Sample records for wako saitama japan

  1. Following the Fourth World Conference on Women -- Let's Expand Grass-Roots Networking! Proceedings of the International Forum on Intercultural Exchange (Saitama, Japan, November 15-17, 1995). (United States)

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    Based on the success of the Fourth World Conference on Women, the National Women's Education Centre of Japan planned and carried out the 1995 International Forum on Intercultural Exchange to search for an up-to-date understanding of the problems of women and ways to solve them and to develop a network of already existing groups. This Forum focused…

  2. Radioecological studies of {sup 90}Sr in limnological ecosystems. {sup 90}Sr concentrations in water, sediment and biota at the lower region of the famous river in Saitama prefecture, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro


    The concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in water, sediment and biota at the lower region of the famous river in Saitama prefecture were determined in order to elucidate the radioecology of {sup 90}Sr in limnological ecosystems. {sup 90}Sr concentration in water was 2.0{+-}0.3 mBq/L (mean {+-} standard error), and so indicated about 20 times higher than that (0.10 mBq/L) of {sup 137}Cs in our previous report. {sup 90}Sr concentrations in sediment (0.22{+-}0.03 Bq/kg), snail, Sinotaia quadratus historica (0.62{+-}0.03 Bq/kg), crayfish, Procambarus clarki (3.7 {+-}0.3 Bq/kg), and crucian carp, Carasius auratus cuvieri (0.48{+-}0.06 Bq/kg), were about 110, 310, 1900 and 240 times higher than that of the water, respectively. Remarkable higher concentration for the crayfish is attributable to that (8.7{+-}0.7 Bq/kg) for the tissue of carapace weighing about 50% in comparison with that (0.33{+-}0.05 Bq/kg) for the other tissues. Difference for concentration between {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs (in previous report) in each sample will be due to that of the concentration mechanism. (author)

  3. Liver Full Reference Set Application: Hiro Yamada - Wako (2011) — EDRN Public Portal (United States)

    Wako has received new 510(k) clearance for Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) and Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) tests on an innovative μTASWako i30 analyzer from FDA. The AFP-L3 and DCP assayed on an older platform LiBASys have been cleared with indication of use for risk assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patient at risk for the liver malignancy. Wako believes that early detection of HCC is critical for improving HCC patient outcome. Therefore, Wako is currently seeking collaborative opportunities to retrospectively measure clinical samples using the AFP-L3 and DCP for further determining of effectiveness of the HCC biomarkers in early detection which are collected prospectively during HCC surveillance. The Reference Sample Set in the EDRN biorepository are well characterized and studied. Access to these samples would allow Wako to quickly determine the clinical effectiveness of AFP-L3 and DCP in detecting early HCC

  4. Radiocesium contents in foodstuffs sampled at Saitama Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Takahashi, Syuhei; Osawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki (Saitama Institute of Public Health, Konan (Japan)); Miyazawa, Masaharu


    Since 1988, the Saitama Prefecture Administration has started a survey for radiosecium contents in foodstuffs. This reprot deals with the results of surveys performed in 1988 and 1989. During a two-year period, spaghetti was analyzed in terms of the relationship between the date of production and the concentration of radioactivity. Eighty-one and 93 food samples, including candies, cereals and grains, vegetables, and fish, were collected during 1988 and 1989, respectively. In foodstuffs collected in 1988, Cs-134 was detected in dried mushroom (Shiitake) and spaghetti, and Cs-137 was detected in 8 samples, including leaves, and green teas. For the 1989 samples, Cs-134 was not detected, but Cs-137 was detected in 12 samples, such as green teas and spaghetti. Of a total of 174 foodstuffs collected during a 2-year period, Cs-134 was detected in 2 (1.1%) and Cs-137 was detected in 22 (12.6%). According to foodstuffs, radiosecium was commonly found in spaghetti, green teas, and nuts. In monthly survey for radiosecium contents in spaghetti, the Chernobyl accident may influence the content of both Cs-134 and Cs-137. (N.K.).

  5. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    525–533. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics. AKIRA OZAWA. RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198, Japan. Abstract. Recent experimental programs at RIKEN concerning RI beams are reviewed. RIKEN has the ring cyclotron (RRC) with high intense heavy-ion beams and large ...

  6. Japan. (United States)


    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  7. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted


    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  8. Japan


    Kazujo Suzuki


    This contribution aims to introduce the situation of qualitative research in social science in Japan, with an emphasis on qualitative research in psychology. At first, the history of psychology in Japan is briefly discussed and qualitative research in the history of the Japanese psychology is described. Then trends and problems of qualitative research in present-day psychology are mentioned. Finally, qualitative research in the other social sciences are briefly touched on. URN: urn:nbn:de:...

  9. [Biological characters of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli isolates from diarrhea patients in Saitama (1990-1992)]. (United States)

    Yamada, F; Kurazono, T; Yamaguchi, M; Ohzeki, Y; Okuyama, Y


    A total of 16 strains of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) isolated from diarrea patients in Saitama from 1990 to 1992 were tested for their serotype, verotoxin production, biochemical characteristics, antibiotics sensitivity and plasmid profiles. By serotype analysis, 14 strains from two outbreaks and 12 sporadic cases were classified as type O157:H7, one as O111:H-(not motility) and one as O128:H2. Typing of verotoxin by gene analysis using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) showed that 9 of O157:H7 strains including two cases from outbreaks and O128:H2 have VT1 and VT2 genes, other O157:H7 have the VT2 gene and O111:H-has only the VT1 gene. Biochemical characteristic analysis indicated two strains of O157:H7 type from outbreaks were biotype II and the rest of O157:H7 were biotype I. One of the O157:H7 strain from a sporadic case showed positive for urease production. According to sensitivity tests against antibiotics, out of the O157:H7 group, one strain was resistant against ABPC, one against SM and two strains resistant to SM-TC. For plasmid profiles, all strains had 94 Kb plasmids and several smaller sizes of plasmids. But 5 strains of O157:H7 had 94 Kb plasmid only.

  10. [Increase of poisoning by tropical mushrooms in Japan in recent years]. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Gonmori, Kunio


    A tropical poisonous mushroom, Chlorophyllum molybdites, invaded into Japan in recent years, and distributed in south-eastern and central part of Japan including 27 Prefectures in 2009; Gunma, Tochigi, Saitama, Ibaraki, Tokyo (including Bonin Islands), Chiba, Shizuoka, Ishikawa, Aichi, Mie, Shiga, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka, Wakayama, Hyogo, Tottori, Okayama, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Kagawa, Tokushima, Kochi, Ohita, Kumamoto, Kagoshima and Okinawa. Poisoning by this fungus has increased recently (Table 2). Topics on distribution and poisoning by Russula subnigricans and Podostroma cornu-damae briefly discussed.

  11. Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: an experimental study utilizing motion capture technology


    Yoshimura M; Kitazawa M; Maeda Y.; Mimura M; Tsubota K; Kishimoto T


    Michitaka Yoshimura,1,* Momoko Kitazawa,1–3,* Yasuhiro Maeda,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Kazuo Tsubota,1 Taishiro Kishimoto,4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, Wako, Saitama, 3Department of Nursing, Aino University Junior College, 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, NY, USA *These authors contributed equal...

  12. Formation of Math Teachers’Community in Saitama in 1970’ : From the viewpoints of On the Job Training and Editing Training Manuals


    小川, 正; 二宮, 裕之


    This paper is about the formation process of Mathematics Teachers’ Community in Saitama, when they had new mathematics movement in 1970’s. Because of so called “Sputnik crisis” in 1957, the modernization of mathematics education became one of the important issues in Japanese society. New mathematics concepts, such as set theory, function, probability, and so on, were strongly focused on by mathematics teachers. However, since such concepts were new to most of the teachers, Prefectural Board o...

  13. Japan 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven


    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  14. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...... (WNF). Through the alumni network, Japan continues to infuse ideas to participants and alumni, who interpret and disseminate these ideas through alumni society networks and activities, but their discussions nationally and regionally also get reported back to Japan and affect future policies...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The RIKEN School on ''Quark-Gluon Structure of the Nucleon and QCD'' was held from March 29th through 31st at the Nishina Memorial Hall of RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan, sponsored by RIKEN (the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research). The school was the second of a new series with a broad perspective of hadron and nuclear physics. The purpose of the school was to offer young researchers an opportunity to learn theoretical aspects of hadron physics based on QCD and related experimental programs being or to be carried out by Japanese groups. We had 3 theoretical courses, each consisting of 3 one-hour lectures, and 6 experimental courses, each consisting of a one-hour lecture.

  16. Exploration of underground basement structures in Kanto plain using the spatial autocorrelation method. 1. S-wave velocity structure along the line from Hatoyama, Saitama to Noda, Chiba; Kukan jiko sokanho ni yoru Kanto heiya no kiban kozo tansa. 1. Saitamaken Hatoyama machi - Chibaken Nodashi kan no S ha sokudo kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, T.; Umezawa, N.; Shiraishi, H. [Saitama Institute of Environmental Pollution, Saitama (Japan)


    The Saitama prefectural government has been conducting basement structure exploration using the spatial autocorrelation method by dividing the entire plain area into meshes, for the purpose of improving the accuracy of estimating large-scale seismic damages. This paper reports the result of explorations on meshes in the east-west direction in the central part of Saitama Prefecture. The present exploration was intended on ten meshes in the east-west direction along the north latitude 36-degree line. The number of exploration points is 13 comprising three points on the hilly area bordering on the eastern edge of the Kanto mountainous area and ten points on the plain area. The arrangement constitutes a traverse line with a total distance of about 33 km from the west edge (Hatoyama-machi in Saitama Prefecture) to the east edge (Noda City in Chiba Prefecture). The phase velocities were estimated from the result of the array microtremor observations using the spatial autocorrelation method applied with the FET. The phase velocities were used to estimate underground structures by using an inverse analysis. As a result, detailed two-dimensional S-wave velocity structures were revealed on the traverse line. The velocity cross section expresses change in the basement structures with sufficient resolution, and at the same time the information is judged highly harmonious with existing deep boring data and the result of artificial earthquake exploration. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn


    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  18. A Comparison of the Phosphorus Content in Prescription Medications for Hemodialysis Patients in Japan. (United States)

    Shimoishi, Kazuki; Anraku, Makoto; Uto, Ayako; Iohara, Daisuke; Hirayama, Fumitoshi; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Zingami, Sachiko; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki


     A high dietary intake of phosphorus is considered to be a significant health threat for hemodialysis (HD) patients. Prescription medications, which might be a major source of phosphorus, is largely unrecognized in Japan. However, the amount of phosphorus indicated on the package label, is not quantified. In this study, the phosphorus content of 22 of the most widely prescribed medications that are used in conjunction with HD therapy were examined and differences between branded and generic prescription medications were compared. All samples were selected from medications that are typically prescribed for HD patients. The samples were ground prior to analysis. Phosphorus was measured using the Wako L-Type Phosphate method. All instruments used in the study were calibrated according to the manufacturers' specifications. Amlodipine (15 mg/tablet) and paroxetine (30.0 mg/tablet) were found to contain higher contents of phosphorus than the medications tested. Differences in phosphorus content between branded and generic drugs was also determined. The phosphorus content of all generic paroxetine preparations was significantly lower than the values for identical branded medications. On the other hand, the phosphorus content of several generic amlodipine preparations were significantly different from those of similar, branded preparations. Specific information regarding the phosphorus content of prescribed medications used by HD patient needs to be made available to the dialysis community.

  19. Eating Behavior and Childhood Overweight Among Population-Based Elementary Schoolchildren in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akatsuki Kokaze


    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between eating behavior and childhood overweight among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Data was collected from fourth graders (9 or 10 years of age from Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, and lifestyle, including eating behaviors (eating until full and chewing thoroughly, was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, and height and weight were measured directly. Overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 4027 subjects (2079 boys and 1948 girls were analyzed. Chewing thoroughly was associated with a significantly decreased odds ratio (OR for being overweight, whereas eating until full significantly increased the OR for being overweight (OR: 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.94 among boys. However, eating until full was not associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight among the group that reported chewing thoroughly, whereas it was associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight (2.02, 1.38–2.94 among boys who did not chew thoroughly. In conclusion, eating until full or not chewing thoroughly was associated with being overweight among elementary schoolchildren. Results of this study suggest that chewing thoroughly may be an avenue to explore childhood overweight prevention efforts.

  20. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)


    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  1. Effects of the Change in Working Status on the Health of Older People in Japan. (United States)

    Minami, Ushio; Nishi, Mariko; Fukaya, Taro; Hasebe, Masami; Nonaka, Kumiko; Koike, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Yoh; Uchida, Hayato; Fujiwara, Yoshinori


    Working at old ages is regarded as a good way to keep one's health according to the idea of productive aging. However, there is not enough evidence yet whether retirement is good or bad, or the kind of effects it has on the health of older adults aged 65 and over. We examined it by using a recent data of Wako city, a suburb area near Tokyo in Japan. One thousand seven hundred sixty-eight participants answered to 3 waves of survey questionnaires: 2008, 2010, and 2012, successively. We considered 3 indicators of health; self-rated health, mental health (GDS15) and HLFC (Higher-Level Functional Capacity: TMIG-IC). In cross-sectional analysis, we compared these 3 indicators by three groups: full-time worker, part-time worker, and non-worker. In longitudinal analysis, we compared these three indicators by two groups: subjects who successively worked in 2008, 2010, 2012, and subjects who worked in 2008 but retired before 2010. We used one-way and two way repeated measures ANCOVA for these analyses, respectively. It was significantly clear that retirement worsened both mental health and HLFC in people aged 65 years and over; especially, mental health worsened rapidly and HLFC gradually. However, these indicators didn't worsen in subjects who changed from full-time jobs to part-time jobs. Quitting from part-time jobs deteriorated mental health gradually and HLFC moderately compared to full-time jobs. The results support the activity theory that older adults who quit from full-time jobs deteriorated both mental health and HLFC, though at different speeds. If they make a transit to part-time jobs, the deterioration would be moderate. It shows that working is an effective way of social participation for older people aged 65 years and over in Japan.

  2. Effects of the Change in Working Status on the Health of Older People in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushio Minami

    Full Text Available Working at old ages is regarded as a good way to keep one's health according to the idea of productive aging. However, there is not enough evidence yet whether retirement is good or bad, or the kind of effects it has on the health of older adults aged 65 and over. We examined it by using a recent data of Wako city, a suburb area near Tokyo in Japan.One thousand seven hundred sixty-eight participants answered to 3 waves of survey questionnaires: 2008, 2010, and 2012, successively. We considered 3 indicators of health; self-rated health, mental health (GDS15 and HLFC (Higher-Level Functional Capacity: TMIG-IC. In cross-sectional analysis, we compared these 3 indicators by three groups: full-time worker, part-time worker, and non-worker. In longitudinal analysis, we compared these three indicators by two groups: subjects who successively worked in 2008, 2010, 2012, and subjects who worked in 2008 but retired before 2010. We used one-way and two way repeated measures ANCOVA for these analyses, respectively.It was significantly clear that retirement worsened both mental health and HLFC in people aged 65 years and over; especially, mental health worsened rapidly and HLFC gradually. However, these indicators didn't worsen in subjects who changed from full-time jobs to part-time jobs. Quitting from part-time jobs deteriorated mental health gradually and HLFC moderately compared to full-time jobs.The results support the activity theory that older adults who quit from full-time jobs deteriorated both mental health and HLFC, though at different speeds. If they make a transit to part-time jobs, the deterioration would be moderate. It shows that working is an effective way of social participation for older people aged 65 years and over in Japan.

  3. Competition in Japan


    Porter, Michael E.; Mariko Sakakibara


    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  4. Japan: population. (United States)

    According to an official survey released on November 27, Japan's farming households continued to decline in the past 5 years although the rate of reduction slowed considerably from the preceding 5-year period. This survey is conducetd every 5 years by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries for reporting to the UN Food and Agricultural Organization. The latest survey placed the number of such households at 4,661,000 as of the end of February 1980 which is a decrese of 5.9% from 5 years ago. Of the total, the number of households specializing in agriculture, or those totally dependent on income from farming rose by 1.1% to 623,000 during the 5-year period. This 1980 survey also found a number of other statistics. There was an increasing number of younger male farmers switching to other jobs. Of the 623,000 households specializing in farming, those with male farmers under 65 years of age dropped by 4.7% while those without such farmers rose by 16.5%. The number of households with 1 or more farmers who engaged in farming at least 150 days annually fell by 17.9% to 1.83 million. The decline was in contrast to a 3.9% rise in the number of households devoid of such farmers. The number of forestry households declined by 1.7% in the past 10 years to total 2,531,000 as of last February. The rate of decrease, however, was much lower than the 5.2% registered in the preceding 10 years. Farming villages in the country totalled 142,384 with the average number of farming households in a village standing at 141. Agricultural mechanization also progressed significantly during the period under review. The number of power tillers and agricultural tractors/100 farming households increased from 79.3 units at the end of February 1975 to 90.6 units this year.

  5. Academic Libraries in Japan (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki


    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  6. Adaptation of the European Commission-recommended user testing method to patient medication information leaflets in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto M


    Full Text Available Michiko Yamamoto,1 Hirohisa Doi,1 Ken Yamamoto,2 Kazuhiro Watanabe,2 Tsugumichi Sato,3 Machi Suka,4 Takeo Nakayama,5 Hiroki Sugimori6 1Department of Drug Informatics, Center for Education & Research on Clinical Pharmacy, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Center for Education & Research on Clinical Pharmacy, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba, Japan; 4Department of Public Health and Environmental Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Health Informatics, Kyoto University School of Public, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Sports and Health Sciences, Daito Bunka University, Saitama, Japan Background: The safe use of drugs relies on providing accurate drug information to patients. In Japan, patient leaflets called Drug Guide for Patients are officially available; however, their utility has never been verified. This is the first attempt to improve Drug Guide for Patients via user testing in Japan.Purpose: To test and improve communication of drug information to minimize risk for patients via user testing of the current and revised versions of Drug Guide for Patients, and to demonstrate that this method is effective for improving Drug Guide for Patients in Japan.Method: We prepared current and revised versions of the Drug Guide for Patients and performed user testing via semi-structured interviews with consumers to compare these versions for two guides for Mercazole and Strattera. We evenly divided 54 participants into two groups with similar distributions of sex, age, and literacy level to test the differing versions of the Mercazole guide. Another group of 30 participants were divided evenly to test the versions of the Strattera guide. After completing user testing, the participants evaluated both guides in terms of amount of information

  7. The development of contemporary music culture of Tuva (a view from Japan

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    Mao Terada


    Full Text Available A philologist, graduate of Wako University (Tokyo, first heard Tuvan music in 1999 from a CD of a world-renowned band “Huun Huur Tu”. She started learning to perform xöömei. In 2000s she visited Tuva to participate in musical festivals, and in 2006 she decided to stay here to study music traditions. The musical life of Tuva does not stand still and steadily develops. In this article the author shares her personal observations and opinions on whether how and which direction does the contemporary Tuvan music evolve. There are a number of reasons for profound interest of the Japanese in Tuvan throat singing. Citizens of urbanized country, they feel the lack of “live” impressions, they are detached from the environment. Japan has almost no tale-tellers or ancient music instrument players left, reading sutras by Buddhist lamas became a very rare thing. Japanese compensate their sorrow for ancient sounds with the sounds of xöömei and Tuvan songs that express different moods and have a wide range of genres. The diversity of Tuvan musical instruments is amazing. The number of xöömei performers in Japan is constantly rising. Japanese xöömei performers invite Tuvan xöömeiji every year to Japan and visit Tuva within the cultural exchange programs. Tuvan musicians are in lasting creative pursuit. The music itself undergoes permanent versatile evolution. The author also takes interest in the best practices of women xöömei performers. Xöömei is being performed together with half-lost ancient melodies, the yet undiscovered variants of xöömei must be specific, as well. Performing xöömei in combination with modern forms of music-making significantly changes the context of xöömei’s functionality. Nonetheless, many young xöömeiji started rendering this unique art in more and more monotonous way. Every year we also see an increase in the number of foreign xöömei-performers.

  8. Quality of life among the family caregivers of patients with terminal cancer at home in Japan. (United States)

    Ito, Eriko; Tadaka, Etsuko


    To identify the associated factors of quality of life (QOL) among the family caregivers of patients with terminal cancer at home. The design was an epidemiological study with self-administered questionnaires by mail. Date collection was carried out in the Tokyo Metropolitan, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa, Nara, Hyogo, Kagawa, Ehime, and Saga prefectures in Japan. The participants who met the criteria for the present study were 262 family caregivers. Their QOL was assessed by the Japanese version of the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer. The potential factors that are associated with family caregivers' QOL included three factors: patient factors, including demographic characteristics and disease-related factors, family caregiver factors, including demographic characteristics, health conditions, and self-efficacy of family caregiving, and environmental factors, including instrumental, emotional, informational support, and satisfaction with the home care service. A multiple regression analysis was conducted in order to identify the associated factors with family caregivers' QOL. A total of 74 family caregivers participated in this study (response rate: 33.2%). The mean age of the family caregivers was 63.6 years and 79.7% was female. The multiple regression analysis indicated that depression, self-efficacy of family caregiving, the subcaregiver, and satisfaction with the home care service were associated with family caregivers' QOL. It is recommended that health practitioners should develop interventions for family caregivers in order to enhance the competence of the individual and home care system in order to achieve the sustainability of high-quality home care for patients with terminal cancer and the family caregivers' QOL. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  9. IRBA SERIES : Accounting In Japan


    Arai, Kiyomitsu


    Preface / Legal and Conceptual Framework of Accounting in Japan / Setting Accounting Standards in Japan - The American Influence and The Present Status / Accounting Education and Profession in Japan / The International Harmonization of Accounting Standards / The Accounting Standard Setting in Japan and Its Responses to International Accounting Standards / Selected Bibliography for Accounting in Japan

  10. null Kirishima, Japan Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The shield volcano consists of more than 20 eruptive centers over a 20 x 30 km area that also includes Japan's first national park. Sixty-nine eruptions have been...

  11. Paper making in Japan


    Macfarlane, Alan


    A paper making factory in Japan where the traditional mulberry paper is still made. The various stage in the pulping, floating and using of paper are shown and some of the effects of the development of paper are discussed.

  12. VSATs in Japan (United States)

    Fujii, Akira


    In Japan, VSAT private domestic communications satellites, JCSAT and SuperBird, carrying Ku-band transponders, were launched in 1989. To expedite a wider use of these VSAT systems, regulations were amended in June 1989 to permit simplified licensing procedures for the VSATs which conformed to technical standards. This contribution describes the usage of VSAT systems in Japan along with the licensing procedures and the technical standards.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The RIKEN-TODAI Mini-Workshop on ''Topics in Hadron Physics at RHIC'' was held on March 23rd and 24th, 2064 at the Nishina Memorial Hall of RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan, sponsored by RIKEN (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and TODAI (University of Tokyo). The workshop was planned when we learned that two distinguished theorists in hadron physics, Professors L. McLerran and S.H. Lee, would be visiting TODAI and/or RIKEN during the week of March 22-26. We asked them to give key talks at the beginning of the workshop and attend the sessions consisting of talks by young theorists in RIKEN, TODAI and other institutes in Japan and they kindly agreed on both. Considering the JPS meeting scheduled from March 27 through 30, we decided to have workshop on March 23 and 24. The purpose of the workshop was to offer young researchers an opportunity to learn the forefront of hadron physics as well as to discuss their own works with the distinguished theorists.

  14. Water in the Gas Phase. (United States)


    Japon 123 Georg JANSEN Institut für Theoretische Chemie Universität Düsseldorf Universitätsstr. 1 D-40225 Düsseldorf Allemagne Christoph JANZEN...Institute of Physical and Chemical Research 351-01 Wako-shi Saitama Japon Jean-Paul VISTICOT C.E.A . D.R.E.C.A.M. / S.P.A.M. C.E.A. Saclay 91191

  15. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  16. Space robotics in Japan (United States)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter


    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  17. Cultural Astronomy in Japan (United States)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  18. Advanced composites in Japan (United States)

    Diefendorf, R. Judd; Hillig, William G.; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Pipes, R. Byron; Perepezko, John H.; Sheehan, James E.


    The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high-performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic, and carbon matrices. Because of a strong carbon and fiber industry, Japan is the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation-resistant carbon/carbon composite program. With its outstanding technical base in carbon technology, Japan should be able to match present technology in the U.S. and introduce lower-cost manufacturing methods. However, the panel did not see any innovative approaches to oxidation protection. Ceramic and especially intermetallic matrix composites were not yet receiving much attention at the time of the panel's visit. There was a high level of monolithic ceramic research and development activity. High temperature monolithic intermetallic research was just starting, but notable products in titanium aluminides had already appeared. Matrixless ceramic composites was one novel approach noted. Technologies for high temperature composites fabrication existed, but large numbers of panels or parts had not been produced. The Japanese have selected aerospace as an important future industry. Because materials are an enabling technology for a strong aerospace industry, Japan initiated an ambitious long-term program to develop high temperature composites. Although just starting, its progress should be closely monitored in the U.S.

  19. The Graying of Japan. (United States)

    Martin, Linda G.


    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought…

  20. Language Testing in Japan. (United States)

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm-…

  1. Dutch surgery in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, Thomas M.; Nimura, Yuji


    An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of

  2. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development


    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  3. Japans Defense Program Guidelines (United States)


    versions of the NDPG. Nevertheless, it limited the size of the SDF by imposing a fiscal ceiling of 1.0% of Japan’s gross national product ( GNP ) on...domestic product ( GDP ).10 Although both the 2004 and 2010 NDPGs evaluated the security environment surrounding Japan as being complicated and

  4. Teaching Unit: Japan. (United States)

    Evans, Dina

    The cultural diversity of Japan can provide a rewarding learning experience for children of all grade levels. This teaching unit includes resources and ideas for the study of Japanese society, art, folklore, and poetry. Included among the instructional objectives are: (1) children will compare U.S. lifestyles with Japanese lifestyles by reading…

  5. 1993 Hokkaido, Japan Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On July 12, 1993, a magnitude 7.6 Ms (7.7 Mw) (HRV) earthquake at 13:17 UT in the Sea of Japan near Hokkaido caused a back-arc tsunami that caused damage in all of...

  6. Globalization and Education in Japan (United States)

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako


    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  7. Elder care in Japan. (United States)

    Nakane, Junko; Farevaag, Mariko


    The social and health care issues surrounding the elderly in Japan have been described focussing on the long-term care issues and the LTCI System. Because the Japanese have traditionally held a strong sense of family, they have believed that the family should look after a family member. The burden of caregiving had become so serious to many families that the situation has been called "caregiving hell". In those situations, the LTCI System seems to be succeeding in releasing the families from the unbearable burden of caregiving. However, there are many problems associated with the LTCI System. The system adopted the social insurance system because of its clearly defined relationships between the provision of services and the insured persons' share of the costs of services. Keeping with the system's principle, the insured persons' rights must be respected and the system must continually be improved so that they could choose the necessary and the most appropriate services to meet their needs. Japan has been experiencing the aging of its society at an unprecedented rate, which no other nation in the world has experienced. The world is watching Japan with interest to see how it responds to the grave issues of an aged society. The necessary systems and services should not be provided because the funding is available. Rather, the funding should be arranged so that the necessary systems and services can be provided. It is said that some countries intend to study the merit of Japan's strong sense of family ties and to utilize the strength of family ties to enhance their elder care. Considering such an idea it is hoped that, with collective efforts, the health care and the social welfare services for the elderly in Japan will continue to improve in the future.

  8. [Gambling disorder in Japan]. (United States)

    Tanabe, Hitoshi


    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling.

  9. Moral Education in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where...... ‘religion’ is not a subject in schools. So, how do the Japanese go about the business of teaching values and morality? Using the Japanese example, this volume looks at moral education from the basic point of view of universal and common human values, with due attention given to culture-specific traits....... It places moral education within the context of globalization and cosmopolitanism and shows, that moral education in Japan is a useful key to understanding how globalization and cosmopolitanism can work within a specific system, in this case Japanese values education. In recent years various changes...

  10. Social Education in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Kawano


    Full Text Available The concept similar to social pedagogy is ‘social education’ in Japan. The aim of this paper is to clarify the reality of social education in Japan, through discussion on the history, theory, methodologies, professionalization and practice of social education in Japan. The goal of social education is to achieve individual self-fulfillment by either systematically organizing formal education and non-formal education, or accumulating non-formal education, and at the same time, contributing to a better society. It also means the realization of a social capital in a community. The realization of a better society and individual self-fulfillment are the social welfare philosophy itself. Although the ways of approaching social education and social welfare are different, it may be said that they share the same philosophy.In recent years, there have been attempts to integrate social education and welfare, and develop structurally-consolidated practices in some communities. Administratively, it is a challenge to bureaucratic sectionalism, and the problem is with the arrangement of staffing who are in charge of its practice. It is possible to create a Social Education Welfare practice in communities by assigning staff who are in charge of social education and staff who are in charge of social welfare. Both of the groups will cooperate and work together. The practice carried out by the cooperation between social education and welfare will lead to the development of community and also the structure of community governance.  In the future, it is required to develop communities for the purpose of realization of a better society through the practices of social welfare and education. The structure of Social Education Welfare based on communities suggests the direction of social education in Japan in the future.

  11. Psychology in Japan. (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko


    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Domestic violence in Japan. (United States)

    Kozu, J


    Traditionally, domestic violence in Japan referred to children's physical and emotional violence against their parents. However, in recent years, the general public's awareness of and actions toward other types of domestic violence, especially violence against women and children, has increased. Following a brief description of filial violence and elderly abuse, both spousal abuse and child abuse are discussed in terms of their prevalence and cultural and historical backgrounds. The article concludes with current and future challenges in the intervention of violence, particularly against women and children, in the Japanese family.

  13. Nyheder i Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrup, Jens


    Kan man stole på, hvad folk siger, når man ikke ved, hvem de er? Forholdet mellem kildeanonymitet og troværdighed er forskelligt i mediesystemer rundt om i verden. Troværdighed er ingen universel størrelse, men en retorisk effekt der opstår på baggrund af faktorer som er kulturelt og systemisk in...... indlejret. I Japan har seriøse nyhedsmedier et specielt forhold til udsagn fra anonyme kilder, og udstrakt brug af uidentificerede informanter står ikke i modsætning til journalistisk kvalitet og pålidelighed....

  14. School Crisis Intervention in Japan


    MOTOMURA, Naoyasu


    The situation of school crisis intervention in Japan was reviewed in this article. Recently, we have increasing numbers of crimes in schools. Several examples of school crisis intervention were demonstrated. Unfortunately, school crisis intervention is not well organized in Japan. Therefore, school crisis intervention system must be developed in the near future.

  15. Higher Education Studies in Japan (United States)

    Kaneko, Motohisa


    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  16. Positioning Indian Emigration to Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Costa, Anthony


    as other IT-strong developing countries, are to supply technical talent, whose availability in Japan is constrained by the secular demographic crisis and changing educational and occupational preferences. The challenges for India are the institutional barriers, in particular, Japanese business practices....... For Japan, it means access to technical professionals and managed interfacing with the global economy....

  17. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  18. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  19. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests? (United States)

    Barber-meyer, Shannon


    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  20. Contraception in Japan: Current trends. (United States)

    Yoshida, Honami; Sakamoto, Haruka; Leslie, Asuka; Takahashi, Osamu; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Kitamura, Kunio


    High proportion of Japanese uses condoms; lower proportion uses oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). We examined the longitudinal patterns for contraceptive usage in Japan and evaluated differences before and after OCP government approval. We accessed nationally representative survey data for women aged 16-49years from 1950 to 2014. Usage of condoms and OCP was 83.4% and 3.0%, respectively in 2014. OCP use before (1.21%) and after (1.97%) government approval did not differ significantly (p=.58). The prevalence of OCP usage remains low in Japan. A wide gap in use between Japan and other developed countries exists. Through a wide gap in OCP use between Japan and other countries, we revealed how choices of contraceptive methods and their benefits could be openly available for women of reproductive age, and how health care professionals disseminate appropriate knowledge about contraception for women in need. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan (United States)

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio


    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  2. Sample (S): SE22_S08 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ind., Tokyo, Japan, and Kanto Hiryou Ind., Saitama, Japan) and kept in the contro...awn in the pot (500 ml) filled with mixture of vermiculite and Powersoil (mix ratio 1 to 1, Kureha Chemical

  3. Sample (S): SE22_S01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ind., Tokyo, Japan, and Kanto Hiryou Ind., Saitama, Japan) and kept in the contro...awn in the pot (500 ml) filled with mixture of vermiculite and Powersoil (mix ratio 1 to 1, Kureha Chemical

  4. Sample (S): SE22_S03 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ind., Tokyo, Japan, and Kanto Hiryou Ind., Saitama, Japan) and kept in the contro...awn in the pot (500 ml) filled with mixture of vermiculite and Powersoil (mix ratio 1 to 1, Kureha Chemical

  5. Sample (S): SE22_S02 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ind., Tokyo, Japan, and Kanto Hiryou Ind., Saitama, Japan) and kept in the contro...awn in the pot (500 ml) filled with mixture of vermiculite and Powersoil (mix ratio 1 to 1, Kureha Chemical

  6. Sample (S): SE22_S04 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ind., Tokyo, Japan, and Kanto Hiryou Ind., Saitama, Japan) and kept in the contro...awn in the pot (500 ml) filled with mixture of vermiculite and Powersoil (mix ratio 1 to 1, Kureha Chemical

  7. Sample (S): SE22_S05 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ind., Tokyo, Japan, and Kanto Hiryou Ind., Saitama, Japan) and kept in the contro...awn in the pot (500 ml) filled with mixture of vermiculite and Powersoil (mix ratio 1 to 1, Kureha Chemical

  8. Sample (S): SE22_S06 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ind., Tokyo, Japan, and Kanto Hiryou Ind., Saitama, Japan) and kept in the contro...awn in the pot (500 ml) filled with mixture of vermiculite and Powersoil (mix ratio 1 to 1, Kureha Chemical

  9. Sample (S): SE22_S07 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ind., Tokyo, Japan, and Kanto Hiryou Ind., Saitama, Japan) and kept in the contro...awn in the pot (500 ml) filled with mixture of vermiculite and Powersoil (mix ratio 1 to 1, Kureha Chemical

  10. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund


    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence...... of development and discourse on morality, values and identity. I propose seeing the contents of moral education as a reaction to the challenges of globalization, as a reaction to the risks experienced in modern globalized society and to the anxiety born out of the challenges, ‘real’ or ‘imagined,’ perceived...... to be posed by globalization. I would suggest that a productive point of departure would be to look at initiatives concerning moral education as ‘gate-keeping’, where those in a position of influence try to safeguard what is considered basic and inalienable in Japanese culture and morality, while also...

  11. Workplace Health Promotion in Japan


    Brandberg, Rikard


    The rapidly aging population in Japan constitutes a problem as public health expenditure is expected to increase. At the same time, the working part of the population is decreasing straining the health insurance scheme. Since the workplace is a setting that influences a large part of the adults for a long part of their lives, workplace health promotion has potential to improve the situation. This paper examines how workplaces in Japan are used for health promotion. Deductive content analysis ...

  12. Japan Sports Arbitration Agency (JSAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina P. Rusakova


    Full Text Available In this article author analyzes the activities of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency. Author considers the goals, objectives and procedure for dealing with disputes relating to the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes. Author study the regulation of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency, to resolve disputes relating to the use of doping, as well as the procedure for application and acceptance of its agency, the choice of arbitrators, counterclaim, protection of evidence.

  13. High definition systems in Japan (United States)

    Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane


    The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

  14. Japan and climate change: responses and explanations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Y.


    The purpose of this paper is to assess Japan's response to climate change negotiation in the last decade, and to forecast it in the future. For Japan, hosting the 3rd Conference of the Parties (COP3) to the Convention was a significant milestone that changed Japan's response from reactive to proactive. Since then, Japan has been keen on taking a lead in the negotiation, but without much success. This failure is due to several reasons: (1) Japan's high standard on energy efficiency per GDP and thus its difficulty to make further improvement; (2) Japan's foreign policy has considered U.S.-Japan relation to be the most important, and (3) Japan's culture that cherished harmony rather than becoming a leader. These features are likely to remain in the future as long as Japan's decision-making system itself remains the same. (author)

  15. High-molecular-weight adiponectin and anthropometric variables among elementary schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Hirotaka


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies about the relationship between high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-adn and anthropometric variables among population-based elementary schoolchildren have been too limited, especially in Japan, where blood collection is not usually performed in the annual health examination at elementary schools. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between HMW-adn and anthropometric variables (body mass index [BMI], percent body fat [%BF], waist circumference [WC], and waist-to-height ratio [WHtR] among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Methods Subjects comprised all fourth-grade schoolchildren (9 or 10 years of age in the town of Ina, Saitama Prefecture, Japan during 2005–2008 (N = 1675. After excluding 21 subjects because of refusal to participate or incomplete data, data from a total of 1654 subjects (846 boys and 808 girls were analyzed. The height, weight, %BF, and WC of each subject were measured, while blood samples were drawn from the subjects to measure adiponectin levels (HMW-adn and total adiponectin. Childhood obesity was determined according to the age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between adiponectin levels and anthropometric variables were calculated for each sex. Results The anthropometric variables were negatively correlated with HMW-adn in both boys and girls. Correlation coefficients of HMW-adn with anthropometric variables in the obesity group were consistently higher than those in the non-obesity group among both boys and girls. In addition, only WHtR was significantly correlated with HMW-adn regardless of sex and physique (obesity or non-obesity; the correlation coefficient was -0.386 among boys and -0.543 among girls in the obesity group, while it was -0.124 among boys and -0.081 among girls in the non-obesity group. Conclusions HMW-adn was negatively correlated

  16. Japan in International Capital Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia M. Rebrey


    Full Text Available Japan, the largest net exporter of investment plays one of key roles in the in-ternational capital flows and has a serious impact on the global trends in this important dimension of international economic relations. Vast amounts of for-eign direct investment (FDI outflow are important for the Japanese national economy as well, since Japanese overseas production in some areas reaches 40% and is an important part of its industrial potential. However, FDI inflow remains low, indicating an unbalanced participation of Japan in the international capital flows. Japan in international capital flows presents a field for complex numerous research. This article concentrates on analysis of dynamics and geographical structure of capital flows, reveal the trends, and estimate the effect of Abenomics.

  17. Local Government System in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Redko


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of the activities of the local government of Japan. Particular attention is drawn to the legal framework and the material basis for the functioning of local self-government bodies. The system of local self-government is considered as a special form of self-government with a specific functional and meaning; system of municipal management and delegation of authority, as well as features of interaction between civil and imperious levels. The allocation of the city with a special status, as well as the financial structure of the local government of Japan, is considered in detail.

  18. The educational system in Japan (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.


    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  19. Energy scenario - Japan (updated 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Louis Wibberley


    Japan is unique in Asia, as the population has effectively plateaued with population declines projected in the medium to longer term future. As a developed economy it has a fuel efficient industry, and low energy consumption per capita, and per unit of GDP. Japan has a number of key strategic actions to have most advanced energy structure, a high degree of energy and environment cooperation with others, and a strengthened emergency energy response capability. This report updates the Centre's earlier study published in 2005. 54 refs., 22 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Japan og Singapore i Arktis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki; Watters, Stewart


    are interested in the Arctic. Looking at the Arctic engagement of Japan and Singapore, this paper finds that their interest in the Polar Regions is not necessarily a new phenomenon and that Arctic policy, as with the development of other foreign policy objectives, is a complex mix of national, bureaucratic...... and group interests. For Greenlandic and Danish policymakers, it may be useful to understand the genesis of Japan and Singapore’s Arctic policies and that their interest is complex and multi-faceted....

  1. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... whether revocation of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to...

  2. Japan's Renaissance and Its Effect to ASEAN


    Hidayat, Syafril


    Japan has developed a new security policy against China in East China Sea, which has increased tension in that region. Japan's new leadership under Shinzo Abe, who has conservative political view, has unbeatable policy against China's hegemony. Abe revised Japan Self-Defence Forces role in the Japanese Constitution by making critical amendments on particular articles, which should be seen as Japan's bargaining power against China. The two major powers in East China Sea can be seen as security...

  3. Toshiba viste os Japans svaghed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen


    Corporate governance (selskabsledelse, red.) er blevet moderne i Japan som led i Shinzo Abe-regeringens forsøg på at revitalisere landets økonomi. Krav om øget rentabilitet gjorde det endnu sværere at indrømme problemerne. Direktøren tager skyldenI en dansk eller amerikansk virksomhed ville en ny...

  4. Japan's Intellectual Challenge: The Future. (United States)

    Grayson, Lawrence P.


    Questions Japan's ability to maintain its economic success without substantially changing its approach to education. Discusses international responses to the nation's level of exports, the maturing and stabilization of its economy, and the rapid aging of its population and work force as trends that may require significant change. (BC)

  5. How Japan Supports Novice Teachers (United States)

    Ahn, Ruth


    When U.S. educators first hear that Japanese teacher preparation programs require only four weeks of formal student teaching at the end of the credential program, they're appalled: How can this be? More surprising still, few new teachers in Japan (1.35 percent) leave the profession during their first year. So where are these beginning teachers…

  6. Modernization of Education in Japan. (United States)

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The document traces the development of education in Japan from the 17th century to the present. It is presented in four chapters. Chapter one discusses the Tokugawa Period (1603-1867). Principal forms of schooling were hanko for the Samurai class and terakoya for the commoners. The hanko were established for the benefit of the fiefs; objectives of…

  7. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan (United States)


    as the supporting mother ship for "Shinkai 6500." In the marine observation technology project, in an attempt to use efficiently the Japan Current...make bread with frozen bread dough . Also, under the same category, the project for "Research concerning the production of the traditional processed

  8. Entrepreneurship and unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stel, A.; Thurik, R.; Verheul, I.; Baljeu, L.


    We examine the relationship between entrepreneurship (as measured by fluctuations in the business ownership rate) and unemployment in Japan for the period between 1972 and 2002. We find that, although Japan’s unemployment rate has been influenced by specific exogenous shocks, the effects of

  9. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan... antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  10. Urban and spatial planning in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Tominaga


    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

  11. The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy (United States)

    Kumano, Ruriko


    During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

  12. Recent meteor observing activities in Japan (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.


    The meteor train observation (METRO) campaign is described as an example of recent meteor observing activity in Japan. Other topics of meteor observing activities in Japan, including Ham-band radio meteor observation, the ``Japan Fireball Network'', the automatic video-capture software ``UFOCapture'', and the Astro-classroom programme are also briefly introduced.

  13. Urban and spatial planning in Japan


    Marin Tominaga


    This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

  14. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana


    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  15. Aging, Saving, and Public Pensions in Japan


    Horioka, Charles Yuji; Suzuki, Wataru; Hatta, Tatsuo


    We analyze the impact of population aging on Japan's household saving rate and on its public pension system and the impact of that system on Japan's household saving rate and obtain the following results: first, the age structure of Japan's population can explain the level of, and past and future trends in, its household saving rate; second, the rapid aging of Japan's population is causing Japan's household saving rate to decline and this decline can be expected to continue; third, the pay-as...

  16. Japan`s refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Japan`s downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country`s refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry.

  17. Energy scenarios - Japan (updated 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Louis Wibberley


    Since the previous report covering Asia, there have been major changes in the energy scene, with the rapid growth in energy consumption in China, which has now displaced Japan as the second largest consumer of oil in the world. This has led to concerns in energy security in oil, but also in coal, since China is rapidly moving toward becoming a net coal importer. There has also been a major increase in coal prices (both thermal and coking) since 2003, with coking coal doubling in price between 2004 and 2005, and the thermal coal price increasing by a third in the same period. Further, with the recent ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, Japan will have major challenge in achieving its commitment on greenhouse gas emissions (GGE). This report updates an earlier study of the Japanese energy scenario in light of these changes.

  18. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan. (United States)

    Kondo, N; Monta, M; Fujiura, T


    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato, petty-tomato, cucumber and grape in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  19. WDC Activities in Japan, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Watanabe


    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews the activities of the International Council for Science (ICSU World Data Centers (WDCs in Japan at a time of great change in the data and information structures of the ICSU ? the creation of the World Data System (WDS in 2009. Seven WDCs are currently operating in Japan: the WDC for Airglow, the WDC for Cosmic Rays, the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, the WDC for Ionosphere, the WDC for Solar Radio Emission, and the WDC for Space Science Satellites. Although these WDCs are highly active, along-term support system must be established to ensure the stewardship and provision of quality-assessed data and data services to the international science community.

  20. Marketing medical devices in Japan. (United States)

    Ohashi, J


    The control of medical devices in Japan has recently undergone significant changes as the country brings its systems into line with those of the United States and Europe. This article discusses pre-market approval, quality system requirements and post-market surveillance. Many technical issues have been harmonized but language is likely to continue to be a barrier to trade. Details of information services that are available to foreign manufacturers and importers are supplied.

  1. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 10, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Contents (partial): Japan: Fabrication of Diamond Single Crystal Thin Film by Ion Beam Deposition; Japan: Hitachi Metal Develops New Semi Solid Metal Processing Technology; Japan: NTT Develops Fuel Cell System That Uses Both City Gas, LPG; Japan: Daihatsu Motor Completes Prototype EV; Japan: NIRIM Announces Success With Synthetic Bone Development; Japan: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Plans Clinical Trials of Gene Therapy to Cerebral Tumor in Japan; Japan: MITI To Provide Aid for Residential Solar Power Generation Systems; Japan: MELCO To Provide Satellite Solar Cell Panel for SSL, USA; Japan: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Leads Nuclear Research; Japan: Kobe Steel`s Superconducting Magnet Ready to Go Fast; Japan: MPT To Begin Validation Test for Electric Money Implementation; and Japan: Defense Agency to Send ASDF`s Pilots to Russia for Training.

  2. Japan's hidden youths: mainstreaming the emotionally distressed in Japan. (United States)

    Borovoy, Amy


    One of the most talked-about social issues in Japan in recent years has been the problem of the nation's purportedly one million "hidden" youths, known as hikikomori (literally, "the withdrawn"). Most observers agree that the category of hikikomori encompasses a wide range of problems and provocations. The fact that these various dilemmas lead to the shared outcome of shutting oneself away at home is the point of departure here. The article explores the spheres of mental health care, education and family, focusing on the reluctance to highlight underlying psychological dimensions of hikikomori and the desire on the part of schools and families to "mainstream" Japanese children, accommodating as many as possible within standardized public education. Hikikomori can perhaps be seen as a manifestation of Japanese democracy, in which the good society is imagined as cohesive, protective and secure, rather than one in which the individual can freely exercise the right to be different. Schools, families and the sphere of mental health care have focused on producing social inclusion but have discouraged citizens from being labeled as "different" -- even when such a distinction might help them. The dearth of facilities and discourse for caring for the mentally ill or learning disabled is, in many respects, the darker side of Japan's successes. Those who cannot adjust are cared for through the institutions of families, companies and various other spheres that offer spaces to rest and to temporarily "drop out"; however, the expectation is that rest will eventually lead to a re-entry into mainstream society. Often the psychological problem or disability that led to the problem goes unnamed and untreated (hikikomori, psychiatry, special education, youth, family, Japan).

  3. The 8th Japan Bioanalysis Forum symposium. (United States)

    Matsumaru, Takehisa


    The 8th Japan Bioanalysis Forum symposium, the Tower Hall Funabori, Tokyo, Japan, 8-9 February 2017 The 8th Japan Bioanalysis Forum (JBF) symposium was successfully held between 8 and 9 February 2017 at the Tower Hall Funabori, Tokyo, Japan. In total, 24 speakers from Japan, USA and Europe gave presentations regarding the immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals, ICH S3A Q&A microsampling, ICH M10 bioanalytical method validation, large molecule analysis through LC-MS, auditing activities for bioanalysis and biomarker bioanalysis. Achievements regarding eight diverse themes were also shared by Japan Bioanalysis Forum discussion groups. Over 300 scientists from regulatory agencies, industry and academia actively took part in discussions during the symposium. This article provides the highlights of all the topics discussed in this symposium.

  4. Trade Patterns in Japan's Machinery Sector


    Hitoshi Sasaki; Yuko Koga


    This paper analyzes trade patterns in Japan's machinery sector using disaggregated data of export and import commodities. It is found that the vertical intra-industry trade--the two-way trade of products differentiated by quality--with Asian countries expanded in the 1990s. According to the results of the empirical study, this trade pattern is closely related to differences in the capital/labor ratio between Japan and its trading partners, and to Japan's foreign direct investments. It suggest...

  5. Institutionalisation of Japan Identity Construction Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadvornaya Elena S.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the modern politics of identity construction in Japan, which actively refers to the practice of designing self-image in international relations. This trend dates back to the 19th century, when there was the end of Sakoku (Japan’s policy of isolation. It is now possible to talk about the institutionalization of the identity construction policy to organized structures and regulations. Enhanced efforts in the field of Japanese traditional and popular culture, education and creative content has led to a number of institutions appearance (like Japan Foundation Fund, Japan Creative Agency, Japan Culture Fund, Agency for Cultural Affairs, Cool Japan Fund, Japan brand Fund and changing idea about the role of culture in foreign policy realization (it is fixed the documents of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, as well as a number of projects (Cool Japan, Visit Japan, Japan Culture Power, Japan Manga Awards, Kawaii Ambassadors, Cosplay International Fest and etc.. These efforts are aimed at forming Japan identity abroad to solve a number of foreign policy challenges of the future and the development of economic cooperation. The Japanese government nearest plans is to increase funding in order to create a positive image of Japan in the region of East Asia. All of these allows us to speak about the policy of the Japanese construction of identity as an institutionalized process in which there was clearance of organizations and regulatory activities.

  6. Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hori, Masato [JAEA; Kawakubo, Yoko [JAEA; Mcclelland - Kerr, J [NNSA


    There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

  7. English and Discourses of Identity in Japan


    Nathanael, Rudolph


    This paper situates the nature and role of English language learning, education and use in Japan, within Japan’s ongoing socio-historical negotiation of identity in response to its forced opening in 1858. From the time of the Meiji period, social, economic, political and educational discourses in Japanese society have served to construct a“ Japan” and notion of“ Japaneseness” that focuses on a juxtaposition of Japan and the West. English language education in Japan, guided by these dominant d...

  8. Neurosurgeons in Japan Are Exclusively Brain Surgeons. (United States)

    Asamoto, Shunji


    In Japan, neurosurgeons have traditionally mainly treated brain diseases, with most cases involving the spine and spinal diseases historically being treated by orthopedists. Nowadays, spinal surgery is 1 of the many subspecialties in the neurosurgical field in Japan. Most patients with neurological deficits or suspected neurological diseases see board-certified neurosurgeons directly in Japan, not through referrals from family physicians or specialists in other fields. Problems originating in the spine and spinal cord have been overlooked or misdiagnosed in these situations. Neurosurgeons in Japan must rethink the educational program to include advanced trauma life support and spinal surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    En' yo, H.; Kawai, H.; Saito, N.; Shibata, T. A.; Tada, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Yazaki, K.


    The RIKEN School on QCD titled ''Topics on the Proton'' was held on March 26th, 2003 at the Nishina Memorial Hall of RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan, sponsored by REEN (the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research). The school was the third of a new series with a broad perspective of hadron and nuclear physics. The organization and the size of the school were a little different from those of the previous ones. Prof. John Ellis, known as the world best theorist in particle and nuclear physics, has been appointed in RIKEN as an Eminent Scientist, which enables us to plan a collaboration with him for coming three years. As the first year activity, we asked him to give a keynote talk in the JPS spring meeting focusing on the structure of proton, and also to give lectures in RIKEN for younger Japanese scientists on the subjects related the structure of the proton. He kindly agreed on both and we then decided to have a one-day school by supplementing his course with a course on experimental aspects of the proton structure. One of us (N.S.) agreed to give the latter. This time, Theoretical Physics Laboratory joined Radiation Laboratory to organize the school. The purpose of the school was to offer young researchers an opportunity to learn theoretical aspects of the proton structure with a broad perspective including supersymmetry and the related experimental aspects. We had a theoretical course consisting of 3 one-hour lectures by Prof. Ellis and a experimental course consisting of 2 one-hour lectures by Prof. Saito.

  10. Conceptions of CSR in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang


    The objective of this paper is to advance an analysis of different conceptions of CSR in Japan after the Fukushima accident. The literature on CSR suggests that CSR is a complex term that has been open to a variety of interpretations. Until recently, CSR was mainly incorporated into Japanese...... of conceptual and metaphorical "struggle" regarding how to conceive the social responsibilities of companies. It identifies three main conceptions of CSR; a narrow economic conception, a broad economic conception and a systemic conception of CSR. They represent different taken-for-granted conceptual frameworks...

  11. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazopoulos


    Full Text Available Jason Ānanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuzō and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  12. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush


    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  13. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush


    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  14. Medical facility statistics in Japan. (United States)

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Takuya; Hasebe, Ryo; Myat Cho, Su; Khaing, Moe; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Mon Saw, Yu; Yamamoto, Eiko


    Medical facility statistics provide essential information to policymakers, administrators, academics, and practitioners in the field of health services. In Japan, the Health Statistics Office of the Director-General for Statistics and Information Policy at the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is generating these statistics. Although the statistics are widely available in both Japanese and English, the methodology described in the technical reports are primarily in Japanese, and are not fully described in English. This article aimed to describe these processes for readers in the English-speaking world. The Health Statistics Office routinely conduct two surveys called the Hospital Report and the Survey of Medical Institutions. The subjects of the former are all the hospitals and clinics with long-term care beds in Japan. It comprises a Patient Questionnaire focusing on the numbers of inpatients, admissions, discharges, and outpatients in one month, and an Employee Questionnaire, which asks about the number of employees as of October 1. The Survey of Medical Institutions consists of the Dynamic Survey, which focuses on the opening and closing of facilities every month, and the Static Survey, which focuses on staff, facilities, and services as of October 1, as well as the number of inpatients as of September 30 and the total number of outpatients during September. All hospitals, clinics, and dental clinics are requested to submit the Static Survey questionnaire every three years. These surveys are useful tools for collecting essential information, as well as providing occasions to implicitly inform facilities of the movements of government policy.

  15. 3.11: disaster and change in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuels, Richard J


    .... Japan, 2011-Political aspects. 3. Fukushima Nuclear Disaster, Japan, 2011-Political aspects. 4. Japan-Politics and government-21st century. I. Title. II. Title: Three eleven. HV555.J3S26 2013 363.34'9...

  16. US-Japan Relations: 2016 Opens with a Bang

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheila Smith; Charles McClean


    .... To be sure, Japan had company as Trump took aim at all US alliances, but his suggestion that the US should simply let Japan and South Korea go nuclear shocked many, including Japan's Foreign Minister Kishida Fumio...

  17. of Anthropological Studies on Africa in Japan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kyoto University. Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan. Early Contacts: Reports on the Travels in Africa apanese writings on Africa began to appear shortly after the Meiji. Restoration, when Japan transformed itself into a modern state, but these were all based either on the Western sources or. Japanese translations of writings by ...

  18. Korean Students' Minority Schooling Experience in Japan (United States)

    Ahn, Ruth


    A qualitative study conducted in western Japan examined the perceptions of Korean students in Japanese junior high school to identify factors contributing to a consistently low high school advancement rate compared to mainstream Japanese students. Fourteen people were interviewed about their Korean students' experiences in Japan. The findings of…

  19. Crisis of Public Broadcasting Japan's Case. (United States)

    Kabira, Chosei

    The public broadcasting service in Japan, the NHK, is a nongovernmental, noncommercial, and nonprofit making organization that is financed solely by fees collected from viewing households. At present, 80% of the total number of households in Japan have a contract with NHK and 96.5% of these households have actually paid the receiving fee to NHK.…

  20. Japan mellem øst og vest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted; Ipsen, Lene

    Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938.......Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938....

  1. The Role of German in Japan. (United States)

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  2. Survey of Sea Strait Data around Japan. Cruise Tracks by Japanese Agencies. Appendix 1. Japan Hydrographic Office. Appendix 2. Japan Fisheries Agency. Appendix 3. Japan Meteorological Agency. (United States)


    Kaijo Hoancho) 3-1 5- Chome , Tsukiji, Chuo-ku Tokyo 104, Japan Telephone Tokyo (03) 541-3811 Telex Tokyo (03) 252-2452 Telefax Tokyo (03) 545-2885...CEMER Hydrographic Office (Suiro-bu) Maritime Safety Agency (Kaijo Hoancbo) 3-1 5- Chome , Tsukiji, Chuo-ku Tokyo 104, Japan Telephone Tokyo (03) 541-3811

  3. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan


    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  4. Application of EB in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  5. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Patalinghug Ybañez


    Full Text Available Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause clinical signs in a dog and in humans. This review documents the studies and reports about Anaplasma spp. in Japan.

  6. Relationship of body mass index to percent body fat and waist circumference among schoolchildren in Japan - the influence of gender and obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Hirotaka


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI and percent body fat (%BF or waist circumference (WC has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren. Methods Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex. Results Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese, with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique. Conclusions BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese

  7. Exotic freshwater planarians currently known from Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluys, R.; Kawakatsu, M.; Yamamoto, K.


    Biogeographical and taxonomic information on the four non-indigenous freshwater planarians of Japan is reviewed, viz. Dugesia austroasiatica Kawakatsu, 1985, Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850), G. dorotocephala (Woodworth, 1897), and Rhodax evelinae? Marcus, 1947. The occurrence of Girardia

  8. May 1983 Akita, Honshu, Japan Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The tsunami generated by a magnitude 7.9 (Mw) earthquake destroyed 700 boats and 59 houses for a total of $800 million in property damage in Japan (1983 dollars)....

  9. Civil-Military Relations in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunn, Timothy


    ... instrument of Japanese foreign and domestic policy My purpose in this thesis is to examine Japanese civil-military relations by tracing why and how Japan has successfully subordinated its armed forces...

  10. Potential F-22 Raptor Export to Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolkcom, Christopher; Chanlett-Avery, Emma


    .... interoperability with the Japanese military. Arguments against the transfer include concerns about technology proliferation, the potential for undermining regional stability, and Japan's legal and budgetary concerns about enhancing its military...

  11. Remilitarization of Japan - Prospects and Impacts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yee, Tay


    ...? Also, there have always been concerns, especially among older Southeast Asians, who still have vivid memories of Japanese military atrocities during the Japanese Occupation, that Japan may trend towards militarism...

  12. United States - Japan - European Union probe data. (United States)


    The U.S., Japan, and Europe have a long : history of sharing information on ITS : activities. These efforts include both bilateral : and trilateral relationships. International : coordination is underway in several areas, : including: : 1. Internatio...

  13. Summary of the Day Observations - Misawa Japan (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Summary of the Day Observations - Misawa Japan is a collection of data summarizing daily weather observations taken at Misawa Naval Air Station, near the north end...

  14. Turkey-Japan: Dialogue on Global Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahadir Pehlivantürk


    ... acquiring a global character seem to have been realized. If a new economic crisis emerges, the concern is that this time it might also engulf East Asian economies, including Japan, which were spared from the last economic collapse...

  15. Suicide among foreign residents of Japan. (United States)

    Lester, David; Saito, Yukio; Ben Park, B C


    The suicide rate of Koreans living in Japan is twice as high as that of Koreans in South Korea. Reasons for this high suicide rate are discussed, including effects of economic crises and discrimination.

  16. Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoneyama, Shoko


    .... In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now referred to as the second paradigm of bullying...

  17. DNA Data Bank of Japan. (United States)

    Mashima, Jun; Kodama, Yuichi; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Katayama, Toshiaki; Okuda, Yoshihiro; Kaminuma, Eli; Ogasawara, Osamu; Okubo, Kousaku; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Takagi, Toshihisa


    The DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ( has been providing public data services for thirty years (since 1987). We are collecting nucleotide sequence data from researchers as a member of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC,, in collaboration with the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). The DDBJ Center also services Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive (JGA), with the National Bioscience Database Center to collect human-subjected data from Japanese researchers. Here, we report our database activities for INSDC and JGA over the past year, and introduce retrieval and analytical services running on our supercomputer system and their recent modifications. Furthermore, with the Database Center for Life Science, the DDBJ Center improves semantic web technologies to integrate and to share biological data, for providing the RDF version of the sequence data. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. From the Jura to Japan...

    CERN Multimedia


    Fifty years ago, a week-long school for physicists took place in Saint Cergue, in the Jura mountains not far from CERN. Its focus was on using emulsion techniques, but its legacy was much more far reaching. Last week I was in Fukuoka, Japan, on the last day of a direct descendent – the first Asia–Europe–Pacific School of High-Energy Physics (AEPSHEP).   That first small school in 1962 was the precursor to the annual European Schools of High-Energy Physics, which are organised jointly by CERN and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in countries that are a member state of either (or both) of the organisations. They led in turn to the CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, first held in Brazil in 2001. The aim of these schools is not only to give young particle physicists the opportunity to learn from leading experts in the field, but also to nurture from the start communication among researchers from different regions. CERN and JI...

  19. Japan's Fiscal Policy and Fiscal Reconstruction


    Toshihiro Ihori; Atsushi Nakamoto


    This paper investigates the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy and the fiscal reconstruction movement in Japan. We first summarize Japan's fiscal policy in recent years and discuss advantages and disadvantages of government deficits. Next, we investigate the macroeconomic effects of Japanese fiscal policy and evaluate the plausibility of non-Keynesian effects. We also analyze the possibility of the crowding-in effect of fiscal policy and investigate the spillover effects of deregulation. ...

  20. Japan’s National Interests in Taiwan (United States)


    Taiwan Relations:” “Trends in J-Pop [Japanese popular music] music, fashion, fast food, television soap operas, movies , karaoke, computer games, books...branch under the mandate of the TRA. This placement serves at least two functions: it keeps an extremely sensitive international issue in the scales of...competition with Japan in Taiwanese markets, basic economic interests between Taiwan, Japan, and the U.S. achieve a symbiosis of sorts, with top- brand

  1. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackard, W.G.; Omori, Yoshiaki; Freedman, L.R.


    The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the following conclusions: The rarity of ketoacidosis in Japan is due to the mild carbohydrate defect present in most diabetics. The mild carbohydrate intolerance in diabetics is probably in part due to a high carbohydrate intake. Diabetic retinopathy is more common in women than in men in Japan; there are limited and conflicting data from the West on this point, but retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy occur about as frequently in Japan as in the West. Because of marked dietary differences between Japan and Western countries, these findings suggest that dietary fat has no significance in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Peripheral gangrene is distinctly unusual in Japanese diabetics. This suggests that either: the responsible vascular lesions are different from those responsible for nephropathy and retinopathy; or that small vessel lesions are the same but the lack of large vessel atherosclerosis in the population accounts for the decreased incidence of gangrene. Men have diabetes 2 or 3 times as commonly as women in Japan. If sex-limited inheritance is discarded as a possible reason, it is likely that adult-onset diabetes is more common in men than women except in those countries (the West) where women gain relatively large amounts of weight. The rarity of juvenile diabetes in Japan is best explained by the infrequency of responsible genetic factors. As a consequence, it is likely that juvenile diabetes is caused by different or additional genetic factors which are not significant in adult-onset diabetes. Diabetes prevalance varies sufficiently between different localities in the same country to render the concept of national prevalance of doubtful usefulness. 55 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Japan at the Crossroads Armaments and Independence. (United States)


    TRANSFER CONSENSUS BUILDING PROCESS ---------- 44 IV. HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF JAPANESE INDUSTRY - - 54 A. THE TOKUGAWA LEGACY ------------- 56 B. MEIJI...the lives of its people and threatening the success and achievements that have marked Japan’s history since the overthrow of the Tokugawa Shogunate in...inferences regarding potential future moves by the Japanese leadership to cope with these current "threats" to Japan’s existence. A. THE TOKUGAWA LEGACY In

  3. Recruitment of Foreign Residents in Japan


    Tong, Yaqina


    International migration, in response to economic globalization, is rapidly increasing in various countries, including Japan. Japan is currently experiencing a serious decline in birth rate, an aging society, and a shortage of labor forces. However, the supply and demand between job-seeking foreigners and job-offering local companies are growing rapidly. Staffing agencies play a mediator role between job seekers and local companies to solve these labor-shortage problems. These agencies conduct...

  4. Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan


    Shoko Yoneyama


    This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now re...

  5. The burden of insomnia in Japan


    Mishima K.; DiBonaventura MD; Gross H.


    Kazuo Mishima,1 Marco daCosta DiBonaventura,2 Hillary Gross2 1Department of Psychophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan; 2Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA Objectives: Several studies have suggested that patients who experience insomnia report a number of significant impairments. However, despite this literature, fewer studies have focused on the burden of insomnia among patients in Japan. The objective of the curre...

  6. Revitalizing US electronics lessons from Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Sprague, John


    Written by one of the few executives who have extensive experience in the electronics industry in both the US and Japan, this book compares market research, design, and manufacturing techniques as used in both countries. Unlike other books on theJapanese business culture, Sprague gives specific advice and recommendations about what companies can do now to compete with Japan, clearly pointing out what is and what is not adaptable from the Japanese approach to business.

  7. Accreted oceanic materials in Japan (United States)

    Isozaki, Y.; Maruyama, S.; Furuoka, F.


    The Phanerozoic circum-Pacific orogenic belts contain numerous ocean-derived materials accreted through plate converging processes. Japanese Islands, in particular, display various kinds of oceanic materials of different origins including fragments of seamounts, oceanic reef limestone, MORB-like rocks and oceanic mantle, and pelagic sediments. The compilation of these rocks in many subduction complexes of Late Permian to the present, led to following conclusions. Accretion processes work effectively only for materials primarily composing the upper portion of subducting oceanic crust, i.e. Layer 1 and Layer 2. Many fragments of seamount with alkali basalt (600), hot-spot seamount (26), oceanic reef limestone (291), MORB-like basalt (200), and numerous cherts (more than 1000) are recognized as ancient oceanic materials accreted to the Japanese Islands. However, gabbros and mantle materials of Layer 3 and lower parts of the oceanic lithosphere, scarcely occur in subduction-accretion complexes except for a few examples of back-arc basin or fore-arc origin. Accretion occurs episodically. In Southwest Japan, oceanic materials were accreted intermittently in (a) end-Permian, (b) Middle-Late Jurassic, (c) Late Cretaceous times, (d) at ca. 50 Ma, and (e) in Miocene times, while in Northeast Japan and Hokkaido this occurred in (b) Middle-Late Jurassic, (c) Late Cretaceous, and (f) Early Cretaceous times. In contrast to the general belief on accretion of younger oceanic plates, the majority of Japanese subduction-accretion complexes were formed during the subduction of plates, up to 160 Ma old. The accretionary events in end-Permian and Middle-Late Jurassic times coincide with northward collision of ancient island arcs, oceanic rises or seamount chains (of hot-spot origin) with the Asian continent. Accretion relevant to subduction of older plates may be controlled by the collision-subduction process of these topographic reliefs on an oceanic plate. In addition, the

  8. Ocean Science Communication in Japan (United States)

    Ichikawa, H.


    Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

  9. A prospective earthquake forecast experiment for Japan (United States)

    Yokoi, Sayoko; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi


    One major focus of the current Japanese earthquake prediction research program (2009-2013) is to move toward creating testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose we started an experiment of forecasting earthquake activity in Japan under the framework of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) through an international collaboration. We established the CSEP Testing Centre, an infrastructure to encourage researchers to develop testable models for Japan, and to conduct verifiable prospective tests of their model performance. On 1 November in 2009, we started the 1st earthquake forecast testing experiment for the Japan area. We use the unified JMA catalogue compiled by the Japan Meteorological Agency as authorized catalogue. The experiment consists of 12 categories, with 4 testing classes with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years) and 3 testing regions called All Japan, Mainland, and Kanto. A total of 91 models were submitted to CSEP-Japan, and are evaluated with the CSEP official suite of tests about forecast performance. In this presentation, we show the results of the experiment of the 3-month testing class for 5 rounds. HIST-ETAS7pa, MARFS and RI10K models corresponding to the All Japan, Mainland and Kanto regions showed the best score based on the total log-likelihood. It is also clarified that time dependency of model parameters is no effective factor to pass the CSEP consistency tests for the 3-month testing class in all regions. Especially, spatial distribution in the All Japan region was too difficult to pass consistency test due to multiple events at a bin. Number of target events for a round in the Mainland region tended to be smaller than model's expectation during all rounds, which resulted in rejections of consistency test because of overestimation. In the Kanto region, pass ratios of consistency tests in each model showed more than 80%, which was associated with good balanced forecasting of event

  10. Advanced USC technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Masafumi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). High Temperature Materials Center


    The 600deg-C class Ultra Super-Critical(USC) steam condition technology was mainly developed through projects led by J-Power in the '80s and 90s'. In 2001, the project was successfully finished with newly developed 9-12% chromium steels. These materials were selected for the major parts of the USC power plants in Japan and almost half of the coal power plants have the USC steam condition today. However, aged plants, which were built in the '70s and early '80s will reach the point where they will need to be rebuilt or refurbished in the near future. The steam temperatures of the older plants are 538 deg-C or 566deg-C. We did a case study, retrofitting these plants with the USC and an advanced USC technology that takes a 700deg-C class steam temperature to increase thermal efficiency and to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The study showed that the advanced USC Technology(A-USC) is suitable for the retrofitting of aged plants and can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 15%. The Japanese government launched the ''Cool Earth-Innovative Energy Technology Program'' in 2008 March to promote international cooperation and actively contribute to substantial global greenhouse gas emissions reductions. 21 technologies that will contribute to substantial reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions by efficiency improvement and low carbonization were selected. The A-USC that aims at 46% (net, HHV) thermal efficiency of coal power generation is included in the technologies. We started a large-scale development project of the A-USC technology in 2008 August. 700deg-C class boiler, turbine and valve technologies, which include high temperature material technology, will be developed. Some candidate materials for boilers are being tested. Turbine rotor and casing materials are being developed and tested, as well. Two years from the beginning of the project, we have obtained some useful test results regarding the candidate materials. (orig.)

  11. Introduction of nuclear medicine research in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inubushi, Masayuki [Kawasaki Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Higashi, Tatsuya [National Institutes of Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Chiba (Japan); Kuji, Ichiei [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hidaka-shi, Saitama (Japan); Sakamoto, Setsu [Dokkyo University School of Medicine, PET Center, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Tohoku University, Division of Cyclotron Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Momose, Mitsuru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)


    There were many interesting presentations of unique studies at the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine, although there were fewer attendees from Europe than expected. These presentations included research on diseases that are more frequent in Japan and Asia than in Europe, synthesis of original radiopharmaceuticals, and development of imaging devices and methods with novel ideas especially by Japanese manufacturers. In this review, we introduce recent nuclear medicine research conducted in Japan in the five categories of Oncology, Neurology, Cardiology, Radiopharmaceuticals and Technology. It is our hope that this article will encourage the participation of researchers from all over the world, in particular from Europe, in scientific meetings on nuclear medicine held in Japan. (orig.)

  12. [Recent trends of mushroom poisoning in Japan]. (United States)

    Yamaura, Yoshio


    The incidence of mushroom poisoning was studied statistically from 2001 to 2010 in Japan. The total incident of mushroom poisoning was 569 cases, which involved 1,920 patients and 10 deaths. The average incident was 56.9 cases per year, involving 192 patients and 1 death. On regional differences, the mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan. The rate of total incidents for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to symptoms caused, 54.6% in the type of gastro-intestinal disorder, 11.6% in the type of neurological symptoms, and 2.4% in the type of intracellular disorder (violent vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration and hepato-nephrosis, or rhabdomyolysis, or erroneous perception, etc.), respectively. Two species of poisonous mushrooms with gastro-intestinal disorder, Lampteromyces japonicus and Rhodophyllus rhodopolius caused the majority (52%) of all poisonings in Japan.

  13. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.


    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761

  14. English Education at Elementary School in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Triana


    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the implementation of English education in elementary school in Japan. What challenges faced by the implementation of English education in elementary school. This paper reviewed some articles and book chapter regarding teaching English at elementary school in Indonesia and Japan, and the principles of teaching English to young learners (TYL. First, it provides an overview of the characteristics of young learners and challenges faced by teachers in the teaching English to young learners. Second, it will briefly describe the history of English education in Japan, followed by the discussion of the present implementation of English education at elementary schools. Finally, it relates the discussion of English education at elementary school to Indonesian context. Key Words; English Education, Elementary School, TYL

  15. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki


    At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...... of Arctic stakeholders’ interests, data from policy documents and interviews with relevant stakeholders were analysed. This analysis shows the Chinese and Japanese governments are in the gradual process of consolidating their Arctic policies, but both China and Japan see the Arctic less as a strategically...

  16. Microwave filters and circuits contributions from Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Akio


    Microwave Filters and Circuits: Contributions from Japan covers ideas and novel circuits used to design microwave filter that have been developed in Japan, as well as network theory into the field of microwave transmission networks. The book discusses the general properties and synthesis of transmission-line networks; transmission-line filters on the image-parameter basis; and experimental results on a class of transmission-line filter constructed only with commensurate TEM lossless transmission lines. The text describes lines constants, approximation problems in transmission-line networks, as

  17. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji


    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  18. Human rights in Japan: progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Muñoz González


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the improvements and challenges that Japan has been facing between 1983 and 2007. The paper explores the interaction among the different stakeholders –i.e. the Japanese Government, international organizations and civil society- to advance full access to citizenship regarding gender equality, the elimination of social and physical barriers for the inclusion of people with disabilities and elderly persons; ethnic minorities –specifically the situation of the Ainu people and the Buraku community – and the persons considered as “foreigners” living in Japan.

  19. Influence of cross-anisotropy material behavior on back-calculation analysis of multi-layered systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW


    Full Text Available 2008 27 INFLUENCE OF CROSS-ANISOTROPY MATERIAL BEHAVIOR ON BACK-CALCULATION ANALYSIS OF MULTI-LAYERED SYSTEMS Yoshiaki OZAWA Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tokyo Denki University Ishizaka, Hatoyama Town, Hiki-gun, Saitama... and Environmental Engineering, Tokyo Denki University Ishizaka, Hatoyama Town, Hiki-gun, Saitama 350-0394, Japan ABSTRACT Each layer in a pavement structure is compacted during construction. Moreover, since the compaction process...

  20. Postwar Japan and the U.S.A. (United States)

    Nishi, Toshio


    Discusses various factors in the relationship between postwar Japan and the United States which may have influenced Japan's phenomenal rise in the world economy. The role of General Douglas MacArthur is considered. (JN)

  1. 77 FR 64487 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan AGENCY: International... Commerce's International Trade Administration (ITA) is coordinating a Renewable Energy Policy Business... regulatory landscape for renewable energy developing in Japan at this time. Following the Roundtable, the...

  2. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On...

  3. Mesoporous silica supported Pd/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles as a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... YAMASHITA1 2. Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Japan; Unit of Elements Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520, Japan; JST, PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama, Japan ...

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, 1987 S&T Paper (United States)


    Technology Introduction : Overview of Japan’s Science and Technology In Japan, the funds used for science and technology research amounted to ¥8.1 continuity Japan; possibility introduction of technology of causing degrada- of foreign in Japan tion of RID capability technology (3...use physiological activators pro- duced by new symbiotic micro- organisms Outline FY 86 budget application of techniques to use biomem

  5. With a Little Help from Japan (United States)

    Purcell, John


    Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

  6. Living in Japan. Intercultural Exchange Series. Revised. (United States)

    Hawkinson, Annie

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of Japan, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money; banks; food; restaurants; hotels; tipping; postal and telecommunications services; transportation; shopping; health and…

  7. Current topics in tardive dyskinesia in Japan. (United States)

    Inada, T; Yagi, G


    This article reviews current topics in tardive dyskinesia (TD), a movement disorder associated with the prolonged use of neuroleptic agents, especially therapeutic and preventive strategies which have been or are now being studied in Japan. Tardive dyskinesia has become a major problem in the clinical psychiatric field since the early 1970s in Japan, lagging behind Western countries by more than 10 years. The average prevalence rate of TD has been estimated as 7.7% in Japan, while it has been reported in the English literature at around 15 to 20%. Clinical trials of treatments for TD have been or are now being performed in Japan with a number of novel compounds, such as ceruletide, meclofenoxate, and rolipram; however, no effective treatment has yet been established and measures to prevent TD have therefore been emphasized. These include (i) the development of new antipsychotic drugs which are free from TD, (ii) the identification of risk factors from prospective longitudinal studies, and (iii) the investigation of genetic variations that could act as a marker to identify especially vulnerable patients within the whole population of patients who need neuroleptic therapy.

  8. Overview of Hepatocellular Adenoma in Japan (United States)

    Sasaki, Motoko; Nakanuma, Yasuni


    Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is generally a benign hepatocellular tumor arising in a nonfibrotic/cirrhotic liver, and recently four major subgroups were identified based on genotype and phenotype classification from Europe. HCA is rare in Asian countries including Japan, and there have been few studies regarding the subgroups of HCA in Japan. We surveyed subgroups of HCA in 13 patients (7 women) in Japan, based on the phenotypic classification. As results, we identified 2 hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1α-inactivated HCAs (15%), two β-catenin-activated HCAs (15%), 5 inflammatory HCAs (39%), and 4 unclassified HCAs (29%). The use of oral contraceptives was found only in 2 unclassified HCAs (29%). Rather low percentage of female patients and use of oral contraceptives appear to be common clinicopathological features in Japan and also East Asian countries. Furthermore, a group of possible inflammatory HCAs characterized by strong immunoreactivity for serum amyloid A (SAA) was found in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. The inflammatory HCA/SAA-positive hepatocellular neoplasm in alcoholic cirrhosis may be a new entity of HCA, which may have potential of malignant transformation. Further studies are needed to clarify genetic changes, monoclonality, and pathogenesis of this new type of hepatocellular neoplasm. PMID:22973519

  9. History Of Holographic Display In Japan (United States)

    Iwata, Fujio


    The first exhibition of holographic display was held at Seibu Museum of Art in Tokyo in 1975 and played a role of opening of the holographic era in Japan. This exhibition and the next big exhibition of holography held at Isetan department store 3 years later in 1978 were really epoch-making facts on holographic display in Japan. Since these two exhibitions, holographic display in Japan has come to attract attention of a lot of people to the new display media, holography. At that time, mass production technology of holograms had not been fully developed yet, and the hologram was so expensive that they were found only at the big event. Some companies and universities still continued research and development to have holograms get into practical applications of display media. Few years later, people became interested in 3-D displays and sometimes many peoples took an interest in holographic display, mainly mass produced embossed type holograms applied to the field of publications, book and magazine, etc. 3-D display booms occurred in the year of Tsukuba Science Expo'85 in 1985 and embossed type hologram became much popular. History of holographic display of Japan in terms of technical development and practical use on laser reconstruction hologram, rainbow hologram, multiplex hologram and lippmann hologram will be introduced.

  10. Child Development and Childcare in Japan (United States)

    Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.


    With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Shahriyani Shahrullah


    Full Text Available Japan has ratified the 1951 Convention regarding the status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees since 1981 and 1982, yet Japan only accepted an exceptionally low number of refugees in the course 30 years since it ratified the Convention. Japan needs to closely revise and align its national policies with international agreements that it is signatory to. The main framework with which Japan’s government still tackles the issue of refugees is tightly restrained by its overall controlling immigration policies in an attempt to remain a homogenous nation. Japan has a long way to go in order to fully comply with the spirit of the Convention, the Protocol, and international instruments relating to the Status of Refugees. Jepang telah meratifikasi Konvensi Mengenai Status Pengungsi 1951 dan Protokol tentang Kedudukan Pengungsi 1967 sejak tahun 1981 dan 1982, namun Jepang hanya menerima sejumlah kecil pengungsi dalam kurun waktu 30 tahun sejak diratifikasinya konvensi tersebut. Jepang harus meninjau kembali dan memastikan bahwa kebijakan-kebijakan nasional negaranya telah sesuai dengan perjanjian internasional yang telah ditandatangani Jepang. Kerangka kerja pemerintah Jepang dalam menangani isu pengungsi sangat dibatasi oleh berbagai pengetatan kebijakan imigrasi yang dikeluarkan dalam semangat mempertahankan homogenitas bangsa. Jepang memiliki banyak pekerjaan rumah yang harus dilakukan agar dapat memenuhi semangat konvensi, protokol, dan berbagai instrumen internasional terkait status pengungsi.

  12. Core Discussion Networks in Japan and America (United States)

    Boase, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Ken'ichi


    Arguments regarding the high prevalence of interpersonal collectivism in Japan typically hinge on the assumption that Japanese communication networks are more enduring, frequently contacted, and dominated by kin and work ties than networks in Western countries. However, this assumption has not been examined using nationally representative data.…

  13. Megastock'97 Kongres, Juni, 1997, Sapporo, Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred


    Report on experiences, contacts and novelties in the technics of energy storage made at the Megastock'97 konference in Sapporo, Japan, seen from a Danish point of view.A number of methods and technics for energy storgare are discussed and recommendations to the Ministery of Environment and Energy...

  14. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One (United States)

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi


    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  15. Optical Fiber Connected VLBI Network in Japan (United States)

    Kawaguchi Noriyuki 1, Kouno Yusuke 1, Suda Hiroshi 2, Takaba Hiroshi 3, Takashima Kazuhiro 4, Murata Yasuhiro 5

    Large radio telescopes located at the cenral area of Japan, Usuda 64m, Nobeyama 45m, Tsukuba 32m, Kashima 34m and Gifu 11m are connected with a high speed optical fiber communication network of 5-Gbps rate. We present the current state of the network configuration and observations.

  16. [Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1993]. (United States)

    Yamamoto, C; Kojima, K


    This is a review of marriage and divorce patterns in Japan in 1993. It includes data on marriages by nationality of bride and groom, 1965 to 1993; marriages by marriage order of bride and groom, 1988-1993; and marriage and marriage rates by age, 1993.

  17. Commentary: Ernst Mayr in Japan, October 1994

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 9, 2005 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 30; Issue 4. Commentary: Ernst Mayr in Japan, October 1994. Shunsuke F Mawatari. Volume 30 Issue 4 September 2005 pp 419-421. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  18. Privacy and Data Protection in Japan. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srinija


    Discussion of individual rights and privacy in Japan focuses on the Privacy Protection Act, which acknowledges the threat posed by government databases to the individual's right of privacy. Characteristics of the Japanese legal system are described, origins of privacy in Japanese law are examined, and privacy and government databases are…

  19. Overview of Hepatocellular Adenoma in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Sasaki


    Full Text Available Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA is generally a benign hepatocellular tumor arising in a nonfibrotic/cirrhotic liver, and recently four major subgroups were identified based on genotype and phenotype classification from Europe. HCA is rare in Asian countries including Japan, and there have been few studies regarding the subgroups of HCA in Japan. We surveyed subgroups of HCA in 13 patients (7 women in Japan, based on the phenotypic classification. As results, we identified 2 hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF 1α-inactivated HCAs (15%, two β-catenin-activated HCAs (15%, 5 inflammatory HCAs (39%, and 4 unclassified HCAs (29%. The use of oral contraceptives was found only in 2 unclassified HCAs (29%. Rather low percentage of female patients and use of oral contraceptives appear to be common clinicopathological features in Japan and also East Asian countries. Furthermore, a group of possible inflammatory HCAs characterized by strong immunoreactivity for serum amyloid A (SAA was found in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. The inflammatory HCA/SAA-positive hepatocellular neoplasm in alcoholic cirrhosis may be a new entity of HCA, which may have potential of malignant transformation. Further studies are needed to clarify genetic changes, monoclonality, and pathogenesis of this new type of hepatocellular neoplasm.

  20. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  1. 75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... chromium from Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted a review pursuant... revocation of the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead...

  2. 78 FR 66767 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Japan of chlorinated isocyanurates, provided for in... than fair value (LTFV) from Japan and subsidized by the Government of China.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is...

  3. Clinical statistics of gynecologic cancers in Japan. (United States)

    Yamagami, Wataru; Nagase, Satoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Ino, Kazuhiko; Hachisuga, Toru; Aoki, Daisuke; Katabuchi, Hidetaka


    Cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers, have both high morbidity and mortality among the gynecologic malignant tumors in Japan. The present study was conducted using both the population-based cancer registry and the gynecologic cancer registry to elucidate the characteristics of gynecologic malignant tumors in Japan. Based on nationwide estimates from the population-based cancer registry in Japan, the morbidities and mortality of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were obtained and used for analysis. Clinicopathologic factors for cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, including age, clinical stage, postsurgical stage, histological type, therapeutic strategy, and prognosis were retrieved from the gynecologic cancer registry published by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and used for analysis. The morbidities of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were 10,908, 13,606, and 9,384 women in 2012, respectively. The prevalence of endometrial cancer has significantly and consistently been increasing and represents the most common gynecologic malignant tumor in Japan. The mortalities of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were 2.1, 1.3, and 3.2 per 100,000 in 2012, respectively. In 2014, 52.2% of cervical cancer patients were classified as stage I, 22.5% as stage II, 10.2% as stage III, and 11.2% as stage IV. In addition, 71.9% of endometrial cancer patients were classified as stage I, 6.0% as stage II, 13.3% as stage III, and 7.5% as stage IV. Finally, 43.2% of ovarian cancer patients were classified as stage I, 9.1% as stage II, 27.6% as stage III, and 7.2% as stage IV. Twelve-point six percent of ovarian cancer patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  4. What is nuclear power in Japan? (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshikazu


    The aggressive use of such non-fossil energy as the atomic energy with high power density and energy production efficiency is an indispensable choice aiming at the low-carbon society. There is a trial calculation that the carbon dioxide emission of 40000 ton can be suppressed by nuclear power generation by one ton of uranium. The basis of nuclear research after the Second World War in Japan was established by the researchers learnt in Argonne National Laboratory. In 2010, NPPs under operation are 54 units and the total electric generating power is 48.85GW. The amount of nuclear power generation per person of the people is 0.38kW in Japan, and it is near 0.34kW of the United States. However, the TMI accident and the Chernobyl disaster should have greatly stagnated the nuclear industry of Japan although it is not more serious than the United States. A lot of Japanese unconsciously associate a nuclear accident with the atomic bomb. According to the investigation which Science and Technology Agency carried out to the specialist in 1999, ``What will be the field where talent should be emphatically sent in the future?'' the rank of nuclear technology was the lowest in 32 fields. The influence of the nuclear industry stagnation was remarkable in the education. The subject related to the atomic energy of a university existed 19 in 1985 that was the previous year of the Chernobyl disaster decreased to 7 in 2003. In such a situation, we have to rely on the atomic energy because Japan depends for 96% of energy resources on import. The development of the fuel reprocessing and the fast breeder reactor has been continued in spite of a heavy failure. That is the only means left behind for Japan to be released from both fossil fuel and carbon dioxide.

  5. Proceedings of the Japan-USA Collaborative Workshops on the History of Particle Theory in Japan, 1935-1960

    CERN Document Server

    Kawabe, Rokuo; Konuma, Michiji; Elementary particle theory in Japan, 1935-1960 : Japan-USA collaboration, second phase


    This volume consists mainly of papers presented at five "workshop", each of two or three days duration, held at various locations in Japan and the United States during 1984-5 by a USA-Japan collaboration for the study of the history of particle physics in Japan, together with some of the discussions and additional interviews.

  6. The Early Overseas Activities of IBM in Japan


    吉沢, 正広; 田中, 雅章; Masahiro, YOSHIZAWA; Masaaki, TANAKA; 愛知学院大学; 鈴鹿短期大学; / SUZUKA JUNIOR COLLEGE


    The purpose of this paper is to examine how IBM entered into prewar Japan and ran its wholly-owned subsidiary thereafter. Before examining something noted above, this paper surveys the process of formation of IBM and then traces its early overseas activities. Turning to the initial contacts between Japan and IBM, at first IBM carried out its mere export trade to Japan through Morimura and then Kurosawa. IBM then established its wholly-owned subsidiary, Japan Watson,in Japan to expand the busi...

  7. [Medical pots of Yakushi Buddha in Japan]. (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Noro, Yukio; Ito, Shiro


    The origin of Yakushi buddha (Bhaisajyaguru in Sanscrit, buddha of healing) is not clearly known. It has been proposed the original statue of Yakushi buddha may have been conceived from Varna, a god in Brahminism, believed to be a god of justice who possessed medicines and prolonged life. It is believed that Yakushi buddha appeared in Japan when the buddhism was imported from Korea and China in VI century, Yakushi buddha was believed more profoundly in Japan, compared with Korea and China.The reasons are probably as follows: Yakushi buddha is buddha of healing, Emperor Temmu (672-685) built Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, Emperor Shomu (724-749) built Kokubun-ji temples at principal towns. The principal statues of buddha in these temples are Yakushi buddha. In Japan, there are 252 Yakushi Buddha statues in Buddhistical Temples, which are listed in Important Cultural Property including 14 National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in the Horin-ji temple in Nara. Among the 252 Yakushi Buddha statues, 224 are in wood, 15 are in copper, 6 are in picture and etc. 212 (84,1%) have medicinal pots (or rarely, a bowl) on the palm of left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji temple (Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) has a medicinal pot on the palm of the left hand in which an offering (220 g materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean, adzuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori Graminei, Acori Calami, Radix Ginseng, Flos Caryophylli, Lignum Santali Albi), and five minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue glasse, CaCO3, particles, silver and golden foils). DNA analysis proved those three randomly selected seeds of rice all belongs to the template

  8. Psychohistorical Hypotheses on Japan's History of Hostility Towards China. (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Rudmin, Floyd


    The accelerating tensions and military posturing between Japan and China have created a serious crisis with a danger of a catastrophic war. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the events of the current crisis, and to put it in the context of Japan's long history of hostility to China and repeated attempts at conquest. The historical record shows that Japan has attacked China at least seven times, even though China has never attacked Japan. The irrationality of Japan's behavior is demonstrated by the repetition of this hostile behavior despite the enormous human and economic costs that Japan has suffered because of it. The irrationality of Japan's militarism suggests that psychological explanations may be required to understand this phenomenon. Several hypotheses are proposed, including 1) projected paranoid aggression, 2) collective Zeigarnik compulsion, 3) perceived weakness exciting aggression, 4) national inferiority feelings, 5) cultural narcissism, and 6) Oedipal-like hatred of a parent culture.

  9. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan (United States)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm


    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  10. Suicide and its prevention in Japan. (United States)

    Kaga, Makiko; Takeshima, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko


    Japan is one of the countries with high suicide rate. In this article, number and rate of suicide, comparison between countries, causes of death, occupations of the people who commit suicide and geographical distribution of suicide victims in Japan were explained. Influential reports by the media and by the appeal of the internet were added. Then history and trends of suicide prevention after World War II, especially after the sudden increase of number of suicide in 1998 were described. Establishment and its meaning of Basic Act on Suicide Countermeasures and Comprehensive Suicide Prevention Initiative along with Suicide Prevention Center were commented. Tasks and Measures for suicide prevention now and in the coming years were discussed.

  11. Arrival of the ATLAS solenoid from Japan

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    Photo 01: L. to r.: Photo 01: L. to r.: Herman ten Kate (Magnet Project Leader), Takahiko Kondo (KEK, Solenoid Project Leader), Peter Jenni (Spokesperson). Photo 02: (truck on the right side) with the LAr barrel calorimeter cryostat (also built in Japan) on the left side. From left to right are the following ATLAS people: Herman ten Kate (Magnet Project Leader), Marzio Nessi (Technical Coordinator), Takahiko Kondo (KEK, Solenoid Project Leader), Peter Jenni (Spokesperson)

  12. The rice genome project in Japan


    Sasaki, Takuji


    Since 1991, the Rice Genome Research Program in Japan has carried out rice genomics, such as large-scale cDNA analysis, construction of a fine-scale restriction fragment length polymorphism map, and physical mapping of the rice genome with yeast artificial chromosome clones. These studies have made a great impact on research into grass genomes and made rice a model plant for other cereal crop research. Starting in 1998, the Rice Genome Research Program will step in...

  13. Numerical simulation of Japan Sea effect snowfall


    Estoque, M.A.; Ninomiya, K.


    Snowfall associated with the modification of cold air-mass outbreaks by the Sea of Japan is simulated with a simple numerical model. The model incorporates the effects of momentum, heat, and moisture fluxes across the air-sea interface as well as the effects of orography. The simulated distributions of snowfall, temperature, wind, and moisture are compared with observations and reasonable agreement is found. Numerical experiments were made in order to determine the dependence of the snowfall ...

  14. Advances in vitrification techniques in Japan


    佐々木 憲明; 虎田 真一郎; 五十嵐 寛; 吉岡 正弘


    Liquid-fed Joule-heated ceramic melter (LFCM) process for the vitrification of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) is now under development by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Deyelopment Corporation (PNC) in Japan. All developmental works are focused on the vitrification plant which is in the stage of design improvement in succession to the detailed design finished in 1984. The construction of the plant will be started in late 1987. Major development items in process technology in recent years are ...

  15. Testing the Nuclear Will of Japan (United States)


    United States Embassy, Tokyo. Daily Summary of Japanese Press. Office of Translation and Media Analysis. 05 November 2006. 16 Maria Rost Rublee...coupled with the Allied occupation and leadership control lying with SCAP, left Japan with no leverage to negotiate a more favorable deal. 2. San...its climb toward becoming the second largest economy in the world.43 As long as the Japanese leadership did not stray from ensuring this would occur



    Reinis Udris


    Cyberbullying is a growing problem among adolescents and adults alike. To date, research concerning cyberbullying has focused on Europe and the Anglophone countries. This study contributes to understanding of cyberbullying by adding the case of adolescents in Japan. Participants were 899 high school students who completed a self-report questionnaire on technology use habits, cyberbullying and cybervictimization experiences. Logistic regression analyses were used to measure the relationship be...

  17. [Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1995]. (United States)

    Yamamoto, C; Kojima, K


    Trends in marriage and divorce in Japan in 1995 are analyzed using official data. Data are included on marriages by nationality of bride and groom, 1965-1995; marriages by marriage order of bride and groom, 1988-1995; marriages and marriage rates by age; first marriages and remarriages; total, first, and remarriage rates, 1980-1995; divorces by nationality of husband and wife, 1965-1995; and divorces and divorce rates by age.

  18. Japan's dilemma with the definition of death. (United States)

    Kimura, R


    Japan is unusual among industrialized countries in its reluctance to use brain criteria to determine death and harvest transplant organs. This results from public distrust of the medical profession due to an earlier incident, and from concern that technological interventions will threaten religious and cultural traditions surrounding death and dying. Public acceptance is growing, however, as medical professional groups and universities develop brain criteria, and as pressure from patients who could benefit from a transplant, as well as from foreign countries, increases.

  19. Hukan Fabian: Japan's First Encounter with Christianity


    YAMAUCHI, Tomosaburô


    In order to understand the ethical background of Edo-era Japan, let me present an eccentric thinker named Hukan Fabian (1565-1621) who criticized Christianity from the traditional, syncretistic view of Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and Shintoism. He was called Fabian the apostate, because, having reached the highest position of all Japanese leading Christians in the Catholic Church, he later renounced Christianity and wrote a book attacking Christianity. It is remarkable that there was a th...

  20. Russia-Japan Relations: Prisoners of History? (United States)


    SPECIAL ASSESSMENT O C T O B E R 2 0 0 4 Asia’s Bilateral Relations Russia -Japan Relations: Prisoners of History? J O H N H . M I L L E R...Japanese, which stem largely from the troubled historical relationship between the two countries. ● President Putin and Prime Minister Koizumi are...disputed islands. ● A Russo-Japanese rapprochement would support U.S. interests by strengthening Koizumi and Putin domestically and enabling them to

  1. A Forecasting Model for Japan's Unemployment Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu KURITA


    Full Text Available This note aims to achieve a parsimonious fractionally-integrated autoregressive and moving average (ARFIMA model for recent time series data of Japan's unemployment rate. A brief review of the ARFIMA model is provided, leading to econometric modeling of the data in the ARFIMA framework. It is demonstrated that the preferred ARFIMA model is a satisfactory representation of the data and is useful as a forecasting device.

  2. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Osamu


    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-x Y x O3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm(-1) at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm(-1) at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  3. Energy R and D in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.J. Dooley


    In 1997, the public and private sectors in Japan invested $90.3 billion in R and D. Japan is the second largest supporter of R and D after the United States. A very large percentage (79.4%) of all R and D in Japan is supported by the private sector. The prolonged economic recession that has plagued the Japanese economy for most of the 1990s has significantly reduced the scale of the Japanese R and D effort compared to what it would have been had the economy been more robust. The Japanese government has recently attempted to bring the economy out of this recession through the use of economic stimulus packages. These stimulus packages have contained significant new funding for R and D, although it is apparent that much of the funding is going to R and D programs and R and D construction projects with very near tern payoff and not to the support of longer term R and D. In 1998, the Japanese government devoted 13.7% of all public R and D funds to the support of energy R and D. The priority accorded to energy R and D in Japan is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. The Japanese energy R and D program, which was funded at $2.5 billion in 1997, is overwhelmingly focused on nuclear energy R and D. Nuclear energy R and D (fission and fusion) accounts for 75% of the total national energy R and D budget. The fission energy R and D effort has decreased nearly 24% since 1996 as the government attempts to refocus this program in the face of growing public opposition to the Japanese government's efforts to expand the nuclear power program. Energy efficiency R and D (8% of the total national energy R and D budget) and renewable energy R and D receive relatively modest support from the Japanese government.

  4. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan]. (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuyuki


    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology.

  5. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko


    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  6. Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Yoneyama


    Full Text Available This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now referred to as the second paradigm of bullying. The paper attempts to integrate the research strengths of Japan with this new trend in bullying research, with the view of incorporating 'non-western' research traditions into mainstream discourse on bullying. It introduces a typology of school bullying: Types I and II, and discusses 1 hierarchical relationships in schools, focusing on corporal punishment and teacher-student bullying, and 2 group dynamics surrounding bullying. The paper illustrates how bullying among students is entwined with various aspects of schools as social institutions. It argues that school bullying may represent a state of anomie in both formal and informal power structures in schools, which have become dysfunctional communities unable to deal with bullying, while at the same time it can be students' way of compensating their sense of alienation and disconnectedness from school.

  7. English education for healthcare professionals in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle Moross


    Full Text Available In a global environment, education for healthcare professionals should include cultivating human resources who have the necessary skills to work in an international arena. This article will review the current status of English education for dental healthcare professionals in Japan. After conducting a literature search using the keywords: English education, Japan, and dental, only a few studies were found that investigated and proposed suggestions for dental professional English education. Even so, these were still in the early stages with outcomes yet to be fully evaluated. Even though English is thought indispensable for global professionals, and that increasing chances for communication skills is necessary, little attention has been addressed to English education for dental professionals or the implementation of such education in the Japanese undergraduate dental curricula. With the current reality of field expansion in dentistry, the need for not only improved English communication skills for Japanese dentists, but also the acquisition of essential expertise, psychomotor, teambuilding, critical thinking, and creative thinking skills in English as well as Japanese, is a definite probability. In order to reach this level of knowledge, further efforts and research would be necessary for the advancement and development of dental professional English education in Japan.

  8. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takaoka


    Full Text Available Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters. Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  9. English education for healthcare professionals in Japan. (United States)

    Moross, Janelle; Seki, Naoko; Morio, Ikuko


    In a global environment, education for healthcare professionals should include cultivating human resources who have the necessary skills to work in an international arena. This article will review the current status of English education for dental healthcare professionals in Japan. After conducting a literature search using the keywords: English education, Japan, and dental, only a few studies were found that investigated and proposed suggestions for dental professional English education. Even so, these were still in the early stages with outcomes yet to be fully evaluated. Even though English is thought indispensable for global professionals, and that increasing chances for communication skills is necessary, little attention has been addressed to English education for dental professionals or the implementation of such education in the Japanese undergraduate dental curricula. With the current reality of field expansion in dentistry, the need for not only improved English communication skills for Japanese dentists, but also the acquisition of essential expertise, psychomotor, teambuilding, critical thinking, and creative thinking skills in English as well as Japanese, is a definite probability. In order to reach this level of knowledge, further efforts and research would be necessary for the advancement and development of dental professional English education in Japan.

  10. [The institutionalization of bacteriology in Japan]. (United States)

    Yoko, Yokota


    Within the history of public health in Japan, Shibasaburo Kitasato is widely known for introducing bacteriology to Japan in the Meiji. This paper looks into the factors behind the success of the Institute of Infectious Diseases(IID), which Kitasato headed, focusing specifically on Kitasato's strategy, institutional rivalries in the medical world and early development in the field of bacteriology. Kitasato used IID to spread bacteriology through a bacteriology training course and the publication of a professional journal, both modeled on the German system, which Kitasato absorbed during his previous studies in Germany under Robert Koch, who was one of the founders of bacteriological science. At the time, doctors related to the university system and those related to sanitary administration competed for leadership in the medical world in Japan. The latter had pushed for IID to be established, and the outbreak of plague in 1899 gave them the opportunity to successfully lobby the Diet into passing legislation that enlarged enrollment in the bacteriology course and earmarked money specifically to IID. In the late 19th century, the application of knowledge from the nascent field of bacteriology led to major advances in the fight against infectious diseases, which led to rapid accumulation of knowledge about bacteria, in turn. Thus, Kitasato emphasized that bacteriology should be mission-oriented and based in sanitary administrations. Indeed, as sanitary administrations were on the frontline of the battle against infectious diseases and as IID laboratories were connected to the sanitary administrations, IID succeeded in dominating the field of bacteriology.

  11. Changing epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Japan. (United States)

    Inoue, Manami


    Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is known as the most important cause of gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies widely by geographic area, age, and socioeconomic status. In Japan, H. pylori infection has been highly correlated with the incidence rate of gastric cancer, and a reduction in H. pylori infection is therefore crucial for decreasing the incidence of gastric cancer, especially at the population level. Infection occurs during childhood, commonly before 5 years of age. In Japan, where gastric cancer has ranked as the most common cancer by incidence and mortality for the last several decades, the prevalence of H. pylori infection has dramatically declined by birth cohort effect, mainly due to improvements in the general hygiene environment in childhood. Older generations born before around 1950 show a high prevalence of around 80-90 %, decreasing with age to reach around 10 % or less in those born around the 1990s, and less than 2 % for children born after the year 2000. This change will have generational effects on gastric cancer prevention strategies, both primary and secondary. The risk-stratified approach to gastric cancer prevention should be considered in Japan and other countries which have similarly experienced rapid economic development.

  12. Surrogacy: donor conception regulation in Japan. (United States)

    Semba, Yukari; Chang, Chiungfang; Hong, Hyunsoo; Kamisato, Ayako; Kokado, Minori; Muto, Kaori


    As of 2008, surrogacy is legal and openly practised in various places; Japan, however, has no regulations or laws regarding surrogacy. This paper reports the situation of surrogacy in Japan and in five other regions (the USA, the UK, Taiwan, Korea and France) to clarify the pros and cons of prohibiting surrogacy, along with the problems and issues relating to surrogacy compensation. Not only in a country such as France that completely prohibits surrogacy within the country, but also in a country such as the UK that allows non-commercial surrogacy, infertile couples travel overseas for the purpose of surrogacy. In addition, some couples might seek underground surrogacy if the government prohibits surrogacy. If an intended parent couple and a surrogate make an agreement among themselves and then a problem occurs, they cannot ask for support from professionals or bring a case to court, as can be observed in South Korea and Taiwan. We also conclude that there is little difference between commercial surrogacy and non-commercial surrogacy in the absence of a clear definition of 'reasonable expenses.' In the UK, the law does not allow surrogates to receive compensation. However, in reality, there may be little difference between the amounts paid to surrogates for profit in the US and those paid to surrogates for reasonable expenses in the UK. We conclude that the issue of surrogacy demands further discussion in Japan.

  13. 'Bioethics' is subordinate to morality in Japan. (United States)

    Tanida, Noritoshi


    Disputes over brain death and euthanasia are used to illuminate the question whether there really is a Japanese way of thinking in bioethics. In Japanese thought, a person does not exist as an individual but as a member of the family, community or society. I describe these features of Japanese society as 'mutual dependency'. In this society, an act is 'good' and 'right' when it is commonly done, and it is 'bad' and 'wrong' when nobody else does it. Thus, outsiders to this ring of mutual dependency encounter ostracism. One feature of this society is a lack of open discussion which leads to the existence of multiple standards. This Japanese morality even prevails over written laws. In Japan, there is a public stance that euthanasia does not exist. On the other hand, there are certain decisions which have permitted euthanasia. Similarly, organ transplants were performed from brain dead donors, while that procedure was not accepted officially by the medical profession. In this situation, there is a danger that human rights will be neglected. So far bioethical approaches have not helped to work out these problems. This may be because Japanese think that bioethics is subordinate to morality. The current dispute over brain death involves a struggle for the establishment of a rational society in Japan. Overcoming mutual dependency and ostracism is essential to resolve this struggle and to lead Japan into a society of mutual respect where all individuals, families and communities are esteemed.

  14. Current affairs in earthquake prediction in Japan (United States)

    Uyeda, Seiya


    As of mid-2014, the main organizations of the earthquake (EQ hereafter) prediction program, including the Seismological Society of Japan (SSJ), the MEXT Headquarters for EQ Research Promotion, hold the official position that they neither can nor want to make any short-term prediction. It is an extraordinary stance of responsible authorities when the nation, after the devastating 2011 M9 Tohoku EQ, most urgently needs whatever information that may exist on forthcoming EQs. Japan's national project for EQ prediction started in 1965, but it has made no success. The main reason for no success is the failure to capture precursors. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this stance has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. This paper tries to explain how this situation came about and suggest that it may in fact be a legitimate one which should have come a long time ago. Actually, substantial positive changes are taking place now. Some promising signs are arising even from cooperation of researchers with private sectors and there is a move to establish an "EQ Prediction Society of Japan". From now on, maintaining the high scientific standards in EQ prediction will be of crucial importance.

  15. Rehabilitation research in China and Japan. (United States)

    Akai, Masami; Liu, Meigen; Wu, Zong-Yao; Guo, Tiecheng


    Despite recent developments in global communication networks in medicine, researchers whose first language is not English are confronted by a dilemma; international demand to publish their works in English as the de facto common language and domestic needs to maintain a high level of research activity. To facilitate more contributions by non-English speaking researchers we reviewed rehabilitation research in China and Japan. The review was conducted by investigating 4 Chinese journals and the Japanese journal on rehabilitation medicine (1997/1999-2001), financial information from the proceedings of the Annual Congress of the Chinese Society (2000-02) and government grants given for research in Japan (1998-2000). In China, half of the articles focused on the effects of physical modality and therapeutic exercise on normal subjects. Most funds came from a Natural Science Foundation run by the central government. The Japanese journal contained a small number of clinical trials and many experimental studies. The number of applications for government grants increased. Though rehabilitation research is a relatively young branch of medical science, research in both China and Japan has been increasing. In the future we should organize clinical research to satisfy the needs of specific socioeconomic backgrounds and overcome the dilemma between global and domestic activities.

  16. Quo Vadis, Japan. [Status of Japan's Nuclear Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A pile of plutonium - 1.4 tonnes in all - was on board Japanese nuclear transport ship Akatsuki Maru when it left France on November 8, 1992 for Japan. Alongside it were Greenpeace's hostile and ever-vigilant boats and the great swells of public protest from around the world. Transports like this are likely to follow. But more to the tune of 30 to 40 tonnes of plutonium cargo is expected from the Japanese spent fuel that is separated at European reprocessing plants. Both Japanese utilities and governmental agencies have agreed that plutonium is to be fabricated into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) before being returned to Japan. But in the meantime, critics are accusing Japan of being one of the greatest threats to international safety. After the Akatsuki Maru spectacle, the Japanese civil nuclear program is awash in criticism and can not escape the watchful eye of the international community. Now, with Japan's parliamentary elections over and a review of its nuclear program just around the corner, the question is: Quo vadis, Japan

  17. Changing Japan’s National Security Strategy: Is it in Japan’s Interest? (United States)


    Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1604-1651), instituted a policy of “seclusion” that forbade citizens from traveling abroad and allowed for only extremely...semicolonial status upon Japan, led in part to the fall of the Tokugawa and the restoration of the Emperor Meiji.16 The early years of the Meiji period brought...12 Andrew Gordon, “The Overthrow of the Tokugawa ,” in A Modern History of Japan (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 17-18. 13 Ibid, 49-50

  18. Current status of robotic partial nephrectomy in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Hinata


    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN has been reported in Western countries. However, there are no similar reported studies of RAPN in Japan. Although common medical services are covered by public health insurance in Japan, RAPN had not been approved as a listed treatment for public insurance. We conducted a prospective clinical trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of RAPN in Japan. The aim of the present review article is to describe current status of RAPN in Japan and to introduce a part of clinical results obtained from the clinical trial. Based on the favorable results obtained in this clinical trial, RAPN was approved in April 2016 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare to be covered by public health insurance. This change allows access to RAPN to everyone in Japan, regardless of wealth. The RAPN techniques used in Japan are also reviewed.

  19. The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons From Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nanto, Dick K


    .... Overcoming the crisis in Japan s banks took a combination of capital injections, new laws and regulations, stronger oversight, a reorganization of the banking sector, moderate economic recovery...

  20. Status of HTGR development program in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanokawa, Konomo; Fujishiro, Toshio; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Shiozawa, Shusaku; Okubo, Minoru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute JAERI, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)


    Considering global warming due to emission of greenhouse gases it is essentially important to make efforts to obtain a more reliable and stable energy supply by extending use of nuclear energy which includes high temperature heat generated by nuclear power plants. Hence, efforts should be made continuously to establish and upgrade technologies of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR), which can supply high temperature heat with high thermal efficiency and high heat-utilizing rate. It is also expected that making basic research at high temperature using HTGR will contribute to innovative basic research in the future. The construction of the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), which is an HTGR with the maximum helium gas coolant temperature of 9500C at the reactor outlet, was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan (JAEC) in 1987 and successfully completed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Functional tests of the HTTR have been carried out since May 1996. First criticality will be attained in the near future. The project is intended to establish and upgrade the technology basis necessary for HTGR developments. Heat utilization system is planned to be connected to the HTTR and demonstrated at the initial stage of the second core. Steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production is adopted as an HTTR heat utilization system. The JAERI also plans to conduct material and fuel irradiation tests as innovative basic research as well as safety demonstration tests after attaining coolant gas temperature of 950C. Preliminary tests on selected research subjects such as new semiconductors, superconductors and composite material development, have been carried out at high temperature and under irradiation. This paper describes major features of the HTTR, present status of its construction and prospects on test programs using the HTTR, and the other activity on HTGRs in Japan. 2 refs.

  1. Obesity and gastrointestinal liver disorders in Japan. (United States)

    Matsuura, Bunzo; Nunoi, Hiroaki; Miyake, Teruki; Hiasa, Yoichi; Onji, Morikazu


    In Japan, the prevalence of obesity in adult men has increased since the 1970s, while that in adult women has not changed. The prevalence of obesity in 5-, 8-, 11-, and 14-year-old boys and girls increased from the late 1980s to late 1990 s and has decreased since 2000, while that in 17-year-old girls increased in 2002, similar to that for boys, but has since decreased. In 2009, 33.3% of adult men and 25.0% of adult women were obese, and 8-10% of children (age, 5-17 years) were obese. The prevalence of visceral obesity in adults was 50.8% of men and 18.0% of women. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, affects insulin resistance and increases metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]) and various cancers. In Japan, with a body mass index (BMI) of 23-25 as the reference category, the hazard ratio of total mortality is 1.36 for a BMI of 30-40 in men and 1.37 with a BMI of 30-40 in women. The frequency of patients with NAFLD has gradually increased in proportion to the increase in the population with obesity. From recent studies in Japan, the number of NAFLD patients is estimated to be 10 million, and around 2 million are considered to have non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Dietary and behavioral modification is effective for body weight loss and for improvement of obesity-related gastrointestinal liver diseases. If necessary, bariatric surgery is useful for obesity treatment. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Advances in food composition tables in Japan-Standard Tables Of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition). (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Kawai, Ryoko


    The latest version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015- comprises the main food composition table (Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015-[Seventh revised Edition)) and three supplementary books. The supplementary books are Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Amino Acids -, Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Fatty Acids - and Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Available Carbohydrates, Polyols and Organic Acids-. We believe understanding these food composition tables can give greater insight into Japan's gastronomic culture and changes in eating habits. We expect them to play important roles as part of the East Asia food composition tables. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Dating Petroglyphs from Fugoppe Cave, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ogawa


    Full Text Available For over 20 years, I have tried to establish a relative date for petroglyphs in Fugoppe Cave, Japan. Unsuspected amidst debris accumulating from about 1300 years ago, the petroglyphs were rediscovered accidentally in 1950. From an analysis of petroglyphs on fallen rocks scattered randomly on the site floor, I argue that the artworks date from ca.1900 years ago. The cave itself, formed by wave action, saw its main occupation by pottery-making people from 1700–1500 years ago; although the petroglyphs on the rock walls predated their occupation, it seems unlikely that the occupants attached any meaning to them.

  4. Human papillomavirus vaccination crisis in Japan. (United States)

    Dornbusch, Hans Jürgen; Stiris, Tom; Del Torso, Stefano; Ross-Russell, Robert; Zavrsnik, Jernej; Wettergren, Björn; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Valiulis, Arunas; Hadjipanayis, Adamos


    The European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) is gravely concerned about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination crisis in Japan and particularly about the negative position taken by governmental authorities. Given that the HPV vaccine is both safe and effective, there is no recognizable reason to date to withhold this lifesaving and cost effective public health measure from a population. Therefore, the EAP strongly encourages the Japanese health authorities to actively support HPV vaccination for the future health of their children and adolescents. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Security of Japan and Korean Unification (United States)


    independence from being a satellite state of the Soviet Union in East Asia.1 However, the end of the Cold War did have a major impact on Japan’s security...isolation in both countries. The Tokugawa shogunate (1603-1868: Edo period) had taken a national seclusion policy since 1639. Japan was threatened in the...of Commodore Matthew C. Perry and his four-ship squadron in Edo Bay in July 1853, the Tokugawa shogunate abandoned national isolation by signing the

  6. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.

  7. Survey of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Japan. (United States)

    Abe, Yusaku; Hashimoto, Koichi; Iinuma, Kazuie; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Ichiyama, Takashi; Kusuhara, Koichi; Nomura, Keiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Aiba, Hideo; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Hosoya, Mitsuaki


    Investigators conducted a retrospective epidemiological study of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a fatal disease caused by measles infection, over the past few years in Japan. Data on 118 cases obtained from a questionnaire sent to attending physicians were analyzed. The annual incidence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was approximately 0.03 cases per million from 2001 to 2005. Children infected with measles at a young age (panencephalitis, and those infected before 6 months of age showed earlier onset. Because a positive correlation was found between the prevalence of measles and the onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, particularly among children infected at an early age, it is vital to eradicate measles infection by vaccination.

  8. International migration in Japan: a demographic sketch. (United States)

    Kono, S


    A review of international migration trends affecting Japan is presented, focusing on the period since World War II. The author notes that there is currently a national labor shortage, particularly of unskilled labor. This creates an economic demand for immigration, although the Japanese generally believe their country is too densely populated, and are opposed to increased immigration. An attempt is made to forecast future trends in the foreign population of the country. Comments are included by Shigemochi Hirashima (pp. 49-50) and Young-bum Park (pp. 51-2).

  9. Overview of spherical tokamak research in Japan (United States)

    Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Fujita, T.; Fukumoto, N.; Fukuyama, A.; Hanada, K.; Idei, H.; Nagata, M.; Ono, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Uchida, M.; Horiuchi, R.; Kamada, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Masuzaki, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Oishi, T.; Saito, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsuji-Iio, S.


    Nationally coordinated research on spherical tokamak is being conducted in Japan. Recent achievements include: (i) plasma current start-up and ramp-up without the use of the central solenoid by RF waves (in electron cyclotron and lower hybrid frequency ranges), (ii) plasma current start-up by AC Ohmic operation and by coaxial helicity injection, (iii) development of an advanced fuelling technique by compact toroid injection, (iv) ultra-long-pulse operation and particle control using a high temperature metal wall, (v) access to the ultra-high-β regime by high-power reconnection heating, and (vi) improvement of spherical tokamak plasma stability by externally applied helical field.

  10. Multipurpose soft contact lens care in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshida H


    Full Text Available Hiroshi Toshida1,2, Yoshiaki Kadota3, Chikako Suto2, Toshihiko Ohta1, Akira Murakami21Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Shizuoka, 2Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo, 3Bausch & Lomb Japan Co, Ltd, Research and Development, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To assess the use of multipurpose lens care products via an online survey conducted among soft contact lens (SCL wearers in Japan.Methods: The subjects were 1000 men and women aged 15–44 years who reported that they cleaned their SCL by using multipurpose solution at least twice a week. Via the internet, they were asked questions about SCL care, the use of a rubbing step when cleaning SCL, cleaning and replacing lens cases, and recommended SCL care methods.Results: Of the 1000 SCL wearers enrolled, 94.3% performed lens care every day lenses were worn, 64.2% reported rubbing the lenses every time, 57.9% rubbed the lenses for at least 10 seconds per side, and 64.7% reported they rubbed the lenses on both sides. Further, 61.2% reported that they had been given an explanation of SCL cleaning at an eye clinic or contact lens store. Only 49.8% of subjects reported that they cleaned the lens case every time and 61.7% replaced the case within 3 months. Only 19.5% had been given an explanation about lens case care. Half of the subjects reported they had been given no recommendation to use specific SCL care products or could not remember whether or not they had. The most common reason for the recommendation was good compatibility with their type of lens.Conclusion: More education is needed in Japan regarding methods of SCL care to ensure correct lens cleaning with inclusion of a rubbing step, as well as sufficient cleaning and replacement of the lens case. Of particular interest is the finding that many subjects were not given an explanation about proper SCL care and lens case cleaning and replacement at the time of lens purchase or

  11. Research; BOSS Study Trip Japan '09 : Architecture, Urbanism, Real Estate & Housing and Technology in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, R.; Van Beelen, C.; Wamelink, J.W.F.; Geraedts, R.P.


    Japan is a land of many faces as we discovered: from seasonal changes, and thereby heavy rainfall, high humidity, tropical cyclones; to a stunning 127,300,000 inhabitants; or what about the only 10% buildable surface of the continent; seismic activity; fast going technological developments like

  12. Japan Pancreatic Cancer Registry; 30th year anniversary: Japan Pancreas Society. (United States)

    Egawa, Shinichi; Toma, Hiroki; Ohigashi, Hiroaki; Okusaka, Takuji; Nakao, Akimasa; Hatori, Takashi; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Akio; Tanaka, Masao


    Since 1981, the Japan Pancreas Society has been hosting a nationwide pancreatic cancer registry. To commemorate its 30th anniversary, we review its history and latest achievement. During 3 decades, more than 350 leading institutions in Japan contributed voluntarily to register and periodic follow-up. The registry was modified to protect privacy by encrypting and hash algorithm. From 1981 to 2007, 32,619 cumulative records were analyzed. The overall survival of invasive cancer was improved significantly. More patients with earlier stage or with intraductal and cystic neoplasms underwent resection. The strongest prognostic factor of Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stage IIA and IIB tubular adenocarcinoma in the pancreatic head was histological grade, followed by tumor size, extent of lymph node dissection, and postoperative chemotherapy. The 5-year survival rate of Union for International Cancer Control stage 0 reached 85%. The improvement of survival of patients with invasive cancer in Japan can be attributed to the introduction of effective chemotherapies, regionalization, and the earlier diagnosis and treatment. Simple definition of "early pancreatic cancer" is needed. At the 30th year anniversary, the Japan Pancreas Society nationwide pancreatic cancer registry is more shining than ever for current perspectives and for future diagnostic and treatment tactics.

  13. Education Reform and Equal Opportunity in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Okada


    Full Text Available Recently, there have been concerns that equality of educational opportunity has been lost and that this is leading to the stratification of Japanese society through the widening of income differentials, in a 'gap society'. In such a disparity society, secure full- time jobs are increasingly becoming limited to those who graduate from prestigious universities, and entry into those institutions is becoming connected more clearly with family income and investments. Parental attitudes towards their children taking extra lessons after school, going to cram schools, getting into university, and getting into a relatively highly-ranked university have influenced educational costs. This article examines the historical formation of the concept of equality of opportunity, which has been applied to the educational policy in Japan, particularly from the end of World War II to the new millennium. This paper also expands on the existing literature on educational policies in contemporary Japan by examining how the current educational reform efforts have affected equality of educational opportunity among children from different family backgrounds.

  14. Energy management in Japan. Consequences for RIs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Japan is eager to host the ILC, the International Linear Collider Project. One of the issues in realizing such a large accelerator facility in Japan would be assuring a satisfactory supply of electrical power. As is well known, after the Tohoku - Pacific Ocean Earthquake in March 11, 2011, most Japanese nuclear power plants have been off-line. Prior to that, up to 30% of the demand on the electrical grid was supplied by nuclear power. While there is no prospect for resumption of reactor operations, a rapid increase of the generation capacity of fossil fuel plants has allowed Japanese industries and domestic life to survive without major disruption, thought it has worsened the trade imbalance. In any case, we must be realistic in preparing an energy management plan for our Research Institutes where large-scale energy consumers are. Already for many years laboratories such as TRISTAN, KEKB and J-PARC have scheduled their operations so that they could contract to draw minimal power during the summer cooling sea...

  15. Japan's aging population. Implications for healthcare. (United States)

    Oliver, A J; Ikegami, N; Ikeda, S


    In the early years of the next century, the Japanese population may well become the oldest in the world. The Japanese government's concentration on post-World War II economic expansion meant that the government only fully woke up to the financial implications of having a large elderly population when oil prices were raised in the 1970s, highlighting Japan's economic dependence on global markets. This article explains the process by which policy regarding Japan's elderly developed both before and after these oil price increases. The measures of healthcare cost containment that the government introduced in response to the increased financial pressure are described, with a particular focus on pharmaceuticals. This article shows that the government has achieved a degree of success in terms of containing pharmaceutical costs, but that future effects on the quality of healthcare are uncertain. Ultimately, a wider application of a per diem fee in place of the prevalent fee-for-service system, and the realisation of plans to improve the social service infrastructure, would be the best path for policy to follow.

  16. Nationwide rubella epidemic--Japan, 2013. (United States)


    Rubella usually is a mild, febrile rash illness in children and adults; however, infection early in pregnancy, particularly during the first 16 weeks, can result in miscarriage, stillbirth, or an infant born with birth defects (i.e., congenital rubella syndrome [CRS]). As of 2013, goals to eliminate rubella have been established in two World Health Organization regions (the Region of the Americas by 2010 and the European Region by 2015), and targets for accelerated rubella control and CRS prevention have been established by the Western Pacific Region (WPR). In 1976, Japan introduced single-antigen rubella vaccine in its national immunization program, targeting girls in junior high school. In 1989, a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine was introduced, targeting children aged 12-72 months. However, adult males remain susceptible to rubella. From January 1 to May 1, 2013, a total of 5,442 rubella cases were reported through the rubella surveillance system in Japan, with the majority (77%) of cases occurring among adult males. Ten infants with CRS were reported during October 2012-May 1, 2013. Countries and regions establishing a goal of accelerated control or elimination of rubella should review their previous and current immunization policies and strategies to identify and vaccinate susceptible persons and to ensure high population immunity in all cohorts, both male and female.

  17. Asthma Controller Medications for Children in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Hamada DrPH


    Full Text Available Background. Treatment and management strategies for asthma in children are generally consistent internationally, but prescription of antiasthma drugs differs among countries. The objective of this study was to examine the prescribing patterns of antiasthma drugs, particularly controller medications, in children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was performed in children with asthma using an administrative claims database in Japan. Results. A total of 1149 preschool-age and 3226 school-age children were identified. Leukotriene receptor antagonists were prescribed for about 80% of the children. Long-acting β-agonists were prescribed for 87.6% and 59.6% of preschool-age and school-age children, respectively, whereas prescriptions of inhaled corticosteroids had lower rates of 8.2% and 16.5%, respectively. In an examination of prescriptions at 1-month intervals, a relatively high number of children were prescribed bronchodilators without anti-inflammatory agents. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that asthma care for children in Japan can be improved through changes in drug prescriptions.

  18. Cost of depression among adults in Japan. (United States)

    Okumura, Yasuyuki; Higuchi, Teruhiko


    The aim of this study was to estimate the annual national cost of major depressive disorder among adults 20 years and older in Japan in 2008. The analysis used was a top-down costing approach based on national health statistics. From the societal perspective, the costs examined were direct medical costs, depression-related suicide costs, and workplace costs for all members of society. Direct medical costs included both inpatient and outpatient medical costs, while workplace costs included both absenteeism and presenteeism costs. The authors performed 1-way sensitivity analyses to examine the extent to which results were affected by the choice of parameters used in the cost calculation. All costs were expressed in 2008 US dollar terms. The economic burden of depression in Japan was approximately $11 billion, with $1,570 million relating to direct medical costs, $2,542 million to depression-related suicide costs, and $6,912 million to workplace costs. Compared to previously published studies, this study adopted conservative key assumptions; this may have resulted in a conservative estimate of the annual national cost of depression. Depression imposes a substantial economic burden on Japanese society, which highlights the urgent need for policymakers to allocate resources toward implementing strategies that prevent and manage depression in the Japanese population.

  19. Suicidal behavior among homeless people in Japan. (United States)

    Okamura, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Kae; Morikawa, Suimei; Awata, Shuichi


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the frequency and correlates of suicidal behavior among homeless people in Japan. A face-to-face survey was conducted in two districts of Tokyo, Japan, with 423 subjects who resided on streets and riversides and in urban parks and stations (street homeless) or who were residents of shelters, cheap hotels, or welfare homes for homeless people (sheltered homeless). When questioned about suicidal ideation in the previous 2 weeks, 51 subjects (12.2% of valid responses) had a recurring wish to die, 29 (6.9%) had frequent thoughts of suicide, and 22 (5.3%) had made suicide plans. In addition, 11 (2.9%) subjects had attempted suicide in the previous 2 weeks and 74 (17.7%) reported that they had ever attempted suicide. In univariate logistic regression analyses, street homelessness, lack of perceived emotional social support, poor subjective health perception, visual impairment, pain, insomnia, poor mental well-being, and current depression were significantly associated with recurrent thoughts of suicide in the previous 2 weeks. Among these, current depression had the greatest significance. In multivariate logistic regression analyses after controlling for depression, street homelessness and lack of perceived emotional social support were significantly associated with recurrent thoughts of suicide in the previous 2 weeks. Comprehensive interventions including housing and social support as well as mental health services might be crucial as effective strategies for suicide prevention among homeless people.

  20. Palaeoparasitology in Japan: discovery of toilet features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Matsui


    Full Text Available The development of palaeoparasitology in Japan has occurred in recent decades. Despite the fact that archaeology in Japan has been slow to develop techniques for excavating ancient toilets, important information about the development of sanitation has been derived from the analysis of a few sites. This shows that the earliest people had very simple methods of sanitation. As populations increased, sanitation became more complex. Ditches surrounding early towns were used for excrement disposal. Eventually distinct toilets were developed followed by cesspit type toilets and flushing toilets. The parasites recovered from these toilets include many species that infect humans today. These parasite spectra reflect local use of aquatic, marine, and land animals. Fecal borne disease was an increasing problem as represented by whipworm and ascarid roundworm eggs. Interestingly, ascarid roundworms were absent in the earliest cultures and only became common with rice agriculture. Finds of pollen and seeds in toilet sediments reveal the use of medicinal plants to control the emerging problem of parasites.

  1. Confucianism and gender culture of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Svyatnenko


    Full Text Available The problem of the definition of Confucianism areas of influence on the gender culture of Japanese society has been studied by the author. It has been found by the author that the influence of Confucianism on the gender culture of Japan supported the formation of a gender-servility’s women morality towards men and women enforcement to the behavioural roles, which are based on child-serving and house-wives scenarios. Confucianism has created the grounds for patriarchal sexism, by which woman is seen as an object of serving to masculine-centric hierarchies and must be formatted for the stereotypes of convenience in order to serve men under ordinary and extraordinary circumstances. The key points of the influence are as follows: legalized promiscuity allowance, porno-latrical behavioural model (especially in the aspect of women’s use as prostitutes, as well as the accentuation of gender roles in the biographies of etalon women which are described in Confucian treatises. It has been stated by the author that it is necessary to admit that the impact on the gender culture of Japan was made and is made not so much by Confucianism in its pure form, but by Shintoism Confucianism, which requires separate research in other publications.

  2. Citrulline for urea cycle disorders in Japan. (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Kido, Jun; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Ohura, Toshihiro; Endo, Fumio


    The amino acid l-citrulline is used as a therapeutic agent for urea cycle disorders (UCD) including ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency (CPSD), and N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency. There are few reports, however, on the use of l-citrulline in Japan and little consensus regarding the effects of l-citrulline. We conducted a questionnaire survey of patients undergoing l-citrulline treatment for a UCD to evaluate the current status of this therapy. The survey included patient background, details of l-citrulline treatment, clinical examination data, treatment, frequency of vomiting, and liver transplantation. We retrospectively investigated 43 questionnaire respondents (OTCD, n = 33; CPSD, n = 10). The weight of male OTCD patients improved by +0.79 SD, and the ammonia level decreased by a mean of 44.3 μmol/L in all patients. The protein intake of all patients and of male OTCD patients increased by 0.14 g/kg/day and 0.17 g/kg/day, respectively. l-Citrulline effectively reduced ammonia level, increased protein intake, and improved weight gain in UCD patients. l-Citrulline should be considered a standard therapy in OTCD and CPSD patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Macroeconomic fluctuations and mortality in postwar Japan. (United States)

    Granados, José A Tapia


    Recent research has shown that after long-term declining trends are excluded, mortality rates in industrial countries tend to rise in economic expansions and fall in economic recessions. In the present work, co-movements between economic fluctuations and mortality changes in postwar Japan are investigated by analyzing time series of mortality rates and eight economic indicators. To eliminate spurious associations attributable to trends, series are detrended either via Hodrick-Prescott filtering or through differencing. As previously found in other industrial economies, general mortality and age-specific death rates in Japan tend to increase in expansions and drop in recessions, for both males and females. The effect, which is slightly stronger for males, is particularly noticeable in those aged 45-64. Deaths attributed to heart disease, pneumonia, accidents, liver disease, and senility--making up about 41% of total mortality--tend to fluctuate procyclically, increasing in expansions. Suicides, as well as deaths attributable to diabetes and hypertensive disease, make up about 4% of total mortality and fluctuate countercyclically, increasing in recessions. Deaths attributed to other causes, making up about half of total deaths, don't show a clearly defined relationship with the fluctuations of the economy.

  4. The Politics of Religion: Modernity, Nationhood and Education in Japan (United States)

    Shibata, Masako


    While religion in Japan is traditionally linked to nationhood and nation-building, the post-war period has seen Shinto consciously invoked to restore a sense of national identity through a focus on Japan's victimhood. In this context, there is a focus on the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to the war dead and an icon of contemporary Japanese cultural…

  5. Few Women Reach the Top in Japan's Universities (United States)

    McNeill, David


    Japan's higher-education system is the second largest in the world, after the United States, but it fares much worse than the United States when it comes to gender equity. Just 7 percent of Japan's 750-odd colleges and universities are run by women, compared with 23 percent of those in the United States. While four out of the eight members of the…

  6. Ethics Education for Professionals in Japan: A Critical Review (United States)

    Maruyama, Yasushi; Ueno, Tetsu


    Ethics education for professionals has become popular in Japan over the last two decades. Many professional schools now require students to take an applied ethics or professional ethics course. In contrast, very few courses of professional ethics for teaching exist or have been taught in Japan. In order to obtain suggestions for teacher education,…

  7. Epidemiology of esophageal cancer in Japan and China. (United States)

    Lin, Yingsong; Totsuka, Yukari; He, Yutong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Qiao, Youlin; Ueda, Junko; Wei, Wenqiang; Inoue, Manami; Tanaka, Hideo


    In preparation for a collaborative multidisciplinary study of the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer, the authors reviewed the published literature to identify similarities and differences between Japan and China in esophageal cancer epidemiology. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type, while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma remains extremely low in both countries. Numerous epidemiologic studies in both countries show that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are contributing risk factors for ESCC. There are differences, however, in many aspects of esophageal cancer between Japan and China, including cancer burden, patterns of incidence and mortality, sex ratio of mortality, risk factor profiles, and genetic variants. Overall incidence and mortality rates are higher in China than in Japan, and variation in mortality and incidence patterns is greater in China than in Japan. During the study period (1987-2000), the decline in age-adjusted mortality rates was more apparent in China than in Japan. Risk factor profiles differed between high- and low-incidence areas within China, but not in Japan. The association of smoking and drinking with ESCC risk appears to be weaker in China than in Japan. Genome-wide association studies in China showed that variants in several chromosome regions conferred increased risk, but only genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing genes were significantly associated with ESCC risk in Japan. A well-designed multidisciplinary epidemiologic study is needed to examine the role of diet and eating habits in ESCC risk.

  8. English, Language Shift and Values Shift in Japan and Singapore (United States)

    Morita, Liang


    This is a comparative study of English language education in Japan and Singapore and the role English plays in both countries. English language education in Japan has not been very effective. Although the communicative approach to teaching English was introduced in the 1980s, schools still use the grammar-translation method and most Japanese do…

  9. Beyond the Limitations of Environmental Education in Japan (United States)

    Imamura, Mitsuyuki


    Environmental education has not spread as widely in Japan as expected and therefore has not had any significant impact on environmental problems, even though many educators and researchers have devoted themselves to environmental educational practice. Why is environmental education not popular in Japan, and what does this tell us? The purpose of…

  10. Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future (United States)

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko


    Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

  11. Achieving safe road traffic — the experience in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Oguchi


    This paper compares Japanese annual trends with those of other developed countries to show that Japan has recently become risen to the top level of traffic safety. In hopes of achieving an even safer traffic society in Japan, the paper summarizes the key factors for consideration.

  12. Japan as a Paradigm for U.S. Homeland Security (United States)


    hostages, the JRA demanded the release of nine JRA prisoners in Japan and a $6 million ransom.111 The then Japanese Prime Minister, Takeo Fukuda ...Aum Shinrikyo still operates in Japan, but has changed its name to Aleph and removed doctrines that justified using murder.139

  13. Perceptions of Aging and Disability among College Students in Japan (United States)

    Warren, Nicholas J.; Kamimura, Akiko; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Stephens, Emily; Omi, Keita; Kanaoka, Ana; Ishikawa, Ai; Yamanaka, Katsuo


    Japan launched the Long-term Care Insurance program in 2000, and ratified the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2014. Japan has been taking significant steps to support their elderly population and individuals with disabilities. However, information is lacking on the understanding and opinions of either of…

  14. Over-Education and Its Opportunity Cost in Japan (United States)

    Kucel, Aleksander; Molina, Ivette Fuentes; Raya, Josep Maria


    In this paper, we investigate the determinants of over-education in Japan and evaluate its opportunity costs for university graduates. To this end, we use the REFLEX data. Results reveal that over-education level in Japan is high and it brings an important wage penalty for Japanese workers. Large firm and high occupations point toward a…

  15. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien


    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  16. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme... (United States)

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru


    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  17. Foreign Students in Japan. NIER Occasional Paper 03/90. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kiyoshi

    As Japan takes a place as one of the world's technologically and economically advanced nations, the number of foreign students seeking to study in Japan has increased rapidly, as has the number of foreigners expressing interest in studying Japanese culture and the Japanese language. The Japanese government's program of international student…

  18. Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan (United States)

    Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru


    The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

  19. Overview of DRAGON-Japan in 2012 (United States)

    Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Schafer, J. S.; Eck, T. F.; Nishizawa, T.; Takemura, T.; Takamura, T.; Teruyuki, N.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Takami, A.; Kaneyasu, N.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kenny, P.; Kouzai, K.; Kuji, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Nakata, M.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Sorokin, M.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, Z.


    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) is an on-going project since early 1990s. The 400 sun/sky radiometers are sparsely deployed and provide us with the information of aerosol properties over the world. In summer of 2011, the first DRAGON field campaign was made in Washington, D.C./Baltimore metropolitan area, where about 40 AERONET Cimel instruments were set according to small square grid boxes. Thus it has been shown that the detail scale observations are useful to investigate the local influence of aerosols and validation of high resolution satellite product such as newly developed 3 km x 3 km aerosol product from MODIS. The second DRAGON project is done in East Asia because this region emits huge amount of anthropogenic gases and aerosols. The emission influences not only local atmosphere near the origin but also out of Asian continent by long range transportation. The aim of DRAGON-Japan is as follows: 1: retrieval of optical properties of trans-boundary aerosols, 2: detection of aerosols over megacity, 3: investigation of the influence to local aerosols by inbound aerosols from continent. During the DRAGON-Asia (March-May, 2012), AERONET instruments were set sparsely from Fukue Island (in the East China Sea) to Osaka (in the middle of Japan) as well as 2ch-LIDAR system. As for megacity region, dense sun/sky radiometer network was made by using nine instruments at Mt. Rokko (840 m/asl.), Mt. Ikoma (640 m/asl.), Kobe, North-Osaka, South-Osaka, Central-Osaka, East-Osaka (simply named by Osaka in AERONET web), Nara, and Kyoto. The following results on AOT (Aerosol optical thickness at a wavelength of 500 nm: AERONET Level 1.5) have been driven from the measurements : 1: Fukue Island provides the highest value as 0.56, 2: in respect of urban cities; 0.42 at Fukuoka, 0.42~0.47 over Osaka area, and 0.39 at Kyoto or Nara, 3: in the remote place; 0.33~0.35 at Nishiharima, Noto or Shirahama, 4: the difference between AOT values at mountain (ex. Mt. Rokko, Mt. Ikoma

  20. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan. (United States)

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi


    The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune

  1. NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan (United States)

    Takamatsu, Hideo


    With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space

  2. Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: an experimental study utilizing motion capture technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura M


    Full Text Available Michitaka Yoshimura,1,* Momoko Kitazawa,1–3,* Yasuhiro Maeda,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Kazuo Tsubota,1 Taishiro Kishimoto,4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, Wako, Saitama, 3Department of Nursing, Aino University Junior College, 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, NY, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smartphone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness–eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P<0.01. We found that the short viewing

  3. [Cystic hydatidosis--its occurrence and prevention in Japan]. (United States)

    Doi, Rikuo; Ito, Akira; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Morishima, Yasuyuki


    The history of cystic hydatidosis (CH) in Japan is reviewed on the basis of case reports and other references during the period from 1881 to 2003. A total of 76 cases were identified as CH patients in Japan of which 47 were reported prior to 1945 and 29 thereafter. The occurrence was divided into 2 stages before and after the Slaughterhouse Act that was brought into force in 1906. The presence of endemic foci of CH was suggested before the Act was introduced in Japan, especially in southwestern prefectures, and the development of cattle breeding and unsanitary small slaughterhouses in the areas were thought to be cause. Japan emphasized cattle as a dietary protein source and also for various military accouterments such as shoes and rucksacks for soldiers. China was a transit port to Japan from Europe and also a big endemic area of CH. Japan had sent a huge number of soldiers and citizens to China in the Japanese-Sino and Japanese-Russian War and a number of cattle, pet dogs and people have also came to Japan from China. After enforcement of the Slaughterhouse Act in 1906, the number of CH cases decreased dramatically, and only 2 cases were reported for the 30 years between 1920 and 1950 in Japan. The situation regarding CH in Japan thus suggested the existence of endemic foci in southwestern prefectures, although direct evidence was lacking because no one had found E. granulosus in dogs of the area. Almost all of the patients recently presenting with CH appear to have been infected in overseas endemic countries. The available information strongly suggest that sanitary control of slaughterhouses is essential for preventing CH in endemic areas. Diagnostic laboratory examinations and appropriate medical intervention are clearly important. An animal quarantine system against echinococcal infestation of pet dogs should also be established urgently in Japan, because hundreds of pet dogs are being imported annually from endemic countries in Europe and Asia.

  4. The burden of insomnia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima K


    Full Text Available Kazuo Mishima,1 Marco daCosta DiBonaventura,2 Hillary Gross2 1Department of Psychophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan; 2Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA Objectives: Several studies have suggested that patients who experience insomnia report a number of significant impairments. However, despite this literature, fewer studies have focused on the burden of insomnia among patients in Japan. The objective of the current study is to extend this work in Japan to further understand the effect of insomnia on health-related quality of life (hrQOL. Further, another objective is to understand general predictors of hrQOL among patients with insomnia. Methods: Data from the 2012 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey, an annual, cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 years or older, were used (N=30,000. All National Health and Wellness Survey respondents were categorized based on the incidence of self-reported insomnia diagnosis and prescription medication usage (clinical insomniacs under treatment versus [vs] good sleepers without insomnia or insomnia symptoms. Comparisons among different groups were made using multiple regression models controlling for demographics and health history. Results: Clinical insomniacs (n=1,018; 3.4% reported significantly worse hrQOL compared with good sleepers (n=20,542 (mental component summary: 34.2 vs 48.0; physical component summary: 48.0 vs 52.8; health utilities: 0.61 vs 0.76; all P<0.05. Health behaviors (smoking, exercise, alcohol use and comorbidities were the strongest predictors of health utilities for clinical insomniacs. For all three clinical insomniac subgroups of interest, those with a physical comorbidity but not a psychiatric one, those with a psychiatric comorbidity but not a physical one, and those without either a physical or psychiatric comorbidity, large decrements in health utilities were observed for respondents who did

  5. Business Anthropology, Family Ideology and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian


    Like those of business and management studies, methodological and theoretical contributions of anthropology to the study of family business cannot be ignored. This article elucidates three interconnected themes relating to the development and practices of business anthropology and family ideology...... in Japan. It also looks at how the family ideology in Japanese business first described and explained by anthropologists has been taken up by those with an interest in the Japanese industrial system, but working in field of management and business studies without any particular specialization in "things...... Japanese." Their research often relies on second than first-hand knowledge, and can therefore be misleading. The author points to the perceived connections between the traditional household system, not just family ideology, and modern economic relations. He reminds us that what distinguishes anthropology...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinis Udris


    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is a growing problem among adolescents and adults alike. To date, research concerning cyberbullying has focused on Europe and the Anglophone countries. This study contributes to understanding of cyberbullying by adding the case of adolescents in Japan. Participants were 899 high school students who completed a self-report questionnaire on technology use habits, cyberbullying and cybervictimization experiences. Logistic regression analyses were used to measure the relationship between cyberbullying, cybervictimization and several independent variables, including gender, age and technology use. Results showed that 22% of the participants had experienced cybervictimization, while 7.8% admitted to cyberbullying others. Most cyberbullying cases involved classmates and the victims knew the identities of their tormentors. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that cybervictimization is the biggest significant predictor of cyberbullying and vice versa. Having more online friends was significantly associated with cyberbullying and cybervictimization.

  7. 10th China-Japan Geometry Conference

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    Miyaoka, Reiko; Tang, Zizhou; Zhang, Weiping


    Since the year 2000, we have witnessed several outstanding results in geometry that have solved long-standing problems such as the Poincaré conjecture, the Yau–Tian–Donaldson conjecture, and the Willmore conjecture. There are still many important and challenging unsolved problems including, among others, the Strominger–Yau–Zaslow conjecture on mirror symmetry, the relative Yau–Tian–Donaldson conjecture in Kähler geometry, the Hopf conjecture, and the Yau conjecture on the first eigenvalue of an embedded minimal hypersurface of the sphere. For the younger generation to approach such problems and obtain the required techniques, it is of the utmost importance to provide them with up-to-date information from leading specialists. The geometry conference for the friendship of China and Japan has achieved this purpose during the past 10 years. Their talks deal with problems at the highest level, often accompanied with solutions and ideas, which extend across various fields in Riemannian geometry, sympl...

  8. A perspective on space robotics in Japan (United States)

    Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Nakatani, Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Iwata, Tsutomu


    This report summarizes the research and development status and perspective on space robotics in Japan. The R & D status emphasizes the current on-going projects at NASDA including the JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) to be used on Space Station Freedom and the robotics experiments on Engineering Satellite 7 (ETS-7). As a future perspective, not only NASDA, but also ISAS and other government institutes have been promoting their own research in space robotics in order to support wide spread space activities in the future. Included in this future research is an autonomous satellite retrieval experiment, a dexterous robot experiment, an on-orbit servicing platform, an IVA robot, and several moon/planetary rovers proposed by NASDA or ISAS and other organizations.

  9. [Current state of oncolytic virotherapy in Japan]. (United States)

    Nakamori, Mikihito; Yamaue, Hiroki


    Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging treatment strategy that uses replication-competent viruses to destroy cancers. Recent advances include preclinical proof of feasibility for a single-shot virotherapy cure, identification of drugs that accelerate intratumoral virus propagation, and strategies to maximize the immunotherapeutic action of oncolytic viruses. The primary clinical milestone has been completion of accrual in a phase 3 trial of intratumoral herpes simplex virus therapy using OncoVEX for metastatic melanoma. In Japan, clinical treatments such as oncolytic adenoviruses(OBP-301)for esophageal cancer and oncolytic herpes simplex viruses(G47b)for brain cancer have accelerated considerably. We hope that a steady stream of new oncolytic viruses will enter the clinical arena in our country.

  10. Sectoral Price Divergence between Korea and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongman Moon


    Full Text Available This paper examines the persistent properties of 12 sectoral relative prices between Korea and Japan obtained following the Classification of Individual Consumption according to Purpose (COICOP over the period of 1985-2016. Applying a new econometric method developed by Pesaran which controls for the cross-section dependence in a panel, we are not able to reject the hypothesis that the sectoral real exchange rates contain a common stochastic trend. On the other hand, the well-known panel unit root tests such as the IPS and LLC tests widely used by previous studies strongly reject the unit root hypothesis. Since the error term of the regression for our panel exhibits significant cross-section dependence, these opposite results justify that the use of the new econometric method is appropriate.

  11. Cultural influences on suicide in Japan. (United States)

    Russell, Roxanne; Metraux, Daniel; Tohen, Mauricio


    Following the economic crash of the late 1990s, the suicide rate in Japan increased to a rate of over 30 000 people per year and has been one of the highest in the world. Cultural factors have influenced this high suicide rate, such as a tradition of honorable suicide as well as permissive attitudes towards suicide that remain in modern times. Additionally, the economic downturn, particularly the trend of unemployment in middle-aged men, also played a significant role in the high suicide rate. The suicide rate has started to decrease in recent years perhaps in part due to suicide prevention measures undertaken by the government. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Japan]. (United States)

    Kanno, Hitoshi; Ogura, Hiromi


    In the past 10 years, we have diagnosed congenital hemolytic anemia in 294 patients, approximately 33% of whom were found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. It is becoming more common for Japanese to marry people of other ethnic origins, such that G6PD deficiency is becoming more prevalent in Japan. Japanese G6PD deficiency tends to be diagnosed in the neonatal period due to severe jaundice, while G6PD-deficient patients with foreign ancestors tend to be diagnosed at the onset of an acute hemolytic crisis before the age of six. It is difficult to predict the clinical course of each patient by G6PD activity, reduced glutathione content, or the presence/absence of severe neonatal jaundice. We propose that both neonatal G6PD screening and systematic analyses of G6PD gene mutations may be useful for personalized management of patients with G6PD-deficient hemolytic anemia.

  13. Shakespeare translation in Japan: 1868—1998 Shakespeare translation in Japan: 1868—1998


    Akiko Sano


    Shakespeare was first introduced to Japan in the late nineteenth century, when the country opened its doors to other countries after the seclusion policy of over two hundred years. When the Meiji Restoration Government came into power in 1868, it decided to import the Western culture and technology in order to catch up with the developed countries. Japan’s overall contact with the Western world began. The country’s slogan then became “civilization and enlightenment”, which meant Westerni...

  14. Hospital disaster preparedness in Osaka, Japan. (United States)

    Kai, T; Ukai, T; Ohta, M; Pretto, E


    To investigate the adequacy of hospital disaster preparedness in the Osaka, Japan area. Questionnaires were constructed to elicit information from hospital administrators, pharmacists, and safety personnel about self-sufficiency in electrical, gas, water, food, and medical supplies in the event of a disaster. Questionnaires were mailed to 553 hospitals. A total of 265 were completed and returned (Recovery rate; 48%). Of the respondents, 16% of hospitals that returned the completed surveys had an external disaster plan, 93% did not have back-up plans to accept casualties during a disaster if all beds were occupied, 8% had drugs and 6% had medical supplies stockpiled for disasters. In 78% of hospitals, independent electric power generating plants had been installed. However, despite a high proportion of power-plant equipment available, 57% of hospitals responding estimated that emergency power generation would not exceed six hours due to a shortage of reserve fuel. Of the hospitals responding, 71% had reserve water supply, 15% of hospitals responding had stockpiles of food for emergency use, and 83% reported that it would be impossible to provide meals for patients and staff with no main gas supply. No hospitals fulfilled the criteria for adequate disaster preparedness based on the categories queried. Areas of greatest concern requiring improvement were: 1) lack of an external disaster plan; and 2) self-sufficiency in back-up energy, water, and food supply. It is recommended that hospitals in Japan be required to develop plans for emergency operations in case of an external disaster. This should be linked with hospital accreditation as is done for internal disaster plans.

  15. Adolescent smoking behavior in Japan, 1996. (United States)

    Osaki, Yoneatsu; Minowa, Masumi; Suzuki, Kenji; Wada, Kiyoshi


    We conducted second nationwide survey on smoking behavior among Japanese high school students. The survey was a cross-sectional sampling survey. The survey's targets were junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Sample schools were selected by stratified cluster sampling. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were sent to sample schools for all students to fill out. 65.6% of the junior high schools and 67.0% of the senior high schools were responded to this survey. A total of 117,325 students responded and 115,814 questionnaires were subjected to analysis. 7.5% of boys and 3.8% of girls in the 1st grade of junior high school were classified as current smokers, compared with 36.9% of boys and 15.6% of girls in 3rd grade of senior high school. Less than 1% of boys and girls in the 1st grade of junior high school were classified as daily smokers, this figure increased markedly by the 3rd grade of senior high school to reach 25.4% of boys and 7.1% of girls. Of students in the 3rd grade of senior high school, 21.2% of boys and 9.9% of girls had tried smoking before 13 year of age. Cigarette consumption also increased with age, although the proportion of those smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day did not. The major source for cigarettes among current smokers was vending machines. This survey revealed that smoking prevalence among Japanese high school students has already reached quite high level. Comprehensive energetic measures for control minor smoking are necessary in Japan.

  16. Steam generator tube inspection in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Shigetaka [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Steam generator tube inspection was first carried out in 1971 at Mihama Unit-1 that is first PWR plant in Japan, when the plant was brought into the first annual inspection. At that time, inspection was made on sampling basis, and only bobbin coil probe was used. After experiencing various kinds of tube degradations, inspection method was changed from sampling to all number of tubes, and various kinds of probes were used to get higher detectability of flaw. At present, it is required that all the tubes shall be inspected in their full length at each annual inspection using standard bobbin coil probe, and some special probes for certain plants that have susceptibility of occurrence of flaw. Sleeve repaired portion is included in this inspection. As a result of analyses of eddy current testing data, all indications that have been evaluated to be 20% wall thickness or deeper shall be repaired by either plugging or sleeving, where flaw morphology is to be a wastage or wear. Other types of flaw such as IGA/SCC are not allowed to be left inservice when those indications are detected. These inspections are performed according to inspection procedures that are approved by regulatory authority. Actual inspections are witnessed by the Japan Power engineering and inspection corporation (JAPEIC)`s inspectors during data acquisition and analysis, and they issue inspection report to authority for review and approval. It is achieved high safety performance of steam generator through this method of inspections, however. some tube leakage problems were experienced in the past. To prevent recurrence of such events, government is conducting development and verification test program for new eddy current testing technology.

  17. Japan's National Security: Structures, norms, and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenstein, P.J.; Okawara, N.

    Japan's national security policy has two distinctive aspects that deserve analysis. First, Japan's definition of national security goes far beyond traditional military notions. National security is viewed in comprehensive terms that also include economic and political dimensions. The second feature of Japan's security policy worth explanation is a distinctive mixture of flexibility and rigidity in the process of policy adaptation to change: flexibility on issues of economic security, rigidity on issues of military security, and flexibility combined with rigidity on issues of political security. With the end of the Cold War and changes in the structure of the international system, it is only natural that we ask whether and how Japan's national security policy will change as well. Optimists insist that the Asian balance of power and the US-Japan relationship will make Japan aspire to be a competitive, noninterventionist trading state that heeds the universal interest of peace and profit rather than narrow aspirations for national power. Pessimists warn us instead that the new international system will finally confirm Herman Kahn's prediction of 1970: Japan will quickly change to the status of a nuclear superpower, spurred perhaps by what some see as a dangerous rise of Japanese militarism in the 1970s and 1980s.

  18. Neuropsychology in Japan: history, current challenges, and future prospects. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maiko


    The purpose of this special issue was to describe the cross-cultural differences in neuropsychology throughout the world. The current state of neuropsychology in Japan is discussed in this manuscript. Information on six topics, including (1) the history of Japanese neuropsychology, (2) licensure system, (3) job opportunities, (4) neuropsychological clinical services, (5) neuropsychological tests, and (6) neuropsychological research, was gathered via literature searches, official organization websites, and personal communication with clinical psychologists and other professionals in Japan. Neuropsychology reached Japan from the west in the late 1800s, a period of rapid political and social modernization. Professional associations were founded in the 1960s and 1970s and continued to grow. The need for neuropsychological assessment in Japan is growing; however, credential requirements for neuropsychologists have not yet been established. To practice clinical psychology in Japan, one must obtain a Master's degree and pass a licensure examination that is administered by a private professional foundation. Clinical psychologists often conduct neuropsychological tests; however, they have little training in neuropsychological assessment. While many western neuropsychological tests have been translated into Japanese and are used in clinical settings, the majority of translated tests have not been standardized and their psychometric properties remain poorly understood. Standardization and development of normative data in Japan is warranted. Given that needs for neuropsychological services are increasing, it is essential for clinical psychologists in Japan to improve their skills in neuropsychological evaluations. Japanese graduate schools must work to establish neuropsychology programs to educate and train clinical neuropsychologists.

  19. Coronary Artery Calcification in Japanese Men in Japan and Hawaii (United States)

    Abbott, Robert D.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Kadowaki, Takashi; Masaki, Kamal H.; Willcox, Bradley J.; Sekikawa, Akira; Kuller, Lewis H.; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Shin, Chol; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; El-Saed, Aiman; Okamura, Tomonori; White, Roger; Curb, J. David


    Explanations for the low prevalence of atherosclerosis in Japan versus United States are often confounded with genetic variation. To help remove such confounding, coronary artery calcification (CAC), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, was compared between Japanese men in Japan and Japanese men in Hawaii. Findings are based on risk factor and CAC measurements that were made from 2001 to 2005 in 311 men in Japan and 300 men in Hawaii. Men were aged 40 to 50 years and without cardiovascular disease. After age-adjustment, there was a 3-fold excess in the odds of prevalent CAC scores ≥10 in Hawaii versus Japan (relative odds [RO] = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1,4.9). While men in Hawaii had a generally poorer risk factor profile, men in Japan were 4-times more likely to smoke cigarettes (49.5 vs. 12.7%, pHawaii versus Japan was 4.0 (95% CI = 2.2,7.4). Further studies are needed to identify factors that offer protection against atherosclerosis in Japanese men in Japan. PMID:17728270

  20. Activities of the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan (United States)

    Oba, A.; Miyazaki, H.


    This reports a history and future prospects of the activities by the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan. For growths of academic fields, active communications among students and young scientists are indispensable. Several academic communities in geoinformation fields are established by youths and play important roles of building networks over schools and institutes. The networks are expected to be innovative cooperation after the youths achieve their professions. Although academic communities are getting fixed growth particularly in Japan, youths had gotten little opportunities to make contacts with youths themselves. To promote gotten youth activities among geoinformation fields, in 1998, we started a series of programs that named the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan involving students and young scientists within the annual conferences, Geoinformation Forum Japan. The programs have provided opportunities to do presentation their studies by posters, some events, and motivations to create networks among students and young scientists. From 2009, some members of our activities set additional conference in west area of Japan. Thus our activities are spread within Japan. As a result of these achievements, the number of youth dedicating to the programs keeps growing. From 2009, it's getting international gradually, however, almost all the participants are still Japanese. To keep and expand the network, we are planning to make some nodes with some Asian youth organizations in the field of geoinformation. This paper is concluded with proposals and future prospects on the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan.

  1. The mystery of Japan's missing centenarians explained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Saito


    Full Text Available This report elucidates the issue of Japan's missing centenarians, which was uncovered in 2010. We provide the latest figures from verification efforts, discuss sources of centenarian information in Japan, examine possible causes, and evaluate the effect of the missing centenarians on official statistics. In Japan 234,354 people registered before 1910 remained on the family registers in 2010, without being crossed out. They would have been 100 years old at least and represent 0.5Š of the births recorded between 1872 and 1910. The impact of this group on life expectancy statistics, however, is effectively nil.

  2. [Improving the infrastructure for clinical trials in Japan]. (United States)

    Nakano, S


    It is necessary for us to reform the infrastructure for clinical trials in Japan in this new GCP era. Medical institutions for clinical trials should prepare to implement monitoring and auditing procedures for quality control and quality assurance of clinical trials. It is also necessary to ease the burden and improve the benefits of participating in clinical trials by subjects. Although there has been no effort to educate and train CRC/SC staff at all in Japan, future improvement in this area is needed to bring the quality of Japan's clinical trials up to international standards.

  3. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.


    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  4. [Estimates of natural fertility in rural Tokugawa Japan]. (United States)

    Tomobe, K


    "This paper estimates the value of [natural fertility] and [the degree of parity-specific fertility control] in rural Tokugawa Japan mainly using [the Coale-Trussell model]. What we gained through this analysis is 1) the level of natural fertility in rural Tokugawa Japan was very low compared to the pre-transition level of England, [and] 2) in spite of this low level fertility, parity-specific fertility control was not practiced.... We can say that rural Tokugawa Japan since the second half of [the] seventeenth-century was in a 'natural fertility regime'...." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  5. The impact of minimum wage on female employment in Japan


    Kawaguchi, Daiji; Yamada, Ken


    The statutory minimum wage in Japan is revised every year and increases by almost the same amount across prefectures, regardless of the disparity in the wage distribution across prefectures. Due to this feature of minimum wagesetting, the minimum wage cuts into the wage distribution deeply in rural Japan. We examine the impact of the minimum wage on employment, focus-ing on middle-aged women, who are known to be typical, low-wage workers in Japan. The results, based on a panel estimation, sug...

  6. Current incidence of clinical kernicterus in preterm infants in Japan. (United States)

    Morioka, Ichiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Koda, Tsubasa; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Okada, Hitoshi; Katayama, Yoshinori; Kunikata, Tetsuya; Kondo, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Makoto; Hosono, Shigeharu; Yasuda, Saneyuki; Yokoyama, Naoki; Wada, Hiroshi; Itoh, Susumu; Funato, Masahisa; Yamauchi, Yoshitada; Lee, Yong Kye; Yonetani, Masahiko


    Clinical kernicterus in preterm infants has recently been reported in Japan, diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings during the neonatal and infancy periods. We investigated the incidence of clinical kernicterus in preterm infants kernicterus, were recorded. A total of 2720 infants were analyzed, representing 59% (2720/4623) of all preterm live births kernicterus in infancy (5/2720, 0.18%). The current incidence of clinical kernicterus in Japan is therefore estimated at 1.8 per 1000 live births <30 weeks GA. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Spider mites of Japan: their biology and control. (United States)

    Takafuji, A; Ozawa, A; Nemoto, H; Gotoh, T


    Spider mite biology and control in Japan were reviewed. Seventy-eight spider mite species of 16 genera (Family Tetranychidae) have been recorded in Japan. Several of the species recently described were separated from a species complex comprising strains with different ecological performance such as host range. These separations were first supported by crossing experiments and then confirmed by molecular genetic studies. Spider mite control in Japan is still dependent on heavy acaricide spraying in order to attain products of extremely high quality. The commercial use of natural enemies in spider mite management has just started.

  8. [The new Tuberculosis Control Program of Japan]. (United States)

    Mori, Toru


    The 1951 Tuberculosis Control Law of Japan was amended extensively and has been in effect since April, 2005. The revision of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) is to respond to the tremendous changes that have occurred during the last 50 years in tuberculosis epidemiology and in the environment in tuberculosis control implementation. In this review, the main points and framework of the revisions were summarized and the perspective of the development of new technical innovations relevant to each area of the revised TB control legislation is discussed. Also, challenges of Japan's NTP in the recent future are discussed, including the controversies over the proposed abolishment of the Tuberculosis Control Law. 1. IMMUNIZATION: In the revision of NTP, the BCG vaccination of elementary school and junior-high school entrants was discontinued. In order to strengthen the early primary vaccination for infants, the new Law has adopted the direct vaccination scheme omitting tuberculin testing prior to immunization. This program is implemented to young babies, i.e., less than six months old, as defined by the decree. It is a heavy responsibility for the municipalities to ensure the high coverage of immunization when the period of legal vaccination is rather strictly limited practically to the fourth to sixth months after birth. The safe direct vaccination is another new challenge where appropriate management of the Koch's phenomenon or similar reactions should be warranted. 2. CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS: Though unfortunately suspended for some legal reason currently, the expansion and improvement of chemoprophylaxis, or treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, to cover anyone with higher risk of clinical development of TB would have a tremendous effect in Japan, especially since 90% of patients who developed TB were infected tens of years ago. The technical innovations in diagnosis of TB infection such as QuantiFERON will be very helpful. Development of new drugs or drug regimens

  9. [Tuberculosis control of urban areas in Japan]. (United States)


    The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka

  10. Nuclear catastrophe in Japan. Health consequences resulting from Fukushima; Atomkatastrophe in Japan. Gesundheitliche Folgen von Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulitz, Henrik; Eisenberg, Winfrid; Thiel, Reinhold


    On 11 March 2011, a nuclear catastrophe occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Japan in the wake of an earthquake and due to serious safety deficiencies. This resulted in a massive and prolonged release of radioactive fission and decay products. Approximately 20% of the radioactive substances released into the atmosphere have led to the contamination of the landmass of Japan with 17,000 becquerels per square meter of cesium-137 and a comparable quantity of cesium-134. The initial health consequences of the nuclear catastrophe are already now, after only two years, scientifically verifiable. Similar to the case of Chernobyl, a decline in the birth rate was documented nine months after the nuclear catastrophe. Throughout Japan, the total drop in number of births in December 2011 was 4362, with the Fukushima Prefecture registering a decline of 209 births. Japan also experienced a rise in infant mortality, with 75 more children dying in their first year of life than expected statistically. In the Fukushima Prefecture alone, some 55,592 children were diagnosed with thyroid gland nodules or cysts. In contrast to cysts and nodules found in adults, these findings in children must be classified as precancerous. There were also the first documented cases in Fukushima of thyroid cancer in children. The present document undertakes three assessments of the expected incidence of cancer resulting from external exposure to radiation. These are based on publications in scientific journals on soil contamination in 47 prefectures in Japan, the average total soil contamination, and, in the third case, on local dose rate measurements in the fall of 2012. Taking into consideration the shielding effect of buildings, the medical organization IPPNW has calculated the collective lifetime doses for individuals at 94,749 manSv, 206,516 manSv, and 118,171 manSv, respectively. In accordance with the risk factors set by the European Committee on Radiation Risk (ECRR) for death

  11. Real Time Earthquake Information System in Japan (United States)

    Doi, K.; Kato, T.


    An early earthquake notification system in Japan had been developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) as a governmental organization responsible for issuing earthquake information and tsunami forecasts. The system was primarily developed for prompt provision of a tsunami forecast to the public with locating an earthquake and estimating its magnitude as quickly as possible. Years after, a system for a prompt provision of seismic intensity information as indices of degrees of disasters caused by strong ground motion was also developed so that concerned governmental organizations can decide whether it was necessary for them to launch emergency response or not. At present, JMA issues the following kinds of information successively when a large earthquake occurs. 1) Prompt report of occurrence of a large earthquake and major seismic intensities caused by the earthquake in about two minutes after the earthquake occurrence. 2) Tsunami forecast in around three minutes. 3) Information on expected arrival times and maximum heights of tsunami waves in around five minutes. 4) Information on a hypocenter and a magnitude of the earthquake, the seismic intensity at each observation station, the times of high tides in addition to the expected tsunami arrival times in 5-7 minutes. To issue information above, JMA has established; - An advanced nationwide seismic network with about 180 stations for seismic wave observation and about 3,400 stations for instrumental seismic intensity observation including about 2,800 seismic intensity stations maintained by local governments, - Data telemetry networks via landlines and partly via a satellite communication link, - Real-time data processing techniques, for example, the automatic calculation of earthquake location and magnitude, the database driven method for quantitative tsunami estimation, and - Dissemination networks, via computer-to-computer communications and facsimile through dedicated telephone lines. JMA operationally

  12. Nationwide public-access defibrillation in Japan. (United States)

    Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Nagao, Ken; Tanaka, Hideharu; Hiraide, Atsushi


    It is unclear whether dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in public places can improve the rate of survival among patients who have had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. From January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2007, we conducted a prospective, population-based, observational study involving consecutive patients across Japan who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in whom resuscitation was attempted by emergency responders. We evaluated the effect of nationwide dissemination of public-access AEDs on the rate of survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The primary outcome measure was the 1-month rate of survival with minimal neurologic impairment. A multivariate logistic-regression analysis was performed to assess factors associated with a good neurologic outcome. A total of 312,319 adults who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were included in the study; 12,631 of these patients had ventricular fibrillation and had an arrest that was of cardiac origin and that was witnessed by bystanders. In 462 of these patients (3.7%), shocks were administered by laypersons with the use of public-access AEDs, and the proportion increased, from 1.2% to 6.2%, as the number of public-access AEDs increased (Pdefibrillation, regardless of the type of provider (bystander or emergency-medical-services personnel), was associated with a good neurologic outcome after a cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation (adjusted odds ratio per 1-minute increase in the time to administration of shock, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 0.92; P<0.001). The mean time to shock was reduced from 3.7 to 2.2 minutes, and the annual number of patients per 10 million population who survived with minimal neurologic impairment increased from 2.4 to 8.9 as the number of public-access AEDs increased from fewer than 1 per square kilometer of inhabited area to 4 or more. Nationwide dissemination of public-access AEDs in Japan resulted in earlier administration of

  13. Japan's declining fertility: "1.53 shock". (United States)

    Yanagishita, M


    In 1990, the Japanese were upset over the low 1989 total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.57 and continued to be so when they learned that the 1990 rate was even lower (1.53). This meant an annual population growth rate of only 0.33% with population decline beginning after 2010. In the early 1990s, Japan began to feel the demographic effects of such low fertility: a shortage of young workers and rising costs of health care for the elderly. Further, this shortage resulted in increasing business closings between 1988-1990 (1-6%). In 1990, the government began a survey to monitor the beliefs of the population on demographic concerns. The survey revealed that people wanted 2.2 children. Ideal family size was 2.6 which remained the same since 1977. Almost 40% found the falling TFR to be undesirable, especially because the population was aging. Moreover 65% of them though the government should undertake efforts to increase births. The major suggestions included reducing economic costs of raising a child (53%), a more favorable environment to have children such as affordable housing (29%), and developing child care facilities and child care leave (13%). 38% of 25-29 year old women were still unmarried, yet only 2% intended to never marry. Women in their late 20s and early 30s were critical of the 3 generation household with women doing all the housework. Women were more likely to be against premarital and extramarital sex than men. 25-33%, especially women 45 years old, felt the abortion law should be restricted. The 1990 abortion rate was 37.4/100 births. 7% relied on sterilization, yet 25-30% felt it to be an acceptable means of contraception. 75% of those that used a contraceptive used the condom. The government continued to ban oral contraceptives (OCs) claiming they would spread AIDS. Men were more in favor of OCs than women. 48% of those who found the falling population undesirable favored a pronatalist policy over importing foreign laborers. 41% wanted Japan to still help

  14. Japan also must Possess Nuclear Missiles : What is the most Essential Foreign and Military Policy on Present Japan?


    松崎, 昇


    Though Six-Party Talks have intermittently been held in order to solve the problem of nuclear weapons by North Korea since 2003, certainly they will not reach a real resolution, because North Korea never gives up nukes which are the only trump card for itself. Japan is seriously threatened by the neighboring country of North Korea. But, even if the problem is solved effectively in some way or other, the real threat for Japan comes from China. China went nuclear in 1964 when Japan held the Tok...

  15. U.S.-Japan Seminar on Dielectric and Piezoelectric Ceramics Held in Kyoto, Japan on 11-14 December 1990 (United States)


    Center K.Terao Toshiba Corporation Sumitomo MetM Industries, Ltd. 70 Yanagi-cho, Sawai-ku 16 Sunayama, Hasaki-machi Kawasaki 210, Japan Kashima -gun...The Fifth U.S.- Japan Seminar on Dielectric and Piezoelectric Ceramics PROGRAM AND EVALUATIONS General Chairman: K. Wakino (Murata) J. P. Dougherty...December 11-14. 1990 Kyo-Dai Kaikan Kyoto. Japan 91-17575 .i tblic roleaw; * ’~udo.i Unlln-ted ltl - TABLE OF CONTENTS U.S. Chairman’s Report

  16. 75 FR 51981 - Polychloroprene Rubber from Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of Finding (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Polychloroprene Rubber from Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and... review of the antidumping finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. Because the domestic interested... polychloroprene rubber from Japan. See Polychloroprene Rubber from Japan, 38 FR 33593 (December 6, 1973). On...

  17. 75 FR 80457 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of... (United States)


    ... the sunset review of the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium (SDC) ] from Japan... applicable deadline, the Department is revoking the antidumping duty order on SDC from Japan. DATES... antidumping duty order on SDC from Japan. See Antidumping Duty Order: Superalloy Degassed Chromium from Japan...

  18. Characteristics of Family Dynamics among Japanese Families in Japan


    Sekito, Yoshiko


    The purpose of this study is to identify family dynamics and their relationships to selected socio-demographic characteristics and mental status among Japanese families in Japan. The Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) and a socio-demographic questionnair

  19. Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer Brightness Temperatures, Wakasa Bay, Japan (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes calibrated brightness temperatures measured over Wakasa Bay in the Sea of Japan in January and February 2003. The MIR was carried on a...

  20. Analysis Of Japans Economy Based On 2014 From Macroeconomics Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Mohammad Rafiqul Islam


    Full Text Available Abstract Japan is the worlds third largest economy. But currently economic situations of Japan are not stable. It is not increasing as expected. Since 2013 it was world second largest economy but Japan loosed its placed to China in 2014 due to slow growth of important economic indicators. By using the basic Keynesian model we will provide a detailed analysis of the short and long run impacts of the changes for Japans real GDP rate of unemployment and inflation rate. We demonstrated a detailed use of the 45-degree diagram or the AD-IA model and other economic analysis of the macroeconomic principles that underlie the model and concepts. Finally we will recommend the government with a change in fiscal policy what based on the analysis by considering what might be achieved with a fiscal policy response and the extent to which any impact on the stock of public debt might be a consideration

  1. Macrofouling community structure in Kanayama Bay, Kii Peninsula (Japan)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Harada, E.

    An investigation on the macrofouling community in Kanayama Bay, Kill Peninsula, Japan was undertaken from June 1994 to May 1995 by exposing fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) panels at subsurface and bottom (2.2 m) depths. The composition and abundance...

  2. Forecasters Handbook for Japan and Adjacent Sea Areas (United States)


    China Shi ..................... municipality ......................... China Shih .................... stone , rock, hill, ten, city...salt pan .................. USSR Sredni, Srednyaya ....... middle ............................... USSR Ssu ..................... temple, monastery ... stone , rocky eminence ................ China To ...................... island-s, rock-s ..................... Japan T’oe .................... reef, shoal

  3. Marine environmental geographic information system (MEGIS) development for Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morita, I; Sasagawa, A; Oka, K; Maxwell, G


    ...) under the supervision of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan. The 5-year program, which is designed to minimize environmental damage in the event of an oil spill, commenced in 1992...

  4. US-Japan collaborative research on probe data : assessment report. (United States)


    The United States (US) Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Road Bureau of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism (MLIT) of Japan have a long history of sharing information on ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) activit...

  5. U.S. - JAPAN TRADE: The Japanese Insurance Market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... In recent years, Japan has taken some actions to deregulate its insurance market, both in accordance with these agreements and as part of its overall efforts at financial deregulatory reform. However, some U.S...

  6. PSR/A Multiband Polarimetric Imaging, Wakasa Bay, Japan (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes brightness temperature data measured over the Sea of Japan, the Western Pacific Ocean, and the Japanese Islands in January and February 2003....

  7. 76 FR 8773 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan (United States)


    ... Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On December 22, 2010.... Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the Commission...

  8. Enhancing Basic Governance: Japan's Comprehensive Counterterrorism Assistance to Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fouse, David; Sato, Yoichiro


    .... Japan's focus has been to develop a comprehensive set of initiatives aimed at enhancing SEA countries' basic governance capabilities in areas such as law enforcement, export control, money laundering...

  9. Non-communicable diseases control in China and Japan. (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Li, Xiaoqiang; Nakamura, Sho; Sho, Ri; Zhao, Genming; Nakata, Yoshinori; Xu, Wanghong


    China and Japan share numerous similarities other than their geographical proximity. Facing the great challenges of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), China and Japan have developed different preventive strategies and systems. While Japan has made great progress in primary prevention of NCDs through strong legislation, the 'Specific Health Check and Guidance System' and a unique licensed health professional system, China is attempting to catch up by changing its strategies in NCDs control. In this manuscript, we compared disease burden of NCDs, health care systems and preventive strategies against NCDs between China and Japan. In this light, we summarized the points that the two countries can learn from each other, and proposed recommendations for the two countries in NCDs control.

  10. Foreigners in Japan. Westerners Portrayed in the Yokohama Woodcuts (United States)

    Novotny, Ann


    Impressions of the first Westerners in Japan in the 1860s are presented through photographs of popular woodcuts of the period. A short narrative reports the importance of this unusual news form. (1 reference) (Author)

  11. Family nursing practice and education: what is happening in Japan? (United States)

    Moriyama, Michiko


    Significant developments in family nursing in Japan are described and analyzed beginning with the political and health care legislation in the country that stimulated a need for family nursing and the early adoption of family nursing theories and models by visionary leaders in nursing education. In 1994, Japan was the first country in the world to establish a national family nursing association, the Japanese Association for Research in Family Nursing, that provided the necessary infrastructure and leadership for family nursing in Japan to flourish. The strengths and challenges of family nursing in Japan are identified and a call is made for innovations in nursing curricula as well as global networking of family nurses around the world.

  12. Jizō, Healing Rituals, and Women in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milla Micka Moto-Sanchez


    .... Assumed to have originated as Kşitigarbha in India, this bodhisattva has been worshipped as the protector of children and travelers, but more importantly, as the savior par excellence in the underworld, especially by women in Japan...

  13. Drug Use before and during Pregnancy in Japan: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Nishigori


    Full Text Available Purpose: To elucidate drug use before and during pregnancy in Japan. Methods: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS is an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. We analyzed data from JECS involving cases where drugs were used for 12 months before pregnancy was diagnosed, between the time of diagnosis of pregnancy until week 12 of pregnancy, and after week 12 of pregnancy. Results: We analyzed data from 97,464 pregnant women. The percentages of pregnant women who had taken one or more drugs and supplements before diagnosis of pregnancy, between the time of diagnosis of pregnancy until week 12 of pregnancy, and after week 12 of pregnancy, were 78.4%, 57.1%, and 68.8% respectively. Excluding iron supplements, folic acid, and other vitamins and minerals, the percentages of women taking supplements were 75.3%, 36.0%, and 51.7% at each respective time point. The following drugs and supplements were frequently used for 12 months before pregnancy diagnosis: Commercially available antipyretics, analgesics, and/or medicine for treating common cold (34.7%, antipyretics, analgesics, and/or medicine for treating common colds, which were prescribed in hospitals (29.8%, antimicrobial drugs (14.0%, and anti-allergy drugs (12.5%. The following drugs and supplements were frequently used from the time of pregnancy diagnosis until week 12 of pregnancy, and after week 12 of pregnancy: folic acid (28.9% and 26.2%, antipyretics, analgesics and/or medicines for treating common cold, that were prescribed in hospitals (7.8% and 13.3%, Chinese herbal medicines (6.0% and 9.4%, and uterine relaxants (5.1% and 15.2%. Conclusions: The analysis of a nationwide cohort study showed that a high percentage of Japanese pregnant women were taking medicinal drugs. Further research is required to elucidate the relationship between drug use during pregnancy and birth defects in Japan.

  14. Drug Use before and during Pregnancy in Japan: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study (United States)

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Metoki, Hirohito; Ishikuro, Mami; Mizuno, Satoshi; Sakurai, Kasumi; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Nakai, Kunihiko; Mano, Nariyasu; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Yaegashi, Nobuo


    Purpose: To elucidate drug use before and during pregnancy in Japan. Methods: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS) is an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. We analyzed data from JECS involving cases where drugs were used for 12 months before pregnancy was diagnosed, between the time of diagnosis of pregnancy until week 12 of pregnancy, and after week 12 of pregnancy. Results: We analyzed data from 97,464 pregnant women. The percentages of pregnant women who had taken one or more drugs and supplements before diagnosis of pregnancy, between the time of diagnosis of pregnancy until week 12 of pregnancy, and after week 12 of pregnancy, were 78.4%, 57.1%, and 68.8% respectively. Excluding iron supplements, folic acid, and other vitamins and minerals, the percentages of women taking supplements were 75.3%, 36.0%, and 51.7% at each respective time point. The following drugs and supplements were frequently used for 12 months before pregnancy diagnosis: Commercially available antipyretics, analgesics, and/or medicine for treating common cold (34.7%), antipyretics, analgesics, and/or medicine for treating common colds, which were prescribed in hospitals (29.8%), antimicrobial drugs (14.0%), and anti-allergy drugs (12.5%). The following drugs and supplements were frequently used from the time of pregnancy diagnosis until week 12 of pregnancy, and after week 12 of pregnancy: folic acid (28.9% and 26.2%), antipyretics, analgesics and/or medicines for treating common cold, that were prescribed in hospitals (7.8% and 13.3%), Chinese herbal medicines (6.0% and 9.4%, and uterine relaxants (5.1% and 15.2%). Conclusions: The analysis of a nationwide cohort study showed that a high percentage of Japanese pregnant women were taking medicinal drugs. Further research is required to elucidate the relationship between drug use during pregnancy and birth defects in Japan. PMID:28970433

  15. Climatotherapy in Japan: a pilot study (United States)

    Kanayama, Hitomi; Kusaka, Yukinori; Hirai, Takayoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Agishi, Yuko; Schuh, Angela


    Twenty-nine urban inhabitants participated in a half-day climatotherapy programme at the moderate mountain area and lowland area in the northwest part of the main island of Japan. The current study was aimed to investigate physically and mentally the objective and subjective influence of our short programme, which was a prospective pilot study of single intervention. Blood pressure was significantly descended during terrain cure at the uphill mountain path and returned after fresh-air rest cure, while there was no significant change throughout the programme at lowland flat path. Heart rate was significantly ascended and descended at both area, and more clearly changed at the mountain path. Profile of Mood Status brief form Japanese version administered before and after our half-day programme. Age adjusted T score of negative subscales, `tension-anxiety', `depression', `anger-hostility', `fatigue' and `confusion' were significantly lower after climatotherapy at both sites. Whereas, there was no significant change concerning `vigour' score. This short-version climatotherapy programme has been designed for people without enough time for long stay at health resort. It turned out our half-day climatotherapy programme contribute to mood status improvement. In addition, repeated practice of our short-version programme including endurance exercise with cool body shell using uphill path can be expected that blood pressure will go toward the normal range and heart rate will decrease both in usual time and during exercise. Therefore, health benefits can be expected of this climatotherapy programme.

  16. Vibration exposure and prevention in Japan. (United States)

    Futatsuka, M; Ueno, T; Yamada, S


    Working conditions of vibration exposure have generally improved, but many difficult problems must be solved such as (1) hygienic improvements in a variety of vibrating tools; (2) improving working conditions, for example, by limiting the time of operation in spite of economic difficulties such as those faced by those who work on a piece rate basis; (3) gathering more complete information about the risk population because of the large number of self-employed in informal employment sectors; and (4) finding work places after rehabilitation for patients, particularly in mountainous rural areas or in small scale industries. Historical observation of vibration and preventive measures in Japanese national forests was presented on the basis of the results of a retrospective cohort study in Kyushu, Japan. Prevalence rate of VWF remarkably changed from 58.4% in the groups that began to operate chain saws in 1960 to only a few cases in the groups who started the operation after 1971. When we compare the relationships between the results of long term cohort study and the consequences of preventive measures of vibration syndrome, the most important factor is the decrease of vibration exposure (improvement in chain saws plus the time restriction system). The comprehensive prevention system used in Japanese national forests consists of the following: (1) Health care system; (2) Work regulation system; (3) System for improving mechanized tools; (4) Warming system to protect against cold conditions; and (5) Education and training system.

  17. Field operational tests of Smartway in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Kanazawa


    Full Text Available Efforts are underway in Japan to promote “Smartway” next-generation roadways, which provide a variety of services through the use of advanced ITS technologies. In recent years, the National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management (NILIM, part of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT, has conducted public–private joint research on next-generation road services using ITS technologies. Field operational tests (FOTs of services including forward obstacle information provision and merging assistance using 5.8 GHz dedicated short range communication (DSRC were conducted on the Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway through FY2007. In FY2008–2009, FOTs were conducted in three major metropolitan areas—Tokyo, Nagoya, and Keihanshin (Kyoto, Osaka, and Kobe—to promote future deployment nationwide. These included tests of information provision services to alert drivers to forward obstacles hidden beyond the crest of an incline and prevent excessive speed on sharp curves. This paper presents an overview of these FOTs conducted by NILIM in recent years and their results.

  18. Common approach to childhood obesity in Japan. (United States)

    Kubo, Toshihide


    Although the prevalence of childhood obesity is plateauing, it remains a social concern. The Japan Society for the Study of Obesity devised criteria for obesity disease as a morbid state that requires medical treatment in 2002. Moreover, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare announced diagnostic criteria for childhood metabolic syndrome in 2010 because of the increasing number of children with lifestyle-related diseases. The treatment of obesity needs to be prioritized, and three principles, other than behavioral therapy, have been introduced in this study for the general medical treatment of obesity without underlying diseases: (1) diet therapy, (2) exercise, and (3) no pharmacotherapy. However, preventing obesity is more important than its treatment. A previous study reported the tracking of an overweight status from infancy; therefore, it is important to prevent infants from becoming overweight. The concept of the developmental origins of health and disease has been attracting more attention in recent years; however, preventative measures prior to birth should also be considered to reduce the incidence of obesity. Although the methods used to approach the treatment of childhood obesity change with differences in race or lifestyle, those who are engaged in the medical treatment of childhood obesity worldwide can contribute to its treatment and prevention by a mutual exchange of information.

  19. Nutritional policies and dietary guidelines in Japan. (United States)

    Nakamura, Teiji


    The national government settled on "Healthy Japan 21" as the premier preventive policy of lifestyle related diseases in 2000. In 2005, the effectiveness of the campaign was conducted, but the results did not turn out as expected. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare made the "Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG-ST)" as a practical and easy way to improve eating habits for all of the people. The JFG-ST falls down when the balance of the diets worsens and expresses a stable thing in what a turn (exercise) does. Eyes down quantity to take out of each group per day is shown in the basic form by the 5 distinction from grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, and fruits. In 2005, the Basic Law on Dietary Education was enacted to promote the dietary education about the importance of eating proper meals in order to solve problems such as inappropriate eating habits and nutrition intake, disturbances in diets, increases in lifestyle-related diseases, a fall in the rate of food self-sufficiency and so forth. The Ministry of Education and Science started a program to train people to become "diet and nutrition teacher" in primary school. JFG- ST is developed in a dietary education campaign as a standard method of the dietary education. In May, 2011, the government has announced the second dietary education promotional basic plan to assume five years.

  20. Japan in the 21st Century Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pío García


    Full Text Available In 1853, Japan was forced to come out of its feudal isolation and become a part of the worldwide business network. Its opening up did not mean surrendering to external powers, but rather becoming immersed in an imperialist struggle, from which it would come out defeated in 1945. Nevertheless, Japan’s prostration was temporary, given that in the post-war period it became an unconditional ally of the same super power that had blocked its military aspirations with two atomic bombs. The strategic agreement with the USA remained intact even after the Cold War had ended. Moreover, the verbal struggle and show of frce in the Senkaku / Diaoyutai Islands, in 2012, facilitated a return to power which was more akin to the dictates of Washington and its security plan in the Pacific political wing. Today, the confrontation in Northeast Asia presents the Korean-American-Japanese block, on one side, and the Sino-Russian-North Korean, on the other, on a fork which must be seen as a new bipolar scheme which will guarantee the regional strategic equilibrium. However, progressive changes are expected in the balance of power in both the Asian sector and the rest of the world, due to the impact of growing Chinese economic, political and military power on geopolitical agreements, including the Japanese-American one.

  1. The earliest telescope preserved in Japan (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsuko


    This paper describes the antique telescope owned by one of Japan's major feudal warlords, Tokugawa Yoshinao. As he died in 1650, this means that this telescope was produced in or before that year. Our recent investigation of the telescope revealed that it is of Schyrlean type, consisting of four convex lenses, so that it gives erect images with a measured magnifying power of 3.9 (± 0.2-0.3). This also implies that Yoshinao's telescope could be one of the earliest Schyrlean telescopes ever. The design, fabrication technique, and the surface decoration of the telescopic tube and caps all suggest that it is not a Western make at all, but was produced probably under the guidance of a Chinese Jesuit missionary or by the Chinese, in Suzhou or Hangzhou in Zhejiang province, China, or in Nagasaki. Following descriptions in the Japanese and Chinese historical literature, we also discuss the possibility that production of Schyrlean-type telescopes started independently in the Far East nearly simultaneously with the publication of Oculus Enoch et Eliae by Anton Maria Schyrle in 1645.

  2. HL-LHC updates in Japan

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    At a recent meeting in Japan, updates on the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project were presented, including the progress made so far and the deadlines still to be met for the upgraded machine to be operational from 2020.   New magnets made with advanced superconductor Nb3Sn in the framework of the HL-LHC project. These magnets are currently under construction at CERN by the TE-MSC group. The LHC is the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, and in 2015 it will reach yet another new record for the energy of its colliding beams. One key factor of its discovery potential is its ability to produce collisions described in mathematical terms by the parameter known as “luminosity”. In 2025, the HL-LHC project will allow the total number of collisions in the LHC to increase by a factor of 10. The first step in this rich upgrade programme is the delivery of the Preliminary Design Report (PDR), which is also a key milestone of the HiLumi LHC Design Study partly fund...

  3. [Demodex-related marginal blepharitis in Japan]. (United States)

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Kawashima, Motoko; Ibrahim, Osama; Murato, Dogru; Tsubota, Kazuo


    Some marginal blepharitis is related to demodex, but this has not yet been reported in Japan. In this study, patients with severe marginal blepharitis with cylindrical dandruff were studied to examine the number of demodex in their cilia. Ten eyes of 10 patients (7 men and 3 women, mean age: 62.9 +/- 9.0 years) with unilateral marginal blepharitis which had cylindrical dandruff in their cilia were studied. Three cilia which had the most cylindrical dandruff were removed from the eyelids for microscopic examination. After cleaning the eyelid margins for 1 week, the examination was repeated. Scoring of itching and foreign body sensation of the patients was performed both before and after the treatment. Demodex folliculorum was detected in the cilia of 8 out of 10 eyes (80%), and 22 cilia out of 30 with cylindrical dandruff. The average number of demodex/cilia was 1.6 +/- 0.9. In all cases, the number of demodex/cillium decreased significantly with the improvement in symptoms and blepharitis. An Increase in the number of demodex might be the pathogen causing blepharitis with cylindrical dandruff, and cleaning of the eyelid margin is effective as a therapeutic method.

  4. Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School

    CERN Multimedia



    The Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School recently organised a course on Synchrotron Radiation & Free Electron Lasers, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 6 to 15 April, 2011.   The school attracted 65 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Russia, Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 15 lectures each of 90 minutes, 9 hours of parallel sessions, and 6 hours of discussion/student presentation sessions. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity during the traditional one-day excursion to visit two archeological sites at the Temples of Segesta and Selinunte. The success of the school has encouraged the organisers to re-launch the Joint School, which ran on a roughly t...

  5. Climatotherapy in Japan: a pilot study (United States)

    Kanayama, Hitomi; Kusaka, Yukinori; Hirai, Takayoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Agishi, Yuko; Schuh, Angela


    Twenty-nine urban inhabitants participated in a half-day climatotherapy programme at the moderate mountain area and lowland area in the northwest part of the main island of Japan. The current study was aimed to investigate physically and mentally the objective and subjective influence of our short programme, which was a prospective pilot study of single intervention. Blood pressure was significantly descended during terrain cure at the uphill mountain path and returned after fresh-air rest cure, while there was no significant change throughout the programme at lowland flat path. Heart rate was significantly ascended and descended at both area, and more clearly changed at the mountain path. Profile of Mood Status brief form Japanese version administered before and after our half-day programme. Age adjusted T score of negative subscales, `tension-anxiety', `depression', `anger-hostility', `fatigue' and `confusion' were significantly lower after climatotherapy at both sites. Whereas, there was no significant change concerning `vigour' score. This short-version climatotherapy programme has been designed for people without enough time for long stay at health resort. It turned out our half-day climatotherapy programme contribute to mood status improvement. In addition, repeated practice of our short-version programme including endurance exercise with cool body shell using uphill path can be expected that blood pressure will go toward the normal range and heart rate will decrease both in usual time and during exercise. Therefore, health benefits can be expected of this climatotherapy programme.

  6. Neutrinos herald possible new physics in Japan

    CERN Multimedia


    There’s an embarrassment of choice for my message this week. Firstly, it was great to see a press release from the Japanese T2K (Tokai to Kamioka) experiment on 15 June, signalling not only potentially great physics, but also that the Japanese physics community is getting back on its feet after the earthquake and tsunami. Back home, the LHC is running beautifully...    Crossing the inverse femtobarn threshold so early into this years run is wonderful achievement, and augurs well for the summer conferences. We’ve now reached the stage where a single LHC fill is delivering as much data as the entire 2010 run. And finally, when Council met this week, I was pleased to announce that CERN has received formal confirmation from all five applicants for membership, opening the way to CERN welcoming new members soon. A busy two weeks, then, but what I’d like to focus on is the new result from Japan.   Simply stated, the T2K result shows the first indication of...

  7. Healthcare service quality perception in Japan. (United States)

    Eleuch, Amira ep Koubaa


    This study aims to assess Japanese patients' healthcare service quality perceptions and to shed light on the most meaningful service features. It follows-up a study published in IJHCQA Vol. 21 No. 7. Through a non-linear approach, the study relied on the scatter model to detect healthcare service features' importance in forming overall quality judgment. Japanese patients perceive healthcare services through a linear compensatory process. Features related to technical quality and staff behavior compensate for each other to decide service quality. A limitation of the study is the limited sample size. Non-linear approaches could help researchers to better understand patients' healthcare service quality perceptions. The study highlights a need to adopt an evolution that enhances technical quality and medical practices in Japanese healthcare settings. The study relies on a non-linear approach to assess patient overall quality perceptions in order to enrich knowledge. Furthermore, the research is conducted in Japan where healthcare marketing studies are scarce owing to cultural and language barriers. Japanese culture and healthcare system characteristics are used to explain and interpret the results.

  8. Difficulties facing physician mothers in Japan. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Kozono, Yuki; Mori, Ryo; Marui, Eiji


    Despite recent increases in the number of female physicians graduating in Japan, their premature resignations after childbirth are contributing to the acute shortage of physicians. Previous Japanese studies have explored supportive measures in the workplace, but have rarely focused on the specific problems or concerns of physician-mothers. Therefore, this study explored the challenges facing Japanese physician-mothers in efforts to identify solutions for their retention. Open-ended questionnaires were mailed to 646 alumnae of Juntendo University School of Medicine. We asked subjects to describe their opinions about 'The challenges related to female physicians' resignations'. Comments gathered from alumnae who graduated between 6 and 30 years ago and have children were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 249 physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 38.5%), and 73 alumnae with children who graduated in the stated time period provided comments. The challenges facing physician-mothers mainly consisted of factors associated with Japanese society, family responsibilities, and work environment. Japanese society epitomized by traditional gender roles heightened stress related to family responsibilities and promoted gender discrimination at work environment. Additionally, changing Japanese society positively influenced working atmosphere and husband's support. Moreover, the introduction of educational curriculums that alleviated traditional gender role was proposed for pre- and post- medical students. Traditional gender roles encourage discrimination by male physicians or work-family conflicts. The problems facing female physicians involve more than just family responsibilities: diminishing the notion of gender role is key to helping retain them in the workforce. © 2011 Tohoku University Medical Press

  9. Factors affecting death at home in Japan. (United States)

    Sauvaget, C; Tsuji, I; Li, J H; Hosokawa, T; Fukao, A; Hisamichi, S


    Despite the wish of the Japanese people to spend their final moments at home, the percentage of deaths at home among elderly is decreasing. Moreover, large variations in this rate were observed over the country. The present ecological study analyzed the relationship between the percentage of deaths at home for decedents aged 70 and over, and demographic, medical and socioeconomic characteristics. The data published in 1990 by the Japanese National Government were analyzed by correlation, principal-component, and multiple linear regression analyses. The results showed that the percentage of deaths at home for decedents aged 70 and over was positively associated with the number of persons per household, and the area of floor space per house. The divorce rate, the national tax per capita, and the mean length of hospitalization for stroke showed a negative association with the percentage of deaths at home. In the prefectures where the crude death rates of stroke and senility were high, elderly were more likely to die at home. These results suggested the importance of the number of family caregivers, and the housing conditions for terminal care at home. This research may lead to improve home medical assistance which is still underdeveloped in Japan.

  10. Diagnostic criteria for autoimmune pancreatitis in Japan (United States)

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Kawa, Shigeyuki


    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a particular type of pancreatitis of presumed autoimmune etiology. Currently, AIP should be diagnosed based on combination of clinical, serological, morphological, and histopathological features. When diagnosing AIP, it is most important to differentiate it from pancreatic cancer. Diagnostic criteria for AIP, proposed by the Japan Pancreas Society in 2002 first in the world, were revised in 2006. The criteria are based on the minimum consensus of AIP and aim to avoid misdiagnosing pancreatic cancer as far as possible, but not for screening AIP. The criteria consist of the following radiological, serological, and histopathological items: (1) radiological imaging showing narrowing of the main pancreatic duct and enlargement of the pancreas, which are characteristic of the disease; (2) laboratory data showing abnormally elevated levels of serum γ-globulin, IgG or IgG4, or the presence of autoantibodies; (3) histopathological examination of the pancreas demonstrating marked fibrosis and prominent infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells, which is called lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP). For a diagnosis of AIP, criterion 1 must be present, together with criterion 2 and/or criterion 3. However, it is necessary to exclude malignant diseases such as pancreatic or biliary cancer. PMID:18763279

  11. Income and expenditure in private dental clinics in Japan


    Midori Tsuneishi; Tatsuo Yamamoto; Takuo Ishii


    Although national dental care expenditure has not changed, the number of dental clinics has increased. Mass media has been reporting on the financial difficulties of dental clinics. To address this issue, we reviewed articles that showed the distribution and changes in net income, that is, total expenses subtracted from total income, of private dental clinics in Japan using data from a survey conducted by the Japan Dental Association. We also reviewed articles analyzing the factors relating t...

  12. The photovoltaic energy in Japan; Energie photovoltaique au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgel, O


    Today the Japan is the leader of the photovoltaic energy. The first reason of this success is an action of the government integrating subventions for the installation of photovoltaic systems and a support of the scientific research. To explain this success, the author presents the energy situation in Japan, details the national programs, the industrial sector (market, silicon needs, recycling, manufacturers, building industry) and presents the main actors. (A.L.B.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rutka


    Full Text Available The article describes the story of both Japan and South Korean automotive industry development. Author points out the political, social and economical success factors of this branch in the global market. He also mentions major industry barriers which influen-tial the development of the automotive industry in both countries. Finally he presents the probable development perspectives for both Japan and South Korea automotive industry.

  14. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress (United States)


    territorial waters.” Chinese military surveillance planes reportedly have entered airspace that Japan considers its own, in what Japan’s Defense... surveillance , and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities. The NDPG also called for a new defense approach termed “Proactive Pacifism” that involves Japan taking a...government procurement, competition policy, express delivery, and sanitary and phytosanitary measures. The parallel negotiations are to achieve

  15. On Gender Specific Perception of Data Sharing in Japan


    Tschersich, Markus; Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Pape, Sebastian; Nakamura, Toru; Bal, Gökhan; Takasaki, Haruo; Rannenberg, Kai


    Part 4: Phishing and Data Sharing; International audience; Privacy and its protection is an important part of the culture in the USA and Europe. Literature in this field lacks empirical data from Japan. Thus, it is difficult– especially for foreign researchers – to understand the situation in Japan. To get a deeper understanding we examined the perception of a topic that is closely related to privacy: the perceived benefits of sharing data and the willingness to share in respect to the benefi...

  16. Delays in clinical development of neurological drugs in Japan. (United States)

    Ikeda, Masayuki


    The delays in the approval and development of neurological drugs between Japan and other countries have been a major issue for patients with neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze factors contributing to the delay in the launching of neurological drugs in Japan. We analyzed data from Japan and the US for the approval of 42 neurological drugs, all of which were approved earlier in the US than in Japan, and examined the potential factors that may cause the delay of their launch. Introductions of the 42 drugs in Japan occurred at a median of 87 months after introductions in the US. The mean review time of new drug applications for the 20 drugs introduced in Japan in January 2011 or later (15 months) was significantly shorter than that for the other 22 drugs introduced in Japan in December 2010 or earlier (24 months). The lag in the Japan's review time behind the US could not explain the approval delays. In the 31 of the 42 drugs, the application data package included overseas data. The mean review time of these 31 drugs (17 months) was significantly shorter than that of the other 11 drugs without overseas data (26 months). The mean approval lag behind the US of the 31 drugs (78 months) was also significantly shorter than that of the other 11 drugs (134 months). These results show that several important reforms in the Japanese drug development and approval system (e.g., inclusion of global clinical trial data) have reduced the delays in the clinical development of neurological drugs.

  17. The Fairness Debate in U.S.-Japan Economic Relations (United States)


    Konomi, Management Consultant, Yokohama Yutaka Kosai, President, Japan Center for Economic Research, Tokyo Kazuo Kumagai, Director and General Manager...Negotiations (1989), Prestowitz (1988), Bergsten and Cline (1985), Cohen (1990), Komiya (1988), and Shinohara (1991). 8There is a potential...even if the Japanese economy were "opened" more fully, it would have a relatively small ef- fect on the U.S. trade deficit with Japan. Miyohei Shinohara

  18. Japan and the Soviet Threat: Perceptions and Reactions. (United States)


    the proposed pullout of US troops from Korea, and the new policy emphasis on the Nixon Doctrine calling for US allies to do more for themselves. The...treaty between Japan and China. In early February 1978, Brezhnev sent a letter to Prime Minister Fukuda encouraging a friendship treaty between Japan...Treaty only served to harden the resolve of Prime minister Fukuda . He continued to stress that the "hegemonic" clause being discussed for the treaty

  19. Japan: Asian Peacekeeper of the 21st Century? (United States)


    rearmament. The change in defense doctrine is also attributable to Vietnam and President Carter’s proposal to withdraw US ground troops from Korea. [Ref. 28...scholarly debate in Japan. In it, Tsuneari Fukuda states that it would not be easy for Japan to hold out against an attack for even two weeks, much...less two or three months, as "current doctrine " required. [Ref. 56] Perhaps it is only natural that from the standpoint of the unity and consistency of

  20. Measuring energy poverty in Japan, 2004–2013


    Okushima, Shinichiro


    This paper first examines energy (or fuel) poverty in Japan from 2004 to 2013, especially around the time of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE). To analyze the issue, the paper employs various poverty and vulnerability measures with the assistance of our unique dataset. The results indicate the aggravation of energy poverty among lower-income and vulnerable households during the past decade, resulting from both the escalation of energy prices and lowering of income. The analysis also...

  1. Energy Poverty in Japan after the 2000s


    Okushima, Shinichiro


    This paper first examines energy (or fuel) poverty in Japan after the 2000s, especially around the time of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE). To analyze the issue, the paper employs kinds of poverty and vulnerability measures with the assistance of our unique dataset. The results indicate the aggravation of energy poverty among lower income and vulnerable households during the past decade, resulting from both the escalation of energy prices and lowering of income. The analysis also ...

  2. Medical technology in Japan the politics of regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Altenstetter, Christa


    Compared to its American and European counterparts, Japan lags in adopting innovative medical devices and making new treatments and procedures available. Christa Altenstetter examines the contextual conditions of Japan's medical profession and its regulatory framework. Altenstetter looks into how physicians and device companies connect to the government and bureaucracy, the relationships connecting Japanese patients to their medical system and governmental bureaucracy, and how relationships between policymakers and the medical profession are changing.

  3. Shakespeare translation in Japan: 1868—1998 Shakespeare translation in Japan: 1868—1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Sano


    Full Text Available Shakespeare was first introduced to Japan in the late nineteenth century, when the country opened its doors to other countries after the seclusion policy of over two hundred years. When the Meiji Restoration Government came into power in 1868, it decided to import the Western culture and technology in order to catch up with the developed countries. Japan’s overall contact with the Western world began. The country’s slogan then became “civilization and enlightenment”, which meant Westernization for “national wealth and military strength”. Shakespeare came to Japan together with other things from Britain during this age of Westernization. The translation of two English books were published in 1871 and 1872 to enlighten the youth of the new age. One was Samuel Smiles’ Self-Help (1859 and the other was John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty (1859. Both books acquired immediate popularity. The translator was Masanao Nakamura who was originally sent by the old Tokugawa Government to Britain to study English. Shakespeare was first introduced to Japan in the late nineteenth century, when the country opened its doors to other countries after the seclusion policy of over two hundred years. When the Meiji Restoration Government came into power in 1868, it decided to import the Western culture and technology in order to catch up with the developed countries. Japan’s overall contact with the Western world began. The country’s slogan then became “civilization and enlightenment”, which meant Westernization for “national wealth and military strength”. Shakespeare came to Japan together with other things from Britain during this age of Westernization. The translation of two English books were published in 1871 and 1872 to enlighten the youth of the new age. One was Samuel Smiles’ Self-Help (1859 and the other was John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty (1859. Both books acquired immediate popularity. The translator was Masanao Nakamura who was

  4. International HIV and AIDS prevention: Japan/United States collaboration. (United States)

    Umenai, T; Narula, M; Onuki, D; Yamamoto, T; Igari, T


    As the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS pandemic shifts from Africa to Asia, Japan is becoming ever more aware of the importance of containing and preventing spread of the virus. International collaboration, particularly with the United States, is a logical approach because it allows utilization of expertise from countries in other stages of the pandemic, can prevent duplication of efforts, and complements efforts of the other countries. Further, both Japan and the United States can use their combined influence and prestige to encourage cooperation among all nations. In 1994, Japan established the Global Issues Initiative to extend cooperation to developing countries in the areas of population and AIDS control. It has disbursed more than $460 million (U.S.$) to promote active cooperation and stimulate international attention to the importance of addressing these health issues. Japan has established four main programs for international collaboration for control of HIV and AIDS, three operated by ministries and one by a Japanese nongovernmental organization. Japanese/United States collaboration is developing through the United States/Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program, the Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective, the Paris Summit, and the United Nations Joint Programme on AIDS. It is critical that Japan and the United States, as the two largest donors to international development, demonstrate, through their collaboration, ways to maximize the use of limited resources, reduce duplication, and promote sustainable development programs in which HIV prevention and AIDS care programs are systemically integrated.

  5. Research on energy supply, demand and economy forecasting in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Tsuyoshi; Kamezaki, Hiroshi; Yuyama, Tomonori; Suzuki, Atsushi [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    This project aims to do research on forecasts of energy demand structure and electricity generation cost in each power plant in Japan in the 21st century, considering constructing successful FBR scenario. During the process of doing research on forecasts of energy demand structure in Japan, documents published from organizations in inside and outside of Japan were collected. These documents include prospects of economic growth rate, forecasts of amount for energy supply and demand, the maximum amount of introducing new energy resources, CO2 regulation, and evaluation of energy best mixture. Organizations in Japan such as Economic Council and Japan Energy Economic Research Institute have provided long-term forecasts until the early 21st century. Meanwhile, organizations overseas have provided forecasts of economic structure, and demand and supply for energy in OECD and East Asia including Japan. In connection with forecasts of electricity generation cost in each power plant, views on the ultimate reserves and cost of resources are reviewed in this report. According to some views on oil reserves, making assumptions based on reserves/production ratio, the maximum length of the time that oil reserves will last is 150 years. In addition, this report provides summaries of cost and potential role of various resources, including solar energy and wind energy; and views on waste, safety, energy security-related externality cost, and the price of transferring CO2 emission right. (author)

  6. Cost of depression among adults in Japan in 2005. (United States)

    Sado, Mitsuhiro; Yamauchi, Keita; Kawakami, Norito; Ono, Yutaka; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Tsuchiya, Masao; Tajima, Miyuki; Kashima, Haruo; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Fukao, Akira; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Tachimori, Hisateru; Iwata, Noboru; Uda, Hidenori; Nakane, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Oorui, Masashi; Funayama, Kazushi; Naganuma, Yoichi; Hata, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Masayo; Ahiko, Tadayuki; Yamamoto, Yuko; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kikkawa, Takehiko


    Major depression is expected to become the leading contributor to disease burden worldwide by 2020. Previous studies have shown that the societal cost of depression is not less than that of other major illnesses, such as cardiovascular diseases or AIDS. Nevertheless, the cost of depression in Japan has never been examined. The goal of the present study was to estimate the total cost of depression in Japan and to clarify the characteristics of this burden. A prevalence-based approach was adopted to measure the total cost of depression. The total cost of depression was regarded as being comprised of the direct cost, morbidity cost and mortality cost. Diagnoses included in this study were depressive episodes and recurrent depressive disorder according to the ICD-10 or major depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV. Data were collected from publicly available statistics and the World Mental Health Japan Survey database. The total cost of depression among adults in Japan in 2005 was estimated to be ¥2.0 trillion. The direct cost was ¥0.18 trillion. The morbidity cost was ¥0.92 trillion, while the mortality cost was ¥0.88 trillion. The societal costs caused by depression in Japan are enormous, as in other developed countries. Low morbidity costs and extremely high mortality costs are characteristic in Japan. Effective interventions for preventing suicide could reduce the societal costs of depression. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  7. Financial bad loans in Japan`s economy; Kin`yu furyo saiken mondai no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadota, O.; Wakabayashi, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the bad loan problem, the relation of bad loans with bubble economy, and the features and earlier solution of this time`s bad loans. Moreover, the scale or the organization required for its processings was predicted to investigate the effect of bad loan processing on economy. The scale of financial bad loans in September of 1996 is published to be about 29,000,000,000,000 yen. However, the scale is estimated to be at least 34,000,000,000,000 to 35,000,000,000,000 yen when it is applied to the standard of the Securities and Exchange of Commission in America. It is already five years since the problem turned serious. It is almost the same ratio at the peak in America in 1991. The problem of bad loans is still a heavy burden for Japan`s banks. About 19,000,000,000,000 yen of the bad loans in banks must be disposed on the assumption that land prices falls continuously. It would require two years until through 1999 to finish write-offs for them. The bad loan problem in the financial industries was shifted from the problem in the whole bank to that in each bank by the three laws related to banks or the Tokyo Big Bang. 17 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. [Disease mongering and bipolar disorder in Japan]. (United States)

    Ihara, Hiroshi


    Frequently used in a pejorative sense, "disease mongering" connotes a widening of the diagnostic boundaries of illness. Pharmaceutical companies conduct disease awareness campaigns on the pretext of educating the public about the prevention of illness or the promotion of health. Encouraged by disease awareness advertisements, people gradually become filled with concern that they are ill and need medical treatment. As a result, pharmacotherapy is increasingly being applied to ever-milder conditions, leading to potentially unnecessary medication, wasted resources, and even adverse side effects. Among all fields of clinical medicine, psychiatry is undoubtedly the most vulnerable to the danger of disease mongering. In Japan, depression provides the most drastic example of the impact of disease awareness campaigns on the number of patients seeking treatment. Until the late 1990s, Japanese psychiatrists focused almost exclusively on psychosis and endogenous depression, the latter being severe enough to require conventional forms of antidepressants, known as tricyclic antidepressants, and even hospitalization. At this time, people's attitude toward depression was generally unfavorable. Indeed, the Japanese word for clinical depression, utubyo, has a negative connotation, implying severe mental illness. This situation, however, changed immediately after fluvoxiamine (Luvox-Fujisawa, Depromel-Meiji Seika), the first selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) to receive approval in Japan, was introduced in 1999. In order to aid the drug's acceptance by the Japanese public, pharmaceutical companies began using the catchphrase kokoro no kaze, which literally means "a cold of the soul". Thus armed with this phrase, the pharmaceutical industry embarked on a campaign to lessen the stigma surrounding depression. According to national data from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the number of patients with a diagnosis of mood disorder increased from 327,000 in 1999 to 591

  9. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan. (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko


    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Breast cancer screening and the changing population pyramid of Japan. (United States)

    Uchida, Ken; Ohashi, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Satoki; Nogi, Hiroko; Kato, Kumiko; Toriumi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Akinori; Kamio, Makiko; Mimoto, Rei; Takeyama, Hiroshi


    Breast cancer has been the most prevalent cancer in Japan since the 1990s. The mortality from breast cancer is increasing in Japan, whereas in other industrialized countries it has been decreasing since 1990. On the other hand, Japan faces unparalleled growth in its aging population. The aim of this study was to report the mammography screening among Japanese women and the related upcoming changes in the population pyramid of Japan. The reference data for our study were obtained from the Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, Japan Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Japanese Cancer Society, and the National Institute of Population and Social Security. The survey data were obtained from breast cancer and mammography screenings in the Tokyo Prefecture in 2008. The following parameters were analyzed: annual breast cancer incidence, current screening rates, average life-span, and predicted demographic statistics. Our results showed that breast cancer incidence and mortality have been increasing annually in Japan. The average age of breast cancer patients increased to 58.40 years in 2010. The incidence of breast cancer in women aged 65 years and older increased from 25.3 to 32.9 % in the last 10 years and is expected to continue to increase in the future. The check-up rate was 16.0-20.0 % for women aged 65-74 years and 43.0-46.0 % for women aged 40-54 years. According to our questionnaire survey, concerns about breast cancer and mammography screening were high in the young and low in the elderly women. The Japanese population aged 65 years and older was 30,740 (24.1 %) in 2012 and is estimated to increase by 40 % over the next 20 years despite Japan's declining population size. Breast cancer incidence has increased in Japan, even among patients aged 65 years and older. Breast cancer has become increasingly prevalent in older Japanese women. As the population pyramid of Japan changes, women aged 65

  11. Chronic heart failure in Japan: Implications of the CHART studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Shiba


    Full Text Available Nobuyuki Shiba, Hiroaki ShimokawaDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Evidence-Based Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai City, JapanAbstract: The prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF still remains poor, despite the recent advances in medical and surgical treatment. Furthermore, CHF is a major public health problem in most industrialized countries where the elderly population is rapidly increasing. Although the prevalence and mortality of CHF used to be relatively low in Japan, the disorder has been markedly increasing due to the rapid aging of the society and the Westernization of lifestyle that facilitates the development of coronary artery disease. The Chronic Heart Failure Analysis and Registry in the Tohoku District (CHART-1 study was one of the largest cohorts in Japan. The study has clarified the characteristics and prognosis of Japanese patients with CHF, demonstrating that their prognosis was similarly poor compared with those in Western countries. However, we still need evidence for the prevention and treatment of CHF based on the large cohort studies or randomized treatment trials in the Japanese population. Since the strategy for CHF management is now changing from treatment to prevention, a larger-size prospective cohort, called the CHART-2 study, has been initiated to evaluate the risk factors of CHF in Japan. This review summarizes the current status of CHF studies in Japan and discusses their future perspectives.Keywords: heart failure, aging, Japanese

  12. JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan (United States)

    Carbonell, Jaime; Rich, Elaine; Johnson, David; Tomita, Masaru; Vasconcellos, Muriel; Wilks, Yorick


    The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation (MT) in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area. The term 'machine translation' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy. MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process. There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems.

  13. Occurrence of human respiratory syncytial virus in summer in Japan. (United States)

    Shobugawa, Y; Takeuchi, T; Hibino, A; Hassan, M R; Yagami, R; Kondo, H; Odagiri, T; Saito, R


    In temperate zones, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) outbreaks typically occur in cold weather, i.e. in late autumn and winter. However, recent outbreaks in Japan have tended to start during summer and autumn. This study examined associations of meteorological conditions with the numbers of HRSV cases reported in summer in Japan. Using data from the HRSV national surveillance system and national meteorological data for summer during the period 2007-2014, we utilized negative binomial logistic regression analysis to identify associations between meteorological conditions and reported cases of HRSV. HRSV cases increased when summer temperatures rose and when relative humidity increased. Consideration of the interaction term temperature × relative humidity enabled us to show synergistic effects of high temperature with HRSV occurrence. In particular, HRSV cases synergistically increased when relative humidity increased while the temperature was ⩾28·2 °C. Seasonal-trend decomposition analysis using the HRSV national surveillance data divided by 11 climate divisions showed that summer HRSV cases occurred in South Japan (Okinawa Island), Kyushu, and Nankai climate divisions, which are located in southwest Japan. Higher temperature and higher relative humidity were necessary conditions for HRSV occurrence in summer in Japan. Paediatricians in temperate zones should be mindful of possible HRSV cases in summer, when suitable conditions are present.

  14. Cross Cultural Educational Exchanges between Indonesia and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Rohayati


    Full Text Available Currently, Japan has become a country which has a big influence especially in South East Asia. They actively build bilateral and multilateral cooperation with other countries like establishing the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA in August 1974. The cooperation has involved many sectors such as technology, politics, economy, social affairs and culture.On the ASEAN stage, Japan is actively promoting its culture to ASEAN countries, including Indonesia. One major program is “Pesantren Leaders’ Visit to Japan”. The program is a cooperation between the Japanese Embassy and the Center for the Study of Islam and Society (PPIM, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, which has run from 2004 until now.In the program, the Japanese Government every year invites several religious education leaders in Indonesia to observe the social and culture dynamics of the Japanese. Not only that, they are also invited to visit some schools, government offices, small and medium enterprises in Japan to see the latest productivity developments, including the problems and challanges they have in many sectors. As a result of its ongoing work, this bilateral program has produced a cross-cultural network and inter-faith dialogue among Islamic schools in Indonesia and Japan.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v24i1.5152

  15. Dose reduction and cost-benefit analysis at Japan`s Tokai No. 2 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humamoto, Hisao; Suzuki, Seishiro; Taniguchi, Kazufumi [Japan Atomic Power Co., Otemachi (Japan)


    In the Tokai No. 2 power plant of the Japan Atomic Power Company, about 80% of the annual dose equivalent is received during periodic maintenance outages. A project group for dose reduction was organized at the company`s headquarters in 1986; in 1988, they proposed a five-year program to reduce by half the collective dose of 4 person-Sv per normal outage work. To achieve the target dose value, some dose-reduction measures were undertaken, namely, permanent radiation shielding, decontamination, automatic, operating machines, and ALARA organization. As the result, the collective dose from normal outage work was 1.6 person-Sv in 1992, which was less than the initial target value.

  16. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, H. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured.

  17. Smoking prevalence among dentists in Hyogo, Japan 2003. (United States)

    Nishio, Nobuhiro; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Nishio, Junko; Nakamura, Harunobu; Sonoda, Yoshiaki; Takeshita, Tatsuya


    We examined smoking prevalence among dentists in Hyogo, Japan, as smoking would influence their smoking cessation interventions to encourage their patients to stop smoking. In 2003, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to all members of the Hyogo Dental Association (HDA) in Japan. Of the 1,133 members of the HDA, 327 were current smokers (28.9%). Smoking prevalence among HDA members was significantly higher than that among Japan Medical Association (JMA) members in 2004, as previously reported (16.2%) (pdentists aged 20-39 yr increased. These findings indicate that smoking was more prevalent among dentists in Hyogo Prefecture than among Japanese medical doctors. It is important to promote smoking cessation among Japanese dentists so that dentists will be more likely to encourage their patients to quit smoking.

  18. Recent concert halls and opera house in Japan (United States)

    Hidaka, Takayuki


    Since we invited Dr. Beranek to Japan for the first time in 1989, we had been working together with him for a period of 13 years, until 2001, on seven hall projects as acoustic design consultants. All of these halls are of premium importance to Japan. Dr. Beranek always came up with innovative concepts and helped create halls endowed with high acoustic originality. These halls are now loved by music-related people and music fanciers and regarded as the pride of Japan. The reviews and studies achieved through these projects were published as seven J. Acoust Soc. Am papers to disclose the outcome in an objective way to the public. A brief outline of the history of our collaboration and its background are presented.

  19. Learning from others. Japan's role in bringing psychology to China. (United States)

    Blowers, G


    Recent research by Chinese and Japanese historians of psychology and education suggests that it was educational reformers' copying of Japan's education system in the 1st decade of the 20th century that provided the context for developing modern psychology in China. Psychology, although not well understood by those reformers, was thought to be useful in teacher training. In 1902 Japanese psychology teachers came to China and some textbooks were translated. Chinese students studying in Japan also brought back psychological knowledge in translations. However, the Chinese attraction to study in Japan declined after 1906. As the United States opened new universities and provided opportunities for Chinese students to study in U.S. schools, it became a more attractive option for later generations of Chinese, who saw psychology become established as a separate discipline.

  20. The impact of foreign direct investment on unemployment in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát


    Full Text Available The flow of foreign direct investment is one of the indicators of economic interconnection with the rest of the world. The paper is aimed at evaluating of inward FDI flows into Japanese economy and unemployment development. For many decades, Japan has attracted considerably lower levels of inward FDI compared to other developed countries of the world. Also the rate of unemployment in Japan was relatively low which is caused by a specific attitude of the active population of Japan towards employment issues. Methods of regression and correlation analysis (including testing the statistical significance were used in the analysis of FDI and unemployment. The correlation has been approved between FDI and the rate of unemployment.

  1. Toward the responsible innovation with nanotechnology in Japan: our scope (United States)

    Ishizu, Saori; Sekiya, Mizuki; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Negami, Yumi; Ata, Masafumi


    The societal impacts of nanotechnology have attracted growing attention in the United States and Europe in recent years. In Japan, the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Technology Information Department) has played a central role in promoting discussions on this topic by collecting information from Japan and overseas, creating a network of the interested parties, and providing a forum for discussion. This paper presents a summary of recent activities in Japan relating to the societal impacts of nanotechnology, fro the launch of the "Nanotechnology and Society" open forum (August 2004) until the "Nanotechnology Debate" discussion forum (February 2007), and outlines the policy recommendations that came out of a project entitled "Research on Facilitation of Public Acceptance of Nanotechnology" (March 2006).

  2. Macroeconomic Adjustment to the Lehman Shock in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi Asako


    Full Text Available In this paper we overview the macroeconomic adjustment to the Lehman shock in Japan. After retrospecting the Japanese economy since the Plaza Accord which led Japan to the bubble economy and the 'lost decade' we explain the business cycles in Japan and show related macroeconomic indicators since as early as the 1980s. Then we trace the macroeconomic responses of the Japanese economy to the Lehman shock by selectively looking at such aspects as the contribution of GDP growth by expenditure components, from peak to trough of the CI(composite index, production and inventory adjustment, and employment adjustment. We also supplement our analyses by observing additional factors including export, investment, consumption, exchange rate, and the stock market. The roles played by policy measures and expectations formation are also emphasized to explain why and how the Japanese economy did not develop as forecasted against the 'once in a hundred years' crisis.

  3. Mobility perspective for a local city in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Koike


    Another solution to excessive automobile dependency is bicycles, which are a convenient and inexpensive transportation mode all over the world. In Japan, however, automobile-oriented transportation and urban policies have prevailed, leaving the bicycle long neglected. Still, recent years have seen the bicycle gain recognition as a healthy, environmentally friendly alternative to the automobile, especially after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. Utsunomiya City has been actively pursuing a mobility policy of bicycle utilization since 2003 and is regarded as one of the leaders in its promotion. The potential success in Utsunomiya to overcome automobile dependency will make it a model for many local cities in Japan that suffer from similar problems.

  4. 2016 Guidelines for the management of thyroid storm from The Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society (First edition). (United States)

    Satoh, Tetsurou; Isozaki, Osamu; Suzuki, Atsushi; Wakino, Shu; Iburi, Tadao; Tsuboi, Kumiko; Kanamoto, Naotetsu; Otani, Hajime; Furukawa, Yasushi; Teramukai, Satoshi; Akamizu, Takashi


    Thyroid storm is an endocrine emergency which is characterized by multiple organ failure due to severe thyrotoxicosis, often associated with triggering illnesses. Early suspicion, prompt diagnosis and intensive treatment will improve survival in thyroid storm patients. Because of its rarity and high mortality, prospective intervention studies for the treatment of thyroid storm are difficult to carry out. We, the Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society taskforce committee, previously developed new diagnostic criteria and conducted nationwide surveys for thyroid storm in Japan. Detailed analyses of clinical data from 356 patients revealed that the mortality in Japan was still high (∼11%) and that multiple organ failure and acute heart failure were common causes of death. In addition, multimodal treatment with antithyroid drugs, inorganic iodide, corticosteroids and beta-adrenergic antagonists has been suggested to improve mortality of these patients. Based on the evidence obtained by nationwide surveys and additional literature searches, we herein established clinical guidelines for the management of thyroid storm. The present guideline includes 15 recommendations for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and organ failure in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and hepato-gastrointestinal tract, admission criteria for the intensive care unit, and prognostic evaluation. We also proposed preventive approaches to thyroid storm, roles of definitive therapy, and future prospective trial plans for the treatment of thyroid storm. We hope that this guideline will be useful for many physicians all over the world as well as in Japan in the management of thyroid storm and the improvement of its outcome.

  5. Current Status of Doping in Japan Based on Japan Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panels of the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA): A Suggestion on Anti-Doping Activities by Pharmacists in Japan. (United States)

    Imanishi, Takashi; Kawabata, Takayoshi; Takayama, Akira


    In 2009, the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA) established the "Sports Pharmacist Accreditation Program" to prevent doping in sports. Since then, anti-doping activities in Japan have been attracting attention. In this study, we investigated research about the current status of doping from 2007 to 2014 in Japan to make anti-doping activities more concrete, and we also discussed future anti-doping activities by pharmacists. In Japan, bodybuilding was the sporting event with the highest number and rate of doping from 2007 to 2014. Many of the positive doping cases were detected for class S1 (anabolic agents), S5 (diuretics and masking agents), and S6 (stimulants). Within class S1, supplements were the main cause of positive doping. Within class S5, medicines prescribed by medical doctors were the main cause of positive doping. Within class S6, non-prescription medicines (e.g., OTC) were the main cause of positive doping. When we looked at the global statistics on doping, many of the positive doping cases were detected for class S1. On comparing the Japanese statistics with the global statistics, the rate of positive doping caused by class S1 was significantly lower, but that caused by classes S5 and S6 was significantly higher in Japan than in the world. In conclusion, pharmacists in Japan should pay attention to class S1, S5, and S6 prohibited substances and to the sport events of bodybuilding. Based on this study, sports pharmacists as well as common pharmacists should suggest new anti-doping activities to prevent doping in the future.

  6. International Proceedings 2013 of Malaysia-Japan Academic Scholar Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Osamu; Bostamam, Anas; Ling, Amy


    The selected papers included in this proceedings on Malaysia-Japan Academic Scholar Conference (MJASC) 2013, are related to nano-science engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical and electronic engineering, computer science, information technology etc. This proceedings will be a source of research findings for Malaysia and Japan specifically, and other countries in general, especially among researchers, industry sectors and government policy makers. It will be served as a resourceful reference and platform to reflect the significant of the Look East Policy outcomes and products.

  7. The possibilities of research on fujoshi in Japan [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Suzuki


    Full Text Available Today, people who are referred to as fujoshi exist in every part of the world. Especially in Japan, many women admit to liking genres such as yaoi and boys' love (BL. In the new millennium, the word fujoshi has traveled beyond fannish circles and has come into general use in Japanese popular media, reflecting the fact that fujoshi are no longer necessarily an underground phenomenon. Here, I trace the origins of the word fujoshi, consider whether reading of male-male romance was established before the word appeared, examine research on fujoshi in Japan, and finally look at why fujoshi have become an object of study.

  8. Reinterpreting the history of women's judo in Japan. (United States)

    Miarka, Bianca; Marques, Juliana Bastos; Franchini, Emerson


    This paper reassesses the role of women in judo in Japan, from its secluded and restricted beginnings in the late nineteenth century to the gradual changes in gender and social paradigms triggered by the influence of Western feminist struggle from the 1960s onwards. Judo has been considered in theory an inclusive martial art because its creator, Jigoro Kano, stressed safety, etiquette and moral teachings irrespective of age, size or gender of its adherents. However, the social and cultural environment in Japan has traditionally discriminated against women both outside and inside the dojo (training place). We treat this issue historically, considering the broader context of the Japanese social, political and cultural developments.

  9. Comparison of the Nutrition Situation in Japan and Germany


    Naruse, Akiko; Nakanishi, Yoko; PFEUFFER,Martina


    The aim of this research is to compare nutrition in Japan and Germany. This comparison is based on actual consumption data from national nutrition surveys carried out from 1985 to 1988, namely the Japanese National Nutrition Survey (J-NNS) and German National Nutrition Survey (G-NNS). The ratio of protein, fat and carbohydrates accounting for energy intake (PFC energy ratio) is 16:26:58 in Japan and 15:43:42 in Germany. The recommended dietary allowances (RDA) of fat intake levels are 20-25% ...

  10. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  11. Challenge and dilemma for peace movements in Japan


    Kurino, Ohtori


    The peace movements in Japan should have been pursuing, or having relations to some extent to, the principles of peace, which are contained in the Constitution of Japan. But, in most cases these movements have not been so keenly trying to achieve in their actual moves what the peace principles should demand. In many of them there has been observed a sort of dilemma between their achievements or even objectives and what they should be expected from the peace principles. One perhaps very seriou...

  12. Magnetic materials in Japan research, applications and potential

    CERN Document Server


    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This, the third report in Elsevier's Materials Technology in Japan series, concentrates on magnetic materials as a topic gaining worldwide attention, and each chapter looks not only at current research, but also describes the technology as it is being applied and its future potential. Magnetic-related research is the second largest field of research in Japan after semiconductors, with the estimated number of researchers and engineers engaged in magnetics-related activities currently at 20,000. This research report serves as both a review of

  13. Great earthquake East Japan observation by superconducting gravimeter in Antarctica (United States)

    Ikeda, H.; Aoyama, Y.; Hayakawa, H.; Doi, K.; Shibuya, K.


    The seismic wave caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011 at 14:46 JST (magnitude: M 9.0, location: 38° 6.2 min N, 142° 51.6 min E, depth: 32 km) was clearly observed approximately 20 min later by the superconducting gravimeter at Syowa Station, about 14,000 km away from Japan. The observation of the free oscillations of the Earth will be reported compared to the observed records of the Sumatra earthquake on December 26, 2004 (magnitude: M 9.1) and Chile earthquake on February 27, 2010 (magnitude: M 8.8).

  14. Death Consciousness in Germany, China and Japan by Association Method


    Kamizono, Kohtaro


    Free association tests using the concept "death" were carried out at high schools and universities in 3 cultural areas. The results are: 1) Responses expressing feeling are less common in China. In the Asian cities feeling ‘fear’ ranks first among response words, as opposed to ‘sorrow’ in Germany. 2) Recalling words about ceremony is frequent in Germany, but not in Japan or China. 3) The cause of death, especially ‘suicide’, is frequent in Japan but less so in Germany. 4) Explanations about d...

  15. A Conjoint Analysis on e-book Market in Japan


    Ueda, Masashi


    The e-book market in Japan is growing in this decade and according to Impress R&D this tendency will be continue. In this paper, we collected 3,000 samples by online survey and found a tendency of consumption of e-book in Japan by using conjoint analysis. We found 1) attachment to physical objects in Japanese consumers, 2) high MWTP for device and providers. We check this by other questions and found tendency of Japanese consumer for e-distribution services.

  16. Seroepidemiological study of norovirus infection in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinichi; Fujiwara, Noriko; Takeda, Naokazu; Minagawa, Hiroko


    The serological prevalence of IgG antibody to seven NoV strains (GI.1, GI.4, GII.3, GII.4, GII.10, GII.12 and GII.15) among inhabitants aged 1-62 years of Aichi Prefecture, Japan was studied. Age-related seroprevalence was measured by ELISA using baculovirus-expressed recombinant VLP antigens. Seropositive rates for all seven VLP antigens gradually increased with age. Among the tested antigens, the highest seropositive rate was for the GII.4 strain. This result is consistent with the recent epidemic of NoV infection due to GII.4 strain in Japan.

  17. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is a report on radioactivity survey in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on February, 1996. This data relates to radioactive materials such as total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected at all over of Japan. In the survey report, followings are also contained; (1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, (2) Preparation of samples for analysis, (3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, (4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium and Potassium, (5) Counting, (6) Results, and (7) Contents of figure. (G.K.)

  18. JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papenbrock, Thomas


    The grant “JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei ” (DOE DE-FG02-06ER41407) ran from 02/01/2006 thru 12/31/2013. JUSTIPEN is a venue for international collaboration between U.S.-based and Japanese scientists who share an interest in theory of rare isotopes. Since its inception JUSTIPEN has supported many visitors, fostered collaborations between physicists in the U.S. and Japan, and enabled them to deepen our understanding of exotic nuclei and their role in cosmos.

  19. Modernism and Fashion in Japan 1910s -1930s


    五十殿, 利治; 滝沢, 恭司; 鈴木, 貴宇; 喜夛, 孝臣; 江口, みなみ


    The purpose of this joint research is to examine the image of “Artist” in modern Japan, an image which was different from traditional literati and imported from West just like the Art itself. Late Meiji and early Taisho period saw a surge of modernism in art and literature in Japan and special attention is paid to the significance of artists’ fashion including “nude”. Major modernists in the 1920s and the 1930s such as Ryusei Kishida, Kaita Murayama, Kyojiro Hagiwara, Tomoyoshi Murayama and...

  20. The Effects of Japan's Apology for World War II Atrocities on Regional Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cathey, Emily A


    This thesis explores the impact of atrocities that Japan committed against its neighbors during and prior to World War II on Japan's relationships with its neighbors, China and the Republic of Korea...

  1. Milk Drinking and Mortality: Findings From the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Chaochen; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Tamakoshi, Koji; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko


    .... However, no studies have been conducted in Japan on this issue. The present study aimed to investigate the association of milk drinking with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in Japan.Methods...

  2. First Genome Sequence of Shallot Latent Carlavirus from Allium macrostemon Bunge. (United States)

    Ohshima, Kazusato; Okamura, Kouta; Yasaka, Ryosuke; Fukuda, Shinji; Ishimaru, Kanji; Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Kazuo


    A wild Japanese garlic plant (Allium macrostemon Bunge, wild onion) with leaves showing chlorotic stripes was collected in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Genome sequencing showed that it was infected with shallot latent carlavirus. The genomic sequence of this virus is reported for the first time from wild onion. Copyright © 2017 Ohshima et al.

  3. Why Didn’t “Gangnam Style” Go Viral in Japan?: Gender Divide and Subcultural Heterogeneity in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lie


    Full Text Available Psy’s “Gangnam Style” was the global pop music and video sensation of 2012, but it failed to go viral in Japan. The involuted nature of the Japanese popular music industry—especially the imperative of indigenization—stunted the song’s dissemination. Simultaneously, the song failed to resonate with its potential base of Japanese K-pop fans, who valorized beauty and romance. In making sense of the Japanese reception of “Gangnam Style,” the author also analyzes the sources of both the Korean Wave and the anti–Korean Wave in Japan.

  4. Recent trends for drug lag in clinical development of oncology drugs in Japan: does the oncology drug lag still exist in Japan? (United States)

    Maeda, Hideki; Kurokawa, Tatsuo


    This study exhaustively and historically investigated the status of drug lag for oncology drugs approved in Japan. We comprehensively investigated oncology drugs approved in Japan between April 2001 and July 2014, using publicly available information. We also examined changes in the status of drug lag between Japan and the United States, as well as factors influencing drug lag. This study included 120 applications for approval of oncology drugs in Japan. The median difference over a 13-year period in the approval date between the United States and Japan was 875 days (29.2 months). This figure peaked in 2002, and showed a tendency to decline gradually each year thereafter. In 2014, the median approval lag was 281 days (9.4 months). Multiple regression analysis identified the following potential factors that reduce drug lag: "Japan's participation in global clinical trials"; "bridging strategies"; "designation of priority review in Japan"; and "molecularly targeted drugs". From 2001 to 2014, molecularly targeted drugs emerged as the predominant oncology drug, and the method of development has changed from full development in Japan or bridging strategy to global simultaneous development by Japan's taking part in global clinical trials. In line with these changes, the drug lag between the United States and Japan has significantly reduced to less than 1 year.

  5. Japan Special Fund and Japanese Trust Fund for Consultancy Services Annual Report 2006


    Inter-American Development Bank


    This Annual Report details the activities of the Japanese Trusts Funds for 2006. The Japanese Trust Funds support five distinct programs: the Japan Special Fund (JSF); the Japanese Trust Fund for Consultancy Services (JCF); the Japan Poverty Reduction Program (JPO); the IDB/Japan Program; and the Japan-IDB Scholarship Program. The year 2006 was an outstanding period for the Japanese Trust Funds (JTF) to meet the high volume of various development needs in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC)...

  6. Japan's Philosophy of Self-Help Efforts in International Development Cooperation : Does It Work in Africa?


    Sawamura, Nobuhide


    Japan has emerged as a leading actor in international assistance but has often been seen as peripheral to major debates about aid and development. This paper explores Japan's distinctive aid philosophy of supporting the self-help efforts of developing countries while respecting autonomous development and examines the distinct contribution Japan can make to these debates. In order to develop such an argument it is necessary to look into Japan's own recent history of development and the idea of...

  7. The rise and fall of Chosen Soren : its effect on Japan's relations on the Korean Peninsula


    Creamer, Dewayne J.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Korean Diaspora in Japan is a legacy of Japan's colonization of Korea in the first half of the 20th century and has always been the largest group of foreign residents in an otherwise ethnically homogenous Japan. A major issue is the role that Koreans in Japan play in supporting North Korea. Although a very small segment of the population, Koreans affiliated with the organization known as Chosen Soren have figured prominently in the...

  8. On a gigantic Nereis (Ner. ijimai Iz.) from Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.


    Among the Polychaeta of the Leyden Museum I met with a large Nereis-specimen, presumably collected in Japan, that in the structure of its parapodia so much agrees with Ner. ijimai1) described by Izuka from that country, that in my opinion it must be identified with this species, though there are

  9. Assessing the transmission dynamics of measles in Japan, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nishiura


    Conclusions: Our results likely reflect the highly contagious nature of measles, indicating that Japan is at risk of observing multiple generations of measles transmission given imported cases. Considering that importation events may continue in the future, supplementary vaccination of adults needs to be considered.

  10. Japan's Four Major Smart Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A brief overview is given of initiatives, developments, projects, investment, incentives and business opportunities for Dutch companies in Japan with regard to smart cities. The four major smart cities are Yokohama City, Toyota City, Keihanna City (Kyoto Prefecture's Kansai Science Park), and Kitakyushu City.

  11. Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan: What Is Called into Question? (United States)

    Qi, Jie


    This study explores the different ways in which the notion of multiculturalism in Japan has been influenced by various social and historical trajectories. Since the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" in the 1980's, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural exchange," and…

  12. Single women and housing choices in urban Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Nakano, L.


    Japan has experienced a particularly sharp decline in marriage in recent decades and a subsequent increase in ‘never-marrieds’ and single-person households. Social fragmentation has been associated with prolonged economic instability and neoliberalization that has restructured employment, housing

  13. Mentorship as Experienced by Women Surgeons in Japan. (United States)

    Yorozuya, Kyoko; Kawase, Kazumi; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Kanbayashi, Chizuko; Nomura, Sachiyo; Tomizawa, Yasuko


    Women have accounted for over 30% of new medical students since 1995 in Japan. Establishing support systems for women surgeons to continue their work is a major issue in Japan. Mentorship can be one of the most effective means to help women surgeons to continue their work. The purpose of this study was to clarify the current status of mentorship among Japanese women surgeons and to discuss the role of mentors for women surgeons. Invitation letters were sent to all female members of the Japan Association of Women Surgeons in April 2011. An 84-item questionnaire survey was sent to those who agreed to participate in this study via the internet. Fifty-five surgeons participated in this study, a response rate of 48.7%. Sixty-seven percent of respondents found it difficult to continue in their job; 85% thought mentorship was necessary for women surgeons to progress in their careers; and 84% reported that they already had a mentor. Respondents thought that a mentor helped them to advance their clinical career, to stay in their job, and to provide moral support. However, mentors appeared to be less useful in helping them to advance their research career, to network, to increase their status, and to achieve a work-life balance. This study revealed areas where mentors appeared to be less helpful to women surgeons. The survey gave an indication of how to help improve and develop the career and personal life of women surgeons in Japan.

  14. Women's Studies, Higher Education, and Feminist Educators in Japan Today. (United States)

    Wheeler, Helen Rippier


    Discusses the backgrounds and current status of Women's Studies in Japan today. Research on which it is based was conducted while the author was visiting scholar and guest lecturer in Women's Studies at Toyo University in Tokyo in spring and summer 1984. (Author)

  15. Women's Experiences in the Engineering Laboratory in Japan (United States)

    Hosaka, Masako


    This qualitative study aims to examine Japanese women undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interacting with departmental peers of the same year in the laboratory setting by using interview data of 32 final-year students at two modestly selective national universities in Japan. Expectation state theory that explains unequal…

  16. Women's Studies in Japan: Origin and Current Issues. (United States)

    Matsui, Machiko


    Explores the impact of the second feminist wave in Japan on the development of women's studies in community women's centers and in academia. Although the original radical spirit has been lost, women's studies are gaining ground despite institutional and cultural problems due to the proliferation of Western feminist theories, the inclusion of…

  17. Soaring Voices: Recent Ceramics by Women from Japan (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.


    Japanese ceramics enjoy a long and distinguished history, and the Japanese aesthetic of elegant simplicity, along with their approach to materials, has influenced ceramic artists around the world for centuries. Women in Japan have been involved in the production of ceramics for thousands of years, but with few exceptions, their names have remained…

  18. Women's Rights? : The Politics of Eugenic Abortion in Modern Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, Masae


    Dit boek verkent het concept 'recht'. Hoe dit concept een rol heeft gespeeld in het veroorzaken van onenigheid en misvatting tussen bewegingen van gehandicapte mensen en vrouwen met betrekking tot de kwestie van selectieve abortus in Japan. Tegelijkertijd, probeert de schrijfster om het concept van

  19. Nationwide epidemiological survey of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in Japan. (United States)

    Ueda, Kaori; Morizane, Yuki; Shiraga, Fumio; Shikishima, Keigo; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Wakakura, Masato; Nakamura, Makoto


    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited optic neuropathy that leads to central loss of vision, predominantly in young males. Most LHON cases have one of three primary point mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The annual incidence and prevalence of LHON in Japan are not known. Thus, we estimated the annual incidence of molecularly confirmed LHON in Japan during 2014. Sequential questionnaires were sent to 1397 facilities, which included all of the university hospitals in Japan, and they were certified by either the Japanese Ophthalmological Society or the Japanese Neuro-Ophthalmological Society. We calculated the incidence number (Ir) as the number of patients who developed LHON in 2014 and its 95% confidence interval. We received 861 responses to the first questionnaire, where 49 facilities reported 72 cases (67 were male and 5 were female) of newly developed LHON during 2014. Ir was calculated as 117, and the 95% confidence interval ranged from 81 to 153. For the second questionnaire, responses were received from 30 facilities, where the median age at onset was 38 years for males and 30 years for females, and 86.5% of cases possessed the mtDNA ND4/G11778A mutation. Approximately 120 cases of newly developed LHON were reported during 2014 in Japan, and 93.2% were males. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Elusive China-Japan-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (United States)


    for Strategic & International Studies, Comparative Connections, 15, no. 3 (January 2014): 1. 247 Jun Hongo , “Chilly Abe-Xi Handshake Follows...Countries: Implications for Korea-Japan FTA.” Korea Institute for International Economic Policy, Working Papers, December 30, 2013, 45. Hongo , Jun

  1. Transmission of Bordetella holmesii during pertussis outbreak, Japan. (United States)

    Kamiya, Hajime; Otsuka, Nao; Ando, Yuka; Odaira, Fumito; Yoshino, Shuji; Kawano, Kimiko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nishida, Toshihide; Hidaka, Yoshio; Toyoizumi-Ajisaka, Hiromi; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko


    We describe the epidemiology of a pertussis outbreak in Japan in 2010-2011 and Bordetella holmesii transmission. Six patients were infected; 4 patients were students and a teacher at the same junior high school. Epidemiologic links were found between 5 patients. B. holmesii may have been transmitted from person to person.

  2. Significant Decrease in Pertactin-Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Japan. (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Miyaji, Yusuke; Otsuka, Nao; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari


    Prevalence of pertactin-lacking Bordetella pertussis isolates has been observed worldwide. In Japan, however, we found that the frequency of pertactin-deficient isolates in 2014-2016 (8%) was significantly lower than the frequency in 2005-2007 (41%), 2008-2010 (35%), and 2011-2013 (25%). This reduction was closely associated with changes in genotypes.

  3. Symmetric co-movement between Malaysia and Japan stock markets (United States)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura


    The copula approach is a flexible tool known to capture linear, nonlinear, symmetric and asymmetric dependence between two or more random variables. It is often used as a co-movement measure between stock market returns. The information obtained from copulas such as the level of association of financial market during normal and bullish and bearish markets phases are useful for investment strategies and risk management. However, the study of co-movement between Malaysia and Japan markets are limited, especially using copulas. Hence, we aim to investigate the dependence structure between Malaysia and Japan capital markets for the period spanning from 2000 to 2012. In this study, we showed that the bivariate normal distribution is not suitable as the bivariate distribution or to present the dependence between Malaysia and Japan markets. Instead, Gaussian or normal copula was found a good fit to represent the dependence. From our findings, it can be concluded that simple distribution fitting such as bivariate normal distribution does not suit financial time series data, whose characteristics are often leptokurtic. The nature of the data is treated by ARMA-GARCH with heavy tail distributions and these can be associated with copula functions. Regarding the dependence structure between Malaysia and Japan markets, the findings suggest that both markets co-move concurrently during normal periods.

  4. Education Reforms and English Teaching for the Deaf in Japan (United States)

    Quay, Suzanne


    Deaf education is in a period of great transition in Japan as a result of the "Educational Reform Plan for the 21st Century" proposed by the Japanese education ministry. Unfortunately, the communication needs of deaf students have not been taken into account in the Plan's recommendations. One area where deaf students must attain the same…

  5. Effects of market liberalisation on smoking in Japan. (United States)

    Honjo, K; Kawachi, I


    To document the effect of the liberalisation of the Japanese tobacco market on Japanese smoking rates and on Japanese tobacco industry practices. Asahi Shimbun (major daily newspaper) from 1980 to 1996. Review of media coverage on the effects of market liberalisation following the imposition of the USA's section 301 trade sanction. The opening of Japan's tobacco market to foreign cigarette companies stalled a decline in smoking prevalence. Smoking rates among young women increased significantly, and also appear to be on the rise among adolescents. Aggressive marketing and promotional activities by US and Japanese tobacco companies in response to trade liberalisation appear responsible for these adverse trends. Steep increases in sales through vending machines were also possible contributors to the rising smoking prevalence among adolescents. On the positive side, market liberalisation indirectly promoted smoking control efforts in Japan, by causing an anti-smoking movement to coalesce. Market liberalisation in Japan played a significant role in increasing smoking prevalence among young women and adolescents while helping to transform the issue of smoking in Japan from a matter of individual choice to a public health problem.

  6. Questioning Linguistic Instrumentalism: English, Neoliberalism, and Language Tests in Japan (United States)

    Kubota, Ryuko


    Linguistic instrumentalism, which underscores the importance of English skills for work and for achieving individual economic success, has influenced language education policies and proliferated the language teaching and testing industry in Japan. Linguistic instrumentalism is linked to the notion of human capital (i.e., skills deemed necessary…

  7. Importation of Zika Virus from Vietnam to Japan, November 2016. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takehiro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Tajima, Shigeru; Nakayama, Eri; Maeki, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Katanami, Yuichi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio


    We report a case of Zika virus infection that was imported to Japan by a traveler returning from Vietnam. We detected Zika virus RNA in the patient's saliva, urine, and whole blood. In the Zika virus strain isolated from the urine, we found clearly smaller plaques than in previous strains.

  8. Japan Trust Funds at the Inter-American Development Bank


    Inter-American Development Bank


    This brochure describes the economic ties between Japan and Latin America, placing the Japanese trust funds in the context of meeting challenges in the region. This document describes the Japanese trust funds and provides examples of how these funds have created opportunities for people to build a better and more secure future.

  9. Mergers & Acquisitions in Japan : Lessons for Dutch companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, F.D.J.


    This article deals with lessons learned from mergers and acquisitions in Japan. In general, such combinations are not success stories, since 50–80 percent of them do not bring the benefits that were expected. Several reasons for such failures have been brought up in the literature, but real-life

  10. Koreans in Japan: Their Influence on Korean-Japanese Relations. (United States)


    texts: Japanese and Korean. Registered by Japan on 15 December 1966. JAPON et RE PUBLIQUE DE CORI E Accord relatif au statut juridique et au traiteinent...22 jubi 1965 Textes offidelsiaponais et corlen. Euregistrd par It Japon k* 15 dicembre 1966. 100 32 United Nations - Treaty Series 1966 RTR ANSLAT O

  11. Central Asia and Japan: Bilateral and multilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzokhid Rakhimov


    Japan like Korea, India and other countries has a strong positive image in Central Asia, which could be regarded as an additional factor for fostering partnership of Central and East Asia as well as interregional relation with the vast Asian continent and beyond.

  12. Ketenefffecten Japan ook bij overstromingsrampen in Nederland te verwachten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Rijcken, T.; Lansen, J.


    De gevolgen van de tsunami in Japan hebben zich uitgestrekt tot ver buiten het getroffen gebied en troffen kerncentrales en de nationale energievoorziening en economie. Ook bij een watersnood en andere grote rampen in Nederland zijn zulke keteneffecten te verwachten, bij voorbeeld in de Rotterdamse

  13. Keteneffecten Japan ook bij overstromingsrampen in Nederland te verwachten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Rijcken, T.; Lansen, J.


    De gevolgen van de tsunami in Japan hebben zich uitgestrekt tot ver buiten het getroffen gebied en troffen kerncentrales en de nationale energievoorziening en economie. Ook bij een watersnood en andere grote rampen in Nederland zijn zulke keteneffecten te verwachten, bij voorbeeld in de Rotterdamse

  14. Post-disaster recovery and support in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiaki Kawai


    Full Text Available As a locally based faith-based organisation, there were several aspects that enabled Soka Gakkai to contribute effectively to the relief effort following the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan, responding to both physical and psychological needs.

  15. Comparative Assessment of Women Farmers' Status in Japan and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research compared the status of Japanese and Nigerian women farmers. The study was conducted in Sera Chuo, Hiroshima and Ohnan Chuo, Shimane prefecture, Chugoku region of Japan and Southwestern part of Nigeria covering three locations (Omi-Adio, Ijaye and Kila) within the suburban area of Ibadan ...

  16. Basic to industrial research on neutron platform in Japan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The co-location of reactor- and accelerator-based neutron sources offers a great opportunity for complementary use of steady and pulsed neutron beams in a wide variety of neutron science and technology areas ranging from basic research to industrial applications. In Japan, such a balance of two kinds of neutron ...

  17. Basic to industrial research on neutron platform in Japan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The co-location of reactor- and accelerator-based neutron sources offers a great opportunity for complementary use of steady and pulsed neutron beams in a wide variety of neutron science and technology areas ranging from basic research to industrial applications. In Japan, such a balance of two kinds of neutron sources ...

  18. A case of Manila type Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Japan. (United States)

    Usami, Osamu; Nakajima, Chie; Endo, Shiro; Inomata, Shinya; Kanamori, Hajime; Hirakata, Yoichi; Uchiyama, Bine; Kaku, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Hattori, Toshio


    A 76-year-old Japanese woman contracted a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB, Manila type) infection in Japan, despite never having traveled. However, her son was treated for TB in the Philippines 3 years before he stayed at her house. Spoligotyping allows us to identify the TB genotype and identify the route of infection.

  19. Some Aspects of Mathematics and Computer Science in Japan, (United States)

    Japan. In fact, he learned about a rather wide variety of research in various aspects of applied mathematics and computer science . The readers...Mathematics . Those interested in computer science and applications software will be most interested in the work at Fujitsu Limited and the work at the

  20. New Nematinae species (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Tenthredinidae) from Japan and Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haris, A.; Zsolnai, B.


    Seven new species of Nematinae (Tenthredinidae) from Japan and Korea are described: Pachynematus hirowatari spec. nov, P. hayachinensis spec. nov., Pristiphora nigrocoreana spec. nov, P. issikii spec. nov., P. shinoharai spec. nov, Pontania nipponica spec. nov. and Euura soboensis spec. nov.

  1. Pharmaceutical Pricing in Japan: Market Evidence for Rheumatoid Arthritis treatment. (United States)

    Mahlich, Jörg; Kamae, Isao; Sruamsiri, Rosarin


    Drug price setting is one of the key challenges faced by the Japanese health care system. This study aims to identify the determinants of drug price in Japan using the example of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment market. In order to compare prices across different products, we calculated prices per defined daily dose using WHO methodology. Price determinants were calculated both at launch and over time using IMS quarterly data on medicines approved for RA treatment in Japan from 2012 to 2015. Pharmaceutical pricing was modeled as a function of clinical and economic variables using regression analysis. For prices at the launch we found that differences in efficacy are not reflected in price differentials. We also report that the number of products within a molecule class had a negative effect on prices while originator drugs maintained higher prices. Although the existing pricing rules in Japan are very comprehensive they do not necessarily capture differences in product characteristics. The findings here support the notion that competitive forces are weak in highly regulated markets such as Japan.

  2. Edo: Art in Japan 1615-1868. Teaching Program. (United States)

    Guth, Christine; Henderson, Anne; Hinish, Heidi; Moore, Barbara

    The Edo period in Japan (1615-1868) saw the flowering of many forms of cultural expression, colorful and boisterous, muted and restrained, that today is thought of as typically Japanese. These include kabuki and no drama, the tea ceremony, martial arts, woodblock prints, and porcelain. This culturally diverse and vibrant period gets its name from…

  3. Debate and Dissent in Late Tokugawa and Meiji Japan. (United States)

    Branham, Robert James


    Argues that debate is not antithetical to Japanese culture and that Japan has indigenous traditions of argument and debate. Outlines the Japanese tradition of argumentation prior to the "opening to the West" in 1853. Suggests a more expansive model of debate as appropriate to cross-cultural analysis. (HB)

  4. [The demography of Japan during the Tokugawa period]. (United States)

    Hayami, A


    A review of available population data for Japan in the Tokugawa period, which lasted from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century, is presented. The work being done in the area of family reconstitution studies at Tokyo University using these data is discussed. (summary in ENG)

  5. Constraining the Samurai: Rebellion and Taxation in Early Modern Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steele, A.; Paik, C.; Tanaka, S.

    On the eve of the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the nearly 300 semi-autonomous domains across Japan had widely varying tax rates. Some handed over 70 percent of their rice yield to the samurai ruler of the domain, while others provided 15 percent. This variation existed in spite of the similar fiscal

  6. Castle Towns: An Introduction to Tokugawa Japan. Revised. (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit introduces students to the historical tradition of a non-Western nation seen within the comparative concept of feudalism. This is done partly through a look at Tokugawa Japan and partly through a comparative examination of the concept of feudalism. Although the unit deals mainly with a specific time span in Japanese history, it also…

  7. Some Misconceptions about the Economic History of Tokugawa Japan. (United States)

    Hauser, William B.


    New data on the economic history of Tokugawa, Japan necessitate revisions in traditional and Marxist interpretations, many of which are no longer consistent with the available evidence. One major outcome of recent studies is the awareness of the continuities between Tokugawa and Meiji economic growth. (RM)

  8. The Rise of Modern Japan. Teacher's Manual [and] Textbook. (United States)

    Menton, Linda K.; Lush, Noren W.; Tamura, Eileen H.; Gusukuma, Chance I.

    This textbook highlights key aspects of Japan's history and culture from the Tokugawa era (1600-1868) to the present. The textbook includes role plays, primary documents, first-person accounts, diary entries, excerpts from literary works, songs, poems, maps and timelines, charts and graphs, and political cartoons. It also includes a glossary that…

  9. Educational Modernization in Tokugawa Japan: The Case of Kagahan (United States)

    Rhee, Song Nai


    Changes in the educational system in one important area of Japan in order to meet new political, social, and military conditions are described. The early changes were made within the context of an old, feudal order and were effected for the purpose of strengthening that order. However, eventually, the spirit of modernization destroyed the forces…

  10. The Development of Astronomy and Emergence of Astrophysics in Japan (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    This chapter overviews the emergence and development phases of modern astronomy and astrophysics in Japan, mainly before WWII. In the beginning of the nineteenth century under the samurai regime of the Tokugawa Shogunate, shogunal astronomers started to learn Western astronomy through a Dutch translation of the book Astronomie by J.J. Lalande. After the Meiji Restoration (1868) the new government founded the University of Tokyo (1877), the first modern university in Japan, in which Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) also started in 1888. Terao Hisashi, who had gone to Paris to study the modern astronomy, became the first Director of TAO in 1888. The astronomy introduced by Terao into Japan was so-called classical astronomy. Two of Terao's early students made Japan's first internationally recognized achievements in astronomy, the discovery of the Z-term in the polar motion of the Earth by Kimura (Astronomische Nachrichten, 158, 234-240, 1902) and the discovery of asteroid families by Hirayama (Astronomical Journal, 31, 185-188, 1918).

  11. January 1995 Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe), Japan Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On the morning of January 17, 1995 (January 16 at 20:46 GMT), a major earthquake occurred near the City of Kobe, Japan. The greatest intensity of shaking for the 6.9...

  12. "There's a west wind coming" : Sherlock Holmes in Meiji Japan


    堤林, 恵


    IntroductionJapan's Aspiration and the Reception of English Literature"Europeanization" and the Rising Tide of NationalismThe Standing of Detective FictionA Brief Overview of Sherlock Holmes TranslationsSherlock Holmes Refracted Through a PrismConclusion

  13. 77 FR 60380 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan AGENCY: International... International Trade Administration will lead a delegation of U.S. companies to participate in a Renewable Energy... reconstruction following the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami, and the role of renewable energy in those efforts...

  14. Game Development Toolkit for Business People in Japan (United States)

    Shirai, Hiroaki; Tanabu, Motonari; Terano, Takao; Kuno, Yasushi; Suzuki, Hisatoshi; Tsuda, Kazuhiko


    This article describes the authors' experience of developing a business gaming course for business people in Japan. The course that was developed consists of (a) simple gaming experiments among multiple students using ALEXANDER ISLANDS, a tiny business game on the World Wide Web; (b) lectures to make the students understand the core concepts of…

  15. Fiscal Policy and Regional Business Cycle Fluctuations in Japan


    Miyazaki, Tomomi


    This paper examines the relationship between fiscal policy and regional business cycle fluctuations in Japan. In particular, we focus on the effects of “discretionary” changes in public investment, a portion of investment unrelated to the current state of macroeconomic circumstances. The empirical results show that such types of public investment amplify regional business cycle fluctuations.

  16. Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan; Le photovoltaique organique au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

  17. Labour Markets, Unemployment and Training for Quality: Germany and Japan. (United States)

    Lange, Thomas; Maguire, Keith


    Although unemployment is a serious problem in Europe, deregulating labor markets is not the solution. Deregulation could lead to decline in quality and competitiveness. The example of Japan shows the interaction of education, training, human resource management, and quality control. (SK)

  18. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility. (United States)

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  19. System assessment of Hypercoal for electricity supply in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron Cottrell; Peter Scaife; Louis Wibberley [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)


    This report compares the life cycle environmental impacts and economics for electricity supply in Japan using Hypercoal, with generation based on supercritical pulverised coal, liquefied natural gas and Ultra Clean Coal. The Hypercoal is assumed to be direct fired into a combined cycle gas turbine. 16 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. The influence of human papillomavirus on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Japan. (United States)

    Kano, Makoto; Kondo, Satoru; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Moriyama-Kita, Makiko; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Endo, Kazuhira; Murono, Shigeyuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu


    Although Japan is a non-endemic area with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the proportion of WHO type I NPC in Japan are different from that in non-endemic areas such as North America and Europe. Recently, it is said that not only Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) but also human papillomavirus (HPV) has an influence on NPC in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of HPV on NPC in Japan. Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens were available for 59 patients with NPC diagnosed between 1996 and 2015. We detected the virus status by p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV PCR, and in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the overall survival by viral status. Among the 59 patients, 49 (83%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 2 (3%) were EBV-positive/HPV-positive, and 8 (16%) were EBV-negative/HPV-negative. All HPV-positive NPCs were co-infected with EBV. There were no significant differences between the overall survival in the three groups (p=0.111). In Japan, HPV was detected in a few patients with NPC, and we suggest that HPV has no influence on NPC carcinogenesis in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Why Lesson Study Works in Japan: A Cultural Perspective (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max


    Japanese lesson study has attracted many international educators who have been impressed by its capacity to foster student learning and sustained professional growth of teachers. This paper reports a study on its cultural orientations that may explain why lesson study works seamlessly in Japan. Hofstede's dimensions of national culture are…

  2. Natural and semi-natural vegetation in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Numata, M.; Miyawaki, A.; Itow, D.


    Studies on the composition of the forests and other vegetation of Japan were initiated by J. Tanaka (1887) in the Meiji Era. According to his introduction his field survey started in 1879 and resulted into a classification of vegetation zones (forest zones), mainly of the lowland, based on

  3. Culture and Unrealistic Expectations Challenge American Campuses in Japan. (United States)

    McMurtrie, Beth


    Examines difficulties faced by American university branches in Japan. Notes that 30 institutions developed programs offering American-style college education during the 1980s and 1990s but that only five have survived, due primarily to culture clashes. Focuses on experiences of the Temple University branch in Tokyo, which survives, and Minnesota…

  4. A magnet takes a nomadic journey to Japan

    CERN Document Server


    A CERN magnet originally built for the UA1 detector and later used by the NOMAD experiment has just set sail for a new life in Japan. Spotlight on an incredible voyage by land and sea. See the video at the end of the article!

  5. Japanese College Students' Attitudes towards Japan English and American English (United States)

    Sasayama, Shoko


    This study investigated contemporary Japanese college students' attitudes towards Japan English (JE) and American English (AE) through a verbal guise test (VGT) as well as a questionnaire. Forty-four Japanese college students listened to four Japanese and four North Americans reading a text in English, rated them in terms of solidarity-related…

  6. Japan after the Quake: Prospects for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luta, Alexandru


    The triple calamity of 11 March 2011 has dealt a serious blow domestically to the credibility of the Japanese nuclear industry, putting the country's energy policy in flux.The severe impact on the country's infrastructure, the unwieldiness of its bureaucracy and the chaotic political situation preclude Japan's energy policy from explicitly re-orientating itself before the middle of 2012, but political consensus seems to be emerging that the country's mid-term pledge on emission reductions will need to be curtailed.The bill on renewable energy passed under Prime Minister Kan marked a step in the right direction, but was shallow and politically opportunistic. Its future impact on policy is uncertain.With other policy instruments on climate proposed by the Democratic Party of Japan toothless or abandoned, Tokyo's ability to engage in significant mitigation activities domestically is in question.Opposition to a second commitment period to the Kyoto Protocol remains firm; Japan will continue to pursue bilateral mechanisms outside the UNFCCC framework.Given its frail domestic policy and a stated readiness to act internationally outside multilateral frameworks, Japan's promise to carry out significant mitigation activities even in the absence of a clear and comprehensive post-2012 legal instrument should be viewed with a critical eye.(Author)

  7. Trends in the Prevalence of Dementia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko H. Dodge


    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data regarding trends in dementia and its subtype prevalence in Japan. Our aims in the current paper are to: (1 summarize epidemiological studies of dementia in Japan including relevant details of study protocol and diagnostic criteria, (2 compare the age-specific prevalence of all-cause dementia among studies, and (3 assess the trends in Alzheimer's disease (AD versus vascular dementia (VaD over time. We reviewed diagnostic criteria, all-cause dementia prevalence, and the AD/VaD ratio from 8 large population studies of dementia in Japan. Compared with the Okinawa 1992 study, studies conducted in 1994, 1998, 2005, and 2008 had a higher prevalence of all-cause dementia using Poisson regression models, after controlling for age and sex. In contrast to the US and some European countries, all-cause dementia prevalence is increasing in Japan. The prevalence of AD as opposed to VaD seems to be increasing over time, but large variability in diagnostic criteria, possible regional variability, and differences in prevalence of subtypes of dementia between men and women make it difficult to draw a conclusion about this trend at the national level. Further studies, for example, comparing the population attributable risk of vascular diseases to the prevalence and incidence of dementia could help to clarify the regional variations in etiological subtypes.

  8. Epidemiological Survey of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration in Tottori Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Wada-Isoe


    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD in Japan is unknown. An epidemiological survey study of FTLD was undertaken in Tottori Prefecture, a district in the western region of Japan. Methods: Hospitals in Tottori Prefecture were surveyed by a two-step questionnaire in 2010, and the prevalence of FTLD per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated using the actual number of patients and inhabitants in Tottori Prefecture on the prevalence day of October 1, 2010. Results: In this survey, 66 patients were diagnosed with FTLD. The subtypes of FTLD were as follows: 62 cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD, 3 cases of progressive nonfluent aphasia, and 1 case of semantic dementia. Among the FTD cases, 5 cases were FTD with motor neuron disease and 1 case was FTD with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. The prevalence of FTD in the total population of Tottori Prefecture was 11.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. Based on these results, the prevalence of FTLD in Japan in 2008 was estimated to be 9.5 per 100,000 individuals. Conclusions: Our epidemiological survey results suggest that there are at least 12,000 FTLD patients in Japan, indicating that FTLD is not a rare disease.

  9. Better off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan (United States)

    Yu, Wei-hsin


    Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals' careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals' transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a…

  10. Initial survey of predacious diptera on hemlocks in Japan (United States)

    Hisashi Ohishi; Shigehiko Shiyake; Yorio Miyatake; Ashley Lamb; Michael E. Montgomery


    Some species of Coleoptera and Diptera are specialist predators of adelgids. Previously, we reported our survey of predacious Coleoptera on hemlocks in Japan (Shiyake et al. 2008). Two of these beetles, Sasajiscymnus tsugae and Laricobius sp. nov., have been exported to the U.S. for biological control. Here, we provide the first...

  11. Education, Employment and Household Dynamics: Brazilian Migrants in Japan (United States)

    Green, Paul


    By treating the household as a primary unit of analysis and social production, this article considers the mutually influential ways in which migrant families shape the educational pathways and experiences of Brazilian children living in Japan. Through an ethnographic exploration of relations between parents, children and their working siblings I…

  12. The Corporeality of Learning: Confucian Education in Early Modern Japan (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Masashi


    The intellectual foundation of early modern Japan was provided by Confucianism--a system of knowledge set forth in Chinese classical writings. In order to gain access to this knowledge, the Japanese applied reading markers to modify the original Chinese to fit the peculiarities of Japanese grammar and pronunciation. Confucian education started by…

  13. The Stanford University US-Japan Technology Management Center (United States)


    This grant established the U.S.-Japan Technology Management Center, Stanford University School of Engineering, as an ongoing center of excellence for...networking, nanotechnologies, MEMS, system-level chip integration, and advanced manufacturing. Our technology management focus embraced industry

  14. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan (United States)

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo


    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

  15. English Language Teaching in Japan: Policy Plans and Their Implementations (United States)

    Honna, Nobuyuki; Takeshita, Yuko


    This paper describes Japan's most recent attempts to improve English teaching and learning at all levels of the education system both for students and teachers as well as for the public in general. Based on policy recommendations by several advisory committees, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has…

  16. Toward establishing basic rights of victims in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morosawa Hidemichi


    Full Text Available The author talks about improving victim rights in Japan and his important role in it. A period of Victims’ Renaissance in Japan began in the 1990s when the Japanese Association of Victimology and Mito Victim Assistance Cener, first non-governmental community-based integrated victim support center in Japan were established. Since May 1999 to May 2004, four laws such as “Crime Victim Protection Law”, “Child Abuse Prevention Law”, “Law for Proscribing Stalking Behavior” and so on were enacted and six laws were reformed. The word “rights of victim”, did not appear in any laws. After 2000, the National Association of Crime Victims and Surviving Families (NAVS played an important role. This Association achieved a great success in securing victims a position as the subject of rights. In June 2007, Japan changed the Criminal Procedure Law. This new law will be effective on six months after the day of promulgation. Japanese Government will promulgate it till the end of 2007. Under this new law, crime victims will be allowed to take part in criminal trials, and also make statements during trials.

  17. Chikungunya Fever in Traveler from Angola to Japan, 2016. (United States)

    Takaya, Saho; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Nakayama, Eri; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Tajima, Shigeru; Katanami, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kei; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio


    Simultaneous circulation of multiple arboviruses presents diagnostic challenges. In May 2016, chikungunya fever was diagnosed in a traveler from Angola to Japan. Travel history, incubation period, and phylogenetic analysis indicated probable infection acquisition in Angola, where a yellow fever outbreak is ongoing. Thus, local transmission of chikungunya virus probably also occurs in Angola.

  18. Humanistic and economic burden of fibromyalgia in Japan [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee LK


    Full Text Available Lee LK, Ebata N, Hlavacek P, DiBonaventura M, Cappelleri JC, Sadosky A. Humanistic and economic burden of fibromyalgia in Japan. Journal of Pain Research. 2016;9:967–978.Figures 3, 4, 5, and 6 contain errors in the key. Fibromyalgia should be dark gray and matched controls should be light gray.Read the original article.

  19. Nationwide epidemiological survey of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Ueda


    Full Text Available Background: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is a maternally inherited optic neuropathy that leads to central loss of vision, predominantly in young males. Most LHON cases have one of three primary point mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. The annual incidence and prevalence of LHON in Japan are not known. Thus, we estimated the annual incidence of molecularly confirmed LHON in Japan during 2014. Methods: Sequential questionnaires were sent to 1397 facilities, which included all of the university hospitals in Japan, and they were certified by either the Japanese Ophthalmological Society or the Japanese Neuro-Ophthalmological Society. We calculated the incidence number (Ir as the number of patients who developed LHON in 2014 and its 95% confidence interval. Results: We received 861 responses to the first questionnaire, where 49 facilities reported 72 cases (67 were male and 5 were female of newly developed LHON during 2014. Ir was calculated as 117, and the 95% confidence interval ranged from 81 to 153. For the second questionnaire, responses were received from 30 facilities, where the median age at onset was 38 years for males and 30 years for females, and 86.5% of cases possessed the mtDNA ND4/G11778A mutation. Conclusion: Approximately 120 cases of newly developed LHON were reported during 2014 in Japan, and 93.2% were males.

  20. Persons with Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities in Japan (United States)

    Suemitsu, Shigeru


    The author outlines the history, current situation, and the future of the care and support system for people with intellectual and multiple disabilities in Japan. He describes how the service system has been shaped from within by Japanese legislation dating back to the Child Welfare Act of 1947, and how international events such as the…

  1. The new illegal immigration in Japan, 1980-1992. (United States)

    Morita, K; Sassen, S


    "This article presents some of the latest available figures on illegal immigration in Japan, a process that did not assume significant proportions until the mid-1980s. It also discusses briefly the latest developments around 'immigration' policy--more precisely, the law on the entry and exit of aliens." excerpt

  2. Cancer incidence and novel therapies developed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Iwasaki


    Full Text Available According to the ministry of Health, Labour and welfare of Japan, Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Japan since 1981. [1] As per the data in 2010, in Japan, one in every three deaths was due to cancer. [2] The Japanese Government has introduced so far, three terms of 10 years strategies for Cancer control since 1984 till date. The budget allocated for cancer control in 2009 was 52.5 billion yen in Japan. [3] Lung is the leading site for cancer in both males and females in Japan. In males, following the lung, stomach, liver, colon and pancreas are other leading sites while in the females, stomach, colon, pancreas and breast are the other leading sites.[1] In 2006, the cancer incidence was 694,000 and the male cancer incidence was 1.4 times as large as that of females. The peak age for cancer deaths in males is their fifties while in the females it is the sixties among Japanese. In addition to the conventional treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, some of other therapies in practice in Japan are the Hyperthermia [4] that uses high temperatures to kill or damage the cancer cells, the Ion Beam therapy using proton beams [5] to damage the DNA of the cells as cancer cells have high rate of cell divisions and lesser ability to repair DNA damage, the molecular targeted therapies that interfere with a specific molecular target involved in tumour growth and progression [6] and most importantly the autologous cell based Immunotherapies. Modern Cancer Immunotherapy started in the 1970s in Japan. The immunopotentiators using compounds from Bacteria, Beta Glucans from fungi were the first forms of modern Immunotherapy. Then was the era of direct injection of cytokines such as Interleukins, Interferons etc. The adverse effects associated with the injection of cytokines led to development of cell based Immunotherapies in the 1980s. [7] Immuno-cell therapies involve isolation of immune cells which are then processed and re

  3. Aanpak van de verkeersonveiligheid in Japan : Wakon-yosai: Japanse geest met westerse technologie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.


    Comparison of data from Japan and the Netherlands shows that the number of fatalities per 100.000 inhabitants in Japan is lower than in the Netherlands. During 1974 to 1984 the number of traffic deaths in Japan has decreased with ± 50%. The policy of the Japanese government is given a law. "The

  4. 78 FR 55293 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty... isocyanurates from China and Japan, provided for in subheadings 2933.69.60 and 3808.99.95 of the Harmonized... value by Japan and alleged to be subsidized by China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time...

  5. Connecting Higher Education Research in Japan with the International Academic Community (United States)

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi


    This study examines the historical, current, and future challenges of higher education research in Japan within a global context. Japanese higher education research has been strongly influenced by the international academic community. At the same time, higher education researchers in Japan have participated in international projects, and Japan has…

  6. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314...

  7. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  8. 75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan (United States)


    ... 564 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

  9. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel wire rod from Italy, Japan, Korea... contained in USITC Publication 4154 (May 2010), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, Korea...

  10. Attitudes toward Education Expenditures in Japan: Comparisons with Social Security and Welfare Services Expenditures (United States)

    Nakazawa, Wataru


    This paper examines people's attitudes toward public spending on education in Japan. It is well known that Japan has the smallest public education expenditure relative to GDP among the OECD countries, and this may yield unequal opportunities in education. The tax burden in Japan is small compared to those in OECD countries, and there may be no…

  11. The Rearmament of Japan: Increased Regional Stability in the Western Pacific or Unnecessary Increase in Tensions (United States)


    forum.apan- 17 Murakami , Haruki . Underground. New York: Vintage Books, 2000, p. 3. 11 instead participated based on...William. "The Constitution of Japan." September 10, 2010. Murakami , Haruki

  12. Passing on the History of "Comfort Women": The Experiences of a Women's Museum in Japan (United States)

    Watanabe, Mina


    This article explores the activities and experiences of a women's peace museum in Japan which especially tries to pass on the history of Japan's military sexual slavery, or the "comfort women" issue. The system of Japan's military sexual slavery had not been written as a part of history until courageous survivors testified and…

  13. Towards an uncertain future? The strengthening of Japan's autonomy in Asia-Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiguenoli Miyamoto


    Full Text Available Recently, Japan has been increasing tensions with China regarding the Pinnacle Senkaku/Diaoyu islands. Due to the Chinese military development, Japan has been working on its political and military strengthening in Asia. This essay presents two possible scenarios for Japan.

  14. 78 FR 31577 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan (United States)


    ...)] Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan Determination On the basis of the... reason of imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products, provided... diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products from Japan. Accordingly, effective March 27...

  15. 77 FR 32998 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to... from Japan: Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review). By order of the Commission. Issued: May 29...

  16. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. (United States)


    ... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.27 Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. Notwithstanding any other... slaughtered in Japan may be imported into the United States under the following conditions: (a) The beef is...

  17. 78 FR 60897 - Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... the antidumping duty order on certain welded large diameter line pipe from Japan would likely to lead... Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe from Japan: Investigation No. 731-TA-919 (Second Review). By order...

  18. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (United States)


    ... NATO, Australia, and Japan. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL... authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide the comprehensive...

  19. Review of mental-health-related stigma in Japan. (United States)

    Ando, Shuntaro; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Aoki, Yuta; Thornicroft, Graham


    The aim of this study is to understand the nature and characteristics of mental-health-related stigma among Japanese people. We searched relevant studies in English or Japanese published since 2001 using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, and found 19 studies that examined mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Regarding knowledge about mental illness, reviewed studies showed that in the Japanese general population, few people think that people can recover from mental disorders. Psychosocial factors, including weakness of personality, are often considered the cause of mental illness, rather than biological factors. In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships. Schizophrenia is more stigmatized than depression, and its severity increases the stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness. The literature also showed an association between more direct social contact between health professionals and individuals with mental illness and less stigmatization by these professionals. Less stigmatization by mental health professionals may be associated with accumulation of clinical experience and daily contact with people who have mental illness. Stigmatizing attitudes in Japan are stronger than in Taiwan or Australia, possibly due to institutionalism, lack of national campaigns to tackle stigma, and/or society's valuing of conformity in Japan. Although educational programs appear to be effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma, future programs in Japan need to address problems regarding institutionalism and offer direct social contact with people with mental illness. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Spatial and temporal distribution of snowmelt rate in Japan (United States)

    Sen Gupta, A.; Chowdhary, H.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Ashouri, H.


    Volume and timing of runoff due to snowmelt are major factors influencing the magnitude and timing of floods, reservoir operations, as well as the duration of the skiing season in the high-altitude northern regions of Japan. Snowmelt models are often used within rainfall-runoff models to estimate snowmelt runoff. In order to accurately model snowmelt runoff, these models need to account for the spatial and temporal variability of the snowmelt rate. Temperature index (TI) snowmelt models are commonly used for this purpose owing to their simplicity, parsimonious nature and computational efficiency. Traditional TI models assume a constant melt rate or degree day factor (DDF) over the entire melting season which usually overestimates the melt quantity during early season and underestimates during the latter part of the season. Moreover, available information on the spatial variability of the DDF is generally inadequate to develop spatially distributed snowmelt models. In this study, DDF has been estimated using Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) outputs over Japan at 0.25° spatial resolution. 3-hourly temperature and snowmelt amount data have been used to estimate spatially varying daily melt rates resulting in time-varying seasonal melt factor curve similar to that proposed in SNOW-17. A distributed TI model was then applied to model snow water equivalent (SWE) and daily snowmelt over the entire Japan from 2000 to 2010. The modeled distributions of the onset and cessation of the snowpack buildup, and of the annual maximum SWE and its time of occurrence have been found to be in agreement with the patterns available from the GLDAS Noah data. The model performed better for Hokkaido, the northernmost of Japan's five main islands, where the annual maximum SWE is higher compared to the other parts of the country. The DDFs estimated in this study provide improved snowmelt driven flood estimates, especially for northern Japan.

  1. Overview of the first earthquake forecast testing experiment in Japan (United States)

    Nanjo, K. Z.; Tsuruoka, H.; Hirata, N.; Jordan, T. H.


    The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) is an international partnership to support research on rigorous earthquake prediction in multiple tectonic environments. This paper outlines the first earthquake forecast testing experiment for the Japan area conducted within the CSEP framework. We begin with some background and briefly describe efforts in setting up the experiment. The experiment, which closely follows CSEP concepts, is of a prospective sort and is highly objective. Its major feature consists in using Japan, one of the most seismically active and well-instrumented regions in the world, as a natural laboratory. To make full use of this location and of the earthquake catalog maintained by the Japan Meteorological Agency, rules for this experiment have been set up. The experiment consists of 12 categories, with four testing classes each with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively) and three testing regions called "All Japan," "Mainland," and "Kanto." A total of 91 models were submitted; these are currently under the CSEP official suite of tests for evaluating the performance of forecasts. This paper briefly describes each model but does not attempt to pass judgment on individual models. Comparative appraisal of the different models will be presented in future publications. Moreover, this is only the first experiment, and more trials are forthcoming. Our aim is to describe what has turned out to be the first occasion for setting up a research environment for rigorous earthquake forecasting in Japan. We argue that now is the time to invest considerably more efforts in related research fields.

  2. Japan in Maritime Asia: Security, Commerce, and Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Thai


    Full Text Available Catherine L. Phipps, Empires on the Waterfront: Japan’s Ports and Power, 1858–1899. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 308 pp. $39.95 (cloth. Noell Wilson, Defensive Positions: The Politics of Maritime Security in Tokugawa Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 258 pp. $39.95 (cloth. Historiography on Japan’s place within the world of maritime Asia has undergone dramatic reinterpretation in recent decades. Scholars of the early modern era have thoroughly demolished the shibboleth of sakoku (“closed country”, the supposed isolation of Tokugawa Japan before the sudden arrival of Western gunboats in the 1850s. The active pursuit of diplomatic and commercial ties by shogun and daimyo alike embedded Japan firmly within global circuits of exchange (e.g., Hellyer 2010; Toby 1984. Scholars of the modern era, for their part, have been inspired by the “imperial turn” to put overseas empires at the heart of national narratives. Bookending the Tokugawa and Meiji periods, the two studies under review here push the frontiers of this research agenda further. Noell Wilson’s political history focuses on the buildup of domainal defense on the coast and the devolution of shogunal monopoly on violence. At the heart of this dialectical relationship was the “Nagasaki system”—the security arrangements that originated in the eponymous port and were eventually implemented throughout Japan. Catherine Phipps’s economic history examines the commercial expansion of Meiji Japan by tracing maritime networks of exchange, transportation, and information at multiple spatial scales. Forged in the crucible of Western imperialism, such ties simultaneously compromised the sovereignty of the nation while laying the foundations for empire. Both works offer compelling cases for the centrality of maritime relations in understanding core issues in Japanese history...

  3. Recent activities of the physical society of Japan and the Japan society of applied physics gender equality promotion committees (United States)

    Kaki, K.; Okiharu, F.; Tajima, S.; Takayama, H.; Watanabe, M. O.


    The results of a 2007 large-scale survey of gender equality in scientific and technological professions in Japan are reported. The activities of two Japanese physics societies in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics was held in 2008 are reported.

  4. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19... (United States)


    ... decommissioning, remediation, waste management, and water management. Participate in networking opportunities with... firms and should CS Japan resources be able to accommodate such interest. There may be an opportunity to... company's products or services to the Japanese decommissioning or remediation sector, including water...

  5. Electric cars are better off in the USA and Japan; Das Elektroauto in den USA und Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legat, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)


    While the acceptance of electric cars in Germany remains comparatively low, the situation in the USA and Japan is characterized by a very positive approach and ongoing activities for technological improvement. The same applies to France, Sweden and Switzerland, where activities for development of a new generation of electric-powered vehicles receive funds and public support. Commitments in the USA by now have reached the stage of accompanying activities by legislative bodies for establishment of suitable regulatory framework conditions in the run up to a general introduction of electric-powered vehicles envisaged for the year 2010. The situation in the USA and Japan shows: The German automobile industry will have to catch up and accelerate activities for the development of electric cars - not least for reasons of competitiveness on the North American market -, or run the risk of coming too late on the global market. (orig.) [Deutsch] Waehrend das Elektroauto in Deutschland eher kritisch bewertet wird, wird in den USA und in Japan staendig an der technischen Verbesserung der Fahrzeuge gearbeitet. Auch Frankreich, Schweden und die Schweiz unternehmen grosse Anstrengungen, Elektrofahrzeuge einer neuen Generation zu entwickeln. In den USA werden inzwischen unwiderrufliche Rahmenbedingungen zur Einfuehrung von Elektrofahrzeugen bis zum Jahr 2010 geschaffen. Die Situation in den USA und Japan zeigt: will die deutsche Wirtschaft die Entwicklung nicht verschlafen, gilt es groessere Anstrengungen zu unternehmen und die Entwicklung von Elektrofahrzeugen - auch mit Blick auf den fuer deutsche Autobauer zunehmend wichtiger werdenden amerikanischen Fahrzeugmarkt - zu foerdern. (orig.)

  6. Prevalence of airflow limitation in subjects undergoing comprehensive health examination in Japan: Survey of Chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease Patients Epidemiology in Japan


    Omori, Hisamitsu; Kaise, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Takeo; Hagan, Gerry


    Hisamitsu Omori,1 Toshihiko Kaise,2 Takeo Suzuki,2 Gerry Hagan3 1Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 2Development and Medical Affairs Division, GlaxoSmithKline, Tokyo, Japan; 3Independent Consultant, Marbella, Spain Purpose: There are still evidence gaps on the prevalence of airflow limitation in Japan. The purpose of this survey was to estimate the prevalence of airflow limitation among healthy subjects in Japan and to show...

  7. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  8. Current status of portal vein thrombosis in Japan: Results of a questionnaire survey by the Japan Society for Portal Hypertension. (United States)

    Kojima, Seiichiro; Watanabe, Norihito; Koizumi, Jun; Kokubu, Shigehiro; Murashima, Naoya; Matsutani, Shoichi; Obara, Katsutoshi


    To investigate the current status of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in Japan, the Clinical Research Committee of the Japan Society of Portal Hypertension undertook a questionnaire survey. A questionnaire survey of 539 cases of PVT over the previous 10 years was carried out at institutions affiliated with the Board of Trustees of the Japan Society of Portal Hypertension. The most frequent underlying etiology of PVT was liver cirrhosis in 75.3% of patients. Other causes included inflammatory diseases of the hepatobiliary system and the pancreas, malignant tumors, and hematologic diseases. The most frequent site was the main trunk of the portal vein (MPV) in 70.5%, and complete obstruction of the MPV was present in 11.5%. Among the medications for PVT, danaparoid was given to 45.8%, warfarin to 26.2%, heparin to 17.3%, and anti-thrombin III to 16.9%. Observation of the course was practiced in 22.4%. Factors contributing to therapeutic efficacy were implementation of various medications, thrombi localized to either the right or left portal vein only, non-complete obstruction of the MPV and Child-Pugh class A liver function. A survival analysis showed that the prognosis was favorable with PVT disappearance regardless of treatment. The questionnaire survey showed the current status of PVT in Japan. Any appropriate medication should be given to a patient with PVT when PVT is recognized. It is necessary to compile a large amount of information and reach a consensus on safe and highly effective management of PVT. © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  9. Earthquake generation cycles and tsunami simulations providing possible scenarios for Turkey (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench) (United States)

    Hori, Takane; Yalciner, Ahmet; Ozel, Nurcan; Kilic, Irfan; Miyazaki, Shin'ichi; Hyodo, Mamoru


    In order to obtain comprehensive earthquake and tsunami scenarios for disaster assessment, numerical simulations of earthquake generation cycles and resultant tsunami generations have been performed in Japan. The occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake has realized us the necessity to consider all the possible scenarios without preconceptions. We have performed large-scale numerical simulations using Earth Simulator and K-computer for earthquake generation cycles along the Nankai trough, southwest Japan, where megathrust earthquakes with some segments have sequentially occurred. We have succeeded to reproduce various rupture pattern seen in historical data and geological evidences (such as tsunami deposit) being consistent with GEONET data during interseismic period. Using the results of such earthquake generation cycle simulations, we performed tsunami generation, propagation and inundation simulation. In Turkey, tsunami simulation methods and tsunami scenario database have been developed. In the research project of SATREPS -Earthquake and tsunami disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey, we are applying such earthquake generation cycle and tsunami simulations to the North Anatolian fault system to obtain possible earthquake scenarios and to improve tsunami scenario data base for Sea of Marmara. For the modeling of the fault system, we will use observation results by the earthquake source modeling group in this project to improve the existing models. The earthquake scenarios will be used also for strong motion predictions by the group of seismic characterization and damage prediction. We will visualize the simulation results for disaster education. Furthermore, we will contribute to improve semi-realtime earthquake analyses and tsunami forecasting. In the presentation, we will show some recent simulation results of earthquake generation cycles and tsunamis for Turkey (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench

  10. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. (United States)

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi


    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  11. Mapping seismic azimuthal anisotropy of the Japan subduction zone (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Liu, X.


    We present 3-D images of azimuthal anisotropy tomography of the crust and upper mantle of the Japan subduction zone, which are determined using a large number of high-quality P- and S-wave arrival-time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events recorded by the dense seismic networks on the Japan Islands. A tomographic method for P-wave velocity azimuthal anisotropy is modified and extended to invert S-wave travel times for 3-D S-wave velocity azimuthal anisotropy. A joint inversion of the P and S wave data is conducted to constrain the 3-D azimuthal anisotropy of the Japan subduction zone. Main findings of this work are summarized as follows. (1) The high-velocity subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea (PHS) slabs exhibit trench-parallel fast-velocity directions (FVDs), which may reflect frozen-in lattice-preferred orientation of aligned anisotropic minerals formed at the mid-ocean ridge as well as shape-preferred orientation such as normal faults produced at the outer-rise area near the trench axis. (2) Significant trench-normal FVDs are revealed in the mantle wedge, which reflects corner flow in the mantle wedge due to the active subduction and dehydration of the oceanic plates. (3) Obvious toroidal FVDs and low-velocity anomalies exist in and around a window (hole) in the aseismic PHS slab beneath Southwest Japan, which may reflect a toroidal mantle flow pattern resulting from hot and wet mantle upwelling caused by the joint effects of deep dehydration of the Pacific slab and the convective circulation process in the mantle wedge above the Pacific slab. (4) Significant low-velocity anomalies with trench-normal FVDs exist in the mantle below the Pacific slab beneath Northeast Japan, which may reflect a subducting oceanic asthenosphere affected by hot mantle upwelling from the deeper mantle. ReferencesLiu, X., D. Zhao (2016) Seismic velocity azimuthal anisotropy of the Japan subduction zone: Constraints from P and S wave traveltimes. J. Geophys. Res. 121, doi

  12. Historical Change of Equilibrium Water Temperature in Japan (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.


    Changes in freshwater ecosystems due to a climate change have been great concern for sustainable river basin management both for water resources utilization and ecological conservation. However, their impact seems to be difficult to evaluate because of wide variety of basin characteristics along a river network both in nature and social environment. This presentation uses equilibrium water temperature as a simple criterion index for evaluating the long-term changes of stream thermal environment due to the historical climate change in Japan. It examines, at first, the relationship between the equilibrium water temperature and the stream temperature observed for 7 years at a lower reach in the Ibo River, Japan. It analyzes, then, the seasonal and regional trends of the equilibrium water temperature change for the last 50 years at 133 meteorological station sites throughout Japan, discussing their rising or falling characteristics. The correlation analysis at the local reach of the Ibo River shows that the equilibrium water temperature has similar trend of change as the stream temperature. However, its value tends to be higher than the stream temperature in summer, while lower in winter. The onset of the higher equilibrium water temperature fluctuates annually from mid February to early April. This onset fluctuation at each spring could be influenced by the different amount of snow at the antecedent winter. The rising or falling trends of the equilibrium water temperature are analyzed both annually and seasonally through the regression analysis of the 133 sites in Japan. Consequently, the trends of the temperature change could be categorized by 12 patterns. As for the seasonal analysis, the results shows that there are many sites indicating the falling trend in spring and summer, and rising trends in autumn and winter. In particular, winter has the strong rising tendency throughout Japan. As for the regional analysis, the result illustrates the precise rationality; e

  13. Hygienic governance and military hygiene in the making of imperial Japan, 1868-1912. (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chan


    This article explores how the Meiji medical authorities applied Western medicine-derived hygienic ideas and plans to build up imperial Japan. Although several medical historians have recently begun to investigate the important role that Western medicine played Japan's modern nation-building, there has been little historical analysis of how hygiene administration influenced military hygiene in this process. While some prominent historians of modern Japan have discussed the impact of Dutch medicine on the rise of Western learning during the Tokugawa era (1603-1868) or have placed it within the context of Japan's colonial expansion into Taiwan or China, they have not analyzed the process by which hygiene administration contributed to the development of military hygiene in the making of imperial Japan. In this paper, I will investigate why and how Japan's medical leaders adopted German medicine and the British hygiene administration system, and pursued their application to Meiji Japan's military forces.

  14. Indicators in the governance of sustainable transport policies in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Fukuda, Daisuke

    The paper addresses the role of indicators to promote transitions towards a more sustainable transportation future in Japan. Existing international literature suggests a potential key role for performance measurement and indicator systems to strengthen such policies. The research explores to what...... extent governance frameworks associated with ‘new public management’ reforms in Japan also provide an enhanced basis to promote sustainability within transportation. A framework is derived based on the assumption that the effectiveness of such frameworks in this regard depends on the way sustainability...... evaluation framework for the road sector used by the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). The second is the so-called ‘Eco-model’ cities program, also undertaken by the MLIT, using the case of Toyama City for illustration. In each case the approach to performance...

  15. Iwahashi Zenbei's Sunspot Drawings in 1793 in Japan (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Toriumi, Shin; Shibata, Kazunari


    Three Japanese sunspot drawings associated with Iwahashi Zenbei (1756 - 1811) are shown here from contemporary manuscripts and woodprint documents with the relevant texts. We reveal the observational date of one of the drawings to be 26 August 1793, and the overall observations lasted for over a year. Moreover, we identify the observational site for the dated drawing as Fushimi in Japan. We then compare Zenbei's observations with the group sunspot number and the raw group count from the Sunspot Index and Long-term Solar Observations (SILSO) to reveal the context of the data, and we conclude that these drawings fill gaps in our understanding that are due to the fragmental sunspot observations around 1793. These drawings are important as a clue to evaluate astronomical knowledge of contemporary Japan in the late eighteenth century and are valuable as a non-European observation, considering that most sunspot observations up to the middle of the nineteenth century are from Europe.

  16. Overview summary of clinical heavier-ion progress in Japan (United States)

    Matsufuji, N.


    Swift ion beams such as carbon has unique characteristics suitable for treating deep-seated tumours. In Japan, carbon-ion radiotherapy was started in 1994 at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences and more than 10,000 patients have been treated by Aug. 2016. Clinical outcomes show superior efficacy of carbon ions even against radioresistant tumour while keeping the quality of life at high level, and also the usefulness of hypofractionated irradiation down to the completion of the course of lung-cancer treatment in 1 day. During the decades, the improvement of hardware and software technology such as 3D scanning technique, superconducting rotating gantry or biology model have been carried out aiming at further optimized ion-beam radiotherapy as well as reducing the cost of the facility. The developed technology has been transferred to the following facilities. As of 2016, 5 carbon ion radiotherapy facilities are in operation in Japan.

  17. A US-Japan collaborative robotics research program (United States)

    Schenker, Paul S.; Hirai, Shigeoki


    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) have recently initiated a cooperative R&D effort in telerobotics. This new effort, sponsored by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), has two major themes. First, our work broadens the outreach of space telerobotics R&D to international technical collaboration and facilities usage in the United States and Japan. Second, our work fosters development and demonstration of new operator interface technologies to improve the flexibility and reliability of ground-to-orbit telerobotic operations. This new technology is important, given the continuing imperatives to off-load platform maintenance from the extravehicular activity/intravehicular activity (EVA/IVA) crew to on-board robot assists under direct ground mission control.

  18. The Japanese Museum of Anesthesiology in Kobe, Japan. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hirosato; Kono, Yukinori; Desai, Sukumar P


    In 2009, the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists (JSA) founded the Archives of JSA, which changed into the Japanese Museum of Anesthesiology in 2011. The museum consists of three sections: (1) archives (the collection of historical documents of the JSA), (2) museum (the collection of anesthetic equipment and its related things), and (3) library (the collection of books, journals, leaflets, and related materials). By January 2013, the collections included 2537 Japanese and 1569 foreign language books. JMA collections include 25% of the Japanese anesthesia books published between 1796-2008, making it Japan's largest collection, with the exception of the National Diet Library of Japan. Most of the Japanese books published from 1796 to 2008 are listed and can be searched through the home page. Copyright © 2015 Anesthesia History Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Progress in Aging Epidemiology in Japan: The JAGES Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Kondo


    Full Text Available Aging is a prominent topic in global health. The purpose of this report is to document progress in two of our research projects in Japan, which currently is the most aged society in the world. The Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES is one of the largest nation-wide research projects on aging, with more than 100 000 participants in 2010 and 2013. One of the notable findings is that community participation is a significant determinant of older people’s health. We have also made progress in the development of the JAGES Health Equity Assessment and Response Tools (HEART, which is a management tool for developing age-friendly cities. This progress suggests that community perspective and management of health promotion in the communities are valuable and require further research.

  20. Popular Geopolitics of Japan: Geopolitical Discourses of Anime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zorko


    Full Text Available Geopolitical discourses are an integral part of the contemporary geopolitics of each state. Driven by geopolitical traditions and imagination, they intercept and thus create all aspects of the discipline of critical geopolitics- the formal, practical and popular. The main area of our research is the discourse embedded in the popular geopolitics of a specific cultural product of Japan, anime. Anime are unique and thus suited for analysis for two reasons. The first is their specific, local production and global recognition. The second is their double coding. Although they are a product of the traditional geopolitical culture of Japan’s entertainment industry, they are able to create a contemporary geopolitical culture at the same time. Through an analysis of three anime series, Tokyo Magnitude 8.0, Earth Maiden Arjuna and Mobile Suit Gundam 00, we explore the geographic and geopolitical characteristics of Japan and their influence on the traditional, as well as the contemporary geopolitical discourses.