE was available. RESULTS: In the robot experiment, HFEN+ had lowest error during (vertical plane rotations at an oscillating frequency higher than the filter cut-off frequency while for lower frequencies ENMO performed better. In the human experiments, metrics HFEN and ENMO on hip were most discrepant (within- and between-individual explained variance of 0.90 and 0.46, respectively. ENMO, HFEN and HFEN+ explained 34%, 30% and 36% of the variance in daily PAEE, respectively, compared to 26% for a metric which did not attempt to remove the gravitational component (metric EN. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, none of the metrics as evaluated systematically outperformed all other metrics across a wide range of standardised kinematic conditions. However, choice

  16. AN ATTEMPT TO DETERMINE THE RELATION BETWEEN HUCUL HORSES CONFORMATION ASSESSMENT, MOVEMENT AND COURAGE TEST RESULTS PART II. MARE FAMILIES

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    Jadwiga TOPCZEWSKA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine the relationship between evaluation of conformation and motion indicators and results of the Huculs’ path and also to ascertain the courage (basic and elimination of Hucul horses with their classification into mare families being taken account of. The scores of 116 horses presented for the evaluation of their exterior (championship breeding were analyzed. The assessment covered the type, body conformation, movement in walk and trot as well as overall impression and preparedness for the exhibition. Measurements of length of steps, frequency and rate of the walk and trot were performed during the tests for courage. The estimated correlation coefficients exhibited the existence of some interesting trends i.e., there was positive correlation between values for type, body conformation, movement in walk and trot and the length of steps in walk and trot in individuals representing most of mare families. The reverse was the case with horses from the Sroczka and Wyderka families. Amongst the Wrona, however, negative correlations between the grade for walk and frequency of steps in walk was observed while that of between the result of path and utility tests was positive.

  17. Assessment of neuro-optometric rehabilitation using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in adults with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Neera; Ciuffreda, Kenneth Joseph

    2017-07-01

    This pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in the adult, acquired brain injury (ABI) population to quantify clinically the effects of controlled, laboratory-performed, oculomotor-based vision therapy/vision rehabilitation. Nine adult subjects with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and five with stroke were assessed before and after an eight-week, computer-based, versional oculomotor (fixation, saccades, pursuit, and simulated reading) training program (9.6h total). The protocol incorporated a cross-over, interventional design with and without the addition of auditory feedback regarding two-dimensional eye position. The clinical outcome measure was the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test score (ratio, errors) taken before, midway, and immediately following training. For the DEM ratio parameter, improvements were found in 80-89% of the subjects. For the DEM error parameter, improvements were found in 100% of the subjects. Incorporation of the auditory feedback component revealed a trend toward enhanced performance. The findings were similar for both DEM parameters, as well as for incorporation of the auditory feedback, in both diagnostic groups. The results of the present study demonstrated considerable improvements in the DEM test scores following the oculomotor-based training, thus reflecting more time-optimal and accurate saccadic tracking after the training. The DEM test should be considered as another clinical test of global saccadic tracking performance in the ABI population. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. All rights reserved.

  18. Using respiratory rate and thoracic movement to assess respiratory insufficiency in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a preliminary study

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    Siirala Waltteri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoventilation due to respiratory insufficiency is the most common cause of death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and non-invasive ventilation (NIV can be used as a palliative treatment. The current guidelines recommend performing spirometry, and recording nocturnal oxyhemoglobin saturation and arterial blood gas analysis to assess the severity of the hypoventilation. We examined whether the respiratory rate and thoracic movement were reliable preliminary clinical signs in the development of respiratory insufficiency in patients with ALS. Methods We measured the respiratory rate and thoracic movement, performed respiratory function tests and blood gas analysis, and recorded subjective hypoventilation symptoms in 42 ALS patients over a 7-year period. We recommended NIV if the patient presented with hypoventilation matching the current guidelines. We divided patients retrospectively into two groups: those to whom NIV was recommended within 6 months of the diagnosis (Group 1 and those to whom NIV was recommended 6 months after the diagnosis (Group 2. We used the Mann Whitney U test for comparisons between the two groups. Results The mean partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide in the morning in Group 1 was 6.3 (95% confidence interval 5.6–6.9 kPa and in Group 2 5.3 (5.0–5.6 kPa (p = 0.007. The mean respiratory rate at the time of diagnosis in Group 1 was 21 (18–24 breaths per minute and 16 (14–18 breaths per minute in Group 2 (p = 0.005. The mean thoracic movement was 2.9 (2.2–3.6 cm in Group 1 and 4.0 (3.4–4.8 cm in Group 2 (p = 0.01. We observed no other differences between the groups. Conclusions Patients who received NIV within six months of the diagnosis of ALS had higher respiratory rates and smaller thoracic movement compared with patients who received NIV later. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to establish if these measurements can be used as a marker of hypoventilation

  19. Using respiratory rate and thoracic movement to assess respiratory insufficiency in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirala, Waltteri; Saaresranta, Tarja; Vuori, Arno; Salanterä, Sanna; Olkkola, Klaus T; Aantaa, Riku

    2012-12-27

    Hypoventilation due to respiratory insufficiency is the most common cause of death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can be used as a palliative treatment. The current guidelines recommend performing spirometry, and recording nocturnal oxyhemoglobin saturation and arterial blood gas analysis to assess the severity of the hypoventilation. We examined whether the respiratory rate and thoracic movement were reliable preliminary clinical signs in the development of respiratory insufficiency in patients with ALS. We measured the respiratory rate and thoracic movement, performed respiratory function tests and blood gas analysis, and recorded subjective hypoventilation symptoms in 42 ALS patients over a 7-year period. We recommended NIV if the patient presented with hypoventilation matching the current guidelines. We divided patients retrospectively into two groups: those to whom NIV was recommended within 6 months of the diagnosis (Group 1) and those to whom NIV was recommended 6 months after the diagnosis (Group 2). We used the Mann Whitney U test for comparisons between the two groups. The mean partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide in the morning in Group 1 was 6.3 (95% confidence interval 5.6-6.9) kPa and in Group 2 5.3 (5.0-5.6) kPa (p = 0.007). The mean respiratory rate at the time of diagnosis in Group 1 was 21 (18-24) breaths per minute and 16 (14-18) breaths per minute in Group 2 (p = 0.005). The mean thoracic movement was 2.9 (2.2-3.6) cm in Group 1 and 4.0 (3.4-4.8) cm in Group 2 (p = 0.01). We observed no other differences between the groups. Patients who received NIV within six months of the diagnosis of ALS had higher respiratory rates and smaller thoracic movement compared with patients who received NIV later. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to establish if these measurements can be used as a marker of hypoventilation in ALS.

  20. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called "wall preference". This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian "wall-preference" behavior only appears to be a "preference" behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then moving along it

  1. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaro Akiyama

    Full Text Available The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called "wall preference". This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian "wall-preference" behavior only appears to be a "preference" behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and

  2. Assessment of maxillary sinus wall thickness with paranasal sinus digital tomosynthesis and CT

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    Byun, Ji Eun; Shim, Sung Shine; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Kong, Kyoung Ae [Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    This study was performed to compare paranasal sinus tomosynthesis with computed tomography (CT) imaging as a radiologic tool to evaluate the paranasal sinuses, using measurement of the soft tissue thickness of the maxillary sinus. A total of 114 patients with sinusitis who underwent both paranasal sinus digital tomosynthesis (DT) and CT were enrolled in this retrospective study. Two observers independently assessed soft tissue thickness in both maxillary sinus chambers using both DT and CT images. The mean difference in soft tissue thickness measured by each observer was −0.31 mm on CT and 0.15 mm on DT. The mean differences in soft tissue thickness measured with DT and CT were −0.15 by observer 1 and −0.31 by observer 2. Evaluation of the agreement in measurement of soft tissue thickness in the maxillary sinus using DT and CT showed a high intraclass correlation, with the 95% limit of agreement ranging from −3.36 mm to 3.06 mm [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), 0.994: p<0.01] for observer 1 and from −5.56 mm to 4.95 mm (ICC, 0.984: p<0.01) for observer 2. As an imaging tool, DT is comparable to CT for assessing the soft tissue thickness of maxillary sinuses in patients with sinusitis.

  3. Towards participatory air pollution exposure assessment in a goods movement community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Chris Mizes; John Lee; Jacqueline McGady-Saier; Lisa O' Malley; Ariel Diliberto; Igor. Burstyn

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution from diesel truck traffic travelling to and from port facilities is a major environmental health concern in areas of Philadelphia such as the Port Richmond neighborhood. Ambient monitoring has limited capability to assess neighborhood- or personal-level exposures to this pollution. We sought to conduct a pilot study using a community-based participatory...

  4. 75 FR 29706 - Interstate Movement of Garbage from Hawaii; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... United States of plant and animal pests and diseases. On January 19, 2010, we published in the Federal... invasive species/pest introductions, impacts on air and water quality, impacts on fish and wildlife habitat... Hawaii; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Animal...

  5. Assessing adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on Rhizopus oryzae cell wall components with water-methanol cosolvent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Lv, Xiaofei; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming

    2016-03-01

    The contribution of different fungal cell wall components in adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is still unclear. We isolated Rhizopus oryzae cell walls components with sequential extraction, characterized functional groups with NEXAFS spectra, and determined partition coefficients of PAHs on cell walls and cell wall components with cosolvent model. Spectra of NEXAFS indicated that isolated cell walls components were featured with peaks at ~532.7 and ~534.5eV energy. The lipid cosolvent partition coefficients were approximately one order of magnitude higher than the corresponding carbohydrate cosolvent partition coefficients. The partition coefficients for four tested carbohydrates varied at approximate 0.5 logarithmic units. Partition coefficients between biosorbents and water calculated based cosolvent models ranged from 0.8 to 4.2. The present study proved the importance of fungal cell wall components in adsorption of PAHs, and consequently the role of fungi in PAHs bioremediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. LIFE Materials: Topical Assessment Report for LIFE Volume 1 TOPIC: Solid First Wall and Structural Components TASK: Radiation Effects on First Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, A

    2008-11-26

    This report consists of the following chapters: CHAPTER A: LIFE Requirements for Materials. Part 1: The structure of the First Wall--Basic requirements; A qualitative view of the challenge; The candidate materials; and Base-line material's properties. CHAPTER B: Summary of Existing Knowledge--Brief historical introduction; Design window; The temperature window; Evolution of the design window with damage; Damage calculations; He and H production; Swelling resistance; Incubation dose for swelling; Design criterion No. 1, Strength; Design criterion No. 2, Corrosion resistance; Design criterion No. 3, Creep resistance; Design criterion No. 4, Radiation induced embrittlement; and Conclusions. CHAPTER C: Identification of Gaps in Knowledge & Vulnerabilities. CHAPTER D: Strategy and Future Work.

  7. Assessing The Hydrogen Adsorption Capacity Of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube / Metal Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heben, Michael J.; Dillon, Anne C.; Gilbert, Katherine E. H.; Parilla, Philip A.; Gennett, Thomas; Alleman, Jeffrey L.; Hornyak, G. Louis; Jones, Kim M.

    2003-07-01

    Carefully controlled and calibrated experiments indicate a maximum capacity for adsorption of hydrogen on SWNTs is ˜8 wt% under room temperature and pressure conditions. Samples displaying this maximum value were prepared by sonicating purified SWNTs in a dilute nitric acid solution with a high-energy probe. The process cuts the SWNT into shorter segments and introduces a Ti-6Al-4V alloy due to the disintegration of the ultrasonic probe. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy is a well-known metal hydride and its contribution to the measured hydrogen uptake was accounted for in order to assess the amount of hydrogen stored on the SWNT fraction. The principal purpose of this paper is to present key details associated with the measurement procedures in order to illustrate the degree of rigor with which the findings were obtained.

  8. Predicting motor development in very preterm infants at 12 months' corrected age: the role of qualitative magnetic resonance imaging and general movements assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J; Boyd, Roslyn N; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the predictive value of qualitative MRI of brain structure at term and general movements assessments at 1 and 3 months' corrected age for motor outcome at 1 year's corrected age in very preterm infants. Eighty-six very preterm infants (MRI at term-equivalent age, were evaluated for white matter abnormality, and had general movements assessed at 1 and 3 months' corrected age. Motor outcome at 1 year's corrected age was evaluated with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale, the Neuro-Sensory Motor Development Assessment, and the diagnosis of cerebral palsy by the child's pediatrician. At 1 year of age, the Alberta Infant Motor Scale categorized 30 (35%) infants as suspicious/abnormal; the Neuro-Sensory Motor Development Assessment categorized 16 (18%) infants with mild-to-severe motor dysfunction, and 5 (6%) infants were classified with cerebral palsy. White matter abnormality at term and general movements at 1 and 3 months significantly correlated with Alberta Infant Motor Scale and Neuro-Sensory Motor Development Assessment scores at 1 year. White matter abnormality and general movements at 3 months were the only assessments that correlated with cerebral palsy. All assessments had 100% sensitivity in predicting cerebral palsy. White matter abnormality demonstrated the greatest accuracy in predicting combined motor outcomes, with excellent levels of specificity (>90%); however, the sensitivity was low. On the other hand, general movements assessments at 1 month had the highest sensitivity (>80%); however, the overall accuracy was relatively low. Neuroimaging (MRI) and functional (general movements) examinations have important complementary roles in predicting motor development of very preterm infants.

  9. Assessment of perfusion and wall-motion abnormalities and transient ischemic dilation in regadenoson stress cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjati, Mohammad R; Muthupillai, Raja; Wilson, James M; Preventza, Ourania A; Cheong, Benjamin Y C

    2014-06-01

    Vasodilator first-pass stress cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion imaging [stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)] is a reliable, noninvasive method for evaluating myocardial ischemia; however, it does not routinely evaluate metrics such as wall-motion abnormality (WMA) and transient ischemic dilation (TID). Using the new selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist regadenoson, we tested a novel protocol for assessing perfusion defects, WMA, and TID in a single stress CMR session. We evaluated 29 consecutive patients who presented for clinically indicated regadenoson stress CMR. Immediately before and after the regadenoson stress perfusion sequence, we obtained baseline and post-stress cine images in the short-axis orientation to detect worsening or newly developed WMAs. This approach also allowed evaluation of TID. Delayed-enhancement imaging was performed in the standard orientations. All patients tolerated the procedure well. Thirteen patients (45 %) had perfusion abnormalities, and four patients developed TID. Seven patients had WMAs, and three of them also had TID. Patients with TID ± WMAs had multivessel disease documented by coronary angiography. By using regadenoson to assess myocardial ischemia during stress CMR, perfusion defects, WMAs, and TID can be evaluated in a single imaging session. To our knowledge, we are the first to describe this novel approach in a vasodilator stress CMR study.

  10. Drosophila embryos as model to assess cellular and developmental toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT in living organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyin Liu

    Full Text Available Different toxicity tests for carbon nanotubes (CNT have been developed to assess their impact on human health and on aquatic and terrestrial animal and plant life. We present a new model, the fruit fly Drosophila embryo offering the opportunity for rapid, inexpensive and detailed analysis of CNTs toxicity during embryonic development. We show that injected DiI labelled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs become incorporated into cells in early Drosophila embryos, allowing the study of the consequences of cellular uptake of CNTs on cell communication, tissue and organ formation in living embryos. Fluorescently labelled subcellular structures showed that MWCNTs remained cytoplasmic and were excluded from the nucleus. Analysis of developing ectodermal and neural stem cells in MWCNTs injected embryos revealed normal division patterns and differentiation capacity. However, an increase in cell death of ectodermal but not of neural stem cells was observed, indicating stem cell-specific vulnerability to MWCNT exposure. The ease of CNT embryo injections, the possibility of detailed morphological and genomic analysis and the low costs make Drosophila embryos a system of choice to assess potential developmental and cellular effects of CNTs and test their use in future CNT based new therapies including drug delivery.

  11. Movement variability in stroke patients and controls performing two upper limb functional tasks: a new assessment methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goulermas John Y

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the evaluation of upper limb impairment post stroke there remains a gap between detailed kinematic analyses with expensive motion capturing systems and common clinical assessment tests. In particular, although many clinical tests evaluate the performance of functional tasks, metrics to characterise upper limb kinematics are generally not applicable to such tasks and very limited in scope. This paper reports on a novel, user-friendly methodology that allows for the assessment of both signal magnitude and timing variability in upper limb movement trajectories during functional task performance. In order to demonstrate the technique, we report on a study in which the variability in timing and signal magnitude of data collected during the performance of two functional tasks is compared between a group of subjects with stroke and a group of individually matched control subjects. Methods We employ dynamic time warping for curve registration to quantify two aspects of movement variability: 1 variability of the timing of the accelerometer signals' characteristics and 2 variability of the signals' magnitude. Six stroke patients and six matched controls performed several trials of a unilateral ('drinking' and a bilateral ('moving a plate' functional task on two different days, approximately 1 month apart. Group differences for the two variability metrics were investigated on both days. Results For 'drinking from a glass' significant group differences were obtained on both days for the timing variability of the acceleration signals' characteristics (p = 0.002 and p = 0.008 for test and retest, respectively; all stroke patients showed increased signal timing variability as compared to their corresponding control subject. 'Moving a plate' provided less distinct group differences. Conclusion This initial application establishes that movement variability metrics, as determined by our methodology, appear different in stroke patients as

  12. Assessment of Ficam VC (Bendiocarb) Residual Activity on Different Wall Surfaces for Control of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirunda, James; Okello-Onen, Joseph; Opiyo, Elizabeth A; Rwakimari, J B; de Alwis, Ranjith; Okia, Michael; Ambayo, Denis; Abola, Benard; Hoel, David F

    2017-07-01

    Insecticide decay rate on different wall surfaces is of importance to indoor residual spray (IRS) programs used as a malaria control intervention. Past IRS operations showed increasing populations of endophilic malaria vectors resting on indoor surfaces from various sites in Uganda following use of Ficam VC (bendiocarb) insecticide; variability of insecticide life was believed to be primarily due to wall surface type. Bendiocarb longevity was tested in the northern Uganda districts of Amuru, Apac, and Pader to assess its residual efficacy on three commonly encountered wall surfaces. Wall types included mud and wattle, plain brick, and painted plaster. A susceptible mosquito strain (Anopheles gambiae Kisumu) was used in all trials. Nine houses in each of the three districts were set with three test cones and one control cone per house, divided evenly among the three wall surfaces. Bioassays were run monthly through 6 mo. Painted plastered surfaces produced 100% mortality (at 24 h) through 6 mo. Plain brick surfaces killed 100% of test mosquitoes through 4 mo, while mud and wattle wall surfaces produced a 98% mortality rate at 3 mo post spray. The KD60 (knockdown at 60 min) for painted plastered surfaces was 100% for 6 mo, plain brick surface KD60 was 80% at 6 mo, and the mud and wattle surface KD60 was >80% at 3 mo. There was a significant effect on Ficam VC longevity by wall type and evidence of a relationship between test period and wall type on the KD60. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Sagittal Subtalar and Talocrural Joint Assessment During Ambulation With Controlled Ankle Movement (CAM) Boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Benjamin D; Exten, Emily L; Cross, Janelle A; Kruger, Karen M; Law, Brian; Fritz, Jessica M; Harris, Gerald

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine sagittal plane talocrural and subtalar kinematic differences between barefoot and controlled ankle movement (CAM) boot walking. This study used fluoroscopic images to determine talar motion relative to tibia and calcaneal motion relative to talus. Fourteen male subjects (mean age 24.1 ± 3.5 years) screened for normal gait were tested. A fluoroscopy unit was used to collect images at 200 Hz during stance. Sagittal motion of the talocrural and subtalar joints were analyzed barefoot and within short and tall CAM boots. Barefoot talocrural mean maximum plantar and dorsiflexion were 9.2 ± 5.4 degrees and -7.5 ± 7.4 degrees, respectively; short CAM boot mean maximum plantar and dorsiflexion were 3.2 ± 4.0 degrees and -4.8 ± 10.2 degrees, respectively; and tall CAM boot mean maximum plantar and dorsiflexion were -0.2 ± 3.5 degrees and -2.4 ± 5.1 degrees, respectively. Talocrural mean range of motion (ROM) decreased from barefoot (16.7 ± 5.1 degrees) to short CAM boot (8.0 ± 4.9 degrees) to tall CAM boot (2.2 ± 2.5 degrees). Subtalar mean maximum plantarflexion angles were 5.3 ± 5.6 degrees for barefoot walking, 4.1 ± 5.9 degrees for short CAM boot walking, and 3.0 ± 4.7 degrees for tall CAM boot walking. Mean minimum subtalar plantarflexion angles were 0.7 ± 3.2 degrees for barefoot walking, 0.7 ± 2.9 degrees for short CAM boot walking, and 0.1 ± 4.8 degrees for tall CAM boot walking. Subtalar mean ROM decreased from barefoot (4.6 ± 3.9 degrees) to short CAM boot (3.4 ± 3.8 degrees) to tall CAM boot (2.9 ± 2.6 degrees). Tall and short CAM boot intervention was shown to limit both talocrural and subtalar motion in the sagittal plane during ambulation. The greatest reductions were seen with the tall CAM boot, which limited talocrural motion by 86.8% and subtalar motion by 37.0% compared to barefoot. Short CAM boot intervention reduced talocrural motion by 52.1% and subtalar motion by 26.1% compared to

  14. The Association Between Visual Assessment of Quality of Movement and Three-Dimensional Analysis of Pelvis, Hip, and Knee Kinematics During a Lateral Step Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Portnoy, Sigal; Kozol, Zvi

    2016-11-01

    Rabin, A, Portnoy, S, and Kozol, Z. The association between visual assessment of quality of movement and three-dimensional analysis of pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics during a lateral step down test. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3204-3211, 2016-Altered movement patterns including contralateral pelvic drop, increased hip adduction, knee abduction, and external rotation have been previously implicated in several lower extremity pathologies. Although various methods exist for assessing movement patterns, real-time visual observation is the most readily available method. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differing visual ratings of trunk, pelvis, and knee alignment, as well as overall quality of movement, are associated with differences in 3-dimensional trunk, pelvis, hip, or knee kinematics during a lateral step down test. Trunk, pelvis, and knee alignment of 30 healthy participants performing the lateral step down were visually rated as "good" or "faulty" based on previously established criteria. An additional categorization of overall quality of movement as either good or moderate was performed based on the aggregate score of each individual rating criterion. Three-dimensional motion analysis of trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics was simultaneously performed. A faulty pelvis alignment displayed a greater peak contralateral pelvic drop (effect size [ES], 1.65; p pelvis alignment. Participants with a faulty knee alignment displayed greater peak knee external rotation compared with participants with a good knee alignment (ES, 0.78; p = 0.02). Participants with an overall moderate quality of movement displayed increased peak contralateral pelvic drop (ES, 1.07; p = 0.01) and peak knee external rotation (ES, 0.72; p = 0.04) compared with those with an overall good quality of movement. Visual rating of quality of movement during a lateral step down test, as performed by an experienced physical therapist, is associated with differences in several

  15. Estimating blue whale skin isotopic incorporation rates and baleen growth rates: Implications for assessing diet and movement patterns in mysticetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets-Vass, Geraldine; Newsome, Seth D; Calambokidis, John; Serra-Valente, Gabriela; Jacobsen, Jeff K; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio; Gendron, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis in mysticete skin and baleen plates has been repeatedly used to assess diet and movement patterns. Accurate interpretation of isotope data depends on understanding isotopic incorporation rates for metabolically active tissues and growth rates for metabolically inert tissues. The aim of this research was to estimate isotopic incorporation rates in blue whale skin and baleen growth rates by using natural gradients in baseline isotope values between oceanic regions. Nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope values of blue whale skin and potential prey were analyzed from three foraging zones (Gulf of California, California Current System, and Costa Rica Dome) in the northeast Pacific from 1996-2015. We also measured δ15N and δ13C values along the lengths of baleen plates collected from six blue whales stranded in the 1980s and 2000s. Skin was separated into three strata: basale, externum, and sloughed skin. A mean (±SD) skin isotopic incorporation rate of 163±91 days was estimated by fitting a generalized additive model of the seasonal trend in δ15N values of skin strata collected in the Gulf of California and the California Current System. A mean (±SD) baleen growth rate of 15.5±2.2 cm y-1 was estimated by using seasonal oscillations in δ15N values from three whales. These oscillations also showed that individual whales have a high fidelity to distinct foraging zones in the northeast Pacific across years. The absence of oscillations in δ15N values of baleen sub-samples from three male whales suggests these individuals remained within a specific zone for several years prior to death. δ13C values of both whale tissues (skin and baleen) and potential prey were not distinct among foraging zones. Our results highlight the importance of considering tissue isotopic incorporation and growth rates when studying migratory mysticetes and provide new insights into the individual movement strategies of blue whales.

  16. Assessment of myeloperoxidase activity at different force levels in gingival crevicular fluid during initial phase of orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honey Gurbaxani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic movements promote remodeling of the alveolar bone, which is mediated by inflammatory reactions such as characterized by vascular changes and infiltration of leukocytes. Changes in the periodontium occur, depending on the magnitude, duration, and direction of applied force. These changes are often seen in the saliva and gingival fluids through the various substances secreted in them. Aim: The present study aimed to assess myeloperoxidase (MPO activity at different force levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF during the initial phase of orthodontic tooth movement by varying the effective force levels to 50, 75, 100, and 150 g. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty participants between the age groups of 18–25 years requiring upper first premolar extractions were included in the study. They were divided into three groups (I, II, and III of ten individuals each, again subdivided into two Subgroups A and B depending on the amount of force applied to the canine. Subgroup A of all the three groups used 150 g, whereas Subgroup B used 50, 75, and 100 g of force, respectively. GCF was collected at 2 h, 7 days, and 14 days of force application. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and ANOVA test were used to provide the descriptive statistics of mean optical density to detect the presence of MPO in GCF. Results and Conclusion: There was a highly significant increase in the MPO levels in the GCF at 14th day after force application which can be correlated to the onset of inflammatory reactions in the periodontium.

  17. Implementing Cargo Movement into Climate Based Risk Assessment of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Margarete Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito has rapidly spread around the globe. Global shipment of goods contributes to its permanent introduction. Invaded regions are facing novel and serious public health concerns, especially regarding the transmission of formerly non-endemic arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. The further development and potential spread to other regions depends largely on their climatic suitability. Here, we have developed a tool for identifying and prioritizing European areas at risk for the establishment of Aedes albopictus by taking into account, for the first time, the freight imports from this mosquito’s endemic countries and the climate suitability at harbors and their surrounding regions. In a second step we consider the further transport of containers by train and inland waterways because these types of transport can be well controlled. We identify European regions at risk, where a huge amount of transported goods meet climatically suitable conditions for the disease vector. The current and future suitability of the climate for Aedes albopictus was modeled by a correlative niche model approach and the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM. This risk assessment combines impacts of globalization and global warming to improve effective and proactive interventions in disease vector surveillance and control actions.

  18. Ultrasound imaging assessment of abdominal muscle function during drawing-in of the abdominal wall: an intrarater reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Miokovic, Tanja; Belavý, Daniel L; Stanton, Warren R; Richardson, Carolyn A

    2007-08-01

    Test-retest intrarater reliability study. To examine reliability of abdominal musculature measurements across a broad range of conditions for a physical therapist newly trained in assessment using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI). RUSI has previously been used to assess abdominal muscle function during a drawing-in maneuver of the anterior abdominal wall, and measurements conducted by an experienced assessor have been validated by comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Few studies have examined the reliability of less experienced operators, and only in isolated measurement conditions. Nineteen subjects (11 female, 8 male) without a history of low back pain performed the abdominal drawing-in maneuver in a supine hook-lying position. RUSI was used bilaterally to assess the thickness of the internal oblique (IO) and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles at rest and on contraction, as well as changes in the length of the TrA muscle (indicated by slide of the anterior abdominal fascia). The reliability of a novice rater who received 8 hours of training was examined (a) across 3 measurements of the same ultrasound image, (b) across 3 separate ultrasound images (averaged for days and sides of abdomen), and (c) across 2 days (averaged for images and sides). Reliability of assessing muscle thickness was very high across 3 measurements of the sale image (intrarater correlation coefficients [ICC3.1] were all greater than 0.97), fair to high across 3 images (ICC(3,4) = 0.62-0.82), and fair to high across 2 days (ICC(3,6) = 0.63-0.85). Reliability of measuring the slide of the anterior abdominal fascia was very high across measurements from the same image (ICC(3,1) = 0.98) but very low across images (ICC(3,4) = 0.44) and across 2 days (ICC(3,6) = 0.36). High reliability of a novice rater was demonstrated for some measurement conditions. Measures of reliability for recapturing the image and repetition across days ranged from low to high. Inconsistencies in the pattern

  19. Reliability and responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition Test in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Jui-Hsing; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2012-02-01

    To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2) Test for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). One hundred and forty-four Taiwanese children with DCD aged 6 to 12 years (87 males, 57 females) were tested on three separate occasions: two baseline measurements with a 20-day interval before the intervention, and a follow-up measurement after 6 months of rehabilitation. The therapists rated the performance of children in school-related physical tasks at baseline and after intervention. Internal consistency for the MABC-2 Test was α = 0.90. Test-retest reliability for the total score was excellent, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.97. A small to medium magnitude of treatment effect was captured by the MABC-2 Test. The minimal detectable change (MDC) was 0.28 points whereas the minimal important difference (MID) values were from 2.36 to 2.50. All subscales except balance showed acceptable validity in differentiating groups of children whose physical performance had improved or remained stable. The MABC-2 Test is a reliable and valid measure to assess motor competence in children with DCD. The MID and MDC scores provide the reference point for clinical decision-making in managing the individual child. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Test-retest reliability of a new device for assessing ankle joint threshold to detect passive movement in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Song, Qipeng; Yu, Bing; Zhang, Cui; Mao, Dewei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the test-retest reliability of a new device for assessing ankle joint kinesthesia. This device could measure the passive motion threshold of four ankle joint movements, namely plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, inversion and eversion. A total of 21 healthy adults, including 13 males and 8 females, participated in the study. Each participant completed two sessions on two separate days with 1-week interval. The sessions were administered by the same experimenter in the same laboratory. At least 12 trials (three successful trials in each of the four directions) were performed in each session. The mean values in each direction were calculated and analysed. The ICC values of test-retest reliability ranged from 0.737 (dorsiflexion) to 0.935 (eversion), whereas the SEM values ranged from 0.21° (plantarflexion) to 0.52° (inversion). The Bland-Altman plots showed that the reliability of plantarflexion-dorsiflexion was better than that of inversion-eversion. The results evaluated the reliability of the new device as fair to excellent. The new device for assessing kinesthesia could be used to examine the ankle joint kinesthesia.

  1. Quantitative assessment of cancer cell morphology and movement using telecentric digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh C.; Nehmetallah, George; Lam, Van; Chung, Byung Min; Raub, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) provides label-free and real-time quantitative phase information relevant to the analysis of dynamic biological systems. A DHM based on telecentric configuration optically mitigates phase aberrations due to the microscope objective and linear high frequency fringes due to the reference beam thus minimizing digital aberration correction needed for distortion free 3D reconstruction. The purpose of this work is to quantitatively assess growth and migratory behavior of invasive cancer cells using a telecentric DHM system. Together, the height and lateral shape features of individual cells, determined from time-lapse series of phase reconstructions, should reveal aspects of cell migration, cell-matrix adhesion, and cell cycle phase transitions. To test this, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were cultured on collagen-coated or un-coated glass, and 3D holograms were reconstructed over 2 hours. Cells on collagencoated glass had an average 14% larger spread area than cells on uncoated glass (n=18-22 cells/group). The spread area of cells on uncoated glass were 15-21% larger than cells seeded on collagen hydrogels (n=18-22 cells/group). Premitotic cell rounding was observed with average phase height increasing 57% over 10 minutes. Following cell division phase height decreased linearly (R2=0.94) to 58% of the original height pre-division. Phase objects consistent with lamellipodia were apparent from the reconstructions at the leading edge of migrating cells. These data demonstrate the ability to track quantitative phase parameters and relate them to cell morphology during cell migration and division on adherent substrates, using telecentric DHM. The technique enables future studies of cell-matrix interactions relevant to cancer.

  2. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  3. Bowel Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passes through the large intestine too slowly. Bowel incontinence is a problem controlling your bowel movements. Other abnormalities with bowel movements may be a sign of a digestive problem. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  4. Vascular function assessed by passive leg movement and flow-mediated dilation: initial evidence of construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J; Groot, H Jonathan; Garten, Ryan S; Witman, Melissa A H; Richardson, Russell S

    2016-11-01

    The vasodilatory response to passive leg movement (PLM) appears to provide a novel, noninvasive assessment of vascular function. However, PLM has yet to be compared with the established noninvasive assessment of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Therefore, as an initial evaluation of the construct validity of PLM and upright seated and supine PLM as well as brachial (BA) and superficial femoral (SFA) artery FMDs were performed in 10 young (22 ± 1) and 30 old (73 ± 2) subjects. During upright seated PLM, the peak change in leg blood flow (ΔLBF) and leg vascular conductance (ΔLVC) was significantly correlated with BA (r = 0.57 and r = 0.66) and SFA (r = 0.44 and r = 0.41, ΔLBF and ΔLVC, respectively) FMD. Furthermore, although the relationships were not as strong, the supine PLM response was also significantly correlated with BA (r = 0.38 and r = 0.35) and SFA (r = 0.39 and r = 0.35, ΔLBF and ΔLVC, respectively) FMD. Examination of the young and old separately, however, revealed that significant relationships persisted in both groups only for the upright seated PLM response and BA FMD (young: r = 0.73 and r = 0.77; old: r = 0.35 and r = 0.45, ΔLBF and ΔLVC, respectively). Normalizing FMD for shear rate during PLM abrogated all significant relationships between the PLM and FMD response, suggesting a role for nitric oxide (NO) in these associations. Collectively, these data indicate that PLM, particularly upright seated PLM, likely provides an index of vascular health analogous to the traditional FMD test. Given the relative ease of PLM implementation, these data have important positive implications for PLM as a clinical vascular health assessment.

  5. Assessment of influence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation on arterial wall structural characteristics in psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Korotaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of influence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation on arterial wall structural characteristics in psoriatic arthritis. Objective. To assess possibility of traditional cardiovascular risk (CVR factors application as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA. Material and methods. 130 pts with PA (51 male and 79 female without clinical signs of coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke. were included. Mean age was 43 years (39-48 years, mean PA duration – 7 years (2 months-42 years, mean psoriasis duration – 15 years (5,5 – 26 years. PA activity was assessed with DAS4. Age, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDLP, low density lipoprotein (LDLP, C-reactive protein (CRP, fibrinogen, systolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI, atherogenity coefficient (AC, relative risk of CHD development, presence of diabetes and smoking were evaluated. Mean and maximal intima-media complex thickness (IMCT of common carotid arteries was examined with duplex scanning. Results. TC, LDLP and AC elevation was revealed in all and BMI elevation – in one third of pts. In 55% of pts CVR was mean and higher, in 23,5% CVR was absent and in 21,5% CVR was below mean. CVR significantly correlated with mean and maximal carotid arteries IMCT (R=0,48, p<0,00001 and R=0,41, p<0,00001 and fibrinogen (R=0,22, p<0,011. In women CVR correlated with fibrinogen (R=0,27, p<0,16, BMI (R=0,35, p<0,16, mean and maximal carotid arteries IMCT (R=0,50, p<0,00001 and R=0,38, p<0,0005 respectively and psoriasis duration (R=0,30, p<0,006. In men CVR did not correlated with fibrinogen. CVR did not correlated with DAS4 and CRP. Conclusion. CVR in PA is not connected with traditional markers of inflammation andindex of clinical disease activity.

  6. Validação para língua portuguesa: Lista de Checagem da Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena da Silva Ramalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A Lista de Checagem do Movement Assessment Battery for Children segunda edição (LC-MABC-2 foi desenvolvida como instrumento de triagem para crianças com dificuldades de movimento, mais especificamente com DCD. OBJETIVO: Traduzir, adaptar e verificar a validade de face, conteúdo e construto e a fidedignidade da versão em Português da LC-MABC-2; e, verificar a utilidade do referido instrumento de triagem no Brasil. METODOLOGIA: Participaram 47 profissionais da saúde (educadores físicos e fisioterapeutas e 20 pais; e, 532 crianças, (meninas: 276; meninos: 256 entre 5 e 12 anos. RESULTADOS: indicam que a versão portuguesa adaptada da LC-MABC-2 demonstrou valores de concordância elevados para clareza e pertinência; validade convergente e descriminante apropriada; e, índices de confiabilidade (escore total, α= 0,94 e objetividade inter-avaliadores elevada. CONCLUSÕES: A versão em português do LC-MABC-2 demonstrou ser válida e fidedigna na triagem de crianças com dificuldades motoras para encaminhamento para avaliações mais detalhadas e possível intervenção.

  7. Wall-to-wall assessment of carbon stock and flux consequences of forest disturbances in the Pacific Northwest United States using remote sensing and forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.; Masek, J. G.; Moisen, G.; Schleeweis, K.; Ghimire, B.; Zhao, F. A.; Huang, C.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Disturbances profoundly alter the structure and function of forests, imposing long lasting carbon legacies and strongly influencing rates of terrestrial carbon exchange with the atmosphere. Disturbance legacies vary across ecoregions, by forest types, and with disturbance severity and type. The complexity presents a significant challenge for observing and modeling carbon exchange, and hinders assessments of current and likely future states of the global carbon cycle. We demonstrate how carbon legacies vary following harvest, fire and bark beetle for forests in Pacific Norwest (PNW) United States, and how these processes influence carbon stocks and fluxes at pixel and regional scales. This study involves the use of satellite and aerial remote sensing products to characterize the frequency and severity of fire, harvest and insects over the past three decades. We use forest inventory data (FIA) to parameterize a carbon cycle model to represent post-disturbance carbon trajectories of carbon pools and fluxes for harvest, fire and bark beetle disturbances of varying severity across forest types and site productivity. We infer forest stand age and associated uncertainty based on maps of aboveground biomass, disturbance and forest types derived from remote sensing data, as well as carbon stock trajectories and stand productivity map derived from FIA. We then apply the group of carbon flux trajectories to the forest stand age map throughout the study area. Finally, we summarize the net carbon uptake as a consequence of disturbance and regrowth at pixel and regional scales. As such, this study represents a first demonstration of a spatially explicit assessment of carbon stock and flux responses to disturbances by linking remote sensing disturbance products, biomass maps and forest inventory data in a carbon cycle modeling framework. The methodology will be further applied across the conterminous US to provide a comprehensive forest carbon budget assessment.

  8. Estimating blue whale skin isotopic incorporation rates and baleen growth rates: Implications for assessing diet and movement patterns in mysticetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Busquets-Vass

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis in mysticete skin and baleen plates has been repeatedly used to assess diet and movement patterns. Accurate interpretation of isotope data depends on understanding isotopic incorporation rates for metabolically active tissues and growth rates for metabolically inert tissues. The aim of this research was to estimate isotopic incorporation rates in blue whale skin and baleen growth rates by using natural gradients in baseline isotope values between oceanic regions. Nitrogen (δ15N and carbon (δ13C isotope values of blue whale skin and potential prey were analyzed from three foraging zones (Gulf of California, California Current System, and Costa Rica Dome in the northeast Pacific from 1996-2015. We also measured δ15N and δ13C values along the lengths of baleen plates collected from six blue whales stranded in the 1980s and 2000s. Skin was separated into three strata: basale, externum, and sloughed skin. A mean (±SD skin isotopic incorporation rate of 163±91 days was estimated by fitting a generalized additive model of the seasonal trend in δ15N values of skin strata collected in the Gulf of California and the California Current System. A mean (±SD baleen growth rate of 15.5±2.2 cm y-1 was estimated by using seasonal oscillations in δ15N values from three whales. These oscillations also showed that individual whales have a high fidelity to distinct foraging zones in the northeast Pacific across years. The absence of oscillations in δ15N values of baleen sub-samples from three male whales suggests these individuals remained within a specific zone for several years prior to death. δ13C values of both whale tissues (skin and baleen and potential prey were not distinct among foraging zones. Our results highlight the importance of considering tissue isotopic incorporation and growth rates when studying migratory mysticetes and provide new insights into the individual movement strategies of blue whales.

  9. Estimating blue whale skin isotopic incorporation rates and baleen growth rates: Implications for assessing diet and movement patterns in mysticetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets-Vass, Geraldine; Newsome, Seth D.; Calambokidis, John; Serra-Valente, Gabriela; Jacobsen, Jeff K.; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio; Gendron, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis in mysticete skin and baleen plates has been repeatedly used to assess diet and movement patterns. Accurate interpretation of isotope data depends on understanding isotopic incorporation rates for metabolically active tissues and growth rates for metabolically inert tissues. The aim of this research was to estimate isotopic incorporation rates in blue whale skin and baleen growth rates by using natural gradients in baseline isotope values between oceanic regions. Nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope values of blue whale skin and potential prey were analyzed from three foraging zones (Gulf of California, California Current System, and Costa Rica Dome) in the northeast Pacific from 1996–2015. We also measured δ15N and δ13C values along the lengths of baleen plates collected from six blue whales stranded in the 1980s and 2000s. Skin was separated into three strata: basale, externum, and sloughed skin. A mean (±SD) skin isotopic incorporation rate of 163±91 days was estimated by fitting a generalized additive model of the seasonal trend in δ15N values of skin strata collected in the Gulf of California and the California Current System. A mean (±SD) baleen growth rate of 15.5±2.2 cm y-1 was estimated by using seasonal oscillations in δ15N values from three whales. These oscillations also showed that individual whales have a high fidelity to distinct foraging zones in the northeast Pacific across years. The absence of oscillations in δ15N values of baleen sub-samples from three male whales suggests these individuals remained within a specific zone for several years prior to death. δ13C values of both whale tissues (skin and baleen) and potential prey were not distinct among foraging zones. Our results highlight the importance of considering tissue isotopic incorporation and growth rates when studying migratory mysticetes and provide new insights into the individual movement strategies of blue whales. PMID:28562625

  10. Assessment of RC walls with cut-out openings strengthened by FRP composites using a rigid-plastic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popescu, Cosmin; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Goltermann, Per

    2017-01-01

    , and less still on the use of non-metallic reinforcements such as FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymers) to ensure sufficient load bearing capacity. This paper proposes a new procedure based on limit analysis theory for evaluating the ultimate load of walls with cut-out openings that have been strengthened......Building refurbishment works frequently require the cutting of new openings in concrete walls. Cutting new openings weakens the overall response of such elements, so they usually require strengthening. However, current design codes offer little guidance on strengthening walls with openings...... with carbon-FRP (CFRP). First, the approach is verified against transverse (out-of-plane) and axial (in-plane) loading for unstrengthened specimens. These loading types result in different failure mechanisms: transverse loading leads to failure due to yielding/rupture of the steel reinforcement while axial...

  11. Gender differences in performance of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2nd edition test in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtr Ludvík

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2nd edition (MABC-2 is used for the assessment of motor proficiency and identification of motor impairments in 3-16 year old children. Although there are some gender differences in the motor development of children, in the MABC-2 test the same tasks and norms are used for both genders. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine gender differences in performance of motor tasks involved in the MABC-2 test in adolescents aged 15 to 16. Methods: Participants (N = 121, 50 boys and 71 girls, mean age 16.0 ± 0.5 years randomly recruited from schools were assessed using the MABC-2 test. The Mann-Whitney U test and effect size r were used to analyse gender differences in performance outcome in the particular motor tasks of the MABC-2 test. Results: As compared to the boys, the girls achieved a significantly shorter time of completion of the unimanual coordination task executed with their preferred hand (p < .001, r = .33 and significantly fewer errors in the graphomotor task (p = .001, r = .29. On the other hand, the boys achieved significantly better results than the girls in the aiming and catching tasks (p ≤ .030, r = .20-.33. Performance in the dynamic balance tasks was not significantly different between genders. The girls demonstrated a significantly longer duration of static balance in one-leg standing as compared to the boys (p = .011, r = .23. For the motor tasks some statistical differences were found, however the effect size of the gender on performance was small or medium. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest that gender could be a significant factor of performance in the motor tasks associated with object control such as aiming and catching. Other domains, such as manual dexterity and balance, seem to be influenced by gender to a small extent.

  12. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...... and flat, “ambiguous walls” combine softness, tectonics and three-dimensionality. The paper considers a selection of luminious surfaces and reflects on the extent of their ambiguous qualities. Initial ideas for new directions for the wall will be essayed through the discussion....

  13. Movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the effectiveness of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) in predicting non-contact injury rates in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul D; Hanlon, Michael

    2016-12-07

    This study assessed if the Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) can accurately predict non-contact injury in adult soccer players when normalizing non-contact injury occurrence against match exposure levels. Senior male players (n=89) from five League of Ireland semi-professional clubs participated in the study (mean age=23.2 ± 4.4 years; mean height=179.5 ± 6.6 cm; mean body mass=77.5 ± 7.8 kg). Participants performed the FMS™ during preseason and their injury occurrence rates and match minutes were tracked throughout one season. In total, 66 non-contact injuries were recorded. No significant difference was found in FMS™ composite scores between players receiving non-contact injuries and players not suffering a non-contact injury (p=0.96). There was no significant difference in exposure-normalized non-contact injury incidence between those scoring 14 or below and those scoring above 14 on the FMS™ (0.36 vs. 0.29 non-contact injuries per player per 1000 match minutes). Players scoring 14 or below on the FMS™ had an odds ratio of 0.63 (p=0.45; CI 95%=0.19- 2.07) of receiving a non contact injury. Despite previous research showing links between low FMS™ composite scores and subsequent injury, these results suggest the FMS™ cannot accurately predict a male soccer player's likelihood of receiving a non-contact injury and that a lower FMS™ composite score does not significantly increase their non-contact injury incidence rate per 1000 match minutes. Caution should therefore be used when employing the FMS™ as a predictor of non-contact injury, and pain prevalence during the FMS™, previous injuries, and training/match exposure levels should also be taken into account.

  15. [Stereotypic movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  16. QUANTITATIVE INVIVO ASSESSMENT OF THE TISSUE-RESPONSE TO DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN IN ABDOMINAL-WALL DEFECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUNT, JA; VANDERLAAN, JS; SCHAKENRAAD, J; WILLIAMS, DF

    We quantified the tissue response, tissue organization and patency of biodegradable patches for the repair of abdominal wall defects. We used dermal sheep collagen, cross-linked with hexamethylenediisocyanate in a model. The collagen patches were implanted either untreated or plasma polymerized with

  17. Clinical assessment and three-dimensional movement analysis: An integrated approach for upper limb evaluation in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Mailleux

    Full Text Available The clinical application of upper limb (UL three-dimensional movement analysis (3DMA in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP remains challenging, despite its benefits compared to conventional clinical scales. Moreover, knowledge on UL movement pathology and how this relates to clinical parameters remains scarce. Therefore, we investigated UL kinematics across different manual ability classification system (MACS levels and explored the relation between clinical and kinematic parameters in children with uCP.Fifty children (MACS: I = 15, II = 26, III = 9 underwent an UL evaluation of sensorimotor impairments (grip force, muscle strength, muscle tone, two-point discrimination, stereognosis, bimanual performance (Assisting Hand Assessment, AHA, unimanual capacity (Melbourne Assessment 2, MA2 and UL-3DMA during hand-to-head, hand-to-mouth and reach-to-grasp tasks. Global parameters (Arm Profile Score (APS, duration, (timing of maximum velocity, trajectory straightness and joint specific parameters (angles at task endpoint, ROM and Arm Variable Scores (AVS were extracted. The APS and AVS refer respectively to the total amount of movement pathology and movement deviations of wrist, elbow, shoulder, scapula and trunk.Longer movement durations and increased APS were found with higher MACS-levels (p<0.001. Increased APS was also associated with more severe sensorimotor impairments (r = -0.30-(-0.73 and with lower AHA and MA2-scores (r = -0.50-(-0.86. For the joint specific parameters, stronger movement deviations distally were significantly associated with increased muscle weakness (r = -0.32-(-0.74 and muscle tone (r = 0.33-(-0.61; proximal movement deviations correlated only with muscle weakness (r = -0.35-0.59. Regression analysis exposed grip force as the most important predictor for the variability in APS (p<0.002.We found increased movement pathology with increasing MACS-levels and demonstrated the adverse impact of especially muscle weakness

  18. TWO-DIMENSIONAL VIDEO ANALYSIS IS COMPARABLE TO 3D MOTION CAPTURE IN LOWER EXTREMITY MOVEMENT ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Stacy A; Marshall, Ashley N; Resch, Jacob E; Saliba, Susan A

    2017-04-01

    capture rotations, 2D measurements may provide a pragmatic method of evaluating sagittal plane joint displacement for assessing gross movement displacement and therein risk of lower extremity injury. 3.

  19. 4D left ventricular resultant wall motion and blood flow assessed by phase-shift velocity mapping at high-field 3T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnøy, Stig F; Cuypers, Jochem; Greve, Gottfried; Larsen, Terje H

    2017-11-01

    Contractility and elasticity of the myocardium are important variables for detecting anomalies that may influence pump function. It is important to assess both wall motion and blood flow to detect regional left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and abnormal flow patterns. This study discusses four-dimensional (4D) phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for simultaneous quantification and visualization of LV wall motion and blood flow. In thirteen healthy subjects, a three-directional retrospective cardiac triggered phase-shift velocity mapping technique was used to acquire velocity data of the LV throughout the cardiac cycle. All short-axis slices of the LV wall were segmented in six sectors of 60° starting from the anterior hinge point between the right and left ventricles, from base to apex. Velocity data in resultant, radial, circumferential and longitudinal directions were calculated and presented as coloured three-directional vectors. Our findings showed a reduction in maximum wall velocities from base to apex, whereas for the radial and circumferential directions no significant differences were noted (13·1 ± 2·7 and 13·0 ± 2·9 cm s(-1) , respectively. P = 0·9). The longitudinal maximum velocities (21·0 ± 0·6 cm s(-1) ) were significantly higher than the radial and circumferential components (P = 0·002). We found that the inclination angle of the resultant blood flow was changed towards the left ventricular outflow tract during systole. Using this 4D MRI velocity mapping technique, we present an improved method for quantification and visualization of ventricular wall velocities in the radial, circumferential and longitudinal directions, as well as for the intracavity blood flow. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Computed tomography assessment of lateral pedicle wall perforation by free-hand subaxial cervical pedicle screw placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingsong; Xie, Jingming; Yang, Zhendong; Zhao, Zhi; Zhang, Ying; Li, Tao; Liu, Luping

    2013-07-01

    To present the technique of free-hand subaxial cervical pedicle screw (CPS) placement without using intra-operative navigating devices, and to investigate the crucial factors for safe placement and avoidance of lateral pedicle wall perforation, by measuring and classifying perforations with postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan. The placement of CPS has generally been considered as technically demanding and associated with considerable lateral wall perforation rate. For surgeons without access to navigation systems, experience of safe free-hand technique for subaxial CPS placement is especially valuable. A total of 214 consecutive traumatic or degenerative patients with 1,024 CPS placement using the free-hand technique were enrolled. In the operative process, the lateral mass surface was decorticated. Then a small curette was used to identify the pedicle entrance by touching the cortical bone of the medial pedicle wall. It was crucial to keep the transverse angle and make appropriate adjustment with guidance of the resistance of the thick medial cortical bone. The hand drill should be redirected once soft tissue breach was palpated by a slim ball-tip prober. With proper trajectory, tapping, repeated palpation, the 26-30 mm screw could be placed. After the procedure, the transverse angle of CPS trajectory was measured, and perforation of the lateral wall was classified by CT scan: grade 1, perforation of pedicle wall by screw placement, with the external edge of screw deviating out of the lateral pedicle wall equal to or less than 2 mm and grade 2, critical perforation of pedicle wall by screw placement, large than 2 mm. A total of 129 screws (12.64 %) were demonstrated as lateral pedicle wall perforation, of which 101 screws (9.86 %) were classified as grade 1, whereas 28 screws (2.73 %) as grade 2. Among the segments involved, C3 showed an obviously higher perforating rate than other (P grade 2 perforation than the others. In the 28 screws of grade 2

  1. A holistic high-throughput screening framework for biofuel feedstock assessment that characterises variations in soluble sugars and cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Antony P; Palmer, William M; Byrt, Caitlin S; Furbank, Robert T; Grof, Christopher Pl

    2013-12-23

    A major hindrance to the development of high yielding biofuel feedstocks is the ability to rapidly assess large populations for fermentable sugar yields. Whilst recent advances have outlined methods for the rapid assessment of biomass saccharification efficiency, none take into account the total biomass, or the soluble sugar fraction of the plant. Here we present a holistic high-throughput methodology for assessing sweet Sorghum bicolor feedstocks at 10 days post-anthesis for total fermentable sugar yields including stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall saccharification efficiency. A mathematical method for assessing whole S. bicolor stalks using the fourth internode from the base of the plant proved to be an effective high-throughput strategy for assessing stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall composition and allowed calculation of total stalk fermentable sugars. A high-throughput method for measuring soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose using partial least squares (PLS) modelling of juice Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be highly accurate with each sugar attaining a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.99 with a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 11.93, 5.52, and 3.23 mM for sucrose, glucose, and fructose, respectively, which constitutes an error of <4% in each case. The sugar PLS model correlated well with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and brix measures. Similarly, a high-throughput method for predicting enzymatic cell wall digestibility using PLS modelling of FTIR spectra obtained from S. bicolor bagasse was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be accurate with an R2 of 0.94 and RMSEP of 0.64 μg.mgDW-1.h-1. This methodology has been demonstrated as an efficient and effective way to screen large biofuel feedstock populations for biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall digestibility simultaneously allowing a

  2. Movement skill assessment in children with profound multiple disabilities : a psychometric analysis of the Top Down Motor Milestone Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Vlaskamp, C; Reynders, K; Nakken, H

    Objective: To analyse the psychometric properties of the Top Down Motor Milestone Test (TDMMT), an internationally used instrument in the planning and evaluation of movement-oriented interventions. Setting: Centres for special education in the Netherlands. Subjects: Children with profound multiple

  3. Qualitative assessment of general movements in high-risk preterm infants with chronic lung disease requiring dexamethasone therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, AF; Martijn, A; van Asperen, RM; Hadders-Algra, M; Okken, A; Prechtl, HFR

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine in preterm infants al risk for severe chronic lung disease (1) the quality of general movements (GMs) and (2) the effect of dexamethasone treatment on spontaneous motor activity. Study design: In 15 very low birth weight infants the quality of

  4. Assessing population movement impacts on urban heat island of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday: effects of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingyun; Zhang, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    Chinese New Year (CNY), or Spring Festival, is the most important of all festivals in China. We use daily observations to show that Beijing's urban heat island (UHI) effects largely depend on precipitation, cloud cover, and water vapor but are insensitive to wind speed, during the CNY holiday season. Non-precipitating, clear, and low humidity conditions favor strong UHI effects. The CNY holiday, with some 3 billion journeys made, provides a living laboratory to explore the role of population movements in the UHI phenomenon. Averaged over the period 2004-2013, with the Olympic year of 2008 excluded, Beijing's UHI effects during the CNY week decline by 0.48 °C relative to the background period (4 weeks including 2 to 3 weeks before, and 2 to 3 weeks after, the CNY week). With combined effects of precipitation, large cloud cover, and high water vapor excluded, the UHI effects during the CNY week averaged over the study period decline by 0.76 °C relative to the background period, significant at the 99% confidence level by Student's t test. These results indicate that the impacts of population movements can be more easily detected when excluding unfavorable meteorological conditions to the UHI. Population movements occur not only during the CNY holiday, but also during all the time across the globe. We suggest that better understanding the role of population movements will offer new insight into anthropogenic climate modifications.

  5. Factors of successful movement coordination in students with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japundža-Milisavljević Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies on the assessment of factors which determine the quality of making movements, including coordination and precision. Basic and complex motor activities directly depend on neuropsychological abilities. Researchers in this field point to significant factors which indicate successful coordination of movements, however, only few tried to single out the most important one. The main aim of this research was to determine whether there was a relation between spatial orientation, attention, and verbal memory in movement coordination, and which of the mentioned functions had the greatest influence on coordination and precision of movements in students with mild intellectual disability. Seventy three participants, aged between 7 and 12, were assessed by Ball-Foot-Wall Test for the assessment of coordination and precision of movements, Cancellation Task for attention vigilance assessment, Beter-Cragin Test for spatial orientation, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test for the assessment of verbal memory and forced recognition. The obtained results showed that the most significant factors of movement coordination were forced recognition β=0.269; p=0.046, attention vigilance β=0.256; p=0.051 and spatial orientation (β=0.246; p=0.057. Practical implications point out the necessity of designing educational coordination training with the aim to increase students' potential to make movements.

  6. The Digital Evolution of Occupy Wall Street

    OpenAIRE

    Conover, Michael D.; Ferrara, Emilio; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation ...

  7. Assessment of Mandibular Movements in 10 to 15 Year-old Patients With and Without Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Silvina G; Biondi, Ana M; Fridman, Diana E; Guitelman, Ingrid; Farah, Catalina L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mandibular movements in 10- to 15-year-olds without dysfunction and compare these values to those in patients of the same age with tempromandibular disorders (TMD) and those found previously in a group of children younger than 11 years old without TMD. Children of both genders who visited the Department of Comprehensive Pediatric Dentistry at Buenos Aires University in 2013 and whose parents or guardians provided consent were evaluated using TMD/RDC by standardized pediatric dentists (Kappa 0.88). Three groups were formed according to diagnostic summary: Group C, without TMD; Group Ia, with myofascial pain, and Group Ib, pain with limited mouth opening. The following variables were analyzed: age, gender and mandibular movements. The sample included 169 patients aged 12.5±1.76 years, of whom 62.36% did not have TMD (C) while 37.27% were diagnosed with muscle disorder (29.58% Ia and 7.69% Ib). For Group C, the following values (in mm) were recorded: maximal unassisted opening: 48.28±6.14; right lateral movement 8.78±2.50; left lateral movement: 9.60±2.64; protrusion: 4.94±2.58 and overbite: 2.98 ± 2.5, with no variation associated to sex, but with differences in the values recorded for all movements compared to those obtained for mixed dentition (p=0.0001). Analysis of mean values for mandibular movements in all 3 groups only revealed differences for maximal unassisted opening (p= 0.0317). With relation to gender, TMD was more frequent in females, with significant differences between Groups C and Ia (p=0.019). In males without dysfunction, average maximal opening was 48.28±6.14mm, with lower values in patients with TMD. Mandibular movements in pediatric patients without TMD showed significant differences according to dentition type and age. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  8. Modeling individual movement decisions of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) as a key concept for realistic spatial behavior and exposure: A population model for landscape-level risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, Joachim U; Wang, Magnus

    2017-09-01

    Spatial behavior is of crucial importance for the risk assessment of pesticides and for the assessment of effects of agricultural practice or multiple stressors, because it determines field use, exposition, and recovery. Recently, population models have increasingly been used to understand the mechanisms driving risk and recovery or to conduct landscape-level risk assessments. To include spatial behavior appropriately in population models for use in risk assessments, a new method, "probabilistic walk," was developed, which simulates the detailed daily movement of individuals by taking into account food resources, vegetation cover, and the presence of conspecifics. At each movement step, animals decide where to move next based on probabilities being determined from this information. The model was parameterized to simulate populations of brown hares (Lepus europaeus). A detailed validation of the model demonstrated that it can realistically reproduce various natural patterns of brown hare ecology and behavior. Simulated proportions of time animals spent in fields (PT values) were also comparable to field observations. It is shown that these important parameters for the risk assessment may, however, vary in different landscapes. The results demonstrate the value of using population models to reduce uncertainties in risk assessment and to better understand which factors determine risk in a landscape context. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2299-2307. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  9. OCCUPY WALL STREET VS. RHETORIC OF FEAR

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Vargas, Henry

    2014-01-01

    The response of Obama´s Administration to Occupy Wall Street movement is an instanceof institutional rhetoric of fear. For this reason, this paper offers a rhetorical approachof some of texts used by Occupy Wall Street and the interaction of this movement andAmerican Government. La respuesta de la Administración Obama al movimiento Occupy Wall Street es un claroejemplo de la aplicación de la retórica del miedo. Debido a esto, el presente artículo pretendeofrecer una aproximación retórica d...

  10. Gradient of structural traits drives hygroscopic movements of scarious bracts surrounding Helichrysum bracteatum capitulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska-Wykret, Dorota; Rypien, Aleksandra; Dulski, Mateusz; Grelowski, Michal; Wrzalik, Roman; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2017-06-01

    The capitulum of Helichrysum bracteatum is surrounded by scarious involucral bracts that perform hygroscopic movements leading to bract bending toward or away from the capitulum, depending on cell wall water status. The present investigation aimed at explaining the mechanism of these movements. Surface strain and bract shape changes accompanying the movements were quantified using the replica method. Dissection experiments were used to assess the contribution of different tissues in bract deformation. Cell wall structure and composition were examined with the aid of light and electron microscopy as well as confocal Raman spectroscopy. At the bract hinge (organ actuator) longitudinal strains at opposite surfaces differ profoundly. This results in changes of hinge curvature that drive passive displacement of distal bract portions. The distal portions in turn undergo nearly uniform strain on both surfaces and also minute shape changes. The hinge is built of sclerenchyma-like abaxial tissue, parenchyma and adaxial epidermis with thickened outer walls. Cell wall composition is rather uniform but tissue fraction occupied by cell walls, cell wall thickness, compactness and cellulose microfibril orientation change gradually from abaxial to adaxial hinge surface. Dissection experiments show that the presence of part of the hinge tissues is enough for movements. Differential strain at the hinge is due to adaxial-abaxial gradient in structural traits of hinge tissues and cell walls. Thus, the bract hinge of H. bracteatum is a structure comprising gradually changing tissues, from highly resisting to highly active, rather than a bi-layered structure with distinct active and resistance parts, often ascribed for hygroscopically moving organs.

  11. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  12. Assessment of Canyon Wall Failure Process and Disturbance Gradients from Multibeam Bathymetry and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Observations, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, J. D.; Demopoulos, A. W.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Quattrini, A.

    2016-02-01

    Over the last several years, canyons around Puerto Rico and along the U.S. Atlantic continental margin between Georges Bank and Cape Hatteras have been investigated using high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives utilizing the exploration vessels E/V Nautilus and NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer. The imaging capabilities of these ROVs have provided the opportunity to begin to investigate the size of canyon wall failures, the processes responsible for their occurrence and to develop a conceptual framework for determining their relative age. Bed and formation scale lithologies exposed in the canyons and localized structural features (bedding planes, fracture planes, etc.) appear to be the primary control on the style of failures observed. Near vertical walls, sedimented benches, talus slopes, and canyon floor debris aprons were present in most canyons visited. Evidence of brittle failure over different spatial and temporal scales, physical abrasion by downslope moving flows, and bio-erosion in the form of burrows and surficial scrape marks provide insight into the modification processes active in these canyons. The level of colonization by sessile species (e.g., corals, sponges) on the canyon walls and displaced material, especially on substrates affected by failure and sediment bioturbation, provide a critical, but as yet, poorly understood chronological record of geologic processes within these systems. Therefore, comparison of the processes among these geologically, oceanographically, and ecologically different regions provides the opportunity to critically assess the wide range of drivers that control recolonization of sessile fauna influenced by continuous or episodic disturbances.

  13. Assessing Movements of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula in Relation to Depopulated Buffer Zones for the Management of Wildlife Tuberculosis in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Byrom

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, managing the threat of bovine tuberculosis (TB to livestock includes population reduction of potentially infectious wildlife, primarily the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula. Population control is often targeted on forested buffer zones adjacent to farmland, in order to limit movements of possums across the buffer and reduce the risk of disease transmission to livestock. To assess the effectiveness of buffers in protecting livestock we analysed GPS telemetry data from possums located in untreated forest adjacent to buffers, and used these data to characterise patterns of movement that could lead to possums reaching farmland during the season when most dispersal occurs. Analyses of movement data showed that the direction of dispersal by sub-adult and adult possums and the extent of long exploratory movements were not biased toward forest buffers, even though these provided vacant habitat as suitable for possums as untreated forest. Instead, dispersal and exploratory movements were uncommon even for sub-adult possums and such events typically lasted <10 days. Dispersing possums settled predominantly in river valleys. A simulation model was developed for the 3-6-month dispersal season; it demonstrated a probability of <0.001 that an infected possum, originating from a low-density population with low disease prevalence in untreated forest, would move across 3 km of recently controlled forest buffer to reach farmland. Our results indicate short-term reduction in the risk of TB transmission from possums to livestock in New Zealand by the use of depopulated buffer zones, while acknowledging that the threat of disease spread from untreated forest is likely to increase over time as possum population density and, potentially, TB prevalence among those possums, increase in the buffer zone.

  14. Cost assessment of the movement restriction policy in France during the 2006 bluetongue virus episode (BTV-8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Damian; Hammitt, James K; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at evaluating the costs of the movement restriction policy (MRP) during the 2006 BTV-8 epidemic in France for the producers of 6-9 month old Charolais beef weaned calves (BWC), an important sector that was severely affected by the restrictions imposed. This study estimates the change in the number of BWC sold that was due to the movement restrictions, and evaluates the economic effect of the MRP. The change in BWC sold by producers located inside the restriction zone (RZ) was analyzed for 2006 by using a multivariate matching approach to control for any internal validity threat. The economic evaluation of the MRP was based on several scenarios that describe farms' capacity constraints, feeding prices, and the animal's selling price. Results show that the average farmer experienced a 21% decrease in animals sold due to the MRP. The economic evaluation of the MRP shows a potential gain during the movement standstill period in the case of no capacity constraint faced by the farm and food self-sufficiency. This gain remains limited and close to zero in case of a low selling price and when animals are held until they no longer fit the BWC market so that they cannot be sold as an intermediate product. Capacity constraints represent a tremendous challenge to farmers facing movement restrictions and the fattening profit becomes negative under such conditions. The timing and length of the movement standstill period significantly affect the profitability of the strategy employed by the farmer: for a 5.5 month-long standstill period with 3.5 months of cold weather, farmers with capacity constraints have stronger incentives to leave their animals outside during the whole period and face higher mortality and morbidity rates than paying for a boarding facility for the cold months. This is not necessarily true for a shorter standstill period. Strategies are also sensitive to the feed costs and to the food self-sufficiency of the farm. Altogether, the present work

  15. Effects of food texture and sample thickness on mandibular movement and hardness assessment during biting in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, M A; Maskawi, K; Woda, A; Tanguay, R; Lund, J P

    1997-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship among jaw movements, physical characteristics of food, and sensory perception of hardness in man. Vertical movements of the mandible were recorded with an infrared tracking device in humans during biting on two test foods, carrot and cheese. Samples of standard length (2 cm) and width (2 cm) were prepared in three different thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm). Nine subjects were asked to perform two types of bite with their incisor teeth. In the first, they cut through the food, then stopped and spat out the pieces (bite alone); in the second, biting was followed by mastication and swallowing (bite+chew). The 12 conditions (thickness x3, food x2, and bite x2) were presented in a random order within each block, and blocks were repeated five times (60 trials per subject). Subjects also estimated the hardness of the samples twice for each condition on visual analogue scales (VAS) 100 mm long. The duration, vertical amplitude, and maximum vertical velocity of the mandible during biting were calculated by computer for the three phases of the movements (opening, and fast and slow closing). Multilevel statistical models were used for data analysis. The estimated hardness scores associated with the first bite of thin carrot (59.0 VAS units) was significantly greater than for cheese (16.8 VAS units). The type of bite had no significant effect on these scores, but the estimate of hardness was significantly greater for the thickest sample (+13.3 VAS units). Food type had its strongest effect on the slow-closing phase. In particular, the peak velocity that followed the fracturing of the food sample was much greater for carrot than for cheese (thin, 34.1 mm.s-1 vs. 26.6 mm.s-1), and the difference between foods increased with thickness. The amplitude of opening was significantly greater for the thickest sample than for the other two. There were no significant relationships between VAS scores and the movement parameters

  16. Wall Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  17. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  18. Direct Assessment of Wall Shear Stress by Signal Intensity Gradient from Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kap-Soo; Lee, Sang Hyuk; Ryu, Han Uk; Park, Se-Hyoung; Chung, Gyung-Ho; Cho, Young I; Jeong, Seul-Ki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to calculate the arterial wall signal intensity gradient (SIG) from time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF-MRA) and represent arterial wall shear stress. We developed a new algorithm that uses signal intensity (SI) of a TOF-MRA to directly calculate the signal intensity gradient (SIG). The results from our phantom study showed that the TOF-MRA SIG could be used to distinguish the magnitude of blood flow rate as high (mean SIG ± SD, 2.2 ± 0.4 SI/mm for 12.5 ± 2.3 L/min) and low (0.9 ± 0.3 SI/mm for 8.5 ± 2.6 L/min) in vessels (p SIG values were highly correlated with various flow rates (β = 0.96, p SIG was greater than 0.8 in each section at the carotid artery (p SIG and thereby the WSS. Thus, the TOF-MRA SIG can provide clinicians with an accurate and efficient screening method for making rapid decisions on the risk of vascular disease for a patient in clinical practice.

  19. SEMI–AUTOMATED ASSESSMENT OF MICROMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE METAL FOAMS ON THE CELL-WALL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Krčmářová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal foams are innovative porous material used for wide range of application such as deformation energy or sound absorption, filter material, or microbiological incubation carrier. To predict mechanical properties of the metal foam is necessary to precisely describe elasto–plastic properties of the foam on cell–wall level. Indentation with low load is suitable tool for this purpose. In this paper custom designed instrumented microindentation device was used for measurement of cell-wall characteristics of two different aluminium foams (ALPORAS and ALCORAS. To demonstrate the possibility of automated statistical estimation of measured characteristics the device had been enhanced by semi-automatic indent positioning and evaluation procedures based on user-defined grid. Vickers hardness was measured on two samples made from ALPORAS aluminium foam and one sample from ALCORAS aluminium foam. Average Vickers hardness of ALPORAS foam was 24.465HV1.019 and average Vickers hardness of ALCORAS was 36.585HV1.019.

  20. The validity of a non-differential global positioning system for assessing player movement patterns in field hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Hannah; Morris, John; Nevill, Alan; Sunderland, Caroline

    2009-01-15

    Nine games players (mean age 23.3 years, s=2.8; height 1.73 m, s=0.08; body mass 70.0 kg, s=12.7) completed 14 laps of a measured circuit that incorporated intermittent running and directional changes, representative of the movements made by field hockey players during match-play. The distances and speeds recorded by a global positioning satellite (GPS) system (Spi Elitetrade mark) were compared statistically with speed measurements made using timing gates and distances measured using a calibrated trundle wheel, to establish the criterion validity of the GPS system. A validation of the speed of movement of each participant separately was also made, using data from each timing gate, over a range of speeds. The mean distance recorded by the GPS system was 6821 m (s=7) and the mean speed was 7.0 km . h(-1) (s=1.9), compared with the actual distance of 6818 m and recorded mean speed of 7.0 km . h(-1) (s=1.9). Pearson correlations (r) among timing gate speed and GPS speed were > or =0.99 (P scientist, coach, and player with objective information about certain movement patterns during competitive games.

  1. Using A New Accelerometry Method to Assess Lifestyle Movement Patterns of Americans: Influence of Demographic and Chronic Disease Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine factors (e.g., medical conditions that influence the balance of lifestyle movement patterns of Americans. 6,093 U.S. adults from the 2003-2006 NHANES were evaluated. Four mutually exclusive lifestyle behavior groups included: 1 meeting physical activity (PA guidelines and having a positive light-intensity PA-sedentary (LIPA-SED balance (i.e., LIPA ≥ SED; 2 meeting PA guidelines, but having a negative LIPA-SED balance (i.e., LIPA < SED; 3 not meeting PA guidelines, but having a positive LIPA-SED balance; and 4 not meeting PA guidelines and having a negative LIPA-SED balance. The majority of individuals with chronic disease (e.g., stroke, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, diabetes, emphysema, and arthritis and other impairments (e.g., vision and hearing impairment were classified in the least desirable lifestyle group. Results showed that, for example, those with chronic kidney disease, compared to those without chronic kidney disease, were 2.6 times more likely to be in the least desirable movement group compared to the most desirable lifestyle movement group. Initially, efforts should focus on creating a positive LIPA-SED balance and doing so among those with chronic disease.

  2. Assessment of the Role of NO-cGMP Pathway in Orthodontic Tooth Movement Using PDE5 Inhibitors: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mirhashemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nitric oxide (NO is a signaling molecule that mediates mechanical bone loading. Cyclic guanosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cGMP is a NO-induced effector molecule. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of NO-cGMP pathway on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM in rats by use of two phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5 inhibitors namely sildenafil and tadalafil as chemical tools.Materials and Methods: Forty-five male Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups (n=15 based on the substance they received. The first group received daily injections of tadalafil; the second group received daily injections of sildenafil and the third group received daily injections of normal saline. The orthodontic appliances consisted of nickel-titanium closed-coil spring ligated between the maxillary right incisor and the first molar of the animals for 21 days. The amount of tooth movement was measured in all three groups at the end of this period. Histological analysis was performed to assess root resorption lacunae, osteoclast number and periodontal ligament (PDL thickness.Results: All appliance-treated molars in the experimental and control groups showed evidence of tooth movement. The mean OTM was calculated to be 0.39±0.16, 0.32±0.16 and 0.26±0.16mm in tadalafil, sildenafil and control groups, respectively and there were no significant differences in OTM among the study groups (P>0.05. In the tadalafil group, significantly greater root resorption on the tension side was seen when compared with controls (P≤0.05.Conclusions: Tadalafil and sildenafil PDE-5 inhibitors affecting the NO-cGMP pathway did not affect OTM in rats.Keywords: Nitric Oxide; Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors; Tooth Movement Techniques

  3. In vivo assessment of pulmonary arterial wall fibrosis by intravascular optical coherence tomography in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a new prognostic marker of adverse clinical follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Enric; Grignola, Juan C; Aguilar, Rio; Montero, María Angeles; Arredondo, Christian; Vázquez, Manuel; López-Messeguer, Manuel; Bravo, Carlos; Bouteldja, Nadia; Hidalgo, Cristina; Roman, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to correlate pulmonary arterial (PA) remodeling estimated by PA fibrosis in PA hypertension (PAH) with clinical follow-up. Histology of PA specimens is also performed. 19 patients, aged 54±16 (4 men), functional class II-III were studied with right heart catheterization, PA Intravascular Ultrasound and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in inferior lobe segment. PA wall fibrosis was obtained by OCT ( area of fibrosis/PA cross sectional area × 100). Patients follow-up was blind to OCT. Events were defined as mortality, lung transplantation, need of intravenous prostaglandins or onset of right ventricular failure. OCT measurements showed high intra- and interobserver agreement. There was a good correlation between OCT and histology in PA fibrosis from explanted lungs. Area of fibrosis was 1.4±0.8 mm(2), % fibrosis was 22.3±8. Follow-up was 3.5 years (2.5-4.5). OCT %Fib was significantly correlated with PA capacitance (r=-0.536) and with pulmonary vascular rsistance (r=0.55). Patients were divided according to the median value of PA fibrosis. There were 10 patients with a high (≥ 22%) and 9 with a low fibrosis (right heart failure) out of 10 patients with high and in 0 out of 9 patients with low fibrosis (p<0.01). In PAH, the severity of PA remodeling assessed by OCT wall fibrosis was significantly predictive of severely unfavorable clinical outcome. In vivo assessment of pulmonary arterial wall fibrosis by intravascular OCT in PAH is a promising new prognostic marker of adverse clinical outcome.

  4. Colon wall motility: comparison of novel quantitative semi-automatic measurements using cine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, C L; Menys, A; Garsed, K; Marciani, L; Hamy, V; Murray, K; Costigan, C; Atkinson, D; Major, G; Spiller, R C; Taylor, S A; Gowland, P A

    2016-03-01

    Recently, cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown promise for visualizing movement of the colonic wall, although assessment of data has been subjective and observer dependent. This study aimed to develop an objective and semi-automatic imaging metric of ascending colonic wall movement, using image registration techniques. Cine balanced turbo field echo MRI images of ascending colonic motility were acquired over 2 min from 23 healthy volunteers (HVs) at baseline and following two different macrogol stimulus drinks (11 HVs drank 1 L and 12 HVs drank 2 L). Motility metrics derived from large scale geometric and small scale pixel movement parameters following image registration were developed using the post ingestion data and compared to observer grading of wall motion. Inter and intra-observer variability in the highest correlating metric was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis calculated from two separate observations on a subset of data. All the metrics tested showed significant correlation with the observer rating scores. Line analysis (LA) produced the highest correlation coefficient of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.55-0.86), p cine MRI registered data provides a quick, accurate and non-invasive method to detect wall motion within the ascending colon following a colonic stimulus in the form of a macrogol drink. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Wall Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-14

    Sydney, Australia. December 6, 1990. Lumley, J. L. A dynamical-systems-theory approach to the wall region. Environmental Engineering Laboratory, CSIRO...Nonlinear Science. Holmes, P. Editor in Chief, Nonlinear Scinece Today. Holmes, P. Reviewer for Physica D, J. Sound Vib., J. Phys., Q. Appl. Math, Phys...Spring, 1994; Organizing committee member. Holmes, P. Editorial Board Member: Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis; Journal of Nonlinear Scinece

  6. CLIMBING WALL

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI

  7. Transverse Ultrasound Assessment of Median Nerve Deformation and Displacement in the Human Carpal Tunnel during Wrist Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexiang; Zhao, Chunfeng; Passe, Sandra M.; Filius, Anika; Thoreson, Andrew R.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome, a compression neuropathy of the median nerve at the wrist, are aggravated by wrist motion, but the effect of these motions on median nerve motion are unknown. In order to better understand the biomechanics of the abnormal nerve, it is first necessary to understand normal nerve movement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deformation and displacement of the normal median nerve at the proximal carpal tunnel level on transverse ultrasound images during different wrist movements, in order to have a baseline for comparison with abnormal movements. Dynamic ultrasound images were obtained in both wrists of 10 asymptomatic volunteers during wrist maximal flexion, extension and ulnar deviation. In order to simplify the analysis, the initial and final shape and position of the median nerve were measured and analyzed. The circularity of the median nerve was significantly increased and the aspect ratio and perimeter were significantly decreased in the final image compared to that in the first image during wrist flexion with finger extension, wrist flexion with finger flexion and wrist ulnar deviation with finger extension (pwrist flexion with finger extension and wrist ulnar deviation with finger extension (all pwrist flexion with finger extension (2.36±0.79 NU), wrist flexion with finger flexion (2.46±0.84 NU) and wrist ulnar deviation with finger extension (2.86±0.51 NU) were higher than those in finger flexion (0.82±0.33 NU), wrist extension with finger extension (0.77±0.46 NU) and wrist extension with finger flexion (0.81±0.58 NU) (pwrist flexion and ulnar deviation could induce significant transverse displacement and deformation of the median nerve. PMID:24210862

  8. Three-dimensional movements of the sacroiliac joint: a systematic review of the literature and assessment of clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Adam; Hegedus, Eric J; Sizer, Philip; Brismee, Jean-Michel; Linberg, Alison; Cook, Chad E

    2008-01-01

    The high frequency of static and dynamic palpation methods used during evaluation of SIJ problems in clinical practice demands an understanding of the factual quantity of movement at the SIJ. The objective of this systematic literature review was to synthesize three-dimensional (3-D) motion of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) during various functional static postures and movements and to determine the clinical utility of movement during examination. A computer-based search was performed by means of OVID, which included Medline (February 1966 to April 2007) and CINAHL (February 1982 to April 2007) using the key words Pelvis, Kinematics, Imaging, Three-dimensional, and Stereophotogrammetric. Articles included in-vivo or in-vitro studies that investigated human SIJs with 3-D analysis. Three-dimensional analyses conducted using mathematical modeling, computerized modeling, and/or skin markers were not included because of concerns of transferability and validity. Studies that failed to report standard error of measurement (SEM) or defined tabulated values for translations or rotations using the Cartesian coordinate system were not considered for this study. Studies included for review were analyzed by the SBC biomechanical checklist to measure the quality of procedural design. Seven manuscripts were eligible for inclusion in this study. Rotation ranged between -1.1 to 2.2 degrees along the X-axis, -0.8 to 4.0 degrees along the Y-axis, and -0.5 to 8.0 degrees along the Z-axis. Translation ranged between -0.3 to 8.0 millimeters (mm) along the X-axis, -0.2 to 7.0 mm along the Y-axis, -0.3 to 6.0 mm along the Z-axis. Motion of the SIJ is limited to minute amounts of rotation and of translation suggesting that clinical methods utilizing palpation for diagnosing SIJ pathology may have limited clinical utility.

  9. Effect of pneumatic compression therapy on lymph movement in lymphedema-affected extremities, as assessed by near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa B. Aldrich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown cost effectiveness and quality-of-life benefit of pneumatic compression therapy (PCT for lymphedema (LE. Insurers, such as the Centers for Medicare/Medicaid (CMS, however, desire visual proof that PCT moves lymph. Near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging (NIRFLI was used to visualize lymphatic anatomy and function in four subjects with primary and cancer treatment-related LE of the lower extremities before, during, and after PCT. Optically transparent and windowed PCT garments allowed visualization of lymph movement during single, 1h PCT treatment sessions. Visualization revealed significant extravascular and lymphatic vascular movement of intradermally injected dye in all subjects. In one subject with sufficient patent lymphatic vessels to allow quantification of lymph pumping velocities and frequencies, these values were significantly increased during and after PCT as compared to pre-treatment values. Lymphatic contractile activity in patent lymphatic vessels occurred in concert with the sequential cycling of PCT. Direct visualization revealed increased lymphatic function, during and after PCT therapy, in all LE-affected extremities. Further studies are warranted to assess the effects of PCT pressure and sequences on lymph uptake and movement.

  10. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear......Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...

  11. Wall interference tests of a CAST 10-2/DOA 2 airfoil in an adaptive-wall test section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineck, Raymond E.

    1987-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of a CAST 10-2/DOA 2 airfoil model has been conducted in the adaptive-wall test section of the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) and in the National Aeronautical Establishment High Reynolds Number Two-Dimensional Test Facility. The primary goal of the tests was to assess two different wall-interference correction techniques: adaptive test-section walls and classical analytical corrections. Tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.3 to 0.8 and over a chord Reynolds number range from 6 million to 70 million. The airfoil aerodynamic characteristics from the tests in the 0.3-m TCT have been corrected for wall interference by the movement of the adaptive walls. No additional corrections for any residual interference have been applied to the data, to allow comparison with the classically corrected data from the same model in the conventional National Aeronautical Establishment facility. The data are presented graphically in this report as integrated force-and-moment coefficients and chordwise pressure distributions.

  12. Combined statistical analysis method assessing fast versus slow movement training in a patient with cerebellar stroke: a single-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huiqiong; Kimberley, Teresa J; Durfee, William K; Dressler, Brittany L; Steil, Carie; Carey, James R

    2013-05-01

    Gold standards of data analysis for single-case research do not currently exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a combined statistical analysis method is more effective in assessing movement training effects in a patient with cerebellar stroke. A crossover single-case research design was conducted. The patient was a 69-year-old man with a chronic cerebellar infarct who received two 5-week phases of finger tracking training at different movement rates. Changes were measured with the Box and Block Test, the Jebsen-Taylor test, the finger extension force test, and the corticospinal excitability test. Both visual analysis and statistical tests (including split-middle line method, t test, confidence interval, and effect size) were used to assess potential intervention effects. The results of the t tests were highly consistent with the confidence interval tests, but less consistent with the split-middle line method. Most results produced medium to large effect sizes. The possibility of an incomplete washout effect was a confounding factor in the current analyses. The combined statistical analysis method may assist researchers in assessing intervention effects in single-case stroke rehabilitation studies.

  13. Predictive value of General Movement Assessment for preterm infants' development at 2 years - implementation in clinical routine in a non-academic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Freia; Will, Heike; Behrenbeck, Ulrike; Jarczok, Marc N; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Philippi, Heike

    2017-03-01

    General movements (GM) are used in academic settings to predict developmental outcome in infants born preterm. However, little is known about the implementation and predictive value of GM in non-academic settings. The aim of this study is twofold: To document the implementation of GM assessment (GMA) in a non-academic setting and to assess its predictive value in infants born preterm. We documented the process of implementing GMA in a non-academic outpatient clinic. In addition, we assessed the predictive value of GMA at 1 and 3 months' corrected age for motor and cognitive development at 2 years in 122 children born academic outpatient setting. In our clinical routine scenario, GMA allowed for adequate prediction of neurodevelopment in infants born preterm, thereby allaying concerns about diagnostic accuracy in non-academic settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the impact of a cattle risk-based trading scheme on the movement of bovine tuberculosis infected animals in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Downs, S H; Kelly, L

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) risk-based trading (RBT) schemes has the potential to reduce the risk of bTB spread. However, any scheme will have cost implications that need to be balanced against its likely success in reducing bTB. This paper describes the first stochastic quantitative model assessing the impact of the implementation of a cattle risk-based trading scheme to inform policy makers and contribute to cost-benefit analyses. A risk assessment for England and Wales was developed to estimate the number of infected cattle traded using historic movement data recorded between July 2010 and June 2011. Three scenarios were implemented: cattle traded with no RBT scheme in place, voluntary provision of the score and a compulsory, statutory scheme applying a bTB risk score to each farm. For each scenario, changes in trade were estimated due to provision of the risk score to potential purchasers. An estimated mean of 3981 bTB infected animals were sold to purchasers with no RBT scheme in place in one year, with 90% confidence the true value was between 2775 and 5288. This result is dependent on the estimated between herd prevalence used in the risk assessment which is uncertain. With the voluntary provision of the risk score by farmers, on average, 17% of movements was affected (purchaser did not wish to buy once the risk score was available), with a reduction of 23% in infected animals being purchased initially. The compulsory provision of the risk score in a statutory scheme resulted in an estimated mean change to 26% of movements, with a reduction of 37% in infected animals being purchased initially, increasing to a 53% reduction in infected movements from higher risk sellers (score 4 and 5). The estimated mean reduction in infected animals being purchased could be improved to 45% given a 10% reduction in risky purchase behaviour by farmers which may be achieved through education programmes, or to an estimated mean of 49% if a rule was implemented

  15. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...

  16. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  17. Normal Porcine Ureter Retains Lumen Wall Integrity but Not Patency Following Catheter-Directed Irreversible Electroporation: Imaging and Histologic Assessment over 28 Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Cornelis, Francois; Wimmer, Thomas; Monette, Sebastien; Kimm, Simon Y; Maybody, Majid; Solomon, Stephen B; Coleman, Jonathan A; Durack, Jeremy C

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of catheter-directed irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the integrity, patency, and function of the normal porcine ureter. A catheter-mounted electrode was used to perform fluoroscopy-guided IRE in 8 healthy pigs. Two unilateral ablations (90 pulses at 2,000 V, 100 μs) were performed in each animal in the proximal and distal ureter. Serum creatinine measurements and contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging were performed at 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after IRE, and findings were compared with baseline values by Student t test. Two animals each were euthanized at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days after IRE for histologic assessment of treatment effects. Quantitative histologic analysis of regeneration and healing of the ureteral wall was graded on a five-point scale. IRE was successfully performed in all animals. Preservation of ureteral wall integrity was confirmed by the leakage-free passage of contrast medium in the treated ureter of all animals through the observation period. Ureteral strictures and associated renal pelvicaliceal dilation were observed in all animals by study days 7 (P = .005) and 14 (P = .007) and did not resolve by day 28. Urothelial recovery was observed in tissue samples from day 7, with progressive replacement of the tunica muscularis with granulation tissue. Despite extensive scarring of the tunica muscularis, full recovery of the urothelium was observed by day 28. The normal porcine ureter retains lumen wall integrity and function following catheter-directed IRE. Scarring of the tunica muscularis in the treated ureter results in stricture formation and reduction of lumen patency. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Domain walls riding the wave.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.; Materials Science Division

    2010-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets around the world. These devices are used for both communication and entertainment, and it is a fact that they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption and overall world consumption of electricity. Increasing the energy efficiency of these devices could have a far greater and immediate impact than a gradual switch to renewable energy sources. The advances in the area of spintronics are therefore very important, as gadgets are mostly comprised of memory and logic elements. Recent developments in controlled manipulation of magnetic domains in ferromagnet nanostructures have opened opportunities for novel device architectures. This new class of memories and logic gates could soon power millions of consumer electronic devices. The attractiveness of using domain-wall motion in electronics is due to its inherent reliability (no mechanical moving parts), scalability (3D scalable architectures such as in racetrack memory), and nonvolatility (retains information in the absence of power). The remaining obstacles in widespread use of 'racetrack-type' elements are the speed and the energy dissipation during the manipulation of domain walls. In their recent contribution to Physical Review Letters, Oleg Tretiakov, Yang Liu, and Artem Abanov from Texas A&M University in College Station, provide a theoretical description of domain-wall motion in nanoscale ferromagnets due to the spin-polarized currents. They find exact conditions for time-dependent resonant domain-wall movement, which could speed up the motion of domain walls while minimizing Ohmic losses. Movement of domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires can be achieved by application of external magnetic fields or by passing a spin-polarized current through the nanowire itself. On the other hand, the readout of the domain state is done by measuring the resistance of the wire. Therefore, passing current through the

  19. Effect of activation cross-section uncertainties on the radiological assessment of the MFE/DEMO first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabellos, O. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: cabellos@din.upm.es; Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Sanz, J. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); University Nacional Educacion a Distancia, Dep. Ingenieria Energetica, Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [University Nacional Educacion a Distancia, Dep. Ingenieria Energetica, Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Youssef, M. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sawan, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2006-02-15

    A Monte Carlo procedure has been applied in this work in order to address the impact of activation cross-sections (XS) uncertainties on contact dose rate and decay heat calculations for the outboard first wall (FW) of a magnetic fusion energy (MFE) demonstration (DEMO) reactor. The XSs inducing the major uncertainty in the prediction of activation related quantities have been identified. Results have shown that for times corresponding to maintenance activities the uncertainties effect is insignificant since the dominant XSs involved in these calculations are based on accurate experimental data evaluations. However, for times corresponding to waste management/recycling activities, the errors induced by the XSs uncertainties, which in this case are evaluated using systematic models, must be considered. It has been found that two particular isotopes, {sup 6}Co and {sup 94}Nb, are key contributors to the global DEMO FW activation uncertainty results. In these cases, the benefit from further improvements in the accuracy of the critical reaction XSs is discussed.

  20. Carbon nanotube ecotoxicity in amphibians: assessment of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and comparison with double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Florence; Landois, Perine; Puech, Pascal; Pinelli, Eric; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Gauthier, Laury

    2010-08-01

    The potential impact of industrial multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was investigated under normalized laboratory conditions according to the International Standard micronucleus assay ISO 21427-1 for 12 days of half-static exposure to 0.1, 1, 10 and 50 mg/l of MWNTs in water. Three different end points were carried out for 12 days of exposure: mortality, growth inhibition and micronuclei induction in erythrocytes of the circulating blood of larvae. Raman spectroscopy analysis was used to study the presence of carbon nanotubes in the biological samples. Considering the high diversity of carbon nanotubes according to their different characteristics, MWNTs were analyzed in Xenopus larvae, comparatively to double-walled carbon nanotubes used in a previous study in similar conditions. Growth inhibition in larvae exposed to 50 mg/l of MWNTs was evidenced; however, no genetoxicity (micronucleus assay) was noticed, at any concentration. Carbon nanotube localization in the larvae leads to different possible hypothesis of mechanisms explaining toxicity in Xenopus.

  1. Assessing sleep architecture and continuity measures through the analysis of heart rate and wrist movement recordings in healthy subjects: comparison with results based on polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzet, Alain; Werner, Sandra; Fuchs, Gil; Roth, Thomas; Saoud, Jay B; Viola, Antoine U; Schaffhauser, Jean-Yves; Luthringer, Rémy

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the reliability of a new methodology for assessing sleep architecture descriptors based on heart rate and body movement recordings. Twelve healthy male and female subjects between 18 and 40 years of age, without sleep disorders and not taking any drug or medication that could affect sleep, were recorded continuously during five consecutive nights. Together with the standard polysomnography, heart rate was recorded with a Holter and wrist movements by actimetry. Of the 60 recorded nights, 48 artifact-free nights were analyzed by two independent and well-trained visual scorers according to the rules of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sleep stages were assigned to every 30-s epoch. In parallel, the same nights were analyzed by the new methodology using only heart rate and actimetry data, allowing a 1-s epoch sleep stage classification. Sleep architecture was measured for 48 nights, independently for the two manual scorings and the automatic analysis. Over 42 nights, the intra-class correlation coefficient, used to assess the consistency or reproducibility of quantitative measurements made by different observers, was classified as excellent when all 12 descriptors were combined. Analyses of the individual descriptors showed excellent interclass correlation for eight and good for four of the 12. The automatic analysis of heart rate and body movement during sleep allows for the evaluation of sleep architecture and continuity that is equivalent to those obtained by manual scoring of polysomnography. The technique used here is simple and robust to allow for home sleep monitoring. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability of the "Sydney," "Sunnybrook," and "House Brackmann" facial grading systems to assess voluntary movement and synkinesis after facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Susan E; Croxson, Glen R; Adams, Roger D; O'Dwyer, Nicholas J

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the extent of within-system reliability and between-system correlation for the "Sydney" and "Sunnybrook" systems of grading facial nerve paralysis, and to examine the interobserver reliability and agreement of the "House Brackmann" grading system. A fixed-effects reliability study in which 6 otolaryngologists viewed videotapes of patients with facial nerve paralysis. University and medical Centers. Patients with unilateral lower motor neurone facial nerve dysfunction greater than 1 year after onset, none of whom had undergone surgical reanimation procedures. Intervention Twenty-one patients with facial nerve paralysis were videotaped while they performed a protocol of facial movements. Six otolaryngologists viewed the videotapes and scored them with the Sydney and Sunnybrook systems, and then gave a House Brackmann grade. The 3 systems of grading facial nerve paralysis were evaluated and compared with the use of intraclass correlation coefficients, Pearson's weighted kappa, and percentage exact agreement values. The Sydney and the Sunnybrook systems had good intrasystem reliability and high intersystem association for the assessment of voluntary movement. Grading of synkinesis was found to have low reliability both within and between systems. The House Brackmann system had substantial reliability as shown by weighted kappa but had a percentage exact agreement of 44%. For clinical grading of voluntary movement, there is good correlation between ratings given on the Sydney and Sunnybrook systems, and within each system there is good reliability. The assessment of synkinesis was far less reliable within, and less related between, systems. Although the reliability of the House Brackmann system was found to be high, examination of individual grades revealed some wide variation between trained observers.

  3. Automatic classification of scar tissue in late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI for the assessment of left-atrial wall injury after radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Daniel; Morris, Alan; Burgon, Nathan; McGann, Christopher; Macleod, Robert; Cates, Joshua

    2012-02-23

    Radiofrequency ablation is a promising procedure for treating atrial fibrillation (AF) that relies on accurate lesion delivery in the left atrial (LA) wall for success. Late Gadolinium Enhancement MRI (LGE MRI) at three months post-ablation has proven effective for noninvasive assessment of the location and extent of scar formation, which are important factors for predicting patient outcome and planning of redo ablation procedures. We have developed an algorithm for automatic classification in LGE MRI of scar tissue in the LA wall and have evaluated accuracy and consistency compared to manual scar classifications by expert observers. Our approach clusters voxels based on normalized intensity and was chosen through a systematic comparison of the performance of multivariate clustering on many combinations of image texture. Algorithm performance was determined by overlap with ground truth, using multiple overlap measures, and the accuracy of the estimation of the total amount of scar in the LA. Ground truth was determined using the STAPLE algorithm, which produces a probabilistic estimate of the true scar classification from multiple expert manual segmentations. Evaluation of the ground truth data set was based on both inter- and intra-observer agreement, with variation among expert classifiers indicating the difficulty of scar classification for a given a dataset. Our proposed automatic scar classification algorithm performs well for both scar localization and estimation of scar volume: for ground truth datasets considered easy, variability from the ground truth was low; for those considered difficult, variability from ground truth was on par with the variability across experts.

  4. Numerical 3D flow simulation of ultrasonic horns with attached cavitation structures and assessment of flow aggressiveness and cavitation erosion sensitive wall zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottyll, Stephan; Skoda, Romuald

    2016-07-01

    As a contribution to a better understanding of cavitation erosion mechanisms, a compressible inviscid finite volume flow solver with barotropic homogeneous liquid-vapor mixture cavitation model is applied to ultrasonic horn set-ups with and without stationary specimen, that exhibit attached cavitation at the horn tip. Void collapses and shock waves, which are closely related to cavitation erosion, are resolved. The computational results are compared to hydrophone, shadowgraphy and erosion test data. At the horn tip, vapor volume and topology, subharmonic oscillation frequency as well as the amplitude of propagating pressure waves are in good agreement with experimental data. For the evaluation of flow aggressiveness and the assessment of erosion sensitive wall zones, statistical analyses of wall loads and of the multiplicity of distinct collapses in wall-adjacent flow regions are applied to the horn tip and the stationary specimen. An a posteriori projection of load collectives, i.e. cumulative collapse rate vs. collapse pressure, onto a reference grid eliminates the grid dependency effectively for attached cavitation at the horn tip, whereas a significant grid dependency remains at the stationary specimen. The load collectives show an exponential decrease towards higher collapse pressures. Erosion sensitive wall zones are well predicted for both, horn tip and stationary specimen, and load profiles are in good qualitative agreement with measured topography profiles of eroded duplex stainless steel samples after long-term runs. For the considered amplitude and gap width according to ASTM G32-10 standard, the analysis of load collectives reveals that the distinctive erosive ring shape at the horn tip can be attributed to frequent breakdown and re-development of a small portion of the tip-attached cavity. This partial breakdown of the attached cavity repeats at each driving cycle and is associated with relatively moderate collapse peak pressures, whereas the

  5. Gracious Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Kreft

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984 Christopher Cordner offered a critical view on theories of graceful movement in sport developed by Ng. G. Wulk, David Best and Joseph Kupfer. In 2001 Paul Davis criticized his view. Cordner responded, rejecting all the criticism. More than a century before, Herbert Spencer and Jean-Marie Guyau had a similar controversy over grace. Both exchanges of opinion involve three positions: that grace is the most efficient movement and therefore something quantitative and measurable; that grace is expression of the wholeness of person and the world; and that grace is something which neither science nor philosophy can explain. To clarify these conflicting issues, this article proposes to examine the history of the notion which goes back to the Latin gratia and has root in the Ancient Greek charis, and to apply the concepts of cultural anchor and thin coherence, following John R. Searle’s explanation that we produce epistemically objective accounts of ontologically subjective reality.

  6. Increased throwing accuracy improves children’s catching performance in a ball-catching task from the movement assessment battery (MABC-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Dirksen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2 is a functional test for identifying deficits in the motor performance of children. The test contains a ball-catching task that requires the children to catch a self-thrown ball with one hand. As the task can be executed with a variety of different catching strategies, it is assumed that the task success can also vary considerably. Even though it is not clear, whether the performance merely de-pends on the catching skills or also to some extent on the throwing skills, the M-ABC2 takes into account only the movement outcome. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine 1 to what extent the throwing accuracy has an effect on the children's catching performance and 2 to what extent the throwing accuracy influences their choice of catching strategy.In line with the test manual, the children's catching performance was quantified on basis of the number of correctly caught balls. The throwing accuracy and the catching strat-egy were quantified by applying a kinematic analysis on the ball's trajectory and the hand movements. Based on linear regression analyses, we then investigated the relation between throwing accuracy, catching performance and catching strategy. The results show that an increased throwing accuracy is significantly correlated with an increased catching performance. Moreover, a higher throwing accuracy is significantly correlated with a longer duration of the hand on the ball’s parabola, which indicates that throwing the ball more accurately could enable the children to effectively reduce the re-quirements on temporal precision. As the children's catching performance and their choice of catching strategy in the ball-catching task of the M-ABC2 are substantially determined by their throwing accuracy, the test evaluation should not be based on the movement outcome alone, but should also take into account the children's throwing performance. Our findings could be of

  7. Wall-motion tracking in fetal echocardiography-Influence of frame rate on longitudinal strain analysis assessed by two-dimensional speckle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzensberger, Christian; Achterberg, Friederike; Graupner, Oliver; Wolter, Aline; Herrmann, Johannes; Axt-Fliedner, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Frame rates (FR) used for strain analysis assessed by speckle tracking in fetal echocardiography show a considerable variation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the FR on strain analysis in 2D speckle tracking. Fetal echocardiography was performed prospectively on a Toshiba Aplio 500 system and a Toshiba Artida system, respectively. Based on an apical or basal four-chamber view of the fetal heart, cine loops were stored with a FR of 30 fps (Aplio 500) and 60 fps (Artida/Aplio 500). For both groups (30fps and 60fps), global and segmental longitudinal peak systolic strain (LPSS) values of both, left (LV) and right ventricle (RV), were assessed by 2D wall-motion tracking. A total of 101 fetuses, distributed to three study groups, were included. The mean gestational age was 25.2±5.0 weeks. Mean global LPSS values for RV in the 30 fps group and in the 60 fps group were -16.07% and -16.47%, respectively. Mean global LPSS values for LV in the 30 fps group and in the 60 fps group were -17.54% and -17.06%, respectively. Comparing global and segmental LPSS values of both, the RV and LV, did not show any statistically significant differences within the two groups. Performance of myocardial 2D strain analysis by wall-motion tracking was feasible with 30 and 60 fps. Obtained global and segmental LPSS values of both ventricles were relatively independent from acquisition rate. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The concurrent use of three implicit measures (eye movements, pupillometry, and event-related potentials) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Kerry; Coderre, Emily; Bosley, Laura; Buz, Esteban; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Gordon, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen the advent and proliferation of the use of implicit techniques to study learning and cognition. One such application is the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge. Other implicit assessment techniques that may be well-suited to other testing situations or to use with varied participant groups have not been used as widely to study receptive vocabulary knowledge. We sought to develop additional implicit techniques to study receptive vocabulary knowledge that could augment the knowledge gained from the use of the ERP technique. Specifically, we used a simple forced-choice paradigm to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adult participants using eye movement monitoring (EM) and pupillometry. In the same group of participants, we also used an N400 semantic incongruity ERP paradigm to assess their knowledge of two groups of words: those expected to be known to the participants (high-frequency, familiar words) and those expected to be unknown (low-frequency, unfamiliar words). All three measures showed reliable differences between the known and unknown words. EM and pupillometry thus may provide insight into receptive vocabulary knowledge similar to that from ERPs. The development of additional implicit assessment techniques may increase the feasibility of receptive vocabulary testing across a wider range of participant groups and testing situations, and may make the conduct of such testing more accessible to a wider range of researchers, clinicians, and educators.

  9. Innovative Composite Wall System for Sheathing Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Cavallo, James [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-09-25

    Existing Housing - Much of the older multifamily housing stock in the United States includes units in structures with uninsulated masonry walls. Included in this stock are two- and three-story walk-up apartments, larger apartment complexes, and public housing (both high- rise and townhouse). This older multifamily housing has seen years of heavy use that may have left the plaster wall marred or damaged. Long- term building settlement or movement may have cracked the plaster, sometimes severely. Moisture from invented kitchens and baths may have caused condensation on uninsulated exterior walls. At best this condensation has left stains on the paint or wallpaper. At worst it has supported mold and mildew growth, fouling the air and creating unhealthy living conditions. Deteriorating plaster and flaking paint also result from wet walls. The presence of flaking, lead-based paint in older (pre-1978) housing is a major public health concern. Children can suffer permanent mental handicaps and psychological disorders if they are subjected to elevated levels of lead, while adults can suffer hypertension and other maladies. Studies have found that, in some urban communities with older housing stocks, over 35% of children tested have elevated blood lead levels (Hastings, et al.: 1997). Nationally, nearly 22% of black, non-hispanic children living in pre-1946 housing were found to have elevated levels of lead in their blood (MWWR Article: February 21,1997). The deterioration of many of these walls is to the point that lead can freely enter the living space.

  10. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  11. Detection of Right Atrium Movement in Thrombi Flow Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Hachiya, H.

    In the medical field, a method that measures the amount of thrombi in the blood is desired. In our earlier research, we reported about a tool for measuring the ratio of thrombi in the blood at the right atrium of the heart by using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) movies. However, it is difficult to track the motion of the contour of the atrium wall from a TEE image sequence using the previous extraction method. In this research, we propose a new method for improving the previous extraction method by adding correlation processing. The position of the processing points of each image is related mutually in serial frames in the processed TEE image sequence. We are able to continuously understand the movement of the atrium wall and accurately assess the amount of the thrombi with this improvement.

  12. Recommendations for standardizing validation procedures assessing physical activity of older persons by monitoring body postures and movements

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Lindemann; Wiebren Zijlstra; Kamiar Aminian; Chastin, Sebastien F.M.; de Bruin, Eling D; Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Bussmann, Johannes B. J.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of health and well-being in older persons and contributes to their social participation and quality of life. Hence, assessment tools are needed to study this physical activity in free-living conditions. Wearable motion sensing technology is used to assess physical activity. However, there is a lack of harmonisation of validation protocols and applied statistics, which make it hard to compare available and future studies. Therefore, the aim of this...

  13. Assessment of Crack Detection in Heavy-Walled Cast Stainless Steel Piping Welds Using Advanced Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-03-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel approaches to nondestructive examination (NDE) for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods as related to the inservice inspection of safety-related components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report provides progress, recent developments, and results from an assessment of low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) for detection of inside surface-breaking cracks in cast stainless steel reactor piping weldments as applied from the outside surface of the components. Vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were examined to assess the capability of low-frequency UT to adequately penetrate challenging microstructures and determine acoustic propagation limitations or conditions that may interfere with reliable flaw detection. In addition, welded specimens containing mechanical and thermal fatigue cracks were examined. The specimens were fabricated using vintage centrifugally cast and statically cast stainless steel materials, which are typical of configurations installed in PWR primary coolant circuits. Ultrasonic studies on the vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were conducted with a 400-kHz synthetic aperture focusing technique and phased array technology applied at 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz. Flaw detection and characterization on the welded specimens was performed with the phased array method operating at the frequencies stated above. This report documents the methodologies used and provides results from laboratory studies to assess baseline material noise, crack detection, and length-sizing capability for low-frequency UT in cast stainless steel piping.

  14. Pest Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Bhar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of woody borders surrounding crop fields is desirable for biodiversity conservation. However, for crop pest management, the desirability of woody borders depends on the trade-off between their effects at the local field scale and the landscape scale. At the local scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by increasing predation rates, but they can also increase pest populations by providing complementary habitats and reducing movement rate of pests out of crop fields. At the regional scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by reducing colonization of newly planted crop fields. Our objective was to develop guidelines for maximizing pest control while maintaining woody borders in the landscape. We wished to determine the conditions under which the regional effect of borders on colonization can outweigh local enhancement effects of borders on pest populations. We built a stochastic, individual-based, spatially implicit simulation model of a specialist insect population in a landscape divided into a number of crop fields. We conducted simulations to determine the conditions under which woody borders enhance vs. reduce the regional pest population size. The following factors were considered: landscape fragmentation, crop rotation period, barrier effect of woody borders, disperser success rate, and effect of woody borders on local survival. The simulation results suggest that woody borders are most likely to enhance regional control of crop pests if (1 the woody borders are very effective in reducing insect movement from one crop field to another, and (2 crop rotation is on a very short cycle. Based on these results, our preliminary recommendations are that woody borders should contain dense, tall vegetation to reduce insect movement, and crops should be rotated on as short a cycle as possible. These conditions should ensure that woody borders can be maintained for their conservation value without enhancing crop pest

  15. Assessment: Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D M; Blitzer, A; Brashear, A; Comella, C; Dubinsky, R; Hallett, M; Jankovic, J; Karp, B; Ludlow, C L; Miyasaki, J M; Naumann, M; So, Y

    2008-05-06

    To perform an evidence-based review of the safety and efficacy of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in the treatment of movement disorders. A literature search was performed including MEDLINE and Current Contents for therapeutic articles relevant to BoNT and selected movement disorders. Authors reviewed, abstracted, and classified articles based on American Academy of Neurology criteria (Class I-IV). The highest quality literature available for the respective indications was as follows: blepharospasm (two Class II studies); hemifacial spasm (one Class II and one Class III study); cervical dystonia (seven Class I studies); focal upper extremity dystonia (one Class I and three Class II studies); focal lower extremity dystonia (one Class II study); laryngeal dystonia (one Class I study); motor tics (one Class II study); and upper extremity essential tremor (two Class II studies). Botulinum neurotoxin should be offered as a treatment option for the treatment of cervical dystonia (Level A), may be offered for blepharospasm, focal upper extremity dystonia, adductor laryngeal dystonia, and upper extremity essential tremor (Level B), and may be considered for hemifacial spasm, focal lower limb dystonia, and motor tics (Level C). While clinicians' practice may suggest stronger recommendations in some of these indications, evidence-based conclusions are limited by the availability of data.

  16. Textile Electrodes Embedded in Clothing: A Practical Alternative to Traditional Surface Electromyography when Assessing Muscle Excitation during Functional Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi L. Colyer, Polly M. McGuigan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Textile electromyography (EMG electrodes embedded in clothing allow muscle excitation to be recorded in previously inaccessible settings; however, their ability to accurately and reliably measure EMG during dynamic tasks remains largely unexplored. To quantify the validity and reliability of textile electrodes, 16 recreationally active males completed two identical testing sessions, within which three functional movements (run, cycle and squat were performed twice: once wearing EMG shorts (measuring quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals myoelectric activity and once with surface EMG electrodes attached to the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus. EMG signals were identically processed to provide average rectified EMG (normalized to walking and excitation length. Results were compared across measurement systems and demonstrated good agreement between the magnitude of muscle excitation when EMG activity was lower, but agreement was poorer when excitation was higher. The length of excitation bursts was consistently longer when measured using textile vs. surface EMG electrodes. Comparable between-session (day-to-day repeatability was found for average rectified EMG (mean coefficient of variation, CV: 42.6 and 41.2% and excitation length (CV: 12.9 and 9.8% when using textile and surface EMG, respectively. Additionally, similar within-session repeatability (CV was recorded for average rectified EMG (13.8 and 14.1% and excitation length (13.0 and 12.7% for textile and surface electrodes, respectively. Generally, textile EMG electrodes appear to be capable of providing comparable muscle excitation information and reproducibility to surface EMG during dynamic tasks. Textile EMG shorts could therefore be a practical alternative to traditional laboratory-based methods allowing muscle excitation information to be collected in more externally-valid training environments.

  17. Application of acoustic telemetry to assess residency and movements of rockfish and lingcod at created and natural habitats in Prince William Sound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad F Reynolds

    Full Text Available Loss and/or degradation of nearshore habitats have led to increased efforts to restore or enhance many of these habitats, particularly those that are deemed essential for marine fishes. Copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus and lingcod (Ophiodon enlongatus are dominant members of the typical reef fish community that inhabit rocky and high-relief substrates along the Pacific Northwest. We used acoustic telemetry to document their residency and movements in the nearshore waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska in order to assess use of created reef habitat in an individual-based manner. A total of 57 fish were surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters. Forty-five fish were captured and monitored in three habitats: artificial reef, low-relief natural reef, and patchy high-relief natural reef. Within each habitat, both rockfish and lingcod exhibited long periods of residency with limited movements. Twelve rockfish were captured at the natural reefs and displaced a distance of 4.0 km to the artificial reef. Five of the 12 rockfish returned within 10 d of their release to their initial capture site. Another five of the 12 displaced fish established residency at the artificial reef through the duration of our study. Our results suggest the potential for artificial reefs to provide rockfish habitat in the event of disturbances to natural habitat.

  18. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  19. The "Function-to-Flow" Model: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Assessing Movement within and beyond the Context of Climbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical Education (PE) programmes are expanding to include alternative activities yet what is missing is a conceptual model that facilitates how the learning process may be understood and assessed beyond the dominant sport-technique paradigm. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to feature the emergence of a Function-to-Flow (F2F)…

  20. Russian periphery is dying in movement: A cohort assessment of Russian internal youth migration based on census data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kashnitsky, I.; Mkrtchyan, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study youth migration in Russia at the sub-regional level of administrative division. The aim of the research is to assess the volume of internal youth migration. The task is only doable with the use of census data, which not only allows us to research at the sub-regional level, but

  1. Towards Whole Body Fatigue Assessment of Human Movement: A Fatigue-Tracking System Based on Combined sEMG and Accelerometer Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to assess the overall fatigue of human body movement. First of all, according to previous research regarding localized muscular fatigue, a linear relation is assumed between the mean frequency and the muscular working time when the muscle is experiencing fatigue. This assumption is verified with a rigorous statistical analysis. Based on this proven linearity, localized muscular fatigue is simplified as a linear model. Furthermore, localized muscular fatigue is considered a dynamic process and, hence, the localized fatigue levels are tracked by updating the parameters with the most current surface electromyogram (sEMG measurements. Finally, an overall fatigue level is computed by fusing localized muscular fatigue levels. The developed fatigue-tracking system is evaluated with two fatigue experiments (in which 10 male subjects and seven female subjects participated, including holding self-weight (dip start position training and lifting weight with one arm (arm curl training.

  2. Retraining and assessing hand movement after stroke using the MusicGlove: comparison with conventional hand therapy and isometric grip training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Nizan; Chan, Vicky; Reinkensmeyer, Andrea N; Beroukhim, Ariel; Zambrano, Gregory J; Bachman, Mark; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2014-04-30

    It is thought that therapy should be functional, be highly repetitive, and promote afferent input to best stimulate hand motor recovery after stroke, yet patients struggle to access such therapy. We developed the MusicGlove, an instrumented glove that requires the user to practice gripping-like movements and thumb-finger opposition to play a highly engaging, music-based, video game. The purpose of this study was to 1) compare the effect of training with MusicGlove to conventional hand therapy 2) determine if MusicGlove training was more effective than a matched form of isometric hand movement training; and 3) determine if MusicGlove game scores predict clinical outcomes. 12 chronic stroke survivors with moderate hemiparesis were randomly assigned to receive MusicGlove, isometric, and conventional hand therapy in a within-subjects design. Each subject participated in six one-hour treatment sessions three times per week for two weeks, for each training type, for a total of 18 treatment sessions. A blinded rater assessed hand impairment before and after each training type and at one-month follow-up including the Box and Blocks (B & B) test as the primary outcome measure. Subjects also completed the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Subjects improved hand function related to grasping small objects more after MusicGlove compared to conventional training, as measured by the B & B score (improvement of 3.21±3.82 vs. -0.29±2.27 blocks; P=0.010) and the 9 Hole Peg test (improvement of 2.14±2.98 vs. -0.85±1.29 pegs/minute; P=0.005). There was no significant difference between training types in the broader assessment batteries of hand function. Subjects benefited less from isometric therapy than MusicGlove training, but the difference was not significant (P>0.09). Subjects sustained improvements in hand function at a one month follow-up, and found the MusicGlove more motivating than the other two therapies, as measured by the IMI. MusicGlove games scores correlated

  3. Clinical usefulness of ultrasound assessment of detrusor wall thickness in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to spinal cord injury: urodynamics made easy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, Jürgen; Bartel, Peter; Göcking, Konrad; Frotzler, Angela

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of sonographic measurement of detrusor wall thickness (DWT) for the prediction of risk factors in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) due to spinal cord injury (SCI). In a prospective study, 60 consecutive patients with NLUTD due to SCI presenting for routine urodynamic assessment at a specialized SCI center underwent additional measurement of DWT at varying bladder volumes. Results of urodynamic testing were classified into favorable and unfavorable. DWT at maximum capacity was used to calculate a possible cutoff value for favorable urodynamic results. Urodynamic results were favorable in 48 patients and unfavorable in 12 patients. A DWT of 0.97 mm or less can safely (sensitivity 91.7 %, specificity 63.0 %) be used as a cutoff point for the absence of risk factors for renal damage. According to our results, DWT may be useful as an additional risk assessment for renal damage in patients with NLUTD due to SCI. However, as other parameters required for bladder management, especially detrusor overactivity, cannot be evaluated by this technique, it cannot replace urodynamic testing.

  4. Assessment of ascorbic acid stability in different multilayered parenteral nutrition bags: critical influence of the bag wall material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupertuis, Yves M; Ramseyer, Sihan; Fathi, Marc; Pichard, Claude

    2005-01-01

    The recent development of multilayered bags has minimized ascorbic acid oxidation in parenteral nutrition (PN) admixtures. However, the gas-barrier property of multilayered bags depends on their plastic material. This study compared ascorbic acid stability in different multilayered bags under experimental conditions. Oxygen permeability of a newly developed 6-layered bag (6-L) was compared with a highly mechanical-resistant 3-layered bag (3-L(R)) and a highly flexible 3-layered bag (3-L(F)) using gas chromatography. Ascorbic acid stability was assessed by iodine titration in bags filled with 2.5 L H(2)O and 40 g carbohydrates after setting residual O(2) content at or =5 ppm. The effect of storage at 4 degrees C, 21 degrees C, and 40 degrees C on ascorbic acid stability was assessed over 48 hours in a complete PN admixture (ie, 330 g carbohydrates, 100 g lipids, 96 g amino acids and trace elements) using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Oxygen permeability was markedly reduced in 6-L bags (0.5 mL O(2) /m(2)/d) compared with 3-L(R) (150 mL O(2) /m(2)/d) and 3-L(R) (1500 mL O(2)/m(2)/d). Accordingly, ascorbic acid was more stable in 6-L bags (half-life [T(1/2)] = 16 days up to 40 degrees C) than in 3-L(R) (T(1/2) = 9 days at 4 degrees C, 47 hours at 21 degrees C and 29 hours at 40 degrees C) and 3-L(F) (T(1/2) = 15 hours at 4 degrees C, 10 hours at 21 degrees C, and 6 hours at 40 degrees C). During the first 6 hours after PN admixture compounding, an additive ascorbic acid loss of 4.6 +/- 0.5 mg/L/ppm O(2) occurred because of residual O(2) in the bag. The new combination of plastic layers and careful O(2) monitoring during the filling process allowed near to complete prevention of ascorbic acid degradation in multilayered PN bags during 48 hours, regardless of the storage temperature.

  5. The Functional Movement Screen's Ability to Detect Changes in Movement Patterns After a Training Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minthorn, Lindsay M; Fayson, Shirleeah D; Stobierski, Lisa M; Welch, Cailee E; Anderson, Barton E

    2015-08-01

    Clinical Scenario: Appropriate movement patterns during sports and physical activities are important for both athletic performance and injury prevention. The assessment of movement dysfunction can assist clinicians in implementing appropriate rehabilitation programs after injury, as well as developing injury-prevention plans. No gold standard test exists for the evaluation of movement capacity; however, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) has been recommended as a tool to screen for movement-pattern limitations and side-to-side movement asymmetries. Limited research has suggested that movement limitations and asymmetries may be linked to increased risk for injury. While this line of research is continuing to evolve, the use of the FMS to measure movement capacity and the development of intervention programs to improve movement patterns has become popular. Recently, additional research examining changes in movement patterns after standardized intervention programs has emerged. Does an individualized training program improve movement patterns in adults who participate in high-intensity activities?

  6. The Comparison of School-Age Children's Performance on Two Motor Assessments: The Test of Gross Motor Development and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Morera, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Competence in the motor domain is associated with positive, health-related outcomes. Physical education teachers often administer assessments into their programs to measure motor competence for a variety of reasons. Recently, researchers have questioned the relatedness of performance on different assessments. Purpose: The purpose of…

  7. Inter-rater variability in motor function assessment in Parkinson's disease between experts in movement disorders and nurses specialising in PD management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Deus Fonticoba, T; Santos García, D; Macías Arribí, M

    2017-05-23

    In clinical practice, assessing patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex, time-consuming task. Our purpose is to provide a rigorous and objective evaluation of how motor function in PD patients is assessed by neurologists specialising in movement disorders, on the one hand, and by nurses specialising in PD management, on the other. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional, single-centre study of 50 patients with PD (52% men; mean age: 64.7 ± 8.7 years) who were assessed between 5 January 2016 and 20 July 2016. A neurologist and a nurse evaluated motor function in the early morning hours using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts III and IV and Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) scale. Tests were administered in the same PD periods (in 48 patients during the 'off' time and in 2 patients during the 'on' time). Inter-rater variability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Forty-nine patients (98%) were classified in the same H&Y stage by both raters. Assessment times were similar for both raters. ICC for UPDRS-IV and UPDRS-III total scores were 0.955 (P<.0001) and 0.954 (P<.0001), respectively. The greatest variability was found for UPDRS-III item 29 (gait; ICC=0.746; P<.0001) and the lowest, for item 30 (postural stability; ICC=0.918; P<.0001). Motor function assessment of PD patients by a trained nurse is equivalent to that made by an expert neurologist and takes the same time to complete. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing visual control during simulated and live operations: gathering evidence for the content validity of simulation using eye movement metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, Samuel J; McGrath, John S; Bright, Elizabeth; Dutton, Thomas; Clark, James; Wilson, Mark R

    2014-06-01

    Although virtual reality (VR) simulators serve an important role in the training and assessment of surgeons, they need to be evaluated for evidence of validity. Eye-tracking technology and measures of visual control have been used as an adjunct to the performance parameters produced by VR simulators to help in objectively establishing the construct validity (experts vs. novices) of VR simulators. However, determining the extent to which VR simulators represent the real procedure and environment (content validity) has largely been a subjective process undertaken by experienced surgeons. This study aimed to examine the content validity of a VR transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) simulator by comparing visual control metrics taken during simulated and real TURP procedures. Eye-tracking data were collected from seven surgeons performing 14 simulated TURP operations and three surgeons performing 15 real TURP operations on live patients. The data were analyzed offline, and visual control metrics (number and duration of fixations, percentage of time the surgeons fixated on the screen) were calculated. The surgeons displayed more fixations of a shorter duration and spent less time fixating on the video monitor during the real TURP than during the simulated TURP. This could have been due to (1) the increased complexity of the operating room (OR) environment (2) the decreased quality of the image of the urethra and associated anatomy (compared with the VR simulator), or (3) the impairment of visual attentional control due to the increased levels of stress likely experienced in the OR. The findings suggest that the complexity of the environment surrounding VR simulators needs to be considered in the design of effective simulated training curricula. The study also provides support for the use of eye-tracking technology to assess the content validity of simulation and to examine psychomotor processes during live operations.

  9. The digital evolution of occupy wall street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Michael D; Ferrara, Emilio; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  10. The digital evolution of occupy wall street.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Conover

    Full Text Available We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  11. Vibrotactile Vest and The Humming Wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Knoche, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Vibrotactile information can be used to elicit sensations and encourage particular user body movements. We designed a vibrotactile vest with physiological monitoring that interacts with a vibroacoustic urban environment, The Humming Wall. In this paper, we describe the first field trial with the ......, with a system designed to calm, activate, guide and warn the participants....

  12. Assessment of the dermal and ocular irritation potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by using in vitro and in vivo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, A Sairam; Surekha, P; Murthy, P Balakrishna

    2009-12-15

    In view of increase in the manufacture of various nanomaterials runs the risk of increased human exposure, in vitro screening will serve as a preliminary method to assess possible risk in animal studies. We attempted to know whether the validated in vitro alternative models established for chemicals, drugs, pesticides are suitable for nanomaterials, since these materials differ largely and may interfere with commonly used test systems. In vitro and in vivo studies on ocular and dermal irritation were carried out with two different sizes of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The results of acute eye irritation toxicity studies with two different sizes of MWCNT in rabbits demonstrated reversible conjunctival redness and discharge and exhibited minimal concern while acute dermal irritation studies indicated that MWCNT of two sizes were non-irritant to the skin of rabbits. Both the sizes of MWCNT revealed non-irritant result in HE-CAM test. In vitro skin (EPISKIN) irritation studies revealed that two sizes of MWCNT are non-irritant to skin. In conclusion this work purports, the future of alternative research lies in the validation of the methodology for nanomaterials.

  13. Social Movement Literature and U.S. Labour: A Reassessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Mann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Largely due to its conservative profile at the time, the U.S. labour movement was largely absent from modern social movement literature as it developed in response to the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s. Recent labour mobilizations such as the Wisconsin uprising and the Chicago Teachers’ strike have been part of the current international cycle of protest that includes the Arab Spring, the antiausterity movements in Greece and Spain, and Occupy Wall Street. These struggles suggest that a new labour movement is emerging that shares many common features with new social movements. This article offers a general analysis of these and other contemporary labour struggles in light of contemporary modern social movement literature. It also critically reviews assumptions about the labour movement of the 1960s and 1970s and reexamines several social movement concepts.

  14. Quantum-mechanical parameters for the risk assessment of multi-walled carbon-nanotubes: A study using adsorption of probe compounds and its application to biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayawan; Vikas

    2016-11-01

    This work forwards new insights into the risk-assessment of multi-walled carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs) while analysing the role of quantum-mechanical interactions between the electrons in the adsorption of probe compounds and biomolecules by MWCNTs. For this, the quantitative models are developed using quantum-chemical descriptors and their electron-correlation contribution. The major quantum-chemical factors contributing to the adsorption are found to be mean polarizability, electron-correlation energy, and electron-correlation contribution to the absolute electronegativity and LUMO energy. The proposed models, based on only three quantum-chemical factors, are found to be even more robust and predictive than the previously known five or four factors based linear free-energy and solvation-energy relationships. The proposed models are employed to predict the adsorption of biomolecules including steroid hormones and DNA bases. The steroid hormones are predicted to be strongly adsorbed by the MWCNTs, with the order: hydrocortisone > aldosterone > progesterone > ethinyl-oestradiol > testosterone > oestradiol, whereas the DNA bases are found to be relatively less adsorbed but follow the order as: guanine > adenine > thymine > cytosine > uracil. Besides these, the developed electron-correlation based models predict several insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, plasticizers and antimicrobial agents in cosmetics, to be strongly adsorbed by the carbon-nanotubes. The present study proposes that the instantaneous inter-electronic interactions may be quite significant in various physico-chemical processes involving MWCNTs, and can be used as a reliable predictor for their risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative Techniques for Assessing and Controlling the Dispersion and Biological Effects of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes in Mammalian Tissue Culture Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Xia, Tian; Ntim, Susana Addo; Ji, Zhaoxia; George, Saji; Meng, Huan; Zhang, Haiyuan; Castranova, Vincent; Mitra, Somenath; Nel, André E.

    2014-01-01

    In vivo studies have demonstrated that the state of dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNT) plays an important role in generating adverse pulmonary effects. However, little has been done to develop reproducible and quantifiable dispersion techniques to conduct mechanistic studies in vitro. This study was to evaluate the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in tissue culture media, with particular emphasis on understanding the forces that govern agglomeration and how to modify these forces. Quantitative techniques such as hydrophobicity index, suspension stability index, attachment efficiency and dynamic light scattering were used to assess the effects of agglomeration and dispersion of as-prepared (AP), purified (PD) or carboxylated (COOH) MWCNT on bronchial epithelial and fibroblast cell lines. We found that hydrophobicity is the major factor determining AP- and PD-MWCNT agglomeration in tissue culture media but that the ionic strength is the main factor determining COOH-MWCNT suspendability. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was an effective dispersant for MWCNT, providing steric and electrosteric hindrance that are capable of overcoming hydrophobic attachment and the electrostatic screening of double layer formation in ionic media. Thus, BSA was capable of stabilizing all tube versions. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) provided additional stability for AP-MWCNT in epithelial growth medium (BEGM). While dispersion state did not affect cytotoxicity, improved dispersion of AP- and PD-MWCNT increased TGF-β1 production in epithelial cells and fibroblast proliferation. In summary, we demonstrate how quantitative techniques can be used to assess the agglomeration state of MWCNT when conducting mechanistic studies on the effects of dispersion on tissue culture cells. PMID:21067152

  16. Hiding the tobacco power wall reduces cigarette smoking risk in adolescents: using an experimental convenience store to assess tobacco regulatory options at retail point-of-sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude M; Scharf, Deborah M; Kusuke, Daniela; Sicker, Angela; Gong, Min

    2015-11-23

    This experiment tested whether changing the location or visibility of the tobacco power wall in a life sized replica of a convenience store had any effect on adolescents' susceptibility to future cigarette smoking. The study was conducted in the RAND StoreLab (RSL), a life sized replica of a convenience store that was developed to experimentally evaluate how changing aspects of tobacco advertising displays in retail point-of-sale environments influences tobacco use risk and behaviour. A randomised, between-subjects experimental design with three conditions that varied the location or visibility of the tobacco power wall within the RSL was used. The conditions were: cashier (the tobacco power wall was located in its typical position behind the cash register counter); sidewall (the tobacco power wall was located on a sidewall away from the cash register); or hidden (the tobacco power wall was located behind the cashier but was hidden behind an opaque wall). The sample included 241 adolescents. Hiding the tobacco power wall significantly reduced adolescents' susceptibility to future cigarette smoking compared to leaving it exposed (ie, the cashier condition; p=0.02). Locating the tobacco power wall on a sidewall away from the cashier had no effect on future cigarette smoking susceptibility compared to the cashier condition (p=0.80). Hiding the tobacco power wall at retail point-of-sale locations is a strong regulatory option for reducing the impact of the retail environment on cigarette smoking risk in adolescents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Improvement of wall condensation modeling with suction wall functions for containment application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, Jan, E-mail: j.lehmkuhl@fz-juelich.de [RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Kelm, Stephan, E-mail: s.kelm@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany); Bucci, Matteo [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives, Paris (France); Allelein, Hans-Josef [RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of wall functions for single phase condensation models for large scale application. • Identification of modeling errors related to standard log-law due to buoyancy and wall normal mass transfer (suction). • Modeling of wall normal mass transfer by literature formulation (Sucec, 1999) and in-house approach (FIBULA). • Validation against isothermal Favre experimental data. • Comparison against reference fine grid solution for condensing conditions. - Abstract: To simulate wall condensation on containment scale with CFD methods at reasonable computational cost, a single phase approach has to be applied and wall functions have to be used. However, standard wall functions were derived for flows without heat and mass transfer and their fundamental simplifications are not appropriate to deal with condensation. This paper discusses the limitations of standard wall functions and proposes two wall functions for the momentum equation dealing with mass transfer normal to the sheared wall (suction). The first proposed suction wall function is an algebraic modification based on the standard wall function concept. The second proposed wall function is an in-house developed suction wall function with the potential to cover also heat and mass transfer effects by storing the complex solutions of the RANS-Equations in a lookup table. The wall function approaches are compared to experimental results for boundary layer flows with suction and to the reference results obtained using a refined grid in order to resolve the condensing boundary layer.

  18. Graphic representation of pharyngeal wall motion during swallow: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, O; Borgstrom, P S

    1989-01-01

    Movements of the pharyngeal wall were measured at 12 transverse levels, on consecutive cineradiograms obtained during swallowing of thin, liquid barium, in a single nondysphagic volunteer. By graphic representation of these measurements on the IBM personal computer, it was possible to analyze in detail pharyngeal motor activity in terms of displacement of the pharyngeal wall. The contraction created a fairly steep narrowing of the lumen. The peristaltic wave was more difficult to analyze. Movements of the pharyngeal wall in posteroanterior projection gave good information about the constrictors. Although this technique has several inherent methodologic difficulties, its use may expand our knowledge of pharyngeal peristalsis.

  19. Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition: Cross-cultural comparison between 11–15 year old children from the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Psotta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the exception of specific clinical methods, no widely used diagnostic tool for motor development assessment of children exists in the Czech Republic. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children – second edition (MABC-2 seems to be one the most developed instruments for children's motor coordination assessment. However, to use it in the Czech population of children in educational and psychological practice including physical education, the cross-validity of the test battery needs to be examined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to make a comparative analysis of performance in motor tasks of the MABC-2 measured in a Czech sample of 11–15 year old children and the United Kingdom (UK normative sample from which the norms of the MABC-2 were established. METHODS: The Czech sample of 11–15 year old children (total n = 589; 310 boys, 279 girls formed from a random selection of schools from all the geographical regions of the Czech Republic and all size categories of municipalities, was tested by the MABC-2. The results were compared to the performance of the UK normative sample of the same age (n = 344 reported in the MABC-2 Examiner's Manual by Henderson et al. (2007. For this comparative analysis, the effects size coefficient (d and the z-test were used. RESULTS: From three manual dexterity tests of the MABC-2, mean performance of the Czech sample in the Drawing trail test was shown to be significantly higher than the mean performance of the UK sample in all the age groups of both genders (d = 0.68–1.32; p CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that the MABC-2 is valid only for assessment of gross motor coordination in Czech children, but not for assessment of manual dexterity and balance. Before the use of this test battery for Czech children for both practical and research purposes, an adjustment of the norms is needed for the Drawing trail test, Two-board balance test and Zig-zag hopping test.

  20. Updated numerical model with uncertainty assessment of 1950-56 drought conditions on brackish-water movement within the Edwards aquifer, San Antonio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakefield, Linzy K.; White, Jeremy T.; Houston, Natalie A.; Thomas, Jonathan V.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, began a study to assess the brackish-water movement within the Edwards aquifer (more specifically the potential for brackish-water encroachment into wells near the interface between the freshwater and brackish-water transition zones, referred to in this report as the transition-zone interface) and effects on spring discharge at Comal and San Marcos Springs under drought conditions using a numerical model. The quantitative targets of this study are to predict the effects of higher-than-average groundwater withdrawals from wells and drought-of-record rainfall conditions of 1950–56 on (1) dissolved-solids concentration changes at production wells near the transition-zone interface, (2) total spring discharge at Comal and San Marcos Springs, and (3) the groundwater head (head) at Bexar County index well J-17. The predictions of interest, and the parameters implemented into the model, were evaluated to quantify their uncertainty so the results of the predictions could be presented in terms of a 95-percent credible interval.

  1. The influence of digital filter type, amplitude normalisation method, and co-contraction algorithm on clinically relevant surface electromyography data during clinical movement assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaprakash, Daniel; Weir, Gillian J; Dunne, James J; Alderson, Jacqueline A; Donnelly, Cyril J

    2016-12-01

    There is a large and growing body of surface electromyography (sEMG) research using laboratory-specific signal processing procedures (i.e., digital filter type and amplitude normalisation protocols) and data analyses methods (i.e., co-contraction algorithms) to acquire practically meaningful information from these data. As a result, the ability to compare sEMG results between studies is, and continues to be challenging. The aim of this study was to determine if digital filter type, amplitude normalisation method, and co-contraction algorithm could influence the practical or clinical interpretation of processed sEMG data. Sixteen elite female athletes were recruited. During data collection, sEMG data was recorded from nine lower limb muscles while completing a series of calibration and clinical movement assessment trials (running and sidestepping). Three analyses were conducted: (1) signal processing with two different digital filter types (Butterworth or critically damped), (2) three amplitude normalisation methods, and (3) three co-contraction ratio algorithms. Results showed the choice of digital filter did not influence the clinical interpretation of sEMG; however, choice of amplitude normalisation method and co-contraction algorithm did influence the clinical interpretation of the running and sidestepping task. Care is recommended when choosing amplitude normalisation method and co-contraction algorithms if researchers/clinicians are interested in comparing sEMG data between studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Construct Validity of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition Test in Preschool Children with Respect to Age and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition (MABC-2 Age Band 1 is widely used to identify preschoolers with motor difficulties. Despite unsatisfactory construct validity of the original three-factor model, MABC-2 (manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, previous research has not considered possible age and gender differences throughout the entire preschool period.AimThe aim of this study was to verify the construct validity of the MABC-2 Age Band 1 in a population of Czech preschoolers with respect to age and gender.MethodsUsing data from 510 Czech preschoolers (3–6 years; 4.9 ± 1.1 years, confirmatory factor analyses (CFA were used for each age category and gender.ResultsThe goodness-of-fit indices of CFA supported the original three-factor model of the MABC-2 only in 3- and 4-year-old children, and in boys (3–6 years. Low factor loadings and ceiling effects of several test items (Drawing Trail, Walking Heels Raised, and Jumping on Mats seem to be a probable cause of weak fit indices in 5- and 6-year-old children and in girls (3–6 years.ConclusionThese results suggest that the MABC-2 can be a valid tool for assessing motor development and identifying motor difficulties among 3- to 4-year olds, and generally fits better for preschool boys in the Czech Republic. However, in 5- to 6-year olds, ceiling effects and a low power of discrimination was found for the Drawing Trail, Walking Heels Raised, and Jumping on Mats tests. Therefore, the three-factor model is not appropriate for all preschoolers, and separate norms should be established for each age and gender.

  3. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  4. A full-scale experimental set-up for assessing the energy performance of radiant wall and active chilled beam for cooling buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    Full-scale experiments under both steady-state and dynamic conditions have been performed to compare the energy performance of a radiant wall and an active chilled beam. From these experiments, it has been observed that the radiant wall is a more secure and efficient way of removing heat from...... the test room than the active chilled beam. The energy saving, which can be estimated to around 10%, is due to increased ventilation losses. The asymmetry between air and radiant temperature, the air temperature gradient and the possible short-circuit between inlet and outlet play an equally important role...... in decreasing the cooling need of the radiant wall compared to the active chilled beam. It has also been observed that the type and repartition of heat load have an influence on the cooling demand. Regarding the comfort level, both terminals met the general requirements, except at high solar heat gains...

  5. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  6. Environmental assessment of insulation methods. Environmental data for insulation products and eco-profiles for light external walls; Miljoevurdering af isoleringsmetoder. Miljoedata for isoleringsprodukter og miljoeprofiler for lette ydervaegge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogh, K.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Nielsen, P.A.

    2001-07-01

    The project included selected insulation products like products made of cellulose fibres, flax fibres and perlite, which could all be used in external walls, internal walls, cavity walls and lofts. Up till now only products of mineral fibres were used. The aim of the project was to collect environmental data for selected products for the whole lifetime and to assess environmental impacts caused by the products. The total environmental impacts of a building element, e.g. external walla, were calculated from environmental data of the products. The impacts could be shown in a diagram, eco-profiles, which also showed contributions of the materials to the total impacts. The calculations used the principles of life cycle assessment (LCA), but today LCA does not include health aspects in the indoor climate or environmental health aspects caused by disposal processes. Therefore, this project included qualitative assessments for these two life cycle phases. The project did not treat impacts in the working environment as these health aspects are covered by other projects (COWI, 2000 and Engelund et al., 1999). (au)

  7. The movement ecology of the straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, in sub-Saharan Africa assessed by stable isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Gonzalo; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Peel, Alison J; Scharf, Anne K; Voigt, Christian C

    2012-01-01

    Flying foxes (Pteropodidae) are key seed dispersers on the African continent, yet their migratory behavior is largely unknown. Here, we studied the movement ecology of the straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, and other fruit bats by analyzing stable isotope ratios in fur collected from museum specimens. In a triple-isotope approach based on samples of two ecologically similar non-migratory pteropodids, we first confirmed that a stable isotope approach is capable of delineating between geographically distinct locations in Sub-Saharan Africa. A discriminant function analysis assigned 84% of individuals correctly to their capture site. Further, we assessed how well hydrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(2)H) of fur keratin collected from non-migratory species (n = 191 individuals) records variation in δ(2)H of precipitation water in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, we found positive, negative and no correlations within the six studied species. We then developed a reduced major axis regression equation based on individual data of non-migratory species to predict where potentially migratory E. helvum (n = 88) would come from based on their keratin δ(2)H. Across non-migratory species, δ(2)H of keratin and local water correlated positively. Based on the isoscape origin model, 22% of E. helvum were migratory, i.e. individuals had migrated over at least 250 km prior to their capture. Migratory individuals came from locations at a median distance of about 860 km from the collection site, four even from distances of at least 2,000 km. Ground-truthing of our isoscape origin model based on keratin δ(2)H of extant E. helvum (n = 76) supported a high predictive power of assigning the provenance of African flying foxes. Our study highlights that stable isotope ratios can be used to explain the migratory behavior of flying foxes, even on the isotopically relatively homogenous African continent, and with material collected by museums many decades or more than a century ago.

  8. Assessing the utility of the Movement Disorder Society Task Force Level 1 diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Jennifer Y Y; Mowszowski, Loren; Gilat, Moran; Walton, Courtney C; Naismith, Sharon L; Lewis, Simon J G

    2015-01-01

    Using the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Task Force Level 1 criteria, this study examined the classification of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's Disease (PD-MCI) derived from a range of cut-off scores that have previously been suggested by the MDS Task Force. Furthermore, differences in PD-MCI frequencies were examined when comparing performance on current neuropsychological testing to the normative sample, as opposed to decline from premorbid functioning, as evidence of cognitive impairment. Two hundred and thirty-four non-demented PD patients underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment at the Parkinson's Disease Research Clinic at the Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney. When cognitive impairment was defined as 1SD and 1.5SD below premorbid intellect, 109 patients (47%) and 76 (32%) patients met criteria for PD-MCI respectively. This proportion dropped considerably to 50 patients (21%) with a 2SD cut-off score. However, when calculating impairment based on comparisons with normative data, only 68 patients (29%) and 41 patients (18%) met PD-MCI criteria when a cut-off score of 1 and 1.5SD was employed. This proportion dropped to just 22 patients (9%) with a 2SD cut-off score. Results from the present study suggest that the MDS PD-MCI criteria may be too broad, as substantial differences in frequencies of PD-MCI were observed with the application of differing criteria. We propose that a 1.5SD cut-off score below premorbid functioning may provide greater utility in characterizing PD-MCI than a 1.5SD cut-off below normative data, which has been widely applied in previous studies examining the MDS PD-MCI criteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The movement ecology of the straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, in sub-Saharan Africa assessed by stable isotope ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Ossa

    Full Text Available Flying foxes (Pteropodidae are key seed dispersers on the African continent, yet their migratory behavior is largely unknown. Here, we studied the movement ecology of the straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, and other fruit bats by analyzing stable isotope ratios in fur collected from museum specimens. In a triple-isotope approach based on samples of two ecologically similar non-migratory pteropodids, we first confirmed that a stable isotope approach is capable of delineating between geographically distinct locations in Sub-Saharan Africa. A discriminant function analysis assigned 84% of individuals correctly to their capture site. Further, we assessed how well hydrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(2H of fur keratin collected from non-migratory species (n = 191 individuals records variation in δ(2H of precipitation water in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, we found positive, negative and no correlations within the six studied species. We then developed a reduced major axis regression equation based on individual data of non-migratory species to predict where potentially migratory E. helvum (n = 88 would come from based on their keratin δ(2H. Across non-migratory species, δ(2H of keratin and local water correlated positively. Based on the isoscape origin model, 22% of E. helvum were migratory, i.e. individuals had migrated over at least 250 km prior to their capture. Migratory individuals came from locations at a median distance of about 860 km from the collection site, four even from distances of at least 2,000 km. Ground-truthing of our isoscape origin model based on keratin δ(2H of extant E. helvum (n = 76 supported a high predictive power of assigning the provenance of African flying foxes. Our study highlights that stable isotope ratios can be used to explain the migratory behavior of flying foxes, even on the isotopically relatively homogenous African continent, and with material collected by museums many decades or more than a century ago.

  10. Nano-risk Science: application of toxicogenomics in an adverse outcome pathway framework for risk assessment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Sarah; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L; Nikota, Jake K; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla; Halappanavar, Sabina

    2016-03-15

    A diverse class of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) exhibiting a wide array of physical-chemical properties that are associated with toxicological effects in experimental animals is in commercial use. However, an integrated framework for human health risk assessment (HHRA) of ENMs has yet to be established. Rodent 2-year cancer bioassays, clinical chemistry, and histopathological endpoints are still considered the 'gold standard' for detecting substance-induced toxicity in animal models. However, the use of data derived from alternative toxicological tools, such as genome-wide expression profiling and in vitro high-throughput assays, are gaining acceptance by the regulatory community for hazard identification and for understanding the underlying mode-of-action. Here, we conducted a case study to evaluate the application of global gene expression data in deriving pathway-based points of departure (PODs) for multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-induced lung fibrosis, a non-cancer endpoint of regulatory importance. Gene expression profiles from the lungs of mice exposed to three individual MWCNTs with different physical-chemical properties were used within the framework of an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for lung fibrosis to identify key biological events linking MWCNT exposure to lung fibrosis. Significantly perturbed pathways were categorized along the key events described in the AOP. Benchmark doses (BMDs) were calculated for each perturbed pathway and were used to derive transcriptional BMDs for each MWCNT. Similar biological pathways were perturbed by the different MWCNT types across the doses and post-exposure time points studied. The pathway BMD values showed a time-dependent trend, with lower BMDs for pathways perturbed at the earlier post-exposure time points (24 h, 3d). The transcriptional BMDs were compared to the apical BMDs derived by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) using alveolar septal thickness and fibrotic lesions

  11. Charged Domain Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Campanelli, L.; Cea, P.; Fogli, G. L.; Tedesco, L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate Charged Domain Walls (CDW's), topological defects that acquire surface charge density $Q$ induced by fermion states localized on the walls. The presence of an electric and magnetic field on the walls is also discussed. We find a relation in which the value of the surface charge density $Q$ is connected with the existence of such topological defects.

  12. Nano-risk Science: application of toxicogenomics in an adverse outcome pathway framework for risk assessment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labib, Sarah; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    -based points of departure (PODs) for multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-induced lung fibrosis, a non-cancer endpoint of regulatory importance. Methods: Gene expression profiles from the lungs of mice exposed to three individual MWCNTs with different physical-chemical properties were used within the framework...... to nanomaterials in product development when epidemiological data are unavailable....

  13. Simultaneous measurement of instantaneous heart rate and chest wall plethysmography in short-term, metronome guided heart rate variability studies: suitability for assessment of autonomic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perring, S; Jones, E

    2003-08-01

    Instantaneous heart rate and chest wall motion were measured using a 3-lead ECG and an air pressure chest wall plethysmography system. Chest wall plethysmography traces were found to accurately represent the breathing pattern as measured by spirometry (average correlation coefficient 0.944); though no attempt was made to calibrate plethysmography voltage output to tidal volume. Simultaneous measurements of heart rate and chest wall motion were made for short periods under metronome guided breathing at 6 breaths per minute. The average peak to trough heart rate change per breath cycle (AVEMAX) and maximum correlation between heart rate and breathing cycle (HRBRCORR) were measured. Studies of 44 normal volunteers indicated clear inverse correlation of heart rate variability parameters with age (AVEMAX R = -0.502, P heart rate variability in diabetics (P = 0.005 for AVEMAX) and significantly worse correlation between heart rate and breathing (P measurement of heart rate and breathing offers the possibility of more sensitive diagnosis of autonomic failure in a simple bedside test and gives further insight into the nature of cardio-ventilatory coupling.

  14. The Effect of Spatial and Temporal Resolution of Cine Phase Contrast MRI on Wall Shear Stress and Oscillatory Shear Index Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cibis, Merih; Potters, Wouter V.; Gijsen, Frank J.; Marquering, Henk; van Ooij, Pim; VanBavel, Ed; Wentzel, Jolanda J.; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) are associated with atherosclerotic disease. Both parameters are derived from blood velocities, which can be measured with phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI). Limitations in spatiotemporal resolution of PC-MRI are known to affect these

  15. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Interdisciplinary Dentofacial Therapy: An American Academy of Periodontology Best Evidence Review Focusing on Risk Assessment of the Dentoalveolar Bone Changes Influenced by Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelaris, George A; Neiva, Rodrigo; Chambrone, Leandro

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate whether cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging can be used to assess dentoalveolar anatomy critical to the periodontist when determining risk assessment for patients undergoing orthodontic therapy using fixed or removable appliances. Both observational and interventional trials reporting on the use of CBCT imaging assessing the impact of orthodontic/dentofacial orthopedic treatment on periodontal tissues (i.e., alveolar bone) were included. Changes in the alveolar bone thickness and height around natural teeth as well as treatment costs were evaluated. MEDLINE (via PubMed) and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published in the English language, up to and including July 2016, and extracted data were organized into evidence tables. Thirteen studies were included in this systematic review describing the positive or deleterious changes on the alveolar bone surrounding natural teeth undergoing orthodontic tooth movement or influenced by orthopedic forces through fixed appliances. Clinical recommendation summaries presenting the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence in terms of benefits and harms were generated. CBCT imaging can improve the periodontal diagnostic acumen regarding alveolar bone alterations influenced by orthodontic tooth movement and can help determine risk assessment prior to such intervention. Clinicians are also better informed to determine risk assessment and develop preventative or plan interceptive periodontal augmentation (soft tissue and/or bone augmentation) therapies for patients undergoing orthodontic tooth movement. These considerations are recognized as being especially critical for treatment approaches in patients where buccal tooth movement (expansion) is planned in the anterior mandible or involving the maxillary premolars.

  16. Occupy Wall Street, the Global Crisis, and Antisystemic Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reifer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ancient discussion about the purposes of wealth and the conflict between oligarchy- rule of the rich - and democracy- the rule of the demos/the people comes to the fore once again within the current systemic crisis, from the Arab Spring to the Occupy protests, to the Arab Fall. Even as counterrevolution and growing regional and global turbulence - political, economic and military - appear to be triumphing over the new wave of democratic revolutions and rebellions, at least in the Arab world, with the threat of regional and global conflagration all too real, the underlying structural causes reality of a militarized capitalist world-system in deep crisis will ensure continued waves of antisystemic protests for years to come.

  17. The State of the GeoWall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P. J.; Leigh, J.; van Keken, P.; Johnson, A.

    2003-12-01

    The GeoWall stereo projection technology has been widely adopted within Earth Science. Over 20,000 undergraduate students per year use a GeoWall in classroom and lab settings at over 80 institutions around the world using over 200 GeoWalls. We believe that critical mass for this technology has been reached in the Earth Science. Many collaborations have been initiated. With Iris, GeoWall is exploring new ways to monitor seismic networks in real-time and to visualize extremely large, whole Earth seismic simulations. We are also working with a number of drilling organizations including JOI, DOSECC and LacCore to bring modern visualization technology to core interpretation and drill site selection. Also, over 15 museums now have or are building GeoWalls for informal education. Much of the science that is being performed on the GeoWall is finding its way directly into the classroom and science museum. One of the success stories has been the GeoWall Consortium's interaction with industry. The basic hardware for the GeoWall has been spun off to companies that now sell variations of the hardware. In addition, many software companies including ESRI and Dynamic Graphics have added support for the GeoWall in their products. The future of GeoWall is four fold. Curriculum development will bring more material to all GeoWall users. Assessment of the curriculum and educational psychology will give us GeoWall best practices. In technology development, the GeoWall 2 is a 20+ million pixel, tiled display which brings more resolution to the Earth Sciences than ever. To support research the consortium is developing a volume rendering application to visualize extremely large datasets.

  18. Occupy Wall Street: From Representation to Post-Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tormey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trying to assess something as recent and dynamic as Occupy Wall Street (OWS presents problems for political analysts. There is always a danger that by the time one has written in judgement the event-movement will have morphed into something quite different. For this reason alone we need to be careful about offering too definitive a judgment on what it represents, about what we think is new in the phenomenon as well as what we think presents linkages to the past. On the one hand, OWS is still in the process of becoming-something . On the other hand, though, we can see the outline of more or less familiar characteristics that might help orientate us towards something that is being greeted as a new departure.

  19. Assessment of arterial wall enhancement for differentiation of parent artery disease from small artery disease: Comparison between histogram analysis and visual analysis on 3 dimensional contrast-enhanced T1-weighted turbo spin echo MR images at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Hwang, Eo Jin; Choi, Hyun Seok; Koo, Ja Seung; Shin, Yong Sam; Jung, So Lyung; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Bum Soo [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the histogram analysis and visual scores in 3T MRI assessment of middle cerebral arterial wall enhancement in patients with acute stroke, for the differentiation of parent artery disease (PAD) from small artery disease (SAD). Among the 82 consecutive patients in a tertiary hospital for one year, 25 patients with acute infarcts in middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were included in this study including 15 patients with PAD and 10 patients with SAD. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced T1-weighted turbo spin echo MR images with black-blood preparation at 3T were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The degree of MCA stenosis, and visual and histogram assessments on MCA wall enhancement were evaluated. A statistical analysis was performed to compare diagnostic accuracy between qualitative and quantitative metrics. The degree of stenosis, visual enhancement score, geometric mean (GM), and the 90th percentile (90P) value from the histogram analysis were significantly higher in PAD than in SAD (p = 0.006 for stenosis, < 0.001 for others). The receiver operating characteristic curve area of GM and 90P were 1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86-1.00). A histogram analysis of a relevant arterial wall enhancement allows differentiation between PAD and SAD in patients with acute stroke within the MCA territory.

  20. Structure and mechanics of starfish body wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P

    1989-11-01

    The structure of the dorsal body wall of the starfish Echinaster spinulosus was studied using polarized light microscopy of frozen tissues, scanning electron microscopy and histology. The collagen fibres of the body wall form a three-dimensional orthogonal web. Voids in the web contain ossicles and papulae. The orthogonal web delivers dimensional stability but allows shear necessary for ray torsion. The ossicles and fibres interact to load the fibres in tension and the ossicles in compression. Strain rates of the dorsal body wall were measured on live animals during typical movements. Uniaxial tension tests of the body wall yielded Young's moduli of 267 MPa (longitudinal), 249 MPa (transverse) and 353 MPa (bias); curves were essentially linear. The body wall was approximately linearly viscoelastic and showed hysteresis at 0.01 Hz. Stress relaxation over five decades of time (in seconds) yielded relaxation spectra with peaks in relaxation time at 2.96-3.35, depending on test direction. Stress relaxation caused the connective tissue to soften. The surface of fractured stress-relaxed tissue revealed wispy, dissociated fibril tufts, whereas unrelaxed fractures produced blunt-ended fibre bundles. Neural control was necessary for body wall integrity.

  1. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  2. Wall-based measurement features provides an improved IVUS coronary artery risk assessment when fused with plaque texture-based features during machine learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchhor, Sumit K; Londhe, Narendra D; Araki, Tadashi; Saba, Luca; Radeva, Petia; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2017-12-01

    Planning of percutaneous interventional procedures involves a pre-screening and risk stratification of the coronary artery disease. Current screening tools use stand-alone plaque texture-based features and therefore lack the ability to stratify the risk. This IRB approved study presents a novel strategy for coronary artery disease risk stratification using an amalgamation of IVUS plaque texture-based and wall-based measurement features. Due to common genetic plaque makeup, carotid plaque burden was chosen as a gold standard for risk labels during training-phase of machine learning (ML) paradigm. Cross-validation protocol was adopted to compute the accuracy of the ML framework. A set of 59 plaque texture-based features was padded with six wall-based measurement features to show the improvement in stratification accuracy. The ML system was executed using principle component analysis-based framework for dimensionality reduction and uses support vector machine classifier for training and testing-phases. The ML system produced a stratification accuracy of 91.28%, demonstrating an improvement of 5.69% when wall-based measurement features were combined with plaque texture-based features. The fused system showed an improvement in mean sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and area under the curve by: 6.39%, 4.59%, 3.31% and 5.48%, respectively when compared to the stand-alone system. While meeting the stability criteria of 5%, the ML system also showed a high average feature retaining power and mean reliability of 89.32% and 98.24%, respectively. The ML system showed an improvement in risk stratification accuracy when the wall-based measurement features were fused with the plaque texture-based features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preliminary intraobserver and interobserver variability in wall stress and rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms using a semiautomatic finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutelink, Arno; Cancrinus, Ernst; van de Heuvel, Danyel; Moll, Frans; de Vries, Jean-Paul

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the intraobserver and interobserver variability of using semiautomatic finite element analysis to calculate the von Mises stress and peak wall rupture risk (PWRR) in patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in longitudinal studies. Four independent observers made 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, with minimal manual adjustments, of small AAAs (method was used to calculate von Mises stress and PWRR, which are indicators for wall stress. The differences of each pair of measurements of von Mises stress and PWRR were plotted against their mean and the difference of the mean, according to Bland-Altman analysis. The intraobserver variability had an overall mean percentage difference of 6.86% ± 6.46% for the von Mises stress and 7.70% ± 6.26% for PWRR. The interobserver variability for the four observers showed an overall mean percentage difference of 7.09% ± 6.16% for the von Mises stress and 9.47% ± 8.18% for the PWRR measurement. No significant differences were found (P calculated in this semiautomatic finite element analysis program show good interobserver and intraobserver variability. It is suitable for clinical use to evaluate mechanical aortic wall characteristics and to compare it with other current methods such as maximum aortic diameter measurements. Copyright © 2012 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictive value of General Movement Assessment for preterm infants' development at 2 years - implementation in clinical routine in a non-academic setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bock, Freia; Will, Heike; Behrenbeck, Ulrike; Jarczok, Marc N.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Philippi, Heike

    Background: General movements (GM) are used in academic settings to predict developmental outcome in infants born preterm. However, little is known about the implementation and predictive value of GM in non-academic settings. Aims: The aim of this study is twofold: To document the implementation of

  5. The validity of assessing temporal events, sub-phases and trunk kinematics of the sit-to-walk movement in older adults using a single inertial sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walgaard, S.; Faber, G.S.; van Lummel, R.; van Dieen, J.H.; Kingma, I.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to identify temporal events, sub-phases and trunk kinematics of the sit-to-walk (STW) using a single inertial sensor (IS) worn at the lower back and to determine the validity of this method. Twenty-seven healthy older adults performed a STW movement,

  6. [Difference of body movements accompanying mandibular movements in standing and sitting positions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Satoshi; Kohno, Shoji; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Naoki; Hosogai, Akiko; Kinjoh, Atsushi; Kai, Asako

    2008-10-01

    To assess whether body movement accompanying jaw movement exists even in sitting position, and, if so, to investigate differences of body movements in the sitting and standing positions. The subjects were six men (age, 25-29 years, mean, 27.0 years) without stomatognathic problems. During the measurements, their Camper's planes were kept horizontal. One measurement sequence consisted of 20 s of tapping preceded and followed by 10 s of intercuspation. Mandibular movements (lower incisor point) were measured by referring to a coordinate system located on the maxilla, and head movements (upper incisor, condyle, etc) with TRIMETII (Tokyo Sizaisya) and body movements (sternum point) in sagittal plane were measured by referring to a coordinate system located on the floor with Proreflex (Qualisys). Body movements accompanying jaw movements were detected even in sitting position. The ratio of body movements to jaw movements was significantly larger in standing position than in sitting position using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. Peak power of body movement at corresponding frequency to the open-close movement was significantly larger in standing position than in sitting position using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. On the other hand, there was no difference between sitting and standing position in probability of body movement detection by the original wave analysis using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signedrank test. Body movements accompanying jaw movements were detected even in sitting position, and were smaller than in standing position. However, the probability of movements detected in original wave had no difference between the positions. Thus we concluded that we can analyze body movements during mastication in natural sitting position.

  7. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  8. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  9. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  10. Tools to Understand Structural Property Relationships for Wood Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Jakes; Daniel J. Yelle; Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    Understanding structure-property relationships for wood cell walls has been hindered by the complex polymeric structures comprising these cell walls and the difficulty in assessing meaningful mechanical property measurements of individual cell walls. To help overcome these hindrances, we have developed two experimental methods: 1) two-dimensional solution state nuclear...

  11. Green walls in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical

  12. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  13. Linking Literacy and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  14. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  15. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  16. Movement sequencing in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Long, Jeffrey D; Lourens, Spencer G; Stout, Julie C; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2014-08-01

    To examine longitudinal changes in movement sequencing in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD) participants (795 prodromal HD; 225 controls) from the PREDICT-HD study. Prodromal HD participants were tested over seven annual visits and were stratified into three groups (low, medium, high) based on their CAG-Age Product (CAP) score, which indicates likely increasing proximity to diagnosis. A cued movement sequence task assessed the impact of advance cueing on response initiation and execution via three levels of advance information. Compared to controls, all CAP groups showed longer initiation and movement times across all conditions at baseline, demonstrating a disease gradient for the majority of outcomes. Across all conditions, the high CAP group had the highest mean for baseline testing, but also demonstrated an increase in movement time across the study. For initiation time, the high CAP group showed the highest mean baseline time across all conditions, but also faster decreasing rates of change over time. With progress to diagnosis, participants may increasingly use compensatory strategies, as evidenced by faster initiation. However, this occurred in conjunction with slowed execution times, suggesting a decline in effectively accessing control processes required to translate movement into effective execution.

  17. Assessment of yeast cell wall as replacements for antibiotic growth promoters in broiler diets: effects on performance, intestinal histo-morphology and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, T K; Haldar, S; Bedford, M R; Muthusami, N; Samanta, I

    2012-04-01

    The study compared the effects of an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and yeast cell wall (YCW) on performance, microbiology and histo-morphology of the small intestine and humoral immune responses in Ross 308 broilers. The treatments (eight replicates/treatment, n = 12/replicate) were negative control (NC, without AGP), positive control (PC, supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate, 400 mg/kg), Y and YCW (supplemented with yeast and YCW, respectively, 1000 mg/kg). Live weight at 42 days improved (p = 0.086) in the PC, Y and YCW groups. Feed conversion ratio was better (p = 0.039) in the YCW group compared with the other groups. Antibiotic growth promoter in the PC group shortened the villi in duodenum (p = 0.044). Mucosal Escherichia coli number was higher in the PC group (p < 0.001), whereas in the digesta E. coli number was lower (p = 0.001) in the PC, Y and YCW groups in relation to the NC. Mucosal Salmonella populations increased (p = 0.0001) in the PC group, whereas in the digesta, all treatments reduced the Salmonella (p = 0.0001). Following oral challenge with Salmonella pullorum, YCW increased E. coli numbers on the mucosa (p < 0.001) whereas in the digesta the Y group had lower (p < 0.0001) number of E. coli. In the digesta, Salmonella count was lower in the YCW group compared with the other treatments (p < 0.01). Yeast cell wall -treated birds exhibited better (p < 0.05) humoral immune response against Newcastle disease which was far more persistent over time than in any other treatments. It was concluded that the yeast and the yeast cell wall may have effects identical to BMD on performance of broilers and thus may constitute an effective replacement strategy in the dietary regimens for broiler chickens. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Evaluation of superporous hydrogel (SPH) and SPH composite in porcine intestine ex-vivo: assessment of drug transport, morphology effect, and mechanical fixation to intestinal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkoosh, Farid A; Borchard, Gerrit; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza; Verhoef, J Coos; Junginger, Hans E

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of superporous hydrogel (SPH) and SPH composite (SPHC) polymers to enhance the transport of N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethylester (BAEE) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4400 (FD4) across porcine intestinal epithelium ex-vivo, and to study any possible morphological damage to the epithelium by applying these polymers. In addition, the ability of these polymers to attach to the gut wall by mechanical pressure was examined by using a specifically designed centrifuge model. The transport of BAEE and FD4 across the intestinal mucosa was enhanced 2- to 3-fold by applying SPHC polymer in comparison to negative control. No significant morphological damage was observed by applying these polymers inside the intestinal lumen. Moreover, the SPH and SPHC polymers were able to attach mechanically to the intestinal wall by swelling and did not move in the intestinal lumen even when a horizontal force of 13 gms(-2) was applied. In conclusion, these polymers are appropriate vehicles for enhancing the intestinal absorption of peptide and protein drugs.

  19. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  20. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  1. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...

  2. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  3. Lifetime assessment of thick-walled components made of nickel-base alloys under near-service loading conditions; Lebensdauerbewertung dickwandiger Bauteile aus Nickelbasislegierungen unter betriebsnahen Beanspruchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueggenberg, Daniel

    2015-11-06

    Until 2050 the renewable energies should provide 80% of the power in Germany according to Renewable Energy law. Due to that reason the conventional power plants are not used for base load, but rather for the supply of average and peak load. The change of the operating mode leads to shorter times at stationary temperatures and the number of faster start-ups/shut-downs of the power plants will increase. As a result of this the components are exposed to an interacting load of creep and fatigue which reduces the lifetimes. The aim of this thesis is the development and verification of a lifetime assessment procedure for components made of the nickel-base alloys Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 under creep fatigue loading conditions based on numerical phenomenological models and on the approaches of different standards/recommendations. The focus lies on two components of the high temperature material test rig II (HWT II), a header made of Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 as well as a formed part made of Alloy 617 mod. For the basis characterization of the HWT II melts, specimens of the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 are tested in uniaxial tensile tests, (creep-)fatigue tests, creep tests and charpy tests in a temperature range between 20 C and 725 C. From the comparisons of the test results and the material specifications respectively the results of the projects COORETEC DE4, MARCKO DE2 and MARCKO700 no deviations were obvious for both materials with the exception of the creep test results with Alloy 617 mod. material. The creep tests with Alloy 617 mod. material of the HWT II melt show differences regarding the deformation and damage behavior. In addition to the basis characterization tests some complex lab tests for the characterization of the material behavior under creep-fatigue and multiaxial loading conditions were conducted. The developments of the microstructure, the precipitations as well as the structure of dislocations are investigated in the light optical microscope

  4. Plant nuclear photorelocation movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Takeshi; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Wada, Masamitsu

    2014-06-01

    Organelle movement and positioning are essential for proper cellular function. A nucleus moves dynamically during cell division and differentiation and in response to environmental changes in animal, fungal, and plant cells. Nuclear movement is well-studied and the mechanisms have been mostly elucidated in animal and fungal cells, but not in plant cells. In prothallial cells of the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and leaf cells of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, light induces nuclear movement and nuclei change their position according to wavelength, intensity, and direction of light. This nuclear photorelocation movement shows some common features with the photorelocation movement of chloroplasts, which is one of the best-characterized plant organelle movements. This review summarizes nuclear movement and positioning in plant cells, especially plant-specific nuclear photorelocation movement and discusses the relationship between nuclear photorelocation movement and chloroplast photorelocation movement. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Solar Walls in tsbi3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building....... This version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....

  6. Assessment of Arterial Wall Enhancement for Differentiation of Parent Artery Disease from Small Artery Disease: Comparison between Histogram Analysis and Visual Analysis on 3-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced T1-Weighted Turbo Spin Echo MR Images at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jinhee; Kim, Tae-Won; Hwang, Eo-Jin; Choi, Hyun Seok; Koo, Jaseong; Shin, Yong Sam; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-Soo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the histogram analysis and visual scores in 3T MRI assessment of middle cerebral arterial wall enhancement in patients with acute stroke, for the differentiation of parent artery disease (PAD) from small artery disease (SAD). Among the 82 consecutive patients in a tertiary hospital for one year, 25 patients with acute infarcts in middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were included in this study including 15 patients with PAD and 10 patients with SAD. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced T1-weighted turbo spin echo MR images with black-blood preparation at 3T were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The degree of MCA stenosis, and visual and histogram assessments on MCA wall enhancement were evaluated. A statistical analysis was performed to compare diagnostic accuracy between qualitative and quantitative metrics. The degree of stenosis, visual enhancement score, geometric mean (GM), and the 90th percentile (90P) value from the histogram analysis were significantly higher in PAD than in SAD (p = 0.006 for stenosis, enhancement allows differentiation between PAD and SAD in patients with acute stroke within the MCA territory.

  7. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD.

  8. HVI Ballistic Performance Characterization of Non-Parallel Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, William; Miller, Joshua; Christiansen, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The Double-Wall, "Whipple" Shield [1] has been the subject of many hypervelocity impact studies and has proven to be an effective shield system for Micro-Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) impacts for spacecraft. The US modules of the International Space Station (ISS), with their "bumper shields" offset from their pressure holding rear walls provide good examples of effective on-orbit use of the double wall shield. The concentric cylinder shield configuration with its large radius of curvature relative to separation distance is easily and effectively represented for testing and analysis as a system of two parallel plates. The parallel plate double wall configuration has been heavily tested and characterized for shield performance for normal and oblique impacts for the ISS and other programs. The double wall shield and principally similar Stuffed Whipple Shield are very common shield types for MMOD protection. However, in some locations with many spacecraft designs, the rear wall cannot be modeled as being parallel or concentric with the outer bumper wall. As represented in Figure 1, there is an included angle between the two walls. And, with a cylindrical outer wall, the effective included angle constantly changes. This complicates assessment of critical spacecraft components located within outer spacecraft walls when using software tools such as NASA's BumperII. In addition, the validity of the risk assessment comes into question when using the standard double wall shield equations, especially since verification testing of every set of double wall included angles is impossible.

  9. Integrating Building Functions into Massive External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hisham Hafez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Well into the twentieth century, brick and stone were the materials used. Bricklaying and stonemasonry were the construction technologies employed for the exterior walls of virtually all major structures. However, with the rise in quality of life, the massive walls alone became incapable of fulfilling all the developed needs. Adjacent systems and layers had then to be attached to the massive layer. Nowadays, the external wall is usually composed of a layered construction. Each external wall function is usually represented by a separate layer or system. The massive layer of the wall is usually responsible for the load-bearing function. Traditional massive external walls vary in terms of their external appearance, their composition and attached layers. However, their design and construction process is usually a repeated process. It is a linear process where each discipline is concerned with a separate layer or system. These disciplines usually take their tasks away and bring them back to be re-integrated in a layered manner. New massive technologies with additional function have recently become available. Such technologies can provide the external wall with other functions in addition to its load-bearing function. The purpose of this research is to map the changes required to the traditional design and construction process when massive technologies with additional function are applied in external walls. Moreover, the research aims at assessing the performance of massive solutions with additional function when compared to traditional solutions in two different contexts, the Netherlands and Egypt. Through the analysis of different additional function technologies in external walls, a guidance scheme for different stakeholders is generated. It shows the expected process changes as related to the product level and customization level. Moreover, the research concludes that the performance of additional insulating technologies, and specifically

  10. Risk factors for Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in cattle in the United Kingdom: A farm-level case-control study and assessment of the role of movement history, age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, L R; Prakashbabu, B Chengat; Ferreira, J Pinto; Buzdugan, S N; Stärk, K D C; Guitian, J

    2016-12-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by Taenia saginata cysticercus, the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Recent European initiatives have highlighted the poor sensitivity of current surveillance for this parasite in cattle at slaughter; calling for more targeted, risk based and cost effective methods of T. saginata cysticercus detection. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that could inform such improved meat inspection activities in the United Kingdom (UK). The study included three components: (i) a farm-level case control study; (ii) the characterization of the network of movements of T. saginata cysticercus infected and non-infected animals, and an assessment of the strength of association between having passed through a farm that had previously originated an infected animal and the risk of infection; (iii) the assessment of the relationship between bovine age and gender and risk of infection. Abattoir records and cattle movement history data were used to identify farms of likely acquisition of infection (case farms) and a suitable control group. A questionnaire was used to gather farm-level characteristics and logistic regression was carried out to identify farm-level risk factors for the production of cattle found to be infected at slaughter. The case-control study provided evidence that farms situated close to a permanent potential source of human faecal contamination, and farms which used manure from animals other than cattle, were at higher risk of producing cattle later found to be infected with T. saginata cysticercus at slaughter. No other farm characteristics were identified as a risk factor for this. Analysis of the networks of animal movements showed that some individual farms played a key role as a source of T. saginata cysticercus infection; it was estimated that cattle with a history of being on a farm which previously appeared in the movement history of an infected animal were 4.27 times (Psaginata cysticercus infection at

  11. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... is reduced. To investigate the possibilities, full-size wall elements with wooden cladding and different cavity design, type of cladding and type of wind barrier were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. During the exposure period parts of the vapour barrier...

  12. The mathematics of movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  13. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  14. Assessment of natural radioactivity in wall paints of commercial use in Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em tintas de uso comercial no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Leandro Milhomens da

    2016-11-01

    Natural radioactivity in soils, rocks and construction materials, due to {sup 40}K and the natural series of {sup 232}Th and {sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, is the main contribution to external exposure in mankind. In this work, activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra ({sup 238}U series), {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K were determined for 50 white latex wall paints samples, commercialized in Brazil, namely 15 Economic quality samples, 15 Standard quality samples and 20 Premium quality samples and for a single titanium dioxide sample. The samples were tightly sealed and stored for a minimum period of 30 days, to reach the radioactive secular equilibrium from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series, then measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration was determined using the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi for {sup 232}Th. The {sup 4}'0K activity concentration was determined by its single transition of 1460.8 keV. Self attenuation correction factors of the samples whose densities are higher than 1.0 g.cm{sup -3}, were determined and used to make the necessary corrections. The radiological indices radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), activity concentration index (I{sub γ}), internal exposure risk index (H{sub in}) and external exposure risk index (H{sub ex}) and also the absorbed dose rate (D) and annual effective dose (D{sub ef}) were calculated from the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The activity concentration values for {sup 226}Ra ranged from under the minimum detectable activity to 38.7 Bq.kg{sup -1}, for {sup 232}Th from under the minimum detectable activity to 101.2 Bq.kg{sup -1} and for {sup 40}K from under the minimum detectable activity to 256 Bq.kg{sup -1}. Ra{sub eq} ranged from 1.41 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 203 Bq.kg{sup -1}, I{sub γ} ranged from 0.0047 to 0.720, H{sub in} from 0.0076 to 0.653 and H{sub ex

  15. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have you: Learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ) Use estrogen cream in your vagina Try ... repair; Urinary incontinence - vaginal wall repair Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  16. Advanced walling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  17. Occupy Wall Street: Examining a Current Event as It Happens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Elizabeth; Bauml, Michele; Field, Sherry; Ledbetter, Mary

    2012-01-01

    On September 17, 2011 (Constitution Day), Occupy Wall Street began as a protest movement when approximately 2,000 supporters assembled in lower Manhattan's Zuccotti Park. The group's concerns focused on the corporate role in the current financial crisis and economic inequality. Rhetoric both in support of and against the protest began to flood the…

  18. Impact of turbulence anisotropy near walls in room airflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schälin, A.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2004-01-01

    The influence of different turbulence models used in computational fluid dynamics predictions is studied in connection with room air movement. The turbulence models used are the high Re-number k–e model and the high Re- number Reynolds stress model (RSM). The three-dimensional wall jet is selected f...

  19. Immunohistochemical assessment of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in biopsy samples of the bovine uterine wall collected during the oestrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, A

    2000-01-01

    Uterine biopsies were collected at cycle days 1 (oestrous), 8, 15 and 19 in six cows. Unfixed cryostat sections were used to immunolocalise collagen types I, III, IV and VI by an indirect FITC method. Collagen I was sparsely found in the endometrium where it formed a fine meshwork of thin fibres directly below the surface epithelium, clearly visible only at cycle days 8 and 15. Collagen III formed the bulk of connective tissue fibres and was arranged in fine aggregates within the superficial endometrial stroma, while in the deeper areas it consisted of many thick fibre bundles. Collagen IV was found in basement membranes underlying all endometrial epithelia. Furthermore, it surrounded smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. A few single fibrils also stained positively within the endometrial stroma, more numerous at cycle days 1 and 19 as compared to days 8 and 15. Collagen VI formed a mesh of fine and pericellularly situated fibrils within the endometrial stroma. The contribution of the collagen types studied to the connective tissue of caruncles, blood vessels, lymph follicles, and myometrium is also reported. The results of the present study indicate that the connective tissue of the bovine uterine wall is composed of different collagen types, which exhibit a characteristic distribution pattern each. The day of cycle may influence amounts and organisation of collagen types I and IV as demonstrated here at the light-microscopical level. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. The Baby Moves prospective cohort study protocol: using a smartphone application with the General Movements Assessment to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 2 years for extremely preterm or extremely low birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, A J; Olsen, J; Kwong, A; Doyle, L W; Marschik, P B; Einspieler, C; Cheong, Jly

    2016-10-03

    Infants born extremely preterm (EP; target early intervention to those in most need. The General Movements Assessment (GMA) in early infancy has high predictive validity for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. However, access to a GMA may be limited by geographical constraints and a lack of GMA-trained health professionals. Baby Moves is a smartphone application (app) developed for caregivers to video and upload their infant's general movements to be scored remotely by a certified GMA assessor. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive ability of using the GMA via the Baby Moves app for neurodevelopmental impairment in infants born EP/ELBW. This prospective cohort study will recruit infants born EP/ELBW across the state of Victoria, Australia in 2016 and 2017. A control group of normal birth weight (>2500 g birth weight), term-born (≥37 weeks' gestation) infants will also be recruited as a local reference group. Parents will video their infant's general movements at two time points between 3 and 4 months' corrected age using the Baby Moves app. Videos will be scored by certified GMA assessors and classified as normal or abnormal. Parental satisfaction using the Baby Moves app will be assessed via survey. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years' corrected age includes developmental delay according to the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III and cerebral palsy diagnosis. This study was approved by the Human Research and Ethics Committees at the Royal Children's Hospital, The Royal Women's Hospital, Monash Health and Mercy Health in Melbourne, Australia. Study findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  2. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  3. Fetal eye movements on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.

  4. KETERASINGAN DALAM FILM WALL-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadya Putra Nugraha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern society nowadays technological advances at first create efficiency in human life. Further development of the technology thus drown human in a routine and automation of work created. The State is to be one of the causes of man separated from fellow or the outside world and eventually experiencing alienation. The movie as a mass media function to obtain the movie and entertainment can be informative or educative function is contained, even persuasive. The purpose of this research was conducted to find out the alienation in the movie Wall E. The concepts used to analyze the movie Wall E this is communication, movie, and alienation. The concept of alienation of human alienation from covering its own products of human alienation from its activities, the human alienation from nature of his humanity and human alienation from each other. Paradigm used is a critical paradigm with type a descriptive research with qualitative approach. The method used is the analysis of semiotics Roland Barthes to interpretation the scope of social alienation and fellow humans in the movie.This writing research results found that alienation of humans with other humans influenced the development of the technology and how the human it self represented of technology, not from our fellow human beings. Masyarakat modern saat ini kemajuan teknologi pada awalnya membuat efisiensi dalam kehidupan manusia. Perkembangan selanjutnya teknologi justru menenggelamkan manusia dalam suatu rutinitas dan otomatisasi kerja yang diciptakan. Keadaan itulah yang menjadi salah satu penyebab manusia terpisah dari sesama atau dunia luar dan akhirnya mengalami keterasingan. Film sebagai media massa berfungsi untuk memperoleh hiburan dan dalam film dapat terkandung fungsi informatif maupun edukatif, bahkan persuasif. Tujuan Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui Keterasingan dalam film Wall E. Konsep-konsep yang digunakan untuk menganalisis film Wall E ini adalah komunikasi, film, dan

  5. Reinforcement contribution to the behavior of low-rise concrete walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Carrillo

    Full Text Available Based on steel strains recorded during shake table tests of six wall specimens, the effect and contribution of steel reinforcement to peak shear strength and displacement capacity of low-rise concrete walls is assessed and discussed. The experimental program included four variables such as wall geometry, concrete type, web steel ratio and type of web reinforcement. Wall response was assessed through effective steel strains in vertical reinforcement, efficiency factors of wall reinforcement, contribution of web horizontal reinforcement to wall shear strength, and the effect of type of web reinforcement to wall displacement.

  6. Occupy Wall Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    oppositional social movement alongside a legitimizing countermovement, but also a new notion of political community as an ensemble of discursive practices that are endogenous to the constitution of political regimes from the “inside out.” These new political identities are bound by thin ties of political...... solidarity linked to the transformative capacities of the movement rather than thick ties of social solidarity....

  7. Degree of coupling in high-rise mixed shear walls structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assessment of the structural behaviour of coupled shear wall bents in mixed shear wall structures that are subject to horizontal loading. Keywords. Coupled shear walls; degree of coupling; peak shear demand; concrete. 1. Introduction. In reinforced concrete tall buildings, coupled wall structures as shown in figure 1 can ...

  8. Toxicity assessment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on Cucurbita pepo L. under well-watered and water-stressed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Mehrnaz

    2017-08-01

    The rapid increase in the production and application of various types of nanomaterials increases the possibility of their presence in total environment, which subsequently raises concerns about their potential threats to the first trophic level of organisms, specifically under varying environmental constraints. In this work, seeds of Cucurbita pepo L. were cultured in MS basal medium exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at different concentrations (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000μgmL-1) under two levels of water potential, well-watered (0MPa) and water stress (-1.5MPa) induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) for 14 days. Seeds exposed to MWCNTs showed reduction in germination percentage, root and shoot length, biomass accumulation and vigor index in a dose-dependent manner. However, seedlings germinated in MWCNTs-fortified media had significantly lower germination and growth attributes than those of control under water stress conditions. This happened due to increased oxidative injury indices including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, as well as electrolyte leakage index (ELI) of tissues. The impaired morpho-physiological and biochemical processes of seedlings exposed to different concentrations of MWCNTs under both PEG-induced stress and non-stress growing conditions were consequence of changes in the activation of various cellular antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (POD). Taken together, our findings reveal that MWCNTs played negative role on seed germination and subsequent growth of C. pepo L. seedlings under both levels of water potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF MODERN CRUSTAL MOVEMENTS AND THE RECENTLY ACTIVATED PRECAMBRIAN STRUCTURAL PLAN ON THE RELIEF OF THE LAKE LADOGA REGION (THE SOUTHEASTERN BALTIC SHIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Agibalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of modern crustal movements and the recently activated Precambrian structural plan on the relief of theLakeLadogaregion. It presents the results of comprehensive studies, including processing of the regional geological and geomorphological data by the modern methods, as the major novelty of our work. The solutions of earthquake focal mechanisms suggest the current subhorizontal NW compression in the study area. Based on the computer simulation by the Roxar software, we have identified areas wherein new fractures are most likely to occur, determined the dominant directions of such fractures, and revealed the areas of intense vertical movements in the given stress state. The input database included a digital model of the relief and the spatial patterns of ancient faults represented by large-size inhomogeneities influencing the stress field. Strain values were estimated from the horizontal displacements recorded by the International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS and the GPS networks in theRepublicofKareliaand the southeastern regions ofFinland. Using the LESSA software, we have estima­ted the relief orientation characteristics: the density of lineaments, and elongation lines, which are indicative of the changes in the dominant directions of the strike of the lineaments (‘hatches’ in the study area. By interpreting the satellite images and the topographic maps (scale 1:20000, we reveal a number of geological structures, such as gra­nite-gneiss domes and large-size faults, which are directly reflected in the relief. The study results give grounds to establish an indirect relationship between the relief and the modern field of deformation: the areas with high strain values correspond to the areas with steep slopes. The computer simulation data show a NE-trending linear zone with the increased amplitudes of vertical movements. This zone occupies the region along the NW shoreLakeLadoga. In the block

  10. Cell wall domain and moisture content influence southern pine electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Leandro Passarini; José L. Colon Quintana; Samuel V. Glass; Joseph E. Jakes; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted the importance of movement of chemicals and ions through the wood cell wall. This movement depends strongly on moisture content and is necessary for structural damage mechanisms such as fastener corrosion and wood decay. Here, we present the first measurements of electrical resistance of southern pine at the subcellular level as a function...

  11. Linear motion feed through with thin wall rubber sealing element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. P.; Deulin, E. A.

    2017-07-01

    The patented linear motion feedthrough is based on elastic thin rubber walls usage being reinforced with analeptic string fixed in the middle part of the walls. The pneumatic or hydro actuators create linear movement of stock. The length of this movement is two times more the rubber wall length. This flexible wall is a sealing element of feedthrough. The main advantage of device is negligible resistance force that is less then mentioned one in sealing bellows that leads to positioning error decreasing. Nevertheless, the thin wall rubber sealing element (TRE) of the feedthrough is the main unreliable element that was the reason of this element longevity research. The theory and experimental results help to create equation for TRE longevity calculation under vacuum or extra high pressure difference action. The equation was used for TRE longevity determination for hydraulic or vacuum equipment realization also as it helps for gas flow being leaking through the cracks in thin walls of rubber sealing element of linear motion feedthrough calculation.

  12. Effects of Moving Side Walls on Confined Granular Packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Chand

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials have numerous industrial and geophysical applications. However, many phenomenon exhibited by granular media are not yet fully explained. Nowadays simulation has emerged as an important tool to investigate the complex properties exhibited by granular media. The influence of side walls movement of a granular column is investigated by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The evolution of stress profile and deflection of vertical stresses is due to different bead sizes, coefficient of friction between grains and confining wall is investigated by using large-scale discrete element MD simulations in 3D. In such a configuration, it is found that apparent mass systemically increases with the increase in diameter of granules. As soon as the wall stops moving, the column attains equilibrium. The stress profiles are in good agreement with the Janssen form for high friction coefficient, while some deviations remain for smaller values of friction coefficient. The wall movement augments the number of particle-wall and particle-particle forces at the Coulomb criterion. The results indicate the variation in shielding of vertical stresses in granular column; it can be attributed to the fiction between the beads and the confining walls of the container.

  13. Thinner regions of intracranial aneurysm wall correlate with regions of higher wall shear stress: a 7.0 tesla MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankena, Roos; Kleinloog, Rachel; Verweij, Bon H.; van Ooij, Pim; ten Haken, Bennie; Luijten, Peter R.; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a method for semi-quantitative wall thickness assessment on in vivo 7.0 tesla (7T) MRI images of intracranial aneurysms for studying the relation between apparent aneurysm wall thickness and wall shear stress. Materials and Methods Wall thickness was analyzed in 11 unruptured aneurysms in 9 patients, who underwent 7T MRI with a TSE based vessel wall sequence (0.8 mm isotropic resolution). A custom analysis program determined the in vivo aneurysm wall intensities, which were normalized to signal of nearby brain tissue and were used as measure for apparent wall thickness (AWT). Spatial wall thickness variation was determined as the interquartile range in AWT (the middle 50% of the AWT range). Wall shear stress was determined using phase contrast MRI (0.5 mm isotropic resolution). We performed visual and statistical comparisons (Pearson’s correlation) to study the relation between wall thickness and wall shear stress. Results 3D colored AWT maps of the aneurysms showed spatial AWT variation, which ranged from 0.07 to 0.53, with a mean variation of 0.22 (a variation of 1.0 roughly means a wall thickness variation of one voxel (0.8mm)). In all aneurysms, AWT was inversely related to WSS (mean correlation coefficient −0.35, P<0.05). Conclusions A method was developed to measure the wall thickness semi-quantitatively, using 7T MRI. An inverse correlation between wall shear stress and AWT was determined. In future studies, this non-invasive method can be used to assess spatial wall thickness variation in relation to pathophysiologic processes such as aneurysm growth and –rupture. PMID:26892986

  14. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Velocity curves of human arm and speech movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, D J; Cooke, J D; Munhall, K G

    1987-01-01

    The velocity curves of human arm and speech movements were examined as a function of amplitude and rate in both continuous and discrete movement tasks. Evidence for invariance under scalar transformation was assessed and a quantitative measure of the form of the curve was used to provide information on the implicit cost function in the production of voluntary movement. Arm, tongue and jaw movements were studied separately. The velocity curves of tongue and jaw movement were found to differ in form as a function of movement duration but were similar for movements of different amplitude. In contrast, the velocity curves for elbow movements were similar in form over differences in both amplitude and duration. Thus, the curves of arm movement, but not those of tongue or jaw movement, were geometrically equivalent in form. Measurements of the ratio of maximum to average velocity in arm movement were compared with the theoretical values calculated for a number of criterion functions. For continuous movements, the data corresponded best to values computed for the minimum energy criterion; for discrete movement, values were in the range of those predicted for the minimum jerk and best stiffness criteria. The source of a rate dependent asymmetry in the form of the velocity curve of speech movements was assessed in a control study in which subjects produced simple raising and lowering movements of the jaw without talking. The velocity curves of the non-speech control gesture were similar in form to those of jaw movement in speech. These data, in combination with similar findings for human jaw movement in mastication, suggest that the asymmetry is not a direct consequence of the requirements of the task. The biomechanics and neural control of the orofacial system may be possible sources of this effect.

  16. Derivation of the out-of-plane behaviour of an English bond masonry wall through homogenization strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís Carlos; Milani, Gabriele; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2017-11-01

    Two finite element homogenized-based strategies are presented for the out-of-plane behaviour characterization of an English bond masonry wall. A finite element micro-modelling approach using Cauchy stresses and first order movements are assumed for both strategies. The material nonlinearity is lumped on joints interfaces and bricks are considered elastic. Nevertheless, the first model is based on a Plane-stress assumption, in which the out-of-plane quantities are derived through on-thickness wall integration considering a Kirchhoff-plate theory. The second model is a tridimensional one, in which the homogenized out-of-plane quantities can be directly derived after solving the boundary value problem. The comparison is conducted by assessing the obtained out-of-plane bending- and torsion-curvature diagrams. A good agreement is found for the present study case.

  17. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  18. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, Dietrich; Moore, Guy D.

    2017-05-01

    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can "run away," that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ~ 1014. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ~ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.

  19. Quantitative assessment of isolated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia without clinical REM sleep behavior disorder: clinical and research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Frauscher, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Ehrmann, Laura; Gabelia, David; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Inoue, Yuichi; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit

    2014-09-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RWA) is observed in some patients without a clinical history of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). It remains unknown whether these patients meet the refined quantitative electromyographic (EMG) criteria supporting a clinical RBD diagnosis. We quantitatively evaluated EMG activity and investigated its overnight distribution in patients with isolated qualitative RWA. Fifty participants with an incidental polysomnographic finding of RWA (isolated qualitative RWA) were included. Tonic, phasic, and 'any' EMG activity during REM sleep on PSG were quantified retrospectively. Referring to the quantitative cut-off values for a polysomnographic diagnosis of RBD, 7/50 (14%) and 6/50 (12%) of the patients showed phasic and 'any' EMG activity in the mentalis muscle above the respective cut-off values. No patient was above the cut-off value for tonic EMG activity or phasic EMG activity in the anterior tibialis muscles. Patients with RWA above the cut-off value showed higher amounts of RWA during later REM sleep periods. This is the first study showing that some subjects with incidental RWA meet the refined quantitative EMG criteria for a diagnosis of RBD. Future longitudinal studies must investigate whether this subgroup with isolated qualitative RWA is at an increased risk of developing fully expressed RBD and/or neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transverse ultrasound assessment of the flexor pollicis longus tendon movement on the distal radius during wrist and finger motion in distal radius fracture with volar plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanno, Mitsuhiko; Kodera, Norie; Tomori, Yuji; Takai, Shinro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the movement of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon on the distal radius during wrist and finger motions using transverse ultrasound in patients with distal radius fractures who underwent volar locking plating. Both wrists of 39 distal radius fracture patients with volar locking plate fixation were evaluated by transverse ultrasound to examine the location of the FPL tendon on the distal radius at varied wrist positions in full finger extension and flexion. At all wrist positions during finger motion, the FPL tendon shifted significantly more dorsally on the affected side than on the unaffected side. Additionally, at the wrist dorsal flexion position with finger flexion, the FPL tendon moved significantly the most dorsally, and the distance between the FPL tendon and the plate or the radius was the smallest among all wrist positions during finger motion. This study showed that the wrist dorsal flexion position with finger flexion could be the appropriate position to examine FPL tendon irritation after plating. Moreover, it would be effective for preventing FPL rupture to cover the FPL transverse gliding area approximately 10 mm radial to the vertex of the palmar bony prominence of the distal radius with the pronator quadratus and the intermediate fibrous zone.

  1. Engineering geologic assessment of the slope movements and liquefaction failures of the 23 October 2011 Van earthquake (Mw= 7.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karakaş

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On 23 October 2011, a Mw = 7.2 earthquake occurred in the Van Province in eastern Turkey, killing 604 people. The earthquake was triggered by a thrust fault due to a compression stress in the region, and caused extensive damage over a large area. Many structures in the earthquake region collapsed, and the damage spread from the city of Van to the town of Erciş, in a distance of 60 km. The earthquake generated several slope movements and liquefaction failures in the region, and this study evaluates these processes from the perspective of engineering geology, and presents field and laboratory results related to these processes. Attenuation relationships were used for estimation of peak ground accelerations (PGAs, and an empirical liquefaction evaluation method employing ground accelerations was used to define threshold accelerations initiating the liquefaction. The results demonstrate that landslides were widespread and more frequently observed in the field in comparison with earthflows and rockfalls. Flow-type liquefaction and lateral spreading was found to be widespread and more common than the liquefaction-related settlement. The minimum threshold acceleration value for the initiation of soil liquefaction was calculated to be 188.87 cm s−2 (~0.19 g in the earthquake region. Laboratory results indicated that the soil liquefaction was closely associated with grain size. The slope instabilities, liquefaction and associated ground failures occurred mainly in rural areas, and their impact on structures was quite low as compared to the human loss and structural damage by the earthquake.

  2. Learning optimal eye movements to unusual faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Matthew F; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2014-06-01

    Eye movements, which guide the fovea's high resolution and computational power to relevant areas of the visual scene, are integral to efficient, successful completion of many visual tasks. How humans modify their eye movements through experience with their perceptual environments, and its functional role in learning new tasks, has not been fully investigated. Here, we used a face identification task where only the mouth discriminated exemplars to assess if, how, and when eye movement modulation may mediate learning. By interleaving trials of unconstrained eye movements with trials of forced fixation, we attempted to separate the contributions of eye movements and covert mechanisms to performance improvements. Without instruction, a majority of observers substantially increased accuracy and learned to direct their initial eye movements towards the optimal fixation point. The proximity of an observer's default face identification eye movement behavior to the new optimal fixation point and the observer's peripheral processing ability were predictive of performance gains and eye movement learning. After practice in a subsequent condition in which observers were directed to fixate different locations along the face, including the relevant mouth region, all observers learned to make eye movements to the optimal fixation point. In this fully learned state, augmented fixation strategy accounted for 43% of total efficiency improvements while covert mechanisms accounted for the remaining 57%. The findings suggest a critical role for eye movement planning to perceptual learning, and elucidate factors that can predict when and how well an observer can learn a new task with unusual exemplars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Movements and feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Fernandez Poncela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This text reviews the theory of recognition and focuses on the study of the role of emotions in collective action and social movements. It shows how emotion becomes feeling and creates a need to be met, leading to action. Anger, for example, as emotion, moves on to the feeling of indignation, and it is expressed in many forms, including the pursuit of justice and recognition. This point lands and deepens the study with the experience of the student movement in Mexico #YoSoy132 in 2012. The research is based on interviews with members of the movement. The presence and importance of feelings in collective action and social movements through the proposed case study is finally shown.

  4. Movement coordination during conversation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Latif

    Full Text Available Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers' perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers.

  5. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  6. Spiraldynamik - intelligent movement

    OpenAIRE

    Wippert, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Spiraldynamik ® is an anatomically based movement and therapy concept. It was founded by the physiotherapist Yolanda Deswarte, and Dr. med. Christian Larsen. During the time that he was professionally active as a pediatrician, Christian Larsen repeatedly wondered: “is the universal principle of organization, the spiral, also embodied in man?” Observing the babies and toddlers that he worked with inspired him to research further into movement sequences. International interdisciplinary research...

  7. A New CT Method for Assessing 3D Movements in Lumbar Facet Joints and Vertebrae in Patients before and after TDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Svedmark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a 3D-CT method for analyzing facet joint motion and vertebral rotation in the lumbar spine after TDR. Ten patients were examined before and then three years after surgery, each time with two CT scans: provoked flexion and provoked extension. After 3D registration, the facet joint 3D translation and segmental vertebral 3D rotation were analyzed at the operated level (L5-S1 and adjacent level (L4-L5. Pain was evaluated using VAS. The median (±SD 3D movement in the operated level for the left facet joint was 3.2 mm (±1.9 mm before and 3.5 mm (±1.7 mm after surgery and for the right facet joint was 3.0 mm (±1.0 mm before and 3.6 mm (±1.4 mm after surgery. The median vertebral rotation in the sagittal plane at the operated level was 5.4° (±2.3° before surgery and 6.8° (±1.7° after surgery and in the adjacent level was 7.7° (±4.0° before and 9.2° (±2.7° after surgery. The median VAS was reduced from 6 (range 5–8 to 3 (range 2–8 in extension and from 4 (range 2–6 to 2 (range 1–3 in flexion.

  8. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Packaging of implantable accelerometers to monitor epicardial and endocardial wall motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Luigi; Weydts, Tristan; Oosterlinck, Wouter; Herijgers, Paul; Puers, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Acceleration signals, collected from the inner and the outer heart wall, offer a mean of assessing cardiac function during surgery. Accelerometric measurements can also provide detailed insights into myocardial motion during exploratory investigations. Two different implantable accelerometers to respectively record endocardial and epicardial vibrations, have been developed by packaging a commercially available capacitive transducer. The same coating materials have been deposited on the two devices to ensure biocompatibility of the implants: Parylene-C, medical epoxy and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The different position-specific requirements resulted in two very dissimilar sensor assemblies. The endocardial accelerometer, that measures accelerations from the inner surface of the heart during acute animal tests, is a 2 mm-radius hemisphere fixed on a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rod to be inserted through the heart wall. The epicardial accelerometer, that monitors the motion of the outer surface of the heart, is a three-legged structure with a stretchable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) reinforcement. This device can follow the continuous motion of the myocardium (the muscular tissue of the heart) during the cardiac cycle, without hindering its natural movement. Leakage currents lower than 1 μA have been measured during two weeks of continuous operation in saline. Both transducers have been used, during animal tests, to simultaneously record and compare acceleration signals from corresponding locations on the inner and the outer heart wall of a female sheep.

  10. The geospatial characteristics of a social movement communication network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Conover

    Full Text Available Social movements rely in large measure on networked communication technologies to organize and disseminate information relating to the movements' objectives. In this work we seek to understand how the goals and needs of a protest movement are reflected in the geographic patterns of its communication network, and how these patterns differ from those of stable political communication. To this end, we examine an online communication network reconstructed from over 600,000 tweets from a thirty-six week period covering the birth and maturation of the American anticapitalist movement, Occupy Wall Street. We find that, compared to a network of stable domestic political communication, the Occupy Wall Street network exhibits higher levels of locality and a hub and spoke structure, in which the majority of non-local attention is allocated to high-profile locations such as New York, California, and Washington D.C. Moreover, we observe that information flows across state boundaries are more likely to contain framing language and references to the media, while communication among individuals in the same state is more likely to reference protest action and specific places and times. Tying these results to social movement theory, we propose that these features reflect the movement's efforts to mobilize resources at the local level and to develop narrative frames that reinforce collective purpose at the national level.

  11. The geospatial characteristics of a social movement communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Michael D; Davis, Clayton; Ferrara, Emilio; McKelvey, Karissa; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Social movements rely in large measure on networked communication technologies to organize and disseminate information relating to the movements' objectives. In this work we seek to understand how the goals and needs of a protest movement are reflected in the geographic patterns of its communication network, and how these patterns differ from those of stable political communication. To this end, we examine an online communication network reconstructed from over 600,000 tweets from a thirty-six week period covering the birth and maturation of the American anticapitalist movement, Occupy Wall Street. We find that, compared to a network of stable domestic political communication, the Occupy Wall Street network exhibits higher levels of locality and a hub and spoke structure, in which the majority of non-local attention is allocated to high-profile locations such as New York, California, and Washington D.C. Moreover, we observe that information flows across state boundaries are more likely to contain framing language and references to the media, while communication among individuals in the same state is more likely to reference protest action and specific places and times. Tying these results to social movement theory, we propose that these features reflect the movement's efforts to mobilize resources at the local level and to develop narrative frames that reinforce collective purpose at the national level.

  12. Investigation of giant mass movements in the Lesser Caucasus and assessment of the spatial relationship between landslides and major fault zones and volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofélia Matossian, Alice; Mreyen, Anne-Sophie; Karakhanian, Arkady; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2017-04-01

    Two landslides of assumed seismic origin in the vicinity of Garni, Armenia, were investigated during a geophysical field campaign in September 2016. On the basis of geophysical prospecting (microseismic ambient noise measurements, i.e. H/V method), the thickness of the landslide deposits has been estimated and a trigger scenario model was developed. The original trigger of those landslides is not known - but one major reactivation by an earthquake in 1679 has been proved (see below). Additionally, the spatial distribution of landslides was analysed with respect to the location of major fault zones and volcanic areas. For that, a spatial analysis with GIS has been carried out on the basis of two landslide catalogues. The catalogue that was generated during this work covers the areas of including the Pambak-Sevan-Syunik and the Garni Faults as well as several volcanic areas. These NW-SE faults are mainly marked dextral strike-slip movements locally combined with reverse mechanisms. Along these fault zones strong historical earthquakes occurred, as for example one major event in 1139 (M 7.5 - 7.7). The 1679 Garni earthquake caused widespread destruction and also reactivated landslides located near the Garni Fault, including the two investigated landslides. According to historical sources, the event reached a magnitude of M=5.5-7 with an intensity between VIII and X. The volcanic areas on the other hand include the NNW-SSE-oriented Ghegham and the NW-SE Vardeniss ridges. Some of the ridges' volcanoes erupted during the Holocene, i.e. 2090 ± 70 BP for the Ghegham ridge. Nowadays, more than 80% of Armenia is covered by Quaternary volcanic formations or friable deposits which are favourable to the formation of landslides. Nevertheless, our first analysis showed that the faults have a stronger influence on landslide distribution than the volcanoes. This is also due to the indirect fact that many volcanic areas are marked by more gentle slopes than the valleys hosting the

  13. Biodegradative potential of fungal isolates from sacral ambient: In vitro study as risk assessment implication for the conservation of wall paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unković, Nikola; Dimkić, Ivica; Stupar, Miloš; Stanković, Slaviša; Vukojević, Jelena; Ljaljević Grbić, Milica

    2018-01-01

    The principal purpose of the study was to evaluate in vitro the potential ability of fungal isolates obtained from the painted layer of frescoes and surrounding air to induce symptoms of fresco deterioration, associated with their growth and metabolism, so that the risk of such deterioration can be precisely assessed and appropriate conservation treatments formulated. Biodegradative properties of the tested microfungi were qualitatively characterized through the use of a set of special agar plates: CaCO3 glucose agar (calcite dissolution), casein nutrient agar (casein hydrolysis), Czapek-Dox minimal medium (pigment secretion); and Czapek-Dox minimal broth (acid and alkali production). Most of the tested isolates (71.05%) demonstrated at least one of the degradative properties, with Penicillium bilaiae as the most potent, since it tested positive in all four. The remaining isolates (28.95%) showed no deterioration capabilities and were hence considered unlikely to partake in the complex process of fungal deterioration of murals via the tested mechanisms. The obtained results clearly indicate that utilization of fast and simple plate assays can provide insight into the biodegradative potential of deteriogenic fungi and allow for their separation from allochthonous transients, a prerequisite for precise assessment of the amount of risk posed by a thriving mycobiota to mural paintings.

  14. Biodegradative potential of fungal isolates from sacral ambient: In vitro study as risk assessment implication for the conservation of wall paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkić, Ivica; Stupar, Miloš; Stanković, Slaviša; Vukojević, Jelena; Ljaljević Grbić, Milica

    2018-01-01

    The principal purpose of the study was to evaluate in vitro the potential ability of fungal isolates obtained from the painted layer of frescoes and surrounding air to induce symptoms of fresco deterioration, associated with their growth and metabolism, so that the risk of such deterioration can be precisely assessed and appropriate conservation treatments formulated. Biodegradative properties of the tested microfungi were qualitatively characterized through the use of a set of special agar plates: CaCO3 glucose agar (calcite dissolution), casein nutrient agar (casein hydrolysis), Czapek-Dox minimal medium (pigment secretion); and Czapek-Dox minimal broth (acid and alkali production). Most of the tested isolates (71.05%) demonstrated at least one of the degradative properties, with Penicillium bilaiae as the most potent, since it tested positive in all four. The remaining isolates (28.95%) showed no deterioration capabilities and were hence considered unlikely to partake in the complex process of fungal deterioration of murals via the tested mechanisms. The obtained results clearly indicate that utilization of fast and simple plate assays can provide insight into the biodegradative potential of deteriogenic fungi and allow for their separation from allochthonous transients, a prerequisite for precise assessment of the amount of risk posed by a thriving mycobiota to mural paintings. PMID:29309432

  15. [Scenes in movement. Movement disorders on film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Romero, J

    2010-03-01

    There are publications in which various neurological diseases are analysed on film. However, no references have been found on movement disorders in this medium. A total of 104 documents were collected and reviewed using the internet movie data base (IMDb). The majority were associated with dystonia, Parkinson's and tics, were American commercial productions, and the most common genre was drama. The cinema usually depicts old men with developed Parkinson's disease. However, motor complications only appear in 19% and non-motor symptoms in 14%. The image of dystonia is generally that of a young man, with disabling dystonia secondary to childhood cerebral palsy. Tics appear associated with Tourette's syndrome, with the excessive use of obscene expressions and with very few references to other important aspects of this syndrome, such as mood and behavioural changes. The majority of tremors portrayed on film are associated with Parkinsonism and are not pathological. Myoclonus appears anecdotically and is normally symptomatic. Parkinson's disease is the type of movement disorder that the cinema portrays with greater neurological honesty and in a more dignified manner.

  16. Effect of plastic soil on a retaining wall subjected to surcharge loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Juari Khawla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation and climatic changes play a significant role that affects the stresses exerted on a retaining wall, and the state of stresses in the soil mass behind the wall especially for highly expansive soil. These stresses resulted in the wall moving either away or towards the soil. In this study, a laboratory physical model of the retaining wall formed of a box having (950×900×600 mm dimensions with one side representing the wall being developed. After the soil being laid out in the box in specified layers, specified conditions of saturation and normal stresses were applied. The wall is allowed to move horizontally in several distances (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 , 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mm, and the stresses being measured, then the vertical loading was released. The main measured variables during the tests are; the active and passive earth pressures, vertical movement of the soil, total suction and time. Results showed that the lateral earth pressure along the depth of the wall largely decreased when wall moved away from the soil. Total suction was slightly affected during wall’s movement. At unloading stage, the lateral earth pressure decreased at the upper half of wall height, but increased at the other wall part. Total suction was increased at all depths during this stage.

  17. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  18. Injection and controlled motion of conducting domain walls in improper ferroelectric Cu-Cl boracite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Raymond G. P.; Campbell, Michael P.; Whatmore, Roger W.; Kumar, Amit; Gregg, J. Marty

    2017-05-01

    Ferroelectric domain walls constitute a completely new class of sheet-like functional material. Moreover, since domain walls are generally writable, erasable and mobile, they could be useful in functionally agile devices: for example, creating and moving conducting walls could make or break electrical connections in new forms of reconfigurable nanocircuitry. However, significant challenges exist: site-specific injection and annihilation of planar walls, which show robust conductivity, has not been easy to achieve. Here, we report the observation, mechanical writing and controlled movement of charged conducting domain walls in the improper-ferroelectric Cu3B7O13Cl. Walls are straight, tens of microns long and exist as a consequence of elastic compatibility conditions between specific domain pairs. We show that site-specific injection of conducting walls of up to hundreds of microns in length can be achieved through locally applied point-stress and, once created, that they can be moved and repositioned using applied electric fields.

  19. Evaluation of the King-Devick Test to Assess Eye Movements and the Performance of Rapid Number Naming in Concussed and Non-Concussed Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Neuro -Assessment Devices In progress Review Meetings (USAMRMC CCCRP). What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals...Tacoma, WA 98402 REPORT DATE: July 2016 TYPE OF REPORT : Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland...21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report

  20. Cascade impact of hurricane movement, storm tidal surge, sea level rise and precipitation variability on flood assessment in a coastal urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Justin; Chang, Ni-Bin; Harji, Rahim; Ruppert, Thomas; Singhofen, Peter

    2017-11-01

    For comprehensive flood assessment, complex systems, both natural and man-made, must be accounted for due to prevailing cascade effects from the upper atmosphere to the subsurface with hydrological and hydraulic interactions in between. This study aims to demonstrate such cascade effects via an integrated nearshore oceanic and coastal watershed model. Such an integrated modeling system consists of a coupled hydrodynamic circulation and wave driven model [the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) and Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) models], which can combine storm surge, astronomic tide levels and wave interaction, as well as an integrated hydrological/hydraulic model, namely the Interconnected Channel and Pond Routing (ICPR) model for coastal urban watershed simulation. In order to explore the worst scenario of coastal flooding impacts on a low-lying coastal watershed, the Cross Bayou Watershed within the Tampa Bay area of Florida was chosen for a multi-scale simulation analysis. To assess hurricane-induced storm tide, precipitation variability, and sea level rise collectively this multi-scale simulation analysis combines ADCIRC/SWAN and ICPR integratively. Findings indicate that such consideration of complex interactions at the coastal ocean, land surface, and sub-surface levels can provide useful flood assessments which are sensitive to slight changes in natural hazard characteristics such as storm intensity, radius of maximum winds, storm track, and landfall location.

  1. Identification of convective heat loss on exterior cavity wall assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Antonio

    1999-03-01

    Most present day low and medium rise buildings constructed in Canada use some form of cavity wall design for their exterior walls. These types of wall assemblies use a broad range of cladding materials such as brick, stone, wood, sheet metal, porcelain enamel or metal panels, cementitious materials and plastics. The interior assemblies of these walls include the air barrier, vapor barrier and insulation layers. The cladding is separated from the interior wall assembly by an air space of varying thickness. Dependent upon the temperature differential between the interior and exterior, the temperature between the outer surface of the interior wall assembly and the inner surface of the exterior cladding under conditions in which air movement is restricted will give rise to convective heat loss mechanisms. This paper will look at how these convective heat loss patterns manifest themselves as thermal patterns on exterior surfaces of cladding materials. Similar details will be illustrated under various pressure differential conditions through the entire building envelope assembly. Various types of exterior wall assemblies will be discussed.

  2. Psychostimulants and movement disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eAsser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list.Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction.The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist.

  3. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  4. Pursuit Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  5. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  6. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  7. Trends and missing parts in the study of movement ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, Marcel; Casagrandi, Renato; Nathan, Ran; Revilla, Eloy; Spiegel, Orr

    2008-01-01

    Movement is important to all organisms, and accordingly it is addressed in a huge number of papers in the literature. Of nearly 26,000 papers referring to movement, an estimated 34% focused on movement by measuring it or testing hypotheses about it. This enormous amount of information is difficult to review and highlights the need to assess the collective completeness of movement studies and identify gaps. We surveyed 1,000 randomly selected papers from 496 journals and compared the facets of movement studied with a suggested framework for movement ecology, consisting of internal state (motivation, physiology), motion and navigation capacities, and external factors (both the physical environment and living organisms), and links among these components. Most studies simply measured and described the movement of organisms without reference to ecological or internal factors, and the most frequently studied part of the framework was the link between external factors and motion capacity. Few studies looked at the effects on movement of navigation capacity, or internal state, and those were mainly from vertebrates. For invertebrates and plants most studies were at the population level, whereas more vertebrate studies were conducted at the individual level. Consideration of only population-level averages promulgates neglect of between-individual variation in movement, potentially hindering the study of factors controlling movement. Terminology was found to be inconsistent among taxa and subdisciplines. The gaps identified in coverage of movement studies highlight research areas that should be addressed to fully understand the ecology of movement. PMID:19060194

  8. Preliminary assessment, by means of Radon exhalation rate measurements, of the bio-sustainability of microwave treatment to eliminate biodeteriogens infesting stone walls of monumental historical buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, S.; Caliendo, E.; Guida, M.; Bisceglia, B.

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of the work described in this paper has been to establish the protocol for a new non-disruptive technique of intervention, based on microwave treatment, for cleaning operations on monumental historical buildings, to eliminate biodeteriogens infesting stones. Non-destructive methods in the cleaning operations, should not only preserve the physical integrity, the chemical-mineralogical and structural identity of materials, but, when the exhalation of pollutant agents (like for example Radon gas) from building materials is considered, also, make the indoor air quality (IAQ) levels healthy. Therefore, one of the main steps of the protocol proposed in this paper is concerned with the assessment of the Radon exhalation rate in order to verify that microwave treatments do not increase the Radon naturally exhalated by building materials. In this paper, the preliminary results of the Radon measurements performed on two different type of tuff samples (grey tuff and yellow tuff), typical of the Italian traditional construction heritage, with the E-PERM passive technique at the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (Amb.Ra.), University of Salerno, Italy, ISO 9001:2008 certified, are summarized.

  9. Movement as utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  10. A new alternative for bony chest wall reconstruction using biomaterial artificial rib and pleura: animal experiment and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan-jun; Wang, Wu-ping; Li, Wei-yang; Hao, Chong-li; Li, Zhe; Wu, Qiu-liang; Wu, Rao-pan; Rong, Tie-hua

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate a new method for chest wall reconstruction using porcine-derived artificial rib and pleura in an animal experiment. Further, the clinical application was performed in five patients with large defects in the chest wall as a preliminary observation. In animal experiments, a full-thickness chest wall defect of 7 cm × 8 cm was created in 12 adult mongrel dogs. Six dogs underwent reconstruction with porcine-derived artificial ribs and pleura (test group), and six with methylmethacrylate and double polyester mesh in the form of traditional Marlex sandwich technique (control group). At follow-up of each for 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, a general performance assessment and thoracic radiography were performed. Gross and histopathological examinations were carried out following humane euthanasia at the time of last follow-up. In clinical application, five patients with wide tumor resection in the chest wall underwent reconstruction with porcine-derived artificial ribs and pleura as well. In animal experiment, no perioperative death or hyperpyrexia occurred and no difference in either infection or dyspnea was noted between the two groups. Postoperative radiography revealed good thoracic integrity with no evidence of collapse, deformation, or abnormal movement in the test group. In the control group, similar results were observed, except that two dogs had abnormal movement in the chest wall associated with respiration. Severe adhesions between the 'sandwich' complex and the host tissues were identified in the control group, but by contrast, only mild adhesions were noted in the test group. The non-degradable polyester mesh induced fibrous proliferation and rejection, whereas the artificial pleura was absorbed with mild fibrous hyperplasia after 12 months. In clinical application, no thoracic deformity, chronic pain, or respiratory discomfort were observed at 1 or 12 postoperative months. Porcine-derived ribs and pleura can be employed safely to create an

  11. POLYGON - A NEW FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS TEST FOR 8 YEAR OLD CHILDREN: CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Zuvela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005. The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97 and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98 and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2. Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice.

  12. DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-10-18

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact pulsed power device where the pulse forming lines, switching, and vacuum wall are integrated into a single compact geometry. For this effort, we initiated a extensive compact pulsed power development program and have pursued the study of switching (gas, oil, laser induced surface flashover and photoconductive), dielectrics (ceramics and nanoparticle composites), pulse forming line topologies (asymmetric and symmetric Blumleins and zero integral pulse forming lines), and multilayered vacuum insulator (HGI) technology. Finally, we fabricated an accelerator cell for test on ETAII (a 5.5 MeV, 2 kA, 70 ns pulsewidth electron beam accelerator). We review our past results and report on the progress of accelerator cell testing.

  13. Intracranial vessel wall imaging at 7.0 tesla MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial atherosclerosis is one of the main causes of ischemic stroke. Current conventional imaging techniques assessing intracranial arterial disease in vivo only visualize the vessel wall lumen instead of the pathological vessel wall itself. Therefore, not much is known about the imaging

  14. Load-carrying capacity of lightly reinforced, prefabricated walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and evaluates the results of a coordinated testing of prefabricated, lightly reinforced walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure. The coordinated testing covers all wall productions in Denmark and will therefore provide a representative assessment...

  15. Partial domain wall partition functions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foda, O; Wheeler, M

    2012-01-01

    We consider six-vertex model configurations on an (n × N) lattice, n ≤ N, that satisfy a variation on domain wall boundary conditions that we define and call partial domain wall boundary conditions...

  16. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance tagging of the right ventricular free wall for the assessment of long axis myocardial function in congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sylvia SM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Right ventricular ejection fraction (RV-EF has traditionally been used to measure and compare RV function serially over time, but may be a relatively insensitive marker of change in RV myocardial contractile function. We developed a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR tagging-based technique with a view to rapid and reproducible measurement of RV long axis function and applied it in patients with congenital heart disease. Methods We studied 84 patients: 56 with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF; 28 with atrial septal defect (ASD: 13 with and 15 without pulmonary hypertension (RV pressure > 40 mmHG by echocardiography. For comparison, 20 healthy controls were studied. CMR acquisitions included an anatomically defined four chamber cine followed by a cine gradient echo-planar sequence in the same plane with a labelling pre-pulse giving a tag line across the basal myocardium. RV tag displacement was measured with automated registration and tracking of the tag line together with standard measurement of RV-EF. Results Mean RV displacement was higher in the control (26 ± 3 mm than in rTOF (16 ± 4 mm and ASD with pulmonary hypertension (18 ± 3 mm groups, but lower than in the ASD group without (30 ± 4 mm, P Conclusions Measurements of RV long axis displacement by CMR tagging showed more differences between the groups studied than did RV-EF, and was reproducible, quick and easy to apply. Further work is needed to assess its potential use for the detection of longitudinal changes in RV myocardial function.

  17. Movement Without Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations

  18. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  19. Movement and Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wear and tear on the inside of the house as well as on your nerves. It’s also safer for him to run around in the open than to bump into walls and furniture inside. While outdoors, let him use the yard, ...

  20. Movement disorder symptoms associated with Unified ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: The UPDRS is a commonly used neurological measurement to assess the presence and severity of parkinsonian symptoms. It has also been used to assess symptoms associated with Mn exposure. Objectives: to determine 1) if movement disorder symptoms were associated with UPDRS: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Motor abnormalities; and 2) which symptoms were most related to increased abnormalities on these UPDRS subscales. Participants & Methods: Correlations between self-reported movement disorder symptoms from a health questionnaire and scores obtained on UPDRS: ADL and Motor subscales, and the Bradykinesia domain of the Motor subscale, were assessed during a medical examination among 185 Mn-exposed participants from two Ohio towns. Partial correlations were used for statistical analyses, controlling for age, sex, education and a history of musculoskeletal disease.Results: The presence of movement disorder symptoms was positively associated with ADL (pr =0.647, p = disorder symptoms most strongly associated with increased ADL and Motor scores included having difficulty getting out of chairs (pr =0.458, p = <0.001), writing (pr =0.481, p = <0.001), skilled movements (pr =0.478, p = <0.001), loss of coordination/balance (pr =0.457, p = <0.001), changes in walking (pr =0.412, p = <0.001) and slowness of movement (pr =0.539, p = <0.0

  1. Associations between Functional Movement Screen scores and performance variables in surf athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, Bruno A; Clemente, Filipe M; Lourenço Martins, Fernando M

    2017-02-22

    Functional Movement Screen (FMS) have been used to assess the movement patterns in daily sports practice. Some associations between FMS scores and physical variables have been found in some sports. Nevertheless, no study was conducted in surf. Eighteen surf athletes (11 male) participated in the study (18.3 ± 6.3 y; 60.0 ± 9.6 kg; 168.6 ± 8.1 cm). All participants completed anthropometrics, Knee to Wall test, Functional Movement Screen, Isometric Knee Extension, Handgrip, Squat and Countermovement Jump. Based on that, this study investigated: 1) the variance of FMS scores between gender; 2) the association between FMS scores and physical variables of strength of upper and lower limbs, power of lower limbs and anthropometric variables; and 3) which FMS scores best explain the physical performance variables. The analysis of comparison between gender of each item of FMS showed significant statistical differences only in Trunk Stability Push-Up (p = 0.01, ES=0.141). Kendall's Tau b correlation test between FMS scores and physical variables, revealed significant associations. After performed the stepwise multiple linear regression FMS Deep Squat and Trunk Stability Push-Up explains 57% of Knee to Wall test - right side and the model is statistically significant (F(2. 15) = 13.097; p-value = 0.001). In Squat Jump (height) the results show that FMS Trunk Stability Push-Up explains 50.3% of this dimension and the model is statistically significant (F(1. 16) = 18.182; p-value = 0.001). FMS individual scores seems to better explain physical variables than total score. Only Trunk Stability Push-Up test seems to be a reliable indicator to predict physical performance in surf athletes.

  2. Light shining through walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  3. Microfluidics with fluid walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond J; Feuerborn, Alexander; Wheeler, James H R; Tan, Ann Na; Durham, William M; Foster, Kevin R; Cook, Peter R

    2017-10-10

    Microfluidics has great potential, but the complexity of fabricating and operating devices has limited its use. Here we describe a method - Freestyle Fluidics - that overcomes many key limitations. In this method, liquids are confined by fluid (not solid) walls. Aqueous circuits with any 2D shape are printed in seconds on plastic or glass Petri dishes; then, interfacial forces pin liquids to substrates, and overlaying an immiscible liquid prevents evaporation. Confining fluid walls are pliant and resilient; they self-heal when liquids are pipetted through them. We drive flow through a wide range of circuits passively by manipulating surface tension and hydrostatic pressure, and actively using external pumps. Finally, we validate the technology with two challenging applications - triggering an inflammatory response in human cells and chemotaxis in bacterial biofilms. This approach provides a powerful and versatile alternative to traditional microfluidics.The complexity of fabricating and operating microfluidic devices limits their use. Walsh et al. describe a method in which circuits are printed as quickly and simply as writing with a pen, and liquids in them are confined by fluid instead of solid walls.

  4. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  5. How to compare movement? A review of physical movement similarity measures in geographic information science and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranacher, Peter; Tzavella, Katerina

    2014-05-27

    In geographic information science, a plethora of different approaches and methods is used to assess the similarity of movement. Some of these approaches term two moving objects similar if they share akin paths. Others require objects to move at similar speed and yet others consider movement similar if it occurs at the same time. We believe that a structured and comprehensive classification of movement comparison measures is missing. We argue that such a classification not only depicts the status quo of qualitative and quantitative movement analysis, but also allows for identifying those aspects of movement for which similarity measures are scarce or entirely missing. In this review paper we, first, decompose movement into its spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal movement parameters. A movement parameter is a physical quantity of movement, such as speed, spatial path, or temporal duration. For each of these parameters we then review qualitative and quantitative methods of how to compare movement. Thus, we provide a systematic and comprehensive classification of different movement similarity measures used in geographic information science. This classification is a valuable first step toward a GIS toolbox comprising all relevant movement comparison methods.

  6. Forgetting History: Mediated Reflections on Occupy Wall Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Daubs

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how Occupy Wall Street (OWS protestors’ practices and stated understanding of media act on social perceptions of networked media. It stems from a discursive content analysis of online commentary from OWS protestors and supporters, using different sources from the first Adbusters blog in July 2011 until May 2012. We demonstrate how the belief in the myth of an egalitarian Internet was incorporated into the offline structure of OWS and led OWS participants to adopt rhetoric that distances the movement from past protest actions by stating the movement was “like the Internet”.

  7. A probabilistic model for visual inspection of concrete shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic model, called Bayesian networks, to visually assess the state of damage in reinforced concrete shear walls. The goal of this research is to reduce the inspection time and decrease the chance of missing or underestimating the state of damage in such structures. To develop this model, we define six types of visible damage on concrete shear walls. The model describes the causal relationship of such damage signs with the design parameters and damage states of the walls. To train and test the model, a database of all visually documented experimental works on concrete shear walls was collected from the literature. The model is trained on ninety percent of the database, and its performance is successfully validated on the ten percent remaining unseen portion of the database. The results show that the model can classify the images of yielded and failed walls. Additionally, it can prognosticate the most probable failure scenario for a yielded wall.

  8. Domain walls on the brane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; van der Schaar, JP; Papadopoulos, G

    1998-01-01

    We show that all branes admit worldvolume domain wall solutions. We find one class of solutions for which the tension of the brane changes discontinuously along the domain wall. These solutions are not supersymmetric. We argue that there is another class of domain wall solutions which is

  9. Build an Interactive Word Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Word walls visually display important vocabulary covered during class. Although teachers have often been encouraged to post word walls in their classrooms, little information is available to guide them. This article describes steps science teachers can follow to transform traditional word walls into interactive teaching tools. It also describes a…

  10. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  11. Indoor climbing walls in Prague

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzová, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the indoor climbing walls in climbing centers for the public in Prague. It creates an overview of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of indoor climbing walls in Prague. Thesis allowing ordinary users and the general public interested in climbing easier selection of the appropriate climbing wall according on their level, the safety requirements, background, but also the place of residence.

  12. Tongue and lateral upper airway movement with mandibular advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth C; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C; Bilston, Lynne E

    2013-03-01

    To characterize tongue and lateral upper airway movement and to image tongue deformation during mandibular advancement. Dynamic imaging study of a wide range of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), body mass index (BMI) subjects. Not-for-profit research institute. 30 subjects (aged 31-69 y, AHI 0-75 events/h, BMI 17-39 kg/m(2)). Subjects were imaged using dynamic tagged magnetic resonance imaging during mandibular advancement. Tissue displacements were quantified with the harmonic phase technique. Mean mandibular advancement was 5.6 ± 1.8 mm (mean ± standard deviation). This produced movement through a connection from the ramus of the mandible to the pharyngeal lateral walls in all subjects. In the sagittal plane, 3 patterns of posterior tongue deformation were seen with mandibular advancement-(A) en bloc anterior movement, (B) anterior movement of the oropharyngeal region, and (C) minimal anterior movement. Subjects with lower AHI were more likely to have en bloc movement (P = 0.04) than minimal movement. Antero-posterior elongation of the tongue increased with AHI (R = 0.461, P = 0.01). Mean anterior displacements of the posterior nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal regions of the tongue were 20% ± 13% and 31% ± 17% of mandibular advancement. The posterior tongue compressed 1.1 ± 2.2 mm supero-inferiorly. Mandibular advancement has two mechanisms of action which increase airway size. In subjects with low AHI, the entire tongue moves forward. Mandibular advancement also produces lateral airway expansion via a direct connection between the lateral walls and the ramus of the mandible. Brown EC; Cheng S; McKenzie DK; Butler JE; Gandevia SC; Bilston LE. Tongue and lateral upper airway movement with mandibular advancement. SLEEP 2013;36(3):397-404.

  13. Dispersive Stiffness of Dzyaloshinskii Domain Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegren, J. P.; Lau, D.; Sokalski, V.

    2017-07-01

    It is well documented that subjecting perpendicular magnetic films that exhibit the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction to an in-plane magnetic field results in a domain wall (DW) energy σ , which is highly anisotropic with respect to the orientation of the DW in the film plane Θ . We demonstrate that this anisotropy has a profound impact on the elastic response of the DW as characterized by the surface stiffness σ ˜ (Θ )=σ (Θ )+σ''(Θ ) and evaluate its dependence on the length scale of deformation. The influence of stiffness on DW mobility in the creep regime is assessed, with analytic and numerical calculations showing trends in σ ˜ that better represent experimental measurements of domain wall velocity in magnetic thin films compared to σ alone. Our treatment provides experimental support for theoretical models of the mobility of anisotropic elastic manifolds and makes progress toward a more complete understanding of magnetic domain wall creep.

  14. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. ”Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever.“ (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.) PMID:19060196

  15. Cell wall biology: perspectives from cell wall imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kieran J D; Marcus, Susan E; Knox, J Paul

    2011-03-01

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are important biomaterials that underpin plant growth, are major repositories for photosynthetically accumulated carbon, and, in addition, impact greatly on the human use of plants. Land plant cell walls contain in the region of a dozen major polysaccharide structures that are mostly encompassed by cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectic polysaccharides. During the evolution of land plants, polysaccharide diversification appears to have largely involved structural elaboration and diversification within these polysaccharide groups. Cell wall chemistry is well advanced and a current phase of cell wall science is aimed at placing the complex polysaccharide chemistry in cellular contexts and developing a detailed understanding of cell wall biology. Imaging cell wall glycomes is a challenging area but recent developments in the establishment of cell wall molecular probe panels and their use in high throughput procedures are leading to rapid advances in the molecular understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of individual cell walls and also cell wall differences at taxonomic levels. The challenge now is to integrate this knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity with an understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms that underpin cell wall properties and functions.

  16. Photogrammetry of fetal breathing movements during the third trimester of pregnancy: observations in normal and abnormal pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florido, J; Padilla, M C; Soto, V; Camacho, A; Moscoso, G; Navarrete, L

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate parameters of fetal breathing movements-displacement of the fetal abdominal wall during inspiration and expiration, time of inspiration and expiration and speed of inspiration and expiration-between 30 and 36 weeks' gestation in normal pregnancies, and in those complicated by gestational diabetes or maternal hypertension. Three categories of pregnancy were investigated: 49 were normal, 16 had pregnancy-induced diabetes and 10 were hypertensive. According to their gestational age, the patients were divided into two groups: Group A between 30 and 32 weeks' gestation and Group B between 33 and 36 weeks. Using photogrammetry and a computer-operated algorithm, six parameters of fetal breathing movements were investigated. There were significant differences in the various fetal parameters measured among the three categories of pregnant women. Up until 32 weeks of gestation, the displacements during inspiration and expiration were larger, the speeds of inspiration and expiration were higher, and the times for inspiration and expiration were shorter in the diabetic and hypertensive groups than in the normal group. In the later period, between 33 and 36 weeks, fetuses of pregnancy-induced diabetic patients showed the lowest inspiration and expiration times and the highest speeds of inspiration and expiration. Photogrammetry in conjunction with a computer-operated algorithm can be used to assess fetal breathing movements. There are significant differences in fetal breathing movements between normal pregnancies and those that are complicated by gestational diabetes or hypertension.

  17. Managing Movement as Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  18. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Ambar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychogenic movement Disorders (PMD may result from somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression anxiety disorders and less frequently, histrionic personality disorders. First recognized by Henry Head in early twentieth century, PMD s commonly encountered and clues to their differentiation from organic disease. A generally accepted management protocol has been outlined.

  19. Rhythm Training through Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveire, Janine H.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that string playing, rhythm, pitch, and tone quality are all dependent on the movement and coordination of the player. Presents a rhythmic focus lesson plan for students who need improvement in rhythm skills. Includes a lesson plan diagram and suggested teacher resources. (CFR)

  20. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    . The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...

  1. The Mastery of Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Rudolf; Ullmann, Lisa

    In this third edition, some amendments and additions have been made to the original text, first published in 1950. As in past editions, the relationship between the inner motivation of movement and the outer functioning of the body is explored. Acting and dancing are shown as activities deeply concerned with man's urge to establish values and…

  2. [Architecture and movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  3. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  4. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  5. Measuring Facial Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  6. Advances in clinical trials for movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieburtz, Karl; Olanow, C Warren

    2015-09-15

    In the past several years, there have been several innovations in the design of clinical trials assessing new therapies for patients with movement disorders. These include attempts to address difficulties in conducting clinical trials in treated patients in the advanced stages of their illness, demonstrating disease-modifying effects or a reduction in the development of cumulative disability, and assessing the effects of interventions in patients in the premanifest state of their disease. In addition, there have been advances in clinical trial methodologies and changes in regulatory guidelines that permit the performance of more efficient studies, with a reduction in the cost and duration of the development period. These will be reviewed in the present article. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-01-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function...... was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery...... pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the implementation of the pathway. The enhanced recovery after surgery pathway included preoperative high-dose steroid, daily assessment...

  8. Movement: A Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Dalaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain.Materials and Methods: In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 or- thodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar ex- traction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (Ga,Al,As diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm2, 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups.Results: There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05.Conclusion: Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth move- ment or reducing the associated pain.

  9. The stability of gabion walls for earth retaining structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyuddin Ramli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of earth retaining structures in flood prone areas has become a serious problem in many countries. The two most basic causes of failure arising from flooding are scouring and erosion of the foundation of the superstructure. Hence, a number of structures like bridges employ scour-arresting devices, e.g., gabions to acting on the piers and abutments during flooding. Research was therefore undertaken to improve gabion resistance against lateral movement by means of an interlocking configuration instead of the conventional stack-and-pair system. This involved simulating lateral thrusts against two dimensionally identical retaining wall systems configured according to the rectangular and hexagonal gabion type. The evolution of deformation observed suggested that the interlocking design exhibits better structural integrity than the conventional box gabion-based wall in resisting lateral movement and therefore warrants consideration for use as an appropriate scour-arresting device for earth retaining structures.

  10. Overlap of movement planning and movement execution reduces reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Legrain, Valéry; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Motor planning is the process of preparing the appropriate motor commands in order to achieve a goal. This process has largely been thought to occur before movement onset and traditionally has been associated with reaction time. However, in a virtual line bisection task we observed an overlap between movement planning and execution. In this task performed with a robotic manipulandum, we observed that participants (n = 30) made straight movements when the line was in front of them (near target) but often made curved movements when the same target was moved sideways (far target, which had the same orientation) in such a way that they crossed the line perpendicular to its orientation. Unexpectedly, movements to the far targets had shorter reaction times than movements to the near targets (mean difference: 32 ms, SE: 5 ms, max: 104 ms). In addition, the curvature of the movement modulated reaction time. A larger increase in movement curvature from the near to the far target was associated with a larger reduction in reaction time. These highly curved movements started with a transport phase during which accuracy demands were not taken into account. We conclude that an accuracy demand imposes a reaction time penalty if processed before movement onset. This penalty is reduced if the start of the movement consists of a transport phase and if the movement plan can be refined with respect to accuracy demands later in the movement, hence demonstrating an overlap between movement planning and execution. In the planning of a movement, the brain has the opportunity to delay the incorporation of accuracy requirements of the motor plan in order to reduce the reaction time by up to 100 ms (average: 32 ms). Such shortening of reaction time is observed here when the first phase of the movement consists of a transport phase. This forces us to reconsider the hypothesis that motor plans are fully