WorldWideScience

Sample records for walker volume co-editors

  1. Dandy-Walker Malformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rme

    Dandy-Walker variant consist of vermian hypoplasia and cystic dilttion of the fourth ventricle without enlargement of the posterior fossa. (Figure 1). Fig. 1: Dandy-Walker malformation. Dandy-. Walker variant in a 13-year-old girl with thoracal scoliosis. Sagittal T1-weighted MRI shows agenesis of the corpus callosum and a.

  2. Dandy-Walker malformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Silian Mandu Fonseca; Marta Wey Vieira; Sandra Regina Dantas Nascimento; Sandro Blasi Esposito

    2017-01-01

    Dandy-Walker malformation is characterized by complete or partial agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, and enlargement of the posterior fossa with displacement...

  3. Sir Gilbert Thomas Walker

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Iceland as 'North Atlantic Oscillation' and similar oscillation in the northern. Pacific Ocean as 'North Pacific Oscillation'. These three oscillations of surface pressure playa fundamental role in the variability of the earth's climate. Walker noted a tendency of the Southern Oscillation to persist for at least one to two seasons ...

  4. Dandy Walker malformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-10-01

    Oct 1, 2014 ... Dandy Walker Syndrome is a rare congenital malforma- tion of the central nervous system. It results ... studies have detected deletion of cerebellar genes Z1C1 and Z1C43. Incidence is 1:25,000-30,000 in ... syndrome and an emerging class of dis- eases called ciliopathies., Diagnosis is by CT scan which.

  5. Dandy Walker malformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-10-01

    Oct 1, 2014 ... Abstract: We present a rare case of Dandy Walker Syndrome in a child who presents with com- plaints of frontal headache, neck pain, fever, progressive visual impairment and multiple general- ized tonic clonic seizures, inabil- ity to stand and urinary inconti- nence. Given the clinical and neuro-imaging ...

  6. Dandy-Walker malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silian Mandu Fonseca

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dandy-Walker malformation is characterized by complete or partial agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, and enlargement of the posterior fossa with displacement of the lateral sinuses. This article aims to present current, anatomical, etiological, pathophysiological, syndromic and treatment aspects of this malformation.

  7. Quincke random walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradillo, Gerardo; Heintz, Aneesh; Vlahovska, Petia

    2017-11-01

    The spontaneous rotation of a sphere in an applied uniform DC electric field (Quincke effect) has been utilized to engineer self-propelled particles: if the sphere is initially resting on a surface, it rolls. The Quincke rollers have been widely used as a model system to study collective behavior in ``active'' suspensions. If the applied field is DC, an isolated Quincke roller follows a straight line trajectory. In this talk, we discuss the design of a Quincke roller that executes a random-walk-like behavior. We utilize AC field - upon reversal of the field direction a fluctuation in the axis of rotation (which is degenerate in the plane perpendicular to the field and parallel to the surface) introduces randomness in the direction of motion. The MSD of an isolated Quincke walker depends on frequency, amplitude, and waveform of the electric field. Experiment and theory are compared. We also investigate the collective behavior of Quincke walkers,the transport of inert particles in a bath of Quincke walkers, and the spontaneous motion of a drop containing Quincke active particle. supported by NSF Grant CBET 1437545.

  8. Fall prevention walker during rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Kian Sek; E, Chun Zhi; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes on the design of a walker for the prevention of falling among elderlies or patients during rehabilitation whenever they use a walker to assist them. Fall happens due to impaired balance or gait problem. The assistive device is designed by applying stability concept and an accelerometric fall detection system is included. The accelerometric fall detection system acts as an alerting device that acquires body accelerometric data and detect fall. Recorded accelerometric data could be useful for further assessment. Structural strength of the walker was verified via iterations of simulation using finite element analysis, before being fabricated. Experiments were conducted to identify the fall patterns using accelerometric data. The design process and detection of fall pattern demonstrates the design of a walker that could support the user without fail and alerts the helper, thus salvaging the users from injuries due to fall and unattended situation.

  9. Walker-Warburg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schachter Harry

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Walker-Warburg Syndrome (WWS is a rare form of autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy associated with brain and eye abnormalities. WWS has a worldwide distribution. The overall incidence is unknown but a survey in North-eastern Italy has reported an incidence rate of 1.2 per 100,000 live births. It is the most severe form of congenital muscular dystrophy with most children dying before the age of three years. WWS presents at birth with generalized hypotonia, muscle weakness, developmental delay with mental retardation and occasional seizures. It is associated with type II cobblestone lissencephaly, hydrocephalus, cerebellar malformations, eye abnormalities and congenital muscular dystrophy characterized by hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan. Several genes have been implicated in the etiology of WWS, and others are as yet unknown. Several mutations were found in the Protein O-Mannosyltransferase 1 and 2 (POMT1 and POMT2 genes, and one mutation was found in each of the fukutin and fukutin-related protein (FKRP genes. Laboratory investigations usually show elevated creatine kinase, myopathic/dystrophic muscle pathology and altered α-dystroglycan. Antenatal diagnosis is possible in families with known mutations. Prenatal ultrasound may be helpful for diagnosis in families where the molecular defect is unknown. No specific treatment is available. Management is only supportive and preventive.

  10. [Co-editors and editors with Jewish origins of the first German journals for anaesthesia. Their fate under National Socialism and an attempt at a biographical appreciation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, M; Goetz, A E

    2010-09-01

    The decision to publish the journals Der Schmerz and Narkose und Anaesthesie in 1928 was an important step towards the professionalization of anaesthesiology in Germany. The appearance of both journals, which for economic reasons merged into Schmerz - Narkose - Anaesthesie 1 year later, was initiated and vehemently supported by Jewish physicians. As editors and co-editors they were deeply involved with the editorial tasks of the journals for years from the early beginnings. When the National Socialistic Party took over the government in Germany many of the Jewish colleagues were forced to quit their editorial tasks, were eliminated and replaced by "Arians", they were persecuted and often arrested, forced to emigrate or decided to commit suicide due to inhumane personal circumstances. It is our intention to recall the biography and the terrible fate of the nearly unknown Jewish members of the editorial board of the first German anaesthesia journals. Moreover the biographic sketches promote a continuous discussion about the victims of an inhumane and barbarous ideology.

  11. Dandy walker variant and bipolar I disorder with graphomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Serdar Suleyman; Karakaş Uğurlu, Görkem; Cakmak, Selcen

    2014-07-01

    Cerebellum is known to play an important role in coordination and motor functions. In some resent studies it is also considered to be involved in modulation of mood, cognition and psychiatric disorders. Dandy Walker Malformation is a congenital malformation that is characterized by hypoplasia or aplasia of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle and enlargement of the posterior fossa. When the volume of posterior fossa is normal, the malformation is called Dandy Walker Variant. Case is a 32 year old male with a 12 year history of Bipolar I Disorder presented with manic and depresive symptoms, including dysphoric and depressive affect, anhedonia, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, thoughts of fear about future, overtalkativeness and graphomania, increased energy, irregular sleep, loss of appetite, increased immersion in projects, irritability, agressive behavior, impulsivity. Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging was compatible to the morphological features of Dandy Walker Variant.

  12. Intelligently Controllable Walker with Magnetorheological Fluid Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takehito; Tanida, Sosuke; Tanaka, Toshimasa; Kobayashi, Keigo; Mitobe, Kazuhisa

    Caster walkers are supporting frames with casters and wheels. These tools are regularly utilized as life support tools or walking rehabilitation tools in hospitals, nursing homes and individual residences. Users of the walkers can easily move it thanks to its wheels and casters. However falling accidents often happen when it moves without users. The falling accident is very serious problem and one of leading causes of secondary injuries. In the other case, it is hard to move to desired directions if users have imbalance in their motor functions or sensory functions, e.g., hemiplegic patients. To improve safeness and operability of the walkers, we installed compact MR fluid brakes on the wheels and controlled walking speed and direction of the walker. We named this intelligently controllable walker, “i-Walker” and discussed on the control methods and experimental results in this paper. Preliminary trials for direction control of the first-generation of the i-Walker (i-Walker1) are presented. On the basis of the results, we improved the control method and hardware of the i-Walker1, and developed the second-generation (i-Walker2). System description and experimental results of the i-Walker2 are also described. The i-Walker2 has better operability and lower energy consumption than that of the i-Walker1. The line-tracing controller of the i-Walker2 well controls human motions during walking experiments on the target straight line.

  13. MUSCLE MRI SEGMENTATION USING RANDOM WALKER METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shukelovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique of marker set construction for muscle MRI segmentation using random walker approach is introduced. The possibility of clinician’s manual labor amount reduction and random walker algorithm optimization is studied.

  14. 21 CFR 890.3825 - Mechanical walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mechanical walker. 890.3825 Section 890.3825 Food... DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3825 Mechanical walker. (a) Identification. A mechanical walker is a four-legged device with a metal frame intended for medical purposes to...

  15. Bathymetry of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Smith, J. LaRue

    2007-01-01

    Walker Lake lies within a topographically closed basin in west-central Nevada and is the terminus of the Walker River. Much of the streamflow in the Walker River is diverted for irrigation, which has contributed to a decline in lake-surface altitude of about 150 feet and an increase in dissolved solids from 2,500 to 16,000 milligrams per liter in Walker Lake since 1882. The increase in salinity threatens the fresh-water ecosystem and survival of the Lahontan cutthroat trout, a species listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accurately determining the bathymetry and relations between lake-surface altitude, surface area, and storage volume are part of a study to improve the water budget for Walker Lake. This report describes the updated bathymetry of Walker Lake, a comparison of results from this study and a study by Rush in 1970, and an estimate of the 1882 lake-surface altitude. Bathymetry was measured using a single-beam echosounder coupled to a differentially-corrected global positioning system. Lake depth was subtracted from the lake-surface altitude to calculate the altitude of the lake bottom. A Lidar (light detection and ranging) survey and high resolution aerial imagery were used to create digital elevation models around Walker Lake. The altitude of the lake bottom and digital elevation models were merged together to create a single map showing land-surface altitude contours delineating areas that are currently or that were submerged by Walker Lake. Surface area and storage volume for lake-surface altitudes of 3,851.5-4,120 feet were calculated with 3-D surface-analysis software. Walker Lake is oval shaped with a north-south trending long axis. On June 28, 2005, the lake-surface altitude was 3,935.6 feet, maximum depth was 86.3 feet, and the surface area was 32,190 acres. The minimum altitude of the lake bottom from discrete point depths is 3,849.3 feet near the center of Walker Lake. The lake bottom is remarkably smooth except for mounds near

  16. Simulation of the Lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, west-central Nevada, using PRMS and MODFLOW models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allander, Kip K.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Jeton, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Walker Lake is a terminal lake in west-central Nevada with almost all outflow occurring through evaporation. Diversions from Walker River since the early 1900s have contributed to a substantial reduction in flow entering Walker Lake. As a result, the lake is receding, and salt concentrations have increased to a level in which Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (Lahontan Cutthroat trout) are no longer present, and the lake ecosystem is threatened. Consequently, there is a concerted effort to restore the Walker Lake ecosystem and fishery to a level that is more sustainable. However, Walker Lake is interlinked with the lower Walker River and adjacent groundwater system which makes it difficult to understand the full effect of upstream water-management actions on the overall hydrologic system including the lake level, volume, and dissolved-solids concentrations of Walker Lake. To understand the effects of water-management actions on the lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, a watershed model and groundwater flow model have been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

  17. COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMOTORIC SWIVEL WALKER MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef VARGA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The first mechanical construction of swivel walker is from year 1963 and it was aimed for support movement of people with disabilities. This solution was very difficult and it was main reason for purpose of electromotoric module, which facilitates movement and reduce effort of people with disabilities. Therefore further research in this area are still provided. In this paper trajectory of swivel walker with electromotoric modules is described. To analyze the tilt and trajectory structure of the walker SolidWorks software was implemented.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Dandy-Walker malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Walker malformation , signs and symptoms caused by abnormal brain development are present at birth or develop within the first year of life. Some children have a buildup of fluid in the brain ( ...

  19. Anatomic variants in Dandy-Walker complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcă, Maria Claudia; Kozma, Kinga; Petcheşi, CodruŢa Diana; Bembea, Marius; Pop, Ovidiu Laurean; MuŢiu, Gabriela; Coroi, Mihaela Cristiana; Jurcă, Alexandru Daniel; Dobjanschi, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    Dandy-Walker complex (DWC) is a malformative association of the central nervous system. DWC includes four different types: Dandy-Walker malformation (vermis agenesis or hypoplasia, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle and a large posterior fossa); Dandy-Walker variant (vermis hypoplasia, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, normal posterior fossa); mega cysterna magna (large posterior fossa, normal vermis and fourth ventricle) and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst. We present and discuss four cases with different morphological and clinical forms of the Dandy-Walker complex. In all four cases, diagnosis was reached by incorporation of clinical (macrocephaly, seizures) and imaging [X-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] data. Two patients were diagnosed with Dandy-Walker complex, one patient was diagnosed with Dandy-Walker variant in a rare association with neurofibromatosis and one patient was diagnosed with a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst associated with left-sided Claude Bernard-Horner syndrome, congenital heart disease (coarctation of the aorta, mitral stenosis) and gastroesophageal reflux. In all forms of DWC, the clinical, radiological and functional manifestations are variable and require adequate diagnostic and therapeutic measures.

  20. [Dandy-Walker complex: a clinicopathologic study of 9 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Gu, Yi-qun; Sun, Xiao-fei; Wang, Ying-nan; Wang, Ai-chun

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the etiology, pathogenesis, clinicopathologic characteristics, clinical prognosis and treatment of Dandy-Walker syndrome. Nine cases of Dandy-Walker syndrome were included in the study. The autopsy findings and clinical history were evaluated along with review of the literature. The causes, pathogenetic mechanism, pathologic features and prognosis of Dandy-Walker syndrome were analyzed. Among 9 Dandy-Walker syndrome cases, six patients presented with variants of Dandy-Walker complex and 3 cases had classic Dandy-Walker malformation. In addition, 4 patients presented with combined lateral ventricle expansion and multiple malformations were seen in 7 cases. Combined umbilical cord abnormality was noted in 4 patients with variant of Dandy-Walker complex and combined placental abnormality was seen in one classic Dandy-Walker syndrome. Dandy-Walker syndrome is a rare disease. In addition to complex pathogenesis with possible genetic and environmental antigenic etiologies, placental and umbilical cord abnormality may be also related to its development.

  1. Fermi-Walker transport and Thomas precession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor Lambare, Justo

    2017-07-01

    An exact derivation of the Thomas precession formula is presented based on the Fermi-Walker transport equation. Given that the Thomas precession effect is not a particularly intuitive phenomenon, such that when discovered in 1925 it took by surprise even experts in relativity theory, Einstein included, an alternative perspective can be useful at an intermediate level for physics students. The existing literature linking the Thomas precession to Fermi-Walker transport use geometric algebra as mathematical tool. Here the mathematics is kept within the limits of the usual vector and tensor algebra commonly used in special relativity theory at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students.

  2. Two cases of Dandy-Walker syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-06-15

    Two cases of Dandy- Walker syndrome are reported with emphasis on CT findings. The Dandy-Walker syndrome is known to be a developmental anomaly, which is a congenital cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle due to atresia of foramen Magendie and possibly also foramen Luschka, associated with some form of vermian dysgenesis. The CT finding of one cases reveal huge cystic mass in midline of the posterior cranial fossa with small compressed cerebellar hemisphere in the lateral portion, associated with hydrocephalus. The other shows semilunar-shaped cystic mass in posterior cranial fossa with anteriorly displaced cerebellum, which communicates with apparent fourth ventricle through the vallecula. Both cases show no inferior.

  3. Digital elevation model of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Walker Lake lies within a topographically closed basin in west-central Nevada and is the terminus of the Walker River. Accurately determining the bathymetry and...

  4. Dandy Walker malformation (variant): late presentation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a rare case of Dandy Walker Syndrome in a child who presents with complaints of frontal headache, neck pain, fever, progressive visual impairment and multiple generalized tonic clonic seizures, inability to stand and urinary incontinence. Given the clinical and neuro-imaging findings, the diagnosis of Dandy ...

  5. Síndrome de Dandy-walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaderson Costa da Costa

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available São relatados os casos de 4 pacientes com síndrome de Dandy-Walker diagnosticada pela pneumencefalografia fracionada e ventriculografia. O tratamento e a patogenia desta malformação são discutidos com base em dados embriológicos.

  6. Psychiatric misdiagnoses in Dandy-Walker variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaettner, C; Pfaffenberger, N M; Cartes-Zumelzu, F; Hofer, A

    2015-01-01

    Cases of intellectual impairment and aberrant behavior in patients with cerebellar diseases have been described since the early nineteenth century. Here, we report on a patient suffering from Dandy-Walker variant who presented with symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder and delusional disorder. The current findings emphasize the potential relevance of focal cerebellar lesions as organic correlates of these disorders.

  7. Three Cases of Walker Warburg Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ayvaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available    Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS, a rare form of congenital muscular dystrophy, is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting the brain, eye, and muscles. In this study, three WWS cases followed in the pediatric clinic of Cumhuriyet University are presented. According to our knowledge, one of our patients is the longestlived case who has been reported.

  8. Obituary: Robert Mowbray Walker, 1929-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, Neil T.

    2004-12-01

    Robert M. Walker, PhD, Professor of Physics in Arts & Sciences and a faculty fellow of the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, died of stomach cancer Thursday, 12 February 2004, in Brussels, Belgium. He was 75. Walker worked on the frontiers of space research for more than four decades. Robert Walker was born in Philadelphia on 6 February 1929. His mother was Dorothy Potter and he considered Roger Potter his father though he was not his biological father. His early years were spent in New York City and in upstate New York. He attended the Bronx High School of Science, earned his BS in physics from Union College and in 1954, he received his PhD in particle physics from Yale University. He subsequently joined the General Electric Laboratory in Schenectady, New York where he studied the radiation effects in solids. His work on defects in irradiated copper is still regarded as the definitive work on the topic. In the early 1960s, Walker's discovery of fossil nuclear particle tracks in minerals was instrumental to new developments in geo-chronology and cosmic ray physics. In particular, his discovery of tracks from nuclei heavier than iron opened a new frontier of cosmic ray physics. He subsequently pioneered the use of plastics to detect and count such nuclei in cosmic ray balloon flights. Beginning in 1966, when he moved to Washington University and became the first McDonnell Professor of Physics, his research interests turned more toward space physics. He was the inaugural director of the McDonnell Center, which was established in 1975 by a gift from aerospace pioneer James S. McDonnell. Walker was a member of the NASA committee that allocated samples of the first returned lunar materials, and his laboratory led the way in deciphering their record of lunar, solar system and galactic evolution. Together with Ghislaine Crozaz and other colleagues, Walker made path breaking laboratory studies of the first moon rocks revealing the history of solar radiation and

  9. Space Walker - the Cognitive Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarinskiy, S.; Vitkovskiy, V. V.; Gorohov, V.; Zakharevski, D.

    2008-08-01

    The data cognitive visualization system --- ``Space Walker'' is presented. The creation of program products requires the practical mastery of the entire complex of achievements in the field of mathematical statistics, theory of illegible sets, cognitive machine drawing, cognitive psychology and theory of knowledge. SW system base on the ground of possibility use already acting program software intellectual support adopted solution in task control complex system with deep a priori uncertainty.

  10. Dandy–Walker malformation: An incidental finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Kumar, Santhosh; Mamatha, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    Dandy–Walker malformation (DWM) is a rare intracranial congenital abnormality that affects the cerebellum and some of its components; particularly cerebellar vermis, fourth ventricle and is characterized by an enlarged posterior fossa. Although there is an extensive list of signs attributed to DWM, final diagnosis is solely dependent on imaging techniques as there are no signs that are characteristic of DWM. This article reports a case with DWM who was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:20838490

  11. Hydrocephalus in Dandy-Walker malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spennato, Pietro; Mirone, Giuseppe; Nastro, Anna; Buonocore, Maria Consiglio; Ruggiero, Claudio; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Aliberti, Ferdinando; Cinalli, Giuseppe

    2011-10-01

    Even if the first description of Dandy-Walker dates back 1887, difficulty in the establishment of correct diagnosis, especially concerning differential diagnosis with other types of posterior fossa CSF collection, still persists. Further confusion is added by the inclusion, in some classification, of different malformations with different prognosis and therapeutic strategy under the same label of "Dandy-Walker". An extensive literature review concerning embryologic, etiologic, pathogenetic, clinical and neuroradiological aspects has been performed. Therapeutic options, prognosis and intellectual outcome are also reviewed. The correct interpretation of the modern neuroradiologic techniques, including CSF flow MR imaging, may help in identifying a "real" Dandy-Walker malformation. Among therapeutical strategies, single shunting (ventriculo-peritoneal or cyst-peritoneal shunts) appears effective in the control of both ventricle and cyst size. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy may be considered an acceptable alternative, especially in older children, with the aim to reduce the shunt-related problems. Prognosis and intellectual outcome mostly depend on the presence of associated malformations, the degree of vermian malformation and the adequate control of hydrocephalus.

  12. [Dandy-Walker variant: Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Núñez, José E; Lozano-Bustillo, Alejandra; Irias-Álvarez, Merlyn S; Vásquez-Montes, Raúl F; Varela-González, Douglas M

    Dandy Walker variant is defined by a variable hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermix with or without posterior fossa increase and without tentorium elevation. describe the case of a rare disease and emphasise the need to clarify the aetiology of prenatal malformations, as well as its multidisciplinary management. A male patient, 8 years of age, with a history of Infantile Cerebral Palsy and epilepsy, who was admitted with a history of tonic-clonic seizures. He was admitted due to psycho-motor developmental delay. During his hospitalisation, he had multiple seizure episodes, controlled with anticonvulsants. A computerized tomography was performed, in which communication was observed between the cisterna magna and fourth ventricle (the latter increased in size). In addition, the cerebellar vermix showed a partial hypoplasia. All these findings were compatible with a variant of the Dandy Walker syndrome. Dandy Walker variant may be asymptomatic and the images found may not indicate them as the cause of developmental disorders, due to its association with multiple syndromes and chromosomal abnormalities. Clinical presentation and prognosis depends on the related disorders, and a multidisciplinary approach is important, because the treatment depends on the symptoms presented. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Auditory perception of a human walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, David; Campbell, Megan E J

    2014-01-01

    When one hears footsteps in the hall, one is able to instantly recognise it as a person: this is an everyday example of auditory biological motion perception. Despite the familiarity of this experience, research into this phenomenon is in its infancy compared with visual biological motion perception. Here, two experiments explored sensitivity to, and recognition of, auditory stimuli of biological and nonbiological origin. We hypothesised that the cadence of a walker gives rise to a temporal pattern of impact sounds that facilitates the recognition of human motion from auditory stimuli alone. First a series of detection tasks compared sensitivity with three carefully matched impact sounds: footsteps, a ball bouncing, and drumbeats. Unexpectedly, participants were no more sensitive to footsteps than to impact sounds of nonbiological origin. In the second experiment participants made discriminations between pairs of the same stimuli, in a series of recognition tasks in which the temporal pattern of impact sounds was manipulated to be either that of a walker or the pattern more typical of the source event (a ball bouncing or a drumbeat). Under these conditions, there was evidence that both temporal and nontemporal cues were important in recognising theses stimuli. It is proposed that the interval between footsteps, which reflects a walker's cadence, is a cue for the recognition of the sounds of a human walking.

  14. Passive random walkers and riverlike networks on growing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chen-Shan

    2002-08-01

    Passive random walker dynamics is introduced on a growing surface. The walker is designed to drift upward or downward and then follow specific topological features, such as hill tops or valley bottoms, of the fluctuating surface. The passive random walker can thus be used to directly explore scaling properties of otherwise somewhat hidden topological features. For example, the walker allows us to directly measure the dynamical exponent of the underlying growth dynamics. We use the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) -type surface growth as an example. The world lines of a set of merging passive walkers show nontrivial coalescence behaviors and display the riverlike network structures of surface ridges in space-time. In other dynamics, such as Edwards-Wilkinson growth, this does not happen. The passive random walkers in KPZ-type surface growth are closely related to the shock waves in the noiseless Burgers equation. We also briefly discuss their relations to the passive scalar dynamics in turbulence.

  15. Exploring complex networks by means of adaptive walkers

    OpenAIRE

    Prignano, Luce; Moreno, Yamir; Diaz-Guilera, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Finding efficient algorithms to explore large networks with the aim of recovering information about their structure is an open problem. Here, we investigate this challenge by proposing a model in which random walkers with previously assigned home nodes navigate through the network during a fixed amount of time. We consider that the exploration is successful if the walker gets the information gathered back home, otherwise, no data is retrieved. Consequently, at each time step, the walkers, wit...

  16. [Differential diagnosis of Dandy-Walker syndrome different presentations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobías-González, Pablo; Gil Mira, Mar; Valero de Bernabé, Javier; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2012-08-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome is a set of abnormalities of the posterior fossa including three modalities: classic Dandy-Walker malformation, Dandy-Walker variant and mega-cisterna magna. Our objective is clarify the differential diagnosis among these entities. Descriptive and retrospective study of Dandy-Walker cases diagnosed at our Department during the last five years plus a review of the related Medical literature. Three cases of Dandy-Walker modalities are reported: one case of classic Dandy-Walker malformation, one case of Dandy-Walker variant, and one case of false Dandy-Walker. In the first two cases the patients underwent legal abortion, whereas in the last one a healthy male newborn was delivered in the week 38 of gestation. Malformations in the posterior fossa, including Dandy-Walker syndrome, are still a challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Technical developments in imaging, such as in three-dimensional sonography and magnetic resonance, allow higher resolution and multiplanar images for an easier diagnose. There is a high rate of false positive, particularly before the 18th week of gestation. It is advisable not to establish a final diagnose before that week.

  17. DNA Walker-Regulated Cancer Cell Growth Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feiran; Cha, Tae-Gon; Pan, Jing; Ozcelikkale, Altug; Han, Bumsoo; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2016-06-16

    We demonstrate a DNAzyme-based walker system as a controlled oligonucleotide drug AS1411 release platform for breast cancer treatment. In this system, AS1411 strands are released from fuel strands as a walker moves along its carbon nanotube track. The release rate and amount of anticancer oligonucleotides are controlled by the walker operation. With a walker system embedded within the collagen extracellular matrix, we show that this drug release system can be used for in situ cancer cell growth inhibition. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Chinese species of Pediobius Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huan-Xi; Salle, John LA; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2017-03-08

    The Chinese species of Pediobius Walker, 1846 are treated in this paper, resulting in 34 species, of which 5 are newly described: P. bisulcatus Cao & Zhu sp. n., P. elongatus Cao & Zhu sp. n., P.petiolapilus Cao & Zhu sp. n., P. prominentis Cao & Zhu, sp. n., and P. tortricida Cao & Zhu, sp. n. Nine species are also newly recorded from China: P. anomalus (Gahan, 1920), P. bethylicidus Kerrich, 1973, P. bruchicida (Rondani, 1872), P. cassidae Erdös, 1958, P. claviger (Thomson, 1878), P. erionotae Kerrich, 1973, P. phragmitis Bouček, 1965, P. saulius (Walker, 1839), and P. tetratomus (Thomson, 1878). Four new synonyms are proposed: P. illiberidis Liao, 1987 under P. pyrgo (Walker, 1839) syn. n., P. planiceps Sheng & Kamijo, 1992 under P. inexpectatus Kerrich, 1973 syn. n., P. sinensis Sheng & Wang, 1994 under P. facialis (Giraud, 1863) syn. n., and P. songshaominus Liao, 1987 under P. yunanensis Liao, 1987 syn. n. The species-group concept is used to compare similar species, of which eight are recognized in China including two newly recognized groups: the cassidae-group and the crassicornis-group. One species complex, the P. eubius complex, is also recognized. An updated checklist of the Chinese species of Pediobius is provided, with species-group placement. New host records for Pediobius species from China are summarized in a table and valid species possibly present in China but not included in this study in another table. A key to all known females and males of Chinese Pediobius is also provided.

  19. Variante de Dandy Walker: relato de caso = Dandy Walker variant: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Richard Lester et al.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: relatar o caso de um paciente com variante de Dandy Walker, chamando atenção para a importância da suspeita, investigação e manejo das repercussões clínicas. Descrição do caso: é relatado o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, com quadro clínico e radiológico típico da Variante de Dandy Walker. Durante o pré-natal, através de ecografia obstétrica com 23 semanas e 3 dias, apresentou alterações sugestivas de Síndrome de Dandy Walker. Ao nascimento apresentou exame físico com fenda palatina, criptorquidia à direita, hexodactilia em ambos os pés. Apresentava ainda ecocardiograma com forame oval patente e persistência do canal arterial. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido através da ressonância magnética realizada após o nascimento, que evidenciava hipoplasia do vermis cerebelar, alargamento da fossa posterior e leve dilatação ventricular. Conclusões: este artigo procura caracterizar a variante de Dandy Walker, que é uma malformação congênita do sistema nervoso central e é o tipo mais comum da Síndrome de Dandy Walker. Seu fenótipo é variável, devendo-se sempre pesquisar malformações tanto intra quanto extracranianas, visto que o risco de mortalidade pós-natal aumenta quando existe esta associação. O tratamento envolve equipe multidisciplinar e o prognóstico é reservado, variando conforme o fenótipo.

  20. Dandy-Walker syndrome with severe velopharyngeal dysfunction: a contraindication for Le Fort I surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelke, Kamil H; Pawlak, Wojciech; Gerber, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome is a rare congenital brain deformation. Most symptoms are related with fourth ventricle and skull base malformations. Quite often, symptoms develop from infancy or progress rapidly. Cerebellar dysfunction, lack of muscle coordination, and skull deformities involving eye movement might be present. There are several Dandy-Walker syndrome complex types. We present a 23-year-old patient who had a severe dentofacial deformity with mandibular prognathism and extremely undeveloped maxillary bone resulting in palatopharyngeal and velopharyngeal dysfunction with complete lack of soft palate function resulting in increased speech tone and volume. Performing Le Fort I osteotomy in this case is greatly controversial and might result in even greater loss of function or even its total lack. Velopharyngeal complex is very important, and every surgeon should consider its value while planning Le Fort I osteotomies.

  1. Case Report: Trigonocephaly and Dandy walker variant in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome (OTCS). We consider our patient as a mild form of OTCS and he needs close follow up because over time there may be a developmental delay, severe mental retardation and seizures. Keywords: Dandy walker malformation – Dandy walker variant; Craniosynostosis; Trigonocephaly ...

  2. Experimental model of ultrasound thermotherapy in rats inoculated with Walker-236 tumor Modelo experimental de termoterapia ultrassônica em ratos inoculados com tumor de Walker-236

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Carlos Otaviano David Morano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop a model to evaluate the effects of focal pulsed ultrasound (US waves as a source of heat for treatment of murine subcutaneous implanted Walker tumor. METHODS: An experimental, controlled, comparative study was conducted. Twenty male Wistar rats (160-300 g randomized in 2 equal groups (G-1: Control and G-2: Hyperthermia were inoculated with Walker-256 carcinosarcoma tumor. After 5 days G-2 rats were submitted to 45ºC hyperthermia. Heat was delivered directly to the tumor by an ultrasound (US equipment (3 MHz frequency, 1,5W/cm³. Tumor temperature reached 45º C in 3 minutes and was maintained at this level for 5 minutes. Tumor volume was measured on days 5, 8, 11, 14 e 17 post inoculation in both groups. Unpaired t-test was used for comparison. POBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo para avaliar os efeitos do ultra-som focal pulsado como fonte de calor para o tratamento de tumores de Walker subcutâneos implantados em ratos. MÉTODOS: Um estudo experimental, controlado, comparativo foi realizado. Vinte ratos Wistar machos (160-300 g divididos em dois grupos (G-1: Controle e G-2: hipertermia foram inoculados com tumor de Walker carcinossarcoma-256. Após cinco dias os ratos do grupo G-2 ratos foram submetidos a hipertermia (45ºC. O calor foi aplicado diretamente no tumor por um equipamento de ultrassonografia (3 MHz, 1,5 W/cm³. A temperatura no tumor atingiu 45ºC em 3 minutos e foi mantida nesse nível por 5 minutos. O volume do tumor foi medido nos dias 5, 8, 11, 14 e 17 após a inoculação, em ambos os grupos. Teste t não pareado foi utilizado para comparação. P <0,05 foi considerado significante. RESULTADOS: O volume do tumor foi significativamente maior no 5º dia e diminuiu nos dias 11, 14 e 17 nos ratos tratados. Animais submetidos à hipertermia sobreviveram mais tempo que os animais do grupo controle. No 29º dia após a inoculação do tumor, 40% dos ratos do grupo controle e 77,78% dos ratos tratados com

  3. The escape problem for mortal walkers

    CERN Document Server

    Grebenkov, D S

    2016-01-01

    We introduce and investigate the escape problem for random walkers that may eventually die, decay, bleach, or lose activity during their diffusion towards an escape or reactive region on the boundary of a confining domain. In the case of a first-order kinetics (i.e., exponentially distributed lifetimes), we study the effect of the associated death rate onto the survival probability, the exit probability, and the mean first passage time. We derive the upper and lower bounds and some approximations for these quantities. We reveal three asymptotic regimes of small, intermediate and large death rates. General estimates and asymptotics are compared to several explicit solutions for simple domains, and to numerical simulations. These results allow one to account for stochastic photobleaching of fluorescent tracers in bio-imaging, degradation of mRNA molecules in genetic translation mechanisms, or high mortality rates of spermatozoa in the fertilization process. This is also a mathematical ground for optimizing stor...

  4. Speed and exercise intensity of recreational walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Elaine M; Boreham, Colin A G; Murphy, Marie H

    2002-10-01

    Brisk walking has been identified as an activity suited to meet American College of Sport Medicine/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for moderate intensity exercise (55-69% HR(max), 40-59% VO(2)R). However, little is known about whether recreational walkers self-select a pace which elicits this intensity and how they interpret the term "brisk walking." The walking speed of 82 adults was covertly observed in a public park. Fifty-nine of these participants demonstrated their interpretation of "brisk walking" and the speed was noted. Eleven of these subjects subsequently walked on a treadmill at their observed and "brisk walk" speeds. Heart rate (HR), respiratory gases, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Mean observed and "brisk" walking speeds were 1.56 +/- 0.17 m. s(-1) and 1.79 +/- 0.19 m x s(-1) respectively (P exercise intensities during the treadmill test (n = 11) were 59.0 +/- 13.4% VO(2max) and 67.3 +/- 11.6% HR(max) for the observed speed (1.60 + 0.24 m x s(-1)). The brisk speed (1.86 +/- 0.12 m x s(-1)) equated to 68.6 +/- 14.9% VO(2max) and 78.5 +/- 15.5% HR(max). The speed and intensity selected by this group of walkers meets current recommendations for moderate intensity exercise. Instructing individuals to "walk briskly" prompts more vigorous activity. Copyright 2002 American Health Foundation and Elsevier Science (USA)

  5. Síndrome de Dandy-walker The Dandy-Walker syndrome. Report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaderson Costa da Costa

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available São relatados os casos de 4 pacientes com síndrome de Dandy-Walker diagnosticada pela pneumencefalografia fracionada e ventriculografia. O tratamento e a patogenia desta malformação são discutidos com base em dados embriológicos.Four cases of Dandy-Walker syndrome diagnosed through encephalography and ventriculography with air are reported. The pathogenesis of this malformation is discussed. Particularly stressed are the radiological aspects of the condition, which are considered to be pathognomonic. The roentgenological findings are quite typical, indicating the extreme dolichocephaly, thinning and bulging of the bones of the posterior cranial fossa, prominent separation of the lambdoid sutures and an abnormal position of the lateral sinuses. Ventriculography shows symmetric hydrocephalus with extremely large cyst -like formation in the posterior fossa. Surgical indications are also considered. The ventricle lateral shunt is the recommended treatment for the DandyWalker malformations which show cerebral subarachnoid agenesis by pneumoencephalography.

  6. Perceiving Direction of a Walker: Effect of Body Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Ono

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human can perceive others' walking direction accurately even with 117ms observation (Sato, et al., ECVP2008. We aimed to see whether appearance of walker's body affects the accuracy of perceiving direction of the walker. Thus, we employed three different appearances: realistic human computer-graphics body (CG-human, nonrealistic cylinder-assembled body (Cylinders, and point-light walker (Points. We made a three-dimensional model of an adult-size walker who walked at a place. CG-human stimuli were generated by rendering the model with smooth shading. We made Cylinders stimuli by replacing body parts such as arms, legs, head, and hands with cylinders. Points stimuli were made by tracking 18 positions (mostly joints of the body like biological motion. One of walkers was presented for 117, 250, 500 or 1000ms while its direction was randomly varied by 3deg steps to 21deg left or right. Observers judged whether the walker was walking toward them (hit or not (miss, and self-range was measured in terms of the standard deviation for hit distributions. The perceived self-range was narrowed with long duration, and with CG-human stimulus. It is suggested that the accuracy of perceiving walker's direction depends on body appearance, and it is higher for human-like body than nonhuman body.

  7. Human-robot interaction strategies for walker-assisted locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the development of a new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation. The aim is to achieve a closer interaction between the robotic device and the individual, empowering the rehabilitation potential of such devices in clinical applications. A new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation is presented. Trends and opportunities for future advances in the field of assistive locomotion via the development of hybrid solutions based on the combination of smart walkers and biomechatronic exoskeletons are also discussed. .

  8. Dandy-Walker Malformation Presenting with Psychological Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohanachandra, Yasodha Maheshi; Dahanayake, Dulangi Maneksha Amerasinghe; Wijetunge, Swarna

    2016-01-01

    Dandy-Walker malformation, which is a congenital malformation of the cerebellum, is documented in literature to be associated with psychotic symptoms, obsessive compulsive symptoms, mood symptoms, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. The pathogenesis of psychiatric symptoms in Dandy-Walker malformation is thought to be due to disruption of the corticocerebellar tracts, resulting in what is known as cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. We present a case of Dandy-Walker malformation presenting with psychiatric symptoms. This case highlights the necessity to be aware of psychiatric manifestations of cerebellar disease as it has an impact on the diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Dandy-Walker Malformation Presenting with Psychological Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasodha Maheshi Rohanachandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dandy-Walker malformation, which is a congenital malformation of the cerebellum, is documented in literature to be associated with psychotic symptoms, obsessive compulsive symptoms, mood symptoms, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. The pathogenesis of psychiatric symptoms in Dandy-Walker malformation is thought to be due to disruption of the corticocerebellar tracts, resulting in what is known as cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. We present a case of Dandy-Walker malformation presenting with psychiatric symptoms. This case highlights the necessity to be aware of psychiatric manifestations of cerebellar disease as it has an impact on the diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Instability of Walker propagating domain wall in magnetic nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B; Wang, X R

    2013-07-12

    The stability of the well-known Walker propagating domain wall (DW) solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation is analytically investigated. Surprisingly, a propagating DW is always dressed with spin waves so that the Walker rigid-body propagating DW mode does not occur in reality. In the low field region only stern spin waves are emitted while both stern and bow waves are generated under high fields. In a high enough field, but below the Walker breakdown field, the Walker solution could be convective or absolute unstable if the transverse magnetic anisotropy is larger than a critical value, corresponding to a significant modification of the DW profile and DW propagating speed.

  11. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-2006, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains five data files, in comma-separated format (.csv), derived from the Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) vegetation inventory in eastern Tennessee....

  12. Exploring complex networks by means of adaptive walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prignano, Luce; Moreno, Yamir; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2012-12-01

    Finding efficient algorithms to explore large networks with the aim of recovering information about their structure is an open problem. Here, we investigate this challenge by proposing a model in which random walkers with previously assigned home nodes navigate through the network during a fixed amount of time. We consider that the exploration is successful if the walker gets the information gathered back home, otherwise no data are retrieved. Consequently, at each time step, the walkers, with some probability, have the choice to either go backward approaching their home or go farther away. We show that there is an optimal solution to this problem in terms of the average information retrieved and the degree of the home nodes and design an adaptive strategy based on the behavior of the random walker. Finally, we compare different strategies that emerge from the model in the context of network reconstruction. Our results could be useful for the discovery of unknown connections in large-scale networks.

  13. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The original objectives of the long-term vegetation survey of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee (WBW; Curlin and Nelson 1968) was to quantify...

  14. Dandy-Walker malformation: a rare association with hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Dilek; Akin, Mustafa Ali; Kurtoglu, Selim; Oktem, Suat; Yikilmaz, Ali

    2010-12-01

    Dandy-Walker malformation is characterized by cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle and an enlarged posterior cranial fossa with upward displacement of the tentorium, lateral sinuses, and torcular, with agenesis or hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. Dandy-Walker malformation occurs in approximately the 4th week of gestation and is associated with various abnormalities involving the cardiac, skeletal, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal systems. The parathyroid gland also forms in the 3rd and 4th gestational weeks. Reported here is the case of a male infant with Dandy-Walker malformation with ventricular and atrial septal defect, unilateral renal agenesis, and hypoparathyroidism. To our knowledge, this rare association with neural crest events during the development of Dandy-Walker malformation has not been reported previously. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dandy-Walker variant associated with bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingeswaran, Anand; Barathi, Deepak; Sharma, Gyaneswahr

    2009-07-01

    The Dandy-Walker malformation is a congenital brain malformation, typically involving the fourth ventricle and the cerebellum. To date, the Dandy-Walker syndrome has not been described in association with bipolar disorder type I mania, and therefore we briefly report the case of a Dandy-Walker variant associated with acute mania. A 10-year-old boy was brought by his mother to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Psychiatry of a tertiary care hospital, with symptoms of mania. The MRI brain of the patient showed a posterior fossa cystic lesion, a giant cisterna magna communicating with the fourth ventricle and mild hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, with the rest of the structures being normal and no signs of hydrocephalus. These findings showed that the patient had a Dandy-Walker variant. He responded partially to valproate and olanzepine, which controlled the acute manic symptoms in the ward.

  16. SYMMETRY AS CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR IN WALKER'S THE COLOR PURPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Tapia

    2003-01-01

    The author analyzes three types of the conceptual metaphor of embodied symmetry in Alice Walker's novel, The color purple (1982). These metaphorical projections, perceived as equilibrium and its breakage in abstract phenomena, enable readers to reexamine issues of race, non-traditional families, and gender roles. The dis/equilibrium emerges in the novel's epistolary structure. Biological equilibrium breaks in incidents of rape and incest. Walker creates characters in ...

  17. A Rare Cause of Congenital Hypotonia: Walker Warburg Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cigdem Sivrice

    2014-01-01

    Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is an autosomal recessive rare muscle disease which characterized by type 2 lissencephaly, cerebellar abnormalities, and congenital muscular dystrophy of the retinal abnormalities. In this article, we described a patient who born from 1st degree consanguineous marriage mother and father and admitted to our hospital suction weakness and had been diagnosed Walker- Warburg syndrome with physical examination and laboratory tests as a result of severe hypotonia, atypi...

  18. Dandy-Walker Malformation Associated with Neurocutaneous Melanosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In Yong; Kim, Sung-Hak

    2011-01-01

    Neurocutaneous melanosis associated with Dandy-Walker malformation is a rare dysmorphogenesis that is associated with single or multiple giant pigmented cutaneous nevi and diffuse involvement of the central nervous system. In this article, we present a 2-month-old patient with neurocutaneous melanosis associated with Dandy-Walker malformation. In addition, we reviewed the literature and discussed the pathogenesis based on the preferred hypotheses. PMID:22259699

  19. ACADEMIC TRAINING (R.P. Walker)

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    15, 16, 17 May LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Council room, bldg. 503 on 15 May, Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 16 and 17 May Introduction to free electron lasers by R.P. Walker / Rutherford Laboratory, UK The Free-electron laser (FEL) is a source of coherent electromagnetic radiation based on a relativistic electron beam. First operated 25 years ago, the FEL has now reached a stage of maturity for operation in the infra-red region of the spectrum and several facilities provide intense FEL radiation beams for research covering a wide range of disciplines. Several projects both underway and proposed aim at pushing the minimum wavelength from its present limit around 100 nm progressively down to the 1 Angstrom region where the X-ray FEL would open up many new and exciting research possibilities. Other developments aim at increasing power levels to the 10's of kW level. In this series of lectures we give an introduction to the basic principles of FELs and their different modes of operation, and summarise the...

  20. The escape problem for mortal walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, D. S.; Rupprecht, J.-F.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce and investigate the escape problem for random walkers that may eventually die, decay, bleach, or lose activity during their diffusion towards an escape or reactive region on the boundary of a confining domain. In the case of a first-order kinetics (i.e., exponentially distributed lifetimes), we study the effect of the associated death rate onto the survival probability, the exit probability, and the mean first passage time. We derive the upper and lower bounds and some approximations for these quantities. We reveal three asymptotic regimes of small, intermediate, and large death rates. General estimates and asymptotics are compared to several explicit solutions for simple domains and to numerical simulations. These results allow one to account for stochastic photobleaching of fluorescent tracers in bio-imaging, degradation of mRNA molecules in genetic translation mechanisms, or high mortality rates of spermatozoa in the fertilization process. Our findings provide a mathematical ground for optimizing storage containers and materials to reduce the risk of leakage of dangerous chemicals or nuclear wastes.

  1. Neurodevelopment in preschool idiopathic toe-walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Casas, P; Ballestero-Pérez, R; Meneses-Monroy, A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V; Atín-Arratibel, M A; Portellano-Pérez, J A

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic toe walking, a differential diagnosis for neurological and orthopaedic disorders, has been associated with neurodevelopmental alterations. Neurodevelopmental assessment at early ages using specific tests may improve management and follow-up of these patients. The aim of our study is to analyse the neurodevelopmental characteristics of preschool idiopathic toe-walkers (ITW) by comparing them to a control group. Our descriptive cross-sectional study compared possible risk factors, neurodevelopmental characteristics, and scores on the Child Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire (CUMANIN) between a group of 56 ITWs aged 3 to 6 and a control group including 40 children. The proportion of males was significantly higher in the ITW group (P=.008). The percentage of patients with a family history (P=.000) and biological risk factors during the perinatal period (P=.032) was also higher in this group. According to the parents' reports, motor coordination in ITWs was significantly poorer (59%; P=.009). ITWs scored significantly lower on CUMANIN subscales of psychomotricity (=0,001) and memory (P=.001), as well as in verbal development (P=.000), non-verbal development (P=.026), and overall development (P=.004). Foot preference was less marked in the ITW group (P=.047). The neurodevelopmental characteristics of our sample suggest that idiopathic toe walking is a marker of neurodevelopmental impairment. However, further studies are necessary to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. A DNA Walker as a Fluorescence Signal Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongfang; Vietz, Carolin; Schröder, Tim; Acuna, Guillermo; Lalkens, Birka; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2017-09-13

    Sensing nucleic acids typically involves the recognition of a specific sequence and reporting by, for example, a fluorogenic reaction yielding one activated dye molecule per detected nucleic acid. Here, we show that after binding to a DNA origami track a bound DNA target (a "DNA walker") can release the fluorescence of many molecules by acting as the catalyst of an enzymatic nicking reaction. As the walking kinetics sensitively depends on the walker sequence, the resulting brightness distribution of DNA origamis is a sequence fingerprint with single-nucleotide sensitivity. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we rationalize that the random self-avoiding walk is mainly terminated when steps to nearest neighbors are exhausted. Finally, we demonstrate that the DNA walker is also active in a plasmonic hotspot for fluorescence enhancement, indicating the potential of combining different amplification mechanisms enabled by the modularity of DNA nanotechnology.

  3. Multiple Walkers in the Wang-Landau Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G

    2005-12-28

    The mean cost for converging an estimated density of states using the Wang-Landau algorithm is measured for the Ising and Heisenberg models. The cost increases in a power-law fashion with the number of spins, with an exponent near 3 for one-dimensional models, and closer to 2.4 for two-dimensional models. The effect of multiple, simultaneous walkers on the cost is also measured. For the one-dimensional Ising model the cost can increase with the number of walkers for large systems. For both the Ising and Heisenberg models in two-dimensions, no adverse impact on the cost is observed. Thus multiple walkers is a strategy that should scale well in a parallel computing environment for many models of magnetic materials.

  4. [Congenital generalized lipodystrophy in a patient with Dandy Walker anomaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Cecilia Inés; Fernández Cordero, Marisa; Escruela, Romina; Sierra, Valeria; Córdoba, Antonela; Goñi, Ignacio María; Berridi, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the unexpected association between the congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) and Dandy Walker anomaly. We report the case of a 1-year-old infant who was hospitalized at her fourth month of life with Dandy Walker anomaly diagnosis and an increased social risk. During her hospitalization, she developed progressively: acromegaloid aspect, triangular fascia, hirsutism, lipoatrophy, muscle hypertrophy, clitoromegaly, abdominal distention, progressive hepatomegaly, and hypertriglyceridemia. This led to the clinical diagnosis of congenital generalized lipodystrophy. Importance should be given to the examination of clinical aspects as well as the interdisciplinary follow-up for proper detection of insulin resistance and diabetes, early puberty, cardiomyopathy, among others. In case of Dandy Walker anomaly, it should be checked the evolution to search intracranial hypertension signs. Due to its autosomal recessive nature, it is important to provide genetic counseling to the parents.

  5. Retinal vascular nonperfusion in siblings with Dandy-Walker variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Irene; Gupta, Mrinali Patel; Patel, Samir N; Oltra, Erica; Chan, R V Paul

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 2-month-old girl with Dandy-Walker variant who presented with strabismus, pathologic myopia measuring -16.00 D in each eye, diffuse chorioretinal atrophy and pigment mottling in the macula of both eyes, and areas of retinal capillary nonperfusion in both eyes. The patient's brother also has Dandy-Walker variant and was found to have bilateral severe myopia, myopic fundi, tilted optic disks with peripapillary atrophy, extensive areas of white without pressure, areas of lattice degeneration, and several chronic-appearing atrophic retinal holes surrounded by pigmentation. We hypothesize that children with Dandy-Walker variant may present with refractive errors such as pathologic myopia and with diverse retinal findings, including retinal ischemia. A lower threshold for ophthalmologic examination may be considered in this population. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dandy-Walker malformation: analysis of 19 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, George A; Sfakianos, George; Prodromou, Neofytos

    2010-02-01

    Dandy-Walker malformation is a congenital disorder that involves the cerebellum and fourth ventricle. Regarding treatment, there is still controversy over the optimum surgical management. In the current study, we present 19 consecutive cases of Dandy-Walker malformation diagnosed between January 1992 and January 2008 that were treated in our institute. All patients presented with hydrocephalus at the time of diagnosis and were treated surgically. Combined drainage of the ventricular system and posterior fossa cyst, using a 3-way connector was performed in 5 patients. Posterior fossa cyst drainage alone was performed in 10 patients and the remaining 4 patients were treated by ventricular drainage alone. All patients improved after treatment. Dandy-Walker malformation is a developmental abnormality of the central nervous system associated with various brain and extracranial abnormalities. Surgical treatment remains controversial, whereas prognosis varies greatly according to the severity of syndrome and associated comorbidities.

  7. [Dandy-walker syndrome and microdeletions on chromosome 7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Can; Fu, Fang; Li, Ru; Pan, Min; Yang, Xin; Yi, Cui-xing; Li, Jian; Li, Dong-zhi

    2012-02-01

    To investigate genetic etiology of Dandy-Walker syndrome with array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). Eight fetuses with Dandy-Walker malformations but normal karyotypes by conventional cytogenetic technique were selected. DNA samples were extracted and hybridized with Affymetrix cytogenetic 2.7 M arrays by following the manufacturer's standard protocol. The data were analyzed by special software packages. By using array-CGH technique, common deletions and duplication on chromosome 7p21.3 were identified in three cases, within which were central nervous system disease associated genes NDUFA4 and PHF14. Copy number variations (CNVs) of chromosome 7p21.3 region are associated with Dandy-Walker malformations which may be due to haploinsufficiency or overexpression of NDUFA4 and PHF14 genes.

  8. Dandy-Walker Malformation Presenting with Affective Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmaz, Mert; Balçik, Zeynep Ezgi; Özer, Ürün; Hamurişçi Yalçin, Burcu; Özen, Şakir

    2017-09-01

    Dandy-Walker malformation is defined by enlarged posterior fossa, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, and cerebellar hypoplasia. Although developmental delay and mental retardation are common in Dandy-Walker malformation cases, other comorbid psychiatric conditions have been rarely reported. There are limited numbers of case reports about comorbidity of bipolar disorder with Dandy-Walker malformation in the literature. Herein, a Dandy-Walker malformation case presenting affective symptoms is reported, and psychiatric symptoms which might be seen in this rare malformation are discussed along with diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up processes. A 27-year-old male patient, hospitalized for compulsory treatment, had been diagnosed with Dandy-Walker malformation in childhood. First complaints were attention deficiency, behavioral problems, learning difficulties; and manic and depressive episodes have occurred during follow-ups. He recently complained of decreased need for sleep, irritability, and increased speed of thought, and psychiatric examination was consistent with manic episode. Cranial computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral ventriculomegaly, enlarged third and fourth ventricles with posterior fossa cyst, and cerebellar hypoplasia. His treatment included 30 mg/day aripiprazole, 1000 mg/day valproic acid, 200 mg/day quetiapine, 4 mg/day biperiden, and 100 mg/month paliperidone palmitate. Beside its traditional role in the regulation of coordination and motor functions, cerebellum is increasingly emphasized for its involvement in the mood regulation. Thus, as seen in Dandy-Walker malformation, cerebellar anomalies are suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Further studies are needed to better understand the relationship between mood disorders and cerebellum. Moreover, treatment options should be considered carefully in terms of resistance to treatment and potential side effects, for psychiatric disorders occurring in these

  9. A Rare Cause of Congenital Hypotonia: Walker Warburg Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Sivrice

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS is an autosomal recessive rare muscle disease which characterized by type 2 lissencephaly, cerebellar abnormalities, and congenital muscular dystrophy of the retinal abnormalities. In this article, we described a patient who born from 1st degree consanguineous marriage mother and father and admitted to our hospital suction weakness and had been diagnosed Walker- Warburg syndrome with physical examination and laboratory tests as a result of severe hypotonia, atypical facial appearance, accompanying eye and brain abnormalities are very high serum creatine phosphokinase levels and wanted to draw attention to this rare muscle disease in the differential diagnosis of hypotonic infants.

  10. The role of walkers' needs and expectations in supporting maintenance of attendance at walking groups: a longitudinal multi-perspective study of walkers and walk group leaders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Kassavou

    Full Text Available There is good evidence that when people's needs and expectations regarding behaviour change are met, they are satisfied with that change, and maintain those changes. Despite this, there is a dearth of research on needs and expectations of walkers when initially attending walking groups and whether and how these needs and expectations have been satisfied after a period of attendance. Equally, there is an absence of research on how people who lead these groups understand walkers' needs and walk leaders' actions to address them. The present study was aimed at addressing both of these gaps in the research.Two preliminary thematic analyses were conducted on face-to-face interviews with (a eight walkers when they joined walking groups, five of whom were interviewed three months later, and (b eight walk leaders. A multi-perspective analysis building upon these preliminary analyses identified similarities and differences within the themes that emerged from the interviews with walkers and walk leaders.Walkers indicated that their main needs and expectations when joining walking groups were achieving long-term social and health benefits. At the follow up interviews, walkers indicated that satisfaction with meeting similar others within the groups was the main reason for continued attendance. Their main source of dissatisfaction was not feeling integrated in the existing walking groups. Walk leaders often acknowledged the same reasons for walkers joining and maintaining attendance at walking. However, they tended to attribute dissatisfaction and drop out to uncontrollable environmental factors and/or walkers' personalities. Walk leaders reported a lack of efficacy to effectively address walkers' needs.Interventions to increase retention of walkers should train walk leaders with the skills to help them modify the underlying psychological factors affecting walkers' maintenance at walking groups. This should result in greater retention of walkers in walking

  11. The role of walkers' needs and expectations in supporting maintenance of attendance at walking groups: a longitudinal multi-perspective study of walkers and walk group leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassavou, Aikaterini; Turner, Andrew; French, David P

    2015-01-01

    There is good evidence that when people's needs and expectations regarding behaviour change are met, they are satisfied with that change, and maintain those changes. Despite this, there is a dearth of research on needs and expectations of walkers when initially attending walking groups and whether and how these needs and expectations have been satisfied after a period of attendance. Equally, there is an absence of research on how people who lead these groups understand walkers' needs and walk leaders' actions to address them. The present study was aimed at addressing both of these gaps in the research. Two preliminary thematic analyses were conducted on face-to-face interviews with (a) eight walkers when they joined walking groups, five of whom were interviewed three months later, and (b) eight walk leaders. A multi-perspective analysis building upon these preliminary analyses identified similarities and differences within the themes that emerged from the interviews with walkers and walk leaders. Walkers indicated that their main needs and expectations when joining walking groups were achieving long-term social and health benefits. At the follow up interviews, walkers indicated that satisfaction with meeting similar others within the groups was the main reason for continued attendance. Their main source of dissatisfaction was not feeling integrated in the existing walking groups. Walk leaders often acknowledged the same reasons for walkers joining and maintaining attendance at walking. However, they tended to attribute dissatisfaction and drop out to uncontrollable environmental factors and/or walkers' personalities. Walk leaders reported a lack of efficacy to effectively address walkers' needs. Interventions to increase retention of walkers should train walk leaders with the skills to help them modify the underlying psychological factors affecting walkers' maintenance at walking groups. This should result in greater retention of walkers in walking groups, thereby

  12. Alice Walker in the Classroom: "Living by the Word." The NCTE High School Literature Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Carol

    This small book is a handy guide for bringing the work of author Alice Walker into the classroom. It includes biographical information, ideas for literature circles using Walker's short stories, sample writing lessons using Walker's poems, suggestions for teaching "The Color Purple," and a wealth of resources for further investigation of…

  13. 75 FR 35279 - Revocation of Regulations Banning Certain Baby-Walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... section G of this notice.) 2. Recent statutory changes affecting baby-walkers. The Consumer Product Safety... standard for infant walkers, based largely on the provisions of the current ASTM voluntary standard. Given... Specification for Infant Walkers (ASTM F977-07) is published by the American Society for Testing and Materials...

  14. 75 FR 24753 - The Walker Auto Group, Inc., Miamisburg, OH; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration The Walker Auto Group, Inc., Miamisburg, OH; Notice of Negative... TAA petition filed on behalf of workers at The Walker Auto Group, Inc., Miamisburg, Ohio, was based on... Walker Auto Group, Inc., Miamisburg, Ohio, supplies a service (sales and service of Pontiac automobiles...

  15. Automatic liver segmentation on Computed Tomography using random walkers for treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghbel, Mehrdad; Mashohor, Syamsiah; Mahmud, Rozi; Saripan, M. Iqbal Bin

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of the liver from Computed Tomography (CT) volumes plays an important role during the choice of treatment strategies for liver diseases. Despite lots of attention, liver segmentation remains a challenging task due to the lack of visible edges on most boundaries of the liver coupled with high variability of both intensity patterns and anatomical appearances with all these difficulties becoming more prominent in pathological livers. To achieve a more accurate segmentation, a random walker based framework is proposed that can segment contrast-enhanced livers CT images with great accuracy and speed. Based on the location of the right lung lobe, the liver dome is automatically detected thus eliminating the need for manual initialization. The computational requirements are further minimized utilizing rib-caged area segmentation, the liver is then extracted by utilizing random walker method. The proposed method was able to achieve one of the highest accuracies reported in the literature against a mixed healthy and pathological liver dataset compared to other segmentation methods with an overlap error of 4.47 % and dice similarity coefficient of 0.94 while it showed exceptional accuracy on segmenting the pathological livers with an overlap error of 5.95 % and dice similarity coefficient of 0.91. PMID:28096782

  16. Karyotype and meiosis studies in Oxycatantops spissus (Walker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The standard karyotype of Oxycatantops spissus (Walker) (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Acridinae) from Limbe in the South West Province of Cameroon, comprises 2n = 23 acrocentric chromosomes in the male with the XO/XX sex determining mechanism [2n = 23 (22AA+XO)]. The karyotype structure is represented by five pairs of ...

  17. Karyotype and meiosis studies in Oxycatantops spissus (Walker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RHUMSIKI

    The standard karyotype of Oxycatantops spissus (Walker) (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Acridinae) from. Limbe in the South West Province of Cameroon, comprises 2n = 23 acrocentric chromosomes in the male with the XO/XX sex determining mechanism [2n = 23 (22AA+XO)]. The karyotype structure is represented by five pairs of ...

  18. Hazard Patterns and Injury Prevention with Infant Walkers and Strollers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishon, Phillip M.; And Others

    Mindful of the potential hazards associated with products intended for young children, this article examines pediatric accidents involving strollers and walkers. According to the latest figures available from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the United States (NEISS), more than 11,800 stroller injuries in 1987 were serious…

  19. A methodology to calibrate pedestrian walker models using multiple objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanella, M.C.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    The application of walker models to simulate real situations require accuracy in several traffic situations. One strategy to obtain a generic model is to calibrate the parameters in several situations using multiple-objective functions in the optimization process. In this paper, we propose a general

  20. winged females of the cricket Gryllodes supplicans (Walker)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other orders of insects (Jago 1985; Masaki & Walker 1987;. Roff 1990). In several of !.hese cases, including the one under discussion, the two forms were originally described in different genera. One of the mOSt imJXlrtant reasons for regarding the two fonns of G. supp/icans as one species is !.he fact !.hat winged forms ...

  1. David Walker Receives 2010 Harry H. Hess Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Carl B.; Walker, David

    2011-01-01

    David Walker was awarded the 2010 Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 15 December 2010 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for “outstanding achievements in research of the constitution and evolution of Earth and other planets.”

  2. 75 FR 35265 - Safety Standard for Infant Walkers: Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... demonstrated the adequacy of the stability test in the ASTM F 977-07 standard. G. Effective Date The Commission... as a voluntary standard developed by ASTM International (formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials), ASTM F 977-07, Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Infant Walkers, but with...

  3. Dandy-Walker malformation | Hamid | Egyptian Journal of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dandy-Walker malformation is a rare congenital malformation and involves the cerebellum and fourth ventricle. The condition is characterized by agenesis or hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, and enlargement of the posterior fossa. A large number of concomitant problems may be ...

  4. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  5. Spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) [Chapter XXIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Elatobium abietinum Walker is a spruce-feeding aphid that in Europe is referred to as the green spruce aphid (Day et al., 1998a) (Fig. 1). However, in North America E. abietinum is known simply as the spruce aphid, while the common name "green spruce aphid" refers to a different species, Cinara fornacula Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (http://www.entsoc.org/...

  6. Philip Glass, Scott Walker ja Sigur Ros! / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2007-01-01

    Pimedate Ööde 11. filmifestivali muusikafilme - Austraalia "Glass: Philipi portree 12 osas" (rež. Scott Hicks), Islandi "Sigur Ros kodus" (rež. Dean DeBois), Suurbritannia "Scott Walker: 30 Century Man" (rež. Stephen Kijak)

  7. Mapping a Memoir within Australian Landscapes: Shirley Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moreno Álvarez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shirley Walker (1927, retired Senior Lecturer in English from the University of New England at Armidale, where she taught Australian Literature, decided to try her own hand at writing a memoir. The result is Roundabout at Bangalow: An Intimate Chronicle (2001, which is her account of growing up in the Northern Rivers area of New South Wales in Australia. The author has also published numerous critical articles on Australian Literature, commenting thoroughly on the work of Mary Gilmore (1865- 1962, Judith Wright (1915-2000 and Dorothy Hewett (1923-2002. Walker has also published The Ghost at the Wedding (2009 based on the life of Walker’s mother in law, a woman whose life was largely shaped by war, and who, in 1918 near the end of WW1, married a returned soldier. This biography, which was awarded the Asher Literary Prize (2009 and the Nita B Kibble Award (2010, Australia’s premier award for women’s writing, has been described as a major work of Australian literature and a major contribution to Australian history. The present article focuses on Roundabout at Bangalow: An Intimate Chronicle, where Walker narrates the complicated and, sometimes, blurred resonances of her “half-a-lifetime” memoir. This work exemplifies how Walker is deeply concerned with the unreliability of memory and the way it can exaggerate grievances or distort past perceptions, unloosing itself from historical and geographical truth and adopting first and foremost a primal function in the formation of identities.

  8. Bobble-Head Doll and Dandy-Walker Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A female infant with macrocephaly (head circumference >95th%, hydrocephalus, and Dandy-Walker syndrome, who developed horizontal head movements of the 'no-no' type at 1 year of age, is reported from Federal University of Minas Gerais, and other centers in Brazil.

  9. Nursery Pest Management of Phytolyma lata Walker (Scott) Attack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of plantations of Milicia excelsa has been constrained by the gall-forming psyllid Phytolyma lata Walker (Scott) that causes extensive damage to young plants. We present findings of an experiment aimed at preventing Phytolyma attack on Milicia seedlings in the nursery using chemical control and ...

  10. Fibreglass Total Contact Casting, Removable Cast Walkers, and Irremovable Cast Walkers to Treat Diabetic Neuropathic Foot Ulcers: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vania; Tu, Hong Anh; Wells, David; Weir, Mark; Holubowich, Corinne; Walter, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers are a risk factor for lower leg amputation. Many experts recommend offloading with fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers as a way to treat these ulcers. Methods We completed a health technology assessment, which included an evaluation of clinical benefits and harms, value for money, and patient preferences for offloading devices. We performed a systematic literature search on August 17, 2016, to identify randomized controlled trials that compared fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers with other treatments (offloading or non-offloading) in patients with diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. We developed a decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers, and we conducted a 5-year budget impact analysis. Finally, we interviewed people with diabetes who had lived experience with foot ulcers, asking them about the different offloading devices and the factors that influenced their treatment choices. Results We identified 13 randomized controlled trials. The evidence suggests that total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers are beneficial in the treatment of neuropathic, noninfected foot ulcers in patients with diabetes but without severe peripheral arterial disease. Compared to removable cast walkers, ulcer healing was improved with total contact casting (moderate quality evidence; risk difference 0.17 [95% confidence interval 0.00–0.33]) and irremovable cast walkers (low quality evidence; risk difference 0.21 [95% confidence interval 0.01–0.40]). We found no difference in ulcer healing between total contact casting and irremovable cast walkers (low quality evidence; risk difference 0.02 [95% confidence interval −0.11–0.14]). The economic analysis showed that total contact casting and irremovable

  11. Fibreglass Total Contact Casting, Removable Cast Walkers, and Irremovable Cast Walkers to Treat Diabetic Neuropathic Foot Ulcers: A Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers are a risk factor for lower leg amputation. Many experts recommend offloading with fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers as a way to treat these ulcers. We completed a health technology assessment, which included an evaluation of clinical benefits and harms, value for money, and patient preferences for offloading devices. We performed a systematic literature search on August 17, 2016, to identify randomized controlled trials that compared fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers with other treatments (offloading or non-offloading) in patients with diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. We developed a decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers, and we conducted a 5-year budget impact analysis. Finally, we interviewed people with diabetes who had lived experience with foot ulcers, asking them about the different offloading devices and the factors that influenced their treatment choices. We identified 13 randomized controlled trials. The evidence suggests that total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers are beneficial in the treatment of neuropathic, noninfected foot ulcers in patients with diabetes but without severe peripheral arterial disease. Compared to removable cast walkers, ulcer healing was improved with total contact casting (moderate quality evidence; risk difference 0.17 [95% confidence interval 0.00-0.33]) and irremovable cast walkers (low quality evidence; risk difference 0.21 [95% confidence interval 0.01-0.40]). We found no difference in ulcer healing between total contact casting and irremovable cast walkers (low quality evidence; risk difference 0.02 [95% confidence interval -0.11-0.14]). The economic analysis showed that total contact casting and irremovable cast walkers were less expensive and

  12. Revalidation of Ceresa terminalis walker and its placement in Stictocephala Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae Revalidação de Ceresa terminalis walker e sua alocação em Stictocephala Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel S. de Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceresa terminalis Walker, 1851 is reinstated and transferred to Stictocephala Stål, 1869: Stictocephala terminalis (Walker, 1851 sp. rev., comb. nov.Ceresa terminalis Walker, 1851 é revalidada e transferida para Stictocephala Stål, 1869: Stictocephala terminalis (Walker, 1851 sp. rev., comb. nov.

  13. Reduced incidence of cardiac arrhythmias in walkers and runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Williams

    Full Text Available Walking is purported to reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation by 48%, whereas jogging is purported to increase its risk by 53%, suggesting a strong anti-arrhythmic benefit of walking over running. The purpose of these analyses is to compare incident self-reported physician-diagnosed cardiac arrhythmia to baseline energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent hours per day, METhr/d from walking, running and other exercise.Proportional hazards analysis of 14,734 walkers and 32,073 runners.There were 1,060 incident cardiac arrhythmias (412 walkers, 648 runners during 6.2 years of follow-up. The risk for incident cardiac arrhythmias declined 4.4% per baseline METhr/d walked by the walkers, or running in the runners (P = 0.0001. Specifically, the risk declined 14.2% (hazard ratio: 0.858 for 1.8 to 3.6 METhr/d, 26.5% for 3.6 to 5.4 METhr/d, and 31.7% for ≥5.4 METhr/d, relative to <1.8 METhr/d. The risk reduction per METhr/d was significantly greater for walking than running (P<0.01, but only because walkers were at 34% greater risk than runners who fell below contemporary physical activity guideline recommendations; otherwise the walkers and runners had similar risks for cardiac arrhythmias. Cardiac arrhythmias were unrelated to walking and running intensity, and unrelated to marathon participation and performance.The risk for cardiac arrhythmias was similar in walkers and runners who expended comparable METhr/d during structured exercise. We found no significant risk increase for self-reported cardiac arrhythmias associated with running distance, exercise intensity, or marathon participation. Rhythm abnormalities were based on self-report, precluding definitive categorization of the nature of the rhythm disturbance. However, even if the runners' arrhythmias include sinus bradycardia due to running itself, there was no increase in arrhythmias with greater running distance.

  14. Entrevista al profesor D. Michael Walker. - Interview with Professor D. Michael Walker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caravaca Guerrero, Consuelo Isabel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrevistar a un investigador de la talla de D. Michael Walker supone hablar de un investigador reconocido a nivel nacional e internacional, uno de los mayores expertos en evolución humana de nuestros días. Nació en Colchester (Inglaterra en 1941 y tiene doble nacionalidad: británica y australiana. Actualmente es profesor emérito de la Universidad de Murcia en el Departamento de Zoología y Antropología Física de la Facultad de Biología. Pero su currículum no acaba aquí, Michael realizó tres carreras, Fisiología Animal, Medicina, y Arqueología Prehistórica, en la Universidad de Oxford. Es Doctor por esta universidad, gracias a su tesis leída sobre Paleoantropología y Prehistoria de las cuencas de los ríos Segura y Vinalopó. Nuestro entrevistado, también fue elegido Académico (Fellow –F.S.A.- en 1988 de la Society of Antiquaries of Londono SAL. Fundada en 1707, la SAL es la equivalente británica de la española Real Academia de la Historia. Es Fellow también del Real Instituto Antropológico de la Gran Bretaña (Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain y socio emérito de la Asociación Americana de Antropólogos Físicos (American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  15. Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ARL-TR-8155 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model... Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model) by Clayton Walker and Gail Vaucher Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...2017 June 28 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ROTC Internship

  16. Developmental outcomes of Down syndrome and Dandy-Walker malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Kaitlin; Huddleston, Lillie; Olney, Pat; Wrubel, David; Visootsak, Jeannie

    2012-01-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS), or Dandy-Walker complex, is a congenital brain malformation of the posterior fossa, typically resulting in developmental delay and cognitive disability. The co-occurrence of Down syndrome (DS) and DWS is relatively uncommon; thus, its impact on developmental outcomes has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we report a case of a 37-month-old child with DS and DWS, who is functioning at the following age-equivalent: gross motor at a 9-mo level, fine motor 6 mo, expressive language 14 mo, receptive language 9 mo. As such, it is important to determine how the DWS influences developmental outcomes, and appreciate the importance of early interventional therapy. PMID:22866020

  17. Dandy-Walker syndrome with psychotic symptoms: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Elisabetta F; Cimmarosa, Sara; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the case of a patient with psychotic symptoms apparently resistant to antipsychotic treatments. Since the last admission in a psychiatric division the patient was diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder type I and then referred to our Outpatients Unit of Treatment Resistant Psychosis, where she was subsequently re-diagnosed with Dandy-Walker Syndrome. The Dandy Walker Complex is a congenital brain malformation involving the fourth ventricle and the cerebellum. We investigated the cognitive impairment of the patient and found deficits prominently in executive functions. This report may add further evidence on the importance of a correct diagnosis prior to defining a patient as treatment resistant and highlights cerebellar dysfunctions that may contribute to neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment.

  18. Dandy-Walker syndrome studied by computed tomography and pneumoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masdeu, J.C. (Hines Veterans Administration Hospital, Maywood, IL); Dobben, G.D.; Azar-Kia, B.

    1983-04-01

    Based on air studies, some authors have disputed the ability of computed tomography (CT) to diagnose posterior fossa cysts. The authors correlated the pneumoencephalographic, CT, and pathological findings in 4 patients with classic Dandy-Walker syndrome. Three cases had been misdiagnosed as retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts because the fourth ventricle was incorrectly considered normal on brow-up or erect air studies, reflecting the inability of such studies to evaluate an agenetic vermis and deficient posterior medullary velum which are characteristic of Dandy-Walker malformation. Careful correlation with autopsy findings showed that even with complete agenesis of the inferior vermis, if the slit between the cerebellar hemispheres is narrow, the fourth ventricle could be misinterpreted as normal on pneumoencephalography and sagittal CT. Radionuclide studies, a small amount of air, or metrizamide may be needed to determine whether the cyst communicates with the subarachnoid space.

  19. Coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy–Walker variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Lui, George K.; Shenoy, Rajesh; Taub, Cynthia C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a rare case of coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy–Walker variant in a 17-year-old girl. Differential diagnoses of coarctation of the aorta and Dandy–Walker variant are extensively discussed. In addition, standard surgical treatment of coarctation as well as new approaches such as endovascular stenting are described in detail to provide therapeutic insights into her management. Although surgical or endovascular repair of coarctation results in significant improvement of systemic hypertension and is associated with better survival, cardiovascular complications are still very common. Thus, long-term follow-up after repair is required, and high-quality imaging studies such as echocardiography, CT and MRI are warranted. PMID:24396258

  20. Coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy-Walker variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Lui, George K; Shenoy, Rajesh; Taub, Cynthia C

    2013-09-01

    This article reports a rare case of coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy-Walker variant in a 17-year-old girl. Differential diagnoses of coarctation of the aorta and Dandy-Walker variant are extensively discussed. In addition, standard surgical treatment of coarctation as well as new approaches such as endovascular stenting are described in detail to provide therapeutic insights into her management. Although surgical or endovascular repair of coarctation results in significant improvement of systemic hypertension and is associated with better survival, cardiovascular complications are still very common. Thus, long-term follow-up after repair is required, and high-quality imaging studies such as echocardiography, CT and MRI are warranted.

  1. Trigeminal neuralgia due to Dandy-Walker syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Weijie

    2013-07-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a common pain in the orofacial region. Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a congenital malformation of the cerebellar and the fourth ventricle foramina atresia. Dandy-Walker syndrome is rarely found in patients with TN. This article presents a 36-year-old man with the symptoms of typical TN. His physical examination was entirely normal. An enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was taken. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the bilateral lateral ventricle, the fourth and third ventricle significantly enlarged with severe obstructive hydrocephalus, a huge posterior fossa cyst connected with the fourth ventricle, and hypoplastic vermis. The pain was controlled by Tegretol. The reported case suggests that DWS is an unusual cause of TN.

  2. Reduced incidence of cardiac arrhythmias in walkers and runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T; Franklin, Barry A

    2013-01-01

    Walking is purported to reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation by 48%, whereas jogging is purported to increase its risk by 53%, suggesting a strong anti-arrhythmic benefit of walking over running. The purpose of these analyses is to compare incident self-reported physician-diagnosed cardiac arrhythmia to baseline energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent hours per day, METhr/d) from walking, running and other exercise. Proportional hazards analysis of 14,734 walkers and 32,073 runners. There were 1,060 incident cardiac arrhythmias (412 walkers, 648 runners) during 6.2 years of follow-up. The risk for incident cardiac arrhythmias declined 4.4% per baseline METhr/d walked by the walkers, or running in the runners (P = 0.0001). Specifically, the risk declined 14.2% (hazard ratio: 0.858) for 1.8 to 3.6 METhr/d, 26.5% for 3.6 to 5.4 METhr/d, and 31.7% for ≥5.4 METhr/d, relative to cardiac arrhythmias. Cardiac arrhythmias were unrelated to walking and running intensity, and unrelated to marathon participation and performance. The risk for cardiac arrhythmias was similar in walkers and runners who expended comparable METhr/d during structured exercise. We found no significant risk increase for self-reported cardiac arrhythmias associated with running distance, exercise intensity, or marathon participation. Rhythm abnormalities were based on self-report, precluding definitive categorization of the nature of the rhythm disturbance. However, even if the runners' arrhythmias include sinus bradycardia due to running itself, there was no increase in arrhythmias with greater running distance.

  3. Host plants of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Specht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work has the objective to catalogue the information of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae host plants. The list of plants comprehends new reports of host plants in Brazil and information from literature review around the world. It is listed 174 plants which are from 39 botanic families. The higher number of host plants of C. includens are in Asteraceae (29, Solanaceae (21, Fabaceae (18 and Lamiaceae (12.

  4. Host plants of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Alexandre; Paula-Moraes, Silvana Vieira de; Sosa-Gómez,Daniel Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This work has the objective to catalogue the information of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858]) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae) host plants. The list of plants comprehends new reports of host plants in Brazil and information from literature review around the world. It is listed 174 plants which are from 39 botanic families. The higher number of host plants of C. includens are in Asteraceae (29), Solanaceae (21), Fabaceae (18) and Lamiaceae (12).

  5. Cochlear implantation in patient with Dandy-walker syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adriana Kosma Pires; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Mocelin, Marcos; Rezende, Rodrigo K

    2012-07-01

     Dandy Walker Syndrome is a congenital abnormality in the central nervous system, characterized by a deficiency in the development of middle cerebelar structures, cystic dilatation of the posterior pit communicating with the fourth ventricle and upward shift of the transverse sinuses, tentorium and dyes. Among the clinical signs are occipital protuberances, a progressive increase of the skull, bowing before the fontanels, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual impairment.  To describe a case of female patient, 13 years old with a diagnosis of this syndrome and bilateral hearing loss underwent cochlear implant surgery under local anesthesia and sedation.  CGS, 13 years old female was referred to the Otolaryngological Department of Otolaryngology Institute of Parana with a diagnosis of "Dandy-Walker syndrome" for Otolaryngological evaluation for bilateral hearing loss with no response to the use of hearing aids. Final Comments: The field of cochlear implants is growing rapidly. We believe that the presence of Dandy-Walker syndrome cannot be considered a contraindication to the performance of cochlear implant surgery, and there were no surgical complications due to neurological disorders with very favorable results for the patient who exhibits excellent discrimination. It has less need for lip reading with improvement in speech quality.

  6. Cochlear implantation in patient with Dandy-walker syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Adriana Kosma Pires de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dandy Walker Syndrome is a congenital abnormality in the central nervous system, characterized by a deficiency in the development of middle cerebelar structures, cystic dilatation of the posterior pit communicating with the fourth ventricle and upward shift of the transverse sinuses, tentorium and dyes. Among the clinical signs are occipital protuberances, a progressive increase of the skull, bowing before the fontanels, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual impairment. Objectives: To describe a case of female patient, 13 years old with a diagnosis of this syndrome and bilateral hearing loss underwent cochlear implant surgery under local anesthesia and sedation. Case Report: CGS, 13 years old female was referred to the Otolaryngological Department of Otolaryngology Institute of Parana with a diagnosis of "Dandy-Walker syndrome" for Otolaryngological evaluation for bilateral hearing loss with no response to the use of hearing aids. Final Comments: The field of cochlear implants is growing rapidly. We believe that the presence of Dandy-Walker syndrome cannot be considered a contraindication to the performance of cochlear implant surgery, and there were no surgical complications due to neurological disorders with very favorable results for the patient who exhibits excellent discrimination. It has less need for lip reading with improvement in speech quality.

  7. Walker-assisted gait in rehabilitation: a study of biomechanics and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachschmidt, R A; Harris, G F; Simoneau, G G

    2001-03-01

    While walkers are commonly prescribed to improve patient stability and ambulatory ability, quantitative study of the biomechanical and functional requirements for effective walker use is limited. To date no one has addressed the changes in upper extremity kinetics that occur with the use of a standard walker, which was the objective of this study. A strain gauge-based walker instrumentation system was developed for the six degree-of-freedom measurement of resultant subject hand loads. The walker dynamometer was integrated with an upper extremity biomechanical model. Preliminary system data were collected for seven healthy, right-handed young adults following informed consent. Bilateral upper extremity kinematic data were acquired with a six camera Vicon motion analysis system using a Micro-VAX workstation. Internal joint moments at the wrist, elbow, and shoulder were determined in the three clinical planes using the inverse dynamics method. The walker dynamometer system allowed characterization of upper extremity loading demands. Significantly differing upper extremity loading patterns were identified for three walker usage methods. Complete description of upper extremity kinetics and kinematics during walker-assisted gait may provide insight into walker design parameters and rehabilitative strategies.

  8. Mechanical-Kinetic Modeling of a Molecular Walker from a Modular Design Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ruizheng; Loh, Iong Ying; Li, Hongrong; Wang, Zhisong

    2017-02-01

    Artificial molecular walkers beyond burnt-bridge designs are complex nanomachines that potentially replicate biological walkers in mechanisms and functionalities. Improving the man-made walkers up to performance for widespread applications remains difficult, largely because their biomimetic design principles involve entangled kinetic and mechanical effects to complicate the link between a walker's construction and ultimate performance. Here, a synergic mechanical-kinetic model is developed for a recently reported DNA bipedal walker, which is based on a modular design principle, potentially enabling many directional walkers driven by a length-switching engine. The model reproduces the experimental data of the walker, and identifies its performance-limiting factors. The model also captures features common to the underlying design principle, including counterintuitive performance-construction relations that are explained by detailed balance, entropy production, and bias cancellation. While indicating a low directional fidelity for the present walker, the model suggests the possibility of improving the fidelity above 90% by a more powerful engine, which may be an improved version of the present engine or an entirely new engine motif, thanks to the flexible design principle. The model is readily adaptable to aid these experimental developments towards high-performance molecular walkers.

  9. On the Instabilities of the Walker Propagating Domain Wall Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bin; Wang, Xiangrong

    2013-01-01

    A powerful mathematical method for front instability analysis that was recently developed in the field of nonlinear dynamics is applied to the 1+1 (spatial and time) dimensional Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. From the essential spectrum of the LLG equation, it is shown that the famous Walker rigid body propagating domain wall (DW) is not stable against the spin wave emission. In the low field region only stern spin waves are emitted while both stern and bow waves are generated under ...

  10. Gravitational birefringence of light in Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, C.; Schücker, T.

    2017-08-01

    The spacetime evolution of massless spinning particles in a Robertson-Walker background is derived using the deterministic system of equations of motion from Papapetrou, Souriau and Saturnini. A numerical integration of this system of differential equations in the case of the standard model of cosmology is performed. The deviation of the photon worldlines from the null geodesics is of the order of the wavelength. Perturbative solutions are also worked out in a more general case. An experimental measurement of this deviation would test the acceleration of our expanding Universe.

  11. Difficulties with Prenatal Diagnosis of the Walker-Warburg Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, A.S.C.; Lee, S.L.; Tan, A.S.A.; Chan, D.K.L.; Chan, L.L. [Singapore General Hospital (Singapore). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology and Neonatology

    2005-10-01

    We describe a postnatally diagnosed case of Walker-Warburg syndrome - a form of congenital muscular dystrophy with lissencephaly and eye abnormalities. We reviewed the literature to highlight its clinico-radiological diagnostic features and discuss the difficulties encountered with prenatal diagnosis, especially in cases with no positive family history. An increased awareness of this rare but lethal condition, and a high index of suspicion during routine antenatal ultrasound, could prompt further advanced fetal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, and aid in timely prenatal diagnosis, management, and counseling. Brain/brainstem, congenital, magnetic resonance imaging, obstetrics, pediatrics, ultrasound.

  12. Constructive solution of the robotic chassis AnyWalker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadchykov Igor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented constructive solution of the robotic system effectively solves the problem of movement in human-adapted not pre-prepared environment. AnyWalker stabilization system consists of three flywheels, implemented in the form of motor-wheels or driven with the help of transfer mechanisms each from its motor, in orthogonal planes, and the centers of mass flywheels are the same. It is proposed to formalize the functionality of the movement in the human-adapted environment in the form of a standard architecture for robotic chassis with the possibility of hardware and software extension.

  13. A newborn with neurocutaneous melanocytosis and Dandy-Walker malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Jens; Snauwaert, Julie; Van Rompaey, Walter; Morren, Marie-Anne; Demaerel, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Neurocutaneous melanocytosis is a rare congenital dysplasia of the neuroectodermal melanocyte precursor cells that leads to proliferation of melanin-producing cells in the skin and leptomeninges. We describe a newborn with a giant congenital melanocytic nevus on his back, buttocks, and thighs. His brain magnetic resonance imaging study revealed bilateral T1 hyperintense lesions in the cerebellum and in the amygdala, hydrocephalus, and a Blake's pouch cyst, consistent with neurocutaneous melanocytosis and Dandy-Walker malformation. Neurocutaneous melanocytosis has a wide clinical spectrum that includes hydrocephalus, epilepsy, cranial nerve palsy, increased intracranial pressure, and sensorimotor deficits. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Atypical psychotic symptoms and Dandy-Walker variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Aislinn J; Wang, Zhenni; Taylor, Stephan F

    2016-10-01

    New-onset psychotic symptoms often respond well to antipsychotic treatment; however, symptoms may be difficult to treat when an underlying brain malformation is present. Here, we present a case of atypical psychotic symptoms in the context of a congenital cerebellar malformation (Dandy-Walker variant). The patient ultimately improved with paliperidone palmitate after multiple antipsychotic medication trials (both oral and one long-acting injectable) were ineffective. Neuroimaging may provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information in cases of new-onset psychosis with atypical features and treatment resistance, even in the absence of neurologic signs and symptoms.

  15. SYMMETRY AS CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR IN WALKER'S THE COLOR PURPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tapia

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes three types of the conceptual metaphor of embodied symmetry in Alice Walker's novel, The color purple (1982. These metaphorical projections, perceived as equilibrium and its breakage in abstract phenomena, enable readers to reexamine issues of race, non-traditional families, and gender roles. The dis/equilibrium emerges in the novel's epistolary structure. Biological equilibrium breaks in incidents of rape and incest. Walker creates characters in the novel through default-concept opposites of black/white, submissive/dominant, male/female and others. These contraries foreground issues of race and gender. The novel's asymmetries engage readers, leading them to rethink individual character histories and motives. The removal of objects (e.g., rape, mothers deprived of children suggests conceptual asymmetry and alerts readers to parallel themes of sexual and racial oppression. Subjugation sometimes subtle, sometimes blatant- manifests in simple oppositions. In epistemological terms, readers seek causal explanations for the asymmetries of the narrative, interpreting each to recover its history.

  16. FreeWalker: a smart insole for longitudinal gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baitong; Rajput, Kuldeep Singh; Tam, Wing-Kin; Tung, Anthony K H; Yang, Zhi

    2015-08-01

    Gait analysis is an important diagnostic measure to investigate the pattern of walking. Traditional gait analysis is generally carried out in a gait lab, with equipped force and body tracking sensors, which needs a trained medical professional to interpret the results. This procedure is tedious, expensive, and unreliable and makes it difficult to track the progress across multiple visits. In this paper, we present a smart insole called FreeWalker, which provides quantitative gait analysis outside the confinement of traditional lab, at low- cost. The insole consists of eight pressure sensors and two motion tracking sensors, i.e. 3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope. This enables measurement of under-foot pressure distribution and motion sequences in real-time. The insole is enabled with onboard SD card as well as wireless data transmission, which help in continuous gait-cycle analysis. The data is then sent to a gateway, for analysis and interpretation of data, using a user interface where gait features are graphically displayed. We also present validation result of a subject's left foot, who was asked to perform a specific task. Experiment results show that we could achieve a data-sampling rate of over 1 KHz, transmitting data up to a distance of 20 meter and maintain a battery life of around 24 hours. Taking advantage of these features, FreeWalker can be used in various applications, like medical diagnosis, rehabilitation, sports and entertainment.

  17. Neuroimaging of Dandy-Walker malformation: new concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Gustavo Gumz; Amaral, Lázaro Faria; Vedolin, Leonardo Modesti

    2011-12-01

    Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is the most common human cerebellar malformation, characterized by hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle, and an enlarged posterior fossa with upward displacement of the lateral sinuses, tentorium, and torcular. Although its pathogenesis is not completely understood, there are several genetic loci related to DWM as well as syndromic malformations and congenital infections. Dandy-Walker malformation is associated with other central nervous system abnormalities, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, ectopic brain tissue, holoprosencephaly, and neural tube defects. Hydrocephalus plays an important role in the development of symptoms and neurological outcome in patients with DWM, and the aim of surgical treatment is usually the control of hydrocephalus and the posterior fossa cyst. Imaging modalities, especially magnetic resonance imaging, are crucial for the diagnosis of DWM and distinguishing this disorder from other cystic posterior fossa lesions. Persistent Blake's cyst is seen as a retrocerebellar fluid collection with cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity and a median line communication with the fourth ventricle, commonly associated with hydrocephalus. Mega cisterna magna presents as an extraaxial fluid collection posteroinferior to an intact cerebellum. Retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts frequently compress the cerebellar hemispheres and the fourth ventricle. Patients with DWM show an enlarged posterior fossa filled with a cystic structure that communicates freely with the fourth ventricle and hypoplastic vermis. Comprehension of hindbrain embryology is of utmost importance for understanding the cerebellar malformations, including DWM, and other related entities.

  18. Sesquiterpene lactones of Moquiniastrum polymorphum subsp. floccosum have antineoplastic effects in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Gracianny Gomes; Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida dos Reis; Stolf, Aline Maria; Kopruszinski, Caroline Machado; Cardoso, Cibele Campos; Beltrame, Olair Carlos; Queiroz-Telles, José Ederaldo; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Oude-Elferink, Ronald; Acco, Alexandra

    2015-02-25

    This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo antitumor actions and toxicity of the dichloromethane fraction (F1B) of Moquiniastrum polymorphum subsp. floccosum (formerly Gochnatia polymorpha ssp. floccosa), composed of sesquiterpene lactones, against Walker-256 carcinosarcoma in rats. Male Wistar rats received 100 mg kg(-1) F1B per day orally for 16 days after subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 cells in the pelvic limb. The tumor progression was monitored, and after treatment, tumor weight, oxidative stress, plasma biochemistry, inflammatory parameters, gene expression and histology of tumor and/or liver were evaluated. The toxicity of F1B was analyzed through the relative weight of organs. Additionally, an LD50 test was performed in mice. F1B treatment significantly reduced tumor volume and weight. There was no difference in oxidative stress in tumor tissue after treatment. F1B treatment modified hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutase, and normalized plasma glucose, alkaline phosphatase, and amylase. F1B did not affect the activity of myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase or the nitric oxide levels in tumor tissue. However, F1B decreased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. Additionally, F1B increased apoptosis in the tumor, mediated by up-regulation of the p53 and Bax gene expression. No clinical signs of toxicity or death were observed in the rats treated with F1B. The LD50 calculated for mice was 1209 mg kg(-1). F1B, which is rich in sesquiterpene lactones, showed antitumor activity against Walker-256 carcinosarcoma. This effect may be, at least in part, related to the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of TNF-α signaling. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Vertical force and wrist deviation angle when using a walker to stand up and sit down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cherng-Yee; Yeh, Po-Chan

    2011-08-01

    Research investigating walkers suggests that safety and assistance for the elderly with weak lower limbs were important. However, the relationship between the use of a walker and the upper limbs has received little investigation. Standing up and sitting down are important daily activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore wrist deviation and vertical force among elderly individuals using a walker for assistance to stand up and sit down. In total, 64 elderly volunteers (M age = 80.22, SD = 9.36) were enrolled. Data were obtained from four load cells and a twin-axis wrist goniometer. Wrist deviation and vertical force were examined when participants used a walker with horizontal handles to assist in standing up and sitting down. Significant wrist angle deviation occurred with the use of a walker, with dorsiflexion of the right hand greater than that of the left. Males exerted significantly greater vertical force. In the sitting position, greater ulnar deviation was seen among experienced walker users, whereas during standing, experienced users exhibited greater dorsiflexion. The horizontal handles of most marketed walkers may cause user wrist deviations, suggesting researchers should pursue improvements in walker design.

  20. Dandy-Walker sendromlu çocuk hastada anestezi yönetimi

    OpenAIRE

    Çelik, Feyzi; Tüfek, Adnan; Temel, Vildan; Akdemir, Salim; Yıldırım, Zeynep Baysal; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez

    2011-01-01

    General anesthesia management of patients with Dandy-Walker syndrome is important since intubation may be difficult due to concomitant anomalies such as hydrocephalus, micrognathia and cleft palate. It should be considered that these patients may require postoperative intensive care support. In this article, anesthesia management of a patient with Dandy-Walker syndrome underwent persistent ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was presented.

  1. The Role of Walkers? Needs and Expectations in Supporting Maintenance of Attendance at Walking Groups: A Longitudinal Multi-Perspective Study of Walkers and Walk Group Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Aikaterini Kassavou; Andrew Turner; French, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is good evidence that when people?s needs and expectations regarding behaviour change are met, they are satisfied with that change, and maintain those changes. Despite this, there is a dearth of research on needs and expectations of walkers when initially attending walking groups and whether and how these needs and expectations have been satisfied after a period of attendance. Equally, there is an absence of research on how people who lead these groups understand walkers? nee...

  2. Experimental inoculation model of Walker 256 carcinoma into vagina and cervix uteri of female rats Modelo experimental de Tumor de Walker 256 em vagina e colo de útero de ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Macedo Botelho Brito

    2007-12-01

    , foi realizada a inoculação de 0,3 ml de ácido acético a 10% na vagina das ratas de GB e GC; no dia seguinte, tanto estas como as ratas do grupo GA foram anestesiadas, feita a escarificação da parede vaginal com uma escova de endocérvice e inoculado 0,3ml de tumor na concentração de 4x10(6 células nos grupos GA e GC e 2x10(6 células no grupo GB. Após 12 dias, foi realizada a eutanásia e removido o tumor em bloco com vagina e cornos uterinos para análise, sendo pesado e averiguado seu volume e calculado as relações entre o seu peso e o peso final da rata e o seu volume e o peso final da rata. Os dados foram colhidos e submetidos à análise estatística pelo método ANOVA (um critério. RESULTADOS: A pega em GB e GC foi 100% e em GA 20%. Não houve diferença estatística entre as médias obtidas entre GB e GC. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com a metodologia utilizada, o modelo de tumor de Walker 256 na vagina apresenta pega de 100% quando associado a ácido acético e não há diferença de comportamento com a inoculação de 4x10(6ou 2x10(6 células.

  3. Impact of strut height on offloading capacity of removable cast walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Ryan T; Sayeed, Fraaz; Najafi, Bijan

    2012-08-01

    Reducing weight-bearing stress to diabetic foot ulcers is critical to healing and commonly called offloading. Removable cast walkers are frequently used for offloading; however, patient compliance is often poor. Walkers commonly extend to the knee. Patients complain about walkers' weight and diminished balance with their use. This study compared the offloading capacity of walkers that varied by height. Heights included: knee, ankle, and shoe levels. To ensure a fair comparison the outsole and insole were standardized across the devices. Eleven diabetic subjects with moderate to high risk of ulceration were recruited. Subjects completed four 20 m walking trials. Subjects performed one trial with each walker and one trial with an athletic shoe. Primary outcomes focused on plantar loading and were measured by pressure insoles. Secondary outcomes were associated with gait kinematics as collected by body worn sensors. Significant differences were found for the peak pressure and pressure time integrals of the different footwear. All walkers performed better than the athletic shoe. The ankle and knee-high devices performed best. Center of mass rotation data showed a trend of the ankle walker yielding a smaller range of motion (18% medial/lateral and 22% anterior/posterior) than the knee level. The ankle-high walker was able to provide similar offloading capacities as the knee-high walker. The diminished weight, along with potentially improved stability, may result in improved compliance with ankle-high walkers. A study comparing the use of the two devices for treating ulcers is now suggested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Walker-Warburg syndrome: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASCONCELOS MARCIO M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe two infants that were diagnosed with Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS, a rare form of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD.They were studied in their clinical, laboratory, and neuroradiologic features. The index case had a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and the second patient had a head computerized tomography (CT. In addition, a literature review was performed to describe the main forms of CMD. The index case fulfilled all criteria for WWS. A brain MRI performed at age 4 months served to corroborate the clinical diagnosis, showing severe hydrocephalus, type II lissencephaly, cerebellar vermian aplasia, and a hypoplastic brain stem. The authors were able to establish a retrospective diagnosis of WWS in the index case's older sister, based upon her clinical picture and head CT report.

  5. Electromagnetic Radiation in Multiply Connected Robertson-Walker Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1993-01-01

    Maxwell's equations on a topologically nontrivial cosmological background are studied. The cosmology is locally determined by a Robertson-Walker line element, but the spacelike slices are open hyperbolic manifolds, whose topology and geometry may vary in time. In this context the spectral resolution of Maxwell's equations in terms of horospherical elementary waves generated at infinity of hyperbolic space is given. The wave fronts are orthogonal to bundles of unstable geodesic rays, and the eikonal of geometric optics appears just as the phase of the horospherical waves. This fact is used to attach to the unstable geodesic rays a quantum mechanical momentum. In doing so the quantized energy-momentum tensor of the radiation field is constructed in a geometrically and dynamically transparent way, without appealing to the intricacies of the second quantization. In particular Planck's radiation formula, and the bearing of the multiply connected topology on the fluctuations in the temperature of the background rad...

  6. A Newborn with Dandy-Walker Malformation and Aortic Coarctation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Anık

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM is a rare anomaly of the posterior cranial fossa. Concomitant brain or systemic malformations are frequent and can influence the prognosis. DWM is associated with cardiac abnormalities. Recognition of these anomalies are important for diagnosis and accurate surgical management. Association of aortic coarctation with DWM is extremely rare. Here, we report a newborn with DWM and aortic coarctation. Our aim was to emphasize that DWM can be associated with cardiac anomalies. Cardiac congenital defects are often associated with a poor prognosis. These kinds of features should alert the clinician to consider extensive screening in these patients not only for cerebral structures but also for cardiovascular abnormalities.

  7. Field diet of the grasshopper Abracris dilecta Walker (Orthoptera, Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frankl Sperber

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Abracris dilecta Walker, 1870 (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Ommatolampinae ate leafs of at least 14 plant species, in the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Malvales (Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae or Malvaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Verbenaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataccae. Elephantopus mollis H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae comprised 50% of the diet. The diet breadth of A. dilecta was compared to that of other 11 grasshopper species of the same sub-family, with rarefaction curves. The number of plant species eaten by A. dilecta was greater than that of nine other grasshopper species of the same sub-family (Rhachicreagra spp. but was lower then two others (Microptylopteryx hebardi Rehn, 1905 and Rhachicreagra astytophallus Jago & Rowell, 1981. This results are discussed in view of the broad geographical range and possession of developed wings by A. dilecta, which contrasts with most Ommatolampinae grasshoppers.

  8. [Aicardi syndrome with Dandy-Walker type malformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguado-Herrera, Yuly V; Manrique-Hernández, Edgar F; Peñaloza-Mantilla, Camilo A; Quintero-Gómez, David A; Contreras-García, Gustavo A; Sandoval-Martínez, Diana K

    2015-07-16

    Aicardi syndrome (OMIM 304050) was first described in 1965. Its classic triad consists of infantile spasms, partial or total agenesis of the corpus callosum and ocular disorders, such as chorioretinal lacunae. It has been posited that it is due to a mechanism involving X-linked dominant inheritance. We report the case of a full-term female, with no pathological familial history or parental consanguinity, with a prenatal diagnosis of Dandy-Walker type malformation, who presented convulsions, coloboma of the optic nerve, thoracic vertebral block with presence of scoliosis, transfontanellar ultrasound imaging showing agenesis of the corpus callosum and karyotype 46,XX. She was diagnosed with Aicardi syndrome and died at the age of one and a half months. The autopsy revealed supratentorial hydrocephalus with the presence of choroid plexus papilloma, a cyst in the posterior fossa (fourth ventricle), hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, agenesis of the left hemisphere of the corpus callosum and cerebellum, characteristic facial features of the syndrome, ogival palate, pectus excavatum, scoliosis, paraovarian cyst and hepatomegaly. Few cases of an association between the pathology and the presence of Dandy-Walker malformation have been described. We report a new case of the association, bearing in mind that the related disorders, mainly agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, suggest the existence of an underlying genetic component. A study of the search for the aetiology must be focused on evaluating those genes that are related with neurodevelopment and its activation in the organogenesis stage. The definitive diagnosis establishes the prognosis, management and genetic counselling of the family.

  9. [Upper extremity kinetics and energy expenditure during walker-assisted gait in children with cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Katherine A; Strifling, Kelly M B; Wang, Mei; Cao, Kevin; Eastwood, Daniel; Jackson, Scott; Ackman, Jeffrey; Altiok, Haluk; Schwab, Jeffrey; Harris, Gerald F

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relationships between upper extremity (UE) kinetics and the energy expenditure index during anterior and posterior walker-assisted gait in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Ten children (3 boys, 7 girls; mean age 12.1 years; range 8 to 18 years) with spastic diplegic CP, who ambulated with a walker underwent gait analyses that included UE kinematics and kinetics. Upper extremity kinetics were obtained using instrumented walker handles. Energy expenditure index was obtained using the heart rate method (EEIHR) by subtracting resting heart rate from walking heart rate, and dividing by the walking speed. Correlations were sought between the kinetic variables and the EEIHR and temporal and stride parameters. In general, anterior walker use was associated with a higher EEIHR. Several kinetic variables correlated well with temporal and stride parameters, as well as the EEIHR. All of the significant correlations (r>0.80; p<0.005) occurred during anterior walker use and involved joint reaction forces (JRF) rather than moments. Some variables showed multiple strong correlations during anterior walker use, including the medial JRF in the wrist, the posterior JRF in the elbow, and the inferior and superior JRFs in the shoulder. The observed correlations may indicate a relationship between the force used to advance the body forward within the walker frame and an increased EEIHR. More work is needed to refine the correlations, and to explore relationships with other variables, including the joint kinematics.

  10. Vertical force and wrist deviation angle in a sample of elderly people using walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cherng-Yee; Yeh, Po-Chan

    2013-02-01

    Walkers are frequently used by elderly people with weak lower limbs and limited balance, but the ergonomic relationship between the use of a walker and stress on the upper limbs is relatively unstudied. The current study assessed wrist deviation and vertical force among elderly individuals using a walker for assistance in walking. 60 elderly volunteers (M age = 81.0 yr., SD = 8.8) participated, 30 of whom frequently used a walker, and 30 who had no such prior experience. Data were obtained from four load cells and a twin-axis wrist goniometer during assisted ambulation using the walker. No significant group difference was found in gait cycle. Significant wrist deviation occurred, with ulnar deviation/dorsiflexion of the right hand, which was greater than that of the left. Non-experienced participants had larger dorsiflexion than experienced participants. Experienced participants produced larger vertical force than non-experienced participants. The greaterthe wrist deviation, the greater was the vertical force. The horizontal handles of most marketed walkers cause wrist deviations. This is a concern for users, clinicians, and related industries. Improvements in walker design should be considered.

  11. Assistive devices alter gait patterns in Parkinson disease: advantages of the four-wheeled walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegelmeyer, Deb A; Parthasarathy, Sowmya; Kostyk, Sandra K; White, Susan E; Kloos, Anne D

    2013-05-01

    Gait abnormalities are a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and contribute to fall risk. Therapy and exercise are often encouraged to increase mobility and decrease falls. As disease symptoms progress, assistive devices are often prescribed. There are no guidelines for choosing appropriate ambulatory devices. This unique study systematically examined the impact of a broad range of assistive devices on gait measures during walking in both a straight path and around obstacles in individuals with PD. Quantitative gait measures, including velocity, stride length, percent swing and double support time, and coefficients of variation were assessed in 27 individuals with PD with or without one of six different devices including canes, standard and wheeled walkers (two, four or U-Step). Data were collected using the GAITRite and on a figure-of-eight course. All devices, with the exception of four-wheeled and U-Step walkers significantly decreased gait velocity. The four-wheeled walker resulted in less variability in gait measures and had less impact on spontaneous unassisted gait patterns. The U-Step walker exhibited the highest variability across all parameters followed by the two-wheeled and standard walkers. Higher variability has been correlated with increased falls. Though subjects performed better on a figure-of-eight course using either the four-wheeled or the U-Step walker, the four-wheeled walker resulted in the most consistent improvement in overall gait variables. Laser light use on a U-Step walker did not improve gait measures or safety in figure-of-eight compared to other devices. Of the devices tested, the four-wheeled-walker offered the most consistent advantages for improving mobility and safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Scoliosis in Dandy-Walker syndrome: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Venugopal K; Sorur, Tamer M M; Al Ghafri, Khalifa A; Shahin, Marwan M H E

    2017-12-01

    This submission presents a case of scoliosis in a patient with established Dandy-Walker anomaly of the brain. A retrospective review of the patient's case notes was undertaken and the limited literature on this subject reviewed. The 13-year-old girl presented with a stiff right thoracic scoliosis typical of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The scoliotic segment also presented with significant lordosis. She had facial and truncal dysmorphism characteristic of Dandy-Walker complex and her brain images confirmed the diagnosis. She underwent scoliosis surgery by the posterior approach uneventfully. In conclusion scoliosis is hitherto unreported in the Dandy-Walker complex. The results of intervention appear satisfactory.

  13. POMT2 mutations cause alpha-dystroglycan hypoglycosylation and Walker-Warburg syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, J. van; Janssen, M.; Elzen, C. van der; Beltran Valero de Bernabe, D.; Sabatelli, P.; Merlini, L.; Boon, M.; Scheffer, H.; Brockington, M.; Muntoni, F.; Huynen, M.A.; Verrips, A.; Walsh, C.A.; Barth, P.G.; Brunner, H.G.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is an autosomal recessive condition characterised by congenital muscular dystrophy, structural brain defects, and eye malformations. Typical brain abnormalities are hydrocephalus, lissencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, fusion of the hemispheres,

  14. POMT2 mutations cause alpha-dystroglycan hypoglycosylation and Walker-Warburg syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reeuwijk, J.; Janssen, M.; van den Elzen, C.; Beltran-Valero de Bernabé, D.; Sabatelli, P.; Merlini, L.; Boon, M.; Scheffer, H.; Brockington, M.; Muntoni, F.; Huynen, M. A.; Verrips, A.; Walsh, C. A.; Barth, P. G.; Brunner, H. G.; van Bokhoven, H.

    2005-01-01

    Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is an autosomal recessive condition characterised by congenital muscular dystrophy, structural brain defects, and eye malformations. Typical brain abnormalities are hydrocephalus, lissencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, fusion of the hemispheres, cerebellar

  15. POMT2 mutations cause alpha-dystroglycan hypoglycosylation and Walker-Warburg syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reeuwijk, J; Janssen, M; van den Elzen, C; de Bernabe, DBV; Sabatelli, P; Merlini, L; Boon, M; Scheffer, H; Brockington, M; Muntoni, F; Huynen, MA; Verrips, A; Walsh, CA; Barth, PG; Brunner, HG; van Bokhoven, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is an autosomal recessive condition characterised by congenital muscular dystrophy, structural brain defects, and eye malformations. Typical brain abnormalities are hydrocephalus, lissencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, fusion of the hemispheres,

  16. Mercury in biota and sediment in the Walker River Basin, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Common loons (Gavia immer) that stage during migration at Walker Lake, Nevada, were found to have elevated concentrations of mercury in their blood. The source of...

  17. Investigating GAIM-GM’s Capability to Sense Ionospheric Irregularities via Walker Satellite Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    INVESTIGATING GAIM-GM’S CAPABILITY TO SENSE IONOSPHERIC IRREGULARITIES VIA WALKER SATELLITE CONSTELLATIONS THESIS Brandon T. McClung, Captain, USAF...CAPABILITY TO SENSE IONOSPHERIC IRREGULARITIES VIA WALKER SATELLITE CONSTELLATIONS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Physics...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENP-MS-15-M-076 INVESTIGATING GAIM-GM’S CAPABILITY TO SENSE IONOSPHERIC IRREGULARITIES VIA

  18. Usher syndrome associated with a variant of Dandy-Walker malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Tulay; Ozdamar, Yasemin; Simsek, Enver; Men, Gamze

    2010-05-21

    Three cases of Usher syndrome associated with a variant of Dandy-Walker malformation in three siblings from consanguineous Turkish parents are described. The siblings had retinitis pigmentosa and hearing loss. Two of the siblings also had mental retardation, which is not a constant finding in Usher syndrome. Dandy-Walker malformation might have contributed to the mental retardation in two of these patients and might be a coincidental finding with Usher syndrome. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. New-onset psychosis associated with dandy-walker variant in an adolescent female patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Molly; Grenier, Ernesto; Castro, Anthony; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between psychotic disorders, in particular, schizophrenia, and neurodevelopmental abnormalities has been conceptualized in the latest literature. Dandy-Walker variant, defined by cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle and hypoplasia of the inferior portion of the vermis without enlargement of the posterior fossa, is a distinctive entity believed to represent a mild subtype of Dandy-Walker complex. The authors hypothesize a correlation between new onset of psychosis and cerebellar abnormalities in an adolescent patient.

  20. Anesthesia management in a pediatric patient with Dandy-Walker syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Baysal Yıldırım

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available General anesthesia management of patients with Dandy-Walker syndrome is important since intubation may be difficult due to concomitant anomalies such as hydrocephalus, micrognathia and cleft palate. It should be considered that these patients may require postoperative intensive care support. In this article, anesthesia management of a patient with Dandy-Walker syndrome underwent persistent ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was presented. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 327-329.

  1. Bipolar Disorder in a Young Girl with Dandy-Walker Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Eslami Shahre Babaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Dandy-Walker syndrome is a congenital brain malformation involving the cerebellum and the fourth ventricle. The key features of this syndrome are mental retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and symptoms related to hydrocephaly. The psychiatric aspects of this syndrome have been insufficiently appreciated. Described here is a 17- year- old girl with an acute manic episode emerged in the course of Dandy-Walker syndrome. Presentation and treatment are then addressed.

  2. A new walker with upper trunk suspension system for severely disabled patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppetta, C; Scoppetta, M

    2013-10-01

    We have recently designed a new type of walker for those severely disabled patients who cannot walk with commonly used medical walkers. A drawing and the description of this new walker is reported in order to permit the worldwide companies as well as artisans to develop and produce it for the people affected from severe motor problems. This walker supposes the patient wearing either a modified climbing harness or equipped clothes and being suspended to the walking frame. It consists in two series of bands suspending the patient from the frame; the upper one suspends him for the upper part of his trunk, the lower one by his pelvis. This walker is suggested for patients belonging to three principal groups: (1) Persons who have no trunk control (e.g.: patients affected by severe stroke or ataxias). (2) Persons whose walk is allowed only if they achieve a significant reduction (up to 30-40%) of the their body weight charging on trunk, spine, and lower limbs. (3) Persons who need a differentiated reduction of the body weight either among anterior and posterior side or among their right and left part of the body (hemiparesis, Parkinson disease, scoliosis, kyphosis). Creating this walker is easy; producing costs are low; there are no maintenance costs.

  3. Aesthetic Image of the Animal Epithet in Alice Walker's Short Story "Everyday Use"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaimaa Hadi Radhi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In her short story Everyday Use, the African American writer Alice Walker labels her female characters Mrs. Johnson, and her two daughters: Maggie, and Dee by associating them with an animal quality. In my present paper I attempt to show the central and pivotal role played by the mechanism of 'Animal Epithet' in order to investigate to what extent does the writer apply the theory of 'Womanism' to her short fiction's protagonist and the other characters. Walker wants the reader to share her investigation journey in order to find a logical answer for the crucial questions raised in the research-paper: Why does Walker portray female characters by comparing them to animals? How does Walker manage to treat this topic aesthetically? What portrait of black woman does she prove? To answer these central questions, Walker is committed to construct her short narrative work on the base of the key elements of inversion, signifying, and quilting-like. Walker, as a womanist and animal activist is defiant and ridiculous of the mainstream agent of humanism represented by white males. She aesthetically inverts the meaning of the negative, dehumanizing image devised and everyday used by the men of ruling class into aesthetic and positive one to represent the identity of black women.

  4. CommWalker: Correctly Evaluating Modules in Molecular Networks in Light of Annotation Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, M D; Page, M J T; Crosby, A J; Mason, S; Reinert, G; Deane, C M

    2017-11-03

    Detecting novel functional modules in molecular networks is an important step in biological research. In the absence of gold standard functional modules, functional annotations are often used to verify whether detected modules/communities have biological meaning. However, as we show, the uneven distribution of functional annotations means that such evaluation methods favour communities of well-studied proteins. We propose a novel framework for the evaluation of communities as functional modules. Our proposed framework, CommWalker, takes communities as inputs and evaluates them in their local network environment by performing short random walks. We test CommWalker's ability to overcome annotation bias using input communities from four community detection methods on two protein interaction networks. We find that modules accepted by CommWalker are similarly co-expressed as those accepted by current methods. Crucially, CommWalker performs well not only in well-annotated regions, but also in regions otherwise obscured by poor annotation. CommWalker community prioritization both faithfully captures well-validated communities, and identifies functional modules that may correspond to more novel biology. The CommWalker algorithm is freely available at opig.stats.ox.ac.uk/resources or as a docker image on the Docker Hub at hub.docker.com/r/lueckenmd/commwalker/. deane@stats.ox.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Design Principles of DNA Enzyme-Based Walkers: Translocation Kinetics and Photoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Tae-Gon; Pan, Jing; Chen, Haorong; Robinson, Heather N; Li, Xiang; Mao, Chengde; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2015-07-29

    Dynamic DNA enzyme-based walkers complete their stepwise movements along the prescribed track through a series of reactions, including hybridization, enzymatic cleavage, and strand displacement; however, their overall translocation kinetics is not well understood. Here, we perform mechanistic studies to elucidate several key parameters that govern the kinetics and processivity of DNA enzyme-based walkers. These parameters include DNA enzyme core type and structure, upper and lower recognition arm lengths, and divalent metal cation species and concentration. A theoretical model is developed within the framework of single-molecule kinetics to describe overall translocation kinetics as well as each reaction step. A better understanding of kinetics and design parameters enables us to demonstrate a walker movement near 5 μm at an average speed of ∼1 nm s(-1). We also show that the translocation kinetics of DNA walkers can be effectively controlled by external light stimuli using photoisomerizable azobenzene moieties. A 2-fold increase in the cleavage reaction is observed when the hairpin stems of enzyme catalytic cores are open under UV irradiation. This study provides general design guidelines to construct highly processive, autonomous DNA walker systems and to regulate their translocation kinetics, which would facilitate the development of functional DNA walkers.

  6. Dandy-Walker Malformation: is the 'tail sign' the key sign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Silvia; Vinci, Valeria; Saldari, Matteo; Servadei, Francesca; Silvestri, Evelina; Giancotti, Antonella; Aliberti, Camilla; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Triulzi, Fabio; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Catalano, Carlo; Manganaro, Lucia

    2015-12-01

    The study aims to demonstrate the value of the 'tail sign' in the assessment of Dandy-Walker malformation. A total of 31 fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed before 24 weeks of gestation after second-line ultrasound examination between May 2013 and September 2014, were examined retrospectively. All MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5 Tesla magnet without maternal sedation. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosed 15/31 cases of Dandy-Walker malformation, 6/31 of vermian partial caudal agenesis, 2/31 of vermian hypoplasia, 4/31 of vermian malrotation, 2/31 of Walker-Warburg syndrome, 1/31 of Blake pouch cyst and 1/31 of rhombencephalosynapsis. All data were compared with fetopsy results, fetal MRI after the 30th week or postnatal MRI; the follow-up depended on the maternal decision to terminate or continue pregnancy. In our review study, we found the presence of the 'tail sign'; this sign was visible only in Dandy-Walker malformation and Walker-Warburg syndrome. The 'tail sign' could be helpful in the difficult differential diagnosis between Dandy-Walker, vermian malrotation, vermian hypoplasia and vermian partial agenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. An Architect Cicada in Brazilian Rainforest: Guyalna chlorogena (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguin, C F

    2017-04-01

    To study the noteworthy nest building behavior of the nymph of the Brazilian Rainforest cicada Guyalna chlorogena (Walker) during the last year of its underground life, we monitored a large number of edifices, consisting of a vertical well (up to 1 m deep) with a turret (20 to 40 cm tall) on top, and we also performed experiments. We have shown that the buildings are occupied by a single nymph, male or female, which increases the height of its turret each night by about 3 cm, during a short active growing phase. The nymph softens and reshapes the apex by pushing upwards a lump of freshly mixed soaked clay, without any opening present, i. e., without ever exposing itself to the outside. We also established that the nymph is very active once its building is achieved. For example, it restores the height of the turret to its original value when shortening and opens the top of its building in case of variation of environmental parameters. Finally, we have shown how the nymph opens its edifice to reach the outside for molting into an adult stage (imago). With this work, we contributed to a better understanding of the nesting behavior of Amazon cicadas.

  8. Third annual Walker Branch Watershed research symposium. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The methods and concepts of watershed research, originally applied in an experimental or monitoring mode to relatively small catchments, are increasingly being used at larger scales and for specific applied problems. Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the US Forest Service, and other agencies and institutions participating in this symposium reflects research over a broad range of spatial scales that is being integrated through large-scale experiments along with computer modeling and graphical interfaces. These research projects address the basic atmospheric, geophysical, biogeochemical, and biological processes that regulate the responses of forested ecosystems to natural environmental variation and anthropogenic stresses. Regional and global issues addressed by presentations include emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons; deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and mercury; land-use changes; biological diversity; droughts; and water quality. The reports presented in this symposium illustrate a wide range of methods and approaches and focus more on concepts and techniques than on a specific physical site. Sites and projects that have contributed research results to this symposium include Walker Branch Watershed (DOE), the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and LTER site (USFS and NSF), Great Smoky Mountains National Park (research funded by NPS, TVA, and EPRI), Imnavait Creek, Alaska (DOE), the TVA-Norris Whole-tree Facility (TVA and EPRI), and DOE`s Biomass Program.

  9. Central brain herniation in shunted Dandy Walker cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiwanza, Tafadzwa; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Caird, John

    2013-06-01

    Dandy-Walker Syndrome (DWS) is a constellation of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system consisting of cerebellar vermis hypoplasia or agenesis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, enlarged posterior fossa, and a high tentorium. Hydrocephalus is a common occurrence in DWS and its treatment varies between shunting-ventriculoperitoneal or cystoperitoneal or both, endoscopic cyst fenestration, and third ventriculostomy. Chronic cerebral herniation is a known complication of treatment in DWS; however, we present an unusual case of central brain herniation. A 2 year old boy with shunted DWS presented with status epilepticus. Initial CT brain scan showed no increase in ventricle or cyst size; however, tapping the shunt reservoir did not yield any CSF prompting a shunt revision. Postoperatively, he was very slow to wake and subsequently experienced an episode of fixed pupils and extensor posturing. MRI brain demonstrated severe herniation of both thalami through the tentorium. This child had chronic central brain herniation (CCBH) secondary to the shunting of his cyst. To our knowledge, this is the first case of CCBH following treatment of DW cyst.

  10. Dandy-Walker Malformation: A Clinical and Surgical Outcome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Iram; Rehman, Lal; Hassan, Sher; Hashim, M Sattar

    2015-06-01

    To determine the clinical presentations, complications and mortality in patients with Dandy-Walker Malformation (DWM) after surgery i.e., shunt with y-connector. Case series. Neurosurgery Ward, JPMC, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2013. Cases of DWM, with associated hydrocephalus, further confirmed on CT scan of brain, were admitted through OPD. Those who were previously operated, those with other associated co-morbid or anomalies were excluded from this study. Combined drainage of the ventricular system and posterior fossa cyst, via dual shunt i.e. cystoperitoneal and ventriculoperitoneal shunt with y-connector was performed in all patients. Complications and mortality after surgical intervention in these patients were noted upto one month after surgery. The data analysis for descriptive statistics was done on SPSS version 20. In this study of 70 patients, majority of the patients were female aged between 1 - 2 years. Hydrocephalus was the predominant symptom as being present in all patients, followed by cerebellar signs in 60 (86%), and other in 5 (7.14%) patients. Complications of surgery were infection and shunt fracture dislocation in 7 (10%) each, malpositioning and shunt blockage in 6 (8.5%) each within one month of surgery, intracranial haemorrhage in 5 (7.14%) patients. Only one patient (1.42%) expired after surgical intervention. In DWM, the commonest presentation is that of hydrocephalus. Shunt malfunction and infection are the commonest complication after shunting. Dual shunt with y-connector has the lowest mortality when compared with other methods for treatment of shunt with y-connector.

  11. A retrospective benefit-cost analysis of the 1997 stair-fall requirements for baby walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Gregory B; Leland, Elizabeth W

    2008-01-01

    Based on estimates from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), there were about 25,000 baby walker-related injuries treated annually in U.S. hospital emergency departments during the early 1990s. This amounted to about 8 injuries for every 1000 baby walkers in use. Most injuries resulted from falls down stairs. After CPSC initiated a regulatory proceeding in 1994, the CPSC staff worked with industry to address the stair-fall hazard. This cooperative effort resulted in requirements designed to prevent stair-fall injuries that became effective in 1997 as part of a revised voluntary safety standard. This study presents a retrospective benefit-cost analysis of the 1997 stair-fall requirements. The benefits were defined as the reduction in the costs of injuries resulting from the use of the safer walkers. The costs were defined as the additional resource costs associated with making baby walkers safer. The study found that the stair-fall requirements were highly effective in reducing the risk of stair-fall injury, and that the benefits of the requirements substantially exceeded the costs. The expected net benefits (i.e., benefits minus costs) amounted to an average of about $169 per walker, over the walker's expected product life. Given current U.S. sales of about 600,000 baby walkers annually, the present value of the expected net benefits associated with 1 year's production amounts to over $100 million annually. A sensitivity analysis showed that the major findings were robust with respect to variations in underlying assumptions.

  12. Obituary: Richard L. (Dick) Walker, Jr., 1938-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, Jeffrey R.; Mason, Brian

    2005-12-01

    Dick Walker, 67, died 30 March 2005 in Flagstaff, AZ, following a long illness. He was born on 9 March 1938 in Hampton, Iowa and grew up in Waterloo, Iowa. As a child, Dick was fascinated with astronomy and built his own telescope. He saved his pennies and bought and read every book on the subject he could find. He also raised pigeons, naming four of them Hertzsprung, Hoyle, Gamow, and Kron. In 1957, the year Sputnik was launched, Dick began his college studies at the University of Northern Iowa in Cedar Falls. In 1959, he transferred to the State University of Iowa (subsequently renamed the University of Iowa) in Iowa City, where he earned a BA degree in astronomy and physics in 1963. He joined the staff of the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, DC, where he worked in the Time Service Division for a year before his assignment to the Astrometry and Astrophysics Division. Dick relocated to Flagstaff, AZ, in 1966 to continue his Naval Observatory service at the Flagstaff Station. His retirement in May 1999, ended a thirty-six-year career with USNO. Dick was first and foremost an observational astronomer. From the mid 1960s through the late 1970s, much of Dick's time was devoted to the measurement of binary stars, observing with the 12-inch and 26-inch refractors in Washington and later the 40-inch and 61-inch reflectors in Flagstaff. He also made many trips to Lick Observatory to work with the 36-inch Clark Refractor there. During this time he consulted with Charles Worley, who was observing on the 26-inch, to make sure time was well-spent examining doubles that could not be observed in Washington. This period of observing overlapped with the early years of speckle interferometry, and Dick's observations, made with the largest telescope used for micrometry at the time, were very important for ascertaining the veracity of this new technique. He was a studious and very careful observer of doubles and made over 8,000 measures, resulting in almost 3,000 mean positions

  13. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Fischer

    Full Text Available How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers, low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers. We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  14. Robust Redundant Input Reliable Tracking Control for Omnidirectional Rehabilitative Training Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of robust reliable tracking control on the omnidirectional rehabilitative training walker is examined. The new nonlinear redundant input method is proposed when one wheel actuator fault occurs. The aim of the study is to design an asymptotically stable controller that can guarantee the safety of the user and ensure tracking on a training path planned by a physical therapist. The redundant degrees of freedom safety control and the asymptotically zero state detectable concept of the walker are presented, the model of redundant degree is constructed, and the property of center of gravity constant shift is obtained. A controller that can satisfy asymptotic stability is obtained using a common Lyapunov function for admissible uncertainties resulting from an actuator fault. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method and verify that the walker can provide safe sequential motion when one wheel actuator is at fault.

  15. Bilateral Macular Edema: A New Ocular Feature of Dandy-Walker Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranos, P; Dervenis, N; Kiouras, S

    2017-01-01

    To describe a case of bilateral cystoid macular edema in a patient with Dandy-Walker syndrome. An 18-year-old male was referred to our tertiary referral center for evaluation of his decreased visual acuity. Detailed ophthalmic examination and imaging revealed the presence of bilateral cystoid macular edema, which was successfully treated with intravitreal triamcinolone injections (2 mg in 0.05 ml). Recurrence of macular edema developed after a period of approximately four months. This is an unusual ophthalmic manifestation of Dandy-Walker syndrome. Cystoid macular edema should be included in the differential diagnosis of subjects with Dandy-Walker syndrome presenting with decreased vision. The pathogenetic mechanism for the development macular edema in this case is not clear. Intravitreal triamcinolone is an effective treatment, but edema was recurrent in our case. Other approaches (such as oral Acetazolamide or intravitreal Anti-VEGF) have to be considered as well.

  16. Empowering and Assisting Natural Empowering and Assisting Natural Human Mobility: The Simbiosis Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Frizera-Neto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the complete development of the Simbiosis Smart Walker. The device is equipped with a set of sensor subsystems to acquire user-machine interaction forces and the temporal evolution of user's feet during gait. The authors present an adaptive filtering technique used for the identification and separation of different components found on the human-machine interaction forces. This technique allowed isolating the components related with the navigational commands and developing a Fuzzy logic controller to guide the device. The Smart Walker was clinically validated at the Spinal Cord Injury Hospital of Toledo - Spain, presenting great acceptability by spinal chord injury patients and clinical staff.

  17. Test pilots 1962 - Armstrong, Walker, Dana, Peterson, McKay, Thompson, Butchart

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    The research pilots at what in 1962 was called the Flight Research Center standing in front of the X-1E. They are (left to right) Neil Armstrong, Joe Walker, Bill Dana, Bruce Peterson, Jack McKay, Milt Thompson, and Stan Butchart. of the group, Armstrong, Walker, Dana, McKay and Thompson all flew the X-15. Bruce Peterson flew the M2-F2 and HL-10 lifting bodies, while Stan Butchart was the B-29 drop plane pilot for many of the D-558-II and X-1 series research aircraft.

  18. A late presentation of Dandy-Walker malformation and aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Elio; Magni, Lucia; Pucci, Giovanna; Mazzinghi, Fabio

    2017-05-01

    The Dandy-Walker malformation is a rare anomaly of the posterior cranial fossa. Concomitant brain or systemic malformations are frequent and can influence the outcome. Associated cardiac congenital defects usually induce a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 58-yearold man with hydrocephalus, in whom Dandy-Walker malformation was diagnosed, for the first time, after the demonstration of aortic coarctation. This association is very rare and only a few cases have been described; moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first description of this incidence in a middle-aged patient. The characteristic of diseases and physiopathologic features are discussed, focusing attention on the rare and late clinical manifestations.

  19. Ocular Findings in a Case of Trisomy 18 With Variant of Dandy-Walker Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong-Fong Lim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Trisomy 18 is the second most common chromosomal syndrome and has multiple dysmorphic features. However, ocular findings in trisomy 18 are rarely reported. Retinal folds are the most common ocular finding described to date, although retinal hypopigmentation, dysplasia, and areas of hemorrhage and gliosis are also found in trisomy 18. Dandy-Walker syndrome is a brain malformation that has been reported in association with numerous chromosomal abnormalities, although it has rarely been reported in association with trisomy 18. Here, we present a case of trisomy 18 with ocular pathology and variant of Dandy-Walker syndrome, a combination that has not previously been reported.

  20. 77 FR 67811 - Porter-Walker LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Porter-Walker LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Porter-Walker LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  1. Moebius syndrome with Dandy-Walker variant and agenesis of corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Jomol Sara; Vanitha, R

    2013-09-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital neurological disorder. The most frequent mode of presentation is facial diplegia with bilateral lateral rectus palsy, but there are variations. Here, we report a rare case of Moebius syndrome in a 15-month-old child with unilateral facial palsy, bilateral abducens nerve palsy with Dandy Walker variant, and complete agenesis of corpus callosum.

  2. Moebius syndrome with Dandy-Walker variant and agenesis of corpus callosum

    OpenAIRE

    Jomol Sara John; R Vanitha

    2013-01-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital neurological disorder. The most frequent mode of presentation is facial diplegia with bilateral lateral rectus palsy, but there are variations. Here, we report a rare case of Moebius syndrome in a 15-month-old child with unilateral facial palsy, bilateral abducens nerve palsy with Dandy Walker variant, and complete agenesis of corpus callosum.

  3. Fundamental solutions of the wave equation in Robertson-Walker spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagdjian, Karen; Galstian, Anahit

    2008-10-01

    In this article we construct the fundamental solutions for the wave equation in the Robertson-Walker spaces arising in the de Sitter model of the universe. We then use these fundamental solutions to represent solutions of the Cauchy problem for the equation with and without a source term.

  4. Random Walker Coverage Analysis for Information Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Skiadopoulos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing technological progress in electronics provides network nodes with new and enhanced capabilities that allow the revisit of the traditional information dissemination (and collection problem. The probabilistic nature of information dissemination using random walkers is exploited here to deal with challenges imposed by unconventional modern environments. In such systems, node operation is not deterministic (e.g., does not depend only on network nodes’ battery, but it rather depends on the particulars of the ambient environment (e.g., in the case of energy harvesting: sunshine, wind. The mechanism of information dissemination using one random walker is studied and analyzed in this paper under a different and novel perspective. In particular, it takes into account the stochastic nature of random walks, enabling further understanding of network coverage. A novel and original analysis is presented, which reveals the evolution network coverage by a random walker with respect to time. The derived analytical results reveal certain additional interesting aspects regarding network coverage, thus shedding more light on the random walker mechanism. Further analytical results, regarding the walker’s spatial movement and its associated neighborhood, are also confirmed through experimentation. Finally, simulation results considering random geometric graph topologies, which are suitable for modeling mobile environments, support and confirm the analytical findings.

  5. High Performance Sustainable School Design: Roy Lee Walker Elementary, McKinney, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHW Group, Inc., Dallas, TX.

    This document describes the sustainable features of the Roy Lee Walker Elementary School (Texas), a prototype "Eco Education" school that blends the physical environment with the student learning process while protecting the site. The document also presents the process of integrating sustainability criteria in all phases of the school's…

  6. Influence of infant-walkers on motor development: mimicking spastic diplegia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, R. H.; van Empelen, R.; Scheurer, N. D.; Helders, P. J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, O.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss two patients, who used an infant walker during the period in which they learned to walk. The influence on qualitative and quantitative motor development is illustrated in this report. A disharmonic and delayed motor development, contractures of the calf-muscles and motor development

  7. [Stress parameters and behaviour of horses in walkers with and without the use of electricity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, C; Gerber, V; Howald, M; Bachmann, I; Burger, D

    2014-04-01

    In order to investigate stress responses of horses in walkers with and without electricity, 12 horses were trained during 3 weeks in a horse walker with and without the use of electricity (3.7 kV). To evaluate the stress response, cortisol levels in the blood were measured, the heart rate was monitored using the Polar® system and the behaviour was evaluated. Neither the cortisol levels nor the heart rates showed any relevant statistically significant difference between horses moved in the horse walker with or without the use of electricity. The highest cortisol levels and heart rates were recorded during the first week (habituation period). A significant difference could be observed regarding spontaneous compartment changes: while this happened mainly during the first week and before the first use of electricity, no horses changed compartments in the periods when electricity was used and thereafter. The results of this study indicate that the use of electricity in the horse walker does not seem to cause significant detectable stress in the horses.

  8. Sound production in an Australian cockroach, Megazosteria patula (Walker) (Blattodea: Blattidae: Polyzosteriinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz, David

    2017-02-13

    The large, diurnal Australian cockroach, Megazosteria patula (Walker), produces a sound when disturbed. The sound was found to be a form of stridulation caused by the rubbing of pegs on the underside of the thoracic segments against a ridge on the following segment.

  9. Stick-slip actuation of electrostatic stepper micropositioners for data storage-the µWalker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patrascu, M.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    This paper is about the /spl mu/Walker, an electrostatic stepper motor mainly intended for positioning the data probes with respect to the storage medium in a data storage device. It can deliver forces up to 1.7 mN for ranges as large as 140 /spl mu/m. Controlling the stick-slip effects at the

  10. Swing-Leg Retraction for Limit Cycle Walkers Improves Disturbance Rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, D.G.E.; Wisse, M.

    2008-01-01

    Limit cycle walkers are bipeds that exhibit a stable cyclic gaitwithout requiring local controllability at all times during gait. A well-known example of limit cycle walking is McGeer’s “passive dynamic walking,” but the concept expands to actuated bipeds as involved in this study. One of the

  11. On Maximal Surfaces in Certain Non-Flat 3-Dimensional Robertson-Walker Spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Alfonso, E-mail: aromero@ugr.es [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Geometria y Topologia (Spain); Rubio, Rafael M., E-mail: rmrubio@uco.es [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento de Matematicas, Campus de Rabanales (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    An upper bound for the integral, on a geodesic disc, of the squared length of the gradient of a distinguished function on any maximal surface in certain non-flat 3-dimensional Robertson-Walker spacetimes is obtained. As an application, a new proof of a known Calabi-Bernstein's theorem is given.

  12. Random walker and the telegrapher's equation: A paradigm of a generalized hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenau, P. (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel) Center for Nonlinear Studies, MS-B258, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The telegrapher's equation (TE) is the continuum limit of a persisting random walker. We find that the TE reproduces the original spectrum almost exactly for all wavelengths---far beyond the validity of the expansion. This surprising property is used as a paradigm towards the derivation of a generalized hydrodynamics. Applications to other problems are explored.

  13. The Deep Semantics of Imagery in Alice Walker's The Color Purple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hinged on this theoretical framework, the paper assesses the deep semantics of imagery in Walker's The Color Purple and highlights the salient non-ostensive references of the text and the new world it proposes. The analysis reveals the key to a deeper and broader perception of God, the imperativeness of equality of ...

  14. Collateral Damage: Veterans and Domestic Violence in Mari Sandoz's "The Tom-Walker"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    "The Tom-Walker" combines the best of Sandoz's realism with her worst attempts at moralizing. Unable to divine exactly what political configuration right-wing post-World War II sentiments might take, Sandoz nevertheless feared a fascist uprising in this country. Perhaps because these concerns dominated her thoughts at the time, she allowed her…

  15. Panel Discussion: Cover Crops Used at Georgia Forestry Commission Flint River and Walker Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Fields

    2005-01-01

    Flint River Nursery, located near Montezuma, Georgia, has used rye, wheat, brown top millet, and sorghum sudan grass for cover crops. Flint River has just begun to return to a summer cover crop situation. At Walker Nursery, located near Reidsville, Georgia, certified rye has been sown by the State Department of Corrections (DOC) for their harvesting, with a benefit to...

  16. Experience in the management of Dandy-Walker syndrome in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dandy-Walker Syndrome (DWS) is a congenital brain malformation involving the cerebellum and the fluid spaces around it. There is atresia of foramenofMagendie and Lushka resulting in a complete absence of the part of the brain located between the two cerebellar hemispheres (cerebellarvermis) and cystic dilatation of ...

  17. Giant occipital meningocele in an 8-year-old child with Dandy-Walker malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamonti, Giuseppe; Picano, Marco; Debernardi, Alberto; Bolzon, Moreno; Teruzzi, Mario; D'Aliberti, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of an association between Dandy-Walker malformation and occipital meningocele is well-known. However, just an overall number of about 40 cases have been previously reported. Giant occipital meningocele has been described only in three newborns. Incidence, pathology, clinical presentation, and proper management of this association are still poorly defined. An 8-year-old boy with Dandy-Walker malformation and giant (25 cm in diameter) occipital meningocele is presented. This boy was born without any apparent occipital mass and harbored no other significant malformations including hydrocephalus. On admission, he was neurologically intact and the giant occipital mass presented partially calcified cyst walls. Treatment consisted of the excision of the occipital malformation, cranioplasty, and cysto-peritoneal shunt. Outcome was excellent. To the best of our knowledge, among the few reported patients with Dandy-Walker malformation associated to occipital meningocele, this is the oldest one and the one with the largest occipital meningocele; he is unique with calcified walls of the occipital meningocele and the only one who survived the repair of the giant malformation. In Dandy-Walker malformation, occipital meningocele may develop and grow regardless of hydrocephalus. Giant size may be reached and the cyst may become calcified. Surgical repair may warrant favorable outcome.

  18. Menkes' disease with a Dandy-Walker variant: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Central Railway Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Rokicki, D.; Gremida, M. [Dept. of Metabolic Diseases, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw (Poland); Walecki, J. [Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Medical Centre for Postgraduate Education, Warsaw (Poland)

    2001-11-01

    We report a boy with Menkes' disease in whom MRI revealed delayed myelination of the white matter, brain atrophy and tortuosity of the intracranial vessels. The characteristic MRI features of Menkes' disease were accompanied by a Dandy-Walker variant. (orig.)

  19. Parenchymal Neurocutaneous Melanosis in Association with Intraventricular Dermoid and Dandy-Walker Variant: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yoo Dong; Kim, Ki Tae; Chang, Eun Deok; Huh, Pil Woo

    2006-01-01

    Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is a rare congenital disease that is characterized by the presence of large or multiple congenital melanocytic nevi and melanotic lesions of the central nervous system. We report here on the CT and MR imaging findings of an unusual case of NCM that was associated with intraventricular dermoid and Dandy-Walker malformation. PMID:16799276

  20. Moebius syndrome with Dandy-Walker variant and agenesis of corpus callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Jomol Sara; Vanitha, R.

    2013-01-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital neurological disorder. The most frequent mode of presentation is facial diplegia with bilateral lateral rectus palsy, but there are variations. Here, we report a rare case of Moebius syndrome in a 15-month-old child with unilateral facial palsy, bilateral abducens nerve palsy with Dandy Walker variant, and complete agenesis of corpus callosum. PMID:24470815

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of the Dandy-Walker syndrome by sonography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toelly, E.; Ebner, F.; Oberbauer, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    A case of Dandy-Walker-syndrome is presented, comparing the value of sonography and CT in intrauterine diagnosis. Together with a review of the literature of the subject, pathogenesis, morphology and prognosis in regard to the psychomotoric development are discussed. 3 figs.

  2. Dandy-Walker malformation with postaxial polydactly: a new case of Pierquin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Cristóbal A; Villegas, Victor P; Aracena, Mariana I; Mellado, Cecilia X

    2013-04-01

    The combination of Dandy-Walker malformation, other central nervous system anomalies, and postaxial polydactyly has been reported previously in two pairs of siblings. We propose the name 'Pierquin syndrome' for this combination and we report a new patient with this disorder.

  3. Psychosis in a Case of Dandy-Walker Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawra, Ripu Daman; Karia, Sagar; Shah, Nilesh; Desousa, Avinash

    2017-05-01

    Dandy Walker Syndrome (DWS) is a congenital malformation with brain abnormalities, intellectual disabilities, epilepsy and visible structural changes in particular brain structures. We present here a case of psychosis in an 18-year-old male with DWS, epilepsy and intellectual disability. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the clinically relevant issues, psychopharmacological issues, neuropsychiatric manifestations and consultation liaison issues involved.

  4. Trans-sphenoidal encephalocele in association with Dandy-Walker complex and cardiovascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy, H.M.; Barker, C.S. [Wessex Neurological Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom); Small, J.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Bournemouth Hospital (United Kingdom); Armitage, M. [Bournemouth Diabetes and Endocrine Centre, Royal Bournemouth Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-01

    We present a case of trans-sphenoidal encephalomeningocele in association with a posterior cranial fossa malformation which fulfils the criteria for the Dandy-Walker complex. Congenital cardiovascular defects were also present. An abnormality of neural crest development may be responsible for the combined occurrence of these anomalies. (orig.)

  5. Parenchymal neurocutaneous melanosis in association with intraventricular dermoid and Dandy-walker variant: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Joo; Won, Yoo Dong; Kim, Ki Tae; Chang, Eun Deok; Huh, Pil Woo [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Uijongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is a rare congenital disease that is characterized by the presence of large or multiple congenital melanocytic nevi and melanotic lesions of the central nervous system. We report here on the CT and MR imaging findings of an unusual case of NCM that was associated with intraventricular dermoid and Dandy-Walker malformation.

  6. GPS constraints on shear accommodation in the northern Walker Lane, western Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, J. M.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C. W.; Blewitt, G.; Wesnousky, S. G.

    2009-12-01

    The Walker Lane is a zone of active intracontinental transtension that accommodates approximately 10 mm/yr of right-lateral deformation, up to 20-25% of Pacific-North America relative plate motion. Between Walker Lake and Lake Tahoe, the Walker Lane lacks optimally oriented strike-slip faults to accommodate northwest-directed dextral shear. In this region Quaternary deformation appears to be concentrated in a northwest-trending series of north-striking, normal fault-bounded basins. To address the question of how shear is transferred through this portion of the Walker Lane, we combine GPS data from the University of Nevada, Reno’s semi-continuous MAGNET GPS network with observations from EarthScope’s Plate Boundary Observatory to present a new velocity field for the Walker Lane with an average station spacing of 20 km. Measurements in MAGNET (http://geodesy.unr.edu/networks) began in January 2004 and now provide time series of up to 6 years for the longest running sites and >3 years for all sites. Together with recent improvements in GPS data processing models using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, this allows us to estimate rates with uncertainty well below 1 mm/yr. These recent improvements include the use of reprocessed GPS orbits from the IGS Analysis Center at JPL. Our GPS processing now includes satellite and station antenna calibrations, random-walk tropospheric zenith delay and gradients using the GMF mapping function, second-order ionospheric corrections, global-scale ambiguity resolution using our custom Ambizap software, and our custom Great Basin spatially-filtered reference frame. The velocity solution shows a smooth and continuous increase in shear across the Walker Lane in addition to NW-SE directed extension. We use a block model driven by GPS velocities to estimate the role that vertical axis rotation of fault-bounded blocks and slip on basin-bounding faults play in shear accommodation. The block model also allows us to incorporate published

  7. Active transtensional intracontinental basins: Walker Lane in the western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayko, Angela S.; Bursik, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The geometry and dimensions of sedimentary basins within the Walker Lane are a result of Plio-Pleistocene transtensive deformation and partial detachment of the Sierra Nevada crustal block from the North American plate. Distinct morpho-tectonic domains lie within this active transtensive zone. The northeast end of the Walker Lane is partly buried by active volcanism of the southern Cascades, and adjacent basins are filled or poorly developed. To the south, the basin sizes are moderate, 25–45km × 15–10 km, with narrow 8-12km wide mountain ranges mainly oriented N-S to NNE. These basins form subparallel arrays in discrete zones trending about 300° and have documented clockwise rotation. This is succeeded to the south by a releasing stepover domain ∼85-100km wide, where the basins are elongated E-W to ENE, small (∼15-30km long, 5-15km wide), and locally occupied by active volcanic centers. The southernmost part of the Walker Lane is structurally integrated, with high to extreme relief. Adjacent basins are elongate, 50-200km long and ∼5 -20km wide. Variations in transtensive basin orientations in the Walker Lane are largely attributable to variations in strain partitioning. Large basins in the Walker Lane have 2-6km displacement across basin bounding faults with up to 3 km of clastic accumulation based on gravity and drill hole data. The sedimentary deposits of the basins may include interbedded volcanic deposits with bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic associations. The basins may include lacustrine deposits that record a wide range of water chemistry from cold fresh water conditions to saline-evaporative

  8. Extraction of user's navigation commands from upper body force interaction in walker assisted gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pons José L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advances in technology make possible the incorporation of sensors and actuators in rollators, building safer robots and extending the use of walkers to a more diverse population. This paper presents a new method for the extraction of navigation related components from upper-body force interaction data in walker assisted gait. A filtering architecture is designed to cancel: (i the high-frequency noise caused by vibrations on the walker's structure due to irregularities on the terrain or walker's wheels and (ii the cadence related force components caused by user's trunk oscillations during gait. As a result, a third component related to user's navigation commands is distinguished. Results For the cancelation of high-frequency noise, a Benedict-Bordner g-h filter was designed presenting very low values for Kinematic Tracking Error ((2.035 ± 0.358·10-2 kgf and delay ((1.897 ± 0.3697·101ms. A Fourier Linear Combiner filtering architecture was implemented for the adaptive attenuation of about 80% of the cadence related components' energy from force data. This was done without compromising the information contained in the frequencies close to such notch filters. Conclusions The presented methodology offers an effective cancelation of the undesired components from force data, allowing the system to extract in real-time voluntary user's navigation commands. Based on this real-time identification of voluntary user's commands, a classical approach to the control architecture of the robotic walker is being developed, in order to obtain stable and safe user assisted locomotion.

  9. Subtalar joint kinematic correlations with footprint arch index in race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, J L L; Vera-García, F J; Meana, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the paper was to analyze the relationship between footprint arch index and subtalar joint movement in race walkers. Thirteen young, highly skilled race walkers volunteered to participate. We obtained dominant-foot footprints in a bipedal stance. The arch index was measured to classify arch height. We also conducted a photogrammetric video-3D study on a running track. The support phase was recorded while subjects race walked at their individual competition speed. We calculated 4 angle time series describing the ankle joint kinematics during the support phase. Five specific step instants were calculated for each angle and correlated with the arch index. Race walkers were grouped according to arch height to compare. We also correlated the arch index with the time in medial support, and time to change from lateral to medial support during the stance phase. In the calcaneal angle we found correlations with the footprint (r=0.81; Prace walkers adopt a characteristic propulsion technique in the end of the support. No statistical differences were found in the rearfoot angle, which has been previously associated to specific injuries in running. In conclusion, race walkers with higher arches exhibit a more pronounced support with the lateral side of the foot and they do so for a longer time. Conversely, subjects with flatter feet support with the medial side of the foot. The footprint has been found to be a good predictor for the technique employed with respect to the medial and lateral strike of the foot reflected by the calcaneal angle. Coaches should keep this in mind from both performance and injury prevention viewpoints.

  10. Ground reaction force and 3D biomechanical characteristics of walking in short-leg walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songning; Clowers, Kurt G; Powell, Douglas

    2006-12-01

    Short-leg walking boots offer several advantages over traditional casts. However, their effects on ground reaction forces (GRF) and three-dimensional (3D) biomechanics are not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to examine 3D lower extremity kinematics and joint dynamics during walking in two different short-leg walking boots. Eleven (five females and six males) healthy subjects performed five level walking trials in each of three conditions: two testing boot conditions, Gait Walker (DeRoyal Industries, Inc.) and Equalizer (Royce Medical Co.), and one pair of laboratory shoes (Noveto, Adidas). A force platform and a 6-camera Vicon motion analysis system were used to collect GRFs and 3D kinematic data during the testing session. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate selected kinematic, GRF, and joint kinetic variables (p<0.05). The results revealed that both short-leg walking boots were effective in minimizing ankle eversion and hip adduction. Neither walker increased the bimodal vertical GRF peaks typically observed in normal walking. However, they did impose a small initial peak (<1BW) earlier in the stance phase. The Gait Walker also exhibited a slightly increased vertical GRF during midstance. These characteristics may be related to the sole materials/design, the restriction of ankle movements, and/or the elevated heel heights of the tested walkers. Both walkers appeared to increase the demand on the knee extensors while they decreased the demand of the knee and hip abductors based on the joint kinetic results.

  11. Coexistance of cerebral sinovenous thrombosis and Dandy Walker malformation in newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gverić-Ahmetasević, Snjezana; Colić, Ana; Gverić, Tugomir; Gasparović, Vesna Elvedi; Pavlisa, Goran; Ozretić, David

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in neonatal period may cause neurological impairment, epilepsy, and lead to stroke. It is caused primarily by coagulopathy of numerous reasons, occasionally perinatal asphyxia, traumatic delivery and hyperhomocysteinemia. Dandy-Walker malformation is characterized by agenesis or hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, and enlargement of the posterior fossa. Dandy-Walker malformation, variant, and mega cisterna magna represent a spectrum of developmental anomalies. Insults to developing cerebellar hemispheres and the fourth ventricle are believed to be the cause of malformation. Our patient was born from noncomplicated pregnancy, noncomplicated nontraumatic vaginal delivery at term, excellent Apgar scores, without peculiarities in clinical status. She was brest-fed by the 42nd hour of life when she had rightsided seizures during sleep that repeated for five times in next 24 hours. Brain Ultrasound (US) revealed clot in left lateral ventricle, slight dilatation of left ventricle, both sided periventricular echodensity, ischemia, slight enlargement of forth ventricle and a bit smaller cerebellum. There was no visible flow through left transverse, superior sagittal and straight sinus. Magnetic Resonance (MRI) confirmed the finding and showed thrombosis of left and right transverse venous sinuses and confluence of sinuses. Electroencephalogram (EEG) showed leftsided focal changes. The newborn was treated with phenobarbiton for 8 days and had no convulsions during that period. All coagulation parameters, homocistein, lipoproteins (a) and D-dimers were normal. There were no mutations on FV R506Q, PT 20210A, MTHFR 677C/T. No antiphospholipides were found. Heart US showed no structural anomalies. No other patology or risk factors were present at the time. Before discharge, US showed hydrocephalus. Flow in affected sinuses was visible with color Doppler. MRI showed recanalization of affected sinuses, also

  12. Mortality of Dandy-Walker syndrome in the United States: Analysis by race, gender, and insurance status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shearwood McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS is a congenital disorder often diagnosed in early childhood. Typically manifesting with signs/symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, DWS is catastrophic unless timely neurosurgical care can be administered via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF drainage. The rates of mortality, adverse discharge disposition (ADD, and CSF drainage in DWS may not be uniform regardless of race, gender or insurance status; such differences could reflect disparities in access to neurosurgical care. This study examines these issues on a nationwide level. Materials and Methods: The Kids′ Inpatient Database spanning 1997-2003 was used for analysis. Only patients admitted for DWS (ICD-9-CM = 742.3 were included. Multivariate analysis was adjusted for several variables, including patient age, race, sex, admission type, primary payer, income, and hospital volume. Results: More than 14,000 DWS patients were included. Increasing age predicted reduced mortality (OR = 0.87; P < 0.05, ADD (OR = 0.96; P < 0.05, and decreased likelihood of receiving CSF drainage (OR = 0.86; P < 0.0001. Elective admission type predicted reduced mortality (OR = 0.29; P = 0.0008, ADD (OR = 0.68; P < 0.05, and increased CSF drainage (OR = 2.02; P < 0.0001. African-American race (OR = 1.20; P < 0.05 and private insurance (OR = 1.18; P < 0.05 each predicted increased likelihood of receiving CSF drainage, but were not predictors of mortality or ADD. Gender, income, and hospital volume were not significant predictors of DWS outcome. Conclusion: Increasing age and elective admissions each decrease mortality and ADD associated with DWS. African-American race and private insurance status increase access to CSF drainage. These findings contradict previous literature citing African-American race as a risk factor for mortality in DWS, and emphasize the role of private insurance in obtaining access to potentially lifesaving operative care.

  13. Mortality of Dandy-Walker syndrome in the United States: Analysis by race, gender, and insurance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Shearwood; Ukwuoma, Onyinyechi I; Lunos, Scott; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2015-01-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a congenital disorder often diagnosed in early childhood. Typically manifesting with signs/symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, DWS is catastrophic unless timely neurosurgical care can be administered via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. The rates of mortality, adverse discharge disposition (ADD), and CSF drainage in DWS may not be uniform regardless of race, gender or insurance status; such differences could reflect disparities in access to neurosurgical care. This study examines these issues on a nationwide level. The Kids' Inpatient Database spanning 1997-2003 was used for analysis. Only patients admitted for DWS (ICD-9-CM = 742.3) were included. Multivariate analysis was adjusted for several variables, including patient age, race, sex, admission type, primary payer, income, and hospital volume. More than 14,000 DWS patients were included. Increasing age predicted reduced mortality (OR = 0.87; P < 0.05), ADD (OR = 0.96; P < 0.05), and decreased likelihood of receiving CSF drainage (OR = 0.86; P < 0.0001). Elective admission type predicted reduced mortality (OR = 0.29; P = 0.0008), ADD (OR = 0.68; P < 0.05), and increased CSF drainage (OR = 2.02; P < 0.0001). African-American race (OR = 1.20; P < 0.05) and private insurance (OR = 1.18; P < 0.05) each predicted increased likelihood of receiving CSF drainage, but were not predictors of mortality or ADD. Gender, income, and hospital volume were not significant predictors of DWS outcome. Increasing age and elective admissions each decrease mortality and ADD associated with DWS. African-American race and private insurance status increase access to CSF drainage. These findings contradict previous literature citing African-American race as a risk factor for mortality in DWS, and emphasize the role of private insurance in obtaining access to potentially lifesaving operative care.

  14. Finite difference method to find period-one gait cycles of simple passive walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardel, Morteza; Safartoobi, Masoumeh; Pashaei, Mohammad Hadi; Ghasemi, Mohammad Hassan; Navaei, Mostafa Kazemi

    2015-01-01

    Passive dynamic walking refers to a class of bipedal robots that can walk down an incline with no actuation or control input. These bipeds are sensitive to initial conditions due to their style of walking. According to small basin of attraction of passive limit cycles, it is important to start with an initial condition in the basin of attraction of stable walking (limit cycle). This paper presents a study of the simplest passive walker with point and curved feet. A new approach is proposed to find proper initial conditions for a pair of stable and unstable period-one gait limit cycles. This methodology is based on finite difference method which can solve the nonlinear differential equations of motion on a discrete time. Also, to investigate the physical configurations of the walkers and the environmental influence such as the slope angle, the parameter analysis is applied. Numerical simulations reveal the performance of the presented method in finding two stable and unstable gait patterns.

  15. Evaluation of Bone Cancer Pain Induced by Different Doses of Walker 256 Mammary Gland Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Changsheng; Wu, RuiXin; Wu, Jing; Guo, Jing; Wang, Fangyuan; Fu, Yanli; Wang, Qing; Xu, Ling; Wang, Juyong

    2016-01-01

    Cancer pain is a complex medical syndrome. Understanding its underlying mechanisms relies on the use of animal models which can mimic the human condition. A crucial component of this model is the quantity of tumor cells; however, the exact relationship between the doses of tumor cells on bone cancer pain is yet unknown. We explored the relationship of different doses of Walker 256 carcinoma cells using a bone cancer pain model in rats, and evaluated its success and stability. Experimental animal study using a comparative design. Experimental Animal Center and Tumor Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine. We constructed the bone cancer pain model by implanting Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the right tibia of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (150 - 170 g). Spontaneous pain, mechanical threshold, and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were measured and x-ray, bone mineral density (BMD), histological, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) mRNA, carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were analyzed for bone pain model evaluation. The results showed that: (1) the 3 doses (3×105, 3.5×105, 4×105) of Walker 256 carcinoma cells can induce bone cancer pain from day 7 to day 21 after implantation into the right tibia of SD rats; (2) compared to the control group, 3×105, 3.5×105, and 4×105 Walker 256 carcinoma cells produced different pain manifestations, where the 3.5×105 dose of Walker 256 carcinoma cells resulted in the greatest bone cancer pain response; (3) the 3.5×105 dose induced the lowest mortality rate in rats; (4) Walker 256 carcinoma cells (3×105, 3.5×105, and 4×105) resulted in a significant decrease in the general condition and body weight of rats, where the 3.5×105 and 4×105 doses of carcinoma cells produced a greater effect than 3×105 dose of carcinoma cells; (5) progressive spontaneous pain, PWL, and mechanical threshold were exacerbated by 3.5×105 and 4×105 doses of carcinoma cells; (6) implantation of 3.5×105

  16. Impulsive behavior and recurrent major depression associated with dandy-walker variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Young Chil; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Moon, Seok Woo

    2013-09-01

    Reported herein is a case of recurrent major depression with impulse control difficulty in a 33-year-old man with Dandy-Walker variant. He was diagnosed as having major depressive disorder a year before he presented himself to the authors' hospital, and had a history of three-time admission to a psychiatric unit in the previous 12 months. He was readmitted and treated with sodium valporate 1,500 mg/day, mirtazapine 45 mg/day, and quetiapine 800 mg/day during the three months that he was confined in the authors' hospital, and the symptoms were reduced within three months but remained thereafter. This is the only case so far reporting recurrent depression with impulse control difficulty associated with Dandy-Walker variant. This case implies that any cerebellar lesion may cause the appearance of recurrent depression with impulse control difficulty in major depressive disorder.

  17. Nasopharyngeal teratoma, congenital diaphragmatic hernia and Dandy-Walker malformation - a yet uncharacterized syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, N; Shastri, S; Singh, P K; Jana, M; Mridha, A; Verma, G; Kabra, M

    2016-11-01

    An association of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, dandy walker malformation and nasopharyngeal teratoma is very rare. Here, we report a fourth case with this association where chromosomal microarray and whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed to understand the underlying genetic basis. Findings of few variants especially a novel variation in HIRA provided some insights. An association of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, dandy walker malformation and nasopharyngeal teratoma is very rare. Here, we report a fourth case with this association where chromosomal microarray and whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed to understand the underlying genetic basis. Findings of few variants especially a novel variation in HIRA provided some insights. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Dandy-Walker Variant with Schizophrenia: Comorbidity or Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Pallavi; Tarwani, Jatin; Kumar, Pankaj; Garg, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Dandy-Walker complex (DWC) is a series of neurodevelopmental anomalies involving the posterior cranial fossa. The cerebellum has long been considered to be involved in motor coordination and balance. However, it has now been noted to play an important role in higher order cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functions. The concept of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, describing a coherent spectrum of cognitive and behavioral disturbances in adults following cerebellar damage has long been proposed. There have been reported cases of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms and DWC in literature, but the conclusive evidence for an association between the same remains lacking. Herein, we report a case of schizophrenia presenting along with Dandy-Walker Variant.

  19. Schizophrenia-like psychosis and dandy-walker variant comorbidity: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt Zincir, Selma; Kıvılcım, Yiğit; Izci, Filiz; Semiz, Umit Basar

    2014-01-01

    Dandy-Walker variant is a developmental malformation consisting of cerebellar hypoplasia and cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. Previous research has proposed a possible role for the cerebellum in cognition and in schizophrenia. In this paper we report a schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder in a 30 year-old woman with Dandy-Walker variant. The patient was treated with risperidone 6 mg/day, biperiden 4 mg/day and risperidone depot 50 mg injections fortnightly, and most of the symptoms were ameliorated within 2 months. The similar cognitive profile to populations with cerebellar pathology and rarity of the condition strongly suggests that there may be direct relationship between cerebellar pathology and appearence of psychotic symptoms.

  20. Impact of particle density and initial volume on mathematical compression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    In the calculation of the coefficients of compression models for powders either the initial volume or the particle density is introduced as a normalising factor. The influence of these normalising factors is, however, widely different on coefficients derived from the Kawakita, Walker and Heckel e...

  1. On the number of common sites visited by N random walkers

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, L

    2016-01-01

    Majumdar and Tamm [Phys. Rev. E 86 021135 (2012), arXiv:1206.6184] recently obtained analytical expressions for the mean number of common sites W_N(t) visited up to time t by N independent random walkers starting from the origin of a d-dimensional lattice. In this short note I show how the different regimes and the corresponding asymptotic power laws can be retrieved using the notion of fractal intersection.

  2. Women in History--Madame C. J. Walker 1867-1919

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Germaine W.

    2009-01-01

    This article profiles Madame C. J. Walker. Sarah Breedlove was born on December 23, 1867, the fifth of six children of Owen and Minerva Breedlove. Sarah was the first of the Breedlove children to be born after the end of slavery. Her parents died when she was six or seven years of age. At age fourteen she married Moses McWilliams, who also died in…

  3. Comparisons between swing phase characteristics of race walkers and distance runners

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, LC; Hanley, B

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze swing characteristics during race walking and to compare these with distance running. The rules of race walking demand that no visible flight time should occur and the stance leg must be straightened from initial contact to midstance. Previous research has not examined whether these rules also have an effect on swing and what consequences might arise. Ten male race walkers and ten male distance runners walked or ran respectively on an instrumented treadmil...

  4. Paciente com variante da síndrome de Dandy Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Luis Ribeiro Andrade Filho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O quadro que seria conhecido atualmente como Síndrome de Dandy Walker, foi caracterizada por um conjunto de sinais derivados de alterações na embriogênese, principalmente no que tange a gênese do sistema nervoso central. A patogenia é classificada majoritariamente em três formas, sendo a mais comum a variante de Dandy Walker. Tem-se por objetivo, o relato do caso de um paciente masculino, 3 meses de idade, portador da Variante da Síndrome de Dandy Walker. O paciente apresentava ao exame físico geral e específico dos sistemas: macrocefalia, hidrocele, apêndices em mãos e pés, microgenitália, hérnia inguinal. Em relação ao acometimento cardíaco, havia dilatação ventricular esquerda, bulhas hipofonéticas e sopros holossistólicos. Na ressonância magnética foi observada ausência de vermis cerebelar e aumento anormal do quarto ventrículo. Método: as informações foram obtidas mediante revisão de prontuário, exames de imagem e levantamento para estudo de literatura específica referente ao caso. Considerações finais e relevância: o caso relatado e o estudo das referências apontam a caracterização do paciente na variante de Dandy Walker, tendo em consideração seu fenótipo variável. Malformações devem ser pesquisadas intra e extracranianas através de pesquisa clínica e radiológica, de forma a minimizar as taxas de mortalidade em recém-nascidos portadores da síndrome.

  5. Performance of trichogrammatids as biocontrol agents of Pseudoplusia includens Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Regiane C. O. F. Bueno; Parra,José R.P.; Bueno, Adeney F.; HADDAD, Marinéia L

    2009-01-01

    Este estudo objetivou selecionar as linhagens de tricogramatídeos mais adequadas ao controle da lagarta falsa-medideira, Pseudoplusia includens Walker. Foram avaliados os parâmetros biológicos e a taxa de parasitismo de 11 linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, uma linhagem de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner e uma linhagem de Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, criadas em ovos de P. includens. Entre as espécies/linhagens avaliadas, a linhagem T. pretiosum RV, coletada em Rio...

  6. New Analytical Solution of the Equilibrium Ampere's Law Using the Walker's Method: a Didactic Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, A. N. Laurindo; Ojeda-González, A.; Prestes, A.; Klausner, V.; Caritá, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    This work aims to demonstrate the analytical solution of the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation or generalized Ampere's law, which is important in the studies of self-consistent 2.5-D solution for current sheet structures. A detailed mathematical development is presented to obtain the generating function as shown by Walker (RSPSA 91, 410, 1915). Therefore, we study the general solution of the GS equation in terms of the Walker's generating function in details without omitting any step. The Walker's generating function g(ζ) is written in a new way as the tangent of an unspecified function K(ζ). In this trend, the general solution of the GS equation is expressed as exp(- 2Ψ) = 4|K '(ζ)|2/cos2[K(ζ) - K(ζ ∗)]. In order to investigate whether our proposal would simplify the mathematical effort to find new generating functions, we use Harris's solution as a test, in this case K(ζ) = arctan(exp(i ζ)). In summary, one of the article purposes is to present a review of the Harris's solution. In an attempt to find a simplified solution, we propose a new way to write the GS solution using g(ζ) = tan(K(ζ)). We also present a new analytical solution to the equilibrium Ampere's law using g(ζ) = cosh(b ζ), which includes a generalization of the Harris model and presents isolated magnetic islands.

  7. Test pilots 1962 - Thompson, McKay, Dana, Armstrong, Peterson, Butchart, Walker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    A group photo of NASA research pilots at the front door of the Flight Research Center headquarters building. In the front row are (left to right) Milt Thompson, Jack McKay, and Bill Dana. All three flew the X-15, and Thompson and Dana were also involved in the lifting body flights. McKay was injured in a crash landing in X-15 #2. Although he recovered, the injuries eventually forced him to retire from research flying. In the back row (left to right) are Neil Armstrong, Bruce Peterson, Stanley Butchart, and Joe Walker. Armstrong and Walker also both flew the X-15. Soon after this photo was taken, Armstrong was selected as an astronaut, and seven years later became the first man to walk on the Moon. Walker made the highest flight in the X-15, reaching 354,200 feet. He then went on to fly the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle, and was killed on June 8, 1966 when his F-104N collided with the XB-70. Peterson made the first flight in the HL-10 lifting body, and was later badly injured in the crash of the M2-F2 lifting body. Butchart flew a wide range of research missions in the 1950s, and was the B-29 drop plane pilot for a number of rocket flight.

  8. Detection of Gait Perturbations Based on Proprioceptive Information. Application to Limit Cycle Walkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Gallego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking on irregular surfaces and in the presence of unexpected events is a challenging problem for bipedal machines. Up to date, their ability to cope with gait disturbances is far less successful than humans’: Neither trajectory controlled robots, nor dynamic walking machines (Limit Cycle Walkers are able to handle them satisfactorily. On the contrary, humans reject gait perturbations naturally and efficiently relying on their sensory organs that, if needed, elicit a recovery action. A similar approach may be envisioned for bipedal robots and exoskeletons: An algorithm continuously observes the state of the walker and, if an unexpected event happens, triggers an adequate reaction. This paper presents a monitoring algorithm that provides immediate detection of any type of perturbation based solely on a phase representation of the normal walking of the robot. The proposed method was evaluated in a Limit Cycle Walker prototype that suffered push and trip perturbations at different moments of the gait cycle, providing 100% successful detections for the current experimental apparatus and adequately tuned parameters, with no false positives when the robot is walking unperturbed.

  9. HitWalker2: visual analytics for precision medicine and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomly, Daniel; McWeeney, Shannon K; Wilmot, Beth

    2016-04-15

    The lack of visualization frameworks to guide interpretation and facilitate discovery is a potential bottleneck for precision medicine, systems genetics and other studies. To address this we have developed an interactive, reproducible, web-based prioritization approach that builds on our earlier work. HitWalker2 is highly flexible and can utilize many data types and prioritization methods based upon available data and desired questions, allowing it to be utilized in a diverse range of studies such as cancer, infectious disease and psychiatric disorders. Source code is freely available at https://github.com/biodev/HitWalker2 and implemented using Python/Django, Neo4j and Javascript (D3.js and jQuery). We support major open source browsers (e.g. Firefox and Chromium/Chrome). wilmotb@ohsu.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Additional information/instructions are available at https://github.com/biodev/HitWalker2/wiki. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Do Canes or Walkers Make Any Difference? NonUse and Fall Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Clare; Bush, Tamara; Shen, Xiaoxi

    2017-04-01

    Examine patterns of cane and walker use as related to falls and fall injuries. Among people who fall at home, most do not have an assistive device with them when they fall. Nonusers who fall sustain more severe injuries. This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered written survey completed by 262 people aged 60 and older who were community dwelling, cognitively intact, and current cane/walker users with a history of falls. They were recruited through clinical practice sites, churches, and senior housing in central Michigan. Outcomes of interest included patterns of device use, reasons for nonuse, device use at time of fall, and fall-related injuries. Seventy-five percent of respondents who fell were not using their device at the time of fall despite stating that canes help prevent falls. Reasons for nonuse included believing it was not needed, forgetfulness, the device made them feel old, and inaccessibility. Perceived risk was not high enough to engage in self-protective behavior. However, nonuse led to a significantly higher proportion of falls resulting in surgery than among device users. Among respondents requiring surgery, 100% were nonusers. Most respondents never received a home safety evaluation (68%) and only 50% received training on proper device use. Providers must place increased emphasis on the importance of cane/walker use for injury prevention through patient education to promote personal relevance, proper fitting, and training. New strategies are needed to improve device acceptability and accessibility.

  11. New Analytical Solution of the Equilibrium Ampere's Law Using the Walker's Method: a Didactic Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, A. N. Laurindo; Ojeda-González, A.; Prestes, A.; Klausner, V.; Caritá, L. A.

    2018-02-01

    This work aims to demonstrate the analytical solution of the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation or generalized Ampere's law, which is important in the studies of self-consistent 2.5-D solution for current sheet structures. A detailed mathematical development is presented to obtain the generating function as shown by Walker (RSPSA 91, 410, 1915). Therefore, we study the general solution of the GS equation in terms of the Walker's generating function in details without omitting any step. The Walker's generating function g( ζ) is written in a new way as the tangent of an unspecified function K( ζ). In this trend, the general solution of the GS equation is expressed as exp(- 2Ψ) = 4| K '( ζ)|2/cos2[ K( ζ) - K( ζ ∗)]. In order to investigate whether our proposal would simplify the mathematical effort to find new generating functions, we use Harris's solution as a test, in this case K( ζ) = arctan(exp( i ζ)). In summary, one of the article purposes is to present a review of the Harris's solution. In an attempt to find a simplified solution, we propose a new way to write the GS solution using g( ζ) = tan( K( ζ)). We also present a new analytical solution to the equilibrium Ampere's law using g( ζ) = cosh( b ζ), which includes a generalization of the Harris model and presents isolated magnetic islands.

  12. Protective Effect of Metformin Against Walker 256 Tumor Growth is Not Dependent on Metabolism Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of the current work was to test the effect of metformin on the tumor growth in rats with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We obtained pre-diabetic hyperinsulinemic rats by neonatal treatment with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG, which were chronically treated every day, from weaning to 100 day old, with dose of metformin (250 mg/kg body weight. After the end of metformin treatment, the control and MSG rats, treated or untreated with metformin, were grafted with Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Tumor weight was evaluated 14 days after cancer cell inoculation. The blood insulin, glucose levels and glucose-induced insulin secretion were evaluated. Results: Chronic metformin treatment improved the glycemic homeostasis in pre-diabetic MSG-rats, glucose intolerance, tissue insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and decreased the fat tissue accretion. Meanwhile, the metformin treatment did not interfere with the glucose insulinotropic effect on isolated pancreatic islets. Chronic treatment with metformin was able to decrease the Walker 256 tumor weight by 37% in control and MSG rats. The data demonstrated that the anticancer effect of metformin is not related to its role in correcting metabolism imbalances, such as hyperinsulinemia. However, in morphological assay to apoptosis, metformin treatment increased programmed cell death. Conclusion: Metformin may have a direct effect on cancer growth, and it may programs the rat organism to attenuate the growth of Walker 256 carcinoma.

  13. Effects of aquatic walking exercise using a walker in a chronic stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tadashi; Akezaki, Yoshiteru

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of aquatic walking exercise using a walker for chronic stroke patients. We also examined the psychological effects on the study subject and the primary caregiver before and after aquatic walking exercise. [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 60-year-old male with bilateral paralysis after a cerebrovascular accident. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) total score was 116 on the right and 115 on the left. The intervention combined aquatic and land walking exercise. A U-shaped walker was used for both water and land exercise. Continuous walking distance was the measure used to evaluate land walking ability. The psychological effects on the study subject and the primary caregiver were examined with the questionnaire. [Results] In aquatic walking, the mean time to walk 5 m showed an increase from the intervention after two months. After the aquatic walking and land walking combination, continuous walking distance also showed a prolonged trend. In the survey given to the main caregivers, improvements were observed. [Conclusion] Aquatic walking practice using a walker improved motivation in a chronic stroke patient, leading to improved walking ability, with a positive psychological influence on the participant and family caregiver.

  14. [Genetic analysis of two cases with Dandy-Walker deformed fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Juan; Fang, Rong; Shen, Xueping; Shen, Guosong; Zhang, Su

    2017-10-10

    To explore the genetic etiology of two fetuses with Dandy-Walker malformation using single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-array). The fetuses and their parents were subjected to G banding karyotype analysis. The fetuses were also subjected to SNP-array analysis. The parents of both fetuses showed a normal karyotype. One fetus has a 46,X,?i(X)(q10), while for another conventional cell culture has failed. SNP-array showed that one fetus carried a 6p25.3p25.2 microdeletion, and another carried a Xp22.33p22.2 deletion and a Yq11.221q11 duplication. The abnormal fragments have involved FOXC1, SHOX and STS genes, which are associated with Dandy-Walker malformation. Alteration of 6p25.3p25.2, Xp22.33p22.2 copy numbers probably underlies the Dandy-Walker syndrome in the fetuses. The disorder may be attributed to abnormal expression of FOXC1, SHOX, and STS genes. SNP-array can provide an important supplement for prenatal diagnosis.

  15. A Novel Function for the Conserved Glutamate Residue in the Walker B Motif of Replication Factor C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda B. Bloom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In all domains of life, sliding clamps tether DNA polymerases to DNA to increase the processivity of synthesis. Clamp loaders load clamps onto DNA in a multi-step process that requires ATP binding and hydrolysis. Like other AAA+ proteins, clamp loaders contain conserved Walker A and Walker B sequence motifs, which participate in ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. Mutation of the glutamate residue in Walker B motifs (or DExx-boxes in AAA+ proteins typically reduces ATP hydrolysis by as much as a couple orders of magnitude, but has no effect on ATP binding. Here, the Walker B Glu in each of the four active ATP sites of the eukaryotic clamp loader, RFC, was mutated to Gln and Ala separately, and ATP binding- and hydrolysis-dependent activities of the quadruple mutant clamp loaders were characterized. Fluorescence-based assays were used to measure individual reaction steps required for clamp loading including clamp binding, clamp opening, DNA binding and ATP hydrolysis. Our results show that the Walker B mutations affect ATP-binding-dependent interactions of RFC with the clamp and DNA in addition to reducing ligand-dependent ATP hydrolysis activity. Here, we show that the Walker B glutamate is required for ATP-dependent ligand binding activity, a previously unknown function for this conserved Glu residue in RFC.

  16. Land-sea thermal contrast determines the trend of Walker circulation simulated in atmospheric general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Song, Hwan-Jin; Dommenget, Dietmar; Sohn, B. J.

    2017-06-01

    Strengthening or weakening of the Walker circulation can highly influence the global weather and climate variability by altering the location and strength of tropical heating. Therefore, there is considerable interest in understanding the mechanisms that lead to the trends in the Walker circulation intensity. Conventional wisdom indicates that a strengthening or weakening of the Walker circulation is primarily controlled by inhomogeneous sea surface temperature (SST) patterns across the tropical Pacific basin. However, we show that Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project climate model simulations with identical SST forcing have different Walker circulation trends that can be linked to differences in land surface temperatures. More prominently, stronger land-sea thermal contrast leads to increases in the precipitation in South America as well as the sea level pressure in the eastern tropical Pacific through a local circulation, resulting in a strengthening of the Walker circulation trend. This implies that correctly simulating the land temperature in atmospheric models is crucial to simulating the intensity of the Walker circulation in the present climate as well as its future change.

  17. Upper-Ocean Heat Balance Processes and the Walker Circulation in CMIP5 Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, C.; Lyon, B.; Ricciardulli, L.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable uncertainty remains as to the importance of mechanisms governing decadal and longer variability of the Walker Circulation, its connection to the tropical climate system, and prospects for tropical climate change in the face of anthropogenic forcing. Most contemporary climate models suggest that in response to elevated CO2 and a warmer but more stratified atmosphere, the required upward mass flux in tropical convection will diminish along with the Walker component of the tropical mean circulation as well. Alternatively, there is also evidence to suggest that the shoaling and increased vertical stratification of the thermocline in the eastern Pacific will enable a muted SST increase there-- preserving or even enhancing some of the dynamical forcing for the Walker cell flow. Over the past decade there have been observational indications of an acceleration in near-surface easterlies, a strengthened Pacific zonal SST gradient, and globally-teleconnected dislocations in precipitation. But is this evidence in support of an ocean dynamical thermostat process posited to accompany anthropogenic forcing, or just residual decadal fluctuations associated with variations in warm and cold ENSO events and other stochastic forcing? From a modeling perspective we try to make headway on this question by examining zonal variations in surface energy fluxes and dynamics governing tropical upper ocean heat content evolution in the WCRP CMIP5 model projections. There is some diversity among model simulations; for example, the CCSM4 indicates net ocean warming over the IndoPacific region while the CSIRO model concentrates separate warming responses over the central Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The models, as with observations, demonstrate strong local coupling between variations in column water vapor, downward surface longwave radiation and SST; but the spatial patterns of changes in the sign of this relationship differ among models and, for models as a whole, with

  18. Modelo experimental de tumor na cavidade oral de ratos com carcinossarcoma de Walker 256 Experimental model of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma developed in the oral cavity of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental de desenvolvimento tumoral na cavidade oral de ratos, permitindo, assim, o estudo da osteólise induzida pelo tumor nos ossos do complexo maxilomandibular como também nas estruturas dentais, através da caracterização histomorfológica da reabsorção óssea e dentária. MÉTODOS: Uma suspensão de células tumorais (0,1mL do Carcinossarcoma de Walker 256, na concentração de 10(6 células/mL foi implantado na cavidade alveolar de ratos previamente aberta por exodontia. Os animais foram observados durante 12 (doze dias consecutivos para determinação da curva de peso corpóreo, sendo posteriormente sacrificados e as mandíbulas removidas para exames radiográfico e histológico. RESULTADOS: No exame radiográfico foi verificada área lítica, sem evidência de reparo, na região dos alvéolos. No exame microscópico foi identificada infiltração óssea, periférica e central, de pequenas células hipercromáticas e pleomórficas, com leve infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear associado e áreas de necrose. O índice de pega foi de 100%. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo animal de invasão óssea, do tumor de Walker na cavidade oral, possibilita a avaliação in vivo de drogas antitumorais e esquemas terapêuticos no tratamento do câncer bucal.PURPOSE: To estabilish an experimental model of tumor development in the oral cavity of rats, that would enable to study the tumor-induced autolysis in the maxillomandibular bone complex as well as of the dental structures, through histomorphological characterization of bone and dental resorption. METHODS: Walker 256 carcinossarcoma cell suspension (0,1 mL containing 10(6 cell/mL was implanted in the alveoli of first and second molars. The animals were observed during twelve consecutive days and the body weigth were determined. Later, the animals were sacrificed and their mandibles removed to radiographic and hystologic analysis. RESULTS: The radiographic image

  19. Robust spinal neuroinflammation mediates mechanical allodynia in Walker 256 induced bone cancer rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Ying Qi-Liang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been reported that remarkable and sustained activation of astrocytes and/or microglia occurs in cancer induced pain (CIP, which is different from neuropathic and inflammatory pain. The present study was designed to investigate the role of spinal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 induced glial neuroinflammation in cancer induced pain using a modified rat model of bone cancer. The rat model of CIP consisted of unilateral intra-tibial injection with Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma. Nine days after Walker 256 inoculation, a robust activation of both astrocytes and microglia in bilateral spinal dorsal horn was observed together with significant bilateral mechanical allodynia. This neuroinflammation was characterized by enhanced immunostaining of both glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, astrocyte marker and OX-42 (microglia marker, and an elevated level of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. I.t. administration of fluorocitrate (an inhibitor of glial metabolism, 1 nmol or minocycline (an inhibitor of microglia, 100 μg has significant anti-allodynic effects on day 12 after Walker 256 inoculation. Naloxone (a nonstereoselective TLR4 signaling blocker, 60 μg, i.t. also significantly alleviated mechanical allodynia and simultaneously blocked the increased inflammatory cytokine mRNA. The results suggested that spinal TLR4 might play an important role in the sustained glial activation that critically contributed to the robust and sustained spinal neuroinflammation in CIP. This result could potentially help clinicians and researchers to better understand the mechanism of complicated cancer pain.

  20. The influence of septal lesions on sodium and water retention induced by Walker 256 tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guimarães

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the course of studies on the effects of septal area lesions on neuroimmunomodulation and Walker 256 tumor development, it was observed that tumor-induced sodium and water retention was less marked in lesioned than in non-lesioned rats. In the present study possible mechanisms involved in this phenomenon were investigated. The experiments were performed in septal-lesioned (LW; N = 15 and sham-operated (SW; N = 7 8-week-old male Wistar rats, which received multifocal simultaneous subcutaneous (sc inoculations of Walker 256 tumor cells about 30 days after the stereotaxic surgery. Control groups (no tumor, sham-operated food-restricted (SFR, N = 7 and lesioned food-restricted (LFR, N = 10 were subjected to a feeding pattern similar to that observed in tumor-bearing animals. Multifocal inoculation of Walker 256 tumor rapidly induces anorexia, which is paradoxically accompanied by an increase in body weight, as a result of renal Na+ and fluid retention. These effects of the tumor were also seen in LW rats, although the rise in fractional sodium balance during the early clinical period was significantly smaller than in SW rats (day 4: SW = 47.6 ± 6.4% and LW = 13.8 ± 5.2%; day 5: SW = 57.5 ± 3.5% and LW = 25.7 ± 4.8%; day 6: SW = 54.4 ± 3.8% and LW = 32.1 ± 4.4%; P<0.05, suggesting a temporary reduction in tumor-induced sodium retention. In contrast, urine output was significantly reduced in SW rats and increased in LW rats (LW up to -0.85 and SW up to 4.5 ml/100 g body weight, with no change in osmolar excretion. These temporary changes in the tumor's effects on LW rats may reflect a "reversal" of the secondary central antidiuretic response induced by the tumor (from antidiuretic to diuretic.

  1. Global surgery formula for the Casson-Walker invariant (AM-140)

    CERN Document Server

    Lescop, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a new result in 3-dimensional topology. It is well known that any closed oriented 3-manifold can be obtained by surgery on a framed link in S 3. In Global Surgery Formula for the Casson-Walker Invariant, a function F of framed links in S 3 is described, and it is proven that F consistently defines an invariant, lamda (l), of closed oriented 3-manifolds. l is then expressed in terms of previously known invariants of 3-manifolds. For integral homology spheres, l is the invariant introduced by Casson in 1985, which allowed him to solve old and famous questions in 3-dimensional

  2. Maternal grand mal seizure leads to a surprising diagnosis of Dandy-Walker variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Sherri G

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women may present with abnormal symptoms that are assumed to be related to the pregnancy. The purpose of this case study is to examine an obstetric case that provides a wider view of a grand mal seizure in a perinatal patient with previously undiagnosed Dandy-Walker Variant. When a pregnant or newly postpartum woman has seizures, eclampsia may be the most the most likely diagnosis, but it may not be accurate. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. PET/CT in a Patient Diagnosed With Dandy-Walker Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Jose R; Garcia, Lucia; Rayo, Juan I; Serrano, Justo; Dominguez, Maria L; Moreno, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a rare congenital posterior fossa malformation characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, and enlargement of the posterior fossa. We present a 52-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with gastrointestinal stromal tumor and submitted to 18F-FDG PET/CT as a staging procedure. The patient was previously diagnosed with DWS in brain CT scan. PET/CT images revealed an ametabolic large cyst in the posterior fossa and hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis. The case is presented with the aim to show the appearance of this syndrome on PET/CT study.

  4. Dandy Walker Syndrome with Unusual Associated Findings in a Fetal Autopsy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha U Arakeri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dandy Walker Syndrome (DWS is a congenital brain malformation characterized by hypoplasia or absence of cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of fourth ventricle and hydrocephalus. It is frequently associated with other congenital anomalies. Associated central nervous system anomalies such as agenesis of corpus callosum and vermis are associated with poor prognosis. Association of DWS with congenital absence of spleen is life threatening condition and has been reported very rarely. Autopsy findings of DWS with association of congenital absence of corpus callosum, vermis and spleen are reported in a stillborn fetus of 28 weeks gestation and review of relevant literature was done

  5. Very severe spinal muscular atrophy: Type 0 with Dandy-Walker variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathwala, Geeta; Silayach, Joginder; Bhakhari, Bhanu Kiran; Narwal, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord, resulting in progressive proximal muscle weakness and paralysis. In addition to the three classical SMA types, a new form known as type 0 with intrauterine onset, profound hypotonia and a progressive and early fatal course has been described. Herein we report a case of type 0 SMA with a Dandy Walker variant anomaly, which has not hitherto been reported in the world literature.

  6. Dandy–Walker syndrome with duplex kidney abnormalities in trisomy 18 – A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun-Jun Wang

    2017-10-01

    We report a case involving a 39-year-old pregnant female with a case of trisomy 18 associated with Dandy–Walker malformation (DWM. Fetal ultrasonography showed hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis and dilatation of the fourth ventricle and was characterized by an enlarged posterior fossa. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging showed inferior vermian hypoplasia and a large posterior fossa cyst communicating with the fourth ventricle causing high insertion of the torcular herophili, which was compatible with DWM. Furthermore, the karyotyping report revealed trisomy 18. The incidence of trisomy 18 associated with DWM is rare, and our report presents an unusual case that supplements our knowledge of this condition.

  7. Central diabetes insipidus, central hypothyroidism, renal tubular acidosis and dandy-walker syndrome: new associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafif, M M; Aljaid, S S; Al-Agha, A E

    2015-01-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a rare brain malformation involving the cerebellum, and the fluid filled spaces around it, usually detected during the antenatal period or the early infancy. Clinically, it is characterized by mental retardation, developmental delay as well as cerebellar ataxia. It has been frequently associated with other conditions such as congenital heart diseases, primary hypothyroidism, and other disorders of the central nervous, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and orthopedic systems. In this report, we describe a 3-month-old Saudi boy with the rare association of DWS with central diabetes insipidus, congenital central hypothyroidism, and type-2 renal tubular acidosis.

  8. Encounter distribution of two random walkers on a finite one-dimensional interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, Vincent; Schad, Michaela; Metzler, Ralf [Physics Department, Technical University of Munich, James Franck Strasse, 85747 Garching (Germany); Benichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphael, E-mail: metz@ph.tum.de [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee (UMR 7600), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75255 Paris Cedex (France)

    2011-09-30

    We analyse the first-passage properties of two random walkers confined to a finite one-dimensional domain. For the case of absorbing boundaries at the endpoints of the interval, we derive the probability that the two particles meet before either one of them becomes absorbed at one of the boundaries. For the case of reflecting boundaries, we obtain the mean first encounter time of the two particles. Our approach leads to closed-form expressions that are more easily tractable than a previously derived solution in terms of the Weierstrass' elliptic function. (paper)

  9. On the scalar particle creation by electromagnetic fields in Robertson–Walker spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sogut

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we obtained the scalar particle creation number density by using the Klein–Gordon equation coupled to the electromagnetic fields in the Robertson–Walker spacetime with the help of the Bogoliubov transformation method. We analyzed the resulting expression for the effect of a time-dependent electric field and a constant magnetic field on the particle production rate and found that the strong time-dependent electric field amplifies the particle creation and the magnetic field reduces the rate, in accordance with the previous findings.

  10. The oophorectomy effect on Walker 256 tumor inoculated into the vagina and uterine cervix of female rats Efeito da ooforectomia no tumor de Walker 256 inoculado em vagina e colo de útero de ratos fêmeas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Macedo Botelho Brito

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Verify the effect of oophorectomy on the evolution of the Walker 256 tumor inoculated into the vagina and cervix of female rats. METHODS: Ten Wistar, female rats were used, distributed into two groups with 05 animals each: Tumor group (TG: Rats inoculated with Walker 256 tumor; Oophorectomy group (OG: oophorectomized rats inoculated with Walker 256 tumor. The day before the tumor vaginal inoculation, acetic acid was inoculated into the vaginas of both groups of rats; the following day, the vaginal walls were scarified with an endocervix brush, and then Walker 256 tumor was inoculated. After 12 days, the tumor was removed together with the vagina and uterine horns for macro and microscopic analyses. The data were submitted to statistical analyses. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the two groups; however it was observed that the behavior of tumor growth on the OG group presented greater invasion, compromising the uterine horns. CONCLUSION: The results of the study on the GO group presented a macroscopic behavior different from the TG group, however, both of them presented similar development in terms of tumor mass.OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da ooforectomia à inoculação do tumor de Walker 256 em vagina e colo de útero de ratas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 10 ratas Wistar, fêmeas, virgens, adultas, distribuídas em dois grupos de estudo com 05 animais cada: grupo tumor (GT: ratas inoculadas com tumor de Walker 256, e grupo Ooforectomia (GO: ratas ooforectomizadas e inoculadas com tumor de Walker 256. No dia anterior à inoculação vaginal do tumor, foram inoculados 0,3ml de ácido acético na vagina das ratas de ambos os grupos; no dia seguinte, foi realizada a escarificação da parede vaginal com uma escova de endocérvice e inoculado tumor de Walker 256. Após 12 dias, foi removido o tumor em bloco com vagina e cornos uterinos para análise macro e microscópica. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estat

  11. Fallot Pentalojisi’nin eşlik ettiği Dandy-Walker varyasyonu: Olgu sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    Güven, Ahmet; Oflaz, Mehmet; Kaya, Ali; Bolat, Fatih; Gülsever, Osman; Şalk, İsmail; Bozoklu Akkar, Özlem; İçağasıoğlu, Füsun

    2014-01-01

    ÖzetDandy-Walker varyasyonu, 4. ventrikül ve sisterna magna arasındaki devamlılıkla sonuçlanan vermisin parsiyel agenezisi ile karakterize santral sinir sisteminin nadir bir anomalisidir. Literatürde ilk kez 1988’de Kohyama ve arkadaşları tarafından bildirilen Dandy-Walker varyasyonu ve Fallot Tetralojisi birlikteliği daha sonraki yıllarda birkaç vaka sunumu şeklinde bildirilmiştir. Biz bu yazıda, Dandy-Walker varyasyonu ve Fallot Pentalojisi olan 2 günlük bir erkek hastayı bildiriyoruz.Anaht...

  12. Analysis of growth directions of columnar stromatolites from Walker Lake, western Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, V A; Corsetti, F A

    2011-09-01

    Samples of digitate, branching, columnar stromatolites were collected from the steep sides and near horizontal top of four in situ boulders located on the southwestern side of Walker Lake, Nevada, to test the widely held assumption that stromatolite column formation represents a phototropic response. We would predict that the columns on the steeply dipping sides of the boulder would bend upwards toward the light during growth if phototropism was significant during stromatolite morphogenesis. Angle of growth measurements on >300 stromatolites demonstrate that the stromatolites grew nearly normal to their growth surface, regardless of the inclination of their growth surface. No significant differences in the distribution of growth angles between north-, south-, east-, or west-facing samples were observed, and stromatolite lamina thickness did not systematically vary with position on the boulder. The lack of a strong phototropic response does not rule out a biological origin for the Walker Lake structures, but it does suggest that phototropic growth was not a dominant factor controlling stromatolite morphogenesis in these stromatolites and that column formation cannot be uniquely attributed as a phototropic response in stromatolites. It is interesting to note that the morphology of the stromatolites on the top of the boulder is identical to stromatolites on the steep sides. Stromatolite morphogenetic models that predict branching typically require a vertically directed sedimentary component, a feature that would have likely affected the stromatolites on the tops of the boulders, but not the sides, suggesting that other factors may be important in stromatolite morphogenesis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. A biological walker is faster and better recognized when aligned with body axis observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Guillaume; Fouque, Florent; Pozzo, Thierry; Pérennou, Dominic

    2013-09-01

    The representation of the vertical direction is a compromise between the directions given by the egocentric and allocentric references. Dissociations between these two referentials in the discrimination of a biological walker which typically refers to a model of verticality questions the coordinate system (allocentric and/or egocentric) used to perceive it. With a point-light display paradigm, the characteristics of an artificial walking pattern were manipulated in order to offer to 10 healthy participants (5 men/5 women; 24.6±3.4 years) a female or male locomotion which had to be identified as such. The body position of the viewer (sitting/lying) and the walking pattern viewed (aligned/rotated in relation to the egocentric referential) were crossed. Three indices were analyzed and 200 trials recorded: percentage of correct identification, reaction time and confidence score. This paper confirms the validity of the walking pattern model since the more pronounced the gradient of the walking pattern (as female or male) the better the recognition. Furthermore, whatever the body position, artificial walking patterns were more easily identified when they were aligned with the egocentric referential rather than tilted. The participant gender had no influence on the walking pattern recognition. We conclude that the perception of a biological walker referenced to the vertical is exclusively improved by a representation of the spatial information in an egocentric coordinate system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary stability analysis of a Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahalom, Asher

    2017-05-01

    It is stated in many text books that the any metric appearing in general relativity should be locally Lorentzian i.e. of the type gµν = diag (1, -1, -1, -1) this is usually presented as an independent axiom of the theory, which cannot be deduced from other assumptions. The meaning of this assertion is that a specific coordinate (the temporal coordinate) is given a unique significance with respect to the other spatial coordinates. It was shown that the above assertion is a consequence of requirement that the metric of empty space should be linearly stable and need not be assumed. In this work we remove the empty space assumption and investigate the consequences of spatially uniform matter on the stability of a locally Lorentzian space-time that is the Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space-time. It is shown that a partial stability analysis restricts the type of allowable solutions to the Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space-time. In particular it is shown that an open section universe is stable while an Euclidean and a closed section universes are not in accordance with observation. It will be suggested that in the presence of matter an upper limit scale to the size of a locally Lorentzian universe exists which incidentally is about the size of the observable universe.

  15. Integrability and tau-functions on Random Walkers & Isomonodromy Deformation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz Rodriguez, Axel Ivan

    We consider three types of integrable models which happen to lie under the classification of random walkers or isomonodromic deformations. We deal with an infinite queue that moves forward at random times, indecisive walkers on a circle walking left with probability p and walking right with probability 1-p at any given time, and a deformation of a matrix multi-valued holomorphic function on the projective line which preserves the monodromy structure of the function. Particularly, we work with the Plancherel growth process where we write the Schur generating function and show that it is a KP tau-function. Also, we work with the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) on a finite ring lattice and prove that the Bethe ansatz gives a complete set of eigenfunctions for generic parameters. Lastly, we write a solution and the tau-function to the Painleve 1 isomonodromy system using the Eynard-Orantin topological recursion. Additionally, we include an introductory background for integrable systems and an appendix that gives a resolution of a family of singular maps through blow-ups, which is used for the proof on the Bethe ansatz.

  16. Confined Random Walkers in Dimensions Higher Than One and Analysis of Transmission of Infection in Epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Sugaya, S

    2016-01-01

    A pair of random walkers, the motion of each of which in two dimensions is confined spatially by the action of a quadratic potential centered at different locations for the two walks, are analyzed in the context of reaction-diffusion. The application sought is to the process of transmission of infection in epidemics. The walkers are animals such as rodents in considerations of the Hantavirus epidemic, infected or susceptible, the reaction is the transmission of infection, and the confining potential represents the tendency of the animals to stay in the neighborhood of their home range centers. Calculations are based on a recently developed formalism (Kenkre and Sugaya, Bull. Math. Bio. 76, 3016 (2014)) structured around analytic solutions of a Smoluchowski equation and one of its aims is the resolution of peculiar but well-known problems of reaction-diffusion theory in 2-dimensions. In the present analysis, reaction occurs not at points but in spatial regions of dimensions larger than 0. The analysis uncovers...

  17. A class of almost equilibrium states in Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueskue, Muharrem

    2008-11-06

    In quantum field theory in curved spacetimes the construction of the algebra of observables of linear fields is today well understood. However, it remains a non-trivial task to construct physically meaningful states on the algebra. For instance, we are in the unsatisfactory situation that there exist no examples of states suited to describe local thermal equilibrium in a non-stationary spacetime. In this thesis, we construct a class of states for the Klein-Gordon field in Robertson-Walker spacetimes, which seem to provide the first example of thermal states in a spacetime without time translation symmetry. More precisely, in the setting of real, linear, scalar fields in Robertson-Walker spacetimes we define on the set of homogeneous, isotropic, quasi-free states a free energy functional that is based on the averaged energy density measured by an isotropic observer along his worldline. This functional is well defined and lower bounded by a suitable quantum energy inequality. Subsequently, we minimize this functional and obtain states that we interpret as 'almost equilibrium states'. It turns out that the states of low energy are the ground states of the almost equilibrium states. Finally, we prove that the almost equilibrium states satisfy the Hadamard condition, which qualifies them as physically meaningful states. (orig.)

  18. Recent Walker circulation strengthening and Pacific cooling amplified by Atlantic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Shayne; Timmermann, Axel; Stuecker, Malte F.; England, Matthew H.; Merrifield, Mark; Jin, Fei-Fei; Chikamoto, Yoshimitsu

    2014-10-01

    An unprecedented strengthening of Pacific trade winds since the late 1990s (ref. ) has caused widespread climate perturbations, including rapid sea-level rise in the western tropical Pacific, strengthening of Indo-Pacific ocean currents, and an increased uptake of heat in the equatorial Pacific thermocline. The corresponding intensification of the atmospheric Walker circulation is also associated with sea surface cooling in the eastern Pacific, which has been identified as one of the contributors to the current pause in global surface warming. In spite of recent progress in determining the climatic impacts of the Pacific trade wind acceleration, the cause of this pronounced trend in atmospheric circulation remains unknown. Here we analyse a series of climate model experiments along with observational data to show that the recent warming trend in Atlantic sea surface temperature and the corresponding trans-basin displacements of the main atmospheric pressure centres were key drivers of the observed Walker circulation intensification, eastern Pacific cooling, North American rainfall trends and western Pacific sea-level rise. Our study suggests that global surface warming has been partly offset by the Pacific climate response to enhanced Atlantic warming since the early 1990s.

  19. Anestesia em criança com síndrome de Walker-Warburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Arzu Kose

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivos: A síndrome de Walker-Warburg é uma distrofia muscular autossômica recessiva congênita rara, manifestada pelo sistema nervoso central com malformações oculares e possível envolvimento de vários sistemas. O diagnóstico é estabelecido pela presença de quatro critérios: distrofia muscular congênita, lisencefalia tipo II, malformação cerebelar e malformação da retina. A maioria das crianças com a síndrome morre nos primeiros três anos de vida por causa de insuficiência respiratória, pneumonia, convulsões, hipertermia e fibrilação ventricular. Relato de caso: É discutida a conduta anestésica em uma criança do sexo masculino, de dois meses, programada para cirurgia eletiva de derivação ventrículo-peritoneal. Conclusões: Uma abordagem anestésica cuidadosa é necessária por causa do envolvimento de vários sistemas. Relatamos a conduta anestésica em uma criança do sexo masculino de dois meses com síndrome de Walker-Warburg, que foi programada para cirurgia eletiva de derivação ventrículo-peritoneal.

  20. An anxiety-induced bias in the perception of a bistable point-light walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Cruys, Sander; Schouten, Ben; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Human sensitivity for social cues is exquisite, as illustrated by the ease with which simplified point-light movements invoke social and emotional responses. Compared to faces, these biological motion stimuli only recently started to be used to explore questions regarding social cognition and anxiety. We presented human point-light walkers that could be perceived as facing towards or facing away from the observer, and tested whether participants with high social anxiety would perceive these bistable stimuli differently, because this type of stimuli has particular relevance for them. The results showed that observers with high social anxiety tended to see walkers as facing away more frequently than those with low social anxiety. This may mean that high socially anxious observers are biased towards the more positive perceptual alternative because they are motivated to protect themselves against threatening social experiences, but we also explore alternative explanations. The findings are in line with the evidence for a positivity bias in perception, also called wishful seeing, but in contrast with the attentional negativity bias often found in social anxiety. We discuss reasons for this divergence and possible limitations of the current study. © 2013.

  1. The Most Common Comorbidities in Dandy-Walker Syndrome Patients: A Systematic Review of Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolliu, Emelina; Ioakeim-Ioannidou, Myrsini; Kontokostas, Kimonas; Dakoutrou, Maria; Kousoulis, Antonis A

    2017-09-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a rare neurologic multi-entity malformation. This review aimed at reporting its main nonneurologic comorbidities. Following PRISMA guidelines, search in Medline was conducted (2000-2014, keyword: dandy-walker). Age, sex, country, DWS type, consanguinity or siblings with DWS, and recorded coexistent conditions (by ICD10 category) were extracted for 187 patients (46.5% male, 43% from Asia) from 168 case reports. Diagnosis was most often set in 12 years old (27.8%). One-third of cases had a chromosomal abnormality or syndrome (n = 8 PHACE), 27% had a cardiovascular condition (n = 7 Patent Ductus Arteriosus), 24% had a disease of eye and ear (n = 9 cataract); most common malignancy was nephroblastoma (n = 8, all Asian). Almost one-fifth had a mental illness diagnosis; only 6.4% had mild or severe intellectual disability. The spread of comorbidities calls for early diagnosis and multidisciplinary research and practice, especially as many cases remain clinically asymptomatic for years.

  2. Neurocutaneous melanosis and the Dandy-Walker complex: an uncommon but not so insignificant association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnet, Dominique; Vinchon, Matthieu; Mostofi, Keyvan; Catteau, Benoit; Kerdraon, Olivier; Dhellemmes, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    Neurocutaneous melanosis represents a rare congenital but nonheritable phakomatosis defined as the association of giant or multiple congenital nonmalignant melanocytic nevi with leptomeningeal melanosis or melanoma of the central nervous system. We describe the case of an adolescent with a giant congenital bathing trunk melanocytic nevus who developed progressive intracranial hypertension due to leptomeningeal melanosis confirmed by surgical biopsy. Brain and spine magnetic resonance images showed posterior fossa malformation compatible with the Dandy-Walker complex, hydrocephalus, and extensive enhancement of posterior fossa then spine. Shunt placement, corticotherapy, and chemotherapy were attempted leading to transient relief but the boy died 12 months after the onset of primary neurological symptoms. We discuss diagnosis, pathogenesis, management, and prognosis in the light of data from the recent literature. Neurocutaneous melanosis is considered to follow from neurulation disorders which could account for associated developmental malformations as the so-called Dandy-Walker complex. Cutaneous lesions are usually recognized at birth whereas neurological manifestations develop later. Numerous neurological symptoms have been reported according to extent of leptomeningeal and parenchymal infiltration. Whether magnetic resonance imaging of the neuroaxis represents the choice radiological exam, definite diagnosis relies upon the histological data obtained by mean of biopsy. Once symptomatic, surgical and medical measures remain palliative since death occurs within 3 years.

  3. Dandy–Walker malformation is a rare cause of syringomyelia in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yu. Evzikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects are the most common central nervous system malformation. Dandy–Walker malformation (DWM is a rare abnormality of the posterior cranial fossa, which is generally diagnosed in the prenatal period or early infancy.The paper describes a case of the late clinical manifestation of DWM, which has caused syringomyelia. All variants of pathological changes within the Dandy–Walker complex very rarely become a cause of syringomyelia. Only four cases of DWM, in which syringomyelia was found in adults, are known.The authors believe that formation of syringomyelia cysts in these patients is associated with the impaired circulation of normal cerebrospinal fluid between the superior cistern and the subarachnoid spaces of the spinal cord due to the caudal dislocation of the cyst formed in the fourth ventricle.Decompression of the craniovertebral junction, by resecting the caudal portion of the cyst in the foramen magnum, and repair of the free communication between the superior cistern and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces of the spinal cord, which is complemented by duroplasty, are pointed out to be an optimal treatment in these patients.

  4. Dandy-Walker syndrome with duplex kidney abnormalities in trisomy 18 - A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tun-Jun; Li, Yi-Ying; Wu, Wan-Ju; Lin, Chi-Kang; Wang, Chun-Kai; Wang, Chen-Yu; Hwang, Kwei-Shuai; Su, Her-Young

    2017-10-01

    Trisomy 18 is one of the major numerical chromosomal disorders. The incidence of trisomy 18 is approximately one in 6000 live births. Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is the most common congenital malformation of the cerebellum, with an incidence of about one in 5000 live births. The incidence of trisomy 18 associated with DWM is rare and long-term survival rate is very low. A case involving a 39-year-old pregnant female with a case of trisomy 18 associated with DWM. The incidence of trisomy 18 associated with DWM is rare, and our report presents an unusual case that supplements our knowledge of this condition. We report a case involving a 39-year-old pregnant female with a case of trisomy 18 associated with Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM). Fetal ultrasonography showed hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis and dilatation of the fourth ventricle and was characterized by an enlarged posterior fossa. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging showed inferior vermian hypoplasia and a large posterior fossa cyst communicating with the fourth ventricle causing high insertion of the torcular herophili, which was compatible with DWM. Furthermore, the karyotyping report revealed trisomy 18. The incidence of trisomy 18 associated with DWM is rare, and our report presents an unusual case that supplements our knowledge of this condition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Dandy-Walker syndrome in adult mimicking myasthenia gravis Síndrome de Dandy-Walker em adulto simulando miastenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cardoso

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS is a rare posterior fossa malformation. The DWS can occur associated with other brain or systemic malformations, but ocular abnormalities in this disease are rare and clinical findings mimicking myasthenia gravis have not been described to date. We report a 23-year-old woman who presented mild limitation of the ocular movements with progressive palpebral ptosis, which changed in intensity during the day. The investigation showed negative anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody, repetitive nerve stimulation and "Tensilon test", but the brain magnetic resonance image reveals DWS with hydrocephalus associated with calosal dysgenesis. The characteristic of disease, clinical manifestations and pathologic features, specially the clinical evaluation of ocular abnormalities in suspicion of DWS, including the MG in differential diagnosis are discussed.A síndrome de Dandy-Walker (DWS é uma rara malformação da fossa posterior que pode ocorrer associada com outras malformações cerebrais ou sistêmicas. As alterações oculares são raras e as manifestações clínicas, simulando miastenia gravis (MG, não foram descritas até o momento. Descrevemos uma mulher de 23 anos apresentando discreta limitação da movimentação ocular com progressiva ptose palpebral que mudava de intensidade durante o dia. A investigação mostrou negativos o anticorpo anti-receptor de acetilcolina, a estimulação nervosa repetitiva e o "teste do Tensilon", porém a ressonância magnética de crânio revelou DWS com hidrocefalia associada à disgenesia de corpo caloso. As características da doença, manifestações clínicas e patológicas, especialmente a avaliação clínica de anormalidade ocular na suspeita de DWS serão discutidas, incluindo a MG no diagnóstico diferencial.

  6. Haruki Murakami’s Deconstructive Reading of the Myth of Johnnie Walker and Colonel Sanders in Kafka on the Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limanta L. S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze how Haruki Murakami reads the real icons of Johnnie Walker and Colonel Sanders in Kafka on the Shore deconstructively. First, we will focus on the signification process of the icon, which are to a great extent molded by advertisements, and then on the deconstruction of their signifieds. For the purpose, we will apply Barthes’ idea of myth. We are also interested in revealing how Murakami constructs Johnnie Walker and Colonel Sanders to be characters in the novel. The analysis shows that the construction of the icons through advertisements leads to the creation of their mtyhs, and then Murakami reads them deconstructively to be opposite signifieds.

  7. Mutations in extracellular matrix genes NID1 and LAMC1 cause autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation and occipital cephaloceles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbro, Benjamin W; Mahajan, Vinit B; Gakhar, Lokesh; Skeie, Jessica M; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wu, Shu; Bing, Xinyu; Millen, Kathleen J; Dobyns, William B; Kessler, John A; Jalali, Ali; Cremer, James; Segre, Alberto; Manak, J Robert; Aldinger, Kimerbly A; Suzuki, Satoshi; Natsume, Nagato; Ono, Maya; Hai, Huynh Dai; Viet, Le Thi; Loddo, Sara; Valente, Enza M; Bernardini, Laura; Ghonge, Nitin; Ferguson, Polly J; Bassuk, Alexander G

    2013-08-01

    We performed whole-exome sequencing of a family with autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation and occipital cephaloceles and detected a mutation in the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein-encoding gene NID1. In a second family, protein interaction network analysis identified a mutation in LAMC1, which encodes a NID1-binding partner. Structural modeling of the NID1-LAMC1 complex demonstrated that each mutation disrupts the interaction. These findings implicate the ECM in the pathogenesis of Dandy-Walker spectrum disorders. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  8. Cenozoic evolution of the central Walker Lane Belt, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronis, Michael S.

    This dissertation is a collection of four papers that investigate deformation along the North America/Pacific plate boundary, geomagnetic field behavior, and aspects of volcanism in the western part of the Basin and Range Province. Active deformation along the America/Pacific plate boundary is distributed eastward across a wide zone of the western margin of the North American plate, from the San Andreas Fault eastward into the western Basin and Range province an area referred to as the Walker Lane Belt. Chapter three and four investigate aspects of deformation that has been transferred inboard of the continental plate boundary since the mid-Cenozoic inception of the system by investigating a key areas of the central Walker Lane Belt, west-central Nevada (Mina Deflection and southwest Silver Peak Range), where a significant component of the residual strain is being distributed. Deformation in these two areas is being accommodated along a system of late Cenozoic faults with strain partitioned into components of extension, strike slip faulting, and rotation of crustal blocks between the fault systems in the region. The results of this study allow for an assessment of late Tertiary deformation, which leads to a better understanding of the kinematics of deformation in this important part of the Walker Lane Belt. Chapter two investigates the transport direction of the Candelaria pyroclastic sequence by the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) technique. The AMS data are spatially variable across the region and indicate variable transport directions of the three regionally extensive ignimbrite deposits. The AMS fabric data indicate that the Candelaria pyroclastic sequence was erupted from distinct source areas likely separated by several kilometers. Chapter one investigates unusual geomagnetic field behavior at 25.7 Ma and 23.8 Ma preserved in volcanic rocks in the Mina Deflection. Paleomagnetic data indicate that parts of two transitional field records or reversal

  9. Pore size distribution and methane equilibrium conditions at Walker Ridge Block 313, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihani, Abhishek [University of Texas at Austin; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin; Cook, Ann [Ohio State University; Glosser, Deborah [Ohio State University; Shushtarian, Arash [University of Texas at Austin

    2015-12-15

    Coexistence of three methane phases (liquid (L), gas (G), hydrate (H)) in marine gas hydrate systems may occur according to in-situ pressure, temperature, salinity and pore size. In sediments with salinity close to seawater, a discrete zone of three-phase (3P) equilibrium may occur near the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) due to capillary effects. The existence of a 3P zone influences the location of the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) and has implications for methane fluxes at the base of the RHSZ. We studied hydrate stability conditions in two wells, WR313-G and WR313-H, at Walker Ridge Block 313 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We determined pore size distributions (PSD) by constructing a synthetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time distribution. Correlations were obtained by non-linear regression on NMR, gamma ray, and bulk density logs from well KC-151 at Keathley Canyon. The correlations enabled construction of relaxation time distributions for WR313-G and WR313-H, which were used to predict PSD through comparison with mercury injection capillary pressure measurements. With the computed PSD, L+H and L+G methane solubility was determined from in-situ pressure and temperature. The intersection of the L+G and L+H curves for various pore sizes allowed calculation of the depth range of the 3P equilibrium zone. As in previous studies at Blake Ridge and Hydrate Ridge, the top of the 3P zone moves upwards with increasing water depth and overlies the bulk 3P equilibrium depth. In clays at Walker Ridge, the predicted thickness of the 3P zone is approximately 35 m, but in coarse sands it is only a few meters due to the difference in absolute pore sizes and the width of the PSD. The thick 3P zone in the clays may explain in part why the BSR is only observed in the sand layers at Walker Ridge, although other factors may influence the presence or absence of a BSR.

  10. Pore Size Distribution and Methane Equilibrium Conditions at Walker Ridge Block 313, Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihani, A. D.; Daigle, H.; Cook, A.; Glosser, D.; Shushtarian, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coexistence of three methane phases (liquid (L), gas (G), hydrate (H)) in marine gas hydrate systems may occur according to in-situ pressure, temperature, salinity and pore size. In sediments with salinity close to seawater, a discrete zone of three-phase (3P) equilibrium may occur near the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) due to capillary effects. The existence of a 3P zone influences the location of the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) and has implications for methane fluxes at the base of the RHSZ. We studied hydrate stability conditions in two wells, WR313-G and WR313-H, at Walker Ridge Block 313 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We determined pore size distributions (PSD) by constructing a synthetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time distribution. Correlations were obtained by non-linear regression on NMR, gamma ray, and bulk density logs from well KC-151 at Keathley Canyon. The correlations enabled construction of relaxation time distributions for WR313-G and WR313-H, which were used to predict PSD through comparison with mercury injection capillary pressure measurements. With the computed PSD, L+H and L+G methane solubility was determined from in-situ pressure and temperature. The intersection of the L+G and L+H curves for various pore sizes allowed calculation of the depth range of the 3P equilibrium zone. As in previous studies at Blake Ridge and Hydrate Ridge, the top of the 3P zone moves upwards with increasing water depth and overlies the bulk 3P equilibrium depth. In clays at Walker Ridge, the predicted thickness of the 3P zone is approximately 35 m, but in coarse sands it is only a few meters due to the difference in absolute pore sizes and the width of the PSD. The thick 3P zone in the clays may explain in part why the BSR is only observed in the sand layers at Walker Ridge, although other factors may influence the presence or absence of a BSR.

  11. [Physical risks whilst walking the Nijmegen Four Days Marches in 2007: electrolyte imbalance in 1 in 5 walkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Poelkens, F.; Binkhorst, M.; Wouters, C.W.; Schouwenberg, B.J.J.W.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the physiological impact and health risks for walkers during the Nijmegen (the Netherlands) Four Days Marches in 2007, the largest walking event in the world with more than 45,000 participants. DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: 66 volunteers were randomly selected and

  12. Review of the East Palaearctic and North Oriental Psyttalia Walker, with the description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Q.; Achterberg, van C.; Tan, J.-L.; Chen, X.-X.

    2016-01-01

    The East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: P. latinervis Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. and P. majocellata Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. from China, and P. spectabilis van

  13. Description of a new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Bernardo A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Winnie Hallwachs;  J. Bolling Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker are described from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Images of males and females and their genitalia are provided. Locality information and distribution maps for Costa Rica and for Guatemala are included. The biology and phylogeny of Idalus are discussed. PMID:23730178

  14. Kinetic equations for ultrarelativistic particles in a Robertson-Walker Universe and isotropization of relict radiation by gravitational interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatyev, Yu G

    2011-01-01

    Kinetic equations for ultrarelativistic particles with due account of gravitational interactions with massive particles in the Robertson-Walker universe are obtained. On the basis of an exact solution of the kinetic equations thus obtained, a conclusion is made as to the high degree of the uniformity of the relict radiation on scales with are less than $10'$.

  15. Case 3724 - Metochus abbreviatus Scott, 1874 (Insecta, Heteroptera): proposed precedence over Rhyparochromus erosus Walker, 1872 (currently Metochus erosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this application, under Article 23.9.3 of the Code, is to conserve the widely used specific name Metochus abbreviatus Scott, 1874, for a species of rhyparochromid bugs from East Asia. The name is threatened by the senior subjective synonym Metochus erosus (Walker, 1872), which has bee...

  16. Rapid Communication. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hym.: Eulophidae parasitoid of Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae is reported on Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae in northwestern Iran. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae was reared for the first time on B. tremblayi, and compared with Tamarixia tremblayi, another parasitoid of B. tremblayi. This is a new record of T. monesus from the Middle East.

  17. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Ross, Megan L; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Welvaert, Marijke; Heikura, Ida A; Forbes, Sara G; Mirtschin, Joanne G; Cato, Louise E; Strobel, Nicki; Sharma, Avish P; Hawley, John A

    2017-05-01

    Three weeks of intensified training and mild energy deficit in elite race walkers increases peak aerobic capacity independent of dietary support. Adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet markedly increases rates of whole-body fat oxidation during exercise in race walkers over a range of exercise intensities. The increased rates of fat oxidation result in reduced economy (increased oxygen demand for a given speed) at velocities that translate to real-life race performance in elite race walkers. In contrast to training with diets providing chronic or periodised high carbohydrate availability, adaptation to an LCHF diet impairs performance in elite endurance athletes despite a significant improvement in peak aerobic capacity. We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate (CHO), high fat diet (LCHF) during 3 weeks of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world-class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: high CHO availability (g kg -1  day -1 : 8.6 CHO, 2.1 protein, 1.2 fat) consumed before, during and after training (HCHO, n = 9); identical macronutrient intake, periodised within or between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (economy. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological Society.

  18. Changes in Energy Cost and Total External Work of Muscles in Elite Race Walkers Walking at Different Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwała Wiesław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess energy cost and total external work (total energy depending on the speed of race walking. Another objective was to determine the contribution of external work to total energy cost of walking at technical, threshold and racing speed in elite competitive race walkers.

  19. Dandy-walker malformation and the contribution of radioisotopic studies of cerebral spinal fluid dynamics to its diagnosis. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, A.; Nazar, N.; Castro, M.; Olea, E.; Guzmann, G. (Inst. of Neurosurgery, Santiago (Chile))

    1982-01-01

    One case of Dandy-Walker malformation is described. The diagnosis was mainly reached by dynamic isotope studies of CSF, and was confirmed by axial computerized tomography. The importance of these examinations is discussed, not only as a means of understanding the aetiopathology, but especially because of the functional information they give and the therapeutic consequences they have.

  20. Neuropsychological and Behavioural Phenotype of Dandy-Walker Variant Presenting in Chromosome 22 Trisomy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searson, Ruth; Hare, Dougal Julian; Sridharan, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a case of Dandy-Walker variant syndrome associated with trisomy 22 in a 17-year-old man is described. This is the first account of this combination in a person surviving into adulthood, and the neuropsychological and behavioural presentation is described in detail and a clinical formulation is presented for the benefit of…

  1. Life table studies of rachiplusia nu (guenée) and chrysodeixis (= pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) on artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) and Chrysodeixis (= Pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are two economically important species in soybean in northern Argentina. Life cycle, reproductive and population parameters of R. nu and C. includens reared on artificial diet were determined under ...

  2. Effect of Diapause Ondevelopment and Reproduction of White Rice Stem Borer Scirpophaga innotata Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Suparno

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of diapause on the development and reproduction of white rice stem borer (WRSB, Scirpophaga innotata Walker. During diapause, larvae of the WRSB, progressively decreased in weight at the rate 3.2 mg per week. Larvae lost 50 per cent of their initial body mass and had up to four stationary molts. Larvae became less active, lost pigmentation and leg rudimentary. The longer the larvae remained in diapause, the lighter in weight the emerging moths were, with fewer eggs and oocytes. After 5 months in diapause, the emerging moths weighted about half as much and had about half as many eggs and oocytes (230.0±35.8 egg cells in ovaries as moths that emerged from nondiapausing larvae. Key words: insecta, white rice stem rice borer, Scirpophaga innotata, diapause

  3. ENSO impacts on the South American rainfall during 1980s: Hadley and Walker circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Souza, E.B.; Ambrizzi, T. [Departamento de Ciencias Atmosfericas, Instituto Astronomico y Geofisico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-04-01

    The changes in the Hadley and Walter cells and their respective impacts on the South American rainfall during the ENSO episodes observed in the decade of 80, were investigated through cross-sections analyses of the atmospheric circulation in altitude, averaged in the zonal and meridional planes. Such large-scale cells almost inverted their climatological circulation pattern, during El Nino events (1982-83 and 1986-87). In these years, manifestation of the anomalous descending branch of the Hadley and Walker cells affects most of the north-northeast of South America, which inhibited the convective activity associated to the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and caused drought conditions in the rainy seasons of the Guyana, Surinam, French Guyana, center-east of the Amazon and most of the Northeast Brazil. On the other hand, conditions of excess of precipitation observed in the south-southeast of South America, were favored by the anomalous ascending branch of the Hadley cell. During La Nina events (1984-85 and 1988-89), it was observed an intensification of the ascending and descending branches associated to the Walker and Hadley cells. The anomalous large-scale ascending movement associated to these cells, was extended to the Northeast of Brazil and equatorial South Atlantic, favoring ITCZ to become more active than the normal, which resulted in an above normal rainy season in these areas. An intense subsidence was noticed in the mid latitudes of South America, which inhibited the large-scale convection in the region, explaining the deficient rainy season observed in most of the south-southeast of South America. [Spanish] Los cambios en las celulas de Hadley y Walker y sus respectivos impactos en Suramerica, en las lluvias, durante los episodios en ENOS, observados en la decada de los 80, son investigados a traves de analisis de reacciones cruzadas de la circulacion atmosferica en altitudes promediadas en planos zonal y meridional. Tales celulas de gran escala

  4. Exact distributions of cover times for N independent random walkers in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Satya N.; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Schehr, Grégory

    2016-12-01

    We study the probability density function (PDF) of the cover time tc of a finite interval of size L by N independent one-dimensional Brownian motions, each with diffusion constant D . The cover time tc is the minimum time needed such that each point of the entire interval is visited by at least one of the N walkers. We derive exact results for the full PDF of tc for arbitrary N ≥1 for both reflecting and periodic boundary conditions. The PDFs depend explicitly on N and on the boundary conditions. In the limit of large N , we show that tc approaches its average value of ≈L2/(16 D lnN ) with fluctuations vanishing as 1 /(lnN) 2 . We also compute the centered and scaled limiting distributions for large N for both boundary conditions and show that they are given by nontrivial N independent scaling functions.

  5. Seasonal nutrient dynamics of foliage and litterfall on Walker Branch Watershed, a deciduous forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grizzard, T.; Henderson, G.S.; Clebsch, E.E.C.; Reichle, D.E.

    1976-03-01

    A detailed twelve-month study of litterfall, live foliage biomass, and seasonal nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sodium, and magnesium) dynamics in tree components was performed for forest types on Walker Branch Watershed, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Biomass and nutrient content of foliage, reproductive parts and branches were examined for ten dominant trees in order to assess the relative importance of litterfall in returning nutrients to the forest floor in four different forest types. Litterfall, measured in pine, pine-oak-hickory, oak-hickory, and mesophytic hardwood forests, was separated into three components (leaves, reproductive parts, and branches). Seasonal comparisons of those forest types were made for biomass and nutrient inputs for each component and for total litterfall.

  6. Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    2001-09-04

    This numeric data package provides data sets, and accompanying documentation, on site characterization, system performance, weather, species composition, and growth for the Throughfall Displacement Experiment, which was established in the Walker Branch Watershed of East Tennessee to provide data on the responses of forests to altered precipitation regimes. The specific data sets include soil water content and potential, coarse fraction of the soil profile, litter layer temperature, soil temperature, monthly weather, daily weather, hourly weather, species composition of trees and saplings, mature tree and sapling annual growth, and relative leaf area index. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  7. "It feels good to be measured": clinical role-play, Walker Percy, and the tingles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Nitin K

    2013-01-01

    A large online community has recently formed around autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR), a pleasant and poorly understood somatic reaction to specific interpersonal triggers. Its web-based manifestations include a variety of amateur videos designed to elicit the reaction, many of which feature protracted imitations of a clinician's physical exam. This analysis considers through a literary lens the proximity of this phenomenon to clinical diagnostics, focusing in particular on characterizations of spiritual isolation elaborated in Love in the Ruins (1971), the third novel by physician-writer Walker Percy (1916-1990). Within this speculative framework, the tendency to derive pleasure from clinical milieus, real or constructed, may be interpreted as a quality particular to the postmodern psyche. Viewing web-based clinical role-play in light of Percy's writing also underscores the possibility that routine diagnostic assessments may have independent therapeutic implications.

  8. Effects of field interactions upon particle creation in Robertson-Walker universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, N. D.; Davies, P. C. W.; Ford, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Particle creation due to field interactions in an expanding Robertson-Walker universe is investigated. A model in which pseudoscalar mesons and photons are created as a result of their mutual interaction is considered, and the energy density of created particles is calculated in model universes which undergo a bounce at some maximum curvature. The free-field creation of non-conformally coupled scalar particles and of gravitons is calculated in the same space-times. It is found that if the bounce occurs at a sufficiently early time the interacting particle creation will dominate. This result may be traced to the fact that the model interaction chosen introduces a length scale which is much larger than the Planck length.

  9. Dynamic pedobarographic classification of idiopathic toe-walkers for therapeutical indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Martín-Casas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic toe-walkers (ITWs pedobarographic analysis has not been described yet nor its possible relationship with orthopedical and developmental characteristics. The objective of this research is to develop a dynamic pedobarographic classification of ITWs to propose a specific therapeutical approach. Through an observational study, 56 ITWs aged 3-6 years were classified by their initial foot contact; differences between idiopatic toe-walking (ITW types and with respect to 40 control children were calculated by means of ANOVA and Student t-tests. The results show that the three ITW types displayed different step models for pressure and impulse distribution and also for temporal development (p less than .05. They also showed different orthopedic and developmental characteristics (p less than .05. As a whole, they demonstrated different severity levels, which suggest different therapeutical indications. This study confirms the convenience of a specific orthopedic, developmental, and gait assessment in ITW to clarify therapeutical indication.

  10. NMR images of non-communicating hydrocephalus associated with Dandy-Walker variant and achondroplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Masaharu; Kuroda, Ryotaro; Watanabe, Masaru; Nakatani, Jiro; Ioku, Masahiko; Irisawa, Minoru; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu

    1988-06-01

    Two cases of non-communicating hydrocephalus caused by a relatively rare etiology were reported. They were both diagnosed by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The first patient, a 4-month-old boy, had Dandy-Walker variant, showing hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and the inferior vermis, and a large cyst behind the vermis, communicating with the subarachnoid space, as well as hydrocephalus; the fourth ventricle was partially reserved. The second patient, also a 4-month-old boy, had achondroplasia, resulting in a narrow foramen magnum; the disturbance of the outflow of the cerebro-spinal fluid around the cisterna magna was thought to be the cause of hydrocephalus in his case. The validity of NMR was demonstrated in the diagnoses of these conditions, for a high resolution was needed in examining the complicated structure of the posterior fossa.

  11. Intellectual prognosis of the Dandy-Walker malformation in children: the importance of vermian lobulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, N.; Brunelle, F. [Paediatric Radiology Department, Hopital Necker Enfants-Malades, 149 rue de Sevres, 75015, Paris (France); ERM 0205 INSERM-CEA, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA, Orsay (France); Klein, O.; Parisot, D.; Pierre-Kahn, A. [Neurosurgical Department, Hopital Necker Enfants-Malades, 149 rue de Sevres, 75015, Paris (France); Ferguson, N.; Sonigo, P.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Baraton, J.; Emond, S.; Simon, I.; Chigot, V.; Schmit, P. [Paediatric Radiology Department, Hopital Necker Enfants-Malades, 149 rue de Sevres, 75015, Paris (France)

    2003-05-01

    Half of patients with the Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) have normal intellectual development. We aimed to identify feature on MRI associated with good intellectual prognosis. We reviewed 20 patients with DWM diagnosed on MRI, mean age 14.6{+-}9.9 years. We assessed their intellectual development and related it to the MRI features. We found two groups with a statistically different intellectual outcome. All 14 patients with normal intellectual development had a normal lobulation of the vermis, without supratentorial anomalies. Of the six patients with mental retardation, three had an abnormal vermis, together with dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. In the other three, there were normal vermian anatomy with associated anomalies. Normal lobulation of the vermis, in the absence of any supratentorial anomaly, appears to be a good prognostic factor in DWM. Preservation of cerebrocerebellar pathways and neonatal plasticity could explain the normal intellectual development. These findings might be useful in prenatal diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Dandy-Walker malformation, genitourinary abnormalities, and intellectual disability in two families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Maha S; Masri, Amira; Gregor, Anne; Gleeson, Joseph G; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur

    2015-11-01

    We report on two families, each with documented consanguinity and two affected with overlapping features of Dandy-Walker malformation, genitourinary abnormalities, intellectual disability, and hearing deficit. This phenotype shares similar findings with many well-known syndromes. However, the clinical findings of this syndrome categorize this as a new syndrome as compared with the phenotype of already established syndromes. Due to parental consanguinity, occurrence in siblings of both genders and the absence of manifestations in obligate carrier parents, an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance is more likely. The authors believe that these families suggest a novel autosomal recessive cerebello-genital syndrome. Array CGH analyses of an affected did not show pathological deletions or duplications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dandy-Walker malformation and neurocutaneous melanosis in a three-month-old infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, Shaza Mohamed; Yassin, Rehab Omer; Osman, Atika Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Dandy-Walker Malformation (DWM) is a rare congenital malformation of the brain. It is characterized by cystic enlargement of the fourth ventricle which is communicating with an enlarged posterior fossa, cerebellar dysgenesis, high tentorial insertion and hydrocephalus. Neurocutaneous Melanosis (NCM) is a congenital neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by large or multiple melanocytic nevi and benign or malignant melanocytic tumors of the leptomeninges. We report three months old boy who presented with projectile vomiting associated with a noticeable increase in head size. Several congenital nevi were seen all over his body with evident signs of hydrocephalus. The association of DWM and NCM is a rare complex, and to our knowledge, this is the eleventh case to be reported in the literature. In this article, we discuss the proposed pathogenesis, classification and management of the condition. PMID:27493376

  14. First-trimester sonographic findings associated with a Dandy-Walker malformation and inferior vermian hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Eran; Goncalves Rodríguez, José Luis; Álvarez Pavón, Erika Carolina; Quiroga, Héctor; Or, Drorit; Divon, Michael Y

    2013-10-01

    We report 2 cases in which first-trimester measurements of the intracranial translucency and the brain stem-to-occipital bone diameter were markedly enlarged. This finding was thought to represent an abnormal fourth ventricle-cisterna magna complex. Subsequently, the diagnoses of a Dandy-Walker malformation with partial vermian agenesis in 1 case and inferior vermian hypoplasia in the other were established and confirmed by either postmortem autopsy or postnatal magnetic resonance imaging. These cases suggest that evaluation of the fourth ventricle-cisterna magna complex, by measuring the intracranial translucency or brain stem-to-occipital bone diameter may identify some cases with structural malformations of the cerebellum as early as the first trimester.

  15. Neurocutaneous melanosis in association with dandy-walker complex with extensive intracerebral and spinal cord involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kyoung-Su; Song, Young-Jin

    2014-07-01

    Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is a rare congenital syndrome consisting of benign or malignant melanotic tumors of the central nervous system with large or numerous cutaneous melanocytic nevi. The Dandy-Walker complex (DWC) is characterized by an enlarged posterior fossa with high insertion of the tentorium, hypoplasia or aplasia of the cerebellar vermis, and cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. These each two conditions are rare, but NCM associated with DWC is even more rare. Most patients of NCM with DWC present neurological symptoms early in life such as intracranial hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, and malignant transformation of the melanocytes. We report a 14-year-old male patient who was finally diagnosed as NCM in association with DWC with extensive intracerebral and spinal cord involvement.

  16. Oral findings and dental treatment in a patient with Dandy-Walker syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Yasuka; Shinozuka, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is congenital disease characterized by hypoplasia of the cerebellum, the formation of cysts that communicate with the fourth ventricle of the posterior cranial fossa, and hydrocephalus. In addition to various other complications, cleft lip/palate, facial retrognathia, a high-arched palate, and maldentition occur at an increased frequency in patients with DWS. However, few studies have reported the dental manifestations of DWS. Herein, we report the clinical manifestations, oral findings, and dental management of a DWS patient who was treated under general anesthesia. Poor oral hygiene, gingivitis, and several congenital dental abnormalities (e.g., generalized microdontia, conical tooth, transposition, and congenitally missing teeth) were observed. This report is the first to describe the oral findings and dental treatment of DWS. Our findings emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the diagnosis and treatment of DWS. © 2013 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 with hypothalamic hamartoma and Dandy-Walker malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azukizawa, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Masahito; Narumiya, Seirou; Takano, Tomoyuki

    2013-04-01

    We report a 1-year-old girl with oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 with multiple malformations of the oral cavity, face, digits, and central nervous system, including agenesis of the corpus callosum, the presence of intracerebral cysts, and agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, which is associated with the subarachnoid space separating the medial sides of the cerebellar hemispheres. This child also had a hypothalamic hamartoma and a Dandy-Walker malformation, which have not been reported previously. The clinical features, including cerebral malformations, in several types of oral-facial-digital syndrome, overlap with each other. Further accumulation of new case reports and identification of new genetic mutations in oral-facial-digital syndrome may provide novel and important insights into the genetic mechanisms of this syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Performance of trichogrammatids as biocontrol agents of Pseudoplusia includens Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Regiane C O F; Parra, José R P; de F Bueno, Adeney; Haddad, Marinéia L

    2009-01-01

    This research aimed to point out the most suitable trichogrammatid strains to control the soybean looper Pseudoplusia includes Walker. Biological parameters and parasitism ratio of 11 Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, one Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and one Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis strains reared on P. includens eggs were evaluated. Among all tested strains/species, T. pretiosum strain RV, collected in Rio Verde, GO, had the fastest development cycle and the highest percentage of parasitism of P. includens eggs. There was no difference in the parasitism and in the number of parasitoid emerged per egg among the tested parasitoid species and strains. Accordingly to the cluster analysis, T. pretiosum strain RV reared on P. includens eggs had the best performance. Considering the higher parasitism rate, shorter biological cycle, higher survival and sex ratio, T. pretiosum strain RV is the most appropriated to be used in field releases aiming at P. includens control.

  19. A Kinematic Model for Vertical Axis Rotation within the Mina Deflection of the Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, T.; Pluhar, C. J.; Johnson, S. A.; Lindeman, J. R.; Petronis, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Mina Deflection, at the boundary between the Central and Southern Walker Lane, spans the California-Nevada border and includes a heavily-faulted Pliocene volcanic field overlying Miocene ignimbrites. The dextral Walker Lane accommodates 25% of relative Pacific-North America plate motion and steps right across the sinistral Mina deflection. Ours and previous work shows that the Mina Deflection partially accommodates deformation by vertical-axis rotation of up to 99.9o ± 6.1o rotation since 11 Ma. This rotation is evident in latite ignimbrite of Gilbert et al. (1971), which we have formalized as three members of Tuff of Huntoon Creek (THC). The welded, basal, normal-polarity Huntoon Valley Member of THC is overlain by the unwelded to partially-welded, reversed-polarity Adobe Hills Mbr. This member includes internal breaks suggesting multiple eruptive phases, but the paleomagnetic results from each are statistically indistinguishable, meaning that they were likely erupted in rapid succession (within a few centuries of one another). THC ends with a welded member exhibiting very shallow inclination and south declination that we call Excursional Mbr. One of the upper members has been dated at 11.17 ± 0.04 Ma. These Miocene units are overlain by Pliocene basalts, Quaternary alluvium, and lacustrine deposits. Our paleomagnetic results show a gradient between the zero rotation domain and high rotation across a 20km baseline. A micropolar model, based on 25 years of earthquake data from the Northern and Southern California Seismic Network, suggest the Mina Deflection is currently experiencing transpressional seismogenic deformation (Unruh et al., 2003). Accepting Unruh's model and assuming continuous rotation since 11 Ma, we propose a kinematic model for the western Mina Deflection that accommodates 90o of vertical axis rotation from N-S to ENE-WSW oriented blocks.

  20. “Ancestors We Didn’t Even Know We Had”: Alice Walker, Asian Religion, and Ethnic Authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Garton-Gundling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates about the ethics of identity in a global age have dealt with how to prioritize conflicting local and global allegiances. Guided by these concerns, the fiction of Alice Walker develops a distinctive view of how local cultures and global movements can fruitfully interact. This vision depends on concepts from Asian religions, a major influence that critics of Walker have largely overlooked. Walker promotes Hindu and Buddhist meditation in a context of widespread African American skepticism toward Asian religions. According to widespread notions of cultural authenticity, Asian religions cannot nourish an African American connection to ethnic roots. In response to this challenge, Alice Walker’s fiction portrays Hindu and Buddhist mystics as African Americans’ ancestors, thus positioning these faiths as authentically black. By creatively enfolding Asian religions into her sense of African American heritage, Walker builds a spiritual cosmopolitanism that relies on claims of ancestral affiliation even when these claims are not literal. This strategy is Walker’s effort to create a new paradigm of cultural authenticity, one that allows individuals and groups to choose their ancestors. Walker’s approach seeks to incorporate disparate global influences while still valorizing the figure of the ancestor. This innovative approach places Walker at the forefront of a growing number of African American artists and intellectuals who promote Asian religions to American minorities. Walker’s work vividly dramatizes larger concerns in transnational American Studies: Eastern philosophy’s relevance to identity politics, the tensions between universal ideals and cultural specifics, and the ethics of cross-cultural appropriation.

  1. The Role of Walkers’ Needs and Expectations in Supporting Maintenance of Attendance at Walking Groups: A Longitudinal Multi-Perspective Study of Walkers and Walk Group Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassavou, Aikaterini; Turner, Andrew; French, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is good evidence that when people’s needs and expectations regarding behaviour change are met, they are satisfied with that change, and maintain those changes. Despite this, there is a dearth of research on needs and expectations of walkers when initially attending walking groups and whether and how these needs and expectations have been satisfied after a period of attendance. Equally, there is an absence of research on how people who lead these groups understand walkers’ needs and walk leaders’ actions to address them. The present study was aimed at addressing both of these gaps in the research. Methods Two preliminary thematic analyses were conducted on face-to-face interviews with (a) eight walkers when they joined walking groups, five of whom were interviewed three months later, and (b) eight walk leaders. A multi-perspective analysis building upon these preliminary analyses identified similarities and differences within the themes that emerged from the interviews with walkers and walk leaders. Results Walkers indicated that their main needs and expectations when joining walking groups were achieving long-term social and health benefits. At the follow up interviews, walkers indicated that satisfaction with meeting similar others within the groups was the main reason for continued attendance. Their main source of dissatisfaction was not feeling integrated in the existing walking groups. Walk leaders often acknowledged the same reasons for walkers joining and maintaining attendance at walking. However, they tended to attribute dissatisfaction and drop out to uncontrollable environmental factors and/or walkers’ personalities. Walk leaders reported a lack of efficacy to effectively address walkers’ needs. Conclusions Interventions to increase retention of walkers should train walk leaders with the skills to help them modify the underlying psychological factors affecting walkers’ maintenance at walking groups. This should result in

  2. Prenatal diagnosis and molecular characterization of a novel locus for Dandy-Walker malformation on chromosome 7p21.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Can; Fu, Fang; Li, Ru; Yang, Xin; Xu, Qing; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2012-01-01

    We present three foetuses with Dandy-Walker malformation, intra-uterine growth restriction and multiple congenital abnormalities, who were studied by array-based comparative genomic hybridization and revealed a novel locus on chromosome 7p21.3. The association of pure chromosome 7p aberrations with Dandy-Walker malformation has rarely been reported. The present study suggests that the critical region associated with Dandy-Walker malformation is restricted to 7p21.3, including the cerebellar disease associated genes NDUFA4 and PHF14. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnosis of a case of Dandy-Walker malformation aided by measurement of the brainstem-vermis angle at 14 weeks gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Mishina, Miyuki; Hasegawa, Junichi; Matsuoka, Ryu; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Pooh, Ritsuko K

    2015-05-01

    Reported is a fetal Dandy-Walker malformation that was strongly suspected in the first trimester through measurement of the brainstem-vermis (B-V) angle, which was found to be 119° on transvaginal ultrasound examination at 14 weeks and 2 days gestation. Definitive diagnosis of the Dandy-Walker malformation was made by magnetic resonance imaging following stillbirth. Ultrasound measurement of the B-V angle may be a useful index for prenatal diagnosis of Dandy-Walker anomalies during early pregnancy. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Modelo de tumor de pulmão em rato com o carcinossarcoma de Walker Lung tumor model in rats with Walker’s carcinosarcoma

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    Antero Gomes Neto

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo de tumor pulmonar em ratos com o carcinossarcoma de Walker e verificar in vivo a presença de tumor por meio de tomografia computadorizada (TC. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar fêmeas (n=47 foram anestesiados com pentobarbital, intubados por traqueostomia e submetidos a toracotomia para injeção no parênquima pulmonar de células do tumor de Walker ou do veículo das mesmas. O estudo consistiu de duas etapas: na primeira desenvolveu-se a técnica de implante do tumor e estabeleceu-se o número de células necessário para um bom índice de pega tumoral. Na segunda etapa, determinou-se o volume do tumor em cm³ (Dxd²/2 através de TC e necropsia (6° dia do implante, e analizou-se a sobrevida dos animais. RESULTADOS: O índice de pega do tumor foi 93,3%, sendo 81,8% na primeira etapa e 100% na segunda. A mortalidade cirúrgica foi 17,0%. As medidas dos tumores foram semelhantes (0,099 vs. 0,111 cm³ na tomografia e na necropsia, respectivamente (r=0,993; pOBJECTIVE: To develop a lung tumor model in rats using Walker’s carcinosarcoma and to verify the presence in vivo of tumors using computerized tomography (CT. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (n=47 were anesthetized with pentobarbital, intubated through tracheostomy and submitted to thoracotomy; subsequently a 50-70 mu L volume containing Walker’s tumor cells, or the suspension of these same cells, was injected into the lung parenchyma. The study consisted of two phases: in the first a tumor implantation technique was developed and the number of cells required to attain a satisfactory tumor development rate was established. In the second phase, the tumor volume in cm³ (Dxd²/2 was determined through CT scan and necropsis, and the survival rates were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall tumor development rate was 93.3%, or rather, 81.1% in the first phase and 100% in the second. The surgical mortality rate was 17.0%. The average tumor volume was similar (0.099 vs. 0.111 cm

  5. Organic geochemistry and brine composition in Great Salt, Mono, and Walker Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, J.L.; Orem, W.H.; Eugster, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    Samples of Recent sediments, representing up to 1000 years of accumulation, were collected from three closed basin lakes (Mono Lake, CA, Walker Lake, NV, and Great Salt Lake, UT) to assess the effects of brine composition on the accumulation of total organic carbon, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon, humic acid structure and diagenesis, and trace metal complexation. The Great Salt Lake water column is a stratified Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 brine with low alkalinity. Algal debris is entrained in the high density (1.132-1.190 g/cc) bottom brines, and in this region maximum organic matter decomposition occurs by anaerobic processes, with sulfate ion as the terminal electron acceptor. Organic matter, below 5 cm of the sediment-water interface, degrades at a very slow rate in spite of very high pore-fluid sulfate levels. The organic carbon concentration stabilizes at 1.1 wt%. Mono Lake is an alkaline (Na-CO3-Cl-SO4) system. The water column is stratified, but the bottom brines are of lower density relative to the Great Salt Lake, and sedimentation of algal debris is rapid. Depletion of pore-fluid sulfate, near l m of core, results in a much higher accumulation of organic carbon, approximately 6 wt%. Walker Lake is also an alkaline system. The water column is not stratified, and decomposition of organic matter occurs by aerobic processes at the sediment-water interface and by anaerobic processes below. Total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in Walker Lake sediments vary with location and depth due to changes in input and pore-fluid sulfate concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies (13C) of humic substances and dissolved organic carbon provide information on the source of the Recent sedimentary organic carbon (aquatic vs. terrestrial), its relative state of decomposition, and its chemical structure. The spectra suggest an algal origin with little terrestrial signature at all three lakes. This is indicated by the ratio of aliphatic to

  6. Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitóide de dípteros muscóides coletado em Itumbiara, Goiás Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitoid of muscoids dipterous collected in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Marchiori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the occurrence of parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing pupae of flies (Diptera in different substrata in Itumbiara, Goiás. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. From May 1998 through April 2002, 737 parasitoids were collected in human feces, cattle liver, chicken, fish and cattle kidney. The prevalence of parasitism was 67.8%.

  7. Uncaria tomentosa exerts extensive anti-neoplastic effects against the Walker-256 tumour by modulating oxidative stress and not by alkaloid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Alejandro Dreifuss

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the anti-neoplastic effects of an Uncaria tomentosa (UT brute hydroethanolic (BHE extract with those of two fractions derived from it. These fractions are choroformic (CHCl3 and n-butanolic (BuOH, rich in pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA and antioxidant substances, respectively. The cancer model was the subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 tumour cells in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rat. Subsequently to the inoculation, gavage with BHE extract (50 mg.kg(-1 or its fractions (as per the yield of the fractioning process or vehicle (Control was performed during 14 days. Baseline values, corresponding to individuals without tumour or treatment with UT, were also included. After treatment, tumour volume and mass, plasma biochemistry, oxidative stress in liver and tumour, TNF-α level in liver and tumour homogenates, and survival rates were analysed. Both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction successfully reduced tumour weight and volume, and modulated anti-oxidant systems. The hepatic TNF-α level indicated a greater effect from the BHE extract as compared to its BuOH fraction. Importantly, both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction increased the survival time of the tumour-bearing animals. Inversely, the CHCl3 fraction was ineffective. These data represent an in vivo demonstration of the importance of the modulation of oxidative stress as part of the anti-neoplastic activity of UT, as well as constitute evidence of the lack of activity of isolated POAs in the primary tumour of this tumour lineage. These effects are possibly resulting from a synergic combination of substances, most of them with antioxidant properties.

  8. Field Studies of Streamflow Generation Using Natural and Injected Tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genereux, D.

    1992-01-01

    Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring {sup 222}Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for {sup 222}Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate [Rn]{sub q}, the {sup 222}Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and {sup 222}Rn volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of [Rn]{sub q} to the measured {sup 222}Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach. The method was first applied to a 34 m stream reach at Bickford during baseflow; results suggested that {ge} 70% of the lateral inflow could be considered vadose zone water (water which had been in a saturated zone for less than a few days), and the remainder ''soil groundwater'' or ''saturated zone water'' (which had a longer residence time in a soil saturated zone). The method was then applied to two stream reaches on the West Fork of Walker Branch over a wide range of flow conditions; four springs were also investigated. It was found that springwater and inflow to the stream could be viewed as a mixture of water from three end members: the two defined at Bickford (vadose zone water and soil groundwater) and a third (bedrock groundwater) to account for the movement of water through fractured dolomite bedrock. Calcium was used as a second naturally-occurring tracer to distinguish bedrock groundwater from the other two end members. The behavior

  9. Prof. John Wood, Chief Executive Designate, Dr Gordon Walker, Directorate, Chief Executive, Prof. Ken J. Peach, Head of the Particle Physics Department, CLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, United Kingdom

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    L. to. r.: Dr. Ian Wilson, CLIC Deputy Study Leader, Prof. Ken J. Peach, Head of the Particle Physics Department, Prof. John Wood, Chief Executive Designate, Dr. Gordon Walker, Directorate, Chief Executive

  10. Henri Cartier-Bresson / Walker Evans : Photographier l’Amérique (1929-1947

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brunet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dans un mot adressé en 2001 à Peter Galassi, conservateur de la photographie au MOMA, Henri Cartier-Bresson, alors âgé de quatre-vingt-treize ans, écrivait plaisamment — mais non pas complaisamment : « If it had not been for the challenge of the work of Walker Evans, I don’t think I would have remained a fotographer » (« sans le défi constitué par le travail de Walker Evans, je ne crois pas que je serais resté fotographe ». Pour fêter le centenaire de Cartier-Bresson, c’est ce défi — plutôt ...

  11. Biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae with larvae reared on khaki and mate-plant leaves

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    A. Specht

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to investigate biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae whose larvae were fed on leaves of khaki-plant (Diospyros khaki Linnaeus - Ebenaceae and Mate-plant (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire - Aquifoliaceae leaves. The biological parameters were obtained from specimens kept under controlled conditions: temperature of 25 ± 1 °C, relative humidity of 70 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 12 hours. For each developmental stage, morphological and ethological parameters are described. The larvae passed through six instars with a growth average rate of 1.4 for each instar. The host plants influenced significantly only the total duration of the larval phase, which was prolonged for larvae fed on khaki-plant leaves. Several aspects related to the morphology and the ethology of P. circumstans are similar to those described for Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855.

  12. Seizure and unilateral facial nerve paralysis in a newborn with Dandy-Walker malformation – A case report

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    Subhajit Bhakta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS is a rare posterior fossa malformation. It can have a varied presentation depending on the age. A newborn presenting with neonatal seizure along with unilateral facial nerve palsy is rather a rare presentation of DWS and very few such cases were reported in the past. We are reporting a case of a newborn male baby presenting with neonatal seizure within 48 hrs of birth along with right sided LMN type facial nerve palsy which on due course of investigation revealed as a case of Dandy–Walker malformation. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-1, 48-51 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i1.9673

  13. A New Anatomic Variation: Coexistence of Both Dandy-Walker Variant and Ophthalmic Artery Originating From Contralateral Internal Carotid Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogul, Hayri; Havan, Nuri; Gedikli, Yusuf; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2016-06-01

    The authors report on 1 patient of variant origin of right ophthalmic artery (OA) from ophthalmic segment of the left internal carotid artery. A 41-year-old man was performed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR angiography. Cerebral MR imaging revealed a Dandy-Walker variant. In MR angiography the authors observed this unusual variant of origin of OA and a complete occlusion of right internal carotid artery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first patient who has coincidence of both Dandy-Walker variant and origin of OA from contralateral internal carotid artery. Careful observation of MR angiography images with maximum intensity projection is very important for detecting rare vascular variations.

  14. [Reseña] Charles F. Walker, Smoldering ashes: Cusco and the creation of Republican Peru, 1780-1840

    OpenAIRE

    Latasa, P. (Pilar)

    2002-01-01

    Reseña del libro de Walker, Charles F.: De Túpac Amaru a Gamarra: Cusco y la formación del Perú Republicano, 1780-1840, Cusco, Centro de Estudios Regionales Andinos “Bartolomé de Las Casas”, 1999, 316 págs. [Smoldering ashes: Cusco and the creation of Republican Peru, 1780-1840, Durham, N.C., Duke University Press, 1999].

  15. New Lethal Skeletal Dysplasia with Dandy-Walker Malformation, Congenital Heart Defects, Abnormal Thumbs, Hypoplastic Genitalia, and Distinctive Facies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Cathy A.; Lachman, Ralph S.

    2011-01-01

    We report on two sibs with a lethal form of bone dysplasia with distinctive skeletal findings including rhizomelic and mesomelic limb shortening, hooked clavicles, dumbbell femurs, and absence of talus and calcaneus ossification. Other clinical features include Dandy-Walker malformation, congenital heart defects, joint contractures, genital hypoplasia, and distinctive facial features. These sibs appear to have a previously undescribed skeletal dysplasia, which is most likely inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. PMID:20602491

  16. Hybridization between multi-objective genetic algorithm and support vector machine for feature selection in walker-assisted gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria; Costa, Lino; Frizera, Anselmo; Ceres, Ramón; Santos, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Walker devices are often prescribed incorrectly to patients, leading to the increase of dissatisfaction and occurrence of several problems, such as, discomfort and pain. Thus, it is necessary to objectively evaluate the effects that assisted gait can have on the gait patterns of walker users, comparatively to a non-assisted gait. A gait analysis, focusing on spatiotemporal and kinematics parameters, will be issued for this purpose. However, gait analysis yields redundant information that often is difficult to interpret. This study addresses the problem of selecting the most relevant gait features required to differentiate between assisted and non-assisted gait. For that purpose, it is presented an efficient approach that combines evolutionary techniques, based on genetic algorithms, and support vector machine algorithms, to discriminate differences between assisted and non-assisted gait with a walker with forearm supports. For comparison purposes, other classification algorithms are verified. Results with healthy subjects show that the main differences are characterized by balance and joints excursion in the sagittal plane. These results, confirmed by clinical evidence, allow concluding that this technique is an efficient feature selection approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. How do walkers behave when crossing the way of a mobile robot that replicates human interaction rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Christian; Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Souères, Philippe; Crétual, Armel; Stasse, Olivier; Pettré, Julien

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies showed the existence of implicit interaction rules shared by human walkers when crossing each other. Especially, each walker contributes to the collision avoidance task and the crossing order, as set at the beginning, is preserved along the interaction. This order determines the adaptation strategy: the first arrived increases his/her advance by slightly accelerating and changing his/her heading, whereas the second one slows down and moves in the opposite direction. In this study, we analyzed the behavior of human walkers crossing the trajectory of a mobile robot that was programmed to reproduce this human avoidance strategy. In contrast with a previous study, which showed that humans mostly prefer to give the way to a non-reactive robot, we observed similar behaviors between human-human avoidance and human-robot avoidance when the robot replicates the human interaction rules. We discuss this result in relation with the importance of controlling robots in a human-like way in order to ease their cohabitation with humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolic effects of Hedyotis diffusa on rats bearing Walker 256 tumor revealed by NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyong; Gao, Kuo; Xu, Can; Gao, Jian; Yan, Yujing; Wang, Yingfeng; Li, Zhongfeng; Chen, Jianxin

    2017-08-28

    Hedyotis diffusa, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is widely used for oncotherapy and shows a positive effect in the clinical treatment. But its mechanism of anticancer activities is complicated and unclear. This study was undertaken to assess the therapeutic effects and reveal detailed mechanisms of H. diffusa for oncotherapy. A Walker 256 tumor-bearing rat model was established, and metabolomic profiles of plasma and urine were obtained from (1) H NMR technique. Multivariate statistical analysis methods were used to characterize the discriminating metabolites between control (C), Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats model (M), and H. diffusa treatment (H) groups. Finally, 13 and 10 metabolomic biomarkers in urine and plasma samples were further identified as characteristic metabolites in M group, whereas H group showed a partial metabolic balance recovered, such as ornithine, N-acetyl-l-aspartate, l-aspartate, and creatinine in urine samples, and acetate, lactate, choline, l-glutamine, and 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma samples. On the basis of the methods above, we hypothesized H. diffusa treatment reduced the injury caused by Walker 256 tumor and maintained a metabolic balance. Our study demonstrated that this method provided new insights into metabolic alterations in tumor-bearing biosystems and researching on the effects of H. diffusa on the endogenous metabolism in tumor-bearing rats. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Dandy-Walker malformation associated with heterozygous ZIC1 and ZIC4 deletion: Report of a new patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Jun; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Kawasaki, Sari; Harada, Naoki; Kawara, Hiroki; Matsui, Takeshi; Akasaka, Noriyuki; Ohashi, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Yu; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2011-01-01

    We report on a female patient with Dandy-Walker malformation possibly caused by heterozygous loss of ZIC1 and ZIC4. The patient presented with mental retardation, epilepsy, and multiple congenital malformations including spina bifida, mild dysmorphic facial features including, thick eyebrows, broad nose, full lips, macroglossia, and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis with enlargement of the fourth ventricle on brain magnetic resonance imaging, which is consistent with Dandy-Walker malformation. A chromosome analysis showed interstitial deletion of chromosome 3q23-q25.1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microarray-based genomic analysis revealed the heterozygous deletion of ZIC1 and ZIC4 loci on 3q24. Her facial features were not consistent with those observed in blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) involving FOXL2 abnormality. Other deleted genes at 3q23-25.1 might contribute to the dysmorphic facial appearance. A milder phenotype as the Dandy-Walker malformation in our patient supports the idea that modifying loci/genes can influence the development of cerebellar malformation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Synopsis of the 6th Walker's Cay Colloquium on Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy

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    Marincola Francesco M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 6th annual Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy Colloquium at Walker's Cay was held under the auspices of the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute on March 10–13, 2004. The Colloquium consisted of a select group of 34 scientists representing academia, biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. The main goal of this gathering was to promote in a peaceful and comfortable environment exchanges between basic and clinical science. The secondary benefit was to inspire novel bench to bedside ventures and at the same time provide feed back about promising and/or disappointing clinical results that could help re-frame some scientific question or guide the design of future trials. Several topics were covered that included tumor antigen discovery and validation, platforms for vaccine development, tolerance, immune suppression and tumor escape mechanisms, adoptive T cell therapy and dendritic cell-based therapies, clinical trials and assessment of response. Here we report salient points raised by speakers or by the audience during animated discussion that followed each individual presentation.

  1. Discrimination of locomotion direction in impoverished displays of walkers by macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeneugden, Joris; Vancleef, Kathleen; Jaeggli, Tobias; VanGool, Luc; Vogels, Rufin

    2009-04-28

    A vast literature exists on human biological motion perception in impoverished displays, e.g., point-light walkers. Less is known about the perception of impoverished biological motion displays in macaques. We trained 3 macaques in the discrimination of facing direction (left versus right) and forward versus backward walking using motion-capture-based locomotion displays (treadmill walking) in which the body features were represented by cylinder-like primitives. The displays did not contain translatory motion. Discriminating forward versus backward locomotion requires motion information while the facing-direction/view task can be solved using motion and/or form. All monkeys required lengthy training to learn the forward-backward task, while the view task was learned more quickly. Once acquired, the discriminations were specific to walking and stimulus format but generalized across actors. Although the view task could be solved using form cues, there was a small impact of motion. Performance in the forward-backward task was highly susceptible to degradations of spatiotemporal stimulus coherence and motion information. These results indicate that rhesus monkeys require extensive training in order to use the intrinsic motion cues related to forward versus backward locomotion and imply that extrapolation of observations concerning human perception of impoverished biological motion displays onto monkey perception needs to be made cautiously.

  2. Purification and characterization of hemocyte phenoloxidases in Chilo suppressalis walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhaghparast Seyyedeh Kimia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, two phenoloxidases (POs from the larvae of Chilo suppressalis Walker were extracted and purified by column chromatography using Sepharyl G-100 and DEAE-Cellulose fast flow column. Two proteins possessing PO activity, named as POI and POII, were extracted by purification, 5.08- and 5.62-fold, respectively, with 8.94% and 7.31% recoveries, respectively. Also, the specific activities of POI and POII were 0.478 and 0.529 U/mg protein, respectively. Finally, the molecular weights of POI and POII were calculated as 94.6 and 95.7 kDa, respectively. Kinetic parameters of the purified phenoloxidases by Lineweaver-Burk analysis were Vmax of 2.27 and 1.11 U/mg protein and Km of 15.51 and 17.31 mM for POI and POII, respectively. Mg2+ and Cu2+ significantly increased the PO activities. Ca2+ decreased the activity of POI and showed no statistical effects on POII activity. EDTA and DTC significantly inhibited the activities of the purified enzymes, while triethylenetetramine hexaacetic acid (TTHA and RGTA showed no significant effects on enzymatic activities.

  3. Safe childbirth: Concept Analysis According to the Walker and Avant Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maria Carvalho Fontenele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study analyzed the concept of "Safe delivery" using the method proposed by Walker and Avant, which establishes eight steps for the construction of a concept. Method: Literature search was carried out in the Virtual Health Library (VHL and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo in the period from April to July 2016. Controlled descriptors were: "Parturition", "Safety" and "Patient safety", in Portuguese and English.  The compound term "Safe Delivery" was also used.  Thirty two productions were included in this analysis. Results: Among the attributes, maternal and fetal monitoring stand out and, as antecedent, the identification of risks for preventing damage. The reduction of maternal and infant mortality and the well-being of the mother-child binomial were evident in this work. Following the establishment of model case and opposite case, the definition of safe delivery was obtained: "the set of care measures that seek to identify risks, prevent damage and/or complications during delivery, ensuring maternal and fetal monitoring in favor of the welfare of mother and child ". Conclusion: The analysis of the essential attributes, its antecedents and consequences made it possible to define the concept of safe delivery. However, it is considered that this concept is changeable bearing in mind that there is a lack of randomized studies to identify potential risks to childbirth.

  4. Platynota rostrana (Walker (Tortricidae and Phidotricha erigens Raganot (Pyralidae: artificial diet effects on biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Nava

    Full Text Available The lepidopterans Platynota rostrana (Walker (Tortricidae and Phidotricha erigens Raganot (Pyralidae have been found frequently in citrus groves in São Paulo State in recent years. Since in Brazil, the fertility cycle of these two species is largely unknown, as are details of the damage wrought by them in crops, this research studied these aspects of the two species, which were kept under laboratory conditions (temperature 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, 14 h photophase and on an artificial diet. The duration of the biological cycle (egg-adult for P. rostrana was 38.3 days and total viability was 44.0%; for P. erigens these values were 32.5 days and 63.6%, respectively. Both species showed five larval instars. Females of P. rostrana laid an average of 308 eggs, whereas those of P. erigens laid an average of 106 eggs. In both species, female pupae were heavier than males. Male and female longevity for both species was nearly 10 days. Based on the data obtained, the artificial diet produced better results in P. rostrana than in P. erigens. If these species, which have the potential to reach pest status in the citrus groves of São Paulo State, could be reared on an artificial diet, research on their control by alternative methods would be easier.

  5. Approximate KMS states for scalar and spinor fields in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Hack, Thomas-Paul [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Pinamonti, Nicola [Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica

    2010-09-15

    We construct and discuss Hadamard states for both scalar and Dirac spinor fields in a large class of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes characterised by an initial phase either of exponential or of power-law expansion. The states we obtain can be interpreted as being in thermal equilibrium at the time when the scale factor a has a specific value a = a{sub 0}. In the case a{sub 0} = 0, these states fulfil a strict KMS condition on the boundary of the spacetime, which is either a cosmological horizon, or a Big Bang hypersurface. Furthermore, in the conformally invariant case, they are conformal KMS states on the full spacetime. However, they provide a natural notion of an approximate KMS state also in the remaining cases, especially for massive fields. On the technical side, our results are based on a bulk-to-boundary reconstruction technique already successfully applied in the scalar case and here proven to be suitable also for spinor fields. The potential applications of the states we find range over a broad spectrum, but they appear to be suited to discuss in particular thermal phenomena such as the cosmic neutrino background or the quantum state of dark matter. (orig.)

  6. Interacting cosmic fluids in power-law Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Mauricio [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Bio-Bio, Avenida Collao 1202, Casilla 5-C, Concepcion (Chile)], E-mail: mcataldo@ubiobio.cl; Mella, Patricio [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)], E-mail: patriciomella@udec.cl; Minning, Paul [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)], E-mail: pminning@udec.cl; Saavedra, Joel [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4950, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: joel.saavedra@ucv.cl

    2008-05-01

    We provide a detailed description for power-law scaling Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological scenarios dominated by two interacting perfect fluid components during the expansion. As a consequence of the mutual interaction between the two fluids, neither component is conserved separately and the energy densities are proportional to 1/t{sup 2}. It is shown that in flat FRW cosmological models there can exist interacting superpositions of two perfect fluids (each of them having a positive energy density) which accelerate the expansion of the universe. In this family there also exist flat power-law cosmological scenarios where one of the fluids may have a 'cosmological constant' or 'vacuum energy' equation of state (p=-{rho}) interacting with the other component; this scenario exactly mimics the behavior of the standard flat Friedmann solution for a single fluid with a barotropic equation of state. These possibilities of combining interacting perfect fluids do not exist for the non-interacting mixtures of two perfect cosmic fluids, where the general solution for the scale factor is not described by power-law expressions and has a more complicated behavior. In this study is considered also the associated single fluid model interpretation for the interaction between two fluids.

  7. Dispersion, Topological Scattering, and Self-Interference in Multiply Connected Robertson-Walker Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1994-01-01

    We investigate scattering effects in open Robertson-Walker cosmologies whose spacelike slices are multiply connected hyperbolic manifolds. We work out an example in which the 3-space is infinite and has the topology of a solid torus. The world-lines in these cosmologies are unstable, and classical probability densities evolving under the horospherical geodesic flow show dispersion, as do the densities of scalar wave packets. The rate of dispersion depends crucially on the expansion factor, and we calculate the time evolution of their widths. We find that the cosmic expansion can confine dispersion: The diameter of the domain of chaoticity in the 3-manifold provides the natural, time-dependent length unit in an infinite, multiply connected universe. In a toroidal 3-space manifold this diameter is just the length of the limit cycle. On this scale we find that the densities take a finite limit width in the late stage of the expansion. In the early stage classical densities and conformally coupled fields approach...

  8. Fitness test profiles and trainng intensities in skilled race-walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T; Hopkins, J; Howlett, N

    1979-06-01

    A broad profile of national standard race-walkers was obtained. Subjects were taller and had more body fat than competitive runners of comparable distance as found in the literature. Pulmonary function, blood pressure and maximal heart rates were similar to normal sedentary values. The group's somatotype was 2.5 : 3 : 4, low mesomorphy being reflected in inferior strength measures. Haematological status corresponded to the runners of Brotherhood et al (1975). Predicted VO2 max (x = 70 ml kg min-1) was not related to performance. Time to exhaustion on a treadmill test correlated with 20 km race time (R = -.94; p less than .001). Multiple regression equations derived to predict race performance from combinations of 4 to 6 personality traits were non-significant. Mean heart rate in typical training regimes was 167 beats min-1 for interval training at 13 kmh-1 on the track and 134 beats min-1 over a 2.1 h road walk at 10.3 kmh-1. Physiological strain was greater in uphill than in level or downhill walking (P less than .001).

  9. Biotic potential, fertility and life table ofSpodoptera albula (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÉBORA G. MONTEZANO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential, life table parameters and fertility of Spodoptera albula (Walker, 1857 under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photo phase. The longevity, pre, post and oviposition periods, fecundity and fertility of 13 couples were evaluated. The longevity of females (13.500 days was significantly higher than those of males (11.154 days. The mean durations of the pre, post and oviposition periods were 2.615, 1.769 and 9.385 days, respectively. The mean fecundity was 1.417.69 eggs and mean fertility was 1.340.401 larvae, per female. On average, females copulated 1, 231 times. A strong positive correlation was observed between the number of copulations and fecundity (r = 0.847, p <0.001, as well as a strong negative correlation between the number of copulations and the duration of the pre-oviposition period (r = -0.762, p = 0.002, and longevity (r = -0.788, p = 0.001. The biotic potential of S. albula was estimated at 8.768 x 1022 individuals / female / year. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 353,904 times per generation and the mean generation time (T was 37.187 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 1,105, with a finite rate of increase (λ of 3,019.

  10. A measure on the set of compact Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roukema, Boudewijn F [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 11, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Blanloeil, Vincent [IRMA, Departement de Mathematiques, Universite de Strasbourg, 7 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg, Cedex (France)

    2010-12-21

    Compact, flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) models have recently regained interest as a good fit to the observed cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations. However, it is generally thought that a globally, exactly flat FLRW model is theoretically improbable. Here, in order to obtain a probability space on the set F of compact, comoving, 3-spatial sections of FLRW models, a physically motivated hypothesis is proposed, using the density parameter {Omega} as a derived rather than fundamental parameter. We assume that the processes that select the 3-manifold also select a global mass-energy and a Hubble parameter. The requirement that the local and global values of {Omega} are equal implies a range in {Omega} that consists of a single real value for any 3-manifold. Thus, the obvious measure over F is the discrete measure. Hence, if the global mass-energy and Hubble parameter are a function of 3-manifold choice among compact FLRW models, then probability spaces parametrized by {Omega} do not, in general, give a zero probability of a flat model. Alternatively, parametrization by a spatial size parameter, the injectivity radius r{sub inj}, suggests the Lebesgue measure. In this case, the probability space over the injectivity radius implies that flat models occur almost surely (a.s.), in the sense of probability theory, and non-flat models a.s. do not occur.

  11. Cortical regions for judgments of emotions and personality traits from point-light walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Andrea S; Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel; Damasio, Hanna

    2004-09-01

    Humans are able to use nonverbal behavior to make fast, reliable judgments of both emotional states and personality traits. Whereas a sizeable body of research has identified neural structures critical for emotion recognition, the neural substrates of personality trait attribution have not been explored in detail. In the present study, we investigated the neural systems involved in emotion and personality trait judgments. We used a type of visual stimulus that is known to convey both emotion and personality information, namely, point-light walkers. We compared the emotion and personality trait judgments made by subjects with brain damage to those made by neurologically normal subjects and then conducted a lesion overlap analysis to identify neural regions critical for these two tasks. Impairments on the two tasks dissociated: Some subjects were impaired at emotion recognition, but judged personality normally; other subjects were impaired on the personality task, but normal at emotion recognition. Moreover, these dissociations in performance were associated with damage to specific neural regions: Right somatosensory cortices were a primary focus of lesion overlap in subjects impaired on the emotion task, whereas left frontal opercular cortices were a primary focus of lesion overlap in subjects impaired on the personality task. These findings suggest that attributions of emotional states and personality traits are accomplished by partially dissociable neural systems.

  12. Description and field performance of the Walker Branch throughfall displacement experiment: 1993--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.; Todd, D.E.; Huston, M.A. [Oak Ridge National lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Joslin, J.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, TN (United States); Croker, J.L.; Auge, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Inst. of Agriculture

    1998-04-01

    The authors are conducting a large-scale manipulative field experiment in an upland oak forest on the Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee to identify important ecosystem responses that might result from future precipitation changes. The manipulation of soil water content is being implemented by a gravity-driven transfer of throughfall from one 6400-m{sup 2} treatment plot to another. Throughfall is intercepted in {approx}1850 subcanopy troughs suspended above the forest floor of the dry plot and transferred by gravity flow across an ambient plot for subsequent distribution onto the wet treatment plot. Soil water content is being monitored at two depths with time domain reflectometers at 310 sampling locations across the site. The experimental system is able to produce statistically significant differences in soil water content in years having both dry and wet conditions. Maximum soil water content differentials between wet and dry plots in the 0- to 0.35-m horizon were 8 to 10% during summers with abundant precipitation and 3 to 5% during drought periods. Treatment impacts on soil water potential were restricted to the surface soil layer. Comparisons of pre- and post-installation soil and litter temperature measurements showed the ability of the experimental design to produce changes in soil water content and water potential without creating large artifacts in the forest understory environment.

  13. An Acquired Form of Dandy-Walker Malformation with Enveloping Hemosiderin Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Shiohama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM is a posterior fossa anomaly characterized by hypoplasia and upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis and cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle. The cyst of DWM rarely extends posteriorly to almost completely fill the entire posterior fossa, which mimics primary cerebellar agenesis, a cerebellar porencephalic cyst, and an arachnoid cyst due to the lack of clarity of the thin cystic wall. A 10-month-old female born at 23 weeks’ gestation with cerebellar hemorrhage in the neonatal period was admitted to our hospital with dysphagia and side-to-side head bobbing. The detection of hemosiderin deposits enveloping the cyst wall by T2 star-weighted angiography (SWAN was useful for the differential diagnosis of an acquired form of DWM from primary cerebellar agenesis. Cyst fenestration successfully improved dysphagia and head bobbing. A pathological specimen of the perforated cyst consisted of collagen fibers with hemosiderin deposits but lacked congenital cyst components. In infants with posterior fossa cysts, SWAN will be useful for a differential diagnosis between DWM and primary cerebellar agenesis.

  14. Chronic Glibenclamide Treatment Attenuates Walker-256 Tumour Growth in Prediabetic Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The sulphonylurea glibenclamide (Gli is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to its antidiabetic effects, low incidences of certain types of cancer have been observed in Gli-treated diabetic patients. However, the mechanisms underlying this observation remain unclear. The aim of the present work was to evaluate whether obese adult rats that were chronically treated with an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide, exhibit resistance to rodent breast carcinoma growth. Methods: Neonatal rats were treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG to induce prediabetes. Control and MSG groups were treated with Gli (2 mg/kg body weight/day from weaning to 100 days old. After Gli treatment, the control and MSG rats were grafted with Walker-256 tumour cells. After 14 days, grafted rats were euthanized, and tumour weight as well as glucose homeostasis were evaluated. Results: Treatment with Gli normalized tissue insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, suppressed fasting hyperinsulinaemia, reduced fat tissue accretion in MSG rats, and attenuated tumour growth by 27% in control and MSG rats. Conclusions: Gli treatment also resulted in a large reduction in the number of PCNA-positive tumour cells. Although treatment did improve the metabolism of pre-diabetic MSG-rats, tumour growth inhibition may be a more direct effect of glibenclamide.

  15. Long-term follow-up of successful treatment for dandy-walker syndrome (DWS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Liang, Guobiao; Liang, Yong; Kou, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Various managements of Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) from open excision of the cysts to CSF diversion have been reported. However, optimal treatment for DWS remains elusive. Cyst fenestration was employed firstly, but failed 15 days after the surgery. Then a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt was inserted and the patient discharged from hospital 13 days after the second surgery. During the 12-year follow-up, CT scanning, MRI, and X-radiation were performed. CT scanning showed that the size of ventricular system gradually returned to normal. MRI revealed similar changes of the ventricular system, and further revealed the development of supratentorial brain. The results of X-radiation during the follow-up years showed that the peritoneal end of the shunt might be already out of the abdominal cavity. Slow refilling of the shunt valve may suggest that the shunt could be probably not functional. The treatment of the patient was successfully, and the abnormal cerebral ventricle system gradually recovered during the 12-year follow-up. Because the patient might be probably independent on the shunt, further choice of the shunt removal should be thinking thoroughly, considering both safety and quality of life for the patient.

  16. Extensive intracranial calcification of pseudo-TORCH syndrome with features of Dandy–Walker malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Ashis; Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Das, Srikanta

    2017-01-01

    Pseudo-TORCH syndrome or congenital infection-like syndrome is a group of conditions which resemble congenital infections such as those caused by toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes (TORCH) group of organisms, clinico-radiologically, but serological tests are negative for the organisms. One of the variety shows features such as microcephaly, extensive intracranial calcification showing gross resemblance to congenital CMV infection, making its other name as microcephaly intracranial calcification syndrome (MICS). Dandy–Walker malformation (DWM), in addition to posterior fossa large cyst, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, and hydrocephalus is often associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum and callosal lipomas, dysplasia of the brainstem, and cerebellar hypoplasia or dysgenesis. But radiological features of DWM with microcephaly and intracranial calcification are very unusual and have been rarely reported in the literature.[1] We report a case of infant showing clinical features suggestive of congenital CMV infection with negative serology and radiological imaging suggestive of DWM with extensive intracranial calcification. Pseudo-TORCH syndrome with radiological features of DWM is a congenital developmental abnormality. Inspite of hydrocephalus, it does not require cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversionary procedure due to lack of increased intracranial pressure. Conservative management for seizure disorder is the optimal therapy. PMID:28761539

  17. Extensive intracranial calcification of pseudo-TORCH syndrome with features of Dandy-Walker malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Ashis; Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Das, Srikanta

    2017-01-01

    Pseudo-TORCH syndrome or congenital infection-like syndrome is a group of conditions which resemble congenital infections such as those caused by toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes (TORCH) group of organisms, clinico-radiologically, but serological tests are negative for the organisms. One of the variety shows features such as microcephaly, extensive intracranial calcification showing gross resemblance to congenital CMV infection, making its other name as microcephaly intracranial calcification syndrome (MICS). Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), in addition to posterior fossa large cyst, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, and hydrocephalus is often associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum and callosal lipomas, dysplasia of the brainstem, and cerebellar hypoplasia or dysgenesis. But radiological features of DWM with microcephaly and intracranial calcification are very unusual and have been rarely reported in the literature.[1] We report a case of infant showing clinical features suggestive of congenital CMV infection with negative serology and radiological imaging suggestive of DWM with extensive intracranial calcification. Pseudo-TORCH syndrome with radiological features of DWM is a congenital developmental abnormality. Inspite of hydrocephalus, it does not require cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversionary procedure due to lack of increased intracranial pressure. Conservative management for seizure disorder is the optimal therapy.

  18. Syringomyelia caused by an arachnoid web in a patient with shunted Dandy-Walker malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Chang; Choi, Jung Won; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Wang, Kyu-Chang

    2017-04-01

    Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is a congenital brain anomaly characterized by dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis and the presence of a posterior fossa cyst. The association of syringomyelia with DWM is extremely rare. A 10-year-old patient who was diagnosed with DWM in infancy presented with progressive scoliosis and fecal incontinence. He had been treated with cystoventriculoperitoneal shunting with a Y-connection during infancy, which was followed by a revision 6 years later. During the revision surgery, intraventricular bleeding occurred and was managed conservatively. Imaging studies for the current visit revealed syringomyelia along the cervicothoracic spinal cord and a membranous structure around the cervicomedullary junction. Phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow across the membrane. We excised the arachnoid web that was tethering the brainstem and blocking CSF flow. Postoperatively, the patient experienced symptom relief, and the follow-up imaging study demonstrated a dramatic decrease in the size of the syringomyelia. We suggest that syrinx formation in this patient was possibly caused by disturbed CSF flow and tethering of the brainstem. We experienced an unusual case of DWM with syringomyelia which was caused by an arachnoid web blocking CSF flow and tethering the brainstem. The arachnoid web seems to be formed by previous bleeding which occurred at the time of shunt revision. After excision of the arachnoid web, the patient showed good outcome.

  19. Dandy-Walker Variant in A Fetus of an ICSI Twin Gestation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kumbak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dandy-Walker variant (DWV might be considered as one of the borderlines in the examination of fetal brain. We report the first case of a DWV in a fetus conceived by ICSI. A 34 year-old woman underwent assisted reproductive treatment due to male factor infertility. A twin gestation was achieved, one of the fetuses was diagnosed as DWV on 22 weeks’ ultrasound examination. Fetal MRI confirmed the diagnosis. The couple did not allow fetal karyotyping. Pregnancy continued uneventfully. Associated cardiac and minor skeletal anomalies were seen in the postpartum examination of the affected newborn. She died six days after birth due to pulmonary insufficiency. Karyotype analysis of the affected infant performed after birth was reported to be partial trisomy 9. Parental karyotype analysis was further performed and balanced reciprocal translocation t(4;9 was found in the mother. A careful posterior fossa evaluation should be performed as part of routine anatomical survey in ICSI conceptions. Upon the detection of an anomaly, a comprehensive fetal ultrasound for associated abnormalities and karyotype analysis are vital for obstetric management and neonatal survival.

  20. "Acquired" Dandy-Walker malformation and cerebellar hemorrhage: Usefulness of serial MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiecchio, Anna; Decio, Alice; Di Perri, Carol; Parazzini, Cecilia; Rossi, Andrea; Signorini, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis of Dandy Walker malformation (DWM), a posterior fossa anomaly that is usually associated with genetic abnormalities, but may rarely be ascribed to acquired causes. Here, we report the clinical history and neuroimaging studies of a child with a complex cardiac malformation, developmental delay, and oculomotor anomalies whose neuroimaging findings were consistent with an acquired form of DWM. Fetal MRI at gestational weeks 27 and 31 showed cerebellar and vermis hypoplasia and fourth ventricle enlargement, together with hemosiderin deposits on the cerebellar hemispheric surface, but without significant vermian rotation. Postnatal MRIs at 5 days and 13 months revealed progressive counter-clockwise rotation of the hypoplastic cerebellar vermis with cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle, eventually leading to a full-blown DWM. This case strengthens the opinion that DWM is a heterogeneous condition, and may support the hypothesis that acquired meningeal abnormalities in the form of cortico-pial hemosiderosis may play a role in the development of DWM. This case also demonstrates that serial neuroimaging plays a key role in the correct diagnosis of posterior fossa malformations, whose prognosis is difficult to establish on second trimester fetal MRI and requires longer clinical follow-up. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling the effects of the sterile insect technique applied to Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Potgieter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is formulated for the population dynamics of an Eldana saccharina Walker infestation of sugarcane under the influence of partially sterile released insects. The model describes the population growth of and interaction between normal and sterile E.saccharina moths in a temporally variable, but spatially homogeneous environment. The model consists of a deterministic system of difference equations subject to strictly positive initial data. The primary objective of this model is to determine suitable parameters in terms of which the above population growth and interaction may be quantified and according to which E.saccharina infestation levels and the associated sugarcane damage may be measured. Although many models have been formulated in the past describing the sterile insect technique, few of these models describe the technique for Lepidopteran species with more than one life stage and where F1-sterility is relevant. In addition, none of these models consider the technique when fully sterile females and partially sterile males are being released. The model formulated is also the first to describe the technique applied specifically to E.saccharina, and to consider the economic viability of applying the technique to this species. Pertinent decision support is provided to farm managers in terms of the best timing for releases, release ratios and release frequencies.

  2. Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genereux, D.; Hemond, H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Mulholland, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring {sup 222}Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for {sup 222}Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rn{sub q}, the {sup 222}Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rn{sub q} to the measured {sup 222}Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach.

  3. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antiplasmodial constituents from Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.H. Walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniface, Pone Kamdem; Verma, Surjeet; Shukla, Aparna; Cheema, Harveer Singh; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Khan, Feroz; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Pal, Anirban

    2015-02-01

    Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.H. Walker (Cs) leaves are used for traditional treatment of malaria in Cameroon. However, the antimalarial activity of the leaf constituents of this plant is still unexplored. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of some bioactive constituents from Cs leaves. Compounds were isolated from Cs leaves and structurally elucidated using extensive spectroscopic analysis. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of the extracts and pure compounds were evaluated on chloroquine-sensitive strain (NF54) of Plasmodium falciparum. The in vivo assay was done by administering seven doses of extracts in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei K173 through oral route. Cytotoxicity of pure compounds on murine macrophage cells was performed through [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] (MTT) test. Hemolysis and lactate dehydrogenase assays were also carried out using standard procedures. The in silico prediction of bioactive constituents was performed through Autodock Vina. Polarity-based extracts from Cs were found to be active against P. falciparum (NF54) and P. berghei (K173) in vitro and in vivo respectively. Further, bioactivity-guided isolation of n-hexane fraction yielded three compounds, (1), (2) and (3) with IC50 of 34, 17.9 and 18μg/ml, respectively, while the ethyl acetate fraction afforded the fourth compound with an IC50 of 25μg/ml, indicating anti-malarial potential of Cs through PfLDH interaction without compromising normal cell growth. This study reports for the first time, the antiplasmodial activity of bioactive constituents from Cs and confirms its traditional use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Casimir effect for parallel plates in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Saharian, A. A.; Setare, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    We evaluate the Hadamard function, the vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of the field squared and the energy-momentum tensor for a massive scalar field with a general curvature coupling parameter in the geometry of two parallel plates on a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background with a general scale factor. On the plates, the field operator obeys the Robin boundary conditions with the coefficients depending on the scale factor. In all the spatial regions, the VEVs are decomposed into the boundary-free and boundary-induced contributions. Unlike the problem with the Minkowski bulk, in the region between the plates, the normal stress is not homogeneous and does not vanish in the geometry of a single plate. Near the plates, it has different signs for accelerated and decelerated expansions of the Universe. The VEV of the energy-momentum tensor, in addition to the diagonal components, has a nonzero off-diagonal component describing an energy flux along the direction normal to the boundaries. Expressions are derived for the Casimir forces acting on the plates. Depending on the Robin coefficients and on the vacuum state, these forces can be either attractive or repulsive. An important difference from the corresponding result in the Minkowski bulk is that the forces on the separate plates, in general, are different if the corresponding Robin coefficients differ. We give the applications of general results for the class of α vacua in the de Sitter bulk. It is shown that, compared with the Bunch-Davies vacuum state, the Casimir forces for a given α vacuum may change the sign.

  5. Experimental in vivo measurements of light emission in plants: a perspective dedicated to David Walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaji, Hazem M; Goltsev, Vasilij; Bosa, Karolina; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Strasser, Reto J; Govindjee

    2012-12-01

    This review is dedicated to David Walker (1928-2012), a pioneer in the field of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence. We begin this review by presenting the history of light emission studies, from the ancient times. Light emission from plants is of several kinds: prompt fluorescence (PF), delayed fluorescence (DF), thermoluminescence, and phosphorescence. In this article, we focus on PF and DF. Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements have been used for more than 80 years to study photosynthesis, particularly photosystem II (PSII) since 1961. This technique has become a regular trusted probe in agricultural and biological research. Many measured and calculated parameters are good biomarkers or indicators of plant tolerance to different abiotic and biotic stressors. This would never have been possible without the rapid development of new fluorometers. To date, most of these instruments are based mainly on two different operational principles for measuring variable chlorophyll a fluorescence: (1) a PF signal produced following a pulse-amplitude-modulated excitation and (2) a PF signal emitted during a strong continuous actinic excitation. In addition to fluorometers, other instruments have been developed to measure additional signals, such as DF, originating from PSII, and light-induced absorbance changes due to the photooxidation of P700, from PSI, measured as the absorption decrease (photobleaching) at about 705 nm, or increase at 820 nm. In this review, the technical and theoretical basis of newly developed instruments, allowing for simultaneous measurement of the PF and the DF as well as other parameters is discussed. Special emphasis has been given to a description of comparative measurements on PF and DF. However, DF has been discussed in greater details, since it is much less used and less known than PF, but has a great potential to provide useful qualitative new information on the back reactions of PSII electron transfer. A review concerning the history

  6. Increased thermal response to ultrasound in the Walker carcinosarcoma treated with vasoactive drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, W.H.; Debatin, J.; Helus, F.; Sinn, H.J.; Ostertag, H.

    1989-04-01

    In order to evaluate the potential of a highly selective Ca2+ entry blocker (nisoldipine) and of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) as adjuvant in hyperthermia treatment, we studied the differential flow response and time-course of tumor and normal tissue temperature following the administration of the two substances and during ultrasound heating. In 12 rats bearing Walker 256 carcinomas i.p. injection of 0.2-0.4 mg/kg nisoldipine caused a reduction in the tumor-to-muscle flow relationship of 4.4 +/- 1.9 (SD) to 1.74 +/- 0.86 as determined by intraarterial 133Xe injection; i.p. injection of 2-8 mg/kg 5-HT (N = 13) caused a respective reduction from 3.9 +/- 2.67 to 1.3 +/- 1.59. During a 20-min period of 41 degrees C normal tissue temperature-controlled ultrasound heating without drugs, tumor temperature attained 40.8 +/- 0.9 degrees C (N = 16). Nisoldipine or 5-HT injection at continuing 41 degrees C normal tissue temperature controlled energy delivery produced an instantaneous further increment of tumor temperature, eventually to 44.0 +/- 1.14 degrees C or 44.2 +/- 1.26 degrees C, respectively, after a period of 20 min. Injection of 0.9% NaCl (N = 4) solution caused only insignificant changes. Blood pressure and muscle perfusion were distinctly influenced by nisoldipine, but not by 5-HT. Since both drugs instantaneously increased the temperature differential between tumor and normal tissue, though by different vasoaction, they should be considered as adjuvants in hyperthermia.

  7. Instrumented gait analysis: a measure of gait improvement by a wheeled walker in hospitalized geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülein, Samuel; Barth, Jens; Rampp, Alexander; Rupprecht, Roland; Eskofier, Björn M; Winkler, Jürgen; Gaßmann, Karl-Günter; Klucken, Jochen

    2017-02-27

    In an increasing aging society, reduced mobility is one of the most important factors limiting activities of daily living and overall quality of life. The ability to walk independently contributes to the mobility, but is increasingly restricted by numerous diseases that impair gait and balance. The aim of this cross-sectional observation study was to examine whether spatio-temporal gait parameters derived from mobile instrumented gait analysis can be used to measure the gait stabilizing effects of a wheeled walker (WW) and whether these gait parameters may serve as surrogate marker in hospitalized patients with multifactorial gait and balance impairment. One hundred six patients (ages 68-95) wearing inertial sensor equipped shoes passed an instrumented walkway with and without gait support from a WW. The walkway assessed the risk of falling associated gait parameters velocity, swing time, stride length, stride time- and double support time variability. Inertial sensor-equipped shoes measured heel strike and toe off angles, and foot clearance. The use of a WW improved the risk of spatio-temporal parameters velocity, swing time, stride length and the sagittal plane associated parameters heel strike and toe off angles in all patients. First-time users (FTUs) showed similar gait parameter improvement patterns as frequent WW users (FUs). However, FUs with higher levels of gait impairment improved more in velocity, stride length and toe off angle compared to the FTUs. The impact of a WW can be quantified objectively by instrumented gait assessment. Thus, objective gait parameters may serve as surrogate markers for the use of walking aids in patients with gait and balance impairments.

  8. Cystic lesion of posterior cranial fossa: is it Dandy-Walker?

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    Stella De Nardi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accidental discovery of a fluid collection within the posterior cranial fossa in a fetus or a newborn can be a tricky incidental finding during a routine scan, alarming for a Dandy-Walker Malformation (DWM.The main cystic lesions of the posterior cranial fossa are DWM, Blake’s Pouch Cyst (BPC, Arachnoid Cyst (AC and Mega Cisterna Magna (MCM, although the latter is not a proper cyst. The key event for the development of a DWM is a cerebellar vermis hypoplasia that causes the persistence of the superior membranous area, which expands into the posterior fossa forming a large cystic 4th ventricle. BPC is caused by the persistence and herniation of a different membrane, the inferior membranous area, that is supposed to disappear leaving a median opening that would become the foramen of Magendie. MCM originates if this membrane eventually disappears, leaving an enlarged posterior fossa cavity filled with cerebrospinal fluid physiologically connected with the subarachnoid fluid. Finally, ACs are caused by a defined duplication of the arachnoid membrane filled with CSF-like fluid. Consequently, the radiological finding of a regular cerebellar vermis excludes the hypothesis of DWM and the position of the choroid plexus helps differentiating between DWM and BPC in controversial cases. Moreover, radiological findings in DWM include cystic dilatation of the 4th ventricle and enlargement of the posterior fossa. Absence of hydrocephalus comes out in favor of MCM. Absence of communication with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid defines an AC.This review assesses the cystic lesions of posterior cranial fossa on the basis of embryological development, radiological findings and associated clinical aspects, in order to clarify the radiological differential diagnosis through embryology.

  9. Risk factors for Dandy-Walker malformation: a population-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Matthew R; Botto, Lorenzo D; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Carey, John C; Byrne, Janice L B; Feldkamp, Marcia L

    2015-09-01

    Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is the most common congenital malformation of the cerebellum, but its causes are largely unknown. An increasing number of genes associated with congenital cerebellar malformations have been identified; however, few studies have examined the potential role of non-genetic, potentially modifiable risk factors. From the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we examined maternal, paternal, and infant characteristics and maternal conditions and periconceptional exposures (from 1 month before to 3 months after conception) among infants with DWM (n = 160) and unaffected controls (n = 10,200), delivered between 1997 and 2009. Odds ratios, crude (cOR) and adjusted (aOR) were computed using logistic regression. Maternal factors associated with DWM included non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity (aOR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.3-3.2). Among maternal conditions, a history of infertility increased the risk for DWM (all: aOR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.3-4.6; multiple: aOR = 3.9, 95%CI: 1.7-8.9). The lack of association with many maternal exposures supports the hypothesis of a major contribution of genetic factors to the risk for DWM; however, the observed associations with maternal non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity and maternal history of infertility indicate that further research into factors underlying these characteristics may uncover potentially modifiable risk factors, acting alone or as a component of gene-environment interactions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of 'isolated' Dandy-Walker malformation: imaging findings and prenatal counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibaud, Laurent; Larroque, Anne; Ville, Dorothée; Sanlaville, Damien; Till, Marianne; Gaucherand, Pascal; Pracros, Jean-Pierre; des Portes, Vincent

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to improve prenatal imaging diagnosis and counselling for cases of 'isolated' Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) in the light of recent literature, which has demonstrated a potential good clinical and intellectual outcome of fetuses presenting with DWM characterised by partial vermian agenesis (identification of two fissures and three lobes) and absence of associated anatomical anomalies. This is a retrospective observational study of six consecutive prenatal cystic posterior fossa malformations, diagnosed as DWM, encountered in a national reference centre for posterior fossa malformations over a 2-year period. In all cases, DWM was diagnosed as isolated (without any associated central nervous system or extra-central nervous system malformations and normal standard karyotype). Despite good-quality imaging, including fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), prenatal analysis of the vermis was impossible because of limited identification of fissuration and lobulation. In three cases, a cytogenetic anomaly was found, including 6p subtelomeric deletion (n = 2) and partial 4 qter deletion associated with partial 7p trisomy (n = 1). One fetus with 6p deletion was terminated. In four of the five postnatal cases, MRI confirmed the diagnosis of DWM but provided only limited information for vermian analysis. In one case, postnatal MRI showed a large Blake's pouch cyst with rotated but complete vermis associated with a marked mass effect on the distal part of the tentorium. Of the four babies born with postnatal diagnosis of DWM, all required ventriculoperitoneal shunting because of early postnatal hydrocephalus. When fetal MRI is necessary to exclude additional cerebral lesions in the diagnosis of DWM, we highlight the inaccuracy of magnetic resonance for anatomical analysis of the vermis. We also emphasise the potential high incidence of subtelomeric anomalies in isolated DWM, especially 6p deletion. In the postnatal period, paediatricians should

  11. Changes in cellular immune responses of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae due to pyriproxyfen treatment

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    Mirhaghparast Seyyedeh Kimia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pyriproxyfen were determined on the cellular immunity and phenoloxidase activity in the 4th instar larvae of Chilo suppressalis Walker. The bioassay results revealed the effective concentrations of: 10L : 18C, 30L : 72C and 50L : 190C μg · ml−1. The sole effect of 18 and 72 μg · ml−1 concentrations at intervals of 1–3 h caused a higher number of total hemocytes in the treated larvae than the control, but the reverse results were observed after 6–24 h. The number of plasmatocytes was lower than that of the control for intervals of 3–24 h but the number of granulocytes was higher than the control after 1–3 h although no significant differences were observed at the other times. In the treated larvae, the activities of phenoloxidase were higher and lower than those of the control after 1–3 h and 6–24 h, respectively. The combined effects of pyriproxyfen and the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana isolate B3 caused higher numbers of total hemocytes, plasmatocytes, and granulocytes in the treated larvae by use of the three concentrations of pyriproxyfen, at intervals of 6 and 12 h. Although the numbers of nodules in the larvae treated with concentrations of 18 μg · ml−1 were higher than those of other treatments, the overall numbers were lower than those of the control. Finally, the activity of phenoloxidase in the treated larvae was higher than that of the control, at intervals of 6 and 12 h post-treatment. Findings of the current study indicate an intervening role of pyriproxyfen in the cellular immunity of C. suppressalis to entomopathogenic objects.

  12. Population genetics of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the implications for management using biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Y; Mitchell, A; Le Rü, B P; Conlongs, D E

    2010-01-01

    The African sugarcane stalk borer, Eldona saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and is an important insect pest of maize and sugarcane. The insect shows significant variation in behaviour, host plant and natural enemy guild in different regions. Several attempts to redistribute the natural enemies of E. saccharina from West Africa to South Africa were unsuccessful. The significant behavioural, host plant and natural enemy variations as well as failures of biocontrol attempts evoked a hypothesis of genetic diversification. To evaluate this hypothesis a molecular analysis was conducted on geographically isolated populations of E. saccharina from East, North, South and West Africa, using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region of the mitochondrial genome. The results revealed that E. saccharina populations are separated into four major units corresponding to the West Africa, Rift Valley, South/East Africa and southern African populations. Mitochondrial DNA divergence among the four populations ranged from 1% to 4.98%. To examine the impact of the observed genetic variation on the fertility of inter-population crosses, a mating experiment was conducted between the Rift valley and South African population to produce an F1 generation, and these were backcrossed with the South African parent population. Fertility of eggs produced by the F1/parent population cross was significantly reduced when compared to fertility of the "true" South African line, and the F1/F1 cross. The contributions of the observed genetic differences and inter population incompatibility for the failure of previous biocontrol attempts are discussed and recommendations on future biocontrol practices are given.

  13. Síndrome de Dandy-Walker: a propósito de 4 casos

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    Gilberto Machado de Almeida

    1960-09-01

    Full Text Available Dá-se o nome de síndrome de Dandy-Walker a um tipo de hidrocefalia cuja principal característica é a transformação do IV ventrículo em um grande cisto, que ocupa quase tôda a fossa posterior; esta, por sua vez, está aumentada, devido à elevação da tenda do cerebelo e abaulamento do occipital. A patogenia do processo é discutida; admite-se geralmente que se trate de um vício de desenvolvimento determinado pela falta de abertura dos orifícios de Luschka e Magendie. Em revisão bibliográfica foram encontrados 60 casos. São apresentados mais 4, dois dos quais foram submetidos à derivação ventrículo-jugular pela técnica de Spitz-Holter. São discutidos os principais sinais clínicos, os exames subsidiários e a terapêutica. A posição anormalmente alta dos seios transversos, observada no craniograma ou na sinugrafia, é considerada como sinal patognomônico. A transiluminação do crânio também pode apresentar aspecto característico. Êstes exames, quando típicos, permitem evitar a realização de exames mais traumatizantes, como as ventriculografias. A terapêutica mais empregada tem sido a abertura da parede do cisto. Não há na literatura referência à operação de Spitz que, em nossa opinião, é a melhor forma de tratamento.

  14. Quantifying seepage using heat as a tracer in selected irrigation canals, Walker River Basin, Nevada, 2012 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Ramon C.; Smith, David W.

    2016-11-16

    The Walker River is an important source of water for western Nevada. The river provides water for agriculture and recharge to local aquifers used by several communities. Farmers began diverting water from the Walker River in the 1860s to support growing agricultural development. Over time, the reduced inflows into Walker Lake from upstream reservoirs and diversions have resulted in 170 feet of lake level decline and increased dissolved-solids concentrations to levels that threaten aquatic ecosystems, including survival of Lahonton cutthroat trout, a native species listed in the Endangered Species Act. Investigations of the water-budget components in the Walker River Basin have revealed uncertainty in the recharge to aquifers from irrigation canals. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an extensive field study from March 2012 through October 2013 to quantify seepage losses in selected canals in the Smith Valley, Mason Valley, and Walker Lake Valley irrigation areas.The seepage rates estimated for the 2012 and 2013 irrigation seasons in the Smith Valley transect sites (Saroni and Plymouth canals) ranged between 0.01 to 2.5 feet per day (ft/d) (0.01 to 0.68 cubic feet per second per mile [ft3/s-mi]). From 2012 to 2013, the average number of days the canals had flowing water decreased from 190 to 125 due to drier climate and lack of water available for diversion from the Walker River. The nearly 50-percent reductions in volumetric loss rates between 2012 and 2013 were associated with less than average diversions into canals from the Walker River and reductions in infiltration rates following routine canal maintenance.Models developed for the Saroni canal in 2012 were recalibrated in 2013 to evaluate changes in seepage as a result of siltation. Just prior to the 2012 irrigation season, nearly the entire length of the canal was cleared of vegetation and debris to improve flow conveyance. In 2013, following the first year of maintenance, a 90-percent

  15. Growth inhibition of Walker carcinosarcoma 256 with alcoholic extract of green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis Inibição do crescimento do carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker pelo extrato alcoólico de folhas de chá verde(Camellia sinensis

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    Mauriclécio Franco Ponte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the antitumor activity of alcoholic extracts of green tea (Camella sinensis. METHODS: Four groups of six Wistar rats were inoculated intramuscularly with 10(6 Walker tumor cells/mL. During 10 days, the animals received by gavage either 0.9% saline solution (Group I; negative control, solution containing 20 mg/Kg of tamoxifen (Group II; positive control, solution containing 0.07 g/Kg alcoholic extract of C. sinensis (Group III, or solution containing 0.14 g/Kg alcoholic extract of C. sinensis (Group IV. Following euthanasia on the tenth day, the tumor, liver, kidneys and spleen were excised and weighed, and tumor volume and tumor growth inhibition were quantified. RESULTS: The average weight of the animals was greater in Group IV than in Group II (p=0.0107. Tumor weight was smaller in Group IV than in Group I (p=0.0062, but did not differ from Group II. Tumor volume was smaller in Groups II and IV than in Group I (p=0.0131. Tumor growth inhibition was observed in Groups II (44.67% ± 32.47, III (16.83% ± 53.02 and IV (66.4% ± 25.82 (p>0.05. The groups did not differ with regard to the weight of the excised organs. CONCLUSION: Alcoholic extracts of green tea have antitumor activity.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade antitumoral do extrato alcoólico do chá verde (C. sinensis. MÉTODOS: Quatro grupos de seis ratos Wistar foram inoculados com 1x10(6 células/mL do tumor de Walker por via intramuscular. Os grupos foram tratados durante 10 dias, por gavagem, com salina 0,9 % (Grupo I, controle negativo, 20 mg/Kg de tamoxifeno (Grupo II, controle positivo e extrato alcoólico de C. sinensis nas doses de 0,07 g/Kg (Grupo III ou 0,14 g/Kg (Grupo IV. O volume e a inibição do crescimento tumoral foram calculados. RESULTADOS: A média dos pesos dos animais foi maior no Grupo IV do que no Grupo II (p=0,0107. O peso tumoral do Grupo IV foi menor do que o Grupo I (p=0,0062, mas não houve diferença quando comparado ao Grupo II. O volume

  16. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of etoposide tumor growth inhibitory effect in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rat model using free intratumoral drug concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigatto, Maiara Cássia; Roman, Renatha Menti; Carrara, Letizia; Buffon, Andréia; Magni, Paolo; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model linking etoposide free tumor and total plasma concentrations to the inhibition of solid tumor growth in rats. Walker-256 tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously in the right flank of Wistar rats, which were randomly divided in control and two treated groups that received etoposide 5 or 10mg/kg i.v. bolus every day for 8 and 4days, respectively, and tumor volume was monitored daily for 30days. The plasma and intratumoral concentrations-time profiles were obtained from a previous study and were modeled by a four-compartment population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model. PK/PD analysis was conducted using MONOLIX v.4.3.3 on average data and by mean of a nonlinear mixed-effect model. PK/PD data were analyzed using a modification of Simeoni Tumor Growth Inhibition (TGI) model by introduction of an Emax function to take into account the concentration dependency of k2variable parameter (variable potency). The Simeoni TGI-Emax model was capable to fit schedule-dependent antitumor effects using the tumor growth curves from the control and two different administered schedules. The PK/PD model was capable of describing the tumor growth inhibition using total plasma or free tumor concentrations, resulting in higher k2max (maximal potency) for free concentrations (25.8mL·μg(-1)·day(-1) - intratumoral vs. 12.6mL·μg(-1)·day(-1) total plasma). These findings indicate that the plasma concentration may not be a good surrogate for pharmacologically active free tumor concentrations, emphasizing the importance of knowing drug tumor penetration to choose the best antitumor therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The hemolytic component of cancer anemia: effects of osmotic and metabolic stress on the erythrocytes of rats bearing multifocal inoculations of the Walker 256 tumor

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    Vido A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer anemia is classified as an anemia of chronic diseases, although it is sometimes the first symptom of cancer. Cancer anemia includes a hemolytic component, important in the terminal stage when even transfused cells are rapidly destroyed. The presence of a chronic component and the terminal complications of the illness limit studies of the hemolytic component. A multifocal model of tumor growth was used here to simulate the terminal metastatic dissemination stage (several simultaneous inoculations of Walker 256 cells. The hemolytic component of anemia began 3-4 days after inoculation in 100% of the rats and progressed rapidly thereafter: Hb levels dropped from 14.9 ± 0.02 to 8.7 ± 0.06 from days 7 to 11 (~5 times the physiologically normal rate in rats in the absence of bleeding. The development of anemia was correlated (r2 = 0.86 with the development of other systemic effects such as anorexia. There was a significant decrease in the osmotic fragility of circulating erythrocytes: the NaCl concentration causing 50% lysis was reduced from 4.52 ± 0.06 to 4.10 ± 0.01 (P<0.01 on day 7, indicating a reduction in erythrocyte volume. However, with mild metabolic stress (4-h incubation at 37oC, the erythrocytes showed a greater increase in osmotic fragility than the controls, suggesting marked alteration of erythrocyte homeostasis. These effects may be due to primary plasma membrane alterations (transport and/or permeability and/or may be secondary to metabolic changes. This multifocal model is adequate for studying the hemolytic component of cancer anemia since it is rapid, highly reproducible and causes minimal animal suffering.

  18. Beliefs about the use of baby walkers Crenças sobre o uso do andador infantil

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    Paula S. C. Chagas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To understand the opinion of the parents about the baby walker and compare the age of gait acquisition between infants that used a walker and those that did not. METHODS: In this quali-quantitative study, an interview involving a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out with 26 parents, 14 of whose infants used the equipment (BWG and 12 of whose infants did not (NBWG prior to gait acquisition. After extensive content analysis, categories for interpreting the results emerged. For data triangulation, the age of gait acquisition was documented by weekly telephone contact. Student's t-test was used for comparison between groups with a significance level of α=0.05. RESULTS: The following categories were identified in the parents' reports: a information about the baby walker; b doubt/decision to use it vs. certainty about not using it; c beliefs about the use of a baby-walker; and d benefits and harm from use. The age of independent gait acquisition did not differ between groups (p=0.837: BWG initiated gait at 376.17 (SD=32.62 days and NBWG did so at 378.75 (SD=27.99 days. CONCLUSIONS: The beliefs and feelings that permeate the decision to use a baby walker illustrate the different rationales adopted by parents about the role of this equipment in the child's development of gait and autonomy. The use of a baby walker did not influence the age of gait acquisition. The results broaden the understanding of choices that influence child-rearing practices prior to gait acquisition.OBJETIVOS: Conhecer a opinião dos pais sobre o uso do andador infantil e comparar a idade de aquisição da marcha independente entre os lactentes que usaram e os que não usaram o andador. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo qualiquantitativo, realizou-se entrevista com questionário semiestruturado com 26 pais, 14 de lactentes que usaram (GUAI e 12 dos que não usaram o equipamento (GNUAI antes da aquisição da marcha. Empregou-se análise de conteúdo, a partir da qual

  19. On the initial value problem for the wave equation in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Bilal; Craig, Walter

    2014-09-08

    The propagator W(t0,t1)(g,h) for the wave equation in a given space-time takes initial data (g(x),h(x)) on a Cauchy surface {(t,x) : t=t0} and evaluates the solution (u(t1,x),∂ tu(t1,x)) at other times t1. The Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times are defined for t0,t1>0, whereas for t0→0, there is a metric singularity. There is a spherical means representation for the general solution of the wave equation with the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background metric in the three spatial dimensional cases of curvature K=0 and K=-1 given by S. Klainerman and P. Sarnak. We derive from the expression of their representation three results about the wave propagator for the Cauchy problem in these space-times. First, we give an elementary proof of the sharp rate of time decay of solutions with compactly supported data. Second, we observe that the sharp Huygens principle is not satisfied by solutions, unlike in the case of three-dimensional Minkowski space-time (the usual Huygens principle of finite propagation speed is satisfied, of course). Third, we show that for 00 emanating from the space-time singularity at t=0. Under reflection t→-t, the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric gives a space-time metric for tspace-times which exist for all [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], where in conformally regularized coordinates, these solutions are continuous through the singularity t=0 of space-time, taking on specified data u(0,⋅)=g(⋅) at the singular time.

  20. [Fragile X syndrome with Dandy-Walker variant: a clinical study of oral and written communicative manifestations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin; Ferraz, Plínio Marcos Duarte Pinto; Ferreira, Amanda Tragueta; Prado, Lívia Maria do; Abramides, Dagma Venturini Marquez; Gejão, Mariana Germano

    2011-01-01

    The Fragile X syndrome is the most frequent cause of inherited intellectual disability. The Dandy-Walker variant is a specific constellation of neuroradiological findings. The present study reports oral and written communication findings in a 15-year-old boy with clinical and molecular diagnosis of Fragile X syndrome and neuroimaging findings consistent with Dandy-Walker variant. The speech-language pathology and audiology evaluation was carried out using the Communicative Behavior Observation, the Phonology assessment of the ABFW - Child Language Test, the Phonological Abilities Profile, the Test of School Performance, and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. Stomatognathic system and hearing assessments were also performed. It was observed: phonological, semantic, pragmatic and morphosyntactic deficits in oral language; deficits in psycholinguistic abilities (auditory reception, verbal expression, combination of sounds, auditory and visual sequential memory, auditory closure, auditory and visual association); and morphological and functional alterations in the stomatognathic system. Difficulties in decoding the graphical symbols were observed in reading. In writing, the subject presented omissions, agglutinations and multiple representations with the predominant use of vowels, besides difficulties in visuo-spatial organization. In mathematics, in spite of the numeric recognition, the participant didn't accomplish arithmetic operations. No alterations were observed in the peripheral hearing evaluation. The constellation of behavioral, cognitive, linguistic and perceptual symptoms described for Fragile X syndrome, in addition to the structural central nervous alterations observed in the Dandy-Walker variant, caused outstanding interferences in the development of communicative abilities, in reading and writing learning, and in the individual's social integration.

  1. Management of Dandy-Walker complex-associated infant hydrocephalus by combined endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warf, Benjamin C; Dewan, Michael; Mugamba, John

    2011-10-01

    Dandy-Walker complex (DWC) is a continuum of congenital anomalies comprising Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), Dandy-Walker variant (DWV), Blake pouch cyst, and mega cisterna magna (MCM). Hydrocephalus is variably associated with each of these, and DWC-associated hydrocephalus has mostly been treated by shunting, often with 2-compartment shunting. There are few reports of management by endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). This study is the largest series of DWC or DWM-associated hydrocephalus treated by ETV, and the first report of treatment by combined ETV and choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC) in young infants with this association. A retrospective review of the CURE Children's Hospital of Uganda clinical database between 2004 and 2010 identified 45 patients with DWC confirmed by CT scanning (25 with DWM, 17 with DWV, and 3 with MCM) who were treated for hydrocephalus by ETV/CPC. Three were excluded because of other potential causes of hydrocephalus (2 postinfectious and 1 posthemorrhagic). The median age at treatment was 5 months (88% of patients were younger than 12 months). There was a 2.4:1 male predominance among patients with DWV. An ETV/CPC (ETV only in one) was successful with no further operations in 74% (mean and median follow-up 24.2 and 20 months, respectively [range 6-65 months]). The rate of success was 74% for DWM, 73% for DWV, and 100% for MCM; 95% had an open aqueduct, and none required posterior fossa shunting. Endoscopic treatment of DWC-associated hydrocephalus should be strongly considered as the primary management in place of the historical standard of creating shunt dependence.

  2. The construction of identity in Alice Walker's The Color Purple and Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God

    OpenAIRE

    Nodari, Janice Inês

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Letras/Inglês e Literatura Correspondente. Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar a construção da identidade sofrida por Celie, a personagem principal no livro The Color Purple (1982) de Alice Walker, e Janie, a personagem principal no livro Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937) de Zora Neale Hurston. A abordagem empregada favorece a investigação dos aspectos: jorna...

  3. Neuropsychological Function in a Case of Dandy-Walker Variant in a 68-Year-Old Veteran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Patricia L; Kays, Jill L; Shura, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a congenital brain malformation that is characterized by partial or complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis and cystic dilatation of the 4th ventricle that shifts ventrolaterally to displace the cerebellar hemispheres. This case is a 68-year-old male veteran with complaints of new-onset cognitive disorder who was found to have previously unsuspected DWS on head computed tomography. This is one of the first case studies to present complete neuropsychological test results in a veteran with DWS. Despite the level of abnormality on imaging, the veteran functioned well until onset of mild cognitive impairments in late adulthood.

  4. Comparing Arc-shaped Feet and Rigid Ankles with Flat Feet and Compliant Ankles for a Dynamic Walker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlemann, Ilyas; Matthias Braun, Jan; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that exchanging curved feet and rigid ankles by at feet and compliant ankles improves the range of gait parameters for a bipedal dynamic walker. The new lower legs were designed such that they t to the old set-up, allowing for a direct and quantitative comparison. The dynamic...... walking robot RunBot, controlled by an reflexive neural network, uses only few sensors for generating its stable gait. The results show that at feet and compliant ankles extend RunBot's parameter range especially to more leaning back postures. They also allow the robot to stably walk over obstacles...

  5. De Novo 3q22.3q24 Microdeletion in a Patient With Blepharophimosis–Ptosis–Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome, Dandy-Walker Malformation, and Wisconsin Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramineni, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial deletions affecting the long arm of chromosome 3 have been associated with a broad phenotype. This has included the features of blepharophimosis–ptosis–epicanthus inversus syndrome, Dandy-Walker malformation, and the rare Wisconsin syndrome. The authors report a young female patient presenting with features consistent with all 3 of these syndromes. This has occurred in the context of a de novo 3q22.3q24 microdeletion including FOXL2, ZIC1, and ZIC4. This patient provides further evidence for the role of ZIC1 and ZIC4 in Dandy-Walker malformation and is the third reported case of Dandy-Walker malformation to have associated corpus callosum thinning. This patient is also only the seventh to be reported with the rare Wisconsin syndrome phenotype. PMID:28503614

  6. De Novo 3q22.3q24 Microdeletion in a Patient With Blepharophimosis-Ptosis-Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome, Dandy-Walker Malformation, and Wisconsin Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramineni, Anand; Coman, David

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial deletions affecting the long arm of chromosome 3 have been associated with a broad phenotype. This has included the features of blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome, Dandy-Walker malformation, and the rare Wisconsin syndrome. The authors report a young female patient presenting with features consistent with all 3 of these syndromes. This has occurred in the context of a de novo 3q22.3q24 microdeletion including FOXL2 , ZIC1 , and ZIC4 . This patient provides further evidence for the role of ZIC1 and ZIC4 in Dandy-Walker malformation and is the third reported case of Dandy-Walker malformation to have associated corpus callosum thinning. This patient is also only the seventh to be reported with the rare Wisconsin syndrome phenotype.

  7. De Novo 3q22.3q24 Microdeletion in a Patient With Blepharophimosis–Ptosis–Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome, Dandy-Walker Malformation, and Wisconsin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ramineni BSc, MBBS, GSCpMed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial deletions affecting the long arm of chromosome 3 have been associated with a broad phenotype. This has included the features of blepharophimosis–ptosis–epicanthus inversus syndrome, Dandy-Walker malformation, and the rare Wisconsin syndrome. The authors report a young female patient presenting with features consistent with all 3 of these syndromes. This has occurred in the context of a de novo 3q22.3q24 microdeletion including FOXL2 , ZIC1 , and ZIC4 . This patient provides further evidence for the role of ZIC1 and ZIC4 in Dandy-Walker malformation and is the third reported case of Dandy-Walker malformation to have associated corpus callosum thinning. This patient is also only the seventh to be reported with the rare Wisconsin syndrome phenotype.

  8. Disparate requirements for the Walker A and B ATPase motifs ofhuman RAD51D in homologous recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Claudia; Hinz, John M.; Tebbs, Robert S.; Nham, Peter B.; Urbin, Salustra S.; Collins, David W.; Thompson, Larry H.; Schild, David

    2006-04-21

    In vertebrates, homologous recombinational repair (HRR) requires RAD51 and five RAD51 paralogs (XRCC2, XRCC3, RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D) that all contain conserved Walker A and B ATPase motifs. In human RAD51D we examined the requirement for these motifs in interactions with XRCC2 and RAD51C, and for survival of cells in response to DNA interstrand crosslinks. Ectopic expression of wild type human RAD51D or mutants having a non-functional A or B motif was used to test for complementation of a rad51d knockout hamster CHO cell line. Although A-motif mutants complement very efficiently, B-motif mutants do not. Consistent with these results, experiments using the yeast two- and three-hybrid systems show that the interactions between RAD51D and its XRCC2 and RAD51C partners also require a functional RAD51D B motif, but not motif A. Similarly, hamster Xrcc2 is unable to bind to the non-complementing human RAD51D B-motif mutants in co-immunoprecipitation assays. We conclude that a functional Walker B motif, but not A motif, is necessary for RAD51D's interactions with other paralogs and for efficient HRR. We present a model in which ATPase sites are formed in a bipartite manner between RAD51D and other RAD51 paralogs.

  9. Autoregressive-moving-average hidden Markov model for vision-based fall prediction-An application for walker robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaei, Sajjad; Jahanandish, Mohammad Hasan; Kosuge, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Population aging of the societies requires providing the elderly with safe and dependable assistive technologies in daily life activities. Improving the fall detection algorithms can play a major role in achieving this goal. This article proposes a real-time fall prediction algorithm based on the acquired visual data of a user with walking assistive system from a depth sensor. In the lack of a coupled dynamic model of the human and the assistive walker a hybrid "system identification-machine learning" approach is used. An autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA) model is fitted on the time-series walking data to forecast the upcoming states, and a hidden Markov model (HMM) based classifier is built on the top of the ARMA model to predict falling in the upcoming time frames. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated through experiments with four subjects including an experienced physiotherapist while using a walker robot in five different falling scenarios; namely, fall forward, fall down, fall back, fall left, and fall right. The algorithm successfully predicts the fall with a rate of 84.72%.

  10. Maceral Characteristics and Vitrinite Reflectance Variation of The High Rank Coals, South Walker Creek, Bowen Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep K. Permana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.156The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area, with a vitrinite reflectance (Rvmax of 1.7 to 1.95% (low-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite, are one of the highest rank coals currently mined in the Bowen Basin for the pulverized coal injection (PCI market. Studies of petrology of this coal seam have identified that the maceral composition of the coals are dominated by inertinite with lesser vitrinite, and only minor amounts of liptinite. Clay minerals, quartz, and carbonates can be seen under the optical microscope. The mineral matter occurs in association with vitrinite and inertinite macerals as syngenetic and epigenetic mineral phases. The irregular pattern of the vitrinite reflectance profile from the top to the bottom of the seam may represent a response in the organic matter to an uneven heat distribution from such hydrothermal influence. Examination of the maceral and vitrinite reflectance characteristics suggest that the mineralogical variation within the coal seam at South Walker Creek may have been controlled by various geological processes, including sediment input into the peat swamp during deposition, mineralogical changes associated with the rank advance process or metamorphism, and/or hydrothermal effects due to post depositional fluid migration through the coal seam.

  11. Anandan quantum phase for a neutral particle with Fermi-Walker reference frame in the cosmic string background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Knut; Furtado, C.

    2010-10-01

    We study geometric quantum phases in the relativistic and non-relativistic quantum dynamics of a neutral particle with a permanent magnetic dipole moment interacting with two distinct field configurations in a cosmic string spacetime. We consider the local reference frames of the observers are transported via Fermi-Walker transport and study the influence of the non-inertial effects on the phase shift of the wave function of the neutral particle due to the choice of this local frame. We show that the wave function of the neutral particle acquires non-dispersive relativistic and non-relativistic quantum geometric phases due to the topology of the spacetime, the interaction between the magnetic dipole moment with external fields and the spin-rotation coupling. However, due to the Fermi-Walker reference frame, no phase shift associated to the Sagnac effect appears in the quantum dynamics of a neutral particle. We show that in the absence of topological defect, the contribution to the quantum phase due to the spin-rotation coupling is equivalent to the Mashhoon effect in non-relativistic dynamics.

  12. Complete trisomy 9 with unusual phenotypic associations: Dandy-Walker malformation, cleft lip and cleft palate, cardiovascular abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, Gabriele; Lituania, Mario; Chitayat, David; Bonasoni, Maria Paola; Keating, Sarah; Thompson, Megan; Shannon, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Trisomy 9 is a rare chromosomal abnormality usually associated with first-trimester miscarriage; few fetuses survive until the second trimester. We report two new cases of complete trisomy 9 that both present unusual phenotypic associations, and we analyze the genetic pathway involved in this chromosomal abnormality. The first fetus investigated showed Dandy-Walker malformation, cleft lip, and cleft palate) at the second trimester scan. Cardiovascular abnormalities were characterized by a right-sided, U-shaped aortic arch associated with a ventricular septal defect (VSD). Symmetrical intrauterine growth restriction and multicystic dysplastic kidney disease were associated findings. The second fetus showed a dysmorphic face, bilateral cleft lip, hypoplastic corpus callosum, and a Dandy-Walker malformation. Postmortem examination revealed cardiovascular abnormalities such as persistent left superior vena cava draining into the coronary sinus, membranous ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, pulmonary valve with two cusps and three sinuses, and the origin of the left subclavian artery distal to the junction of ductus arteriosus and aortic arch. Complete trisomy 9 may result in a wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities, and the presented case series contributes further details on the phenotype of this rare aneuploidy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Changes in a cerebellar peduncle lesion in a patient with Dandy-Walker malformation: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah Young; Jang, Sung Ho; Yeo, Sang Seok; Lee, Ensil; Cho, Yun Woo; Son, Su Min

    2013-02-15

    We report a patient with severe ataxia due to Dandy-Walker malformation, who showed functional recovery over 10 months corresponding to a change in a cerebellar peduncle lesion. A 20-month-old female patient who was diagnosed with Dandy-Walker syndrome and six age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. The superior cerebellar peduncle, the middle cerebellar peduncle, and the inferior cerebellar peduncle were evaluated using fractional anisotropy and the apparent diffusion coefficient. The patients' functional ambulation category was 0 at the initial visit, but improved to 2 at the follow-up evaluation, and Berg's balance scale score also improved from 0 to 7. Initial diffusion tensor tractography revealed that the inferior cerebellar peduncle was not detected, that the fractional anisotropy of the superior cerebellar peduncle and middle cerebellar peduncle decreased by two standard deviations below, and that the apparent diffusion coefficient increased by two standard deviations over normal control values. However, on follow-up diffusion tensor tractography, both inferior cerebellar peduncles could be detected, and the fractional anisotropy of superior cerebellar peduncle increased to within two standard deviations of normal controls. The functional improvement in this patient appeared to correspond to changes in these cerebellar peduncles. We believe that evaluating cerebellar peduncles using diffusion tensor imaging is useful in cases when a cerebellar peduncle lesion is suspected.

  14. Buses, cars, bicycles and walkers: the influence of the type of human transport on the flight responses of waterbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M McLeod

    Full Text Available One way to manage disturbance to waterbirds in natural areas where humans require access is to promote the occurrence of stimuli for which birds tolerate closer approaches, and so cause fewer responses. We conducted 730 experimental approaches to 39 species of waterbird, using five stimulus types (single walker, three walkers, bicycle, car and bus selected to mimic different human management options available for a controlled access, Ramsar-listed wetland. Across species, where differences existed (56% of 25 cases, motor vehicles always evoked shorter flight-initiation distances (FID than humans on foot. The influence of stimulus type on FID varied across four species for which enough data were available for complete cross-stimulus analysis. All four varied FID in relation to stimuli, differing in 4 to 7 of 10 possible comparisons. Where differences occurred, the effect size was generally modest, suggesting that managing stimulus type (e.g. by requiring people to use vehicles may have species-specific, modest benefits, at least for the waterbirds we studied. However, different stimulus types have different capacities to reduce the frequency of disturbance (i.e. by carrying more people and vary in their capacity to travel around important habitat.

  15. Relationships of pinon juniper woodland expansion and climate trends in the Walker Basin, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jonathon

    Landscapes are in constant flux. Vegetation distributions have changed in conjunction with climate, driven by factors such as Milankovitch cycles and atmospheric composition. Until recently, these changes have occurred gradually. Human populations are altering Earth's systems, including atmospheric composition and land use. This is altering vegetation distributions at landscape scales due to changes in species potential niche, as well as current and historical alteration of their realized niche. Vegetation shifts have the potential to be more pronounced in arid and mountainous environments as resources available to plants such as soil moisture are more limiting. In the Great Basin physiographic region of the western United States, woody encroachment of pinon juniper (Pinus monophylla & Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands is well known, but the drivers of its expansion are not well understood across elevational gradients. Predominant theories of future vegetation distribution change due to a changing climate, predict that montane species will move upslope in response to increasing temperatures. In pinon juniper woodlands, the focus has been on downslope movement of woodlands into other ecosystem types. The drivers for this are typically thought to be historical land uses such as grazing and fire exclusion. However, infilling and establishment is occurring throughout its distribution and relatively little attention has been paid to woodland movement uphill. This study focuses on two mountain ranges within the Walker Lake Basin, so as to understand changes occurring along the full gradient of pinon juniper woodlands, from lower to upper treeline, on both the western and eastern side of the ranges. The overall goal of this study was to understand trends of change (increasing, decreasing canopy density) in pinon juniper woodlands and determine if these trends were related to climate change trends. Trends in both vegetation and climate were analyzed for the entire

  16. Wet Little Ice Age in tropical Vietnam consistent with amplification of Pacific Walker Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lora; Doiron, Kelsey

    2017-04-01

    Mean climate of tropical mainland SE Asia (MSEA) results from complex interactions of the ITCZ and related monsoon, Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC) and ENSO. Although millennial and centennial-scale climate variability for MSEA is most frequently attributed to variations in summer monsoon strength, MSEA is "sandwiched" between two monsoonal branches, the Indian summer monsoon and the East Asian monsoon, which may not behave synchronously. In addition to longer climatic trends, abrupt, short-lived droughts in MSEA have been linked to societal instability and food shortages. Specific triggers for, and spatial extent of, the droughts are not well understood. To explore causes and refine the spatial distribution of these droughts, as well as to place them within the mean climate state, a high-resolution oxygen-isotopic record of lacustrine carbonates was constructed from a sediment core from Ao Tiên (Fairy Pond), NW Vietnam (22° 26.9' N, 105° 37.03'E). Ao Tiên is a small sinkhole in the karst region of Bac Kạn Province. It is hydrologically connected via fractured limestone to a larger lake, Ba Be, and the Năng River. The lake is currently anoxic below 4 m depth, and the carbonate-rich sediment preserves alternating homogeneous and laminated sediment packets. We sampled the 1.3 m core in contiguous 5 mm increments for a record with 2-3 yr resolution. High/low isotopic values are interpreted as drier/wetter as a function of moisture balance (inputs minus evaporation) of the lake. Overall dry conditions prevailed during the period AD 1390-1520. A steady increase in effective moisture occurred from AD 1520 to 1645 with peak effective moisture from AD 1645 to 1750, during the heart of the Little Ice Age (LIA). This pattern of hydroclimate is consistent with records from the South China Sea and Indonesia, but opposite to speleothem records from Central China. Thus climatic shifts at Ao Tiên are not consistent with a simple weakening of the summer monsoon or

  17. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  18. Comparison of metabolic cost and cardiovascular response to stair ascending and descending with walkers and canes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Michael; Bowen, Brett

    2014-09-01

    To compare oxygen cost (mL·kg(-1)·m(-1)) and cardiovascular response (beats/m) and oxygen consumption (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and heart rate (beats/min) to stair ascending and descending with walkers, with canes, and without assistive devices (ADs) in older adults. Descriptive, repeated measures. Indoor stairway. Convenience sample of able-bodied volunteers, non-AD users (N=14; mean age, 63.71 ± 11.7 y; mean body mass, 72.7 ± 14.1 kg; mean height, 165.7 ± 9.2 cm). Participants performed 4 randomized trials of stair ascending and descending at their own self-selected speed with 3 ADs: single-point cane, standard walker (SW), and wheeled walker (WW). They also performed unassisted stair ascending and descending. Each trial consisted of a 5-minute steady-state session followed by a 2-minute data collection period. Steady-state expired ventilations were collected in Douglas bags for metabolic analysis. Oxygen cost (mL·kg(-1)·m(-1)), heart rate (HR) response (beats/m), oxygen consumption (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and HR (beats/min) were compared for each trial of stair ascending and descending using analysis of variance repeated measures (Pstair ascending and descending using the single-point cane (121%), SW (217%), and WW (232%) compared with unassisted stair ascending and descending (Pstair ascending and descending using the single-point cane (116%), SW (126%), and WW (147%) compared with unassisted stair ascending and descending (Pstair ascending and descending with the ADs compared with unassisted stair ascending and descending. Participants stair ascended and descended at significantly (Pspeeds during trials with the ADs. This research should aid clinicians by providing evidence to base recommendations on regarding AD usage when encountering stairs during home and community ambulation. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. OBSERVAÇÃO SOBRE A PERDA DE PESO EM LAGARTAS DE Azochis gripusalis Walker, 1859 (PYRAUSTIDAE – LEPIDOPTERA DURANTE A DIAPAUSA COMMENT ON THE WEIGHT LOSS OF CATERPILLARS OF Azochis gripusalis WALKER, 1859 (PYRAUSTIDAE LEPDOPTERA DURING THE DORMANCY PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram observadas a perda de peso em lagartas da Azochis gripusalis Walker, 1859 (Pyraustidae-Lepidoptera durante o período hibernal em Curitiba, Paraná, onde a praga da figueira cultivada, Ficus carica L. (Moraceae, apresenta duas gerações por ano. Em 28 lagartas da geração de verão e 28 da geração de inverno, ambas no 5° instar e pesadas em intervalos de 20 dias, verificou-se uma perda de peso bem acentuada nas lagartas da geração de inverno durante a hibernação.

    In this work the loss of weight in caterpillars of Azochis gripusalis Walker, 1859 (Pyraustidae-Lepidoptera important pest of cultivated fig-trees Ficus carica L. (Moraceae was observed during the hibernation (diapause period. In Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, the A.gripusalis presents two generations in a year, winter generation and summer generation. The winter generation caterpillar hibernate during the 5th phase in a period of 158 to 163 days. The caterpillars, as a whole of 28 were confined in the Ficus stalk and grown up in laboratories and weighed at intervals of 20 days, since the beginning while the period of hibernation lasted.

  20. Book Reviews: Volume 4

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    J. Fiske Power plays, power works, reviewed by David E. Butler M. Skovmand and K. Schroder {eds.) Media cultures: reappraising transnational media, reviewed by Richard Fitzsimons B. Gunter and T. Viney Seeing is believing: religion and television in the 1990's, reviewed by Tony Fleck A. Millwood Hargrave {ed.), Broadcasting Standards Council: Violence in factual television, reviewed by Muiris MacConghail J. A. Walker Arts TV - A history of arts television in Britain, reviewed by B...

  1. Description and host interactions of a new species of Exetasis Walker (Diptera: Acroceridae), with a key to species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneche, Jorge Adrian; Gillung, Jéssica Paula; González, Alda

    2013-01-01

    Exetasis jujuyensis Gillung sp. nov. (Acroceridae) is described from Argentina and a dichotomous key to species of Exetasis Walker is provided. Detailed observations are presented on the effect of fly larval development on the behavior of the host spider (Acanthoscurria sternalis Pocock (Theraphosidae)).

  2. Relative roles of differential SST warming, uniform SST warming and land surface warming in determining the Walker circulation changes under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Most of CMIP5 models projected a weakened Walker circulation in tropical Pacific, but what causes such change is still an open question. By conducting idealized numerical simulations separating the effects of the spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) warming, extra land surface warming and differential SST warming, we demonstrate that the weakening of the Walker circulation is attributed to the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon and South America land effects. The effect of the uniform SST warming is through so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. In response to a uniform surface warming, the WNP monsoon is enhanced by competing moisture with other large-scale convective branches. The strengthened WNP monsoon further induces surface westerlies in the equatorial western-central Pacific, weakening the Walker circulation. The increase of the greenhouse gases leads to a larger land surface warming than ocean surface. As a result, a greater thermal contrast occurs between American Continent and equatorial Pacific. The so-induced zonal pressure gradient anomaly forces low-level westerly anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and weakens the Walker circulation. The differential SST warming also plays a role in driving low-level westerly anomalies over tropical Pacific. But such an effect involves a positive air-sea feedback that amplifies the weakening of both east-west SST gradient and Pacific trade winds.

  3. Laminin beta 2 chain and adhalin deficiency in the skeletal muscle of Walker-Warburg syndrome (cerebro-ocular dysplasia-muscular dystrophy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Durkin, M E; Zhang, X

    1995-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy may be caused by disturbances in a number of muscle proteins that appear to be part of a chain of interacting molecules that includes cytoskeletal, cell membrane, and basement membrane components. We found that the skeletal muscle cells in two cases of Walker-Warburg syndrome...

  4. First, you need a Gestalt: An interaction of bottom-up and top-down streams during the perception of the ambiguously rotating human walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Alexander

    2017-04-25

    Our visual system combines sensory evidence with prior knowledge to produce a representation of an outside world. Here, we explored the limits of the feedforward computation using an ambiguously rotating human biological motion. Specifically, we investigated whether an overall rotation, which was added to all the displays used in the study, would be perceived when the point-light walker was presented upside-down, a condition that typically obliterates perception of a human Gestalt. We report that inversion of the point-light walker or the absence of an identifiable Gestalt abolished the perception of an overall rotation. Perception of rotation was restored if the human walker Gestalt could be identified (an upright walker), if observers were informed about the nature of the motion display, or if observers expected to see the rotation of an unknown dynamic object. This implies that a mathematically more complex human motion was accounted for before the remaining motion components could be used to infer an overall rotation. Our results indicate that the perceptual inference does not proceed in a hierarchical manner with the simpler components being identified first. Instead, prior knowledge acts as a starting point for the decomposition of an even relatively simple combination of two motions.

  5. Modeling and simulating the stick-slip motion of the μWalker, a MEMS-based device for μSPAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patrascu, M.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    In this paper, the accent is on modeling the stick–slip phenomenon of micro devices, where a case shall be presented from the field of scanning probe microactuators. The case is about the lWalker, an electrostatic stepper motor which can deliver forces up to 1.7 mN and has ranges up to 140 lm. For

  6. Severe myopia with unusual retinal anomalies and Dandy-Walker sequence in two sibs. A distinct new neuro-ocular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Crecchio, Giuseppe; Cennamo, Gilda; de Leeuw, Nicole; Ventruto, Maria Luisa; Lonardo, Maria Concetta; Friso, Patrizia; Ventruto, Valerio

    2013-12-01

    We have observed a male and a female, sibs of non-consanguineous parents, affected by severe myopia with characteristic retinal defects and Dandy-Walker variant. The peculiarity of the retinopathy consists of pathological myopia with anomalous vitreal fenestrated membranes in the retinal periphery. We suppose that these associations may configure a new genetic syndrome.

  7. Severe Myopia with Unusual Retinal Anomalies and Dandy-Walker Sequence in Two Sibs. A Distinct New Neuro-ocular Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crecchio, G. de; Cennamo, G.; Leeuw, N. de; Ventruto, M.L.; Lonardo, M.C.; Friso, P.; Ventruto, V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We have observed a male and a female, sibs of non-consanguineous parents, affected by severe myopia with characteristic retinal defects and Dandy-Walker variant. The peculiarity of the retinopathy consists of pathological myopia with anomalous vitreal fenestrated membranes in the retinal

  8. Peace Education: Perspectives from Brazil and India. An Interview with Anima Bose (India) and Zlmarian Jeanne Walker (Brazil). Reprints and Miniprints No. 683.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    As a means of studying ways to help children and young people deal constructively with questions of peace and war, Anima Bose and Zlmarian Jeanne Walker, who have worked to promote peace education in India and Brazil respectively, are interviewed. The influence of Gandhi on the concept of peace in India is emphasized. One cannot teach peace, it…

  9. Action of tacrolimus on Wistar rat kidneys implanted with Walker 256 carcinosarcoma Estudo da ação do tacrolimus em rins de ratos Wistar implantados com carcinossarcoma de Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Machado Inácio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the development of Walker 256 tumor in male Wistar rats treated with tacrolimus using an experimental kidney tumor model. METHODS: 40 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Tumor group (TU (n=10, Tacrolimus-Tumor group (TT (n=10, Tacrolimus group (TC (n=10 and Control group (C (n=10. Treatment with tacrolimus was performed in groups TT and TC. Under anesthesia, the right kidney of each animal of TU and TT was accessed through a supraumbilical incision and inoculated with a 0.1mL solution containing 2x10(6 tumor cells (Walker 256 carcinosarcoma tumor cells. Group TC was treated with a saline solution. All the animals of groups TC and TT were treated with tacrolimus (5mg/kg/day by gavage for 15 days. TU group animals received saline by gavage for 15 days. On the 15th postoperative day, all animals were submitted to euthanasia and blood sampling for analysis of serum creatinine (Cr and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. Abdominal gross examination was performed, the right kidney removed and prepared for histological analysis by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The resulting data were submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA. RESULTS: Statistical significance was found when comparing creatinine level between groups TU, TT and TC -TT group culminated with a marked increased in creatinine levels (Cr=1.013 ± 0.3028 mg/mL, TU group (Cr=0.5670 ± 0.03536 mg/dL P=0.00256, TC group (Cr =0.711 ± 0.1653 mg/mL P= 0.02832. Statistical significance was found when comparing BUN levels in TT group (71.32 ± 17.14 mg/mL, compared with TU group (45.83 ± 5.046 mg/dL, P=0.000318. There were no statistically significant differences between groups TT and TC (61.23 ± 9.503 mg/mL P=0.7242. Histological analysis showed a poor evolution in TT group with multiple foci of hemorrhage and cortical invasion by the Walker tumor. CONCLUSION: The Tacrolimus-treated group developed a more aggressive tumor and a drug-related nephrotoxic effect.OBJETIVO: Avaliar

  10. Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Walker River Indian Reservation, Nevada 1994-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thodal, Carl E.; Tuttle, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    A study was begun in 1994 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage from the Walker River Indian Reservation, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or on fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of the Walker River for other beneficial uses. Samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected during June-August 1994 (during a drought year) from sites upstream from and on the Walker River Indian Reservation for analyses of trace elements. Other analyses included physical characteristics, major dissolved constituents, selected species of water-soluble nitrogen and phosphorus, and selected pesticides in bottom sediment. Water samples were collected again from four sites on the Reservation in August 1995 (during a wetterthan- average year) to provide data for comparing extreme climatic conditions. Water samples collected from the Walker River Indian Reservation in 1994 equaled or exceeded the Nevada water-quality standard or level of concern for at least one of the following: water temperature, pH, dissolved solids, unionized ammonia, phosphate, arsenic, boron, chromium, lead, and molybdenum; in 1995, only a single sample from one site exceeded a Nevada water-quality standard for molybdenum. Levels of concern for trace elements in bottom sediment collected in 1994 were equaled or exceeded for arsenic, iron, manganese, and zinc. Concentrations of organochiorine pesticide residues in bottom sediment were below analytical reporting limits. Levels of concern for trace-elements in samples of biota were equaled or exceeded for arsenic, boron, copper, and mercury. Results of toxicity testing indicate that only water samples from Walker Lake caused a toxic response in test bacteria. Arsenic and boron concentrations in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissue exceeded levels of concern throughout the Walker River Basin, but most commonly in the lower Walker River Basin. Mercury also was elevated

  11. A rare case of giant occipital meningocele with Dandy Walker Syndrome: Can it grow bigger than this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankotia, Dipanker Singh; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Singh, Bhoopendra; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Association of Dandy–Walker syndrome with occipital meningocele (OMC) is extremely rare and about thirty cases are reported till date in the Western literature. However, OMC is classified by Talamonti et al. into small, large, and giant categories with respective diameters were upto 5 cm in small, large with 5–9 cm, and giant with >9 cm. Usually the size of OMC progressively increases as raised intracranial pressure leads to compensatory cerebrospinal fluid escape into sac with the growth of children. Authors report an interesting case of an 18-month-old female child with extra-gigantic OMC, whose size was almost same since birth, representing the first case of its kind, who underwent successful surgical repair. Clinical presentation, radiological features, and surgical management options in literature are reviewed briefly for this rare disease association. PMID:28217162

  12. Le syndrome de Dandy-Walker: étude anatomo-clinique d'un cas adulte

    OpenAIRE

    Ebbing, Karsten; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2004-01-01

    Le syndrome de Dandy-Walker est une malformation congénitale du système nerveux central, située dans la fosse postérieure. Ce syndrome provoque généralement une clinique bruyante dès la naissance, sous forme d'hydrocéphalie aiguë ou chronique. Quelques rares cas adultes asymptomatiques, dont le diagnostic a été posé fortuitement, sont décrits. Ce travail présente les caractéristiques neuropathologiques et les corrélations clinico-anatomiques relatives à un cas adulte asymptomatique découvert ...

  13. Le syndrome de Dandy-Walker : (étude anatomo-clinique d'un cas adulte)

    OpenAIRE

    Ebbing, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    Le syndrome de Dandy-Walker est une malformation congénitale du système nerveux central, située dans la fosse postérieure. Ce syndrome provoque généralement une clinique bruyante dès la naissance, sous forme d'hydrocéphalie aiguë ou chronique. Quelques rares cas adultes asymptomatiques, dont le diagnostic a été posé fortuitement, sont décrits. Ce travail présente les caractéristiques neuropathologiques et les corrélations clinico-anatomiques relatives à un cas adulte asymptomatique découvert ...

  14. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  15. Walking down memory lane: where walkers look as they descend stairs provides hints about how they control their walking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, David A

    2009-01-01

    Walking down stairs is a challenging perceptual-motor activity, as indicated by the large number of documented falls on stairs each year. The present study suggests that descending stairs is also a challenging memorial activity. A total of 147 people were videotaped as they descended a staircase. When the walkers were in the middle of the stairs, they looked down every third step on average, but as they neared the bottom, they looked down with high probability on or around the fourth step. The trigger for the last look down, by hypothesis, was disappearance of the stairs from the lower visual field. A model is proposed in which mid-stair walking is controlled primarily on the basis of visual guidance, whereas end-stair walking is controlled primarily on the basis of memory.

  16. Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of a microsporidium (Nosema sp.) isolated from rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Dongxu; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Sentai; Han, Lanzhi; Li, Qingrong; Zhao, Chaoyi; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Mingqiang

    2017-10-01

    A new microsporidium was isolated from Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), one of the most important rice pests in China. The morphology and molecular systematics of this novel microsporidium were described in this study. The spores were long oval and measured 3.17 × 1.64 μm on fresh smears. Ultrastructure of the spores was characteristic for the genus Nosema: a diplokaryon, 10-12 polar filament coils of the same type, and posterior vacuole. Small subunit rRNA gene sequence data and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the microsporidian species from C. suppressalis belong to the true Nosema sub-group of the genus Nosema. Besides, the microsporidium Nosema sp. CS could cause systemic infection of Bombyx mori and infect silkworms through vertical transmission. Therefore, mulberry field pest control should be carefully monitored, and sanitation of mulberry leaves is essential to control the pebrine disease in sericulture.

  17. Interstitial deletion of 8q21{yields}22 associated with minor anomalies, congenital heart defect, and Dandy-Walker variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, M.L. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Ryan, R.M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-03-13

    We describe an infant with a deletion of 8q21{yields}22 who had distinct clinical manifestations including minor facial anomalies, a congenital heart defect, a Dandy-Walker variant, and mild to moderate developmental delay. Her facial characteristics included small, wide-spaced eyes, asymmetric bilateral epicanthal folds, a broad nasal bridge, a {open_quotes}carp-shaped{close_quotes} mouth, micrognathia, and prominent, apparently low-set ears. Three other reports describe children with larger proximal deletions of 8q that include 8q21 and q22. These four children all have similar facial appearance. Of the others reported, one had a congenital heart defect and one had craniosynostosis. This case, in addition to the previously noted three cases, helps in delineating a recognizable syndrome. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of Dandy-Walker-like syndrome in a wire-haired miniature dachshund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobatake, Yui; Miyabayashi, Takayoshi; Yada, Naoko; Kachi, Shingo; Ohta, George; Sakai, Hiroki; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Kamishina, Hiroaki

    2013-10-01

    A 12-week-old female Wire-haired miniature dachshund presented with non-progressive ataxia and hypermetria. Due to the animal's clinical history and symptoms, cerebellar malformations were suspected. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected bilateral ventriculomegaly, dorsal displacement of the cerebellar tentorium, a defect in the cerebellar tentorium and a large fluid-filled cystic structure that occupied the regions where the cerebellar vermis and occipital lobes are normally located. The abovementioned cystic structure and the defect in the cerebellar tentorium were comparable to those seen in humans with Dandy-Walker syndrome. However, the presence of the cystic structure in the occipital lobe region was unique to the present case. During necropsy, the MRI findings were confirmed, but the etiology of the condition was not determined.

  19. Phenotypic outcomes in Mouse and HumanFoxc1dependent Dandy-Walker cerebellar malformation suggest shared mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldipur, Parthiv; Dang, Derek; Aldinger, Kimberly A; Janson, Olivia K; Guimiot, Fabien; Adle-Biasette, Homa; Dobyns, William B; Siebert, Joseph R; Russo, Rosa; Millen, Kathleen J

    2017-01-16

    FOXC1 loss contributes to Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), a common human cerebellar malformation. Previously, we found that complete Foxc1 loss leads to aberrations in proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration in the embryonic mouse cerebellum (Haldipur et al., 2014). We now demonstrate that hypomorphic Foxc1 mutant mice have granule and Purkinje cell abnormalities causing subsequent disruptions in postnatal cerebellar foliation and lamination. Particularly striking is the presence of a partially formed posterior lobule which echoes the posterior vermis DW 'tail sign' observed in human imaging studies. Lineage tracing experiments in Foxc1 mutant mouse cerebella indicate that aberrant migration of granule cell progenitors destined to form the posterior-most lobule causes this unique phenotype. Analyses of rare human del chr 6p25 fetal cerebella demonstrate extensive phenotypic overlap with our Foxc1 mutant mouse models, validating our DWM models and demonstrating that many key mechanisms controlling cerebellar development are likely conserved between mouse and human.

  20. Dandy-walker malformation and down syndrome association: good developmental outcome and successful endoscopic treatment of hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigri, Flavio; Cabral, Isaias Fiuza; da Silva, Raquel Tavares Boy; Pereira, Heloisa Viscaíno; Ribeiro, Carlos Roberto Telles

    2014-05-01

    The association of Down syndrome (DS) with Dandy Walker malformation (DWM) is extremely rare, with only 3 cases reported to date. All cases reported have shown a bad life expectancy and a bad developmental outcome. The present case reveals the possibility of a good prognosis. A 19-month-old male patient had successful endoscopic hydrocephalus treatment and a good developmental outcome. He probably had a better outcome because of good DS and DWM prognostic parameters. Our patient suffered from a DWM with vermis identification of 2 fissures and 3 lobes and a DS with a well-preserved tonus, which was not associated with other congenital systemic defects. We may conclude that the prognosis of DS-DWM association may separately depend on the degree of clinical and neurological involvement of each malformation.

  1. A rare case of giant occipital meningocele with Dandy Walker Syndrome: Can it grow bigger than this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankotia, Dipanker Singh; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Singh, Bhoopendra; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Association of Dandy-Walker syndrome with occipital meningocele (OMC) is extremely rare and about thirty cases are reported till date in the Western literature. However, OMC is classified by Talamonti et al . into small, large, and giant categories with respective diameters were upto 5 cm in small, large with 5-9 cm, and giant with >9 cm. Usually the size of OMC progressively increases as raised intracranial pressure leads to compensatory cerebrospinal fluid escape into sac with the growth of children. Authors report an interesting case of an 18-month-old female child with extra-gigantic OMC, whose size was almost same since birth, representing the first case of its kind, who underwent successful surgical repair. Clinical presentation, radiological features, and surgical management options in literature are reviewed briefly for this rare disease association.

  2. Dandy-Walker Malformation and Down Syndrome Association: Good Developmental Outcome and Successful Endoscopic Treatment of Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Nigri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The association of Down syndrome (DS with Dandy Walker malformation (DWM is extremely rare, with only 3 cases reported to date. All cases reported have shown a bad life expectancy and a bad developmental outcome. The present case reveals the possibility of a good prognosis. A 19-month-old male patient had successful endoscopic hydrocephalus treatment and a good developmental outcome. He probably had a better outcome because of good DS and DWM prognostic parameters. Our patient suffered from a DWM with vermis identification of 2 fissures and 3 lobes and a DS with a well-preserved tonus, which was not associated with other congenital systemic defects. We may conclude that the prognosis of DS-DWM association may separately depend on the degree of clinical and neurological involvement of each malformation.

  3. X-derived marker chromosome in patient with mosaic Turner syndrome and Dandy-Walker syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telepova, Alena S; Romanenko, Svetlana A; Lemskaya, Natalya A; Maksimova, Yulia V; Shorina, Asia R; Yudkin, Dmitry V

    2017-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes can be derived from autosomes and sex chromosomes and can accompany chromosome pathologies, such as Turner syndrome. Here, we present a case report of a patient with mosaic Turner syndrome and Dandy-Walker syndrome carrying a marker chromosome. We showed the presence of the marker chromosome in 33.8% of blood cells. FISH of the probe derived from the marker chromosome by microdissection revealed that it originated from the centromeric region of chromosome X. Additionally, we showed no telomeric sequences and no XIST sequence in the marker chromosome. This is the first report of these two syndromes accompanied by the presence of a marker chromosome. Marker chromosome was X-derived and originated from centromeric region. Patient has mild symptoms but there is no XIST gene in marker chromosome. CPG137. Registered 03 March 2017.

  4. Secondary 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S.: Process Evaluation Based on the Co-Walker Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the implementation quality of the Tier 1 Program (Secondary 1 Curriculum delivered in the second year of the Full Implementation Phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes. Under the “Co-Walker Scheme”, systematic observation of curriculum units was conducted in 138 schools. Results indicated that the overall level of program adherence was high, with an average of 82.9%. The mean ratings of the program implementation quality were also high. Despite limitations, the findings of this study suggest that the implementation of the Secondary 1 Program (Tier 1 Program of the Full Implementation Phase was of very high quality. The present findings also provide strong evidence to account for the successful and encouraging outcomes of a major positive youth development program in Hong Kong.

  5. How Do Ants Make Sense of Gravity? A Boltzmann Walker Analysis of Lasius niger Trajectories on Various Inclines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Anaïs; Lecheval, Valentin; Fournier, Richard; Blanco, Stéphane; Weitz, Sébastian; Bezian, Jean-Jacques; Gautrais, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe accurately how the directional information given by support inclinations affects the ant Lasius niger motion in terms of a behavioral decision. To this end, we have tracked the spontaneous motion of 345 ants walking on a 0.5×0.5 m plane canvas, which was tilted with 5 various inclinations by rad ( data points). At the population scale, support inclination favors dispersal along uphill and downhill directions. An ant's decision making process is modeled using a version of the Boltzmann Walker model, which describes an ant's random walk as a series of straight segments separated by reorientation events, and was extended to take directional influence into account. From the data segmented accordingly ( segments), this extension allows us to test separately how average speed, segments lengths and reorientation decisions are affected by support inclination and current walking direction of the ant. We found that support inclination had a major effect on average speed, which appeared approximately three times slower on the incline. However, we found no effect of the walking direction on speed. Contrastingly, we found that ants tend to walk longer in the same direction when they move uphill or downhill, and also that they preferentially adopt new uphill or downhill headings at turning points. We conclude that ants continuously adapt their decision making about where to go, and how long to persist in the same direction, depending on how they are aligned with the line of maximum declivity gradient. Hence, their behavioral decision process appears to combine klinokinesis with geomenotaxis. The extended Boltzmann Walker model parameterized by these effects gives a fair account of the directional dispersal of ants on inclines. PMID:24204636

  6. Latest Quaternary paleoseismology and evidence of distributed dextral shear along the Mohawk Valley fault zone, northern Walker Lane, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan D.; Briggs, Richard W.; Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; Mahan, Shannon A.; Angster, Stephen J.

    2014-06-01

    The dextral-slip Mohawk Valley fault zone (MVFZ) strikes northwestward along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada in the northern Walker Lane. Geodetic block modeling indicates that the MVFZ may accommodate ~3 mm/yr of regional dextral strain, implying that it is the highest slip-rate strike-slip fault in the region; however, only limited geologic data are available to constrain the system's slip rate and earthquake history. We mapped the MVFZ using airborne lidar data and field observations and identified a site near Sulphur Creek for paleoseismic investigation. At this site, oblique dextral-normal faulting on the steep valley margin has created a closed depression that floods annually during spring snowmelt to form an ephemeral pond. We excavated three fault-perpendicular trenches at the site and exposed pond sediment that interfingers with multiple colluvial packages eroded from the scarp that bounds the eastern side of the pond. We documented evidence for four surface-rupturing earthquakes on this strand of the MVFZ. OxCal modeling of radiocarbon and luminescence ages indicates that these earthquakes occurred at 14.0 ka, 12.8 ka, 5.7 ka, and 1.9 ka. The mean ~4 kyr recurrence interval is inconsistent with slip rates of ~3 mm/yr; these rates imply surface ruptures of more than 10 m per event, which is geologically implausible for the subdued geomorphic expression and 60 km length of the MVFZ. We propose that unidentified structures not yet incorporated into geodetic models may accommodate significant dextral shear across the northern Walker Lane, highlighting the role of distributed deformation in this region.

  7. Participation of the NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway in the antinociception induced by Walker tumor bearing in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, A.L.R.; Pinheiro, C.A.; Oliveira, G.J.; Torres, J.N.L.; Moraes, M.O.; Ribeiro, R.A.; Vale, M.L.; Souza, M.H.L.P. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-03-30

    Implantation of Walker 256 tumor decreases acute systemic inflammation in rats. Inflammatory hyperalgesia is one of the most important events of acute inflammation. The L-arginine/NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of peripheral antinociception mediated by several drugs and physical exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible involvement of the NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway in antinociception induced in Walker 256 tumor-bearing male Wistar rats (180-220 g). The groups consisted of 5-6 animals. Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. Walker tumor (4th and 7th day post-implantation) reduced prostaglandin E{sub 2}- (PGE{sub 2}, 400 ng/paw; 50 µL; intraplantar injection) and carrageenan-induced hypernociception (500 µg/paw; 100 µL; intraplantar injection). Walker tumor-induced analgesia was reversed (99.3% for carrageenan and 77.2% for PGE{sub 2}) by a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME; 90 mg/kg, ip) and L-arginine (200 mg/kg, ip), which prevented (80% for carrageenan and 65% for PGE{sub 2}) the effect of L-NAME. Treatment with the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (100% for carrageenan and 95% for PGE{sub 2}; 8 µg/paw) and the ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channel (KATP) blocker glibenclamide (87.5% for carrageenan and 100% for PGE{sub 2}; 160 µg/paw) reversed the antinociceptive effect of tumor bearing in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed an intrinsic peripheral antinociceptive effect of Walker tumor bearing in rats. This antinociceptive effect seemed to be mediated by activation of the NO/cGMP pathway followed by the opening of KATP channels.

  8. Studying methane migration mechanisms at Walker Ridge, Gulf of Mexico, via 3D methane hydrate reservoir modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nole, Michael [University of Texas at Austin; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin; Mohanty, Kishore [University of Texas at Austin; Cook, Ann [Ohio State University; Hillman, Jess [Ohio State University

    2015-12-15

    We have developed a 3D methane hydrate reservoir simulator to model marine methane hydrate systems. Our simulator couples highly nonlinear heat and mass transport equations and includes heterogeneous sedimentation, in-situ microbial methanogenesis, the influence of pore size contrast on solubility gradients, and the impact of salt exclusion from the hydrate phase on dissolved methane equilibrium in pore water. Using environmental parameters from Walker Ridge in the Gulf of Mexico, we first simulate hydrate formation in and around a thin, dipping, planar sand stratum surrounded by clay lithology as it is buried to 295mbsf. We find that with sufficient methane being supplied by organic methanogenesis in the clays, a 200x pore size contrast between clays and sands allows for a strong enough concentration gradient to significantly drop the concentration of methane hydrate in clays immediately surrounding a thin sand layer, a phenomenon that is observed in well log data. Building upon previous work, our simulations account for the increase in sand-clay solubility contrast with depth from about 1.6% near the top of the sediment column to 8.6% at depth, which leads to a progressive strengthening of the diffusive flux of methane with time. By including an exponentially decaying organic methanogenesis input to the clay lithology with depth, we see a decrease in the aqueous methane supplied to the clays surrounding the sand layer with time, which works to further enhance the contrast in hydrate saturation between the sand and surrounding clays. Significant diffusive methane transport is observed in a clay interval of about 11m above the sand layer and about 4m below it, which matches well log observations. The clay-sand pore size contrast alone is not enough to completely eliminate hydrate (as observed in logs), because the diffusive flux of aqueous methane due to a contrast in pore size occurs slower than the rate at which methane is supplied via organic methanogenesis

  9. Planning and Execution of a Marine Methane Hydrate Pressure Coring Program for the Walker Ridge and Green Canyon Areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Gary [Fugro Geoconsulting Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project (and report) is to produce a guide to developing scientific, operational, and logistical plans for a future methane hydrate-focused offshore pressure coring program. This report focuses primarily on a potential coring program in the Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955 blocks where previous investigations were undertaken as part of the 2009 Department of Energy JIP Leg II expedition, however, the approach to designing a pressure coring program that was utilized for this project may also serve as a useful model for planning pressure coring programs for hydrates in other areas. The initial portion of the report provides a brief overview of prior investigations related to gas hydrates in general and at the Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955 blocks in particular. The main content of the report provides guidance for various criteria that will come into play when designing a pressure coring program.

  10. Alterações oculares em paciente pediátrico portador de malformações de Dandy-Walker: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewald Oscar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreveremos um caso raro de malformações da síndrome de Dandy-Walker e suas alterações oculares. Trata-se de criança do sexo feminino, com idade de 1 ano e 9 meses, que apresentava alterações no sistema nervoso central (síndrome de Dandy-Walker, associado à baixa acuidade visual, megalocórnea (diâmetro de 13 mm no olho direito e 13,5 mm no olho esquerdo, escavação de 0,7 em ambos os olhos (AO e palidez temporal de papila óptica de AO, pressão intra-ocular de 16 mmHg no olho direito e 14 mmHg no olho esquerdo e diâmetro antero-posterior de 20,55 mm em ambos os olhos.

  11. Dandy Walker Syndrome with Tessier 7 Cleft-a Rare Case Report and a Surgical Note on the Use of Vermilion Flap and Lazy W-Plasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhupar, Vikas; Kumar, Praveen; Akkara, Francis; Kumar, Ananth

    2012-09-01

    The Dandy-Walker syndrome is a malformation of the brain that involves the mal-development of the cerebellum, associated with a cystic enlargement of this area, and frequently hydrocephalus. This malformation occurs in ~1 in 30,000 babies. It is seen mostly in females. Developmental anomalies like cleft lip, cleft palate, and cardiac malformation, orthopaedic and urinary structural abnormalities may also occur in 30% of the individuals. We report a case of Dandy Walker syndrome with Tessier 7 facial cleft with paramedian cleft palate in a 6 month old child. Surgical methods used to correct this anomaly include commissuroplasty, myoplasty of the orbicularis oris, and closure of the cleft cheek. Authors report a vermilion square flap technique that combines a lower lip mucocutaneous vermilion border flap with a lazy W-plasty to ensure a natural commissure and skin closure.

  12. C. Walker-Said and J. D. Kelly (eds), Corporate Social Responsibility? Human Rights in the New Global Economy (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2015), 392 pp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whelan, Glen

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Charlotte Walker-Said and John D. Kelly (eds), Corporate Social Responsibility? Human Rights in the New Global Economy (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2015), 392 pp.......Book review of: Charlotte Walker-Said and John D. Kelly (eds), Corporate Social Responsibility? Human Rights in the New Global Economy (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2015), 392 pp....

  13. Analytic expression for the mean time to absorption for a random walker on the Sierpinski fractal. III. The effect of non-nearest-neighbor jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, V.; Kozak, John J.

    2013-11-01

    We present exact, analytic results for the mean time to trapping of a random walker on the class of deterministic Sierpinski graphs embedded in d≥2 Euclidean dimensions, when both nearest-neighbor (NN) and next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) jumps are included. Mean first-passage times are shown to be modified significantly as a consequence of the fact that NNN transitions connect fractals of two consecutive generations.

  14. Celecoxib and Ibuprofen Restore the ATP Content and the Gluconeogenesis Activity in the Liver of Walker-256 Tumor-Bearing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Oliveira de Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of celecoxib and ibuprofen, both non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, on the decreased gluconeogenesis observed in liver of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. Methods: Celecoxib and ibuprofen (both at 25 mg/Kg were orally administered for 12 days, beginning on the same day when the rats were inoculated with Walker-256 tumor cells. Results: Celecoxib and ibuprofen treatment reversed the reduced production of glucose, pyruvate, lactate and urea from alanine as well as the reduced production of glucose from pyruvate and lactate in perfused liver from tumor-bearing rats. Besides, celecoxib and ibuprofen treatment restored the decreased ATP content, increased triacylglycerol levels and reduced mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1, while ibuprofen treatment restored the reduced mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα in the liver of tumor-bearing rats. Both treatments tended to decrease TNFα, IL6 and IL10 in the liver of tumor-bearing rats. Finally, the treatment with celecoxib, but not with ibuprofen, reduced the growth of Walker-256 tumor. Conclusion: Celecoxib and ibuprofen restored the decreased gluconeogenesis in the liver of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. These effects did not involve changes in tumor growth and probably occurred by anti-inflammatory properties of these NSAIDs, which increased expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (PPARα and CPT1 and consequently the ATP production, normalizing the energy status in the liver of tumor-bearing rats.

  15. Apocalyptic souls: the existential (anti hero metaphor in the Metal Gear Solid: Snake Eater, Peace Walker and Ground Zeroes games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Vasconcelos Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, I drew a correlation between Søren Kierkegaard’s (1813-1855 existentialist theory and apocalyptic representations in the Metal Gear Solid: Snake Eater, Peace Walker and Ground Zeroes video games (Konami Computer Entertainment Japan, Kojima Productions, 2004, 2010 and 2014. In this successful franchise, the game’s main character, ‘Snake’ personifies ‘the knight of infinite resignation,’ the ‘tragic hero’ in ‘the infinite movement’ towards the achievement of ‘higher causes’. Also, Snake’s mentor ‘The Boss’, who sacrifices herself in order to reconcile the world from its 1960’s Cold War antagonism would represent another Kierkegaard notion called ‘the knight of faith’, who believes in his/her faith (the cause above all things. Such character traits enrich both gameplay and game narrative and the overall experience by introducing philosophical inquiries to the player. The methodology utilized was a free-form semiotic framework with emphasis on the symbolic representations along with Kierkegaard’s existentialism and other philosophical constructs as well.

  16. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of <70%, and 12 hours photophase. Fifteen hymenopteran specimens were dissected daily to evaluate their stage and development time. The phenology concluded that S. endius had a development cycle of 19 days with an incubation period of 24 hours. The development of the larvae of S. endius occurred in the subsequent eight days, during which a series of morphological alterations were observed. The pre-pupal stage occurred on the tenth day, where the movement ceased and elimination of the meconium started. The pupal stage occurred from the 11th to the 19th day, with emergence of males first, followed by female emergence approximately 24 hours later. These results allowed the evaluation of aspects of the detailed bionomics of the development of S. endius in order to record and program production of this parasitoid, thus optimizing its utilization as a biological control agent.

  17. Cloning, Expression and Purification of Subunit H of Vacuolar H+-ATPase from Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Lina Lu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vacuolar (H+-ATPase (V-ATPase of insect, which is composed of membrane-bound V0 complex and peripheral V1 complex, participates in lots of important physiological process. Subunit H, as a subunit of V1 complex, plays a vital role in bridging the communication between V1 and V0 complexes and interaction with other proteins. Yeast subunit H has been successfully crystallized through expression in E. coli, but little is known about the structure of insect subunit H. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified the subunit H from midgut of Mythimna separata Walker. Through RACE (rapidly amplification of cDNA ends technique, we got 1807 bp full length of subunit H, and to keep the nature structure of subunit H, we constructed Baculovirus expression vector with His-tag in the C-terminal and expressed the recombinant protein in insect sf9 cells, thereafter, purified the recombinant protein by Ni-NTA columns. Results of SDS-PAGE, western blotting and mass spectrometry showed that the recombinant protein was successfully expressed. The method of expressing and purifying M. separata subunit H will provide a foundation for obtaining the crystal of subunit H and further study of the design of novel insecticides based on its structure and function.

  18. Competitive Interactions between Immature Stages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, K; Hu, J; Wu, B; An, K; Zhang, J; Liu, J; Zhang, R

    2014-08-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and the pumpkin fly, Bactrocera tau (Walker), are economically important pests that attack mainly cucurbitacean fruits. The two fruit fly species have similar natural distributions, host ranges, and population growth capacities. This study was designed to assess the asymmetrical competitions through resource exploitation between the larvae of B. cucurbitae and B. tau at different density levels and temperatures, and on different hosts by comparing the relative effects of interspecific and intraspecific interactions on four life history parameters: survival rate, puparial mass, puparial duration, and developmental duration. Our results showed that intraspecific and interspecific competitions occurred under some laboratory conditions, and B. cucurbitae took advantage over B. tau at the high-density level and at low and high temperatures on pumpkin, bitter gourd, and bottle gourd when interspecific competition took place. Intraspecific and interspecific competitions mainly affected the puparial mass and the survival rate of the two fruit fly species but had no marked effect on the puparial duration or development duration.

  19. MODY3, renal cysts, and Dandy-Walker variants with a microdeletion spanning the HNF1A gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Hiro; Nagamori, Mariko; Miya, Kazushi; Yorifuji, Tohru

    2017-09-01

    Heterozygous hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-α gene (HNF1A) mutations are the most common cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), but they rarely involve extrahepatic manifestations. Renal cysts and diabetes syndrome can be caused by HNF1B mutations. No association between MODY3 and Dandy-Walker variants (DWV) has been reported. HNF1A mutations might be responsible for renal malformations. In a Japanese girl with glycosuria, developmental delay, mental retardation, renal cysts, and DWV, the HNF1B gene had no mutations. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis identified a de-novo interstitial 12q24.22-q24.31 deletion of 5.6 Mb encompassing the HNF1A gene, which is compatible with a diagnosis of MODY3. The variety of phenotypes suggests a novel microdeletion syndrome spanning the HNF1A gene. Because HNF1B functions as an HNF1A/HNF1B heterodimer, haploinsufficient HNF1A interacts with a certain HNF1B haplotype. The resulting truncated heterodimer might engender renal cysts. More patients with well-defined deletion within 12q.24.31 must be evaluated to produce a detailed genotype-phenotype correlation and to elucidate this emerging microdeletion syndrome.
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  20. Baby walker injury awareness among grade-12 girls in a high-prevalence Arab country in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivna, Michal; Barss, Peter; Al-Hanaee, Amna; Al-Dhahab, Ayesha; Al-Kaabi, Fatima; Al-Muhairi, Shamma

    2015-03-01

    Baby walkers (BWs) are a consumer product frequently associated with infant injuries. With little research in the Middle East and few population studies anywhere, female students in grade 12 in the United Arab Emirates were surveyed, assessing the prevalence of use, perceived safety, and interventions. The study population included grade-12 students in a large UAE city. Multistage random sampling selected 4/8 female Arab government schools and 3 classes each from science and arts tracks for interview by self-administered questionnaire. Response was 100%, with a total of 696 students, 55% (n = 385) of whom were Emirati citizens; 90% (n = 619) of the families used/had used BWs. Among the reasons for use, 92% reported "keeping baby safe," with 11% perceiving BWs as very safe and 74% as moderately safe. Only 16% perceived that BWs could cause injuries. Despite causing many injuries, including fatalities, BWs were perceived to be safe and used by nearly all families. Effective education of professionals, patients, the public, and decision makers is needed. Governments should consider countermeasures such as prohibiting importation, sales, and advertising, together with public education and provision of stationary activity centers. © 2013 APJPH.

  1. POTENSI PARASITOID TELUR PENGGEREK BATANG PADI KUNING Scirpophaga incertulas Walker PADA BEBERAPA TIPOLOGI LAHAN DI PROVINSI JAMBI

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    . Wilyus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze the diversity, dispersal and domination of the egg parasitoid species of the yellow rice stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas Walker on several land typologies in Jambi Province.  The study was conducted by survey method, from December 2010 until June 2011.  Samples of egg parasitoids of S. incertulas were collected by baiting parasitoids with eggs of S. incertulas.  The results of the research showed that there were three spesies of the egg parasitoids of S. incertulas found in Jambi Province, the most dominant was Telenomus rowani Gahan, followed by Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead and Tetrastichus schoenobii Ferriere. T. rowani and T. japonicum were found in all wetland ecosystems in Jambi Province (tidal swamp, swampy area, rainfed lowland, lowland technical irrigation, and upland technical irrigation, while T. schoenobii was found only in tidal swamp, swampy area, and lowland technical irrigation.  The highest species diversity of egg parasitoid of S. incertulas was found on tidal swamp (Shannon index 1.047, followed by swampy area, lowland technical irrigation, rainfed and upland technical irrigation area.  The average of proportion of egg masses parasitized by T. rowani, T. japonicum and T. Schoenobii were 22.58, 6.18 and 2.68% respectively. The average of individual eggs parasitized by T. rowani, T. schoenobii, and T. japnicum were 8.41, 1.67 and 1.47%   respectively.

  2. Exploring the midgut transcriptome and brush border membrane vesicle proteome of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun

    2012-01-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac.

  3. Spatial Distribution and Minimum Sample Size for Overwintering Larvae of the Rice Stem Borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) in Paddy Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, A

    2014-10-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), feeds almost exclusively in paddy fields in most regions of the world. The study of its spatial distribution is fundamental for designing correct control strategies, improving sampling procedures, and adopting precise agricultural techniques. Field experiments were conducted during 2011 and 2012 to estimate the spatial distribution pattern of the overwintering larvae. Data were analyzed using five distribution indices and two regression models (Taylor and Iwao). All of the indices and Taylor's model indicated random spatial distribution pattern of the rice stem borer overwintering larvae. Iwao's patchiness regression was inappropriate for our data as shown by the non-homogeneity of variance, whereas Taylor's power law fitted the data well. The coefficients of Taylor's power law for a combined 2 years of data were a = -0.1118, b = 0.9202 ± 0.02, and r (2) = 96.81. Taylor's power law parameters were used to compute minimum sample size needed to estimate populations at three fixed precision levels, 5, 10, and 25% at 0.05 probabilities. Results based on this equation parameters suggesting that minimum sample sizes needed for a precision level of 0.25 were 74 and 20 rice stubble for rice stem borer larvae when the average larvae is near 0.10 and 0.20 larvae per rice stubble, respectively.

  4. Genetic diversity of rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker from Northern Iran and comparison with other countries

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    M. Shayanmehr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is considered the major pest of rice in Iran. Because of the serious damage on rice in Northern Iran, the present study was conducted to investigate genetic diversity within populations of C. suppressalis, from Mazandaran using a template of cytochrome oxidase I gene, 750 bps, (COI. Later the haplotypes from Iran were compared with those found in other countries. According to the results of this study, there is very low genetic diversity (two haplotypes among different populations of this pest in populations of Northern Iran. The genetic similarity and low levels of genetic diversity of these populations suggest that the pest colonization occurred relatively recently and there is high gene flow between these populations of the province. In addition, haplotypes of Mazandaran province are different with those found in other countries. The similarity of Iranian population (Simorgh with one population from China indicated that China might be the origin of C. suppresalis.

  5. Exploring the midgut transcriptome and brush border membrane vesicle proteome of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Ma

    Full Text Available The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV. Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac.

  6. Lagarta- falsa-medideira, Pseudoplusia includens (WALKER, 1857, nova praga do maracujazeiro no Espírito Santo

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    Vera Lúcia Rodrigues Machado Benassi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Pseudoplusia includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, lagarta-falsa-medideira, ataca diversas culturas de importância econômica, causando, na maioria das vezes, prejuízos consideráveis. Foram realizados levantamentos de todas as fases de desenvolvimento do inseto, no período de abril/2009 a abril/2010, em uma cultura de maracujá-azedo, Passifora edulis f. flavicarpa, no município de Linhares-ES, após ter sido constatada sua presença na área. A lagarta foi observada durante os meses de abril a novembro/2009 e de fevereiro a abril/2010, sendo constatados surtos mais severos nos meses de junho, setembro e novembro/2009, atingindo índices de até 80% de folhas danificadas. A planta invasora Solanum americanum (maria-pretinha, associada à cultura, é também hospedeira do inseto. Como inimigos naturais da lagarta, foram constatados o parasitoide Copidosoma truncatellum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae e o entomopatógeno Baculovirus sp.. Este é o primeiro registro da ocorrência de P. includens na cultura de maracujá-azedo.

  7. Factors Influencing Pyrethroid Resistance in a Permethrin-Selected Strain of the Soybean Looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas; Ottea; Boethel; Ibrahim

    1996-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxgenase activity toward p-nitroanisole was measured in larvae of three strains of soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), including a laboratory susceptible (S) strain, a resistant (R) strain selected for several generations with permethrin, and a nonselected (NS) strain from the same field collections as the R strain. Activity was significantly higher in R strain larvae than in the S and NS strains (1.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively), and there was no significant difference between activity in the S and NS strains. Resistance to the alpha-cyano pyrethroids deltamethrin and cypermethrin was similar to or higher than that observed with permethrin (RR = 70.0, 62.4, 145.3 and 12.1, 32.3, and 27.0 for permethrin, deltamethrin, and cypermethrin in R and NS strains, respectively). The R strain was less resistant (RR = 4.3) to tefluthrin, a pyrethroid with a fluorinated-phenyl alcohol moiety, and a nonester (ether) pyrethroid, BRC 429 (RR = 17.7). Piperonyl butoxide (PB) significantly increased the toxicity of each insecticide tested in the R and NS strains. In addition, penetration of 14C-cypermethrin was decreased significantly at 24 hr after treatment when R strain larvae were pretreated with PB, with 21.1% of the applied dose unpenetrated in PB-treated larvae and 7.6% unpenetrated in larvae not treated with PB.

  8. Analysis of the genetic diversity in Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker (Hemiptera, Aphididae by RAPD markers Análise da diversidade genética de Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker (Hemiptera, Aphididae por meio de marcadores RAPD

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    Marcelo Lopes-da-Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of host-races within aphids may constitute an obstacle to pest management by means of plant resistance. There are examples of host-races within cereals aphids, but their occurrence in Rose Grain Aphid, Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker, 1849, has not been reported yet. In this work, RAPD markers were used to assess effects of the hosts and geographic distance on the genetic diversity of M. dirhodum lineages. Twenty-three clones were collected on oats and wheat in twelve localitites of southern Brazil. From twenty-seven primers tested, only four primers showed polymorphisms. Fourteen different genotypes were revealed by cluster analysis. Five genotypes were collected only on wheat; seven only on oats and two were collected in both hosts. Genetic and geographical distances among all clonal lineages were not correlated. Analysis of molecular variance showed that some molecular markers are not randomly distributed among clonal lineages collected on oats and on wheat. These results suggest the existence of host-races within M. dirhodum, which should be further investigated using a combination of ecological and genetic data.A emergência de raças hospedeiro-especialistas em afídeos pode constituir um obstáculo ao manejo de pragas por meio de plantas resistentes. Existem exemplos de raças hospedeiro-especialistas em afídeos de cereais, embora a ocorrência de raça hospedeiro-especialista no pulgão-verde-pálido-do-trigo Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker, 1849 (Hemiptera, Aphididae não tenha sido relatada ainda. Marcadores RAPD foram utilizados para avaliar os efeitos da distância geográfica e do hospedeiro sobre a diversidade genética de linhas clonais de M. dirhodum. Vinte e três clones foram coletados em aveia e trigo em doze localidades do sul do Brasil. De vinte e sete iniciadores usados para a análise, apenas quatro iniciadores mostraram polimorfismos. A análise de agrupamento por similaridade genética revelou haver quatorze

  9. Dose-response relationship of physical activity to premature and total all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in walkers.

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    Paul T Williams

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the dose-response relationships between cause-specific mortality and exercise energy expenditure in a prospective epidemiological cohort of walkers. METHODS: The sample consisted of the 8,436 male and 33,586 female participants of the National Walkers' Health Study. Walking energy expenditure was calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs, 1 MET = 3.5 ml O2/kg/min, which were used to divide the cohort into four exercise categories: category 1 (≤ 1.07 MET-hours/d, category 2 (1.07 to 1.8 MET-hours/d, category 3 (1.8 to 3.6 MET-hours/d, and category 4 (≥ 3.6 MET-hours/d. Competing risk regression analyses were use to calculate the risk of mortality for categories 2, 3 and 4 relative to category 1. RESULTS: 22.9% of the subjects were in category 1, 16.1% in category 2, 33.3% in category 3, and 27.7% in category 4. There were 2,448 deaths during the 9.6 average years of follow-up. Total mortality was 11.2% lower in category 2 (P = 0.04, 32.4% lower in category 3 (P<10(-12 and 32.9% lower in category 4 (P = 10(-11 than in category 1. For underlying causes of death, the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 23.6% (P = 0.008, 35.2% (P<10(-5, and 34.9% (P = 0.0001 for cardiovascular disease mortality; 27.8% (P = 0.18, 20.6% (P = 0.07, and 31.4% (P = 0.009 for ischemic heart disease mortality; and 39.4% (P = 0.18, 63.8% (P = 0.005, and 90.6% (P = 0.002 for diabetes mortality when compared to category 1. For all related mortality (i.e., underlying and contributing causes of death combined, the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 18.7% (P = 0.22, 42.5% (P = 0.001, and 57.5% (P = 0.0001 for heart failure; 9.4% (P = 0.56, 44.3% (P = 0.0004, and 33.5% (P = 0.02 for hypertensive diseases; 11.5% (P = 0.38, 41.0% (P<10(-4, and 35.5% (P = 0.001 for dysrhythmias: and 23.2% (P = 0.13, 45.8% (P = 0.0002, and 41.1% (P

  10. Effect of four varieties of mulberry on biochemistry and nutritional physiology of mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    M. Oftadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of four mulberry varieties (Kenmochi, Ichinose, Shin Ichinose, Mahalii on nutritional indices and digestive proteolytic and amylolytic activities of Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae were determined at 24±1°C, 75±5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. Fifth instar larvae reared on Shin Ichinose showed the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (3.82±0.16% and 3.11±0.07%, respectively. Approximate digestibility values of the fourth instar larvae were highest (95.23±0.73% and lowest (91.77±1.45% on Kenmochi and Shin Ichinose, respectively. The fifth instar larvae fed on Kenmochi had the highest consumption index (4.6±0.73 and lowest relative growth rate (0.03±0.10, respectively. Our results showed that the highest protease activity in optimal pH was on Malalii variety (0.97 U/mg and the lowest was on Kenmochi (0.75 U/mg. In addition, the highest amylase activity in optimal pH was on Mahalii (0.17 U/mg and lowest on Kenmochi (0.103 U/mg. Specific proteolytic analysis showed that larvae feeding on Mahalii had the highest activity of trypsin and elastase (2.30 and 2.13 U/mg, respectively. This research showed that plasticity in food utilization and enzyme activity is functionally relevant to host plant cultivars. The results of nutritional indices and activity of digestive enzymes indicated that Kenmochi was an unsuitable host for feeding of Glyphodes pyloalis.

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial and allelopathic activity of Tunisian Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.WALKER essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Samia; Salah, Karima Bel Hadj; Elaissi, Ameur; Jlaiel, Lobna; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Aouni, Mahjoub; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2013-02-01

    Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.WALKER (Asteraceae) is a spontaneous annual herb, fairly widespread throughout Tunisia, which has rarely been studied or valued in any sector. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of different parts (flower heads, leaves, stems, and roots) of C. sumatrensis plants, which were collected in autumn (November 2007) at the flowering stage in the area of Monastir, Tunisia. In total, 98 compounds, representing 88.1-99.3% of the oil composition, were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was distinguished by its high content in acetylenes (matricaria ester, 4; 74.3%), while those from flower heads and leaves were dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (61.1 and 50.3%, resp.). The oils of C. sumatrensis from Tunisia belonged to a matricaria ester/caryophyllene oxide chemotype. All the oils were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, and allelopathic activities. The results indicate that the leaf oil exhibited significant in vitro antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Proteus mirabilis and that the C. sumatrensis oils isolated from the aerial parts presented high mycelia-growth inhibition of Candida albicans and the filamentous fungi tested. Moreover, the essential oils of the different plant parts inhibited the shoot and root growth of Raphanus sativus (radish) seedlings. Indeed, the inhibition of the hypocotyl growth varied from 28.6 to 90.1% and that of the radicle from 42.3 to 96.2%. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Salt Interval Velocities vs Latitude in the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico: Keathley Canyon and Walker Ridge Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, S.; Castagna, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    ABSTRACT A well log database of approximately 300 well logs from the Keathley Canyon and Walker Ridge areas of the Gulf of Mexico plus Mad Dog Field and Mission Deep Field in Green Canyon has been created for the purpose of building a geologically based 3D velocity model. While in the process of calibrating the finished velocity model, a scatter plot was made of all salt interval velocities versus latitude and an unexpected correlation was observed. Five different interval velocity zones have been identified with each having certain associated mineralogies within a latitude range. The salt interval velocity in the southern limits of the study area is higher than 15,000 ft/sec (4572 m/sec) due to the presence of gypsum. The northern most wells in the project area have anhydrite present inside the salt matrix such that their interval velocity can be as high as 18,535 ft/sec (5650 m/sec). In the mid-latitude zones, sylvite, siltstone, claystone, shale, tar and bitumen, with small traces of both anhydrite and gypsum, are found within the salt, yielding salt interval velocity variation from 14,388 ft/sec to 14,909 ft/sec (4386 m/sec to 4544 m/sec). The mineralogical content of the salt in each well was roughly estimated from mud logs and the corresponding interval velocities were determined from vertical seismic profiles, checkshot surveys, and sonic logs. Both geothermal gradients and overburden geopressure gradients between the mudline and the true vertical depth at well bottom calculated from this well database do not show the same correlation with latitude as the salt interval velocities. Mineralogical modeling of the salt composition using Hashin-Shtrikman bounds shows that these various inclusions within the salt matrix can be the cause of the observed variations in the salt interval velocities.

  13. Water intake and post-exercise cognitive performance: an observational study of long-distance walkers and runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefer, Martin D; Corfe, Bernard M; Russell, Jean M; Short, Richard; Barker, Margo E

    2013-03-01

    The impact of diet on endurance performance and cognitive function has been extensively researched in controlled settings, but there are limited observational data in field situations. This study examines relationships between nutrient intake and cognitive function following endurance exercise amongst a group of 33 recreational runners and walkers. All participants (mean age of 43.2 years) took part in a long-distance walking event and completed diet diaries to estimate nutrient intake across three-time periods (previous day, breakfast and during the event). Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Cognitive tests, covering word recall, ruler drop and trail making tests (TMT) A and B were conducted pre- and post-exercise. Participants rated their exercise level on a validated scale. Nutrient intake data were summarised using principal components analysis to identify a nutrient intake pattern loaded towards water intake across all time periods. Regression analysis was used to ascertain relationships between water intake component scores and post-exercise cognitive function, controlling for anthropometric measures and exercise metrics (distance, duration and pace). Participants rated their exercise as 'hard-heavy' (score 14.4, ±3.2). Scores on the water intake factor were associated with significantly faster TMT A (p = 0.001) and TMT B (p = 0.005) completion times, and a tendency for improved short-term memory (p = 0.090). Water intake scores were not associated with simple reaction time (assessed via the ruler drop test). These data are congruent with experimental research demonstrating a benefit of hydration on cognitive function. Further field research to confirm this relationship, supported with precise measures of body weight, is needed.

  14. Appearance of fetal posterior fossa at 11-14 weeks in fetuses with Dandy-Walker malformation or chromosomal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, P; Contro, E; Fanelli, T; Muto, B; Pilu, G; Gentile, M

    2016-06-01

    To describe the sonographic appearance of fetal posterior fossa anatomy at 11-14 weeks of pregnancy and to assess the outcome of fetuses with increased intracranial translucency (IT) and/or brainstem-to-occipital bone (BSOB) diameter. Reference ranges for brainstem (BS), IT and cisterna magna (CM) measurements, BSOB diameter and the BS : BSOB ratio were obtained from the first-trimester ultrasound examination of 233 fetuses with normal postnatal outcome (control group). The intraobserver and interobserver variability of measurements were investigated using 73 stored ultrasound images. In addition, a study group of 17 fetuses with increased IT and/or BSOB diameter was selected to assess outcome. No significant intraobserver or interobserver variability was found for any measurement in the control group. In the study group, IT was increased in all cases and BSOB diameter was above the 95(th) centile of the calculated normal range in all but two (88%) cases. In 13/17 study cases, only two of the three posterior brain spaces were recognized on ultrasound. These 13 fetuses had a larger BSOB diameter than did the four cases that showed all three posterior brain spaces, and had severe associated anomalies including Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and/or chromosomal anomalies. Visualization of the fetal posterior fossa anatomy at 11-14 weeks' gestation is feasible. Increased fluid in the posterior brain at 11-14 weeks, particularly in the case of non-visibility of the septation that divides the future fourth ventricle from the CM, is an important risk factor for cystic posterior fossa malformations, in particular DWM, and/or chromosomal aberrations. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The natural history of Dandy-Walker syndrome in the United States: A population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Shearwood; Ukwuoma, Onyinyechi I; Lunos, Scott; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2015-01-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a congenital disorder typically manifesting with hydrocephalus. The classic anatomic hallmarks of DWS are hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, anterior-posterior enlargement of the posterior fossa, upward displacement of the torcula and transverse sinuses, and cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. Although optimal treatment of DWS typically requires neurosurgical intervention to prevent intracranial pressure increases incompatible with life, the natural history of this disorder has yet to be evaluated on a nationwide level. The Kids' Inpatient Database covering 1997-2003 was used for analysis. Children younger than age 18 admitted for DWS (ICD-9-CM = 742.3) were analyzed with a matched control group. The primary procedure codes for operative CSF drainage were coded into the analysis. The incidence of DWS was 0.136%; 14,599 DWS patients were included. Multiple logistic regression models were used. Odds ratios (OR) were reported with 95% confidence intervals. Mortality (OR = 10.02; P < 0.0001) and adverse discharge disposition (OR = 4.59; P < 0.0001) were significantly greater in DWS patients compared with controls. 20.4% of DWS patients received operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, 81-times more than controls (P < 0.0001). CSF drainage reduced mortality by 44% among DWS patients (P < 0.0001). Although DWS is associated with a 10-fold increase in mortality, operative CSF drainage nearly halves the mortality rate. Based on these findings (Class IIB evidence), it is likely that the increased mortality associated with DWS is directly attributable to the nearly 80% of DWS patients who did not receive operative CSF drainage for hydrocephalus. Consequently, increased access to neurosurgical intervention could reduce the mortality rate of DWS towards that of the general population.

  16. The natural history of Dandy-Walker syndrome in the United States: A population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shearwood McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS is a congenital disorder typically manifesting with hydrocephalus. The classic anatomic hallmarks of DWS are hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, anterior-posterior enlargement of the posterior fossa, upward displacement of the torcula and transverse sinuses, and cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. Aims: Although optimal treatment of DWS typically requires neurosurgical intervention to prevent intracranial pressure increases incompatible with life, the natural history of this disorder has yet to be evaluated on a nationwide level. Settings and Design/Materials and Methods: The Kids′ Inpatient Database covering 1997-2003 was used for analysis. Children younger than age 18 admitted for DWS (ICD-9-CM = 742.3 were analyzed with a matched control group. The primary procedure codes for operative CSF drainage were coded into the analysis. The incidence of DWS was 0.136%; 14,599 DWS patients were included. Statistical Analysis Used: Multiple logistic regression models were used. Odds ratios (OR were reported with 95% confidence intervals. Results and Conclusions: Mortality (OR = 10.02; P < 0.0001 and adverse discharge disposition (OR = 4.59; P < 0.0001 were significantly greater in DWS patients compared with controls. 20.4% of DWS patients received operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF drainage, 81-times more than controls (P < 0.0001. CSF drainage reduced mortality by 44% among DWS patients (P < 0.0001. Although DWS is associated with a 10-fold increase in mortality, operative CSF drainage nearly halves the mortality rate. Based on these findings (Class IIB evidence, it is likely that the increased mortality associated with DWS is directly attributable to the nearly 80% of DWS patients who did not receive operative CSF drainage for hydrocephalus. Consequently, increased access to neurosurgical intervention could reduce the mortality rate of DWS towards that of the general population.

  17. A deletion in the VLDLR gene in Eurasier dogs with cerebellar hypoplasia resembling a Dandy-Walker-like malformation (DWLM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gerber

    Full Text Available Dandy-Walker-like malformation (DWLM is the result of aberrant brain development and mainly characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia. DWLM affected dogs display a non-progressive cerebellar ataxia. Several DWLM cases were recently observed in the Eurasier dog breed, which strongly suggested a monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance in this breed. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS with 9 cases and 11 controls and found the best association of DWLM with markers on chromosome 1. Subsequent homozygosity mapping confirmed that all 9 cases were homozygous for a shared haplotype in this region, which delineated a critical interval of 3.35 Mb. We sequenced the genome of an affected Eurasier and compared it with the Boxer reference genome and 47 control genomes of dogs from other breeds. This analysis revealed 4 private non-synonymous variants in the critical interval of the affected Eurasier. We genotyped these variants in additional dogs and found perfect association for only one of these variants, a single base deletion in the VLDLR gene encoding the very low density lipoprotein receptor. This variant, VLDLR:c.1713delC is predicted to cause a frameshift and premature stop codon (p.W572Gfs*10. Variants in the VLDLR gene have been shown to cause congenital cerebellar ataxia and mental retardation in human patients and Vldlr knockout mice also display an ataxia phenotype. Our combined genetic data together with the functional knowledge on the VLDLR gene from other species thus strongly suggest that VLDLR:c.1713delC is indeed causing DWLM in Eurasier dogs.

  18. A deletion in the VLDLR gene in Eurasier dogs with cerebellar hypoplasia resembling a Dandy-Walker-like malformation (DWLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Martina; Fischer, Andrea; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Michaela; Drögemüller, Cord; Schmidt, Martin J; Bernardino, Filipa; Manz, Eberhard; Matiasek, Kaspar; Rentmeister, Kai; Leeb, Tosso

    2015-01-01

    Dandy-Walker-like malformation (DWLM) is the result of aberrant brain development and mainly characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia. DWLM affected dogs display a non-progressive cerebellar ataxia. Several DWLM cases were recently observed in the Eurasier dog breed, which strongly suggested a monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance in this breed. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 9 cases and 11 controls and found the best association of DWLM with markers on chromosome 1. Subsequent homozygosity mapping confirmed that all 9 cases were homozygous for a shared haplotype in this region, which delineated a critical interval of 3.35 Mb. We sequenced the genome of an affected Eurasier and compared it with the Boxer reference genome and 47 control genomes of dogs from other breeds. This analysis revealed 4 private non-synonymous variants in the critical interval of the affected Eurasier. We genotyped these variants in additional dogs and found perfect association for only one of these variants, a single base deletion in the VLDLR gene encoding the very low density lipoprotein receptor. This variant, VLDLR:c.1713delC is predicted to cause a frameshift and premature stop codon (p.W572Gfs*10). Variants in the VLDLR gene have been shown to cause congenital cerebellar ataxia and mental retardation in human patients and Vldlr knockout mice also display an ataxia phenotype. Our combined genetic data together with the functional knowledge on the VLDLR gene from other species thus strongly suggest that VLDLR:c.1713delC is indeed causing DWLM in Eurasier dogs.

  19. Baby walker injury, disability, and death in a high-income middle eastern country, as reported by siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barss, Peter; Grivna, Michal; Al-Hanaee, Amna; Al-Dhahab, Ayesha; Al-Kaabi, Fatima; Al-Muhairi, Shamma

    2016-12-01

    Baby walkers (BWs) are frequent causes of infant injuries. Little research is reported from the Middle East and few population-based studies anywhere. Using multistage random sampling in a city of the United Arab Emirates, 4 of 8 female Arab government high schools and 3 final-year classes each from science and arts tracks were selected. Structured self-administered questionnaires assessed prevalence, frequency, severity, and external causes of BW incidents and injuries, and residential hazards. Response was 100 %, 696 students, 55 % (n = 385) Emirati citizens. 87 % (n = 605) of families used/had used BWs. Among 646 injuries were 118 ER (emergency) visits, 42 hospitalizations, 11 disabilities, and 3 deaths. Average risk was 1 incident/user, 1 injury/4 users, 1 ER visit/20, 1 hospitalization/55, 1 disability/200, 1 death/1000. Odds ratios for >1:1 floor levels were 2.3 (95 % confidence interval: 1.2, 4.3) for hospitalization, 16.8 (95 % CI: 2.1, 132.5) disability. Incidents included hitting objects 48 % (n = 1322), overturning 23 % (n = 632), accessing hazardous objects 17 % (n = 473), and falling down stairs 11 % (n = 300); 1 % (n = 32) fell into swimming pools. In 49 % (n = 297/605) of user families, ≥1 child had been injured. Despite causing many injuries including disabilities and fatalities, BWs were used by nearly all families. Governments should consider Canada's lead in prohibiting importation, sales, and advertising of BWs.

  20. Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterisation of a tyramine receptor from the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Tyramine (TA) and octopamine (OA) are considered to be the invertebrate counterparts of the vertebrate adrenergic transmitters. Because these two phenolamines are the only biogenic amines whose physiological significance is presumably restricted to invertebrates, the attention of pharmacologists has been focused on the corresponding receptors, which are believed to represent promising targets for novel insecticides. For example, the formamidine pesticides, such as chlordimeform and amitraz, have been shown to activate OA receptors. A full-length cDNA (designated CsTyR1) from the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), has been obtained through homology cloning in combination with rapid amplification of cDNA ends/polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The mRNA of CsTyR1 is present in various tissues, including hemocytes, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, nerve cord and epidermis, and it is found predominantly in the larval nerve cord with 16-80-fold enrichment compared with other tissues. The authors generated a HEK 293 cell line stably expressing CsTyR1 in order to examine functional and pharmacological properties of this receptor. Both TA and OA at 0.01-100 µM can reduce forskolin-stimulated intracellular cAMP levels in a dose-dependent manner (TA, EC(50) = 369 nM; OA, EC(50) = 978 nM). In agonist assays, activation of CsTyR1 by clonidine and amitraz but not by naphazoline and chlordimeform can also significantly inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. The inhibitory effect of TA at 10 µM is eliminated by coincubation with yohimbine, phentolamine or chlorpromazine (each 10 µM). This study represents a comprehensive molecular and pharmacological characterisation of a tyramine receptor in the rice stem borer. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The colonization of carrion by soldier fly, Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in a tropical forest in Malaysia: a new potential species for minimum PMI estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Omar, B

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the colonization of the stratiomyid species Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in monkey carrion and its potential for the determination of the minimum time since death (PMI). A study was conducted in a tropical forest at Bangi, Malaysia from 13 November 2009 to 8 June 2011. Twelve monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were used and divided in equal number into three different field trials. Adults of P. melanurus were first observed on monkey carrions on the second day the carcasses were placed in the field while their penultimate instar larvae were found in the wet soil under and beside carcass from day 8 to 31 days postmortem.

  2. Distribuição espacial e plano de amostragem sequencial de Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), em dois sistemas de plantio de soja

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Jaqueline Zanon de [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    O controle de pragas da soja representa até 36,50% do custo de produção. As lagartas desfolhadoras podem comprometer a produção de soja causando desfolhas de até 100%. A dificuldade de controle, associada ao aumento populacional e seriedade dos danos causados colocam a subfamília Plusiinae em destaque nacional, sendo mais abundante a espécie Pseudoplusia includens (Walker). Portanto, objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a distribuição espacial da P. includens em dois sistemas de cultivo de ...

  3. The relationship of walking intensity to total and cause-specific mortality. Results from the National Walkers' Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Williams

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Test whether: 1 walking intensity predicts mortality when adjusted for walking energy expenditure, and 2 slow walking pace (≥24-minute mile identifies subjects at substantially elevated risk for mortality. METHODS: Hazard ratios from Cox proportional survival analyses of all-cause and cause-specific mortality vs. usual walking pace (min/mile in 7,374 male and 31,607 female recreational walkers. Survival times were left censored for age at entry into the study. Other causes of death were treated as a competing risk for the analyses of cause-specific mortality. All analyses were adjusted for sex, education, baseline smoking, prior heart attack, aspirin use, diet, BMI, and walking energy expenditure. Deaths within one year of baseline were excluded. RESULTS: The National Death Index identified 1968 deaths during the average 9.4-year mortality surveillance. Each additional minute per mile in walking pace was associated with an increased risk of mortality due to all causes (1.8% increase, P=10(-5, cardiovascular diseases (2.4% increase, P=0.001, 637 deaths, ischemic heart disease (2.8% increase, P=0.003, 336 deaths, heart failure (6.5% increase, P=0.001, 36 deaths, hypertensive heart disease (6.2% increase, P=0.01, 31 deaths, diabetes (6.3% increase, P=0.004, 32 deaths, and dementia (6.6% increase, P=0.0004, 44 deaths. Those reporting a pace slower than a 24-minute mile were at increased risk for mortality due to all-causes (44.3% increased risk, P=0.0001, cardiovascular diseases (43.9% increased risk, P=0.03, and dementia (5.0-fold increased risk, P=0.0002 even though they satisfied the current exercise recommendations by walking ≥7.5 metabolic equivalent (MET-hours per week. CONCLUSIONS: The risk for mortality: 1 decreases in association with walking intensity, and 2 increases substantially in association for walking pace ≥24 minute mile (equivalent to <400 m during a six-minute walk test even among subjects who exercise regularly.

  4. Late quaternary slip-rate variations along the Warm Springs Valley fault system, northern Walker Lane, California-Nevada border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan; dePolo, Craig; Briggs, Richard W.; Crone, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which faults exhibit temporally varying slip rates has important consequences for models of fault mechanics and probabilistic seismic hazard. Here, we explore the temporal behavior of the dextral‐slip Warm Springs Valley fault system, which is part of a network of closely spaced (10–20 km) faults in the northern Walker Lane (California–Nevada border). We develop a late Quaternary slip record for the fault using Quaternary mapping and high‐resolution topographic data from airborne Light Distance and Ranging (LiDAR). The faulted Fort Sage alluvial fan (40.06° N, 119.99° W) is dextrally displaced 98+42/-43 m, and we estimate the age of the alluvial fan to be 41.4+10.0/-4.8 to 55.7±9.2  ka, based on a terrestrial cosmogenic 10Be depth profile and 36Cl analyses on basalt boulders, respectively. The displacement and age constraints for the fan yield a slip rate of 1.8 +0.8/-0.8 mm/yr to 2.4 +1.2/-1.1 mm/yr (2σ) along the northern Warm Springs Valley fault system for the past 41.4–55.7 ka. In contrast to this longer‐term slip rate, shorelines associated with the Sehoo highstand of Lake Lahontan (~15.8  ka) adjacent to the Fort Sage fan are dextrally faulted at most 3 m, which limits a maximum post‐15.8 ka slip rate to 0.2  mm/yr. These relations indicate that the post‐Lahontan slip rate on the fault is only about one‐tenth the longer‐term (41–56 ka) average slip rate. This apparent slip‐rate variation may be related to co‐dependent interaction with the nearby Honey Lake fault system, which shows evidence of an accelerated period of mid‐Holocene earthquakes.

  5. Assessing Methane Migration Mechanisms at Walker Ridge, Gulf of Mexico, via 3D Methane Hydrate Reservoir Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nole, M.; Daigle, H.; Mohanty, K. K.; Hillman, J. I. T.; Cook, A.

    2015-12-01

    We employ a 3D methane hydrate reservoir simulator to model marine methane hydrate systems. Our simulator couples highly nonlinear heat and mass transport equations and includes heterogeneous sedimentation, in-situ organic methanogenesis, and the influences of both pore size contrast and salt exclusion from the hydrate phase on solubility gradients. Using environmental parameters of Walker Ridge, Gulf of Mexico, we first simulate hydrate formation in and around a thin, dipping, planar sand stratum surrounded by clay lithology as it is buried to 295mbsf. With sufficient methane supplied by methanogenesis in the clays, a 200x sand-clay pore size contrast allows for a strong enough concentration gradient to significantly drop the concentration of hydrate in clays immediately surrounding a thin sand, a phenomenon observed in corresponding well log data. Building upon previous work, our simulations account for a depth-wise increase in sand-clay solubility contrast from about 1.6% near the seafloor to 8.6% at depth, progressively strengthening the diffusive flux of methane with time. An exponentially decaying methanogenesis input to the clay lithology decreases the methane supplied to clays surrounding the sand layer with time, further enhancing the sand-clay hydrate saturation contrast. Significant diffusive methane transport occurs in a clay interval of about 11m above the sand and 4m below it, matching well log observations. Clay-sand pore size contrast alone is not enough to create hydrate-free zones seen in logs, because the corresponding diffusive methane flux is slower than the rate at which methanogenesis supplies methane. Therefore, it is likely that additional mechanisms are at play, notably bound water activity reduction in clays. Three-dimensionality allows for inclusion of lithologic heterogeneities, which focus flow and allow for heterogeneity in locally dominant methane migration mechanisms. Incorporating recent 3D seismic data to inform the model

  6. Dandy-Walker Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Barré Syndrome Information Page Headache Information Page Hemicrania Continua Information Page Hemifacial Spasm Information Page Hereditary Spastic ... the Spotlight Find NINDS Clinical Trials Patient & Caregiver Education Fact Sheets Hope Through Research Know Your Brain ...

  7. Clustering of velocities in a GPS network spanning the Sierra Nevada Block, the northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The deformation across the Sierra Nevada Block, the Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) between 38.5°N and 40.5°N has been analyzed by clustering GPS velocities to identify coherent blocks. Cluster analysis determines the number of clusters required and assigns the GPS stations to the proper clusters. The clusters are shown on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. Four significant clusters are identified. Those clusters are strips separated by (from west to east) the Mohawk Valley-Genoa fault system, the Pyramid Lake-Wassuk fault system, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. The strain rates within the westernmost three clusters approximate simple right-lateral shear (~13 nstrain/a) across vertical planes roughly parallel to the cluster boundaries. Clustering does not recognize the longitudinal segmentation of the Walker Lane Belt into domains dominated by either northwesterly trending, right-lateral faults or northeasterly trending, left-lateral faults.

  8. Linkage to chromosome 2q36.1 in autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation with occipital cephalocele and evidence for genetic heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Ali; Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Chary, Ajit; Mclone, David G.; Bowman, Robin M.; Le, Luan Cong; Jardine, Phillip; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Mallick, Andrew; Jafari, Nadereh; Russell, Eric J.; Curran, John; Nguyen, Pam; Ouahchi, Karim; Lee, Charles; Dobyns, William B.; Millen, Kathleen J.; Pina-Neto, Joao M.; Kessler, John A.; Bassuk, Alexander G.

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported a Vietnamese-American family with isolated autosomal dominant occipital cephalocele. Upon further neuroimaging studies, we have recharacterized this condition as autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker with occipital cephalocele (ADDWOC). A similar ADDWOC family from Brazil was also recently described. To determine the genetic etiology of ADDWOC, we performed genome-wide linkage analysis on members of the Vietnamese-American and Brazilian pedigrees. Linkage analysis of the Vietnamese-American family identified the ADDWOC causative locus on chromosome 2q36.1 with a multipoint parametric LOD score of 3.3, while haplotype analysis refined the locus to 1.1 Mb. Sequencing of the five known genes in this locus did not identify any protein-altering mutations. However, a terminal deletion of chromosome 2 in a patient with an isolated case of Dandy-Walker malformation also encompassed the 2q36.1 chromosomal region. The Brazilian pedigree did not show linkage to this 2q36.1 region. Taken together, these results demonstrate a locus for ADDWOC on 2q36.1 and also suggest locus heterogeneity for ADDWOC. PMID:18204864

  9. Multivariate volume rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  10. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  11. Exploring Western and Eastern Pacific contributions to the 21st century Walker circulation intensification and teleconnected precipitation declines (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C. C.; Hoerling, M. P.; Hoell, A.; Verdin, J. P.; Robertson, F. R.; Alured, D.; Liebmann, B.

    2013-12-01

    presented. These results suggest that a substantial component of the recent Walker circulation intensification has been related to the IWPWS. The IWPWS warming extends from just north of Papua New Guinea to just west of Hawaii, and appears associated with SLP, wind and rainfall responses consistent with enhanced Indo-Pacific convection. These decomposition results are compared with a set of numerical simulation experiments based on the ECHAM5 and GFS models forced with characteristic IWP and EP SST for 1983-1996 and 1999-2012. The talk concludes with a tentative discussion of the decadal predictability associated with the IWPWS. Using both observed and model-simulated precipitation, we briefly explore potential IWPWS drought teleconnection regions in the Americas, Asia, Middle East, and Eastern Africa. Figure 1. Western Pacific and Eastern Pacific SST changes between 1999-2012 and 1983-1996. Figure 2. Western Pacific and Eastern Pacific GPCP precipitation changes between 1999-2012 and 1983-1996.

  12. Structural and Stratigraphic Controls on Methane Hydrate occurrence and distribution: Gulf of Mexico, Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Priyank [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this project was to determine structural and stratigraphic controls on hydrate occurrence and distribution in Green Canyon (GC) 955 and Walker Ridge (WR) 313 blocks using seismic and well data. Gas hydrate was discovered in these blocks in coarse- and fine-grained sediments during the 2009 Joint Industrial project (JIP) Leg 11 drilling expedition. Although the immediate interest of the exploration community is exclusively hydrate which is present in coarse–grained sediments, factors that control hydrate and free gas distribution in the two blocks and whether coarse and fine-grained hydrate-bearing units are related in any manner, formed the core of this research. The project spanned from 10/01/2012 to 07/31/2016. In the project, in both the leased blocks, the interval spanning the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) was characterized using a joint analysis of sparse Ocean Bottom Seismic (OBS) and dense, surface–towed multichannel seismic (MCS) data. The project team had the luxury of calibrating their results with two well logs. Advance processing methods such as depth migration and full-waveform inversion (FWI) were used for seismic data analysis. Hydrate quantification was achieved through interpretation of the FWI velocity field using appropriate rock physics models at both blocks. The seismic modeling/inversion methodology (common to both GC955 and WR313 blocks) was as follows. First, the MCS data were depth migrated using a P-wave velocity (VP) model constructed using inversion of reflection arrival times of a few (four in both cases) key horizons carefully picked in the OBS data to farthest possible offsets. Then, the resolution of the traveltime VP model was improved to wavelength scale by inverting OBS gathers up to the highest frequency possible (21.75 Hz for GC955 and 17.5 for WR313) using FWI. Finally, the hydrate saturation (or the volume fraction) was estimated at the well location assuming one of the other hydrate morphology (filling the

  13. Assessment of Prey Preference by the Generalist Predator, Mallada basalis (Walker), When Offered Two Species of Spider Mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) on Papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated potential prey preference of the generalist predator Mallada basalis (Walker) when offered two mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor), both important pests on papaya. Laboratory choice tests revealed that none of the three larval instars of M. basalis sho...

  14. Dandy-Walker complex in a boy with a 5 Mb deletion of region 1q44 due to a paternal t(1;20)(q44;q13.33).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, M.; Kroes, H.Y.; Wijst, S.E. van der; Eleveld, M.J.; Rooms, L.; Nievelstein, R.A.; Olde Weghuis, D.E.M.; Vreuls, R.C.; Hageman, G.; Kooy, F.; Hochstenbach, R.

    2007-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy with vermis hypoplasia, dilatation of the fourth ventricle, enlarged cisterna magna and aplasia of the corpus callosum, consistent with the Dandy-Walker complex (DWC), and slight facial dysmorphisms, severe motor and mental retardation is presented. By combining data obtained by

  15. Ultrasound diagnosis of central nervous system anomalies (bifid choroid plexus, ventriculomegaly, Dandy-Walker malformation) associated with multicystic dysplastic kidney disease in a trisomy 9 fetus: case report with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, Gabriele; Grisolia, Giampaolo

    2013-09-01

    Trisomy 9 is a lethal chromosomal abnormality that rarely progresses beyond the second trimester of pregnancy. Multiple central nervous system anomalies, including bifid choroid plexus, ventriculomegaly, and Dandy-Walker malformation, associated with multicystic dysplastic kidney disease in a trisomy 9 fetus are reported. The prenatal ultrasound diagnosis has been aided by novel three-dimensional ultrasound software. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Additional case of Marden-Walker syndrome: support for the autosomal-recessive inheritance adn refinement of phenotype in a surviving patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrico, A; Galli, L; Zappella, M; Orsi, A; Hayek, G

    2001-02-01

    In this report, we present a 14-year-old girl, born to consanguineous parents, who presented with severe mental retardation, hypotonia, short stature, and congenital joint contractures. The craniofacial features were scaphocephaly, thin/long and immobile face, marked hypoplasia of the midface, temporal narrowness, blepharophimosis, palpebral ptosis, and strabismus. The combination of such a distinctive craniofacial appearance and psychomotor retardation allows us to recognize a new case of the Marden-Walker syndrome. Our patient represents one of the rare cases in which consanguineous mating supports the autosomal-recessive pattern of inheritance of this condition. Furthermore, through refining the phenotype of a surviving patient, this report may contribute to a better recognition of this disorder in older affected children.

  17. Potential indicator species of climate changes occurring in Québec, Part 1: the small brown lacewing fly Micromus posticus (Walker (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent LeSage

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromus posticus (Walker is a small brown lacewing fly rarely collected in Canada and represented in collections by only a limited number of specimens. Indeed, fewer than 50 specimens were captured in Québec and Ontario over the last century, all within a small area delimited by the northern shore of Lake Erie, Ottawa and Montréal. Aylmer, located on the north shore of the Ottawa River, northwest of Ottawa, is a new, most southwestern locality record of this species for Québec. The Aylmer specimens were collected 1-7 days later than any of the known specimens collected elsewhere in Québec or in Ontario, and 16-22 days later than in the neighbouring localities, indicating an apparent phenological shift.

  18. Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae, New Host Plants to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Pires

    2014-04-01

    Resumo. Coleus barbatus Benth e Ocimum basilicum L. são espécies de plantas comumente utilizadas com fins medicinais e gastronômicos, respectivamente. Lagartas do gênero Spodoptera são generalistas devido à ampla variedade de plantas que utilizam como recurso alimentar. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi registrar a ocorrência de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brasil, e ainda, relatar C. barbatus e O. basilicum como potenciais plantas hospedeiras para esta espécie de inseto. Recomenda-se ainda a inclusão de S. cosmioides em monitoramentos visando o Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP nestas plantas.

  19. Extracellular matrix and nuclear abnormalities in skeletal muscle of a patient with Walker-Warburg syndrome caused by POMT1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatelli, Patrizia; Columbaro, Marta; Mura, Isabella; Capanni, Cristina; Lattanzi, Giovanna; Maraldi, Nadir M; Beltràn-Valero de Barnabè, Daniel; van Bokoven, Hans; Squarzoni, Stefano; Merlini, Luciano

    2003-05-20

    Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital muscular dystrophy, structural eye abnormalities and severe brain malformations. We performed an immunohistochemical and electron microscopy study of a muscle biopsy from a patient affected by WWS carrying a homozygous frameshift mutation in O-mannosyltransferase 1 gene (POMT1). alpha-Dystroglycan glycosylated epitope was not detected in muscle fibers and intramuscular peripheral nerves. Laminin alpha2 chain and perlecan were reduced in muscle fibers and well preserved in intramuscular peripheral nerves. The basal lamina in several muscle fibers showed discontinuities and detachment from the plasmalemma. Most nuclei, including myonuclei and satellite cell nuclei, showed detachment or complete absence of peripheral heterochromatin from the nuclear envelope. Apoptotic changes were detected in 3% of muscle fibers. The particular combination of basal lamina and nuclear changes may suggest that a complex pathogenetic mechanism, affecting several subcellular compartments, underlies the degenerative process in WWS muscle.

  20. Severe intellectual disability, West syndrome, Dandy-Walker malformation, and syndactyly in a patient with partial tetrasomy 17q25.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmann, Karl; Stadler, Anja; Schallner, Jens; Franke, Kathlen; Gerlach, Eva-Maria; Schrock, Evelin; Rump, Andreas; Fauth, Christine; Tinschert, Sigrid; Oexle, Konrad

    2013-12-01

    We report on a de novo 0.5 Mb triplication (partial tetrasomy) of chromosome 17q25.3 in a 10-year-old girl with severe intellectual disability, infantile seizures (West syndrome), moderate hearing loss, Dandy-Walker malformation, microcephaly, craniofacial dysmorphism, striking cutaneous syndactyly (hands 3-4, feet 2-3), joint laxity, and short stature. The triplication resulted from the unusual combination of a terminal duplication at 17qter and a cryptic translocation of an extra copy of the same segment onto chromosome 10qter. The breakpoint at 17q25.3 was located within the FOXK2 gene. SNP chip analysis suggested that the rearrangement occurred during paternal meiosis involving both paternal chromosomes 17. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Intravenous Sedation and Repeated "the Same Day General Anesthesia" for a School-age Boy with Dandy-Walker Syndrome and Dentinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Masanori; Fujiwara, Shigeki; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is characterized by perfect or partial defect of the cerebellum vermis and cystic dilatation of the posterior fossa communicating with the fourth ventricle. Common clinical signs are mental retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and those of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Associated congenital anomalies are craniofacial, cardiac, renal, and skeletal abnormalities. We experienced a case of intravenous sedation and six times of "the same day" general anesthesia for a school-aged boy (10-13 years old) with DWS and hypodentinogenesis. The patient underwent an examination and dental treatments. We had to pay attention to airway management tracheal tube selection and control of ICP. In addition, we should prevent tooth injuries through mishaps during tracheal intubations, since all-tooth-hypoplasia with fragile dental crowns was strongly suggested in this case. Detailed postoperative care is also required for general anesthesia afflicted with DWS.

  2. Walker 256 tumour cells increase substance P immunoreactivity locally and modify the properties of the blood-brain barrier during extravasation and brain invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kate M; Harford-Wright, Elizabeth; Vink, Robert; Nimmo, Alan J; Ghabriel, Mounir N

    2013-01-01

    It is not yet known how tumour cells traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to form brain metastases. Substance P (SP) release is a key component of neurogenic inflammation which has been recently shown to increase the permeability of the BBB following CNS insults, making it a possible candidate as a mediator of tumour cell extravasation into the brain. This study investigated the properties of the BBB in the early stages of tumour cell invasion into the brain, and the possible involvement of SP. Male Wistar rats were injected with Walker 256 breast carcinoma cells via the internal carotid artery and euthanised at 1, 3, 6 and 9 days post tumour inoculation. Culture medium-injected animals served as controls at 1 and 9 days. Evidence of tumour cell extravasation across the BBB was first observed at 3 days post-inoculation, which corresponded with significantly increased albumin (p tumoral area (p cerebral metastases may be a SP-mediated process.

  3. Assessment of forearm and plantar foot load in the elderly using a four-wheeled walker with armrest and the effect of armrest height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko CY

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chang-Yong Ko,* Sol-Bi Kim,* Hyuk-Jae Choi, Yunhee Chang, Sungjae Kang, Yoon Heo, Jeicheong Ryu, Gyoosuk Kim, Museong Mun Korea Orthopedics and Rehabilitation Research Center, Incheon, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Patients with hand and/or wrist pathology are recommended to have a four-wheeled walker with an arm rest (FWW-AR rather than a standard walker or a standard four-wheeled walker (FWW. However, only a few quantitative studies have been performed to compare upper and lower extremity weight bearing. The aim of this study was to evaluate forearm and foot weight bearing using a FWW-AR and the effect of the armrest height.Methods: Eleven elderly women (mean age 80.1±5.3 years; mean height 148.5±4.0 cm; mean weight 51.2±9.0 kg were enrolled. The subjects walked with an FWW-AR, with the elbow in either 90 degree (D90 or 130 degree (D130 flexion, for a distance of 10 m. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded for the upper, middle, and lower trapezius, anterior deltoid, and erector spinae muscles; walking velocity was measured with the subjects weight bearing on their feet and forearms while walking. Simultaneously, the maximum plantar and forearm loads during walking with an FWW-AR were measured.Results: The normalized foot plantar loads were lower at D90 than at D130, while the normalized forearm load was higher at D90 than at D130 (all P<0.05; left foot, 7.9±0.1 N/kg versus 8.8±0.1 N/kg; right foot, 8.6±0.2 N/kg versus. 9.6±0.1 N/kg; left forearm, 1.8±0.5 N/kg versus 0.8±0.2 N/kg; and right forearm, 2.0±0.5 N/kg versus 1.0±0.2 N/kg, respectively. The surface electromyographic activity of the muscles involved in shoulder elevation and the walking velocity were both lower with the elbow at D90 than at D130 (all P<0.05; left upper trapezius, 98.7%±19.5% versus 132.6%±16.9%; right upper trapezius, 83.4%±10.6% versus 108.1%±10.5%; left anterior deltoid, 94.1%±12.8% versus 158.6%

  4. Level-Ground Walking for 3D Quasi-Passive Walker with Flat Feet - Lateral-plane Input using McKibben-Type Artificial Muscle -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many bipedal robots have been proposed to realize the high energy efficiency walking. The passive dynamic walking does not require control input. Generally, a foot of passive dynamic walking robot is an arc foot. In this paper, it is intended to establish a control method and control mechanism to achieve energy efficient and stable gate. Therefore, we developed 3D quasi-passive walker with flat feet driven by an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle. An antagonistic mechanism is constituted by a pair of McKibben muscle. And an antagonistic pneumatic system is used as joint actuators of linkage mechanisms which control the torque, joint stiffness and position simultaneously. Finally, this report shows that the 3D quasi-passive walking in the level ground can realize by the swinging (simple input of the frontal direction, and the stride of the robot is proportional to lateral-plane input.

  5. Role of female-produced sex pheromone in behavioral reproductive isolation betweenTrichoplusia ni (Hübner) andPseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, plusiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, P J; Heath, R R

    1987-05-01

    In laboratory flight tunnel bioassays, response rates of male cabbage looper,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), to female soybean looper,Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), were similar to response rates of maleT. ni to conspecific females for plume tracking and source contact. Male soybean loopers, however, exhibited a greatly reduced response to female cabbage loopers compared to conspecific females. Similar differences were observed in male responses to extracts of female abdominal tips. Studies of flight tunnel responses of male soybean loopers to the different chemicals known to be components of the female cabbage looper sex pheromone indicated that the reduction in response was due to inhibitory effects of (Z)-5-dodecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, when added singly to (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol acetate (major component of both species) at release rates and at ratios close to those observed in female cabbage loopers.

  6. Radiographic and functional results in the treatment of early stages of Charcot neuroarthropathy with a walker boot and immediate weight bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Ribeiro Parisi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common gold standards for the treatment of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN in the early Eichenholtz stages I and II is immobilization with the total contact casting and lower limb offloading. However, the total amount of offloading is still debatable. Objectives: This study evaluates the clinical and radiographic findings in the treatment of early stages of CN (Eichenholtz stages I and II with a walker boot and immediate total weight-bearing status. Methods: Twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and CN of Eichenholtz stages I and II were selected for non-operative treatment. All patients were educated about their condition, and full weight bearing was allowed as tolerated. Patients were monitored on a fortnightly basis in the earlier stages, with clinical examination, temperature measurement, and standardized weight-bearing radiographs. Their American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS scores were determined before and after the treatment protocol. Results: No cutaneous ulcerations or infections were observed in the evaluated cases. The mean measured angles at the beginning and end of the study, although showing relative increase, did not present a statistically significant difference (p > 0.05. Mean AOFAS scores showed a statistically significant improvement by the end of the study (p < 0.005. Conclusion: The treatment of early stages of CN (Eichenholtz stages I and II with emphasis on walker boot and immediate weight bearing has shown a good functional outcome, non-progressive deformity on radiographic assessment, and promising results as a safe treatment option.

  7. A decentralized modular control framework for robust control of FES-activated walker-assisted paraplegic walking using terminal sliding mode and fuzzy logic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoukar, Vahab; Erfanian, Abbas

    2012-10-01

    A major challenge to developing functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems for paraplegic walking and widespread acceptance of these systems is the design of a robust control strategy that provides satisfactory tracking performance. The systems need to be robust against time-varying properties of neuromusculoskeletal dynamics, day-to-day variations, subject-to-subject variations, external disturbances, and must be easily applied without requiring offline identification during different experimental sessions. Another major problem related to walker-assisted FES-activated walking concerns the high metabolic rate and upper body effort that limit the clinical applications of FES systems. In this paper, we present a novel decentralized modular control framework for robust control of walker-assisted FES-activated walking. For each muscle-joint dynamics, an independent module control is designed, and the dynamics of the plant are identified online. This process requires no prior knowledge about the dynamics of the plant to be controlled and no offline learning phase. The module is based on adaptive fuzzy terminal sliding mode control and fuzzy logic control. The module control adjusts both pulse-amplitude and pulsewidth of the stimulation signal in such a way that upper body effort is minimized and the lower extremity walking pattern lies within a defined boundary of the reference trajectory. The proposed control strategy has been evaluated on three paraplegic subjects. The results showed that accurate tracking performance and smooth walking pattern were achieved. This favorable performance was obtained without requiring offline identification, manual adjustments, and predefined ON/OFF timing of the muscles.

  8. Tumor growth reduction is regulated at the gene level in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats supplemented with fish oil rich in EPA and DHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, G.; Yamazaki, R.K.; Coelho, I.; Pequito, D.C.T.; Schiessel, D.L.; Kryczyk, M.; Mamus, R.; Naliwaiko, K.; Fernandes, L.C. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-08-23

    We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation on tumor growth, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and RelA gene and protein expression in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Male Wistar rats (70 days old) were fed with regular chow (group W) or chow supplemented with 1 g/kg body weight FO daily (group WFO) until they reached 100 days of age. Both groups were then inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 ascitic tumor cells (3×10{sup 7} cells/mL). After 14 days the rats were killed, total RNA was isolated from the tumor tissue, and relative mRNA expression was measured using the 2{sup -ΔΔCT} method. FO significantly decreased tumor growth (W=13.18±1.58 vs WFO=5.40±0.88 g, P<0.05). FO supplementation also resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 (W=100.1±1.62 vs WFO=59.39±5.53, P<0.001) and PPARγ (W=100.4±1.04 vs WFO=88.22±1.46, P<0.05) protein expression. Relative mRNA expression was W=1.06±0.022 vs WFO=0.31±0.04 (P<0.001) for COX-2, W=1.08±0.02 vs WFO=0.52±0.08 (P<0.001) for PPARγ, and W=1.04±0.02 vs WFO=0.82±0.04 (P<0.05) for RelA. FO reduced tumor growth by attenuating inflammatory gene expression associated with carcinogenesis.

  9. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy with/without choroid plexus cauterization for hydrocephalus due to hemorrhage, infection, Dandy-Walker malformation, and neural tube defect: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandian, Anthony; Haffner, Matthew; Johnson, James; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-04-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a viable alternative to CSF shunting in hydrocephalic patients and is used with varying degrees of success dependent on age and etiology. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to analyze data on ETV and ETV/CPC (choroid plexus cauterization) outcomes in hopes of providing a clear understanding of their limitations in patients with hydrocephalus due to hemorrhage, infection, Dandy-Walker malformation, or neural tube disorders. An extensive PubMed search dating back 11 years was performed on primary ETV or ETV/CPC procedures for hydrocephalus due to infection, hemorrhage, neural tube defects, and Dandy-Walker malformation. ETV success was defined as no intraoperative or post-operative complications and no need for revision surgery at follow-up. Ten studies were identified for analysis. The data represent 534 patients undergoing primary ETV and 167 patients undergoing primary ETV/CPC. The ETV group reached a 55 % success rate, while the ETV/CPC group reached a 67 % success rate. Success rates of ETV alone for hydrocephalus due to infection, neural tube defects, and intraventricular hemorrhage reached 54, 55, and 57 %, respectively. 84 % success was found in patients older than 2 years of age and 52 % success in patients less than 2 years of age. ETV is a valid treatment for hydrocephalus of any etiology. There exists a small difference in success rates between infection, hemorrhage, and neural tube disorders, though not enough to discount ETV for these etiologies. Initial data utilizing ETV/CPC are promising, and additional studies will need to be done to verify such results.

  10. Front matter: Volume 10385

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Asundi, Anand K.

    2017-09-01

    This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 10385, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  11. BEGINNING INDONESIAN, VOLUME 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 3 OF A 4 VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS LESSONS 13-18 OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF THE PASSIVE VOICE, PRONUNCIATION TECHNIQUES, ORTHOGRAPHY, FINAL VOWELS, AND FINAL SYLLABLES. LANGUAGE DRILLS ARE ALSO PROVIDED CONCERNING THE MONTHS OF THE YEAR AND…

  12. BEGINNING INDONESIAN. VOLUME 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 1 OF A 4-VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS THE FIRST 6 LESSONS OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF TERMS OF ADDRESS, POLITE FORMULAS AND RESPONSES, AUXILIARIES, COMMANDS, AND ABSOLUTE EXPRESSIONS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 456 THROUGH ED 010 459. (GD)…

  13. BEGINNING INDONESIAN. VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 2 OF A 4-VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS LESSONS 7-12 OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF DIFFICULT VERBS, THE ACTIVE VOICE, INVERTED NARRATIVE CLAUSES, INTERROGATIVE WORDS, AND COUNTING METHODS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 456 THROUGH ED 010 459. (GD)

  14. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...... cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... conception to 82 years of age. This model shows that 69% of the variation in ovarian volume is due to age alone. We have shown that in the average case ovarian volume rises from 0.7 mL (95% CI 0.4-1.1 mL) at 2 years of age to a peak of 7.7 mL (95% CI 6.5-9.2 mL) at 20 years of age with a subsequent decline...

  15. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  16. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle....... Understanding the structure/function relationship of TRPV4 is essential for future development of specific TRPV4 agonist for treatment of diseases causes by dysfunctional TRPV4. E.g. two inherited bone dysplasias have recently been demonstrated in humans to originate from TRPV4 mutations....

  17. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    We review studies on regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and regulatory volume increase (RVI) of major ion and water transporting vertebrate epithelia. The rate of RVD and RVI is faster in cells of high osmotic permeability like amphibian gallbladder and mammalian proximal tubule as compared...... function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  18. Alterations caused by physical training in pulmonary edema and loss of muscle mass in rats with Walker-256 tumor Alterações promovidas pelo treinamento físico no edema pulmonar e perda de massa muscular em ratos portadores de tumor Walker-256

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Cecchini

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Walker-256 tumor is a fast-growing tumor and has been studied under several metabolic aspects associated or not to cachexia. It was observed in our laboratory that animals with Walker-256 tumor, after spontaneous death (usually around the fifteenth day, showed significant pulmonary edema with fluid in the pleural cavity. Some studies have suggested that physical training improves the survival of animals with tumor and minimizes the effects of cachexia. The purpose of our work was to assess the pulmonary edema index as well as the cardiac and skeletal muscle mass, besides the survival of rats with Walker-256 tumor submitted previously to physical training through swimming (N. For this study male Wistar rats (200 to 220 g were used, submitted to physical training through swimming (1 hour; 5 days a week, four weeks. One day after the training, sedentary rats (C or trained ones (N were submitted to inoculation on the right flank of 8 x 107 Walker-256 tumor cells (T. Immediately after spontaneous death of these animals, the pulmonary edema index (PEI, cardiac and skeletal muscle mass (gastrocnemius and soleus were evaluated. Pulmonary edema was evaluated through the index calculated by the relation between lung and body weights of each animal, and multiplied by 100 (PP/PC x 100 (LEE et al., 2001. Muscle mass (MM index was calculated similarly. In normal animals the PEI is equal to 0,53±0,02 (n=20. In tumor-bearing rats after spontaneous death the PEI was significantly higher (2,62±0,31, n=18. After the physical training in rats without tumor, the PEI was 0,55±0,03 (n=5. Whereas in tumor-bearing rats previously trained, it was obtained a pulmonary edema index lower than that of the control group with tumor (1,46±0,16, n=5; pO tumor Walker-256 é um carcinoma de crescimento rápido e tem sido estudado sob vários aspectos metabólicos, associados ou não, à caquexia. Foi observado, em nosso laboratório, que em animais portadores de tumor Walker

  19. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  20. Nota Editorial Volume X

    OpenAIRE

    Galinha,Iolanda Costa

    2014-01-01

    Neste momento de fecho do volume X da Psique, esta nota editorial tem como primeira finalidade agradecer aos especialistas em Psicologia, envolvidos no processo de revisão, selecção, e reformulação dos artigos publicados neste volume da Psique. Referimo-nos, naturalmente, ao Conselho Editorial da Psique, que foi o responsável por nos apoiar de perto neste processo ambicioso de promover, em simultâneo, a celeridade e a qualidade dos artigos a publicar neste volume da Psique. ...

  1. COMPARACIÓN DEL ESFUERZO CARDIOVASCULAR EN LA UTILIZACIÓN DE LA MÁQUINA HEALTH WALKER Y EL EJERCICIO DE CAMINAR EN ADULTOS SANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Scaglioni Solano

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio comparó el uso de la máquina Health Walker, que simula caminar con un movimiento pendular y que tiene dos opciones de posicionamiento de brazos para tener dos modos de ejercicio distintos, con el ejercicio de caminar, mediante la medición de la frecuencia cardíaca, a valores similares de cadencia (3 niveles: 100,120,138 pasos/min. También se estudiaron valores de autoregulación en el ejercicio (cadencia natural y medición de frecuencia cardíaca para esa cadencia. 15 mujeres (59.8+-4.8años realizaron las pruebas, administradas aleatoriamente en sus tres modalidades (caminar, ejercicio en máquina con brazos en posición fija, máquina con brazos en posicionamiento móvil, con aumento gradual de la cadencia, y durante cinco minutos en cada uno de los tres valores de ésta. Para la cadencia natural, se indicó a la persona que realizara un calentamiento de cinco minutos antes de cada prueba, donde se hicieron observaciones sin previo aviso. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la interacción entre el modo de ejercicio y la cadencia produce diferencias significativas (p < 0.001 en el valor de la frecuencia cardíaca, lo que indica que cada modo de ejercicio responde de manera distinta a los cambios en el valor de la cadencia. Así, se puede concluir que el uso de la máquina Health Walker con el modo de doble acción (brazos y piernas es similar al ejercicio de caminar en cuanto a esfuerzo cardiovascular. Para la parte de autoregulación, se encontró que los sujetos 'regularon' su ejercicio con base en un esfuerzo similar en cuanto a frecuencia cardíaca (cerca de 100 lat.∙min-1 (60% de la FCmáx , mientras que los valores de cadencia natural sí mostraron diferencias significativas (p < 0.01 entre caminar y el modo en la máquina con los brazos fijos.

  2. Optimization and In Vivo Profiling of a Refined Rat Model of Walker 256 Breast Cancer Cell-Induced Bone Pain Using Behavioral, Radiological, Histological, Immunohistochemical and Pharmacological Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Priyank; Kuo, Andy; Vetter, Irina; Smith, Maree T

    2017-01-01

    In the majority of patients with advanced breast cancer, there is metastatic spread to bones resulting in pain. Clinically available drug treatments for alleviation of breast cancer-induced bone pain (BCIBP) often produce inadequate pain relief due to dose-limiting side-effects. A major impediment to the discovery of novel well-tolerated analgesic agents for the relief of pain due to bony metastases is the fact that most cancer-induced bone pain models in rodents relied on the systemic injection of cancer cells, causing widespread formation of cancer metastases and poor general animal health. Herein, we have established an optimized, clinically relevant Wistar Han female rat model of breast cancer induced bone pain which was characterized using behavioral assessments, radiology, histology, immunohistochemistry and pharmacological methods. In this model that is based on unilateral intra-tibial injection (ITI) of Walker 256 carcinoma cells, animals maintained good health for at least 66 days post-ITI. The temporal development of hindpaw hypersensitivity depended on the initial number of Walker 256 cells inoculated in the tibiae. Hindpaw hypersensitivity resolved after approximately 25 days, in the continued presence of bone tumors as evidenced by ex vivo histology, micro-computed tomography scans and immunohistochemical assessments of tibiae. A possible role for the endogenous opioid system as an internal factor mediating the self-resolving nature of BCIBP was identified based upon the observation that naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist, caused the re-emergence of hindpaw hypersensitivity. Bolus dose injections of morphine, gabapentin, amitriptyline and meloxicam all alleviated hindpaw hypersensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. This is a first systematic pharmacological profiling of this model by testing standard analgesic drugs from four important diverse classes, which are used to treat cancer induced bone pain in the clinical setting. Our refined rat

  3. West End Walkers 65+: A randomised controlled trial of a primary care-based walking intervention for older adults: Study rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe David A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Scotland, older adults are a key target group for physical activity intervention due to the large proportion who are inactive. The health benefits of an active lifestyle are well established but more research is required on the most effective interventions to increase activity in older adults. The 'West End Walkers 65+' randomised controlled trial aims to examine the feasibility of delivering a pedometer-based walking intervention to adults aged ≥65 years through a primary care setting and to determine the efficacy of this pilot. The study rationale, protocol and recruitment process are discussed in this paper. Methods/Design The intervention consisted of a 12-week pedometer-based graduated walking programme and physical activity consultations. Participants were randomised into an immediate intervention group (immediate group or a 12-week waiting list control group (delayed group who then received the intervention. For the pilot element of this study, the primary outcome measure was pedometer step counts. Secondary outcome measures of sedentary time and physical activity (time spent lying/sitting, standing or walking; activPAL™ monitor, mood (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, functional ability (Perceived Motor-Efficacy Scale for Older Adults, quality of life (Short-Form (36 Health Survey version 2 and loneliness (UCLA Loneliness Scale were assessed. Focus groups with participants and semi-structured interviews with the research team captured their experiences of the intervention. The feasibility component of this trial examined recruitment via primary care and retention of participants, appropriateness of the intervention for older adults and the delivery of the intervention by a practice nurse. Discussion West End Walkers 65+ will determine the feasibility and pilot the efficacy of delivering a pedometer-based walking intervention through primary care to Scottish adults aged ≥65 years. The study will also

  4. Dandy-Walker malformations in a case of partial trisomy 9p (p12.1→pter) due to maternal translocation t(9;12)(p12.1;p13.3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vundinti, Babu Rao; Kerketta, Lily; Korgaonkar, Seema; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2007-01-01

    We describe a five-year-old proband presented with Dandy-Walker malformations, right microopthalmia, hamstring contractures, undescended testis with absence of testis in right scrotum in addition to typical trisomy 9p clinical features. Routine cytogenetic studies with GTG - banding showed 46,XY,der(12)t(9;12) (p12;q13.3),mat karyotype (trisomy 9p). Chromosomal analysis of the father was normal and phenotypically normal mother had 46,XX,t(9;12)(p12;q13) karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with single copy probes bA5OIA2 (9p11.2), bA562M8 (12p12.1) and centromere probes (9) showed break point at 9p12.1 region. The gene dosage effect of Chromosome 9p along with environmental factors might be associated with Dandy- Walker malformations in the patient. PMID:21957340

  5. Self-selection contributes significantly to the lower adiposity offaster, longer-distanced, male and female walkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Although cross-sectional studies show active individuals areleaner than their sedentary counterparts, it remains to be determined towhat extent this is due to initially leaner men and women choosing toexercise longer and more intensely (self-selection bias). In this reportwalking volume (weekly distance) and intensity (speed) were compared tocurrent BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at the start of walking (BMIstarting) in20,353 women and 5,174 men who had walked regularly for exercise for 7.2and 10.6 years,respectively. The relationships of BMIcurrent andBMIstarting with distance and intensity were nonlinear (convex). Onaverage, BMIstarting explained>70 percent of the association betweenBMIcurrent and intensity, and 40 percent and 17 percent of theassociation between BMIcurrent and distance in women and men,respectively. Although the declines in BMIcurrent with distance andintensity were greater among fatter than leaner individuals, the portionsattributable to BMIstarting remained relatively constant regardless offatness. Thus self-selection bias accounts for most of the decline in BMIwith walking intensity and smaller albeit significant proportions of thedecline with distance. This demonstration of self-selection is germane toother cross-sectional comparisons in epidemiological research, givenself-selection is unlikely to be limited to weight or peculiar tophysical activity.

  6. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  7. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  8. Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of lung volume reduction surgery in clinical practice is limited by high postoperative morbidity and stringent selection criteria. This has been the impetus for the development of bronchoscopic approaches to lung volume reduction. A range of different techniques such as endobronchial blockers, airway bypass, endobronchial valves, thermal vapor ablation, biological sealants, and airway implants have been employed on both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous emphysema. The currently available data on efficacy of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction are not conclusive and subjective benefit in dyspnoea scores is a more frequent finding than improvements on spirometry or exercise tolerance. Safety data are more promising with rare procedure-related mortality, few serious complications, and short hospital length of stay. The field of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction continues to evolve as ongoing prospective randomized trials build on earlier feasibility data to clarify the true efficacy of such techniques.

  9. The Tax Burden on Tobacco Volume 51, 1970-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1970-2016. Orzechowski and Walker. Tax Burden on Tobacco. Tax burden data was obtained from the annual compendium on tobacco revenue and industry statistics, The Tax...

  10. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  11. Cosmology of a Friedmann-Lamaître-Robertson-Walker 3-brane, late-time cosmic acceleration, and the cosmic coincidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolin, Ciaran; Neupane, Ishwaree P

    2013-04-05

    A late epoch cosmic acceleration may be naturally entangled with cosmic coincidence--the observation that at the onset of acceleration the vacuum energy density fraction nearly coincides with the matter density fraction. In this Letter we show that this is indeed the case with the cosmology of a Friedmann-Lamaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) 3-brane in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. We derive the four-dimensional effective action on a FLRW 3-brane, from which we obtain a mass-reduction formula, namely, M(P)(2) = ρ(b)/|Λ(5)|, where M(P) is the effective (normalized) Planck mass, Λ(5) is the five-dimensional cosmological constant, and ρ(b) is the sum of the 3-brane tension V and the matter density ρ. Although the range of variation in ρ(b) is strongly constrained, the big bang nucleosynthesis bound on the time variation of the effective Newton constant G(N) = (8πM(P)(2))(-1) is satisfied when the ratio V/ρ ≳ O(10(2)) on cosmological scales. The same bound leads to an effective equation of state close to -1 at late epochs in accordance with astrophysical and cosmological observations.

  12. Increase of acceptability period of Musca domestic l., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae, irradiated by gamma radiation as host of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius, Walker, 1839 (hymenoptera: pteromalidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source used was a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestic L., 1758 and the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity. This experiment was designed to investigate if the non-viabilization M. domestic pupae, using gamma radiation, could build up the acceptability period as host of the pupal parasitoid S. endius. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy respectively. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 days old pupae were irradiated (dose rate: 1,510 Gy/hr) and exposed to the parasitoid S. endius at a proportion of one female parasitoid to five housefly pupae, during different periods after the irradiation. The results allow us to conclude that irradiation increase the acceptability period of the housefly pupae by the parasitoid. The best age to irradiate the housefly pupae was one day. (author)

  13. SLOW WALKER2, a NOC1/MAK21 homologue, is essential for coordinated cell cycle progression during female gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Yuan, Li; Liu, Naiyou; Shi, Dongqiao; Li, Xinran; Tang, Zuoshun; Liu, Jie; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2009-11-01

    Morphogenesis requires the coordination of cell growth, division, and cell differentiation. Female gametogenesis in flowering plants, where a single haploid spore undergoes continuous growth and nuclear division without cytokinesis to form an eight-nucleate coenocytic embryo sac before cellularization, provides a good system to study the genetic control of such processes in multicellular organisms. Here, we report the characterization of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) female gametophyte mutant, slow walker2 (swa2), in which the progression of the mitotic cycles and the synchrony of female gametophyte development were impaired, causing an arrest of female gametophytes at the two-, four-, or eight-nucleate stage. Delayed pollination test showed that a portion of the mutant ovules were able to develop into functional embryo sacs and could be fertilized. SWA2 encodes a nucleolar protein homologous to yeast NUCLEOLAR COMPLEX ASSOCIATED PROTEIN1 (NOC1)/MAINTENANCE OF KILLER21 that, together with NOC2, is involved in preribosome export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Similarly, SWA2 can physically interact with a putative Arabidopsis NOC2 homologue. SWA2 is expressed ubiquitously throughout the plant, at high levels in actively dividing tissues and gametophytes. Therefore, we conclude that SWA2 most likely plays a role in ribosome biogenesis that is essential for the coordinated mitotic progression of the female gametophyte.

  14. COL4A1 mutations cause ocular dysgenesis, neuronal localization defects, and myopathy in mice and Walker-Warburg syndrome in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandre Labelle-Dumais

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB and Walker Warburg Syndrome (WWS belong to a spectrum of autosomal recessive diseases characterized by ocular dysgenesis, neuronal migration defects, and congenital muscular dystrophy. Until now, the pathophysiology of MEB/WWS has been attributed to alteration in dystroglycan post-translational modification. Here, we provide evidence that mutations in a gene coding for a major basement membrane protein, collagen IV alpha 1 (COL4A1, are a novel cause of MEB/WWS. Using a combination of histological, molecular, and biochemical approaches, we show that heterozygous Col4a1 mutant mice have ocular dysgenesis, neuronal localization defects, and myopathy characteristic of MEB/WWS. Importantly, we identified putative heterozygous mutations in COL4A1 in two MEB/WWS patients. Both mutations occur within conserved amino acids of the triple-helix-forming domain of the protein, and at least one mutation interferes with secretion of the mutant proteins, resulting instead in intracellular accumulation. Expression and posttranslational modification of dystroglycan is unaltered in Col4a1 mutant mice indicating that COL4A1 mutations represent a distinct pathogenic mechanism underlying MEB/WWS. These findings implicate a novel gene and a novel mechanism in the etiology of MEB/WWS and expand the clinical spectrum of COL4A1-associated disorders.

  15. COL4A1 Mutations Cause Ocular Dysgenesis, Neuronal Localization Defects, and Myopathy in Mice and Walker-Warburg Syndrome in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Emily P.; de Leau, Michelle; Lyons, David; Kabaeva, Zhyldyz; Manzini, M. Chiara; Dobyns, William B.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Michele, Daniel E.; Gould, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    Muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB) and Walker Warburg Syndrome (WWS) belong to a spectrum of autosomal recessive diseases characterized by ocular dysgenesis, neuronal migration defects, and congenital muscular dystrophy. Until now, the pathophysiology of MEB/WWS has been attributed to alteration in dystroglycan post-translational modification. Here, we provide evidence that mutations in a gene coding for a major basement membrane protein, collagen IV alpha 1 (COL4A1), are a novel cause of MEB/WWS. Using a combination of histological, molecular, and biochemical approaches, we show that heterozygous Col4a1 mutant mice have ocular dysgenesis, neuronal localization defects, and myopathy characteristic of MEB/WWS. Importantly, we identified putative heterozygous mutations in COL4A1 in two MEB/WWS patients. Both mutations occur within conserved amino acids of the triple-helix-forming domain of the protein, and at least one mutation interferes with secretion of the mutant proteins, resulting instead in intracellular accumulation. Expression and posttranslational modification of dystroglycan is unaltered in Col4a1 mutant mice indicating that COL4A1 mutations represent a distinct pathogenic mechanism underlying MEB/WWS. These findings implicate a novel gene and a novel mechanism in the etiology of MEB/WWS and expand the clinical spectrum of COL4A1-associated disorders. PMID:21625620

  16. Inferior cerebellar hypoplasia resembling a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in purebred Eurasier dogs with familial non-progressive ataxia: a retrospective and prospective clinical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino, Filipa; Rentmeister, Kai; Schmidt, Martin J; Bruehschwein, Andreas; Matiasek, Kaspar; Matiasek, Lara A; Lauda, Alexander; Schoon, Heinz A; Fischer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar malformations can be inherited or caused by insults during cerebellar development. To date, only sporadic cases of cerebellar malformations have been reported in dogs, and the genetic background has remained obscure. Therefore, this study`s objective was to describe the clinical characteristics, imaging features and pedigree data of a familial cerebellar hypoplasia in purebred Eurasier dogs. A uniform cerebellar malformation characterized by consistent absence of the caudal portions of the cerebellar vermis and, to a lesser degree, the caudal portions of the cerebellar hemispheres in association with large retrocerebellar fluid accumulations was recognized in 14 closely related Eurasier dogs. Hydrocephalus was an additional feature in some dogs. All dogs displayed non-progressive ataxia, which had already been noted when the dogs were 5-6 weeks old. The severity of the ataxia varied between dogs, from mild truncal sway, subtle dysmetric gait, dysequilibrium and pelvic limb ataxia to severe cerebellar ataxia in puppies and episodic falling or rolling. Follow-up examinations in adult dogs showed improvement of the cerebellar ataxia and a still absent menace response. Epileptic seizures occurred in some dogs. The association of partial vermis agenesis with an enlarged fourth ventricle and an enlarged caudal (posterior) fossa resembled a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in some dogs. Pedigree analyses were consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.

  17. Microstructural and ultrastructural changes in the muscle cells of the oriental armyworm Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on treatment with wilforine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shujie; Liu, Lin; Ma, Zhiqing; Zhang, Xing

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the mode of action of wilforine, an alkaloid with insecticidal properties, extracted from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., on the microstructure and ultrastructure of the muscle cells of larvae and adults of the oriental armyworm Mythimna separata Walker. The bioassay results showed that wilforine had oral toxicity against both M. separata larvae (LC 50 =63μg/mL) and adults (LC 50 =36μg/mL). The typical toxicity sign was paralysis leading to death. Both light and electron microscope observations revealed that damage to the muscle cells increased with poisoning time in larvae and adults treated with the LC 80 dose of wilforine. Histopathological examinations in the muscle cells of M. separata adults showed that there were large cytoplasmic spaces, disrupted Z-lines and swollen mitochondria in the muscle cells. Further, the sarcoplasmic reticulum was excessively dilated and fragmented; the nuclear membrane was ruptured; nuclear material was overflowing; and the myolemma was damaged. The similar pathological changes in the muscle cells of oriental armyworm larvae were observed, as above. In addition, a medullary sheath structure appeared and crystalline inclusion was also observed in the muscle cells of M. separata larvae. In conclusion, wilforine could induce pathological changes in the muscle cells of oriental armyworm larvae and adults, leading to their death; thus, the active site of action of wilforine maybe located in the muscle tissue of insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of high-resolution ultrasound to measure changes in plantar fascia thickness resulting from tissue creep in runners and walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Aaron B; Haun, Daniel W; Clark, Thomas B; Kettner, Norman W

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to use high-resolution ultrasound to measure changes in plantar fascia thickness as a result of tissue creep generated by walking and running. Independent samples of participants were obtained. Thirty-six walkers and 25 runners walked on a treadmill for 10 minutes or ran for 30 minutes, respectively. Standardized measures of the thickness of the plantar fascia were obtained in both groups using high-resolution ultrasound. The mean thickness of the plantar fascia was measured immediately before and after participation. The mean plantar fascia thickness was decreased by 0.06 ± 0.33 mm SD after running and 0.03 ± 0.22 mm SD after walking. The difference between groups was not significant. Although the parameters of this study did not produce significant changes in the plantar fascia thickness, a slightly higher change in the mean thickness of the plantar fascia in the running group deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and Identification of Two Novel Attractant Compounds from Chinese Cockroach (Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker by Combination of HSCCC, NMR and CD Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hextane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:1:1.5:1, v/v/v/v was applied to the isolation and purification of attractants from Chinese cockroach, Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker. Two new attractants with attractant activity towards the male insects were obtained from the extract sample in a one-step separation. Their purities were determined by HPLC. Subsequent MS, NMR and CD analyses have led to the characterization of (R-3-ethyl-6,8-dihydroxy-7-methyl-3,4-dihydroisochromen-1-one (1 and (R-6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisochromen-1-one (2, two novel isocumarin type attractants. Based on these results, it is concluded that HSCCC is a viable separation method option for purifying insect attractants, while effectively maintaining the attracting activity of the isolates. This is the first attempt to apply counter-current chromatography technique to separate attractants from Chinese cockroach.

  20. Transgenic loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plants expressing a modified delta-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis with enhanced resistance to Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Tian, Yingchuan

    2003-02-01

    A synthetic version of the CRY1Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis has been used for the transformation of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using particle bombardment. Mature zygotic embryos were used to be bombarded and to generate organogenic callus and transgenic regenerated plants. Expression vector pB48.215 DNA contained a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) CRY1Ac coding sequence flanked by the double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator sequences, and the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene controlled by the promoter of the nopaline synthase gene was introduced into loblolly pine tissues by particle bombardment. The transformed tissues were proliferated and selected on media with kanamycin. Shoot regeneration was induced from the kanamycin-resistant calli, and transgenic plantlets were then produced. More than 60 transformed plants from independent transformation events were obtained for each loblolly pine genotype tested. The integration and expression of the introduced genes in the transgenic loblolly pine plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) analysis, by Southern hybridization, by Northern blot analysis, and by Western blot analysis. Effective resistance of transgenic plants against Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud was verified in feeding bioassays with the insects. The transgenic plants recovered could represent a good opportunity to analyse the impact of genetic engineering of pine for sustainable resistance to pests using a B. thuringiensis insecticidal protein. This protocol enabled the routine transformation of loblolly pine plants that were previously difficult to transform.

  1. Inferior Cerebellar Hypoplasia Resembling a Dandy-Walker-Like Malformation in Purebred Eurasier Dogs with Familial Non-Progressive Ataxia: A Retrospective and Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino, Filipa; Rentmeister, Kai; Schmidt, Martin J.; Bruehschwein, Andreas; Matiasek, Kaspar; Matiasek, Lara A.; Lauda, Alexander; Schoon, Heinz A.; Fischer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar malformations can be inherited or caused by insults during cerebellar development. To date, only sporadic cases of cerebellar malformations have been reported in dogs, and the genetic background has remained obscure. Therefore, this study`s objective was to describe the clinical characteristics, imaging features and pedigree data of a familial cerebellar hypoplasia in purebred Eurasier dogs. A uniform cerebellar malformation characterized by consistent absence of the caudal portions of the cerebellar vermis and, to a lesser degree, the caudal portions of the cerebellar hemispheres in association with large retrocerebellar fluid accumulations was recognized in 14 closely related Eurasier dogs. Hydrocephalus was an additional feature in some dogs. All dogs displayed non-progressive ataxia, which had already been noted when the dogs were 5 – 6 weeks old. The severity of the ataxia varied between dogs, from mild truncal sway, subtle dysmetric gait, dysequilibrium and pelvic limb ataxia to severe cerebellar ataxia in puppies and episodic falling or rolling. Follow-up examinations in adult dogs showed improvement of the cerebellar ataxia and a still absent menace response. Epileptic seizures occurred in some dogs. The association of partial vermis agenesis with an enlarged fourth ventricle and an enlarged caudal (posterior) fossa resembled a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in some dogs. Pedigree analyses were consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. PMID:25668516

  2. Novel SIL1 nonstop mutation in a Chinese consanguineous family with Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome and Dandy-Walker syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Nan; Jiang, Chen; Zou, Yong-Yi; Zheng, Yu; Liang, De-Sheng; Wu, Ling-Qian

    2016-07-01

    Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which is characterized by congenital cataracts, cerebellar ataxia, progressive muscle weakness, and delayed psychomotor development. SIL1, which is located at 5q31.2, is the only gene known to cause MSS. Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is defined by hypoplasia, upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis, and cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle; however, its genetic pathogeny remains unclear. Here, we report a Chinese consanguineous family with MSS and DWS. Whole exome sequencing identified a novel nonstop mutation in SIL1. Sanger sequencing revealed that the mutation was segregated in this family according to a recessive mode of inheritance. We found that the mutation changed a stop codon (TGA) to an arginine codon (CGA), and no in-frame termination codon in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of SIL1 could be found. The mRNA levels of SIL1 were decreased by 56.6% and 37.5% in immortalized lymphoblasts of the patients respectively; the protein levels of SIL1 were substantially decreased. This case study is the first report on Chinese MSS patients, MSS complicated by DWS, and a nonstop mutation in SIL1. Our findings imply the pathogenetic association between DWS and MSS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dandy-Walker malformation and Wisconsin syndrome: novel cases add further insight into the genotype-phenotype correlations of 3q23q25 deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Alessandro; Bernardini, Laura; Sabolic Avramovska, Vesna; Zanni, Ginevra; Loddo, Sara; Sukarova-Angelovska, Elena; Parisi, Valentina; Capalbo, Anna; Tumini, Stefano; Travaglini, Lorena; Mancini, Francesca; Duma, Filip; Barresi, Sabina; Novelli, Antonio; Mercuri, Eugenio; Tarani, Luigi; Bertini, Enrico; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Valente, Enza Maria

    2013-05-16

    The Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is one of the commonest congenital cerebellar defects, and can be associated with multiple congenital anomalies and chromosomal syndromes. The occurrence of overlapping 3q deletions including the ZIC1 and ZIC4 genes in few patients, along with data from mouse models, have implicated both genes in the pathogenesis of DWM. Using a SNP-array approach, we recently identified three novel patients carrying heterozygous 3q deletions encompassing ZIC1 and ZIC4. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that only two had a typical DWM, while the third did not present any defect of the DWM spectrum. SNP-array analysis in further eleven children diagnosed with DWM failed to identify deletions of ZIC1-ZIC4. The clinical phenotype of the three 3q deleted patients included multiple congenital anomalies and peculiar facial appearance, related to the localization and extension of each deletion. In particular, phenotypes resulted from the variable combination of three recognizable patterns: DWM (with incomplete penetrance); blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome; and Wisconsin syndrome (WS), recently mapped to 3q. Our data indicate that the 3q deletion is a rare defect associated with DWM, and suggest that the hemizygosity of ZIC1-ZIC4 genes is neither necessary nor sufficient per se to cause this condition. Furthermore, based on a detailed comparison of clinical features and molecular data from 3q deleted patients, we propose clinical diagnostic criteria and refine the critical region for WS.

  4. Successful Treatment of Dandy–Walker Syndrome by Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in a 6-Month-Old Girl With Progressive Hydrocephalus: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Fen Hu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dandy–Walker syndrome (DWS is a congenital brain malformation involving the cerebellum and fourth ventricle. We report a 6-month-old girl with DWS presenting an initially normal ventricular system and mild cyst-like lesion over the posterior fossa as assessed by postnatal brain sonography. However, symptoms and signs of increased intracranial cerebral pressure in terms of frequent vomiting and tense anterior fontanel developed, and these were associated with mild hypotonia and poor neck support, and upward-gaze palsy at the age of 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge cystic lesion of the fourth ventricle, which filled the posterior fossa and ventricular dilatation. The tentorium was progressively displaced upward by the cyst. A nearly complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis was also confirmed. After a successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy, a series of brain magnetic resonance imaging scans, taken during a follow-up survey, showed normal lateral and third ventricles. Consequently, symptoms of intracranial cerebral pressure resolved, and a developmental milestone was achieved. In conclusion, DWS can be confirmed postpartum, and endoscopic third ventriculostomy was found to be a preferential operative procedure for DWS with hydrocephalus. It may be effective for patients younger than 1 year.

  5. Inferior cerebellar hypoplasia resembling a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in purebred Eurasier dogs with familial non-progressive ataxia: a retrospective and prospective clinical cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Bernardino

    Full Text Available Cerebellar malformations can be inherited or caused by insults during cerebellar development. To date, only sporadic cases of cerebellar malformations have been reported in dogs, and the genetic background has remained obscure. Therefore, this study`s objective was to describe the clinical characteristics, imaging features and pedigree data of a familial cerebellar hypoplasia in purebred Eurasier dogs. A uniform cerebellar malformation characterized by consistent absence of the caudal portions of the cerebellar vermis and, to a lesser degree, the caudal portions of the cerebellar hemispheres in association with large retrocerebellar fluid accumulations was recognized in 14 closely related Eurasier dogs. Hydrocephalus was an additional feature in some dogs. All dogs displayed non-progressive ataxia, which had already been noted when the dogs were 5-6 weeks old. The severity of the ataxia varied between dogs, from mild truncal sway, subtle dysmetric gait, dysequilibrium and pelvic limb ataxia to severe cerebellar ataxia in puppies and episodic falling or rolling. Follow-up examinations in adult dogs showed improvement of the cerebellar ataxia and a still absent menace response. Epileptic seizures occurred in some dogs. The association of partial vermis agenesis with an enlarged fourth ventricle and an enlarged caudal (posterior fossa resembled a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in some dogs. Pedigree analyses were consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.

  6. FOXC1 is required for normal cerebellar development and is a major contributor to chromosome 6p25.3 Dandy-Walker malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinger, Kimberly A; Lehmann, Ordan J; Hudgins, Louanne; Chizhikov, Victor V; Bassuk, Alexander G; Ades, Lesley C; Krantz, Ian D; Dobyns, William B; Millen, Kathleen J

    2010-01-01

    Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), the most common human cerebellar malformation, has only one characterized associated locus1,2. Here we characterize a second DWM-linked locus on 6p25.3, showing that deletions or duplications encompassing FOXC1 are associated with cerebellar and posterior fossa malformations including cerebellar vermis hypoplasia (CVH), mega-cisterna magna (MCM) and DWM. Foxc1-null mice have embryonic abnormalities of the rhombic lip due to loss of mesenchyme-secreted signaling molecules with subsequent loss of Atoh1 expression in vermis. Foxc1 homozygous hypomorphs have CVH with medial fusion and foliation defects. Human FOXC1 heterozygous mutations are known to affect eye development, causing a spectrum of glaucoma-associated anomalies (Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, ARS; MIM no. 601631). We report the first brain imaging data from humans with FOXC1 mutations and show that these individuals also have CVH. We conclude that alteration of FOXC1 function alone causes CVH and contributes to MCM and DWM. Our results highlight a previously unrecognized role for mesenchyme-neuroepithelium interactions in the mid-hindbrain during early embryogenesis. PMID:19668217

  7. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Amylase Gene from the Rice Pest Walker and its Inhibitor from Wheat (Variety MP Sehore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scirpophaga incertulas Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralideae, commonly known as yellow stem borer, is a predominant monophagous pest of rice, which causes 5% to 30% loss of the rice crop. We report for the first time, the cloning and sequence analysis of the amylase gene of this pest. The cloned gene translates into a protein of 487 amino acids having a predicted molecular weight of 54,955 daltons and a theoretical pI of 5.9. The 3D structure of the amylase is predicted from its amino acid sequence by homology modeling using the structure of the amylase from Tenebrio molitor L (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. We also report the purification of a dimeric α-amylase inhibitor from a local variety of wheat MP Sehore that is specific for the amylase of this pest and does not inhibit human salivary amylase or porcine pancreatic amylase. The gene encoding this inhibitor has been cloned and its sequence has been analysed to find a possible explanation for this specificity.

  8. Metabolic and morphological alterations induced by proteolysis-inducing factor from Walker tumour-bearing rats in C2C12 myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisdale Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with advanced cancer suffer from cachexia, which is characterised by a marked weight loss, and is invariably associated with the presence of tumoral and humoral factors which are mainly responsible for the depletion of fat stores and muscular tissue. Methods In this work, we used cytotoxicity and enzymatic assays and morphological analysis to examine the effects of a proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF-like molecule purified from ascitic fluid of Walker tumour-bearing rats (WF, which has been suggested to be responsible for muscle atrophy, on cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Results WF decreased the viability of C2C12 myotubes, especially at concentrations of 20–25 μg.mL-1. There was an increase in the content of the pro-oxidant malondialdehyde, and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Myotubes protein synthesis decreased and protein degradation increased together with an enhanced in the chymotrypsin-like enzyme activity, a measure of functional proteasome activity, after treatment with WF. Morphological alterations such as cell retraction and the presence of numerous cells in suspension were observed, particularly at high WF concentrations. Conclusion These results indicate that WF has similar effects to those of proteolysis-inducing factor, but is less potent than the latter. Further studies are required to determine the precise role of WF in this experimental model.

  9. Abbreviated larval development of Macrobrachium inpa Kensley and Walker, 1982 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae from an Amazon Basin forest stream, Brazil, reared in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Magalhães

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper brings the description and illustrations of the abbreviated larval development of the Amazonian freshwater palaemonid shrimp, Macrobrachium inpa Kensley and Walker, 1982. The study was based on ovigerous females (mean total body length of 27.0 ± 1.64 mm collected in a small forest stream in the Reserva Florestal Ducke, near Manaus, Brazil, of which four released their larvae in the laboratory. The females carried 8 to 19 eliptical (2.39 ± 0.10 X 1.67 ± 0.08 mm, yolk-rich eggs. The larval period consists of three benthic, lecithotrophic larval stages, and lasts 10-11 days. The newly-hatched larvae bear very advanced morphological features such as antenna with several marginal plumose seta on scaphocerite and long, multi-articulated flagellum; fully developed, functional uniramous pereiopods 3-5 (walking legs and biramous pleopods. The morphology of the carapace, all appendages of the cephalothorax and pleon, and the tail fan are described in detail and illustrated. The larval form was considered to be a decapodid because of the benthic behavior and due to the fact that functional walking legs and pleopods are the main structures for displacement and propulsion. The larval development of M. inpa is compared with those of the so-called "continental" group of the caridean shrimps from the Amazon River basin.

  10. Sudden changes in walking surface compliance evoke contralateral EMG in a hemiparetic walker: a case study of inter-leg coordination after neurological injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Jeffrey; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    Gait impairment due to neurological disorders is a significant problem around the world. Despite the growing interest in using robotic devices for gait rehabilitation, their widespread use remains limited as there is no clear evidence that robot-assisted gait therapy is superior to traditional treadmill-based therapy. This work is a case study that focuses on investigating the existence of mechanisms of inter-leg coordination after neurological injury, and based on that, proposing novel methods for gait rehabilitation. Using a novel robotic device, the Variable Stiffness Treadmill (VST), we apply perturbations to the compliance of the walking surface underneath the non-paretic leg, and analyze the response of the contralateral (paretic) leg. We show that muscle activity is evoked in the gastrocnemius of the paretic leg. From a clinical prospective, the results of this study can be disruptive because our methods provide a safe and targeted way to provide gait rehabilitation in hemiparesis since direct manipulation of the paretic side is not required. This work provides evidence for the first time that muscle activity can be evoked in the paretic leg of a hemiplegic walker in response to unilateral perturbations to the compliance of the walking surface, providing direction for targeted robot-assisted gait rehabilitation.

  11. Universal absence of Walker breakdown and linear current-velocity relation via spin-orbit torques in coupled and single domain wall motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinggârd, Vetle; Linder, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    We consider theoretically domain wall motion driven by spin-orbit and spin Hall torques. We find that it is possible to achieve universal absence of Walker breakdown for all spin-orbit torques using experimentally relevant spin-orbit coupling strengths. For spin-orbit torques other than the pure Rashba spin-orbit torque, this gives a linear current-velocity relation instead of a saturation of the velocity at high current densities. The effect is very robust and is found in both soft and hard magnetic materials, as well as in the presence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and in coupled domain walls in synthetic antiferromagnets, where it leads to very high domain wall velocities. Moreover, recent experiments have demonstrated that the switching of a synthetic antiferromagnet does not obey the usual spin Hall angle dependence, but that domain expansion and contraction can be selectively controlled toggling only the applied in-plane magnetic field magnitude and not its sign. We show that the combination of spin Hall torques and interlayer exchange coupling produces the necessary relative velocities for this switching to occur.

  12. Altitude Acclimatization and Blood Volume: Effects of Exogenous Erythrocyte Volume Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, M

    1996-01-01

    ...: (a) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume; (b) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations; (c...

  13. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  14. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  15. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...... (range 5.0-8.4 years). Cox regression analysis (automatic forward selection) showed the MNV to be the most significant prognostic parameter followed by the P-stage. Patients who had localized tumors or tumors with small nuclei had a better probability of surviving than did women with advanced tumors...

  16. Volume holographic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Denz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Volume holography represents a promising alternative to existing storage technologies. Its parallel data storage leads to high capacities combined with short access times and high transfer rates. The design and realization of a compact volume holographic storage demonstrator is presented. The technique of phase-coded multiplexing implemented to superimpose many data pages in a single location enables to store up to 480 holograms per storage location without any moving parts. Results of analog and digital data storage are shown and real time optical image processing is demonstrated.

  17. ESTABELECIMENTO DE UM MODELO DE TUMOR EXPERIMENTAL PELA INOCULAÇÃO DO TUMOR DE WALKER EM ESTÔMAGO DE RATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Paulo Ferdinando de Melo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A incidência de câncer gástrico espontâneo em ratos é extremamente rara. Por outro lado, embora o câncer experimental de estômago possa ser induzido por carcinógenos químicos, através da ressecção da região fúndica do estômago, pela vagotomia ou pelo refluxo, esses métodos apresentam um percentual de desenvolvimento tumoral baixo e errático. Além disso, geralmente decorre um longo período de tempo até o pleno crescimento do tumor. O presente trabalho procurou estabelecer um modelo de tumor experimental de crescimento rápido, uniforme e com elevado índice de pega, que permitisse a avaliação de novas terapêuticas para o tratamento do câncer gástrico. Para tanto, utilizou-se uma suspensão de células do carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker que foi inoculada no estômago através de uma cânula orogástrica. A implantação ocorreu na mucosa previamente lesionada por clampeadura da parede, nas regiões da junção esôfago-gástrica, pequena curvatura e grande curvatura. O crescimento tumoral ocorreu em todos os animais e, embora na junção esôfago-gástrica a incidência de pega tenha sido de apenas 20%, possivelmente em função do epitélio queratinizado, na pequena curvatura a incidência foi de 80% e na grande curvatura todos os animais apresentaram tumor. Esses dados demonstraram que é possível implantar o tumor em 100% dos animais inoculados, o que comprova a exequibilidade da técnica. A vantagem dessa metodologia sobre as outras já descritas na literatura, também usando o carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker, é que o tumor cresce a partir da mucosa, reproduzindo as condições de desenvolvimento do tumor gástrico espontâneo. A média de sobrevida dos animais inoculados é de 13,2±1,98 dias. Além disso, como o tumor se desenvolve em todos os animais inoculados, pode-se dispensar métodos radiológicos e ultra-sonográficos para evidenciar a sua presença. Trata-se, portanto, de um método simples e eficaz e que

  18. Liter - Metric Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Diane

    This autoinstructional program, developed as part of a general science course, is offered for students in the middle schools. Mathematics of fractions and decimals is considered to be prerequisite knowledge. The behavioral objectives are directed toward mastery of determining volumes of solid objects using the water displacement method as well as…

  19. Another year, another volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    This issue represents the final one in volume 76 of Journal of Wildlife Management. As this one is pretty much in the books, one cannot help but wonder what the future holds for the journal. Lenny Brennan is putting together a piece for Wildlife Society Bulletin to examine how The Wildlife Society publications have changed through time. He solicited input from past and...

  20. Mean Platelet Volume

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Chest Disease, Bolu, Turkey. E-mail: abanttip14@gmail.com. Telephone number: +903742534618. Fax number: +903742534615 effective and should have wide spread acceptance. At present, none of the available diagnostic tests meets all these criteria. The mean platelet volume (MPV) is potentially one of.