Sample records for vver technology reconstructing

  1. Technology of repair of selected equipment in the power plant type VVER 440

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barborka, J.; Magula, V. [Welding Research Inst. (WRI), Bratislava (Slovakia)


    This article is divided in two parts: The first part is studying the effect of individual parameters by the usual and pulsed welding of 15CH2MFA steel. It can be concluded that by use of mechanized or automatic TIG process in PC position with addition of a cold wire with high nickel content the desired quality of repair welded joints of a pressure vessel of VVER 440 reactor can be achieved. Based on the results of the second laboratory study of the renovation technology applied for the rotary surfaces of pressure-tight cover and spindle of the main closing armature type DN 500 it can be concluded, that the developed technology for surfacing the sealing surfaces by TIG process with addition of a high-nickel cold wire the functional capability of the mentioned parts can be fully restored.

  2. Safety of VVER-440 reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Slugen, Vladimir


    Safety of VVER-440 Reactors endeavours to promote an increase in the safety of VVER-440 nuclear reactors via the improvement of fission products limitation systems and the implementation of special non-destructive spectroscopic methods for materials testing. All theoretical and experimental studies performed the by author over the last 25 years have been undertaken with the aim of improving VVER-440 defence in depth, which is one of the most important principle for ensuring safety in nuclear power plants. Safety of VVER-440 Reactors is focused on the barrier system through which the safety pri

  3. Developing the European Center of Competence on VVER-Type Nuclear Power Reactors (United States)

    Geraskin, Nikolay; Pironkov, Lyubomir; Kulikov, Evgeny; Glebov, Vasily


    This paper presents the results of the European educational projects CORONA and CORONA-II which are dedicated to preserving and further developing nuclear knowledge and competencies in the area of VVER-type nuclear power reactors technologies (Water-Water Energetic Reactor, WWER or VVER). The development of the European Center of Competence for…

  4. Additive manufacturing technology in reconstructive surgery. (United States)

    Fuller, Scott C; Moore, Michael G


    Technological advances have been part and parcel of modern reconstructive surgery, in that practitioners of this discipline are continually looking for innovative ways to perfect their craft and improve patient outcomes. We are currently in a technological climate wherein advances in computers, imaging, and science have coalesced with resulting innovative breakthroughs that are not merely limited to improved outcomes and enhanced patient care, but may provide novel approaches to training the next generation of reconstructive surgeons. New developments in software and modeling platforms, imaging modalities, tissue engineering, additive manufacturing, and customization of implants are poised to revolutionize the field of reconstructive surgery. The interface between technological advances and reconstructive surgery continues to expand. Additive manufacturing techniques continue to evolve in an effort to improve patient outcomes, decrease operative time, and serve as instructional tools for the training of reconstructive surgeons.

  5. VVER Knowledge Preservation and Transfer within the Frame of CORONA Project Activities (United States)

    Mitev, Mladen; Corniani, Enrico; Manolova, Maria; Pironkov, Lybomir; Tsvetkov, Iskren


    The CORONA project is funded by the European Commission under the FP7 programme with overall objective to establish a Regional Centre of Competence for VVER Technology and Nuclear Applications. The Centre will provide support and services for preservation and transfer of VVER-related nuclear knowledge as well as know-how and capacity building. Specific training schemes aimed at nuclear professionals and researchers, non-nuclear professionals and students are developed and implemented in cooperation with local, national and international training and educational institutions. Pilot trainings are executed for each specific target group to assess the applicability of the training materials. The training scheme implemented for nuclear professionals and researchers is focussed on the NPP Lifetime Management. The available knowledge on enhancing safety and performance of nuclear installations with VVER technology is used in the preparation of the training materials. The Online Multimedia Training Course on VVER Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement and Integrity Assessment, developed by the joint effort of JRC-IET and IAEA is used in the training. The outcome collected from the trainees showed that the tool meets its primary goal of consolidating the existing knowledge on the VVER RPV Embrittlement and Integrity Assessment, provides adequate ground for transfer of this knowledge.

  6. Corrosion product behavior in VVER secondary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurmanov, V.A.; Velikopolsky, S.V.; Yurmanov, E.V. [N.A. Dollezhal Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering (NIKIET), Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Accumulation of corrosion products lead to some problems during long-term operation of VVER plants, such as secondary system component degradation including crud-induced local corrosion and corrosion cracking. Corrosion sludge and deposit removal from steam generators and other equipment is costly and time-consuming and leads to additional waste production. This problem is vital in the case of plant life extension. Appropriate solutions of the problem could be developed based on both Russian and international experience of the VVER fleet. Recommendations on how to mitigate corrosion product accumulation in VVER secondary systems were developed based on comparative analysis of available long-term data on corrosion product behavior in all the operating VVER plants, such as the following: Sludge and deposit accumulation in inner surfaces of secondary piping and components; Corrosion rate measurements using in-situ specimen testing at operated VVER plants; Efficiency of corrosion product removal from secondary system water by means of condensate polishers and steam generator blowdown cleanup systems; Sludge and deposit removal from steam generators during chemical cleaning; Secondary piping and components conservation efficiency during long outages. Comparative data analysis of corrosion product behavior has shown different corrosion product accumulation rates in Novovoronezh, Kola, Kalinin, Balakovo and Rostov NPPs. The said difference is due to different design and operation peculiarities. (author)

  7. The vver severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmolov, V. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher.

  8. VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Demetra


    VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

  9. Simulation of a nuclear accident by an academic simulator of a VVER-1000 reactor; Simulacion de un accidente nuclear, mediante un simulador academico de un reactor VVER-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez G, L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Salazar S, E., E-mail: [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, 62250 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)


    This work is planned to simulate a scenario in which the same conditions that caused the accident at the Fukushima Daichi nuclear power plant are present, using a simulator of a nuclear power plant with VVER-1000 reactor, a different type of technology to the NPP where the accident occurred, which used BWR reactors. The software where it will take place the simulation was created and distributed by the IAEA for academic purposes, which contains the essential systems that characterize this type of NPP. The simulator has tools for the analysis of the characteristic phenomena of a VVER-1000 reactor in the different systems together and planned training tasks. This makes possible to identify the function of each component and how connects to other systems, thus facilitating the visualization of possible failures and the consequences that they have on the general behavior of the reactor. To program the conditions in the simulator, is necessary to know and synthesize a series of events occurred in Fukushima in 2011 and the realized maneuvers to reduce the effects of the system failures. Being different technologies interpretation of the changes that would suffer the VVER systems in the scenario in question will be developed. The Fukushima accident was characterized by the power loss of regular supply and emergency of the cooling systems which resulted in an increase in reactor temperature and subsequent fusion of their nuclei. Is interesting to reproduce this type of failure in a VVER, and extrapolate the lack of power supply in the systems that comprise, as well as pumping systems for cooling, has a pressure regulating system which involves more variables in the balance of the system. (Author)

  10. Mandibular reconstruction using stereolithographic 3-dimensional printing modeling technology. (United States)

    Cohen, Adir; Laviv, Amir; Berman, Phillip; Nashef, Rizan; Abu-Tair, Jawad


    Mandibular reconstruction can be challenging for the surgeon wishing to restore its unique geometry. Reconstruction can be achieved with titanium bone plates followed by autogenous bone grafting. Incorporation of the bone graft into the mandible provides continuity and strength required for proper esthetics and function and permitting dental implant rehabilitation at a later stage. Precious time in the operating room is invested in plate contouring to reconstruct the mandible. Rapid prototyping technologies can construct physical models from computer-aided design via 3-dimensional (3D) printers. A prefabricated 3D model is achieved, which assists in accurate contouring of plates and/or planning of bone graft harvest geometry before surgery. The 2 most commonly used rapid prototyping technologies are stereolithography and 3D printing (3DP). Three-dimensional printing is advantageous to stereolithography for better accuracy, quicker printing time, and lower cost. We present 3 clinical cases based on 3DP modeling technology. Models were fabricated before the resection of mandibular ameloblastoma and were used to prepare bridging plates before the first stage of reconstruction. In 1 case, another model was fabricated and used as a template for iliac crest bone graft in the second stage of reconstruction. The 3DP technology provided a precise, fast, and cheap mandibular reconstruction, which aids in shortened operation time (and therefore decreased exposure time to general anesthesia, decreased blood loss, and shorter wound exposure time) and easier surgical procedure.

  11. Estimation of material degradation of VVER-1000 baffle (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Davit; Koš'ál, Michal; Vandlík, Stanislav; Hojná, Anna; Schulc, Martin; Flibor, Stanislav


    The planned lifetime of the first commercial VVER-1000 units were designed for 30 to 35 years. Most of the early VVER plants are now reaching and/or passing the 35-year mark. Service life extension for another 10 to 30 years is now under investigation. Life extension requires the evaluation of pressure vessel internals degradation under long-term irradiation. One of the possible limiting factors for the service life of VVERs is a void swelling of the Russian type titanium stabilized stainless 08Ch18N10T steel used to construct the baffle surrounding the core. This article aims to show first steps towards deeper analysis of the baffle degradation process and to demonstrate the possibilities of precise calculation and measurements on the VVER-1000 mock-up in LR-0 reactor.

  12. Estimation of material degradation of VVER-1000 baffle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutyunyan Davit


    Full Text Available The planned lifetime of the first commercial VVER-1000 units were designed for 30 to 35 years. Most of the early VVER plants are now reaching and/or passing the 35-year mark. Service life extension for another 10 to 30 years is now under investigation. Life extension requires the evaluation of pressure vessel internals degradation under long-term irradiation. One of the possible limiting factors for the service life of VVERs is a void swelling of the Russian type titanium stabilized stainless 08Ch18N10T steel used to construct the baffle surrounding the core. This article aims to show first steps towards deeper analysis of the baffle degradation process and to demonstrate the possibilities of precise calculation and measurements on the VVER-1000 mock-up in LR-0 reactor.

  13. VVER-1000 MOX Core Computational Benchmark: Specification and Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikhail Kalugin; Eugeny Gomin; Dmitry Oleynik


    This report presents the VVER MOX Core Computational Benchmark Specification and Results, which was proposed as a benchmark within the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Reactor-based Plutonium Disposition (TFRPD...

  14. Ta Keo Temple Reconstruction Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning Technology

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    X. Xi


    Full Text Available Ta Keo temple is one of the very famous temple complex of Angkor Wat in northwestern Cambodia. It has been suffering massive collapse and other serious damages in recent years. Nowadays, Terrestrial Laser Scanning(TLS technology is considered as a wellestablished resource for heritage documentation and protection (Lerma et al, 2008; Reshetyuk, 2009. This paper used TLS to reconstruct Ta Keo Temple. Firstly, we acquired 71 scanning stations of points cloud data with high density and high accuracy, and over one thousand images with high spatial resolution about the temple. Secondly, the raw points cloud data were denoised, reduced and managed efficiently, and registrated using an adjusted ICP algorithm. Thirdly, a triangulation method was used to model most objects. At last, we mapped the texture data into the digital model and a 3-D model of Ta Keo with high accuracy was achieved. The authors focus on large object reconstruction by TLS technology, and pay much attention to the scanning design, multi-station data and the whole project’s data registration, and texture mapping and so on. The research result will be useful for Ta Keo restoration, reconstruction and protection. Also, it is a good reference source for large complex buildings reconstruction when using terrestrial laser scanning technology.

  15. [From Wolff law, Ilizarov technology to natural reconstruction theory]. (United States)

    Zang, Jian-cheng; Qin, Si-He


    Wolff law was an adaptable principle of bone, Tension-Stress Principle was equal to Distraction Osteogenesis or Distraction Tissue Regeneration, The Natural Reconstruction theory was a new orthopedic perspective proposed by Prof. QIN after deformity correction using Ilizarov technology. The thought about their relationship originated from a social phenomena, that the crowds and the confusion about export choice in Beijing's subway. Ilizarov technology and Wolff law were one concept related to Mechanics, and the former is completely in line with the latter. In other words, Ilizarov technology is an extension of Wolff law, is a repeated process of micro-trauma and continuous repair of bone trabecular initiated by moden engineering, just trabecular formed along the tension-stress direction. With adjustment of mechanical force,doctor can control the process of fracture healing and bone remolding to a certain extent. Natural Reconstruction theory enlarged the defined range of Wolff law obviously. Not only guided orthopedics clinical and basic research,but also related to the dialectical thinking of the doctor-patient relationship in sociology. There was an inevitable connection among Wolff law, Ilizarov technology and Natural Reconstruction theory. The history of discovery and understanding was a continuous process of thinking,practice and integration.

  16. The virtual digital nuclear power plant: A modern tool for supporting the lifecycle of VVER-based nuclear power units (United States)

    Arkadov, G. V.; Zhukavin, A. P.; Kroshilin, A. E.; Parshikov, I. A.; Solov'ev, S. L.; Shishov, A. V.


    The article describes the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based Nuclear Power Plant" computerized system comprising a totality of verified initial data (sets of input data for a model intended for describing the behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) systems in design and emergency modes of their operation) and a unified system of new-generation computation codes intended for carrying out coordinated computation of the variety of physical processes in the reactor core and NPP equipment. Experiments with the demonstration version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system has shown that it is in principle possible to set up a unified system of computation codes in a common software environment for carrying out interconnected calculations of various physical phenomena at NPPs constructed according to the standard AES-2006 project. With the full-scale version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system put in operation, the concerned engineering, design, construction, and operating organizations will have access to all necessary information relating to the NPP power unit project throughout its entire lifecycle. The domestically developed commercial-grade software product set to operate as an independently operating application to the project will bring about additional competitive advantages in the modern market of nuclear power technologies.

  17. Investigation of a Coolant Mixing Phenomena within the Reactor Pressure Vessel of a VVER-1000 Reactor with Different Simulation Tools

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    V. Sánchez


    Full Text Available The Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR is involved in the qualification of coupled codes for reactor safety evaluations, aiming to improve their prediction capability and acceptability. In the frame of the VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmark Phase 1, RELAP5/PARCS has been extensively assessed. Phase 2 of this benchmark was focused on both multidimensional thermal hydraulic phenomena and core physics. Plant data will be used to qualify the 3D models of TRACE and RELAP5/CFX, which were coupled for this purpose. The developed multidimensional models of the VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel (RPV as well as the performed calculations will be described in detail. The predicted results are in good agreement with experimental data. It was demonstrated that the chosen 3D nodalization of the RPV is adequate for the description of the coolant mixing phenomena in a VVER-1000 reactor. Even though only a 3D coarse nodalization is used in TRACE, the integral results are comparable to those obtained by RELAP5/CFX.

  18. KARATE - a code for VVER-440 core calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gado, J.; Hegedus, Cs.J.; Hegyi, Gy.; Kereszturi, A.; Makai, M.; Maraczi, Cs.; Telbisz, M.


    A modular calculation system has been elaborated at the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute for VVER-440 cores. The purpose of KARATE is the calculation of neutron physical and thermal-hydraulic processes in the core at normal, startup, and slow transient conditions. KARATE is under validation and verification (V&V) against mathematical, experimental, and operational data.

  19. Consistent neutron-physical and thermal-physical calculations of fuel rods of VVER type reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikhomirov Georgy


    Full Text Available For modeling the isotopic composition of fuel, and maximum temperatures at different moments of time, one can use different algorithms and codes. In connection with the development of new types of fuel assemblies and progress in computer technology, the task makes important to increase accuracy in modeling of the above characteristics of fuel assemblies during the operation. Calculations of neutronphysical characteristics of fuel rods are mainly based on models using averaged temperature, thermal conductivity factors, and heat power density. In this paper, complex approach is presented, based on modern algorithms, methods and codes to solve separate tasks of thermal conductivity, neutron transport, and nuclide transformation kinetics. It allows to perform neutron-physical and thermal-physical calculation of the reactor with detailed temperature distribution, with account of temperature-depending thermal conductivity and other characteristics. It was applied to studies of fuel cell of the VVER-1000 reactor. When developing new algorithms and programs, which should improve the accuracy of modeling the isotopic composition and maximum temperature in the fuel rod, it is necessary to have a set of test tasks for verification. The proposed approach can be used for development of such verification base for testing calculation of fuel rods of VVER type reactors

  20. Manufacturing technology of building ceramics in Khazar khaganate. Reconstruction experience

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    Tokarenko Sergey F.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the technical analysis of building ceramics referring to the Saltovo-Mayatskaya archaeological culture. Several groups of building material were investigated. They were obtained in the course of archaeological excavations and collecting on the territory of the Semikarakor hill fort site, the Pravoberezhny Tsimlyansk hill fort site, and some other Khazar Khaganate monuments dated by 2nd half of the 8th – early 10th centuries, as well as on the territory of former Cossack settlements, where the bricks were used secondarily. The results of laboratory research and testing of various construction materials of the Saltovo period are represented in the article: burnt and adobe bricks, tiles, ceramides, etc. The qualitative indicators of these materials and their comparative evaluations are cited. The technological parameters and processes applied in the manufacture of building ceramics are reconstructed. The methods currently used to assess the quality and to control production processes of modern building ceramics, were applied to test the archaeological samples submitted. The different kind of raw materials and finished products resulting from their usage are characterized. An attempt was made to reproduce the process of building ceramics manufacture typical of the Khazar Khaganate period using experimental archeology methods. The experimental reconstruction of manufacturing and firing of the Semikarakor-Sarkel type bricks in the laboratory and field conditions is described.

  1. Information Communications Technology Support to Reconstruction and Development: Some Observations from Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kramer, Frank; Starr, Stuart; Wentz, Larry


    ...) and information technology (IT) reconstruction initiatives continue to suffer from a lack of adequate understanding of the affected nation information culture and telecoms and IT business cultures...

  2. Methodological studies on the VVER-440 control assembly calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hordosy, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Maraczy, C. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)


    The control assembly regions of VVER-440 reactors are represented by 2-group albedo matrices in the global calculations of the KARATE code system. Some methodological aspects of calculating albedo matrices with the COLA transport code are presented. Illustrations are given how these matrices depend on the relevant parameters describing the boron steel and steel regions of the control assemblies. The calculation of the response matrix for a node consisting of two parts filled with different materials is discussed.

  3. Diversification of the VVER fuel market in Eastern Europe and Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Michael [Westinghouse EMEA, Brussels (Belgium); Benjaminsson, Ulf; Oenneby, Carina [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraes (Sweden)


    There are a total of 33 VVER active reactors in the EU and Ukraine, accounting for the largest percentage of the total electricity supply in the countries operating these. The responsible governments and utilities operating these units want too see an increased diversification of the nuclear fuel supply. Westinghouse is the only nuclear fuel producer outside Russia, which has taken the major steps to develop, qualify and manufacture VVER fuel designs - both for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 reactors. The company has delivered reloads of VVER-440 fuel to Loviisa 2 in Finland, VVER-1000 fuel for both the initial core and follow-on regions to Temelin 1-2 in the Czech Republic and more recently reloads of VVER-1000 fuel to South Ukraine 2-3. Technical challenges in form of mechanical interference with the resident fuel have been encountered in Ukraine, but innovative solutions have been developed and successfully implemented and today Ukraine has, for the first time in its history, a viable VVER-1000 fuel design alternative, representing a tremendous lever in energy security for the country.

  4. Basket criticality design of a dual purpose cask for VVER 1000 spent fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaeian, Mahdi [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kamali, Jamshid [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Dual purpose cask technology is one of the most prominent options for interim storage of spent fuels following their removal from reactors. Criticality safety of the spent fuel assemblies are ensured by design of the basket within these casks. In this study, a set of criticality design calculations of a dual purpose cask for 12 VVER 1000 spent fuel assemblies of Bushehr nuclear power plant were carried out. The basket material of borated stainless steel with 0.5 to 2.5 wt% of boron and Boral (Al-B{sub 4}C) with 1.5 to 40 wt% of boron carbide, were investigated and the minimum required receptacle pitch of the basket was determined. Using the calculated receptacle pitch of the basket, the minimum required diameter of the cavity could be established.

  5. Application of a Russian nuclear reactor simulator VVER-1000; Aplicacion de un simulador de reactor nuclear ruso VVER-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Peniche S, A. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Salazar S, E., E-mail: [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, 62250 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)


    The objective of the present work is to give to know the most important characteristics in the Russian nuclear reactor of pressurized light water VVER-1000, doing emphasis in the differences that has with the western equivalent the reactor PWR in the design and the safety systems. Therefore, a description of the computerized simulation of the reactor VVER-1000 developed by the company Eniko TSO that the International Atomic of Energy Agency distributes to the states members with academic purposes will take place. The simulator includes mathematical models that represent to the essential systems in the real nuclear power plant, for what is possible to reproduce common faults and transitory characteristic of the nuclear industry with a behavior sufficiently attached to the reality. In this work is analyzed the response of the system before a turbine shot. After the accident in the nuclear power plant of Three Mile Island (US) they have been carried out improvements in the design of the reactor PWR and their safety systems. To know the reach and the limitations of the program, the events that gave place to this accident will be reproduced in the simulator VVER-1000. With base to the results of the simulation we will conclude that so reliable is the response of the safety system of this reactor. (Author)


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    Tymur Foshch


    Full Text Available This study represents the improved mathematical and imitational allocated in space multi-zone model of VVER-1000 which differs from the known one. It allows to take into account the energy release of 235U nuclei fission as well as 239Pu . Moreover, this model includes sub-models of simultaneous control impact of the boric acid concentration in the coolant of the first circuit and the position of 9th group control rods which allows to consider it as the model with allocated parameters and also allows to monitor changes in the mentioned technological parameters by reactor core symmetry sectors, by layers of reactor core height and by fuel assembly group each symmetry sector. Moreover, this model allows to calculate important process-dependent parameters of the reactor (including axial offset as quantitative measure of its safety. As the mathematical and imitational models were improved, it allows to take into account intrinsic properties of the reactor core (including transient processes of xenon and thus reduce the error of modelling static and dynamic properties of the reactor.The automated control method of power change of the NPP unit with VVER-1000 was proposed for the first time. It uses three control loops. One of which maintains the regulatory change of reactor power by regulating the concentration of boric acid in the coolant, the second circuit keeps the required value of axial offset by changing the position of control rods, and the third one holds constant the coolant temperature mode by regulating the position of the main turbo generator valves.On the basis of the above obtained method, two control programs were improved. The first one is the improved control program that implements the constant temperature of the coolant in the first circuit and the second one is the improved control program that implements the constant steam pressure in the second circuit.

  7. ANDREA 2.2 and 2.3. Advances in modelling of VVER cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havluj, Frantisek; Hejzlar, Jonatan; Vocka, Radim; Vysoudil, Jiri [UJV Rez, Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)


    In 2016 a new version of code ANDREA for core design and reload safety analysis of VVER reactors has been released. The new code version includes several major improvements. The first of them is a seamless incorporation of short time kinetics calculations (without temperature feedback) into the code. This new feature accompanied by the possibility of excore detector signal predictions enables precise interpretation of dynamic measurements of control assembly weight during the reactor startup. Second important enhancement resides in new flexible format of cross section libraries and in new fuel temperature model based on results of TRANSURANUS fuel performance code. The new code version has been thoroughly tested and validated for both VVER440 and VVER-1000 reactors. Furthermore for the new version 2.3 which is to be released shortly we have implemented the possibility of fluent control assemblies' motion and of non-equidistant axial nodalization schemes in VVER-440 calculations.

  8. A Four Group Reference Code for Solving Neutron Diffusion Equation in a VVER-440 Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, Simo [Fortum Nuclear Services Ltd., P.O. Box 100, 00048 Fortum (Finland)


    Nuclear reactor core power calculation is essential in the analysis of the nuclear power plant and especially the core. Currently, the core power distribution in Loviisa VVER-440 core is calculated using nodal code HEXBU-3D and pin-power reconstruction code ELSI-1440 that solve the two group neutron diffusion equation. The computer power available has increased significantly during the last decades allowing us to develop a fine mesh code HEXRE for solving the four group diffusion equation. The diffusion equations are discretized using piecewise linear polynomials. The core is discretized using one node per fuel pin cell. The axial discretization can be chosen freely. The boundary conditions are described using diffusion theory and albedos. Burnup dependence is modelled by tabulating diffusion parameters at certain burnup values and using interpolation for the intermediate values. A two degree polynomial is used for the modelling of the feedback effects. Eigenvalue calculation for both boron concentration and multiplication factor control has been formulated. A possibility to perform fuel loading and shuffling operations is implemented. HEXRE has been thoroughly compared with HEXBU-3D and ELSI-1440. The effect of the different energy and space discretizations used is investigated. Some safety criteria for the core calculated with the HEXRE and HEXBU-3D/ELSI-1440 have been compared. From the calculations (e.g. the safety criteria) we can estimate whether there exists systematic deviations in HEXBU- 3D/ELSI-1440 calculations or not. (author)

  9. Results of Post Irradiation Examinations of VVER Leaky Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markov, D.; Perepelkin, S.; Polenok, V.; Zhitelev, V.; Mayorshina, G. [Head of Fuel Research Department, JSC ' SSC RIAR' , 433510, Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovsk region (Russian Federation)


    The most important requirement imposed on fuel elements is to maintain integrity of fuel rod claddings under operation, storage and transportation, since it is directly related to the operational safety. However, failed rod claddings are sometimes observed under reactor operation. Identification and unloading of fuel assemblies with leaky rods from VVER is available only at the time of planned preventive maintenance. An unscheduled reactor shutdown due to the excess of coolant activity limit as well as a preterm unloading of the fuel assembly cause economic damage to nuclear plant. Therefore, models and calculation codes were developed to forecast coolant contamination and failed fuel rod behavior. Criteria based on calculations were set to determine the admissible number of the failed rods in core and the opportunity to continue the reactor operation or pre-term unloading of the fuel assembly with the failed rods. Nevertheless, to prevent the fuel rod failure (for unfailing operation) it is necessary to reveal disadvantages of the design, fabrication method and fuel operation conditions, and to eliminate defects. The most complete and significant information about spent fuel assemblies may be received following the post irradiation material examinations. In order to reveal failure origins and mechanism of changes in VVER fuel and failed rod cladding condition depending on the operation, the examinations of 12 VVER-1000 fuel assemblies and 3 VVER-440 fuel assemblies, operated under normal conditions up to the fuel burnup 13..47 MWd/kgU were carried out. To evaluate the rod cladding condition, reveal defects and determine their parameters, the ultrasonic control of cladding integrity, surface visual inspection, eddy current defectoscopy, measurement of geometrical parameters were applied. In separate cases we used the metallography, measured the hydrogen percentage and carried out the mechanical tests of o-ring samples. The pellet condition was evaluated in

  10. The role of PRA in the safety assessment of VVER Nuclear Power Plants in Ukraine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kot, C.


    Ukraine operates thirteen (13) Soviet-designed pressurized water reactors, VVERS. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs), in accordance with new SAR content requirements issued in September 1995, by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine. The requirements are in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new, and the DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), as part of its Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety activities, is providing assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine to support their nuclear power plants (NPPs) in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARs. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) are in progress at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1, and a follow-on study has been initiated at Khmenytskyy Unit 1. The ISA projects encompass most areas of plant safety evaluation, but the initial emphasis is on performing a detailed, plant-specific Level 1 Internal Events PRA. This allows the early definition of the plant risk profile, the identification of risk significant accident sequences and plant vulnerabilities and provides guidance for the remainder of the safety assessments.

  11. Water chemistry of the secondary circuit at a nuclear power station with a VVER power reactor (United States)

    Tyapkov, V. F.; Erpyleva, S. F.


    Results of implementation of the secondary circuit organic amine water chemistry at Russian nuclear power plant (NPP) with VVER-1000 reactors are presented. The requirements for improving the reliability, safety, and efficiency of NPPs and for prolonging the service life of main equipment items necessitate the implementation of new technologies, such as new water chemistries. Data are analyzed on the chemical control of power unit coolant for quality after the changeover to operation with the feed of higher amines, such as morpholine and ethanolamine. Power units having equipment containing copper alloy components were converted from the all-volatile water chemistry to the ethanolamine or morpholine water chemistry with no increase in pH of the steam generator feedwater. This enables the iron content in the steam generator feedwater to be decreased from 6-12 to 2.0-2.5 μg/dm3. It is demonstrated that pH of high-temperature water is among the basic factors controlling erosion and corrosion wear of the piping and the ingress of corrosion products into NPP steam generators. For NPP power units having equipment whose construction material does not include copper alloys, the water chemistries with elevated pH of the secondary coolant are adopted. Stable dosing of correction chemicals at these power units maintains pH25 of 9.5 to 9.7 in the steam generator feedwater with a maximum iron content of 2 μg/dm3 in the steam generator feedwater.

  12. Investigation of station blackout scenario in VVER440/v230 with RELAP5 computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencheva, Rositsa Veselinova, E-mail:; Stefanova, Antoaneta Emilova, E-mail:; Groudev, Pavlin Petkov, E-mail:


    Highlights: • We have modeled SBO in VVER440. • RELAP5/MOD3 computer code has been used. • Base case calculation has been done. • Fail case calculation has been done. • Operator and alternative operator actions have been investigated. - Abstract: During the development of symptom-based emergency operating procedures (SB-EOPs) for VVER440/v230 units at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) a number of analyses have been performed using the RELAP5/MOD3 (Carlson et al., 1990). Some of them investigate the response of VVER440/v230 during the station blackout (SBO). The main purpose of the analyses presented in this paper is to identify the behavior of important VVER440 parameters in case of total station blackout. The RELAP5/MOD3 has been used to simulate the SBO in VVER440 NPP model (Fletcher and Schultz, 1995). This model was developed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE-BAS), Sofia, for analyses of operational occurrences, abnormal events and design based scenarios. The model provides a significant analytical capability for specialists working in the field of NPP safety.

  13. Adoption of in-vessel retention concept for VVER-440/V213 reactors in Central European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejovic, Peter, E-mail: [Inzinierska Vypoctova Spolocnost (IVS), Jana Holleho 5, 91701 Trnava (Slovakia); Barnak, Miroslav; Bachraty, Milan; Vranka, Lubomir [Inzinierska Vypoctova Spolocnost (IVS), Jana Holleho 5, 91701 Trnava (Slovakia); Berky, Robert [Integrita a Bezpecnost Ocelovych Konstrukcii, Rybnicna 40, 831 07 Bratislava (Slovakia)


    Highlights: • Design of in-vessel retention concept for VVER-440/V213 reactors. • Thermal loads acting on the inner reactor surface. • Structural response of reactor pressure vessel. • External reactor vessel cooling. - Abstract: An in-vessel retention (IVR) concept was proposed for standard VVER-440/V213 reactors equipped with confinement made of reinforced concrete and bubbler condenser pressure suppression system. This IVR concept is based on simple modifications of existing plant technology and thus it was attractive for plant operators in Central European Countries. Contrary to the solution that was adopted before at Loviisa NPP in Finland (two units of VVER-440/V213 reactor with steel confinement equipped with ice condenser), the coolant access to the reactor pressure vessel from flooded cavity is enabled via closable hole installed in the centre of thermal shield of the reactor lower head instead of lowering this massive structure in the case of severe accident. As a consequence, the crucial point of this IVR concept is narrow gap between torispherical lower head and thermal and biological shield. Here the highest thermal flux is expected in the case of severe accident. Thus, realistic estimation of thermal load and corresponding deformations of reactor wall and their impact on gap width for coolant flow are of primarily importance. In this contribution the attention is paid especially to the analytical support with emphasis to the following points: 1) {sup ∗}Estimation of thermal loads acting on the inner reactor surface; 2) {sup ∗}Estimation of structural response of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) with emphasis on the deformation of outer reactor surface and its impact on the annular gap between RPV wall and thermal/biological shield; 3) {sup ∗}Analysis of external reactor vessel cooling. For this purpose the ASTEC code was used for performing analysis of core degradation scenarios, the ANSYS code for structural analysis of reactor vessel

  14. Integrating sequencing technologies in personal genomics: optimal low cost reconstruction of structural variants. (United States)

    Du, Jiang; Bjornson, Robert D; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Kong, Yong; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark B


    The goal of human genome re-sequencing is obtaining an accurate assembly of an individual's genome. Recently, there has been great excitement in the development of many technologies for this (e.g. medium and short read sequencing from companies such as 454 and SOLiD, and high-density oligo-arrays from Affymetrix and NimbelGen), with even more expected to appear. The costs and sensitivities of these technologies differ considerably from each other. As an important goal of personal genomics is to reduce the cost of re-sequencing to an affordable point, it is worthwhile to consider optimally integrating technologies. Here, we build a simulation toolbox that will help us optimally combine different technologies for genome re-sequencing, especially in reconstructing large structural variants (SVs). SV reconstruction is considered the most challenging step in human genome re-sequencing. (It is sometimes even harder than de novo assembly of small genomes because of the duplications and repetitive sequences in the human genome.) To this end, we formulate canonical problems that are representative of issues in reconstruction and are of small enough scale to be computationally tractable and simulatable. Using semi-realistic simulations, we show how we can combine different technologies to optimally solve the assembly at low cost. With mapability maps, our simulations efficiently handle the inhomogeneous repeat-containing structure of the human genome and the computational complexity of practical assembly algorithms. They quantitatively show how combining different read lengths is more cost-effective than using one length, how an optimal mixed sequencing strategy for reconstructing large novel SVs usually also gives accurate detection of SNPs/indels, how paired-end reads can improve reconstruction efficiency, and how adding in arrays is more efficient than just sequencing for disentangling some complex SVs. Our strategy should facilitate the sequencing of human genomes at

  15. Integrating sequencing technologies in personal genomics: optimal low cost reconstruction of structural variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Du


    Full Text Available The goal of human genome re-sequencing is obtaining an accurate assembly of an individual's genome. Recently, there has been great excitement in the development of many technologies for this (e.g. medium and short read sequencing from companies such as 454 and SOLiD, and high-density oligo-arrays from Affymetrix and NimbelGen, with even more expected to appear. The costs and sensitivities of these technologies differ considerably from each other. As an important goal of personal genomics is to reduce the cost of re-sequencing to an affordable point, it is worthwhile to consider optimally integrating technologies. Here, we build a simulation toolbox that will help us optimally combine different technologies for genome re-sequencing, especially in reconstructing large structural variants (SVs. SV reconstruction is considered the most challenging step in human genome re-sequencing. (It is sometimes even harder than de novo assembly of small genomes because of the duplications and repetitive sequences in the human genome. To this end, we formulate canonical problems that are representative of issues in reconstruction and are of small enough scale to be computationally tractable and simulatable. Using semi-realistic simulations, we show how we can combine different technologies to optimally solve the assembly at low cost. With mapability maps, our simulations efficiently handle the inhomogeneous repeat-containing structure of the human genome and the computational complexity of practical assembly algorithms. They quantitatively show how combining different read lengths is more cost-effective than using one length, how an optimal mixed sequencing strategy for reconstructing large novel SVs usually also gives accurate detection of SNPs/indels, how paired-end reads can improve reconstruction efficiency, and how adding in arrays is more efficient than just sequencing for disentangling some complex SVs. Our strategy should facilitate the sequencing of

  16. Development and validation of coupled dynamics code 'TRIKIN' for VVER reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obaidurrahman, K; Doshi, J. B.; Jain, R. P. [IIT Bombay, Mumbai (India); Jagannathan, V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)


    New generation nuclear reactors are designed using advanced safety analysis methods. A thorough understanding of different interacting physical phenomena is necessary to avoid underestimation and overestimation of consequences of off normal transients in the reactor safety analysis results. This feature requires a multiphysics reactor simulation model. In this context, a coupled dynamics model based on a multiphysics formulation is developed indigenously for the transient analysis of large pressurized VVER reactors. Major simplifications are employed in the model by making several assumptions based on the physics of individual phenomenon. Space and time grids are optimized to minimize the computational bulk. The capability of the model is demonstrated by solving a series of international (AER) benchmark problems for VVER reactors. The developed model was used to analyze a number of reactivity transients that are likely to occur in VVER reactors

  17. Three-dimensional reactor dynamics code for VVER type nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    A three-dimensional reactor dynamics computer code has been developed, validated and applied for transient and accident analyses of VVER type nuclear reactors. This code, HEXTRAN, is a part of the reactor physics and dynamics calculation system of the Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT. HEXTRAN models accurately the VVER core with hexagonal fuel assemblies. The code uses advanced mathematical methods in spatial and time discretization of neutronics, heat transfer and the two-phase flow equations of hydraulics. It includes all the experience of VTT from 20 years on the accurate three-dimensional static reactor physics as well as on the one-dimensional reactor dynamics. The dynamic coupling with the thermal hydraulic system code SMABRE also allows the VVER circuit-modelling experience to be included in the analyses. (79 refs.).

  18. 3D Printing Technology in Planning Thumb Reconstructions with Second Toe Transplant. (United States)

    Zang, Cheng-Wu; Zhang, Jian-Lei; Meng, Ze-Zu; Liu, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Wen-Zhi; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Cong, Rui


    To report preoperative planning using 3D printing to plan thumb reconstructions with second toe transplant. Between December 2013 and October 2015, the thumbs of five patients with grade 3 thumb defects were reconstructed using a wrap-around flap and second toe transplant aided by 3D printing technology. CT scans of hands and feet were analyzed using Boholo surgical simulator software ( This allowed for the creation of a mirror image of the healthy thumb using the uninjured thumb. Using 3D images of the reconstructed thumb, a model of the big toe and the second toe was created to understand the dimensions of the donor site. This model was also used to repair the donor site defect by designing appropriate iliac bone and superficial circumflex iliac artery flaps. The polylactic acid model of the donor toes and reconstructed thumb was produced using 3D printing. Surgically, the wrap-around flap of the first dorsal metatarsal artery and vein combined with the joint and bone of the second toe was based upon the model donor site. Sensation was reconstructed by anastomosing the dorsal nerve of the foot and the plantar digital nerve of the great toe. Patients commenced exercises 2 weeks after surgery. All reconstructed thumbs survived, although partial flap necrosis occurred in one case. This was managed with regular dressing changes. Patients were followed up for 3-15 months. The lengths of the reconstructed thumbs are 34-49 mm. The widths of the thumb nail beds are 16-19 mm, and the thickness of the digital pulp is 16-20 mm. The thumb opposition function was 0-1.5 cm; the extension angle was 5°-20° (mean, 16°), and the angle of flexion was 38°-55° (mean, 47°). Two-point discrimination was 9-11 mm (mean, 9.6 mm). The reconstructed thumbs had good appearance, function and sensation. Based on the criteria set forth by the Standard on Approval of Reconstructed Thumb and Finger Functional Assessment of the Chinese Medical Association, the results were

  19. Development of data base with mechanical properties of un- and pre-irradiated VVER cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmolov, V.; Yegorova, L.; Kaplar, E.; Lioutov, K. [Nuclear Safety Inst. of Russian Research Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation). Kurchatov Inst.; Smirnov, V.; Prokhorov, V.; Goryachev, A. [State Research Centre, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation). Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors


    Analysis of recent RIA test with PWR and VVER high burnup fuel, performed at CABRI, NSRR, IGR reactors has shown that the data base with mechanical properties of the preirradiated cladding is necessary to interpret the obtained results. During 1997 the corresponding cycle of investigations for VVER clad material was performed by specialists of NSI RRC KI and RIAR in cooperation with NRC (USA), IPSN (France) in two directions: measurements of mechanical properties of Zr-1%Nb preirradiated cladding versus temperature and strain rate; measurements of failure parameters for gas pressurized cladding tubes. Preliminary results of these investigations are presented in this paper.

  20. Spatial and contrast resolution of ultralow dose dentomaxillofacial CT imaging using iterative reconstruction technology. (United States)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Bischel, Alexander; Stratis, Andreas; Bosmans, Hilde; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Gassner, Eva-Maria; Puelacher, Wolfgang; Pauwels, Ruben


    The objective of this study was to determine how iterative reconstruction technology (IRT) influences contrast and spatial resolution in ultralow-dose dentomaxillofacial CT imaging. A polymethyl methacrylate phantom with various inserts was scanned using a reference protocol (RP) at CT dose index volume 36.56 mGy, a sinus protocol at 18.28 mGy and ultralow-dose protocols (LD) at 4.17 mGy, 2.36 mGy, 0.99 mGy and 0.53 mGy. All data sets were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and the following IRTs: adaptive statistical iterative reconstructions (ASIRs) (ASIR-50, ASIR-100) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Inserts containing line-pair patterns and contrast detail patterns for three different materials were scored by three observers. Observer agreement was analyzed using Cohen's kappa and difference in performance between the protocols and reconstruction was analyzed with Dunn's test at α = 0.05. Interobserver agreement was acceptable with a mean kappa value of 0.59. Compared with the RP using FBP, similar scores were achieved at 2.36 mGy using MBIR. MIBR reconstructions showed the highest noise suppression as well as good contrast even at the lowest doses. Overall, ASIR reconstructions did not outperform FBP. LD and MBIR at a dose reduction of >90% may show no significant differences in spatial and contrast resolution compared with an RP and FBP. Ultralow-dose CT and IRT should be further explored in clinical studies.

  1. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology for the Ruptured Ligament Reconstruction with a Porcine Xenograft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaehun; Kim, Jaekyung; Park, Jongheum; and others


    This project was accomplished to develop the radiation fusion technology for production of bioitransplant materials (tendon/ligament) which have high bio-suitability, resulting in import replacement and improved industrial competency and public health. The major results of this project are development of the technology to remove immunogen, which repressing immune rejection, response, development of cross-linking technology to improve physical properties, development of the technology to improve safety and remove pathogenic sources, evaluation of tissue suitability and reconstruction through short/long term animal experiment, and development of materials for customized preclinical use. From the results, we can expect the replacement of import and establishment of export base by development of hetero-tissues, establishment of safe supply and improvement of public health for high demand of biotissue product because of low birth rate, aging society, and industralization.

  2. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties evaluation for the LBB concept in VVERs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscak, M.; Chvatal, P.; Karnik, D.


    One of the conditions required for Leak Before Break application is the verification that the influence of corrosion environment on the material of the component can be neglected. Both the general corrosion and/or the initiation and, growth of corrosion-mechanical cracks must not cause the degradation. The primary piping in the VVER nuclear power plant is made from austenitic steels (VVER 440) and low alloy steels protected with the austenitic cladding (VVER 1000). Inspection of the base metal and heterogeneous weldments from the VVER 440 showed that the crack growth rates are below 10 m/s if a low oxygen level is kept in the primary environment. No intergranular cracking was observed in low and high oxygen water after any type of testing, with constant or periodic loading. In the framework of the LBB assessment of the VVER 1000, the corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties were also evaluated. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical testing was oriented predominantly to three types of tests: stress corrosion cracking tests corrosion fatigue tests evaluation of the resistance against corrosion damage. In this paper, the methods used for these tests are described and the materials are compared from the point of view of response on static and periodic mechanical stress on the low alloyed steel 10GN2WA and weld metal exposed in the primary circuit environment. The slow strain rate tests and static loading of both C-rings and CT specimens were performed in order to assess the stress corrosion cracking characteristics. Cyclic loading of CT specimens was done to evaluate the kinetics of the crack growth under periodical loading. Results are shown to illustrate the approaches used. The data obtained were evaluated also from the point of view of comparison of the influence of different structure on the stress corrosion cracking appearance. The results obtained for the base metal and weld metal of the piping are presented here.

  3. 3D-Printing Technologies for Craniofacial Rehabilitation, Reconstruction, and Regeneration. (United States)

    Nyberg, Ethan L; Farris, Ashley L; Hung, Ben P; Dias, Miguel; Garcia, Juan R; Dorafshar, Amir H; Grayson, Warren L


    The treatment of craniofacial defects can present many challenges due to the variety of tissue-specific requirements and the complexity of anatomical structures in that region. 3D-printing technologies provide clinicians, engineers and scientists with the ability to create patient-specific solutions for craniofacial defects. Currently, there are three key strategies that utilize these technologies to restore both appearance and function to patients: rehabilitation, reconstruction and regeneration. In rehabilitation, 3D-printing can be used to create prostheses to replace or cover damaged tissues. Reconstruction, through plastic surgery, can also leverage 3D-printing technologies to create custom cutting guides, fixation devices, practice models and implanted medical devices to improve patient outcomes. Regeneration of tissue attempts to replace defects with biological materials. 3D-printing can be used to create either scaffolds or living, cellular constructs to signal tissue-forming cells to regenerate defect regions. By integrating these three approaches, 3D-printing technologies afford the opportunity to develop personalized treatment plans and design-driven manufacturing solutions to improve aesthetic and functional outcomes for patients with craniofacial defects.

  4. Investigation of accident management procedures related to loss of feedwater and station blackout in PSB-VVER integral test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucalossi, A. [EC JRC, (JRC F.5) PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Del Nevo, A., E-mail: [ENEA, C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Moretti, F.; D' Auria, F. [GRNSPG, Universita di Pisa, via Diotisalvi 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Elkin, I.V.; Melikhov, O.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre, Electrogorsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four integral test facility experiments related to VVER-1000 reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TH response of the VVER-1000 primary system following total loss of feedwater and station blackout scenarios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accident management procedures in case of total loss of feedwater and station blackout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data represent an improvement of existing database for TH code validation. - Abstract: VVER 1000 reactors have some unique and specific features (e.g. large primary and secondary side fluid inventory, horizontal steam generators, core design) that require dedicated experimental and analytical analyses in order to assess the performance of safety systems and the effectiveness of possible accident management strategies. The European Commission funded project 'TACIS 2.03/97', Part A, provided valuable experimental data from the large-scale (1:300) PSB-VVER test facility, investigating accident management procedures in VVER-1000 reactor. A test matrix was developed at University of Pisa (responsible of the project) with the objective of obtaining the experimental data not covered by the OECD VVER validation matrix and with main focus on accident management procedures. Scenarios related to total loss of feed water and station blackout are investigated by means of four experiments accounting for different countermeasures, based on secondary cooling strategies and primary feed and bleed procedures. The transients are analyzed thoroughly focusing on the identification of phenomena that will challenge the code models during the simulations.

  5. [Application of three-dimensional virtual technology in mandibular defects reconstruction with free fibular flap]. (United States)

    Chen, Xu-bing; Liu, Zhao-gang; Yuan, Jian-bing; Tian, Hong-wei


    To present a method for mandibular defects reconstruction with free fibular flap by three-dimensional virtual technology. In 11 patients (8 with ameloblastomas, 1 with ossifying fibroma, 2 with carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva ), three-dimensional virtual technology was simulated with software. The osteotomies were translated into rapid prototyping guides. The solid model of the mandible and the surgical guides were the same as the full size and the shape, and made by using rapid prototyping machine. During operation, the bridging plate could be pre-bended on the repaired mandibular model. One group resected the diseased mandibular according to the model of the osteotomy which was planned before operation, the other group used auxiliary guide for accurate osteotomy of the fibula bone with contact pedicle. The fibular segments were reshaped and fixed with prefabricated titanium plate, and transplanted into the defect for vascular anastomosis. All the bone flaps and osteocutaneous flaps survived. During operation, the fibula flap could be cut in appropriate length. Cutting, remodeling and reposition of the fibula could be accelerated by surgery guides. Postoperative follow-up was 1 to 24 months. Imaging examination showed that the shape of mandible and mandibular angle were good, and the temporomandibular joint and occlusion returned to normal. Three-dimensional virtual technology is useful in reconstruction of mandibular defect with vascularized fibular flap.

  6. Study of mandible reconstruction using a fibula flap with application of additive manufacturing technology. (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-June; Wu, Ching-Tsai


    This study aimed to establish surgical guiding techniques for completing mandible lesion resection and reconstruction of the mandible defect area with fibula sections in one surgery by applying additive manufacturing technology, which can reduce the surgical duration and enhance the surgical accuracy and success rate. A computer assisted mandible reconstruction planning (CAMRP) program was used to calculate the optimal cutting length and number of fibula pieces and design the fixtures for mandible cutting, registration, and arrangement of the fibula segments. The mandible cutting and registering fixtures were then generated using an additive manufacturing system. The CAMRP calculated the optimal fibula cutting length and number of segments based on the location and length of the defective portion of the mandible. The mandible cutting jig was generated according to the boundary surface of the lesion resection on the mandible STL model. The fibular cutting fixture was based on the length of each segment, and the registered fixture was used to quickly arrange the fibula pieces into the shape of the defect area. In this study, the mandibular lesion was reconstructed using registered fibular sections in one step, and the method is very easy to perform. The application of additive manufacturing technology provided customized models and the cutting fixtures and registered fixtures, which can improve the efficiency of clinical application. This study showed that the cutting fixture helped to rapidly complete lesion resection and fibula cutting, and the registered fixture enabled arrangement of the fibula pieces and allowed completion of the mandible reconstruction in a timely manner. Our method can overcome the disadvantages of traditional surgery, which requires a long and different course of treatment and is liable to cause error. With the help of optimal cutting planning by the CAMRP and the 3D printed mandible resection jig and fibula cutting fixture, this all

  7. Creation of an ethanol-tolerant yeast strain by genome reconstruction based on chromosome splitting technology. (United States)

    Park, A-Hwang; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Harashima, Satoshi; Kim, Yeon-Hee


    We sought to breed an industrially useful yeast strain, specifically an ethanol-tolerant yeast strain that would be optimal for ethanol production, using a novel breeding method, called genome reconstruction, based on chromosome splitting technology. To induce genome reconstruction, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain SH6310, which contains 31 chromosomes including 12 artificial mini-chromosomes, was continuously cultivated in YPD medium containing 6% to 10% ethanol for 33 days. The 12 mini-chromosomes can be randomly or specifically lost because they do not contain any genes that are essential under high-level ethanol conditions. The strains selected by inducing genome reconstruction grew about ten times more than SH6310 in 8% ethanol. To determine the effect of minichromosome loss on the ethanol tolerance phenotype, PCR and Southern hybridization were performed to detect the remaining mini-chromosomes. These analyses revealed the loss of mini-chromosomes no. 11 and no. 12. Mini-chromosome no. 11 contains ten genes (YKL225W, PAU16, YKL223W, YKL222C, MCH2, FRE2, COS9, SRY1, JEN1, URA1) and no. 12 contains fifteen genes (YHL050C, YKL050W-A, YHL049C, YHL048C-A, COS8, YHLComega1, ARN2, YHL046W-A, PAU13, YHL045W, YHL044W, ECM34, YHL042W, YHL041W, ARN1). We assumed that the loss of these genes resulted in the ethanol-tolerant phenotype and expect that this genome reconstruction method will be a feasible new alternative for strain improvement.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sevecek


    Full Text Available Enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of high interest in many countries after the accidents at Fukushima-Daiichi. Fuel systems that can tolerate a severe accident for a longer time period are referred as Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF. Development of a new ATF fuel system requires evaluation, characterization and prioritization since many concepts have been investigated during the first development phase. For that reason, evaluation metrics have to be defined, constraints and attributes of each ATF concept have to be studied and finally rating of concepts presented. This paper summarizes evaluation metrics for ATF cladding with a focus on VVER reactor types. Fundamental attributes and evaluation baseline was defined together with illustrative scenarios of severe accidents for modeling purposes and differences between PWR design and VVER design.

  9. Advanced power plant training simulator for VVER-440/V230 nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shier, W.; Kennett, R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Vaclav, E.; Gieci, A. [Nuclear Power Research Inst. Trnava, Inc. (Slovakia)


    An advanced, workstation based, nuclear power plant simulator has been developed for use in training the operational staff of the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant. This training simulator uses state-of- the-art computer hardware and software and provides the capability to simultaneously include six members of the power plant operating staff in the training sessions. A detailed reactor model has been developed, representing the Bohunice VVER-44O/V230 plants, for use with the RELAP5 simulation software. In addition, a comprehensive validation program has been completed that compares the simulation results of the advanced simulator with the results from a current VVER-44O/V230 simulator. A summary of the training features and capabilities of the simulator is also provided.

  10. The Plinius/Colima CA-U3 test on fission-product aerosol release over a VVER-type corium pool; L'essai Plinius/Colima CA-U3 sur le relachement des aerosols de produits de fission au-dessus d'un bain de corium de type VVER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Ch.; Piluso, P.; Correggio, P.; Godin-Jacqmin, L


    In a hypothetical case of severe accident in a PWR type VVER-440, a complex corium pool could be formed and fission products could be released. In order to study aerosols release in terms of mechanisms, kinetics, nature or quantity, and to better precise the source term of VVER-440, a series of experiments have been performed in the Colima facility and the test Colima CA-U3 has been successfully performed thanks to technological modifications to melt a prototypical corium at 2760 C degrees. Specific instrumentation has allowed us to follow the evolution of the corium melt and the release, transport and deposition of the fission products. The main conclusions are: -) there is a large release of Cr, Te, Sr, Pr and Rh (>95%w), -) there is a significant release of Fe (50%w), -) there is a small release of Ba, Ce, La, Nb, Nd and Y (<90%w), -) there is a very small release of U in proportion (<5%w) but it is one of the major released species in mass, and -) there is no release of Zr. The Colima experimental results are consistent with previous experiments on irradiated fuels except for Ba, Fe and U releases. (A.C.)

  11. Steam Line Break investigation at full power reactor for VVER-1000/V320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlova, M., E-mail:; Andreeva, M., E-mail:; Groudev, P., E-mail:


    Highlights: • In this study we investigated Steam Line Break accident at full power reactor. • The reference power plant for the analyses is Unit 6 at Kozloduy NPP. • The RELAP/MOD 3.2 computer code is used in performing the analyses. • The results are used for analytical validation of EOP. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of thermal-hydraulic calculation of “Steam Line Break” analysis at full power reactor for VVER-1000/V320 units at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP), done during the development of symptom based emergency operating procedures (SB EOPs) for this plant. The RELAP5/MOD 3.2 computer code has been used in performing the analyses in a VVER-1000 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) model. A model of VVER-1000 based on Unit 6 of Kozloduy NPP has been developed for the systems thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/MOD 3.2 at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy–Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE–BAS), Sofia. The main purpose of the analysis is to estimate the parameters of the monitored plant which are used to identify symptoms that are used by operators to identify the plant's state and the critical safety function (CSF). The results of the thermal-hydraulic analyses have been used to assist KNPP specialists in analytical validation of EOPs. The performed analysis is based on a previously used bounding approach in analytical validation of SB EOPs. Based on this approach a list of scenarios has been performed, involving a different number of safety systems with or without operator actions. The presented thermal-hydraulic calculations of the accident scenarios involve the loss of CSF “Subcriticality” for VVER-1000/V320 units at KNPP.

  12. Influence of Bypass on Thermo-Hydraulics of VVER 440 Fuel Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubec Jakub


    Full Text Available The paper deals with CFD modelling and simulation of coolant flow within the nuclear reactor VVER 440 fuel assembly. The influence of coolant flow in bypass on the temperature distribution at the outlet of the fuel assembly and pressure drop was investigated. Only steady-state analyses were performed. Boundary conditions are based on operating conditions. ANSYS CFX is chosen as the main CFD software tool, where all analyses are performed.

  13. High energy pipe line break postulations and their mitigation - examples for VVER nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdarek, J.; Pecinka, L.; Kadecka, P.; Dotrel, J. [Nuclear Res. Inst., Rez (Czech Republic)


    The concept and the proposals for the protection and reinforcement of equipment against the effects of postulated rupture of the high-energy piping, in VVER Plant, are presented. The most recent version of the US NRC Guidelines has been used. The development of the legislation, the basic approach and selection of criteria for the assessment of the rupture of high energy piping, provide the basis for the application of the separation concept in the overall safety philosophy. (orig.)

  14. Addressing the scaling issue with Cathare 2 simulation of VVER 1000 transient scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dino Araneo; Alessandro Del Nevo; Francesco D' Auria; Giorgio Galassi [DIMNP Universita di Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, 2, 56122 Pisa (Italy)


    Full text of publication follows: Tests performed at scaled facilities play an important role in the assessment of safety of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The results obtained by the tests performed in the facilities can be used to qualifies the NPP nodalization. Starting from the same initial and boundary conditions of the experimental tests performed at the facility the full plant nodalization must reproduce the same phenomena with the same timing. This is indicated as 'Kv scaled calculation'. A good agreement between the results obtained in the calculation and the experimental tests allows to say that the plant nodalization is able to reproduce the behaviour of the plant in transient scenarios. This paper deals with the scaling issue concerning a Cathare2 simulation of a VVER 1000 transient scenario. The PSB-VVER facility is built in 1998 at Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre. It is a facility with a scaling factor of 1/300 for the volume of the referred NPP (VVER-1000). In order to evaluate the nodalization performance the qualification procedure developed at the DIMNP of Pisa University (UNIPI) has been applied. This procedure foresees two levels of qualification: a 'steady state' level and an 'on transient' level. After the steady state results of the nodalization has been checked, the 'on transient' qualification check is performed adopting the PSB-VVER 11% equivalent break in Upper Plenum. This test includes the actuation of the HPIS injecting only in the loop 4 and the availability of the hydro accumulators. (authors)

  15. Influence of geometrical parameters of the VVER-1000 reactor construction elements to internals irradiation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. M. Pugach


    Full Text Available Investigations to determine the influences of geometrical parameters of the calculational VVER-1000 reactor model to the results of internal irradiation condition determination are carried out. It is shown that the values of appropriate sensitivity matrix elements are not dependent on a height coordinate for any core level, but there is their azimuthal dependence. Maximum possible relative biases of neutron fluence due to inexact knowledge of internal geometrical parameters are obtained for the baffle and the barrel.

  16. Study of the flux effect nature for VVER-1000 RPV welds with high nickel content (United States)

    Kuleshova, E. A.; Gurovich, B. A.; Lavrukhina, Z. V.; Maltsev, D. A.; Fedotova, S. V.; Frolov, A. S.; Zhuchkov, G. M.


    This work extends the research of the basic regularities of segregation processes in the grain boundaries (GB) of VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. The paper considers the influence of irradiation with different fast neutron fluxes on the structure, yield strength and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (TK) changes as well as on changes of the share of brittle intergranular fracture and development of segregation processes in the VVER-1000 RPV weld metal (WM). The obtained experimental results allow to separate the contribution of the hardening and non-hardening mechanisms to mechanical properties degradation of material irradiated at the operating temperature. It is shown that the difference in TK shift in WM irradiated to the same fluence with different fast neutron fluxes is mainly due to the difference in the GB accumulation kinetics of impurities and only to a small extent due to the material hardening. Phosphorus bulk diffusion coefficients were evaluated for the temperature exposure, accelerated irradiation and irradiation within surveillance specimens (SS) using a kinetic model of phosphorus GB accumulation in low-alloyed low-carbon steels under the influence of operational factors. The correlation between the GB segregation level of phosphorus and nickel, and the TK shift - in WM SS was obtained experimentally and indicates the non-hardening mechanism contribution to the total radiation embrittlement of VVER-1000 RPV steels throughout its extended lifetime.

  17. Microstructure and embrittlement of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel steels; Microstructure et fragilisation des aciers de cuve des reacteurs nucleaires VVER 440

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennion, A


    27 VVER 440 pressurised water reactors operate in former Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe. The pressure vessel, is made of Cr-Mo-V steel. It contains a circumferential arc weld in front of the nuclear core. This weld undergoes a high neutron flux and contains large amounts of copper and phosphorus, elements well known for their embrittlement potency under irradiation. The embrittlement kinetic of the steel is accelerated, reducing the lifetime of the reactor. In order to get informations on the microstructure and mechanical properties of these steels, base metals, HAZ, and weld metals have been characterized. The high amount of phosphorus in weld metals promotes the reverse temper embrittlement that occurs during post-weld heat treatment. The radiation damage structure has been identified by small angle neutron scattering, atomic probe, and transmission electron microscopy. Nanometer-sized clusters of solute atoms, rich in copper with almost the same characteristics as in western pressure vessels steels, and an evolution of the size distribution of vanadium carbides, which are present on dislocation structure, are observed. These defects disappear during post-irradiation tempering. As in western steels, the embrittlement is due to both hardening and reduction of interphase cohesion. The radiation damage specificity of VVER steels arises from their high amount of phosphorus and from their significant density of fine vanadium carbides. (author)

  18. Validation of coupled neutronic / thermal-hydraulic codes for VVER reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittag, S.; Grundmann, U.; Kliem, S.; Kozmenkov, Y.; Rindelhardt, U.; Rohde, U.; Weiss, F.-P.; Langenbuch, S.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Schmidt, K.-D.; Vanttola, T.; Haemaelaeinen, A.; Kaloinen, E.; Kereszturi, A.; Hegyi, G.; Panka, I.; Hadek, J.; Strmensky, C.; Darilek, P.; Petkov, P.; Stefanova, S.; Kuchin, A.; Khalimonchuk, V.; Hlbocky, P.; Sico, D.; Danilin, S.; Ionov, V.; Nikonov, S.; Powney, D.


    In recent years, the simulation methods for the safety analysis of nuclear power plants have been continuously improved to perform realistic calculations. Therefore in VALCO work package 2 (WP 2), the usual application of coupled neutron-kinetic / thermal-hydraulic codes to VVER has been supplemented by systematic uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis has been carried out. The GRS uncertainty and sensitivity method based on the statistical code package SUSA was applied to the two transients studied earlier in SRR-1/95: A load drop of one turbo-generator in Loviisa-1 (VVER-440), and a switch-off of one feed water pump in Balakovo-4 (VVER-1000). The main steps of these analyses and the results obtained by applying different coupled code systems (SMABRE - HEXTRAN, ATHLET - DYN3D, ATHLET - KIKO3D, ATHLET - BIPR-8) are described in this report. The application of this method is only based on variations of input parameter values. No internal code adjustments are needed. An essential result of the analysis using the GRS SUSA methodology is the identification of the input parameters, such as the secondary-circuit pressure, the control-assembly position (as a function of time), and the control-assembly efficiency, that most sensitively affect safety-relevant output parameters, like reactor power, coolant heat-up, and primary pressure. Uncertainty bands for these output parameters have been derived. The variation of potentially uncertain input parameter values as a consequence of uncertain knowledge can activate system actions causing quite different transient evolutions. This gives indications about possible plant conditions that might be reached from the initiating event assuming only small disturbances. In this way, the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis reveals the spectrum of possible transient evolutions. Deviations of SRR-1/95 coupled code calculations from measurements also led to the objective to separate neutron kinetics from

  19. The application of digital surgical diagnosis and treatment technology: a promising strategy for surgical reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity. (United States)

    Wang, Li-ya; Du, Hong-ming; Zhang, Gang; Tang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Jing, Wei; Long, Jie


    The craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity always leads to serious dysfunction in mastication and facial contour damage, significantly reducing patients' quality of life. However, surgical reconstruction of a craniomaxillofacial hard tissue defect or deformity is extremely complex and often does not result in desired facial morphology. Improving the result for patients with craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity remains a challenge for surgeons. Using digital technology for surgical diagnosis and treatment may help solve this problem. Computer-assisted surgical technology and surgical navigation technology are included in the accurate digital diagnosis and treatment system we propose. These technologies will increase the accuracy of the design of the operation plan. In addition, the intraoperative real-time navigating location system controlling the robotic arm or advanced intelligent robot will provide accurate, individualized surgical treatment for patients. Here we propose the hypothesis that a digital surgical diagnosis and treatment technology may provide a new approach for precise surgical reconstruction of complicated craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity. Our hypothesis involves modern digital surgery, a three-dimensional navigation surgery system and modern digital imaging technology, and our key aim is to establish a technological platform for customized digital surgical design and surgical navigation for craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity. If the hypothesis is proven practical, this novel therapeutic approach could improve the result of surgical reconstruction for craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity for many patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Rodomanova


    Full Text Available Analysis of the results of surgical treatment of 63 patients with knee-joint pathology who were treated in Vreden’s Scientific-research Institute of traumatology and orthopaedics (Saint-Petersburg, Russia within the period from 2000 to 2011. All the patients had pedicled flap transfer or free tissue transfer. 53 patients (84,1% had additionally various orthopedic operations on the knee joint: 42 patients had primary or revision total knee arthroplasty, 6 patients had resections of bony tumors and total knee arthroplasty, 4 - knee arthrodesis, 1 - open reduction and internal fixation of patella. The results of treatment were estimated according to WOMAC knee score. 4 patients had total necrosis of flap what demanded repeated reconstructive microsurgical operation. 6 patients had knee arthroplasty surgical site infection, 1 patient had recidive of osteoblastic sarcoma and he was made leg amputation. 65,7% of patients had good results according to WOMAC knee score, 28,6% patients had satisfactory results. Microsurgical operations in patients with pathology of knee-joint mainly aim to correct various pathological changes of tissues located in this particular area. In cases of scarry deformations and defects of tissues located in the area of knee-joint microsurgical technologies increase the opportunities for fulfilling total knee arthroplasty and improve its results as well as results of other orthopedical operations. At the same time microsurgical technologies may be used as preparative operations, single-step maneuvers and operations fulfilled in case of development of local infectious complications.

  1. Three-dimensional virtual technology in reconstruction of mandibular defect including condyle using double-barrel vascularized fibula flap. (United States)

    Wang, W H; Zhu, J; Deng, J Y; Xia, B; Xu, B


    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reconstruction of mandibular defects including the condyle using a double-barrel vascularized fibula flap aided by three-dimensional virtual technology. Ten patients with the type H mandibular defects, who had undergone mandibular reconstruction using a double-barrel vascularized fibula flap, were reviewed for this study. Prior to the surgery, the patients CT scan data were analyzed virtually using SimPlant Pro™ software (version 11.04). The simulation allowed construction of an individual mandibular model serving to guide the clinical operation. The preoperative virtual surgery greatly benefitted the actual surgery. The vertical height of the neomandible and facial contour were precisely predicted. Some minor complications were encountered. Postoperative three-dimensional reconstruction revealed a close match with the simulated condyle. A double-barrel vascularized fibula flap can provide sufficient bone, both in length and vertical height, for the reconstruction of a type H mandibular condylar defect. Combined virtual three-dimensional reconstruction and rapid prototyping can improve postoperative outcomes in mandibular reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. VVER-1000 MOX Core Computational Benchmark analysis using indigenous codes EXCEL, TRIHEX-FA and HEXPIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thilagam, L. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603 102 (India)], E-mail:; Jagannathan, V. [Light Water Reactors Physics Section, Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail:; Sunil sunny, C.; Subbaiah, K.V. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603 102 (India)


    Validation studies based on the analysis of theoretical benchmarks play a key role in the identification of deficiencies in the reactor physics design computational codes and the associated nuclear data libraries. Implementation of improvements, if any, in theoretical models and the choice of appropriate nuclear data libraries help in enhancing the accuracy of calculations. As part of the effort for the validation of computer codes for plutonium utilization in VVER type reactors, the indigenous codes EXCEL, TRIHEX-FA and HEXPIN, developed at Light Water Reactor Physics Section (LWRPS), RPDD, BARC, and the associated nuclear data library (JEF22XS), were employed to analyse 'VVER-1000 MOX Core Computational Benchmark'. The few group homogenized parameters of assembly cell or individual lattice cells were obtained by the hexagonal lattice burn-up code EXCEL and the core diffusion calculations were then performed using hexagonal assembly geometric code TRIHEX-FA or the pin-by-pin diffusion code HEXPIN. VVER-1000 reactor core loaded with 2/3rd of Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FAs) and 1/3rd of weapons grade MOX FAs was investigated. Effective multiplication factors and assembly average fission reaction rate distributions have been calculated for various reactor state descriptions using 3-D diffusion theory codes TRIHEX-FA and HEXPIN. Further, estimate of detailed pin-by-pin fission reaction rate distributions of a few selected assemblies were made for the normal working state of the reactor using pin-by-pin core simulation code HEXPIN. A comparison of results was done with the reported Monte Carlo (MC) values of the benchmark and in most cases good agreement was observed with the benchmark results.

  3. Application of the thermal-hydraulic codes in VVER-440 steam generators modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejovic, P.; Vranca, L.; Vaclav, E. [Nuclear Power Plant Research Inst. VUJE (Slovakia)


    Performances with the CATHARE2 V1.3U and RELAP5/MOD3.0 application to the VVER-440 SG modelling during normal conditions and during transient with secondary water lowering are described. Similar recirculation model was chosen for both codes. In the CATHARE calculation, no special measures were taken with the aim to optimize artificially flow rate distribution coefficients for the junction between SG riser and steam dome. Contrary to RELAP code, the CATHARE code is able to predict reasonable the secondary swell level in nominal conditions. Both codes are able to model properly natural phase separation on the SG water level. 6 refs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Pelykh


    Full Text Available This article is regarded to the search for the best power control program at nuclear power plant (NPP with VVER- 1000 by gradient descent method for the objective function, which includes the criteria of efficiency, safety and damage. Criteria normalization to the maximum value is carried out when looking for the minimum of the objective function because criteria have different physical nature. There were chosen such objective criteria as depth of fuel burn-up, index of the fuel cladding damage and axial offset - the ratio of the energy at the top and bottom of the reactor core.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIEDIN V. L.


    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Over the past decade, changes in the economy have led to the decline of many industrial enterprises, which in turn led to the emergence of abandoned buildings and degraded areas that create a social and environmental hazard. Accordingly, the buildings and structures of such enterprises do not function and need reconstruction. Purpose of the aricle. Study of the development of methods for assessing, analyzing, substantiating and selecting rational organizational and technological decisions for the reconstruction of industrial enterprises. Conclusion. With the aim of transforming degraded and disordered territories into modern centers of vital activity, it is necessary to identify in each populated area the areas of priority renovation and reconstruction, and also to concentrate budgetary funds and private investments for the implementation of such projects. In the implementation of the above measures, the settlements will be systematically updated in accordance with european standards.

  6. Optimizing Functional Outcomes in Mandibular Condyle Reconstruction With the Free Fibula Flap Using Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing Technology. (United States)

    Lee, Z-Hye; Avraham, Tomer; Monaco, Casian; Patel, Ashish A; Hirsch, David L; Levine, Jamie P


    Mandibular defects involving the condyle represent a complex reconstructive challenge for restoring proper function of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) because it requires precise bone graft alignment for full restoration of joint function. The use of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can aid in accurate reconstruction of mandibular condyle defects with a vascularized free fibula flap without the need for additional adjuncts. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical and functional outcomes after reconstruction of mandibular condyle defects using only a free fibula graft with the help of virtual surgery techniques. A retrospective review was performed to identify all patients who underwent mandibular reconstruction with only a free fibula flap without any TMJ adjuncts after a total condylectomy. Three-dimensional modeling software was used to plan and execute reconstruction for all patients. From 2009 through 2014, 14 patients underwent reconstruction of mandibular defects involving the condyle with the aid of virtual surgery technology. The average age was 38.7 years (range, 11 to 77 yr). The average follow-up period was 2.6 years (range, 0.8 to 4.2 yr). Flap survival was 100% (N = 14). All patients reported improved facial symmetry, adequate jaw opening, and normal dental occlusion. In addition, they achieved good functional outcomes, including normal intelligible speech and the tolerance of a regular diet with solid foods. Maximal interincisal opening range for all patients was 25 to 38 mm with no lateral deviation or subjective joint pain. No patient had progressive joint hypomobility or condylar migration. One patient had ankylosis, which required release. TMJ reconstruction poses considerable challenges in bone graft alignment for full restoration of joint function. The use of CAD/CAM technology can aid in accurate reconstruction of mandibular condyle defects with a vascularized free fibula flap through precise

  7. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

  8. A Roadmap and Discussion of Issues for Physics Analyses Required to Support Plutonium Disposition in VVER-1000 Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, R.T.; Drischler, J.D.; Pavlovichev, A.M. Styrine, Y.A.


    The purpose of this report is to document the physics analyses that must be performed to successfully disposition weapons-usable plutonium in VVER-1000 reactors in the Russian Federation. The report is a document to support programmatic and financial planning. It does not include documentation of the technical procedures by which physics analyses are performed, nor are the results of any analyses included.

  9. The Role of Computer-Assisted Technology in Post-Traumatic Orbital Reconstruction: A PRISMA-driven Systematic Review. (United States)

    Wan, Kelvin H; Chong, Kelvin K L; Young, Alvin L


    Post-traumatic orbital reconstruction remains a surgical challenge and requires careful preoperative planning, sound anatomical knowledge and good intraoperative judgment. Computer-assisted technology has the potential to reduce error and subjectivity in the management of these complex injuries. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to explore the emerging role of computer-assisted technologies in post-traumatic orbital reconstruction, in terms of functional and safety outcomes. We searched for articles comparing computer-assisted procedures with conventional surgery and studied outcomes on diplopia, enophthalmos, or procedure-related complications. Six observational studies with 273 orbits at a mean follow-up of 13 months were included. Three out of 4 studies reported significantly fewer patients with residual diplopia in the computer-assisted group, while only 1 of the 5 studies reported better improvement in enophthalmos in the assisted group. Types and incidence of complications were comparable. Study heterogeneities limiting statistical comparison by meta-analysis will be discussed. This review highlights the scarcity of data on computer-assisted technology in orbital reconstruction. The result suggests that computer-assisted technology may offer potential advantage in treating diplopia while its role remains to be confirmed in enophthalmos. Additional well-designed and powered randomized controlled trials are much needed.

  10. CFD Analysis of a Slug Mixing Experiment Conducted on a VVER-1000 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moretti


    Full Text Available A commercial CFD code was applied, for validation purposes, to the simulation of a slug mixing experiment carried out at OKB “Gidropress” scaled facility in the framework of EC TACIS project R2.02/02: “Development of safety analysis capabilities for VVER-1000 transients involving spatial variations of coolant properties (temperature or boron concentration at core inlet.” Such experimental model reproduces a VVER-1000 nuclear reactor and is aimed at investigating the in-vessel mixing phenomena. The addressed experiment involves the start-up of one of the four reactor coolant pumps (the other three remaining idle, and the presence of a tracer slug on the starting loop, which is thus transported to the reactor pressure vessel where it mixes with the clear water. Such conditions may occur in a boron dilution scenario, hence the relevance of the addressed phenomena for nuclear reactor safety. Both a pretest and a posttest CFD simulations of the mentioned experiment were performed, which differ in the definition of the boundary conditions (based either on nominal quantities or on measured quantities, resp.. The numerical results are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and compared against the measured data in terms of space and time tracer distribution at the core inlet. The improvement of the results due to the optimization of the boundary conditions is evidenced, and a quantification of the simulation accuracy is proposed.

  11. Radiochemical Assays of Irradiated VVER-440 Fuel for Use in Spent Fuel Burnup Credit Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J


    The objective of this spent fuel burnup credit work was to study and describe a VVER-440 reactor spent fuel assembly (FA) initial state before irradiation, its operational irradiation history and the resulting radionuclide distribution in the fuel assembly after irradiation. This work includes the following stages: (1) to pick out and select a specific spent (irradiated) FA for examination; (2) to describe the FA initial state before irradiation; (3) to describe the irradiation history, including thermal calculations; (4) to examine the burnup distribution of select radionuclides along the FA height and cross-section; (5) to examine the radionuclide distributions; (6) to determine the Kr-85 release into the plenum; (7) to select and prepare FA rod specimens for destructive examinations; (8) to determine the radionuclide compositions, isotope masses and burnup in the rod specimens; and (9) to analyze, document and process the results. The specific workscope included the destructive assay (DA) of spent fuel assembly rod segments with an {approx}38.5 MWd/KgU burnup from a single VVER-440 fuel assembly from the Novovorenezh reactor in Russia. Based on irradiation history criteria, four rods from the fuel assembly were selected and removed from the assembly for examination. Next, 8 sections were cut from the four rods and sent for destructive analysis of radionuclides by radiochemical analyses. The results were documented in a series of seven reports over a period of {approx}1 1/2 years.

  12. Physical startup tests for VVER-1200 of Novovoronezh NPP. Advanced technique and some results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasiev, Dmitry A.; Kraynov, Yury A.; Pinegin, Anatoly A.; Tsyganov, Sergey V. [National Research Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation). Kurchatov Inst.


    The intention of the startup physics tests was to confirm design characteristics of the core loading and their compliance with safety analysis preconditions. The program of startup tests for the leading unit is usually composed in such a way that is is possible to study as much neutron-physical characteristics as possible in the safest condition of zero power. State-of-the-art safety analysis is including computer codes that use three dimensional neutron kinetics and thermohydraulics models. For the substantiation of such models, for its validation and verification there is a need in reactor experiments that implementing spatially distributed transients. We based on such statements when composing hot zero power physical startup program for the new VVER-1200 unit of Novovoronezh NPP. Several tests unconventional for VVER were developed for that program. It includes measuring the worth for each of control rod groups and measuring of single rod worth from the inserted groups - test that models rod ejection event in some sense.

  13. Study on the key technology of spectral reflectance reconstruction based on a single pixel detector (United States)

    Li, Bei; Zhang, Haojun; Zhang, Leihong; Kang, Yi; Zhan, Wenjie; Yi, Wenjuan; Zhang, Dawei


    In order to realize an accurate reconstruction of images, this article explores image reconstruction from a spectrum point of view. Combined with a principal component analysis method and compressed sensing algorithm, this article puts forward a spectral reflectance reconstruction algorithm based on a single pixel detector, and compares the different modulation matrixes for DMD in the experiment. From subjective evaluation and three objective evaluation methods: color difference, peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity, we compare and analyze the reconstruction effects of two modulation methods: random modulation and Hadamard modulation. The experimental results show that the color difference of the spectral reflectance reconstruction method of a single pixel detector based on random modulation is smaller, the similarity of the structure is higher, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio is greater than Hadamard modulation. To sum up, the spectral reflectance reconstruction algorithm of a single pixel detector based on random modulation is better than Hadamard modulation, which is more conducive to an accurate reconstruction of spectral reflectance.

  14. Reconstruction of Liposarcoma Resection Defect With a Made-to-Measure Polyethylene Prosthesis Using Three-Dimensional Digital Technology. (United States)

    Hernando, Josué; Geijo, David; Leizaola-Cardesa, Ignacio Osoitz; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Gómez, María Carmen; Erce, Cristina; Martín, Javier; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo


    Liposarcoma is considered one of the most frequently occurring tumors of the soft tissues, representing 17% to 30% of all mesenchymal cell tumors. It is less common in the head and neck representing <10% of tumors in this region. The reconstruction of defects derived from resection of these tumors presents a surgical challenge. New three-dimensional digital technologies allow more exact surgery, cause less morbidity, and achieve adequate aesthetic outcomes. The aim of this article was to describe the complex reconstruction of a defect caused by the resection of a liposarcoma in the temporal region. Three-dimensional technology allowed patient planning and a reconstruction that was as exact as possible. A made-to-measure polymethyl methacrylate prosthesis was used to correct the defect in the zygomatic arch. The temporal fossa was covered with a standard porous polyethylene prosthesis. Satisfactory esthetic and functional results were achieved using three-dimensional digital technology for treatment planning and to fabricate a made-to-measure polyethylene prosthesis and surgical guide.

  15. Metal for Zambujal: experimentally reconstructing a 5000-year-old technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning, Erica


    Full Text Available A series of 17 crucible smelting experiments were carried out as part of an interdisciplinary research project initiated to understand the innovation of copper metallurgy in the central and southern Portuguese Copper Age. The reconstructed smelting technology was based on information gathered from archaeological contexts, with emphasis on artifacts found at Zambujal and other sites in the Portuguese Estremadura, and ores collected from five different ore deposits in Portugal. Both the ore and smelting products were analysed using mineralogical and geochemical analyses, and compared with archaeological remains. Results of this comparative study are presented, and in light of technological observations made during the experiments, the role of copper production within the Chalcolithic society in southern and central Portugal is also discussed.

    Una serie de 17 experimentos de fundición fueron llevados a cabo como parte de un proyecto de investigación interdisciplinar, que fue iniciado con el propósito de entender las innovaciones en el ámbito de la metalurgia del cobre que se dieron en el centro y el sur de Portugal durante la Edad de Cobre. La tecnología de fundición utilizada en los experimentos fue recreada conforme a información recopilada y a artefactos encontrados en sitios arqueológicos, principalmente en Zambujal y otros lugares pertenecientes a la Estremadura Portuguesa. Asimismo, los minerales de cobre usados durante la fase experimental fueron recolectados en cinco yacimientos minerales de Portugal. El mineral y los productos finales del proceso de fundición fueron analizados mineralógica y geoquímicamente, para después ser comparados con el resto de las muestras arqueológicas. En el presente documento se discuten los resultados del estudio comparativo. Por último, se presenta una discusión del papel que tiene la producción de cobre en la sociedad del centro y del sur de Portugal durante el Calcolítico, basado en

  16. Development and application of the coupled thermal-hydraulics and neutron-kinetics code ATHLET/BIPR-VVER for safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizorkin, M.; Nikonov, S. [Kurchatov Institute for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Langenbuch, S.; Velkov, K. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)


    The coupled thermal-hydraulics and neutron-kinetics code ATHLET/BIPR-VVER was developed within a co-operation between the RRC Kurchatov Institute (KI) and GRS. The modeling capability of this coupled code as well as the status of validation by benchmark activities and comparison with plant measurements are described. The paper is focused on the modeling of flow mixing in the reactor pressure vessel including its validation and the application for the safety justification of VVER plants. (authors)

  17. Application of Computer-Aided Designing and Rapid Prototyping Technologies in Reconstruction of Blowout Fractures of the Orbital Floor. (United States)

    Tabaković, Saša Z; Konstantinović, Vitomir S; Radosavljević, Radivoje; Movrin, Dejan; Hadžistević, Miodrag; Hatab, Nur


    Traumatology of the maxillofacial region represents a wide range of different types of facial skeletal injuries and encompasses numerous treatment methods. Application of computer-aided design (CAD) in combination with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies and three-dimensional computed tomography techniques facilitates surgical therapy planning for efficient treatment. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of individually designed implants of poly-DL-lactide (PDLLA) in the reconstruction of blowout fractures of the orbital floor. In the course of a surgical treatment, individually designed implants manufactured by CAD/RP technologies were used. Preoperative analysis and postoperative monitoring were conducted to evaluate the successfulness of orbital floor reconstruction using customized PDLLA implants, based on: presence of diplopia, paresthesia of infraorbital nerve, and presence of enophthalmos. In 6 of the 10 patients, diplopia completely disappeared immediately after surgical procedure. Diplopia gradually disappeared after 1 month in 3 patients, whereas in 1, it remained even after 6 months. In 7 patients, paresthesia disappeared within a month after surgery and in 3 patients within 2 months. Postoperative average Orbital volume (OV) of the injured side (13.333 ± 3.177) was significantly reduced in comparison with preoperative OV (15.847 ± 3.361) after reconstruction of the orbital floor with customized PDLLA implant (P virtual preoperative modeling allows easier preoperative preparation and yields satisfactory functional and esthetic outcomes.

  18. Simulating the corrosion of zirconium alloys in the water coolant of VVER reactors (United States)

    Kritskii, V. G.; Berezina, I. G.; Motkova, E. A.


    A model for predicting the corrosion of cladding zirconium alloys depending on their composition and operating conditions is proposed. Laws of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics of the reactions through which the multicomponent zirconium alloy is oxidized in the reactor coolant constitute the physicochemical heart of the model. The developed version of the model is verified against the results obtained from tests of fuel rod claddings made of commercial-grade and experimental zirconium alloys carried out by different researchers under autoclave and reactor conditions. It is shown that the proposed model adequately describes the corrosion of alloys in coolants used at nuclear power stations. It is determined that, owing to boiling of coolant and its acidification in a VVER-1200 reactor, Zr-1% Nb alloys with additions of iron and oxygen must be more resistant to corrosion than the commercial-grade alloy E110.

  19. Study of reactor plant disturbed cooling condition modes caused by the VVER reactor secondary circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Belozerov


    Based on the RELAP-5, TRAC, and TRACE software codes, reactor plant cooling condition malfunction modes caused by the VVER-1000 secondary circuit were simulated and investigated. Experimental data on the mode with the turbine-generator stop valve closing are presented. The obtained dependences made it possible to determine the maximum values of pressure and temperature in the circulation circuit as well as estimate the Minimum Critical Heat Flux Ratio (MCHFR. It has been found that, if any of the initial events occurs, safety systems are activated according to the set points; transient processes are stabilized in time; and the Critical Heat Flux (CHF limit is provided. Therefore, in the event of emergency associated with the considered modes, the reactor plant safety will be ensured.

  20. CATHARE Multi-1D Modeling of Coolant Mixing in VVER-1000 for RIA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Spasov


    Full Text Available The paper presents validation results for multichannel vessel thermal-hydraulic models in CATHARE used in coupled 3D neutronic/thermal hydraulic calculations. The mixing is modeled with cross flows governed by local pressure drops. The test cases are from the OECD VVER-1000 coolant transient benchmark (V1000CT and include asymmetric vessel flow transients and main steam line break (MSLB transients. Plant data from flow mixing experiments are available for comparison. Sufficient mesh refinement with up to 24 sectors in the vessel is considered for acceptable resolution. The results demonstrate the applicability of such validated thermal-hydraulic models to MSLB scenarios involving thermal mixing, azimuthal flow rotation, and primary pump trip. An acceptable trade-off between accuracy and computational efficiency can be obtained.

  1. Economical Feedback of Increasing Fuel Enrichment on Electricity Cost for VVER-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saad Dwiddar


    Full Text Available A methodology of evaluating the economics of the front-end nuclear fuel cycle with a price change sensitivity analysis for a VVER-1000 reactor core as a case study is presented. The effect of increasing the fuel enrichment and its corresponding reactor cycle length on the energy cost is investigated. The enrichment component was found to represent the highly expenses dynamic component affecting the economics of the front-end fuel cycle. Nevertheless, the increase of the fuel enrichment will increase the reactor cycle length, which will have a positive feedback on the electricity generation cost (cent/KWh. A long reactor operation time with a cheaper energy cost set the nuclear energy as a competitive alternative when compared with other energy sources.

  2. A VVER-1000 LEU and MOX assembly computational benchmark analysis using the lattice burnup code EXCEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thilagam, L. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603 102 (India)], E-mail:; Sunil Sunny, C. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603 102 (India); Jagannathan, V. [Light Water Reactor Physics Section, Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail:; Subbaiah, K.V. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603 102 (India)


    Utilization of Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide (MOX) fuel in VVER-1000 reactors envisages the core physics analysis using computational methods and validation of the related computer codes. Towards this objective, an international experts group has been established at OECD/NEA. The experts group facilitates sharing of existing information on physics parameters and fuel behaviour. Several benchmark exercises have been proposed by them with intent to investigate the core physics behaviour of a VVER-1000 reactor loaded with 2/3rd of low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA) and 1/3rd of weapons grade mixed oxide (MOX) FA. In the present study an attempt is made to analyse 'AVVER-1000LEUandMOXAssemblyComputationalBenchmark' and predict the neutronics behaviour at the lattice level. The lattice burnup code EXCEL, developed at Light Water Reactor Physics Section, BARC is employed for this task. The EXCEL code uses the 172 energy group 'JEFF31GX' cross-section library in WIMS-D format. Assembly level fuel depletion calculations are performed up to a burnup of 40 MWD/kg of heavy metal (HM). Studies are made for the parametric variations of fuel and moderator temperatures, coolant density and boron content in the coolant. Both operational and off-normal states are analysed to determine the corresponding infinite neutron multiplication factor (k{sub {infinity}}). Pin wise isotopic compositions are computed as a function of burnup. Isotopic compositions in different annular regions of Uranium-Gadolinium (UGD) pin, fission rate distributions in UGD, UO{sub 2} and MOX pin cells are also computed. The predicted results are compared with the benchmark mean results.

  3. Sequence of decommissioning of the main equipment in a central type VVER 440 V-230; Secuencia de desmantelamiento de los equipos principales de una central Tipo VVer 440 V-230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, E.; Garcia Ruiz, R.


    IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion S.A.U., leader of consortium with Empresarios Agrupados and INDRA, has developed the Basic Engineering for the decommissioning of contaminated systems and building of a VVER 440 V-230 Nuclear Power Plant, establishing the sequence and methodology for the main equipment fragmentation. For that, it has been designed dry and wet cutting zones to be set up in the area where steam generators, main cooling pumps and pressurizer are located; these components will be dismantled previously. (Author)

  4. Simulation of Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) Burnup in Russian VVER Reactors with the HELIOS Code Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.D.; Kravchenko, J.; Lazarenko, A.; Pavlovitchev, A.; Sidorenko, V.; Chetverikov, A.


    The HELIOS reactor-physics computer program system was used to simulate the burnup of UO{sub 2} fuel in three VVER reactors. The manner in which HELIOS was used in these simulations is described. Predictions of concentrations for actinides up to {sup 244}Cm and for isotopes of neodymium were compared with laboratory-measured values. Reasonable agreement between calculated and measured values was seen for experimental samples from a fuel rod in the interior of an assembly.

  5. Development of a cross-section methodology and a real-time core model for VVER-1000 simulator application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, Emiliya Lyudmilova


    The novel academic contributions are summarized as follows. A) A cross-section modelling methodology and a cycle-specific cross-section update procedure are developed to meet fidelity requirements applicable to a cycle-specific reactor core simulation, as well as particular customer needs and practices supporting VVER-1000 operation and safety. B) A real-time version of the Nodal Expansion Method code is developed and implemented into Kozloduy 6 full-scope replica control room simulator.

  6. Analytical validation of operator actions in case of primary to secondary leakage for VVER-1000/V320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, M., E-mail:; Groudev, P., E-mail:; Pavlova, M., E-mail:


    Highlights: • We validate operator actions in case of primary to secondary leakage. • We perform four scenarios related to SGTR accident for VVER-1000/V320. • The reference power plant for the analyses is Unit 6 at Kozloduy NPP. • The RELAP5/MOD 3.2 computer code is used in performing the analyses. • The analyses confirm the effectiveness of operator actions during PRISE. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of analytical validation of operator actions in case of “Steam Generator Tube Rupture” (SGTR) for VVER-1000/V320 units at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP), done during the development of Symptom Based Emergency Operating Procedures (SB EOPs) for this plant. The purpose of the analyses is to demonstrate the ability to terminate primary to secondary leakage and to indicate an effective strategy for preventing secondary leakage to the environment and in this way to prevent radiological release to the environment. Following depressurization and cooldown of reactor coolant system (RCS) with isolation of the affected steam generator (SG), in these analyses are validated options for post-SGTR cooldown by: • back up filling the ruptured SG; • using letdown system in the affected SG and • by opening Fast Acting Isolation Valve (FAIV) and using Steam Dump Facility to the Condenser (BRU-K). The results of the thermal-hydraulic analyses have been used to assist KNPP specialists in analytical validation of EOPs. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been used for the analyses in a VVER-1000 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) model. A model of VVER-1000 based on Unit 6 of Kozloduy NPP has been developed for the thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/MOD3.2 at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE-BAS). This paper is possible through the participation of leading specialists from KNPP.

  7. Analytical validation of operator actions based on SAMG for VVER 1000 with ASTECv2r3 computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanova, Antoaneta Emilova, E-mail:; Gencheva, Rositsa Veselinova, E-mail:; Groudev, Pavlin Petkov, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Performing of analytical validation of operator action based SAMG. • Simulation of base calculation of SBO scenario without operator action for VVER 1000. • Simulation of SBO scenario with investigation of operator actions based on SAMG for VVER 1000. - Abstract: This paper presents the analytical validation of operator action based on severe accident management guidelines (SAMG) for Kozloduy NPP VVER1000 with severe accident computer code ASTECv2r3. The work is oriented on investigation of plant behavior during total loss of power and the operator actions performed based on strategies considered in severe accident management guidelines (SAMG) in Kozloduy nuclear power plant (KNPP). Using the SAMG strategies the operator depressurize primary circuit by gas removing system (YR) and try to cool down the reactor core by high pressure injection system (HPIS). The purpose of these analyses is to examine the possibility of keeping the core from further damage during a severe accident and to assess the likelihood of additional generation of hydrogen by additional flooding of the heated core. For this purpose it have been simulated a SBO scenario with injection of cold water by a high pressure pump (HPP) in cold leg at different core exit temperatures at 923 K and 1253 K. The selection of investigated analyses was based on severe accident management strategy of KNPP VVER1000. The presented work is important for analytical validation, verification, and further improvements of SAMG as well as for assessment of Level 2 probabilistic safety analyses (L2 PSA). The work was performed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) in the frame of severe accident research.

  8. Kinetics Parameters of VVER-1000 Core with 3 MOX Lead Test Assemblies To Be Used for Accident Analysis Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.


    The present work is a part of Joint U.S./Russian Project with Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition in VVER Reactor and presents the neutronics calculations of kinetics parameters of VVER-1000 core with 3 introduced MOX LTAs. MOX LTA design has been studied in [1] for two options of MOX LTA: 100% plutonium and of ''island'' type. As a result, zoning i.e. fissile plutonium enrichments in different plutonium zones, has been defined. VVER-1000 core with 3 introduced MOX LTAs of chosen design has been calculated in [2]. In present work, the neutronics data for transient analysis codes (RELAP [3]) has been obtained using the codes chain of RRC ''Kurchatov Institute'' [5] that is to be used for exploitation neutronics calculations of VVER. Nowadays the 3D assembly-by-assembly code BIPR-7A and 2D pin-by-pin code PERMAK-A, both with the neutronics constants prepared by the cell code TVS-M, are the base elements of this chain. It should be reminded that in [6] TVS-M was used only for the constants calculations of MOX FAs. In current calculations the code TVS-M has been used both for UOX and MOX fuel constants. Besides, the volume of presented information has been increased and additional explications have been included. The results for the reference uranium core [4] are presented in Chapter 2. The results for the core with 3 MOX LTAs are presented in Chapter 3. The conservatism that is connected with neutronics parameters and that must be taken into account during transient analysis calculations, is discussed in Chapter 4. The conservative parameters values are considered to be used in 1-point core kinetics models of accident analysis codes.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Operation of VVER Steam Generator in Condensation Mode in the Event of the Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Andrey [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering by A.I. Leypunsky, 1 Bondarenko sq. Obninsk, 249033 (Russian Federation)


    For new Russian nuclear power plants with VVER-1200 reactor in the event of a beyond design basis accident, provision is made for the use of passive safety systems for necessary core cooling. These safety systems include the passive heat removal system (PHRS). In the case of leakage in the primary circuit this system assures the transition of steam generators (SG) to operation in the mode of condensation of the primary circuit steam. As a result, the condensate from SG arrives at the core providing its additional cooling. To investigate the condensation mode of VVER SG operation, a large scale HA2M-SG test facility was constructed. The rig incorporates: buffer tank, SG model with scale is 1:46, PHRS heat exchanger. Experiments at the test facility have been performed to investigate condensation mode of operation of SG model at the pressure 0.4 MPa, correspond to VVER reactor pressure at the last stage of the beyond design basis accident. The report presents the test procedure and the basic obtained test results. (authors)

  10. Experimental investigation of in-vessel mixing phenomena in a VVER-1000 scaled test facility during unsteady asymmetric transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucalossi, A. [EC JRC, (JRC F.5) PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Moretti, F.; Melideo, D. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione, Universita di Pisa (UNIPI) 2, via Diotisalvi, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Del Nevo, A., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione, Universita di Pisa (UNIPI) 2, via Diotisalvi, 56100 Pisa (Italy); D' Auria, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione, Universita di Pisa (UNIPI) 2, via Diotisalvi, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Hoehne, T. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), P.O.B. 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Lisenkov, E. [FSUE OKB Gidropress, Ordshonikidize 21, RU-142103 Podolsk, Moscow district (Russian Federation); Gallori, D. [AREVA NP SAS, Tour AREVA - 92084 Paris, La Defense Cedex (France)


    Highlights: > Five mixing experiments in a scaled model of a VVER-1000 are described and discussed. > In-vessel mixing investigations of the coolant properties distribution at the core inlet. > These tests brought an improvement to existing experimental database for TH code validation. - Abstract: In-vessel turbulent mixing phenomena affect the time and space distribution of coolant properties (e.g., boron concentration and temperature) at the core inlet which impacts consequently the neutron kinetics response. For reactor safety evaluation purposes and to characterize these phenomena it is necessary to set and validate appropriate numerical modelling tools to improve the current conservative predictions. With such purpose, an experimental campaign was carried out by OKB Gidropress, in the framework of the European Commission Project 'TACIS R2.02/02 - Development of safety analysis capabilities for VVER-1000 transients involving spatial variations of coolant properties (temperature or boron concentration) at core inlet'. The experiments were conducted on a scaled facility representing the primary system of a VVER-1000 including a detailed model of the Reactor Pressure Vessel with its internals. The simulated transients involved perturbations of coolant properties distribution providing a wide validation matrix. The main achievements of the set of experiments featuring transient asymmetric pump behaviour are presented in this paper. The potential of the obtained experimental database for the validation of thermal fluid dynamics numerical simulation tools is also discussed and the role of computational fluid dynamics in supporting the experimental data analysis is highlighted.

  11. PMK-2, the First Integral Thermal-Hydraulics Tests for the Safety Evaluation of VVER-440/213 Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gy. Ézsöl


    Full Text Available The PMK-2 facility is a full-pressure thermal-hydraulic model of the primary and partly the secondary circuit of the VVER-type units of Paks NPP. The facility was the first integral-type facility for VVERs. The PMK-2 was followed later by the PACTEL (for VVER-440, the ISB, and PSB for VVER-1000. Since the startup of the facility in 1985, 55 experiments have been performed primarily in international frameworks with the participation of experts from 29 European and overseas countries forming a scientific school to better understand VVER system behaviour and reach a high level of modelling of accident sequences. The ATHLET, CATHARE, and RELAP5 codes have been validated including both qualitative and quantitative assessments. The former was almost exclusively applied to the early phase of validation by integral experiments, while the quantitative assessments have been performed by the Fast Fourier Transform Based Method. Paper gives comprehensive information on the design features of PMK-2 facility with a special respect to the representativeness of phenomena, the experiments performed, and the results of the validation of ATHLET, CATHARE, and RELAP5 codes. Safety significance of the PMK-2 projects is also discussed.

  12. The impact of ODA microadditions into secondary system on corrosion rate reduction in VVER steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdeev, A.A.; Kukushkin, A.N.; Repin, D.A. [All-Russia Research and Design Inst. of Nuclear Power Machine Building (VNIIAM), Moscow (Russian Federation); Omelchuk, V.V.; Barmin, L.F. [Kola Nuclear Power Plant, Polyarnye Zori, Murmansk region (Russian Federation); Yurmanov, V.A. [N.A. Dollezhal Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering (NIKIET), Moscow (Russian Federation); Czempik, E. [RECON GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)


    Injection of film-forming corrosion inhibitors is a challenging way of suppressing erosion-corrosion and crud induced corrosion in power stations. Films of surface-active inhibitors, such as octadecylamine (ODA) provide a diffusion barrier to penetration of corrosion-aggressive ions onto the metal surface. Erosion and corrosion tests were conducted in autoclaves and on a pilot steam generator (SG) design to look into the impact of ODA. To accelerate corrosion process tests were conducted in a more aggressive environment as compared to actual operating conditions, including high chloride concentration and stress levels. It is not only important to reduce deposition growth, but also to wash out deposits previously formed on heat exchanger surfaces. This allows to reduce the risk of local corrosion and corrosion cracking development. A number of VVER plants have conducted full-scale testing that confirmed the impact of ODA microadditions on local corrosion mitigation. Some PWR plants are testing injection of surface-active dispersants to loosen SG deposits. Multiple studies proved ODA ability to remove chlorides from smooth surfaces which allowed to reduce the rate of microcrack growth. Trial testing has shown that the rate of corrosion cracking on SG tubes was reduced by 60-70% owing to ODA injections. Such effect was due to significant reduction in chlorides absorption by the metal surface during the year of ODA injection. Tests on a pilot SG design have shown that ODA could be used for partially wash out deposits from a heating surface. This also minimizes local corrosion. The tests showed that ODA microadditions remove chlorides from microcracks and crevices on SG tubing spacer grids. The ability to wash out previously formed deposits allows to reduce risk of local corrosion and cracking. The abilities of microadditions of film-forming corrosion inhibitors identified through the above mentioned testing could be used under the VVER plant life extension program. The

  13. Fast Neutron Transport in the Biological Shielding Model and Other Regions of the VVER-1000 Mock-Up on the LR-0 Research Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košťál Michal


    Full Text Available A set of benchmark experiments was carried out in the full scale VVER-1000 mock-up on the reactor LR-0 in order to validate neutron transport calculation methodologies and to perform the optimization of the shape and locations of neutron flux operation monitors channels inside the shielding of the new VVER-1000 type reactors. Compared with previous experiments on the VVER-1000 mock-up on the reactor LR-0, the fast neutron spectra were measured in the extended neutron energy interval (0.1–10 MeV and new calculations were carried out with the MCNPX code using various nuclear data libraries (ENDF/B VII.0, JEFF 3.1, JENDL 3.3, JENDL 4, ROSFOND 2009, and CENDL 3.1. Measurements and calculations were carried out at different points in the mock-up. The calculation and experimental data are compared.

  14. Generation of multigroup cross-sections from micro-group ones in code system SUHAM-U used for VVER-1000 reactor core calculations with MOX loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyarinov, V.F.; Davidenko, V.D.; Polismakov, A.A.; Tsybulsky, V.F. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    At the present time, the new code system SUHAM-U for calculation of the neutron-physical processes in nuclear reactor core with triangular and square lattices based both on the modern micro-group (about 7000 groups) cross-sections library of code system UNK and on solving the multigroup (up to 89 groups) neutron transport equation by Surface Harmonics Method is elaborated. In this paper the procedure for generation of multigroup cross-sections from micro-group ones for calculation of VVER-1000 reactor core with MOX loading is described. The validation has consisted in computing VVER-1000 fuel assemblies with uranium and MOX fuel and has shown enough high accuracy under corresponding selection of the number and boundaries of the energy groups. This work has been fulfilled in the frame of ISTC project 'System Analyses of Nuclear Safety for VVER Reactors with MOX Fuels'.

  15. Primary coolant technology in VVER/PWR units. Experience with preconditioning, decontamination and recontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonkova, Katerina [Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic); Kysela, Jan


    For the latest Czech and Slovak stations commissioned (Temelin and Mochovce) a modified hot functional test (HFT) chemistry was developed in the NRI Rez. Chromium rich surface layer formed due to modified HTF chemistry ensures lower corrosion rates and radiation field formation. Long term operation experience from both nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. Radiation field, occupational radiation exposure and corrosion layers evolution during the first 10 years of operation are compared and presented. The operation experience from all above mentioned units showed a low level of corrosion products in the primary system as well as low dose rates. Second part of the paper deals with radiation fields that exist in nuclear power plants primarily due to the deposition of radioisotopes on the surfaces of primary components after decontamination. Large-scale crud deposition on fuel surface resulted in cases NPP Loviisa, Paks and Novovoronezh after steam generators decontamination. After decontamination higher corrosion products release occurs followed by subsequent higher radiation fields. Actual in-pile loop tests carried at the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Rez are focused on the study of surface preconditioning - similar to HFT chemistry - after decontamination. Effects of the decontamination on deposition formation on primary circuit surfaces are investigated under steam generator operating conditions with the model device which contains heat exchanger tube. (orig.)

  16. Determination of power density in VVER-1000 Mock-Up in LR-0 reactor (United States)

    Koš'ál, Michal; Rypar, Vojtìch; Harutyunyan, Davit; Schulc, Martin; Losa, Evžen


    The pin power density is an important quantity which has to be monitored during the reactor operation, for two main reasons. Firstly, it is part of the limits and conditions of safe operation and, secondly, it is source term in neutron transport calculations used for the adequate assessing of the state of core structures and pressure vessel material. It is often calculated using deterministic codes which may have problems with an adequate definition of boundary conditions in subcritical regions. This may lead to overestimation of real situation, and therefore the validation of the utility codes contributes not only to better fuel utilization, but also to more precise description of radiation situation in structural components of core. Current paper presents methods developed at LR-0 reactor, as well as selected results for pin power density measurement in peripheral regions of VVER-1000 mock-up. The presented data show that the results of a utility diffusion code at core boundary overestimate the measurement. This situation, however satisfactory safe, may lead to unduly conservative approach in the determination of radiation damage of core structures.

  17. Analysis of loss of off-site power ATWS in VVER-440 concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, G.; Siltanen, P.; Kotro, J.


    During 1985 the Finnish state-owned utility Imatran Voima Oy signed a work order with Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit mbH of the Federal Republic of Germany (GRS) for the analysis of abnormal transients in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) concept based on a Soviet design. The results of these calculations were intended to be introduced into the licensing process and to support a decision to build such a nuclear power station. A computer model was constructed of the VVER-440 concept, a 500-MW(electric) PWR designed in the USSR and modified for Finland. The ALMOD4 code, developed at GRS, was used for the investigation. The ALMOD4 code is a fast running code for the analysis of operational and abnormal transients in PWRs. Input data were set up to calculate anticipated transients without scram, most notably the loss of off-site power case. One-dimensional neutron kinetics was used to correctly model the neutronics feedback of axially distributed moderator density and fuel temperature in a changing axial power profile. Interlocking signals and the engineered safety systems were modeled to assess the overall systems response to this abnormal transient. Special analytical problems were encountered since a detailed and verified model of the steam generator (SG) with horizontally positioned heat exchanger tubes was not available. Therefore, two bounding calculations were performed with different SG models.

  18. Coupled neutronic core and subchannel analysis of nanofluids in VVER-1000 type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarifi, Ehsan; Sepanloo, Kamran [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Reactor and Nuclear Safety School; Jahanfarnia, Golamreza [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch


    This study is aimed to perform the coupled thermal-hydraulic/neutronic analysis of nanofluids as the coolant in the hot fuel assembly of VVER-1000 reactor core. Water-based nanofluid containing various volume fractions of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle is analyzed. WIMS and CITATION codes are used for neutronic simulation of the reactor core, calculating neutron flux and thermal power distribution. In the thermal-hydraulic modeling, the porous media approach is used to analyze the thermal behavior of the reactor core and the subchannel analysis is used to calculate the hottest fuel assembly thermal-hydraulic parameters. The derived conservation equations for coolant and conduction heat transfer equation for fuel and clad are discretized by Finite volume method and solved numerically using visual FORTRAN program. Finally the analysis results for nanofluids and pure water are compared together. The achieved results show that at low concentration (0.1 percent volume fraction) alumina is the optimum nanoparticles for normal reactor operation.

  19. Determination of power density in VVER-1000 Mock-Up in LR-0 reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košál Michal


    Full Text Available The pin power density is an important quantity which has to be monitored during the reactor operation, for two main reasons. Firstly, it is part of the limits and conditions of safe operation and, secondly, it is source term in neutron transport calculations used for the adequate assessing of the state of core structures and pressure vessel material. It is often calculated using deterministic codes which may have problems with an adequate definition of boundary conditions in subcritical regions. This may lead to overestimation of real situation, and therefore the validation of the utility codes contributes not only to better fuel utilization, but also to more precise description of radiation situation in structural components of core. Current paper presents methods developed at LR-0 reactor, as well as selected results for pin power density measurement in peripheral regions of VVER-1000 mock-up. The presented data show that the results of a utility diffusion code at core boundary overestimate the measurement. This situation, however satisfactory safe, may lead to unduly conservative approach in the determination of radiation damage of core structures.

  20. Tailoring through Technology: A Retrospective Review of a Single Surgeon's Experience with Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction before and after Implementation of Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Angiography. (United States)

    Harless, Christin A; Jacobson, Steven R


    Reported complication rates of implant-based breast reconstruction in the literature exceed 50%, with mastectomy skin flap necrosis reported to occur in up to 25% of cases. Laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (LA-ICGA) technology allows the surgeon to optimize preservation of the mastectomy skin flap while avoiding skin necrosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if outcomes of breast reconstruction are beneficially affected by using LA-ICGA. A total 269 consecutive women (467 breast reconstructions) undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction from 2008 to 2013 were examined. The complication rates of those who underwent reconstruction prior to the implementation of LA-ICGA were compared with those who were reconstructed after implementation of LA-ICGA. A total of 254 consecutive breast reconstructions were performed prior to implementation of LA-ICGA, and 213 breasts were reconstructed with the use of LA-ICGA. After implementation of LA-ICGA System, the rate of mastectomy skin flap necrosis decreased by 86% (6.7% versus 0.9%, p = 0.02). The overall complication rate prior to LA-ICGA was 13.8% compared with 6.6% with the use of LA-ICGA (p = 0.01). After LA-ICGA was incorporated, the percentage of patients undergoing single-stage reconstruction increased from 12% to 32% (p = <0.001). Implementation of LA-ICGA provides the surgeon with an objective assessment of mastectomy flap perfusion resulting in a trend toward overall reduction in complications as well as an 86% decrease in the rate of subsequent skin necrosis. The objective assessment of mastectomy flap perfusion allows the surgeon to tailor breast reconstruction intraoperatively, in real-time, adjusting for the individual patient's mastectomy flap perfusion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mechanisms of radiation embrittlement of VVER-1000 RPV steel at irradiation temperatures of (50-400)°C (United States)

    Kuleshova, E. A.; Gurovich, B. A.; Bukina, Z. V.; Frolov, A. S.; Maltsev, D. A.; Krikun, E. V.; Zhurko, D. A.; Zhuchkov, G. M.


    This work summarizes and analyzes our recent research results on the effect of irradiation temperature within the range of (50-400)°C on microstructure and properties of 15Kh2NMFAA class 1 steel (VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel (RPV) base metal). The paper considers the influence of accelerated irradiation with different temperature up to different fluences on the carbide and irradiation-induced phases, radiation defects, yield strength changes and critical brittleness temperature shift (ΔTK) as well as on changes of the fraction of brittle intergranular fracture and segregation processes in the steel. Low temperature irradiation resulted solely in formation of radiation defects - dislocation loops of high number density, the latter increased with increase in irradiation temperature while their size decreased. In this regard high embrittlement rate observed at low temperature irradiation is only due to the hardening mechanism of radiation embrittlement. Accelerated irradiation at VVER-1000 RPV operating temperature (∼300 °C) caused formation of radiation-induced precipitates and dislocation loops, as well as some increase in phosphorus grain boundary segregation. The observed ΔTK shift being within the regulatory curve for VVER-1000 RPV base metal is due to both hardening and non-hardening mechanisms of radiation embrittlement. Irradiation at elevated temperature caused more intense phosphorus grain boundary segregation, but no formation of radiation-induced precipitates or dislocation loops in contrast to irradiation at 300 °C. Carbide transformations observed only after irradiation at 400 °C caused increase in yield strength and, along with a contribution of the non-hardening mechanism, resulted in the lowest ΔTK shift in the studied range of irradiation temperature and fluence.

  2. 3D neutronic codes coupled with thermal-hydraulic system codes for PWR, and BWR and VVER reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenbuch, S.; Velkov, K. [GRS, Garching (Germany); Lizorkin, M. [Kurchatov-Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others


    This paper describes the objectives of code development for coupling 3D neutronics codes with thermal-hydraulic system codes. The present status of coupling ATHLET with three 3D neutronics codes for VVER- and LWR-reactors is presented. After describing the basic features of the 3D neutronic codes BIPR-8 from Kurchatov-Institute, DYN3D from Research Center Rossendorf and QUABOX/CUBBOX from GRS, first applications of coupled codes for different transient and accident scenarios are presented. The need of further investigations is discussed.

  3. Assessments for 3d Reconstructions of Cultural Heritage Using Digital Technologies (United States)

    Manferdini, A. M.; Galassi, M.


    The aim of this contribution is to show the results of evaluations on 3D digitizations performed using different methodologies and technologies. In particular, for surveys conducted at the architectural and urban scale, the recent reduction of costs related to Time of Flight and phase shift laser scanners is actually enhancing the replacement of traditional topographic instruments (i.e. total stations) with range-based technologies for the acquisition of 3D data related to built heritage. If compared to surveys performed using traditional topographic technologies, range-based ones offer a wide range of advantages, but they also require different skills, procedures and times. The present contribution shows the results of a practical application of both approaches on the same case study. Another application was suggested by the recent developments in the photogrammetric field that enhance the improvement of software able to automatically orient uncalibrated cameras and derive dense and accurate 3D point clouds, with evident benefits in reduction of costs required for survey equipment. Therefore, the presented case study constituted the occasion to compare a rangebased survey with a fast 3D acquisition and modelling using a Structure from Motion solution. These survey procedures were adopted at an architectural scale, on a single building, that was surveyed both on the outside and on the inside. Assessments on the quality of the rebuilt information is reported, as far as metric accuracy and reliability is concerned, as well as on time consuming and on skills required during each step of the adopted pipelines. For all approaches, these analysis highlighted advantages and disadvantages that allow to conduct evaluations on the possible convenience of adopting range-based technologies instead of a traditional topographic approach or a photogrammetric one instead of a range based one in case of surveys conducted at an architectural/urban scale.

  4. Polymer and nano-technology applications for repair and reconstruction of the central nervous system. (United States)

    Cho, Youngnam; Borgens, Richard Ben


    The hydrophilic polymer PEG and its related derivatives, have served as therapeutic agents to reconstruct the phospholipid bilayers of damaged cell membranes by erasing defects in the plasmalemma. The special attributes of hydrophilic polymers when in contact with cell membranes have been used for several decades since these well-known properties have been exploited in the manufacture of monoclonal antibodies. However, while traditional therapeutic efforts to combat traumatic injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) have not been successful, nanotechnology-based drug delivery has become a new emerging strategy with the additional promise of targeted membrane repair. As such, this potential use of nanotechnology provides new avenues for nanomedicine that uses nanoparticles themselves as the therapeutic agent in addition to their other functionalities. Here we will specifically address new advances in experimental treatment of Spinal Cord and Traumatic Brain injury (SCI and TBI respectively). We focus on the concept of repair of the neurolemma and axolemma in the acute stage of injury, with less emphasis on the worthwhile, and voluminous, issues concerning regenerative medicine/nanomedicine. It is not that the two are mutually exclusive - they are not. However, the survival of the neuron and the tissues of white matter are critical to any further success in what will likely be a multi-component therapy for TBI and SCI. This review includes a brief explanation of the characteristics of traumatic spinal cord injury SCI, the biological basis of the injuries, and the treatment opportunities of current polymer-based therapies. In particular, we update our own progress in such applications for CNS injuries with various suggestions and discussion, primarily nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems. The application of nanoparticles as drug-delivery vehicles to the CNS may likely be advantageous over existing molecular-based therapies. As a "proof-of-concept", we will

  5. Thalidomide and the Titanic: reconstructing the technology tragedies of the twentieth century. (United States)

    Annas, G J; Elias, S


    The Titanic has become a metaphor for the disastrous consequences of an unqualified belief in the safety and invincibility of new technology. Similarly, the thalidomide tragedy stands for all of the "monsters" that can be inadvertently or negligently created by modern medicine. Thalidomide, once banned, has returned to the center of controversy with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) announcement that thalidomide will be placed on the market for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum, a severe dermatological complication of Hansen's disease. Although this indication is very restricted, thalidomide will be available for off-label uses once it is on the market. New laws regarding abortion and a new technology, ultrasound, make reasonable the approval of thalidomide for patients who suffer from serious conditions it can alleviate. In addition, the FDA and the manufacturer have proposed the most stringent postmarketing monitoring ever used for a prescription drug, including counseling, contraception, and ultrasonography in the event of pregnancy. The Titanic/thalidomide lesson for the FDA and public health is that rules and guidelines alone are not sufficient to guarantee safety. Continuous vigilance will be required to ensure that all reasonable postmarketing monitoring steps are actually taken to avoid predictable and preventable teratogenic disasters.

  6. The Design of PSB-VVER Experiments Relevant to Accident Management (United States)

    Nevo, Alessandro Del; D'Auria, Francesco; Mazzini, Marino; Bykov, Michael; Elkin, Ilya V.; Suslov, Alexander

    Experimental programs carried-out in integral test facilities are relevant for validating the best estimate thermal-hydraulic codes(1), which are used for accident analyses, design of accident management procedures, licensing of nuclear power plants, etc. The validation process, in fact, is based on well designed experiments. It consists in the comparison of the measured and calculated parameters and the determination whether a computer code has an adequate capability in predicting the major phenomena expected to occur in the course of transient and/or accidents. University of Pisa was responsible of the numerical design of the 12 experiments executed in PSB-VVER facility (2), operated at Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center (Russia), in the framework of the TACIS 2.03/97 Contract 3.03.03 Part A, EC financed (3). The paper describes the methodology adopted at University of Pisa, starting form the scenarios foreseen in the final test matrix until the execution of the experiments. This process considers three key topics: a) the scaling issue and the simulation, with unavoidable distortions, of the expected performance of the reference nuclear power plants; b) the code assessment process involving the identification of phenomena challenging the code models; c) the features of the concerned integral test facility (scaling limitations, control logics, data acquisition system, instrumentation, etc.). The activities performed in this respect are discussed, and emphasis is also given to the relevance of the thermal losses to the environment. This issue affects particularly the small scaled facilities and has relevance on the scaling approach related to the power and volume of the facility.

  7. IVO participation in IAEA benchmark for VVER-type nuclear power plants seismic analysis and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varpasuo, P.


    This study is a part of the IAEA coordinated research program `Benchmark study for the Seismic Analysis and Testing of VVER Type NPPs`. The study reports the numerical simulation of the blast test for Paks and Kozloduy nuclear power plants beginning from the recorded free-field response and computing the structural response at various points inside the reactor building. The full-scale blast tests of the Paks and Kozloduy NPPs took place in December 1994 and in July 1996. During the tests the plants operated normally. The instrumentation for the tests consisted of 52 recording channels with 200 Hz sampling rate. Detonating 100 kg charges in 50-meter deep boreholes at 2.5-km distance from the plant carried out the blast tests. The 3D structural models for both reactor buildings were analyzed in the frequency domain. The number of modes extracted in both cases was about 500 and the cut-off frequency was 25 Hz. In the response history run the responses of the selected points were evaluated. The input values for response history run were the three components of the excitation, which were transformed from time domain to the frequency domain with the aid of Fourier transform. The analysis was carried out in frequency domain and responses were transferred back to time domain with inverse Fourier transform. The Paks and Kozloduy blast tests produced a wealth of information on the behavior of the nuclear power plant structures excited by blast type loads containing also the low frequency wave train if albeit with small energy content. The comparison of measured and calculated results gave information about the suitability of the selected analysis approach for the investigated blast type loading. 25 refs.

  8. The use of computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology to aid in the reconstruction of congenitally deficient pediatric mandibles: A case series. (United States)

    Gougoutas, Alexander J; Bastidas, Nicholas; Bartlett, Scott P; Jackson, Oksana


    Microvascular reconstruction of the pediatric mandible, particularly when necessitated by severe, congenital hypoplasia, presents a formidable challenge. Complex cases, however, may be simplified by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) assisted surgical planning. This series represents the senior authors' preliminary experiences with CAD/CAM assisted, microvascular reconstruction of the pediatric mandible. Presented are two patients with hemifacial/bifacial microsomia, both with profound mandibular hypoplasia, who underwent CAD/CAM assisted reconstruction of their mandibles with vascularized fibula flaps. Surgical techniques, CAD/CAM routines employed, complications, and long-term outcomes are reported. Successful mandibular reconstructions were achieved in both patients with centralization of their native mandibles and augmentation of deficient mandibular subunits. No long-term complications were observed. CAD/CAM technology can be utilized in pediatric mandibular reconstruction, and is particularly beneficial in cases of profound, congenital hypoplasia requiring extensive, multi-planar, bony reconstructions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. United States Department of Energy`s reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage.

  10. Experimental studies into the fluid dynamic performance of the coolant flow in the mixed core of the Temelin NPP VVER-1000 reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Dmitriev


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies into the interassembly coolant interaction in the Temelin nuclear power plant (NPP VVER-1000 reactor core. An aerodynamic test bench was used to study the coolant flow processes in a TVSA-type fuel assembly bundle. To obtain more detailed information on the coolant flow dynamics, a VVER-1000 reactor core fragment was selected as the test model, which comprised two segments of a TVSA-12 PLUS fuel assembly and one segment of a TVSA-T assembly with stiffening angles and an interassembly gap. The studies into the coolant fluid dynamics consisted in measuring the velocity vector both in representative TVSA regions and inside the interassembly gap using a five-channel pneumometric probe. An analysis into the spatial distribution of the absolute flow velocity projections made it possible to detail the TVSA spacer, mixing and combined spacer grid flow pattern, identify the regions with the maximum transverse coolant flow, and determine the depth of the coolant flow disturbance propagation and redistribution in adjacent TVSA assemblies. The results of the studies into the interassembly coolant interaction among the adjacent TVSA assemblies are used at OKBM Afrikantov to update the VVER-1000 core thermal-hydraulic analysis procedures and have been added to the database for verification of computational fluid dynamics (CFD codes and for detailed cellwise analyses of the VVER-100 reactor cores.

  11. Validation of 3D Code KATRIN For Fast Neutron Fluence Calculation of VVER-1000 Reactor Pressure Vessel by Ex-Vessel Measurements and Surveillance Specimens Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhalandinov A.


    Full Text Available Usually the synthesis of two-dimensional and one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations is used to evaluate neutron fluence on VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel (RPV for prognosis of radiation embrittlement. But there are some cases when this approach is not applicable. For example the latest projects of VVER-1000 have upgraded surveillance program. Containers with surveillance specimens are located on the inner surface of RPV with fast neutron flux maximum. Therefore, the synthesis approach is not suitable enough for calculation of local disturbance of neutron field in RPV inner surface behind the surveillance specimens because of their complicated and heterogeneous structure. In some cases the VVER-1000 core loading consists of fuel assemblies with different fuel height and the applicability of synthesis approach is also ambiguous for these fuel cycles. Also, the synthesis approach is not enough correct for the neutron fluence estimation at the RPV area above core top. Because of these reasons only the 3D neutron transport codes seem to be satisfactory for calculation of neutron fluence on the VVER-1000 RPV. The direct 3D calculations are also recommended by modern regulations.

  12. Types and analysis of defects in welding junctions of the header to steam generator shells on power-generating units with VVER-1000 (United States)

    Ozhigov, L. S.; Voevodin, V. N.; Mitrofanov, A. S.; Vasilenko, R. L.


    Investigation objects were metal templates, which were cut during the repair of welding junction no. 111 (header to the steam generator shell) on a power-generating unit with VVER-1000 of the South-Ukraine NPP, and substances of mud depositions collected from walls of this junction. Investigations were carried out using metallography, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion microanalysis by an MMO-1600-AT metallurgical microscope and a JEOL JSM-7001F scanning electron microscope with the Shottky cathode. As a result of investigations in corrosion pits and mud depositions in the area of welding junction no. 111, iron and copper-enriched particles were revealed. It is shown that, when contacting with the steel header surface, these particles can form microgalvanic cells causing reactions of iron dissolution and the pit corrosion of metal. Nearby corrosion pits in metal are microcracks, which can be effect of the stress state of metal under corrosion pits along with revealed effects of twinning. The hypothesis is expressed that pitting corrosion of metal occurred during the first operation period of the power-generating unit in the ammonia water chemistry conditions (WCC). The formation of corrosion pits and nucleating cracks from them was stopped with the further operation under morpholine WCC. The absence of macrocracks in metal of templates verifies that, during operation, welding junction no. 111 operated under load conditions not exceeding the permissible ones by design requirements. The durability of the welding junction of the header to the steam generator shell significantly depends on the technological schedule of chemical cleaning and steam generator shut-down cooling.

  13. Tissue engineering: technological advances to improve its applications in reconstructive surgery. (United States)

    Alberti, C


    Tremendous advances in biomaterials science and nanotechnologies, together with thorough research on stem cells, have recently promoted an intriguing development of regenerative medicine/tissue engineering. The nanotechnology represents a wide interdisciplinary field that implies the manipulation of different materials at nanometer level to achieve the creation of constructs that mimic the nanoscale-based architecture of native tissues. The purpose of this article is to highlight the significant new knowledges regarding this matter. To widen the range of scaffold materials resort has been carried out to either recombinant DNA technology-generated materials, such as a collagen-like protein, or the incorporation of bioactive molecules, such as RDG (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid), into synthetic products. Both the bottom-up and the top-down fabrication approaches may be properly used to respectively obtain sopramolecular architectures or, instead, micro-/nanostructures to incorporate them within a preexisting complex scaffold construct. Computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) scaffold technique allows to achieve patient-tailored organs. Stem cells, because of their peculiar properties - ability to proliferate, self-renew and specific cell-lineage differentiate under appropriate conditions - represent an attractive source for intriguing tissue engineering/regenerative medicine applications. New developments in the realization of different organs tissue engineering will depend on further progress of both the science of nanoscale-based materials and the knowledge of stem cell biology. Moreover the in vivo tissue engineering appears to be the logical step of the current research.

  14. Extracellular Wound Matrices:A Novel Regenerative Tissue Matrix (RTM) Technology for Connective Tissue Reconstruction. (United States)

    Harper, John R; McQuillan, David J


    The restoration of structure, function, and physiology to damaged or missing tissue through the use of a regenerative tissue matrix (RTM) leads to regenerative healing rather than reparative scarring. While many processes exist to transform biologic materials into an extracellular matrix (ECM), only those that maintain the required structural and biochemical properties necessary to capture the intrinsic regenerative abilities of the body are suitable to produce an RTM. Histological examination using differential staining with hematoxylin and eosin stain or Verhoeff von Geisen stain of human biopsies of RTM obtained from 2 different abdominal surgery patients taken at 8- and 12 months were consistent with RTM remodeling into fascia-like tissue. A synopsis of recent studies on the use of the RTM GraftJacket® (Wright Medical Technologies, Memphis, Tenn) in successful closure of diabetic foot wounds is presented. Collectively, these reports indicate that LifeCell produced ECMs exemplified by GraftJacket exhibit the required clinical outcomes associated with an RTM.

  15. Causal Reconstruction (United States)


    suitable source of core events supporting causal reconstruction in a range of domains might be a combination of bodily - kinesthetic and simple...suggested in the previ- ous section, a good place to start might be with causal situations involving bodily - kinesthetic events or simple mechanical events...ANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(LS) tý PJIfORMIN’, CRGANIZATION !.LPDRT NUMBEK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory 545 Technology Square AIM 1403 Cambridge

  16. Study of non-condensable gases effect on VVER steam generator operation in condensation mode at large-scale facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.; Tzyganok, A. A.; Kalyakin, D. S., E-mail: sas@ippe.r [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering by A. I. Leypunsky, Bondarenko 1 sq. Obninsk, 249033 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The NNP-2006 project of nuclear power plant with VVER-1200 reactor provides for use of passive safety systems for necessary core cooling. Among these is passive heat removal system (PHRS). In the case of leakage in the primary circuit this system assures the transition of steam generators (Sg) to operation in the mode of condensation of the primary circuit steam. As a result, the condensate from Sg arrives at the core providing its additional cooling. The joint operation of the PHRS and the system of hydro accumulators of the second stage makes it possible to assure the heat removal from the core during 24 hours. The efficiency of the system can be affected by the presence os non-condensable gases in the primary circuit. The main sources of gases are nitrogen, arriving at the circuit, as hydro accumulators actuate and products of radiolysis of water. The circuit design considered in the project makes it possible to remove gas-steam mixture from Sg. At the same time, it is necessary to ascertain if the gas removal is adequate for ensuring the design operation of Sg in the steam condensation mode. For this purpose, series of experiments have been carried out at the large-scale test facility HA2M-Sg. The test facility incorporates VVER reactor Sg model with volumetric-power scale of piping is 1:46, PHRS heat exchanger imitator and buffer tank, equipped by steam supply system. The elevations of the main equipment correspond to those of reactor project. Experiments at the HA2M-Sg test facility have been performed at the pressure 0.36-0.38 MPa, correspond to VVER reactor pressure at the last stage of the beyond design basis accident. The report presents the basic results of experiments aimed at the evaluation of Sg condensation power under the inflow of gas-steam mix to the tube bundle, both under the simulation of gas-steam mixture outflow from Sg and without outflow. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Kutyanov


    Full Text Available Objective: 9 patients with sequela of serious injuries and burns of the shoulder joint region operated in Vreden’s Scientific Research Institute of traumatology and orthopaedics (Saint-Petersburg, Russia within the period from 2000 to 2011. Methods: 12 microsurgical operations having used 12 flaps were performed. In 10 cases it was pedicled flap transfer, in 2 cases - free tissue transfer. Patients with defects of bones have been additionally fulfilled 4 operations of shoulder arthrodesis and 2 operations of interlocking intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus. The results of treatment were estimated according to modified UCLA end-results score. Results: for reconstruction of isolated scar deformations and defects of skin in the shoulder joint region in 6 cases we used pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps, in 1 case - pedicled trapezius musculocutaneous flap, and in 1 case - free radial forearm flap. In cases of shoulder arthrodesis we used pedicled latissimus dorsi osseous musculocutaneous flap with a segment of the 8th rib and free vascularized graft of iliac bone in patients with defects of bones. In two patients with circular defects of proximal humerus we fulfilled osteoplasty of the area of contact of fragments with pedicled grafts from the lower corner of scapula. 4 patients with scar contractures of shoulder-joint had excellent results, others had good results. Conclusion: tactics of using microsurgical technologies and choice of flaps in patients with pathology of shoulder-joint region should be specified for every concrete occasion. Microsurgical operations form an important part of the system of surgical treatment and are usually fulfilled simultaneously with other orthopedic operations.

  18. Simulation of a control rod ejection in a VVER-1000 reactor with the program Relap5-3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, J.J.; Gehin, J.C.; Yoder, G.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ivanov, V.K. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The RELAP5-3D code has been employed to simulate the ejection of a control rod at the Balakovo-4 plant, a VVER-1000 V320 plant located in Russia. The reactor core contains 163 assemblies, three of them Lead Test Assemblies (LTAs) with mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and the remaining 160 assemblies with UO{sub 2} fuel. The worth of the ejected control rod was $ 0,225 or 142 pcm. Results from point and three-dimensional (3-D) or nodal kinetics calculations are presented. The results from both models are similar with no significant differences. All calculated results are within safety limits, with no fuel melting or cladding failures predicted to occur. (author)

  19. The effect of boron dilution transient on the VVER-1000 reactor core using MCNP and COBRA-EN codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, Naser; Talebi, Saeed [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran Polytechnic (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Energy Engineering and Physics


    In this paper, the effect of boron dilution transient, as a consequence of the malfunction of the boron control system, was investigated in a VVER-1000 reactor, and then an appropriate setpoint was determined for the actuation of the emergency protection system to the reactor shutdown. In order to simulate the boron dilution, first, the whole reactor core was simulated by MCNPX code to compute the radial and axial power distribution. Then, the COBRA-EN code was employed using calculated power distribution for analyzing the thermal-hydraulic of hot fuel assembly and for extracting the safety parameters. For the safe operation of the reactor, certain parameters must be in defined specified ranges. Comparison between our results and FSARs data shows that the present modeling provides a good prediction of boron dilution transient with the maximum relative difference about 4%.

  20. Studying the operation of a VVER steam generator in the condensing mode at different parameters of emergency processes (United States)

    Morozov, A. V.; Shlepkin, A. S.; Kalyakin, D. S.; Soshkina, A. S.


    The article presents the results of the experimental study of heat and mass transfer processes in an NPP steam generator during the operation of passive safety systems of new-generation VVER reactor installations. At the GE2M-PG test rig in the Leypunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, two series of experiments corresponding to different stages of the accident were completed. In these experiments, the performance of VVER steam generator in the condensing mode with and without the removal of gas-vapor mixture from the "cold" header has been studied. As a result of the first series of experiments, it was found that, for any of the parameters of the emergency process, the steam generator's power does not drop below 80% of the original value. Furthermore, we revealed that the composition and physical properties of gases in the investigated concentration range did not notably affect the processes in the steam generator. In the second series of experiments without removal of noncondensable gases, the influence of parameters of the emergency process on the efficiency of heat transfer in the steam generator operating in the condensing mode was investigated. In order to study the heat transfer processes, we studied the change of the temperature difference between the media of the first and second circuits in our experiments. We found that the value of the temperature difference depends on both the mass of noncondensable gases accumulated in the tube bundle and their accumulation rate. The accumulation rate is determined by the power of the steam generator and the concentration of gases entering the steam generator. As a result of the analysis of experimental data, we obtained the analytical dependence reflecting change in the power of the steam generator operating in the emergency condensing mode.

  1. Issues in the use of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel in VVER-1000 Nuclear Reactors: Comparison of UO2 and MOX Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, J.J.


    The purpose of this report is to quantify the differences between mixed oxide (MOX) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and to assess in reasonable detail the potential impacts of MOX fuel use in VVER-1000 nuclear power plants in Russia. This report is a generic tool to assist in the identification of plant modifications that may be required to accommodate receiving, storing, handling, irradiating, and disposing of MOX fuel in VVER-1000 reactors. The report is based on information from work performed by Russian and U.S. institutions. The report quantifies each issue, and the differences between LEU and MOX fuels are described as accurately as possible, given the current sources of data.

  2. FIB/SEM technology and high-throughput 3D reconstruction of dendritic spines and synapses in GFP-labeled adult-generated neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles eBosch


    Full Text Available The fine analysis of synaptic contacts is usually performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and its combination with neuronal labeling techniques. However, the complex 3D architecture of neuronal samples calls for their reconstruction from serial sections. Here we show that focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM allows efficient, complete, and automatic 3D reconstruction of identified dendrites, including their spines and synapses, from GFP/DAB-labeled neurons, with a resolution comparable to that of TEM. We applied this technology to analyze the synaptogenesis of labeled adult-generated granule cells (GCs in mice. 3D reconstruction of spines in GCs aged 3–4 and 8–9 weeks revealed two different stages of spine development and unexpected features of synapse formation, including vacant and branched spines and presynaptic terminals establishing synapses with up to 10 spines. Given the reliability, efficiency, and high resolution of FIB/SEM technology and the wide use of DAB in conventional EM, we consider FIB/SEM fundamental for the detailed characterization of identified synaptic contacts in neurons in a high-throughput manner.

  3. FIB/SEM technology and high-throughput 3D reconstruction of dendritic spines and synapses in GFP-labeled adult-generated neurons (United States)

    Bosch, Carles; Martínez, Albert; Masachs, Nuria; Teixeira, Cátia M.; Fernaud, Isabel; Ulloa, Fausto; Pérez-Martínez, Esther; Lois, Carlos; Comella, Joan X.; DeFelipe, Javier; Merchán-Pérez, Angel; Soriano, Eduardo


    The fine analysis of synaptic contacts is usually performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and its combination with neuronal labeling techniques. However, the complex 3D architecture of neuronal samples calls for their reconstruction from serial sections. Here we show that focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) allows efficient, complete, and automatic 3D reconstruction of identified dendrites, including their spines and synapses, from GFP/DAB-labeled neurons, with a resolution comparable to that of TEM. We applied this technology to analyze the synaptogenesis of labeled adult-generated granule cells (GCs) in mice. 3D reconstruction of dendritic spines in GCs aged 3–4 and 8–9 weeks revealed two different stages of dendritic spine development and unexpected features of synapse formation, including vacant and branched dendritic spines and presynaptic terminals establishing synapses with up to 10 dendritic spines. Given the reliability, efficiency, and high resolution of FIB/SEM technology and the wide use of DAB in conventional EM, we consider FIB/SEM fundamental for the detailed characterization of identified synaptic contacts in neurons in a high-throughput manner. PMID:26052271

  4. Conducting water chemistry of the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-based nuclear power plant units constructed without using copper containing alloys (United States)

    Tyapkov, V. F.


    The secondary coolant circuit water chemistry with metering amines began to be put in use in Russia in 2005, and all nuclear power plant units equipped with VVER-1000 reactors have been shifted to operate with this water chemistry for the past seven years. Owing to the use of water chemistry with metering amines, the amount of products from corrosion of structural materials entering into the volume of steam generators has been reduced, and the flow-accelerated corrosion rate of pipelines and equipment has been slowed down. The article presents data on conducting water chemistry in nuclear power plant units with VVER-1000 reactors for the secondary coolant system equipment made without using copper-containing alloys. Statistical data are presented on conducting ammonia-morpholine and ammonia-ethanolamine water chemistries in new-generation operating power units with VVER-1000 reactors with an increased level of pH. The values of cooling water leaks in turbine condensers the tube system of which is made of stainless steel or titanium alloy are given.

  5. Step-by-step surgical technique for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flap: application of digital technology in virtual surgical planning. (United States)

    Succo, G; Berrone, M; Battiston, B; Tos, P; Goia, F; Appendino, P; Crosetti, E


    At present, mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap is the gold standard for functional and esthetic rehabilitation after oncological surgery. The purpose of this study was to describe the computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction procedure adopting the customized solution Synthes ProPlan CMF. The study reports five consecutive patients with benign or malignant disease requiring mandibular reconstruction using a microvascular fibular free flap, pre-operative virtual planning, construction of cutting guides and customized laser pre-bent titanium plates. The surgical technique is discussed in a step-by-step fashion. The average post-operative hospital stay was 18 ± 3 days. Ischemia time was recorded in all five cases, with an average of 75 ± 8 min. No problems were encountered in any surgical step and there were no major complications. Excellent precision of cutting guides and a good fit of pre-bent plates were found on both the mandible and fibula. There was excellent precision in bone to bone contact and position between mandible and fibula graft. Measurement data from the pre-operative and post-operative CT scans were compared. The average difference (Δ) between programed segment lengths and CT control segment lengths was 0.098 ± 0.077 cm. Microsurgical mandibular reconstruction using a virtual surgical planning yields significantly shorter ischemia times and allows more precise osteotomies. The technology is becoming increasingly recognized for its ability to optimize surgical outcomes and minimize operating time. Considering that the extent of resection can be wider than predicted, this results in safer modeling of the fibula only after frozen sections have demonstrated the radicality of resection.

  6. Comparison of ENDF/B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 in VVER-1000 operational data calculation (United States)

    Frybort, Jan


    Safe operation of a nuclear reactor requires an extensive calculational support. Operational data are determined by full-core calculations during the design phase of a fuel loading. Loading pattern and design of fuel assemblies are adjusted to meet safety requirements and optimize reactor operation. Nodal diffusion code ANDREA is used for this task in case of Czech VVER-1000 reactors. Nuclear data for this diffusion code are prepared regularly by lattice code HELIOS. These calculations are conducted in 2D on fuel assembly level. There is also possibility to calculate these macroscopic data by Monte-Carlo Serpent code. It can make use of alternative evaluated libraries. All calculations are affected by inherent uncertainties in nuclear data. It is useful to see results of full-core calculations based on two sets of diffusion data obtained by Serpent code calculations with ENDF/B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 nuclear data including also decay data library and fission yields data. The comparison is based directly on fuel assembly level macroscopic data and resulting operational data. This study illustrates effect of evaluated nuclear data library on full-core calculations of a large PWR reactor core. The level of difference which results exclusively from nuclear data selection can help to understand the level of inherent uncertainties of such full-core calculations.

  7. Comparison of ENDF/B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 in VVER-1000 operational data calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frybort Jan


    Full Text Available Safe operation of a nuclear reactor requires an extensive calculational support. Operational data are determined by full-core calculations during the design phase of a fuel loading. Loading pattern and design of fuel assemblies are adjusted to meet safety requirements and optimize reactor operation. Nodal diffusion code ANDREA is used for this task in case of Czech VVER-1000 reactors. Nuclear data for this diffusion code are prepared regularly by lattice code HELIOS. These calculations are conducted in 2D on fuel assembly level. There is also possibility to calculate these macroscopic data by Monte-Carlo Serpent code. It can make use of alternative evaluated libraries. All calculations are affected by inherent uncertainties in nuclear data. It is useful to see results of full-core calculations based on two sets of diffusion data obtained by Serpent code calculations with ENDF/B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 nuclear data including also decay data library and fission yields data. The comparison is based directly on fuel assembly level macroscopic data and resulting operational data. This study illustrates effect of evaluated nuclear data library on full-core calculations of a large PWR reactor core. The level of difference which results exclusively from nuclear data selection can help to understand the level of inherent uncertainties of such full-core calculations.

  8. Almost twenty years' search of transuranium isotopes in effluents discharged to air from nuclear power plants with VVER reactors. (United States)

    Hölgye, Z; Filgas, R


    Airborne effluents of 5 stacks (stacks 1-5) of three nuclear power plants, with 9 pressurized water reactors VVER of 4,520 MWe total power, were searched for transuranium isotopes in different time periods. The search started in 1985. The subject of this work is a presentation of discharge data for the period of 1998-2003 and a final evaluation. It was found that 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 244Cm can be present in airborne effluents. Transuranium isotope contents in most of the quarterly effluent samples from stacks 2, 4 and 5 were not measurable. Transuranium isotopes were present in the effluents from stack l during all 9 years of the study and from stack 3 since the 3rd quarter of 1996 as a result of a defect in the fuel cladding. A relatively high increase of transuranium isotopes in effluents from stack 3 occurred in the 3rd quarter of 1999, and a smaller increase occurred in the 3rd quarter of 2003. In each instance 242Cm prevailed in the transuranium isotope mixtures. 238Pu/239,240Pu, 241Am/239,240Pu, 242Cm/239,240Pu, and 244Cm/239,240Pu ratios in fuel for different burn-up were calculated, and comparison of these ratios in fuel and effluents was performed.

  9. Unveiling Damnatio Memoriae. The use of 3D digital technologies for the virtual reconstruction of archaeological finds and artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini


    The aim of this paper is to show how the possibility to acquire 3D reality-based data from archaeological finds allows to build 3D digital models that can be analysed and managed in a virtual environment and can be relocated, assembled or restored in order to suggest or graphically support archaeologists’ interpretations and reconstructions. The paper shows the methodology developed for the virtual restoration of the statue of Nero starting from the 3D digitization of the torso that was found 500 years ago by the Roman theatre of Bologna, Italy, the ancient Bononia.

  10. Return to sport after ACL reconstruction: a survey between the Italian Society of Knee, Arthroscopy, Sport, Cartilage and Orthopaedic Technologies (SIGASCOT) members. (United States)

    Grassi, Alberto; Vascellari, Alberto; Combi, Alberto; Tomaello, Luca; Canata, Gian Luigi; Zaffagnini, Stefano


    A worldwide consensus for timing and criteria for return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is lacking. The aim of the study was to survey among the Italian Society of Knee, Arthroscopy, Sport, Cartilage and Orthopaedic Technologies (SIGASCOT) members in order to evaluate their approaches to the return to sport after ACL reconstruction regarding timing and criteria. A web survey among the SIGASCOT members was performed, including 14 questions regarding technical and graft preferences, timing for return to training and competitive activity for contact and non-contact sports and criteria to allow return to sport. Totally, 123 members completed the questionnaire. Return to training sports was allowed within 6 month by 87 % for non-contact sports and by 53 % for contact sports. Return to competitive activity was allowed within 6 months by 48 % for non-contact sports and by 13 % for contact sports. Full ROM (77 %), Lachman test (65 %) and Pivot-Shift test (65 %) were the most used criteria to allow return to sport. The 90 % used at least one clinical score. The SIGASCOT members showed various approaches in the return to sport after ACL reconstruction, with differences between return to training or competitive activity, and between contact and non-contact sports. Six months was generally considered adequate by most of the members for the most demanding activities. The most used criteria to allow return to sport were manual testing. A clear definition of sport activities and more objective criteria for the return to sport are needed. Level V, expert opinion.

  11. Digital reconstruction of the Song Dynasty Ganzhou drainage system based on AR technology and its’ application in the new urban area planning and revision (United States)

    Cao, H. L.; Chen, Y. L.; Tao, T. H.


    Water-logging problem is a common problem in modern city. The urban built-up area of Zhangjiang new district in Ganzhou has the same water-logging problem, however, the old urban area of Ganzhou was praised as “Millennium no flood”. The drainage system of the old urban area of Ganzhou—Fushougou, which is not flooded for hundreds years because of the perfect drainage system. It’s valuable to be referenced to the modern city drainage and waterproof comprehensive planning. In order to explore the mystery of “Millennium no flood” of old urban area of Ganzhou, at the same time to provide directive opinion to the sustainability of Zhangjiang new urban area drainage system, this paper attempts to digital reconstruct the drainage system in old urban area of Ganzhou by augmented reality(AR). It will provide a new technological means and ways to evaluate the sustainability of urban underground drainage system under the surface feature changes in the landscape. On the basis of digital reconstruction of the drainage system in the old urban area of Ganzhou, the sustainability evaluation index of drainage system is studied by analyzing and contrasting with Zhangjiang new urban area drainage system, to guide the revision of comprehensive planning about city drainage and water-logging in the new urban area of Zhangjiang.

  12. A research project with students of Information and Communication Technology in obligatory secondary education: virtual reconstruction of the thermal area of the roman villa of Balazote (Albacete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mediano Serrano


    Full Text Available The optional subject Information and Communication Technology (ICT in obligatory secondary education is fundamentally about how to use applications. The software related to this subject is based on: photo editing programs, 3D constructions, sound editing and video editing. These can be viewed in isolation and independently or as a part of a comprehensive project in which students have to handle all of them at once. This article will explain a project with students: the virtual reconstruction of the thermal area of the roman villa of Balazote (Albacete. The goal was to improve student motivation and get actively involved in their learning process. Students used computers and classes of the course to conduct such research. First, the necessary information was sought, and then, based on that information and using different software about virtual reconstruction and recording and editing films: Gimp, SketchUP, Movie Maker, etc., our film was made. The result of this work is a film consisting of a virtual tour inside the roman villa.

  13. Fabrication of Tissue-Engineered Bionic Urethra Using Cell Sheet Technology and Labeling By Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide for Full-Thickness Urethral Reconstruction. (United States)

    Zhou, Shukui; Yang, Ranxin; Zou, Qingsong; Zhang, Kaile; Yin, Ting; Zhao, Weixin; Shapter, Joseph G; Gao, Guo; Fu, Qiang


    Urethral strictures remain a reconstructive challenge, due to less than satisfactory outcomes and high incidence of stricture recurrence. An "ideal" urethral reconstruction should establish similar architecture and function as the original urethral wall. We fabricated a novel tissue-engineered bionic urethras using cell sheet technology and report their viability in a canine model. Small amounts of oral and adipose tissues were harvested, and adipose-derived stem cells, oral mucosal epithelial cells, and oral mucosal fibroblasts were isolated and used to prepare cell sheets. The cell sheets were hierarchically tubularized to form 3-layer tissue-engineered urethras and labeled by ultrasmall super-paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO). The constructed tissue-engineered urethras were transplanted subcutaneously for 3 weeks to promote the revascularization and biomechanical strength of the implant. Then, 2 cm length of the tubularized penile urethra was replaced by tissue-engineered bionic urethra. At 3 months of urethral replacement, USPIO-labeled tissue-engineered bionic urethra can be effectively detected by MRI at the transplant site. Histologically, the retrieved bionic urethras still displayed 3 layers, including an epithelial layer, a fibrous layer, and a myoblast layer. Three weeks after subcutaneous transplantation, immunofluorescence analysis showed the density of blood vessels in bionic urethra was significantly increased following the initial establishment of the constructs and was further up-regulated at 3 months after urethral replacement and was close to normal level in urethral tissue. Our study is the first to experimentally demonstrate 3-layer tissue-engineered urethras can be established using cell sheet technology and can promote the regeneration of structural and functional urethras similar to normal urethra.

  14. Investigations of the VVER-1000 coolant transient benchmark phase 1 with the coupled code system RELAP5/PARCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Espinoza, Victor Hugo


    As part of the reactor dynamics activities of FZK/IRS, the qualification of best-estimate coupled code systems for reactor safety evaluations is a key step toward improving their prediction capability and acceptability. The VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmark Phase 1 represents an excellent opportunity to validate the simulation capability of the coupled code system RELAP5/PACRS regarding both the thermal hydraulic plant response (RELAP5) using measured data obtained during commissioning tests at the Kozloduy nuclear power plant unit 6 and the neutron kinetics models of PARCS for hexagonal geometries. The Phase 1 is devoted to the analysis of the switching on of one main coolant pump while the other three pumps are in operation. It includes the following exercises: (a) investigation of the integral plant response using a best-estimate thermal hydraulic system code with a point kinetics model (b) analysis of the core response for given initial and transient thermal hydraulic boundary conditions using a coupled code system with 3D-neutron kinetics model and (c) investigation of the integral plant response using a best-estimate coupled code system with 3D-neutron kinetics. Already before the test, complex flow conditions exist within the RPV e.g. coolant mixing in the upper plenum caused by the reverse flow through the loop-3 with the stopped pump. The test is initiated by switching on the main coolant pump of loop-3 that leads to a reversal of the flow through the respective piping. After about 13 s the mass flow rate through this loop reaches values comparable with the one of the other loops. During this time period, the increased primary coolant flow causes a reduction of the core averaged coolant temperature and thus an increase of the core power. Later on, the power stabilizes at a level higher than the initial power. In this analysis, special attention is paid on the prediction of the spatial asymmetrical core cooling during the test and its effects on the

  15. Experimental investigation of non-equilibrium thermal-hydraulic processes in a new passive VVER core reflooding system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergey G Kalyakin; Andrey V Morozov; Oleg V Remizov; Alexandr A Tzyganok [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering by A.I. Leypunsky, IPPE, 1, Bondarenko sq., Obninsk, 249030 (Russian Federation)


    Full text of publication follows: In the systems of passive reactor cooling and core reflooding from above under accident conditions, the cold water flows out into countercurrent steam flow; that is, the direct contact between steam and liquid occurs simultaneously over all cross-sections of pipes/closed spaces. The process is complicated by additional effect of steam condensation and droplet flow towards the steam flow. The processes of heat and mass transfer proceed simultaneously at variable liquid level. These factors give rise to a nonsteady, non-equilibrium two-phase flow. The operating conditions of such a non-steady process, the main of which being the time of closed water volume dump (or the flow coefficient), can be obtained only experimentally. The present work is devoted to the experimental investigations of the interaction of saturated steam with cold water at its flowing out from a closed space with a variable level and some characteristics of dynamic two-phase layer at the steam/liquid interface. With reference to the system of passive heat removal from VVER core, the processes of interaction of saturated steam, steam-water mixture, and air with cold water at its flowing out from a vertical plugged pipe with an internal diameter of 50 and 100 mm have been studied at a pressure of 0.5 MPa. It has been stated experimentally that the dump rate of subcooled water from a plugged pipe into steam is nearly an order of magnitude less than that into non-condensable gas media. The semi-empirical correlation describing the processes of water outflow from plugged pipes into steam is of the form of: W-bar = C{sub 0} {radical}(gd), where C{sub 0} is the dimensionless constant, d is the pipe internal diameter, m, g = 9.81 m/s{sup 2}. (authors)

  16. Optimization and reconstruction technology of SCR flue gas denitrification ultra low emission in coal fired power plant (United States)

    Li, Xinhao


    In recent decades, nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from thermal power plant increased year by year in China. A large number of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions caused by the growing environmental problems have been widely attached importance to people. SCR denitrification technology has the advantages of cleanliness and high efficiency. At present, it has been the major technology to control NOx emission because of its high denitrification efficiency, reliable operation, no by-products and simple structure of the device. The denitrification efficiency can be stabilized at 70%. In this paper, three different denitrification methods are compared. The factors influencing the denitrification efficiency, the system arrangement and the key factors of the denitrification system are discussed in detail. And the numerical simulation of how to use this calculation software in the SCR reactor flue, baffle, reactor, spray ammonia grille and spray ammonia, mixer, etc. are reviewed, as well as the effect of system operation control on the deoxidation performance.

  17. Prospects of VVER-SKD reactor in a closed fuel cycle


    Glebov, A.P.; Klushin, A.V.; Yu.D. Baranaev


    At the new centure's begin eight countries with developed nuclear power industry took part under the aegis of the IAEA in research of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles to choose a nuclear power system with fast reactors based on a closed fuel cycle (CFC) and to perform joint R&D in this direction. An agreement was reached on the use of based on proven technologies CNFC-FR (Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Fast Reactors), as a reference system for common assessment. Common principle...

  18. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.


    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  19. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  20. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction. (United States)

    Clark, Darin P; Badea, Cristian T


    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  1. Influence of operation factors on brittle fracture initiation and critical local normal stress in SE(B) type specimens of VVER reactor pressure vessel steels (United States)

    Kuleshova, E. A.; Erak, A. D.; Kiselev, A. S.; Bubyakin, S. A.; Bandura, A. P.


    A complex of mechanical tests and fractographic studies of VVER-1000 RPV SE(B) type surveillance specimens was carried out: the brittle fracture origins were revealed (non-metallic inclusions and structural boundaries) and the correlation between fracture toughness parameters (CTOD) and fracture surface parameters (CID) was established. A computational and experimental method of the critical local normal stress determination for different origin types was developed. The values of the critical local normal stress for the structural boundary origin type both for base and weld metal after thermal exposure and neutron irradiation are lower than that for initial state due to the lower cohesive strength of grain boundaries as a result of phosphorus segregation.

  2. The influence of operational and water chemistry parameters on the deposits of corrosion products on fuel assemblies at nuclear power plants with VVER reactors (United States)

    Kritskii, V. G.; Berezina, I. G.; Rodionov, Yu. A.; Gavrilov, A. V.


    The phenomenon involving a growth of pressure drop in the reactor core and redistribution of deposits in the reactor core and primary coolant circuit of a nuclear power station equipped with VVER-440 reactors is considered. A model is developed, the physicochemical foundation of which is based on the dependence of corrosion product transfer on the temperature and pH t value of coolant and on the correlation between the formation rate of corrosion products (Fe) (after subjecting the steam generators to decontamination) and rate with which they are removed from the circuit. The purpose of the simulation carried on the model is to predict the growth of pressure drop on the basis of field data obtained from nuclear power installations and correct the water chemistry (by adjusting the concentrations of KOH, H2, and NH3) so as to keep the pressure drop in the reactor at a stable level.

  3. Sensitivity of hydrodynamic parameters' distributions in VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel (RPV) with respect to uncertainty of the local hydraulic resistance coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasichnyk, I.; Velkov, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany); Nikonov, S. [NRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The paper presents an uncertainty and sensitivity (U and S) study of the VVER-1000 reactor hydraulic properties. It is based on the OECD/NEA coolant transient Benchmark (K-3) on measured data at Kalinin-3 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The novelty of the work consists of taking into consideration all hydraulic uncertainty parameters used in the modeling of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) internals. A detailed parallel channel ATHLET model of the RPV is developed. It consists of ca. 26 600 control volumes most of them connected with junctions for cross flows. The specific geometry of the gap between upper part of the baffle and upper part of fuel assembly and also a fuel assembly head is taken explicitly into account The influence of the input parameters on the sensitivity and uncertainty of the RPV outlet and inlet temperatures and mass flows as well assembly-wise mass flow and coolant temperature axial distributions is shown.

  4. Climate Reconstructions (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large holdings...

  5. [Eyebrow reconstruction]. (United States)

    Baraër, F; Darsonval, V; Lejeune, F; Bochot-Hermouet, B; Rousseau, P


    The eyebrow is an essential anatomical area, from a social point of view, so its reconstruction, in case of skin defect, must be as meticulous as possible, with the less residual sequela. Capillary density extremely varies from one person to another and the different methods of restoration of this area should absolutely take this into consideration. We are going to review the various techniques of reconstruction, according to the sex and the surface to cover. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaginal reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesavoy, M.A.


    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients.

  7. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy On This Page What is breast reconstruction? How ... are some new developments in breast reconstruction after mastectomy? What is breast reconstruction? Many women who have ...

  8. Breast reconstruction - implants (United States)

    Breast implants surgery; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with implants; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with implants ... to make reconstruction easier. If you will have breast reconstruction later, your surgeon will remove enough skin ...

  9. Nonlinear reconstruction (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran


    We present a direct approach to nonparametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed nonlinear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the nonlinear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to the nonlinear scale (rδrδL>0.5 for k ≲1 h /Mpc ) with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully nonlinear fields, potentially substantially expanding the baryon acoustic oscillations and redshift space distortions information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21 cm intensity mapping initiatives.

  10. Start-up of a cold loop in a VVER-440, the 7{sup th} AER benchmark calculation with HEXTRAN-SMABRE-PORFLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovi, Ville; Taivassalo, Veikko; Haemaelaeinen, Anitta; Raety, Hanna; Syrjaelahti, Elina [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, VTT (Finland)


    The 7{sup th} dynamic AER benchmark is the first in which three-dimensional thermal hydraulics codes are supposed to be applied. The aim is to get a more precise core inlet temperature profile than the sector temperatures available typically with system codes. The benchmark consists of a start-up of the sixth, isolated loop in a VVER-440 plant. The isolated loop initially contains cold water without boric acid and the start-up leads to a somewhat asymmetrical core power increase due to feedbacks in the core. In this study, the 7{sup th} AER benchmark is calculated with the three-dimensional nodal reactor dynamics code HEXTRAN-SMABRE coupled with the porous computational fluid dynamics code PORFLO. These three codes are developed at VTT. A novel two-way coupled simulation of the 7{sup th} AER benchmark was performed successfully demonstrating the feasibility and advantages of the new reactor analysis framework. The modelling issues for this benchmark are reported and some evaluation against the previously reported comparisons between the system codes is provided.

  11. Calculation of the VVER-1000 coolant transient benchmark using the coupled code systems DYN3D/RELAP5 and DYN3D/ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozmenkov, Y. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research, P.O.B. 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Kliem, S. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research, P.O.B. 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail:; Grundmann, U. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research, P.O.B. 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Rohde, U. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research, P.O.B. 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Weiss, F.-P. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research, P.O.B. 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)


    Plant-measured data provided by the OECD/NEA VVER-1000 coolant transient benchmark programme were used to validate the DYN3D/RELAP5 and DYN3D/ATHLET coupled code systems. Phase 1 of the benchmark (V1000CT-1) refers to an experiment that was conducted during the commissioning of the Kozloduy NPP Unit 6 in Bulgaria. In this experiment, the fourth main coolant pump was switched on whilst the remaining three were running normal operating conditions. The experiment was conducted at 27.5% of the nominal level of the reactor power. The transient is characterized by a rapid increase in the primary coolant flow through the core, and as a consequence, a decrease of the space-dependent core inlet temperature. The control rods were kept in their original positions during the entire transient. The coupled simulations performed on both DYN3D/RELAP5 and DYN3D/ATHLET were based on the same reactor model, including identical main coolant pump characteristics, boundary conditions, benchmark-specified nuclear data library and nearly identical nodalization schemes. In addition to validation of the coupled code systems against measured data, a code-to-code comparison between simulation results has also been performed to evaluate the respective thermal hydraulic models of the system codes RELAP5 and ATHLET.

  12. Porcelain three-dimensional shape reconstruction and its color reconstruction (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyang; Wu, Haibin; Yang, Xue; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Beiyi; Chen, Deyun


    In this paper, structured light three-dimensional measurement technology was used to reconstruct the porcelain shape, and further more the porcelain color was reconstructed. So the accurate reconstruction of the shape and color of porcelain was realized. Our shape measurement installation drawing is given. Because the porcelain surface is color complex and highly reflective, the binary Gray code encoding is used to reduce the influence of the porcelain surface. The color camera was employed to obtain the color of the porcelain surface. Then, the comprehensive reconstruction of the shape and color was realized in Java3D runtime environment. In the reconstruction process, the space point by point coloration method is proposed and achieved. Our coloration method ensures the pixel corresponding accuracy in both of shape and color aspects. The porcelain surface shape and color reconstruction experimental results completed by proposed method and our installation, show that: the depth range is 860 ˜ 980mm, the relative error of the shape measurement is less than 0.1%, the reconstructed color of the porcelain surface is real, refined and subtle, and has the same visual effect as the measured surface.

  13. Computer Based Road Accident Reconstruction Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Batista


    Full Text Available Since road accident analyses and reconstructions are increasinglybased on specific computer software for simulationof vehicle d1iving dynamics and collision dynamics, and forsimulation of a set of trial runs from which the model that bestdescribes a real event can be selected, the paper presents anoverview of some computer software and methods available toaccident reconstruction experts. Besides being time-saving,when properly used such computer software can provide moreauthentic and more trustworthy accident reconstruction, thereforepractical experiences while using computer software toolsfor road accident reconstruction obtained in the TransportSafety Laboratory at the Faculty for Maritime Studies andTransport of the University of Ljubljana are presented and discussed.This paper addresses also software technology for extractingmaximum information from the accident photo-documentationto support accident reconstruction based on the simulationsoftware, as well as the field work of reconstruction expertsor police on the road accident scene defined by this technology.

  14. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov


    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal...... interviews, and seven semistructured interviews. The findings show that staff interaction is typified by the use of trust and relationship-enabling care, which is characterized by the establishment and maintenance of an informal, trusting relationship through a repeated reconstruction of normality...

  15. Implementation of a fast running full core pin power reconstruction method in DYN3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Torres, Armando Miguel [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Department of Nuclear Systems, Carretera Mexico – Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, 52750 Ocoyoacac (Mexico); Sanchez-Espinoza, Victor Hugo, E-mail: [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-vom-Helmhotz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kliem, Sören; Gommlich, Andre [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)


    Highlights: • New pin power reconstruction (PPR) method for the nodal diffusion code DYN3D. • Flexible PPR method applicable to a single, a group or to all fuel assemblies (square, hex). • Combination of nodal with pin-wise solutions (non-conform geometry). • PPR capabilities shown for REA of a Minicore (REA) PWR whole core. - Abstract: This paper presents a substantial extension of the pin power reconstruction (PPR) method used in the reactor dynamics code DYN3D with the aim to better describe the heterogeneity within the fuel assembly during reactor simulations. The flexibility of the new implemented PPR permits the local spatial refinement of one fuel assembly, of a cluster of fuel assemblies, of a quarter or eight of a core or even of a whole core. The application of PPR in core regions of interest will pave the way for the coupling with sub-channel codes enabling the prediction of local safety parameters. One of the main advantages of considering regions and not only a hot fuel assembly (FA) is the fact that the cross flow within this region can be taken into account by the subchannel code. The implementation of the new PPR method has been tested analysing a rod ejection accident (REA) in a PWR minicore consisting of 3 × 3 FA. Finally, the new capabilities of DNY3D are demonstrated by the analysing a boron dilution transient in a PWR MOX core and the pin power of a VVER-1000 reactor at stationary conditions.

  16. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing


    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  17. Using a combination of weighting factor method and imperialist competitive algorithm to improve speed and enhance process of reloading pattern optimization of VVER-1000 reactors in transient cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, Yashar, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahvari, Yaser [Department of Computer Engineering, Payame Noor University (PNU), P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kia, Faezeh [Golestan Institute of Higher Education, Gorgan 49139-83635 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: • This article was an attempt to optimize reloading pattern of Bushehr VVER-1000 reactor. • A combination of weighting factor method and the imperialist competitive algorithm was used. • The speed of optimization and desirability of the proposed pattern increased considerably. • To evaluate arrangements, a coupling of WIMSD5-B, CITATION-LDI2 and WERL codes was used. • Results reflected the considerable superiority of the proposed method over direct optimization. - Abstract: In this research, an innovative solution is described which can be used with a combination of the new imperialist competitive algorithm and the weighting factor method to improve speed and increase globality of search in reloading pattern optimization of VVER-1000 reactors in transient cycles and even obtain more desirable results than conventional direct method. In this regard, to reduce the scope of the assumed searchable arrangements, first using the weighting factor method and based on values of these coefficients in each of the 16 types of loadable fuel assemblies in the second cycle, the fuel assemblies were classified in more limited groups. In consequence, the types of fuel assemblies were reduced from 16 to 6 and consequently the number of possible arrangements was reduced considerably. Afterwards, in the first phase of optimization the imperialist competitive algorithm was used to propose an optimum reloading pattern with 6 groups. In the second phase, the algorithm was reused for finding desirable placement of the subset assemblies of each group in the optimum arrangement obtained from the previous phase, and thus the retransformation of the optimum arrangement takes place from the virtual 6-group mode to the real mode with 16 fuel types. In this research, the optimization process was conducted in two states. In the first state, it was tried to obtain an arrangement with the maximum effective multiplication factor and the smallest maximum power peaking factor. In

  18. The passive system for reflooding of the VVER reactor core from the second-stage hydro-accumulators: design and basic design solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandr D Efanov; Sergey G Kalyakin; Andrey V Morozov; Oleg V Remizov [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering by A.I. Leypunsky, IPPE, 1, Bondarenko sq., Obninsk, 249030 (Russian Federation); Vladimir M Berkovich; Victor N Krushelnitskiy; Vladimir G Peresadko [FSUE Atomenergoproekt, B-5, 1 bldg.7, Bakuninskaya, 107005, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yuri G Dragunov; Alexey K Podshibyakin; Sergey I Zaitcev [FSUE OKB Gidropress, 21, Ordzhonikidze street, 142103 Podolsk (Russian Federation)


    Full text of publication follows: The fundamental difference in the safety assurance of the operating NPPs and those under design implies that the safety in the existing NPPs is achieved by energy-dependent (active) systems and depends on the proficiency of attending personnel. To provide safety, the new NPP designs use the physical processes proceeding in the facility without power supply; and they are unaffected by human errors. As to the safety level, the design of the new generation nuclear power plant NPP-92 relates to the class of the improved NPPs; and it applies a principle of diversity in the structure of systems responsible for critical safety functions. In accordance with the above-mentioned safety concept, the design development required a complex of experimental investigations and numerical modeling to be conducted. Among the passive safety systems of the NPP with RP-392 is the system of the second stage hydro-accumulators (GE-2). The system of the second-stage hydro-accumulators consists of four groups of hydro-accumulating tanks with a total coolant volume of 960 m{sup 3}. The system is intended for the core flooding with coolant during 24 hours. In each group of the hydro-accumulators, the graded coolant flowrate is provided, which depends on residual heat in the reactor. The special check valves are tuned to open at the pressure drop in the circuit below 1.5 MPa. The paper presents the thermalhydraulic substantiation of the serviceability of the second-stage hydro-accumulators system for passive heat removal from the VVER reactor core and the basic design solutions on the GE-2 system. (authors)

  19. Prediction and modeling of the two-dimensional separation characteristic of a steam generator at a nuclear power station with VVER-1000 reactors (United States)

    Parchevsky, V. M.; Guryanova, V. V.


    A computational and experimental procedure for construction of the two-dimensional separation curve (TDSC) for a horizontal steam generator (SG) at a nuclear power station (NPS) with VVER-reactors. In contrast to the conventional one-dimensional curve describing the wetness of saturated steam generated in SG as a function of the boiler water level at one, usually rated, load, TDSC is a function of two variables, which are the level and the load of SGB that enables TDSC to be used for wetness control in a wide load range. The procedure is based on two types of experimental data obtained during rated load operation: the nonuniformity factor of the steam load at the outlet from the submerged perforated sheet (SPS) and the dependence of the mass water level in the vicinity of the "hot" header on the water level the "cold" end of SG. The TDSC prediction procedure is presented in the form of an algorithm using SG characteristics, such as steam load and water level as the input and giving the calculated steam wetness at the output. The zoneby-zone calculation method is used. The result is presented in an analytical form (as an empirical correlation) suitable for uploading into controllers or other controls. The predicted TDSC can be used during real-time operation for implementation of different wetness control scenarios (for example, if the effectiveness is a priority, then the minimum water level, minimum wetness, and maximum turbine efficiency should be maintained; if safety is a priority, then the maximum level at the allowable wetness and the maximum water inventory should be kept), for operation of NPS in controlling the frequency and power in a power system, at the design phase (as a part of the simulation complex for verification of design solutions), during construction and erection (in developing software for personnel training simulators), during commissioning tests (to reduce the duration and labor-intensity of experimental activities), and for training.

  20. A benefit-cost analysis for the use of intelligent transportation systems technology for temporary construction zone traffic management on the I-496 reconstruction in Lansing, Michigan (United States)


    This paper presents a benefit cost analysis of applying intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technology to temporary work zone traffic control along Interstate 496 in the Lansing, Michigan, area. The author presented an analysis that indicated th...

  1. Reconstructive Urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Fatih Önol


    Full Text Available In the treatment of urethral stricture, Buccal Mucosa Graft (BMG and reconstruction is applied with different patch techniques. Recently often prefered, this approach is, in bulber urethra strictures of BMG’s; by “ventral onley”, in pendulous urethra because of thinner spingiosis body, which provides support and nutrition of graft; by means of “dorsal inley” being anastomosis. In the research that Cordon et al. did, they compared conventional BMJ “onley” urethroplast and “pseudo-spongioplasty” which base on periurethral vascular tissues to be nourished by closing onto graft. In repairment of front urethras that spongiosis supportive tissue is insufficient, this method is defined as peripheral dartos [çevre dartos?] and buck’s fascia being mobilized and being combined on BMG patch. Between the years 2007 and 2012, assessment of 56 patients with conventional “ventral onley” BMG urethroplast and 46 patients with “pseudo-spongioplasty” were reported to have similar success rates (80% to 84% in 3.5 year follow-up on average. While 74% of the patients that were applied pseudo-spongioplasty had disease present at distal urethra (pendulous, bulbopendulous, 82% of the patients which were applied conventional onley urethroplast had stricture at proximal (bulber urethra yet. Also lenght of the stricture at the pseudo-spongioplasty group was longer in a statistically significant way (5.8 cm to 4.7 cm on average, p=0.028. This study which Cordon et al. did, shows that conditions in which conventional sponjiyoplasti is not possible, periurethral vascular tissues are adequate to nourish BMG. Even it is an important technique in terms of bringing a new point of view to today’s practice, data especially about complications that may show up after pseudo-spongioplasty usage on long distal strictures (e.g. appearance of urethral diverticulum is not reported. Along with this we think that, providing an oppurtinity to patch directly

  2. Localized and efficient cardiac CT reconstruction (United States)

    Clark, D. P.; Badea, C. T.


    The superiority of iterative reconstruction techniques over classic analytical ones is well documented in a variety of CT imaging applications where radiation dose and sampling time are limiting factors. However, by definition, the iterative nature of advanced reconstruction techniques is accompanied by a substantial increase in data processing time. This problem is further exacerbated in temporal and spectral CT reconstruction problems where the gap between the amount of data acquired and the amount of data to be reconstructed is exaggerated within the framework of compressive sensing. Two keys to overcoming this barrier include (1) advancements in parallel-computing technology and (2) advancements in data-efficient reconstruction. In this work, we propose a novel, two-stage strategy for 4D cardiac CT reconstruction which leverages these two keys by (1) exploiting GPU computing hardware and by (2) reconstructing temporal contrast on a limited spatial domain. Following a review of the proposed algorithm, we demonstrate its application in retrospectively gated cardiac CT reconstruction using the 4D MOBY mouse phantom. Quantitatively, reconstructing the temporal contrast on a limited domain reduces the overall reconstruction error by 20% and the reconstruction error within the dynamic portion of the phantom by 15% (root-mean-square error metric). A complementary in vivo mouse experiment demonstrates a suitable reconstruction fidelity to allow the measurement of cardiac functional metrics while reducing computation time by 75% relative to direct reconstruction of ten phases of the cardiac cycle. We believe that the proposed algorithm will serve as the basis for novel, data-efficient, multi-dimensional CT reconstruction techniques.

  3. The Uluzzian technology of Grotta di Fumane and its implication for reconstructing cultural dynamics in the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition of Western Eurasia. (United States)

    Peresani, Marco; Cristiani, Emanuela; Romandini, Matteo


    From the intricate ensemble of evidence related to the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition and the presumed first spread of anatomically modern humans in Europe, the Uluzzian has attracted major attention in the past few years. Although the Uluzzian has been viewed as a supposed product of modern humans settling in Mediterranean Europe, the techno-cultural complex has been the subject of few investigations aiming to clarify its chronology, bone industry, and settlement dynamics. Further, little is known of its technological structure. This article presents the results of an extensive study of the lithic and bone technologies from assemblages recovered at Fumane Cave in the north of Italy. Results confirm that the Uluzzian is a flake-dominated industry that brings together a set of technological innovations. The Levallois is the most used method in the initial phase, which is replaced by more varied flaking procedures and an increase in bladelets and flake-blades. Sidescrapers and points also represent a Mousterian feature in the initial phase, while splintered pieces, backed knives and other Upper Palaeolithic tools increase in the later phase. Our results suggest that the Uluzzian is rooted in the Mousterian lithic technological context and cannot be viewed as a proxy for anatomically modern humans, the carriers of the abrupt cultural changes related to the Aurignacian. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Yang


    Full Text Available ICOMOS Florence Declaration in 2014, encourages an in-depth reflection on human values through cultural heritage and landscapes, which emphasizes the importance of historical heritage sites, in order to achieve the application of cultural heritage records through the public participation, sharing new technology platform and facilitation tools for knowledge diffusion, for instance. Nikos adopted digitized intangible cultural heritage within i-Treasures project to create a novel digital platform in 2016. Nowadays, the display platform developed based on geographic information system has been gradually accepted and widely used to distribute cultural heritage information, aiming to combine geography, time, events, issues, trends with the interactive maps to show the context of data changes from the consideration of planarity; for example, Burnaby City in Canada has cooperated with the Columbia University to create a navigation platform for guidance of tangible cultural heritage based on story maps in order to provide public recognition function. In this study, Qiong-Lin Settlement in Kinmen Area was taken as an example to illustrate the developing process of an overall planning framework for reappearing the glory of historic settlements of cultural heritage sites with digital technology, which included tangible and intangible cultural heritage preservation and transmission planning, community participation and digital navigation programs. The digital technology with the GIS-based digital platform can provide more diverse and interesting information while using an intuitive, graphical user story mapping interface. So that tangible cultural heritage can be effectively understood, interpreted and preserved with the value-added methods, and also intangible cultural heritage can be continuously transmitted to establish a complete system of cultural heritage preservation. The main contents include several navigation technologies, such as 3D laser scanning

  5. Planning by Using Digital Technology in the Reconstruction of Cultural Heritage Sites - a Case Study of Qiong-Lin Settlement in Kinmen Area (United States)

    Yang, W. B.; Ye, Y. N.


    ICOMOS Florence Declaration in 2014, encourages an in-depth reflection on human values through cultural heritage and landscapes, which emphasizes the importance of historical heritage sites, in order to achieve the application of cultural heritage records through the public participation, sharing new technology platform and facilitation tools for knowledge diffusion, for instance. Nikos adopted digitized intangible cultural heritage within i-Treasures project to create a novel digital platform in 2016. Nowadays, the display platform developed based on geographic information system has been gradually accepted and widely used to distribute cultural heritage information, aiming to combine geography, time, events, issues, trends with the interactive maps to show the context of data changes from the consideration of planarity; for example, Burnaby City in Canada has cooperated with the Columbia University to create a navigation platform for guidance of tangible cultural heritage based on story maps in order to provide public recognition function. In this study, Qiong-Lin Settlement in Kinmen Area was taken as an example to illustrate the developing process of an overall planning framework for reappearing the glory of historic settlements of cultural heritage sites with digital technology, which included tangible and intangible cultural heritage preservation and transmission planning, community participation and digital navigation programs. The digital technology with the GIS-based digital platform can provide more diverse and interesting information while using an intuitive, graphical user story mapping interface. So that tangible cultural heritage can be effectively understood, interpreted and preserved with the value-added methods, and also intangible cultural heritage can be continuously transmitted to establish a complete system of cultural heritage preservation. The main contents include several navigation technologies, such as 3D laser scanning, UAV images

  6. Behavior of a VVER fuel element tested under severe accident conditions in the CORA facility. Test results of experiment CORA-W1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Noack, V.; Schanz, G.; Schumacher, G.; Sepold, L.


    Test bundle CORA-W1 was without absorber material. As in the earlier CORA tests the test bundles were subjected to temperature transients of a slow heatup rate in a steam environment. The transient phases of the test were initiated with a temperature ramp rate of 1 K/s. With these conditions a so-called small-break LOCA was simulated. The temperature escalation due to the exothermal zirconium/niobium-steam reaction started at about 1200 C, leading the bundle to a maximum temperature of approximately 1900 C. With the movement of the melt also heat is transported to the lower region. Below 300 mm elevation the test bundle remained intact due to the axial temeprature distribution. W2 ist characterized by a strong oxidation above 300 mm elevation. Besides the severe oxidation the test bundle resulted in considerable fuel dissolution by ZrNb1/UO{sub 2} interaction in the upper part, complete spacer destruction at 600 mm due to chemical interactions between steel and the ZSrNb1 cladding. Despite some specific features the material behavior of the VVER-1000 bundle is comparable to that observed in the PWR and BWR test using fuel elements typical for Western countries. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Versuchsbuendel CORA-W1 hatte kein Absorberelement. Wie in den CORA-Versuchen zuvor wurden die Testbuendel in Dampfatmosphaere Temperaturtransienten mit langsamer Aufheizrate ausgesetzt. Damit wurde ein Unfallablauf fuer einen LWR simuliert, der sich aus einem Kuehlmittelverluststoerfall durch Auftreten eines sogenannten kleinen Lecks entwickeln kann. Die Temperatureskalation - aufgrund der exothermen Zirkon/Niob-Wasserdampfreaktion - setzte ab ca. 1100 C ein. Die Hoechsttemperaturen im Buendel betrugen 2000 C. Die Versuchsdaten des Experiments CORA-W1 werden zusammen mit ersten Ergebnissen der Nachuntersuchung dargelegt. Das Versuchsbuendel weist eine starke Oxidation im oberen Bereich auf. Der untere Buendelabschnitt (bis 400 mm) blieb aufgrund der niedrigen Temperaturen in diesem

  7. Inter-comparison of JEF-2.2 and JEFF-3.1 evaluated nuclear data through Monte Carlo analysis of VVER-1000 MOX Core Computational Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thilagam, L., E-mail: [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603 102 (India); Karthikeyan, R., E-mail: [Light Water Reactors Physics Section, Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Jagannathan, V., E-mail: [Light Water Reactors Physics Section, Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Subbaiah, K.V.; Lee, S.M. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603 102 (India)


    The nuclear data forms a vital component in reactor core physics computations. The nuclear data is evaluated and modified on a continuous basis by different nuclear data centres and laboratories worldwide. The work on upgradation of the nuclear data is being carried out using new evaluations obtained through experiments and theoretical models to enhance their accuracy. Use of different sets of cross-section data in the analysis of a benchmark problem is a source of strong feedback for further improvements in data by mutual comparison of results. These comparisons also help to find out the best evaluated cross-section data released. Towards this objective, an attempt has been made to inter-compare JEF-2.2 and JEFF-3.1 evaluated nuclear data through the Monte Carlo simulation of 'VVER-1000 MOX Core Computational Benchmark'. This study deals with the calculation and inter-comparison of reactor parameters such as multiplication factors, cell average and assembly average fission reaction rate distributions estimated for various reactor state descriptions specified in the benchmark. Point-wise cross-section libraries processed from the JEF-2.2 and JEFF-3.1 evaluated data are used in the analysis. Concerning the multiplication factors and fission rate distributions, considerable differences are observed between the two libraries. While performing the MCNP calculations with JEFF-3.1 data, it is observed that the deviations of effective neutron multiplication factors (k{sub eff}) from those of benchmark standard MCU results are lower by about approx0.100% for the most of the states than those computed using JEF-2.2. Fission rate distributions using JEFF-3.1 data are also found to have significant deviations up to +-9.2% compared to calculations with its earlier version JEF-2.2 data. Some interesting trends on the used nuclear data are identified from the discrepancies of the individual results. The cause for considerable changes in the calculated parameters are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie H. Fu


    Full Text Available Current Concepts in ACL Reconstruction is a complete reference text composed of the most thorough collection of topics on the ACL and its surgical reconstruction compiled, with contributions from some of the world's experts and most experienced ACL surgeons. Various procedures mentioned throughout the text are also demonstrated in an accompanying video CD-ROM. PURPOSE Composing a single, comprehensive and complete information source on ACL including basic sciences, clinical issues, latest concepts and surgical techniques, from evaluation to outcome, from history to future, editors and contributors have targeted to keep the audience pace with the latest concepts and techniques for the evaluation and the treatment of ACL injuries. FEATURES The text is composed of 27 chapters in 6 sections. The first section is mostly about basic sciences, also history of the ACL, imaging, clinical approach to adolescent and pediatric patients are subjected. In the second section, Graft Choices and Arthroscopy Portals for ACL Reconstruction are mentioned. The third section is about the technique and the outcome of the single-bundle ACL reconstruction. The fourth chapter includes the techniques and outcome of the double-bundle ACL reconstruction. In the fifth chapter revision, navigation technology, rehabilitation and the evaluation of the outcome of ACL reconstruction is subjected. The sixth/the last chapter is about the future advances to reach: What We Have Learned and the Future of ACL Reconstruction. AUDIENCE Orthopedic residents, sports traumatology and knee surgery fellows, orthopedic surgeons, also scientists in basic sciences or clinicians who are studying or planning a research on ACL forms the audience group of this book. ASSESSMENT This is the latest, the most complete and comprehensive textbook of ACL reconstruction produced by the editorial work up of two pioneer and masters "Freddie H. Fu MD and Steven B. Cohen MD" with the contribution of world

  9. Neuromagnetic source reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leahy, R.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.

  10. Reinforced column shafts from the monumental architecture of Italica (prov. Baetica. Implementation of new technologies for the reconstruction of an exceptional practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Rodríguez Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available The pieces under study presented in this paper come from the already well known “Traianeum” of Italica (prov. Baetica, present Santiponce, Seville, a huge complex area, formed by a wide open square with a main central temple, built according to the extension of the city with a new quarter in Hadrian times. Most of them, fragments of column shafts, offer very peculiar technical features: canals for metallic dowels, cavities for marble tasselli and holes for also metallic staples or cramps. All these systems had the aim of reinforce a valuable material with potential structure problems. The ensemble is unique because of the preservation of a sufficient amount of fragments that allows their complete restitution with the help of photogrammetric techniques in order to obtain three-dimensional models of the pieces and to understand the ancient technologic solutions. Even more, the practices make us reflect about technical skills and economy and organization of constructions.

  11. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue (United States)

    ... muscle flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction ...

  12. Head and face reconstruction (United States)

    ... Head and face reconstruction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities ...

  13. Exploring for the optimal structural design for the 3D-printing technology for cranial reconstruction: a biomechanical and histological study comparison of solid vs. porous structure. (United States)

    Lim, Jun Young; Kim, Namhyun; Park, Jong-Chul; Yoo, Sun K; Shin, Dong Ah; Shim, Kyu-Won


    Cranioplasty for recovering skull defects carries the risk for a number of complications. Various materials are used, including autologous bone graft, metallic materials, and non-metallic materials, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. If the use of autologous bone is not feasible, those artificial materials also have constraints in the case of complex anatomy and/or irregular defects. This study used metal 3D-printing technology to overcome these existing drawbacks and analyze the clinical and mechanical performance requirements. To find an optimal structure that satisfied the structural and mechanical stability requirements, we evaluated biomechanical stability using finite element analysis (FEA) and mechanical testing. To ensure clinical applicability, the model was subjected to histological evaluation. Each specimen was implanted in the femur of a rabbit and was evaluated using histological measurements and push-out test. We believe that our data will provide the basis for future applications of a variety of unit structures and further clinical trials and research, as well as the direction for the study of other patient-specific implants.

  14. Validation of computer codes and modelling methods for giving proof of nuclear safety of transport and storage of spent VVER-type nuclear fuels. Pt. 2. Criticality safety during transport and storage of spent VVER fuel elements. Final report; Einschaetzung von Rechenprogrammen und Methoden zum Nachweis der nuklearen Sicherheit bei Transport und Lagerung von WWER-Kernbrennstoffen. T. 2. Kritikalitaetssicherheit bei Transport und Lagerung von WWER-Brennelementen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechse, H.; Langowski, A.; Lein, M.; Nagel, R.; Schmidt, H.; Stammel, M.


    The report gives the results of investigations on the validation of computer codes used to prove nuclear safety during transport and storage of spent VVER - fuel of NPP Greifswald and Rheinsberg. Characteristics of typical spent fuel (nuclide concentration, neutron source strength, gamma spectrum, decay heat) - calculated with several codes - and dose rates (e.g. in the surrounding of a loaded spent fuel cask) - based on the different source terms - are presented. Differences and their possible reasons are discussed. The results show that despite the differences in the source terms all relevant health physics requirements are met for all cases of source term. The validation of the criticality code OMEGA was established by calculation of appr. 200 critical experiments of LWR fuel, including VVER fuel rod arrangements. The mean error of the effective multiplication factor k{sub eff} is -0,01 compared to the experiment for this area of applicability. Thus, the OMEGA error of 2% assumed in earlier works has turned out to be sufficiently conservative. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt die Ergebnisse von Untersuchungen zur Validierung von Rechenprogrammen, welche zum Nachweis der nukelaren Sicherheit bei Transport und Lagerung von WWER-Kernbrennstoff der KKW Greifswald und Rheinsberg eingesetzt wurden. Es werden eine Charakteristik des abgebrannten Brennstoffs (Nuklidkonzentrationen, Neutronenquellstaerke, Gammaspektrum, Nachzerfallsleistung) - berechnet mit verschiedenen Programmen - und Ortsdosisleistungen (z.B. in der Umgebung eines Transportbehaelters) - basierend auf den verschiedenen Quelltermen - angegeben. Differenzen und Ursachen werden diskutiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass trotz der Differenzen in den Quelltermen alle strahlenschutztechnisch relevanten Aussagen unbeeinflusst bleiben. Fuer die Einschaetzung des Gueltigkeitsbereiches des Monte-Carlo-Programms OMEGA wurden ca. 200 kritische Experimente mit LWR-Brennstoff unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung

  15. Development of Planar and 3D Silicon Sensor Technologies for the ATLAS Experiment Upgrades and Measurements of Heavy Quark Production Fractions with Fully Reconstructed D-star Mesons with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, Jessica; Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Bean, Alice; Gorelov, Igor

    Several particle detector technologies were studied. These include measurements of the leakage current and capacitance of irradiated planar and 3D sensors. The inter-electrode capacitance of proton irradiated 3D sensors was measured using two methods and compared to simulation. Planar n-type MCz diodes were exposed to neutron and gamma radiation and the effects on defects characterized. A set of n- and p-type Fz and MCz diodes were irradiated with protons and their annealing properties extracted using the Hamburg Model. A measurement of the fraction of D^{*+} mesons originating from a b-quark compared to those directly produced from a charm is presented. The charm mesons were fully reconstructed in the mode D^{*+} -> D^{0}pi^{+} where D^{0} -> K^{-}pi^{+}. The analysis was based on data collected from the minimum bias trigger of the ATLAS detector at sqrt{s}=7 TeV proton-proton collisions produced by the LHC. The distribution of the impact parameter of the D^{0} meson with respect to the primar...

  16. STC Germany/Russia. Fluence calculations of surveillance specimens of the VVER-440. Final report; WTZ Russland. Fluenzberechnungen fuer Voreilproben beim WWER-440. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konheiser, J.; Grahn, A.


    Reactor pressure vessels (RPV) are non-restorable equipment and their lifetime may restrict the nuclear power plant-life as a whole. Surveillance specimen programs for RPV materials are among the most important measures of in-service inspection programs that are necessary for realistic and reliable assessment of the RPV residual lifetime. In addition to the chemical composition of the RPV steel, the radiation parameters (neutron and gamma fluences and spectra) have the most important impact on the RPV embrittlement characteristics. In this work, different geometric positions which have influence on the radiation conditions of the samples are investigated. Thus, the uncertainties can be determined in the fluence values of surveillance specimens. The fluence calculations were carried out by the codes TRAMO and DORT. This study was accompanied by ex-vessel neutron dosimetry experiments at Kola NPP, Unit 3 (VVER-440/213), which provide the basis for validation of calculated neutron fluences. The main neutron-activation monitoring reactions were {sup 54}Fe(n,p){sup 54}Mn and {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co. The activity measurements were carried out by ''Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SEC NRS). Good agreement between the deterministic and stochastic calculation results as well as between the calculations and the ex-vessel measurements was found. The average difference between measured and calculated values is 5%. The influence of the channels for surveillance specimens and the shielding effect of a baffle rib on the monitors and on the Monte-Carlo calculated results was studied. For the surveillance specimens in the maximum of the flux, an average flux of around 2.45 * 10{sup 12} neutrons/cm{sup 2} was calculated for the neutron flux E> 0.5 MeV. The differences in the surveillance specimens could be up to 20% depending on the direction to the core. Discrepancies up to 10% can be caused by the change of the position of the

  17. Reoperative midface reconstruction. (United States)

    Acero, Julio; García, Eloy


    Reoperative reconstruction of the midface is a challenging issue because of the complexity of this region and the severity of the aesthetic and functional sequela related to the absence or failure of a primary reconstruction. The different situations that can lead to the indication of a reoperative reconstructive procedure after previous oncologic ablative procedures in the midface are reviewed. Surgical techniques, anatomic problems, and limitations affecting the reoperative reconstruction in this region of the head and neck are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Breast reconstruction after mastectomy]. (United States)

    Ho Quoc, C; Delay, E


    The mutilating surgery for breast cancer causes deep somatic and psychological sequelae. Breast reconstruction can mitigate these effects and permit the patient to help rebuild their lives. The purpose of this paper is to focus on breast reconstruction techniques and on factors involved in breast reconstruction. The methods of breast reconstruction are presented: objectives, indications, different techniques, operative risks, and long-term monitoring. Many different techniques can now allow breast reconstruction in most patients. Clinical cases are also presented in order to understand the results we expect from a breast reconstruction. Breast reconstruction provides many benefits for patients in terms of rehabilitation, wellness, and quality of life. In our mind, breast reconstruction should be considered more as an opportunity and a positive choice (the patient can decide to do it), than as an obligation (that the patient would suffer). The consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction is an important step to give all necessary informations. It is really important that the patient could speak again with him before undergoing reconstruction, if she has any doubt. The quality of information given by medical doctors is essential to the success of psychological intervention. This article was written in a simple, and understandable way to help gynecologists giving the best information to their patients. It is maybe also possible to let them a copy of this article, which would enable them to have a written support and would facilitate future consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne


    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  20. Anatomical Individualized ACL Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ata Rahnemai-Azar


    Full Text Available The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is composed of two bundles, which work together to provide both antero-posterior and rotatory stability of the knee. Understanding the anatomy and function of the ACL plays a key role in management of patients with ACL injury. Anatomic ACL reconstruction aims to restore the function of the native ACL. Femoral and tibial tunnels should be placed in their anatomical location accounting for both the native ACL insertion site and bony landmarks. One main component of anatomical individualized ACL reconstruction is customizing the treatment according to each patient’s individual characteristics, considering preoperative and intraoperative evaluation of the native ACL and knee bony anatomy. Anatomical individualized reconstruction surgery should also aim to restore the size of the native ACL insertion as well. Using this concept, while single bundle ACL reconstruction can restore the function of the ACL in some patients, double bundle reconstruction is indicated in others to achieve optimal outcome.

  1. Probabilistic Multilocus Haplotype Reconstruction in Outcrossing Tetraploids. (United States)

    Zheng, Chaozhi; Voorrips, Roeland E; Jansen, Johannes; Hackett, Christine A; Ho, Julie; Bink, Marco C A M


    For both plant (e.g., potato) and animal (e.g., salmon) species, unveiling the genetic architecture of complex traits is key to the genetic improvement of polyploids in agriculture. F1 progenies of a biparental cross are often used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in outcrossing polyploids, where haplotype reconstruction by identifying the parental origins of marker alleles is necessary. In this paper, we build a novel and integrated statistical framework for multilocus haplotype reconstruction in a full-sib tetraploid family from biallelic marker dosage data collected from single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays or next-generation sequencing technology given a genetic linkage map. Compared to diploids, in tetraploids, additional complexity needs to be addressed, including double reduction and possible preferential pairing of chromosomes. We divide haplotype reconstruction into two stages: parental linkage phasing for reconstructing the most probable parental haplotypes and ancestral inference for probabilistically reconstructing the offspring haplotypes conditional on the reconstructed parental haplotypes. The simulation studies and the application to real data from potato show that the parental linkage phasing is robust to, and that the subsequent ancestral inference is accurate for, complex chromosome pairing behaviors during meiosis, various marker segregation types, erroneous genetic maps except for long-range disturbances of marker ordering, various amounts of offspring dosage errors (up to ∼20%), and various fractions of missing data in parents and offspring dosages. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Additive manufacturing in maxillofacial reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dincă Luciana Laura


    Full Text Available In this paper the benefits of using additive manufacturing technologies in maxillofacial reconstruction are highlighted. Based on a real clinical case, the paper describes the manufacture of an implant prototype replacing the right zygomatic bone and a part of maxilla using additive manufacturing technologies. The face is the most expressive part of the human body that makes us unique. It was shown that the maxillofacial prostheses help to improve the psychological state of patients affected by, because low self esteem feeling appears commonly to this patients with the facial defects. The aim of this paper is to show how using additive manufacturing technologies methods within this research, the producing a surgical model will help surgeon to improve the pre-operative planning. For this we used additive manufacturing technologies such as Stereolitography to achieve the biomodel and FDM-fused deposition modelling to obtain a prototype model because these technologies make it possible to obtain prosthesis according to the physical and mechanical requirements of the region of implantation.

  3. Head and Neck Reconstruction. (United States)

    Wong, Shannon; Melin, Alyson; Reilly, Debra


    Management of head and neck burns involves acute and intermediate phases. Acutely, the goals are establish a secure airway and treat life-threatening injuries. Then, optimize nutrition, assess extent of the burn, perform local wound care, and provide eye protection. Management depends on the degree of the head and neck burn. Postinjury splinting and rehabilitation are vital to healing. After the acute inflammation has resolved and the scars have matured, reconstruction begins with the goals of restoring both function and aesthetics. Reconstruction ranges from simple scar release, to skin grafting, and possibly free flap reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Forging Provincial Reconstruction Teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Honore, Russel L; Boslego, David V


    The Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) training mission completed by First U.S. Army in April 2006 was a joint Service effort to meet a requirement from the combatant commander to support goals in Afghanistan...

  5. Reconstructions of eyelid defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Subramanian


    Full Text Available Eyelids are the protective mechanism of the eyes. The upper and lower eyelids have been formed for their specific functions by Nature. The eyelid defects are encountered in congenital anomalies, trauma, and postexcision for neoplasm. The reconstructions should be based on both functional and cosmetic aspects. The knowledge of the basic anatomy of the lids is a must. There are different techniques for reconstructing the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, and medial and lateral canthal areas. Many a times, the defects involve more than one area. For the reconstruction of the lid, the lining should be similar to the conjunctiva, a cover by skin and the middle layer to give firmness and support. It is important to understand the availability of various tissues for reconstruction. One layer should have the vascularity to support the other layer which can be a graft. A proper plan and execution of it is very important.

  6. Tessellation reconstruction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weygaert, RV; Schaap, W; Banday, AJ; Zaroubi, S; Bartelmann, M


    The application of Voronoi and Delaunay tessellation based methods for reconstructing continuous fields from discretely sampled data sets is discussed. The succesfull operation as "multidimensional interpolation" method is corroborated through their ability to reproduce even intricate statistical

  7. Prairie Reconstruction Initiative Project (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Prairie Reconstruction Initiative Advisory Team (PRIAT) is to identify and take steps to resolve uncertainties in the process of prairie...

  8. 3D heart reconstruction


    Roxo, Diogo


    The purpose of this thesis was to achieve a 3D reconstruction of the four heart chambers using 2D echocardiographic images. A level set algorithm based on the phase symmetry approach and on a new logarithmic based stopping function was used to extract simultaneously the four heart cavities from these images in a fully automatic way. However to proceed to the 3D reconstruction using the segmented images, it was first necessary to satisfy clinical practise requirements. This means that the algo...

  9. Institute for Energy Technology -Annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Research at Institutt for energiteknikk (IFE) comprises both nuclear and non-nuclear activities. The main nuclear program is centered on the OECD Halden Reactor Project. 19 participating countries and about 100 organisations is involved in the project. The Project is operated by a staff of 280 persons. In the autumn of 1996 the participating organizations reached agreement to continue their research collaboration for a further 3-year period (1997 to 1999). An extensive experimental program was carried out in 1996 using the Halden reactor (HBWR), partly for the joint international program, and partly for contract work for member countries. The main aim of this work is to improve the safety and reliability of existing nuclear power plants. The experimental equipment in the Halden reactor makes it ideal for simulating various operating conditions in different types of rectors. Processes such as corrosion in fuel cladding materials and fracture propagation in irradiated materials under the influence of additives in the coolant water can be studied. In an on-going study, fuel of Russian origin is being compared with modern western fuel. The results, being the first of their kind that are openly available, form an important bases for safety assessments of Russian VVER reactors. The man-machine laboratory is used to study how new technologies influence the operator and to develop computer based systems for improving the safety and accessibility of complex processes.

  10. Coracoclavicular Ligament Reconstruction (United States)

    Li, Qi; Hsueh, Pei-ling; Chen, Yun-feng


    Abstract Operative intervention is recommended for complete acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation to restore AC stability, but the best operative technique is still controversial. Twelve fresh-frozen male cadaveric shoulders (average age, 62.8 ± 7.8 years) were equally divided into endobutton versus the modified Weaver-Dunn groups. Each potted scapula and clavicle was fixed in a custom made jig to allow translation and load to failure testing using a Zwick BZ2.5/TS1S material testing machine (Zwick/Roell Co, Germany). A systematic review of 21 studies evaluating reconstructive methods for coracoclavicular or AC joints using a cadaveric model was also performed. From our biomechanical study, after ligament reconstruction, the triple endobutton technique demonstrated superior, anterior, and posterior displacements similar to that of the intact state (P > 0.05). In the modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction group, however, there was significantly greater anterior (P ligament reconstruction. In addition, there was no significant difference after reconstruction between failure load of the triple endobutton group and that of the intact state (686.88 vs 684.9 N, P > 0.05), whereas the failure load after the modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction was decreased compared with the intact state (171.64 vs 640.86 N, P ligament is superior to the modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction in controlling both superior and anteroposterior displacements with a failure load that approximates the intact ligament. PMID:25526435

  11. The Economics of Prepectoral Breast Reconstruction. (United States)

    Glasberg, Scot Bradley


    The world of breast reconstruction over the last several years has seen a dramatic shift in focus to discussion and the application of placing tissue expanders and implants back into the prepectoral space. Although this technique failed during the early advent of breast reconstruction, newer technologies such as advances in fat grafting, improved acellular dermal matrices, better methods of assessing breast flap viability, and enhanced implants appear to have set the stage for the resurgence and positive early results seen with this technique. The main benefits of a switch to prepectoral breast reconstruction clinically appears to be less associated pain, lower incidence of animation deformities, and its associated symptoms as well as presumably better aesthetics. Early data suggest that the results are extremely promising and early adopters have attempted to define the ideal patients for prepectoral breast reconstruction. As with any new operative procedure, an assessment of finances and costs are crucial to its successful implementation. Although current data are minimal, this article attempts to build the fundamentals of an economic model that exhibits and displays potential savings through the use of prepectoral breast reconstruction.

  12. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne


    Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two-stage pro......Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two......-stage procedures. From the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast, which has prospectively registered data for women undergoing breast implantations since 1999, we identified 559 women without a history of radiation therapy undergoing 592 delayed breast reconstructions following breast cancer during...... the period 1999 to 2006; 239 one-stage procedures and 353 two-stage procedures. The postoperative course through November 2009 was evaluated by cumulative incidence adjusting for competing risks for the selected outcomes; hematoma, infection, seroma, implant rupture, severe capsular contracture (modified...

  13. Permutationally invariant state reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza


    Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti...... optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed numerical routines. First prototype implementations easily allow reconstruction of a state of 20 qubits in a few minutes on a standard computer.......-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...... likelihood and least squares methods, which are the preferred choices in today's experiments. This high efficiency is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin coupling combined with convex...

  14. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    gauge record and makes the reconstruction much less prone to drifting away over time.Unfortunately, many of the Russian-sector tide gauge records end around 1990,leaving a fairly sparse record after this. This project examines the effect of introducing a subset of the altimetric dataset as “virtual tide......Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...

  15. Reconstruction and Analysis of Shapes from 3D Scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, F.B. ter


    In this thesis, we measure 3D shapes with the use of 3D laser technology, a recent technology that combines physics, mathematics, and computer science to acquire the surface geometry of 3D shapes in the computer. We use this surface geometry to fully reconstruct real world shapes as computer models,

  16. Iterative initial condition reconstruction (United States)

    Schmittfull, Marcel; Baldauf, Tobias; Zaldarriaga, Matias


    Motivated by recent developments in perturbative calculations of the nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure, we present an iterative algorithm to reconstruct the initial conditions in a given volume starting from the dark matter distribution in real space. In our algorithm, objects are first moved back iteratively along estimated potential gradients, with a progressively reduced smoothing scale, until a nearly uniform catalog is obtained. The linear initial density is then estimated as the divergence of the cumulative displacement, with an optional second-order correction. This algorithm should undo nonlinear effects up to one-loop order, including the higher-order infrared resummation piece. We test the method using dark matter simulations in real space. At redshift z =0 , we find that after eight iterations the reconstructed density is more than 95% correlated with the initial density at k ≤0.35 h Mpc-1 . The reconstruction also reduces the power in the difference between reconstructed and initial fields by more than 2 orders of magnitude at k ≤0.2 h Mpc-1 , and it extends the range of scales where the full broadband shape of the power spectrum matches linear theory by a factor of 2-3. As a specific application, we consider measurements of the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale that can be improved by reducing the degradation effects of large-scale flows. In our idealized dark matter simulations, the method improves the BAO signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.7 at z =0 and by a factor of 2.5 at z =0.6 , improving standard BAO reconstruction by 70% at z =0 and 30% at z =0.6 , and matching the optimal BAO signal and signal-to-noise ratio of the linear density in the same volume. For BAO, the iterative nature of the reconstruction is the most important aspect.

  17. Vertex Reconstruction in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chabanat, E; D'Hondt, J; Vanlaer, P; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Frühwirth, R; Waltenberger, W


    Because of the high track multiplicity in the final states expected in proton collisions at the LHC experiments, novel vertex reconstruction algorithms are required. The vertex reconstruction problem can be decomposed into a pattern recognition problem ("vertex finding") and an estimation problem ("vertex fitting"). Starting from least-square methods, ways to render the classical algorithms more robust are discussed and the statistical properties of the novel methods are shown. A whole set of different approaches for the vertex finding problem is presented and compared in relevant physics channels.

  18. Reconstruction of Peripelvic Oncologic Defects. (United States)

    Weichman, Katie E; Matros, Evan; Disa, Joseph J


    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the anatomy of the peripelvic area. 2. Understand the advantages and disadvantages of performing peripelvic reconstruction in patients undergoing oncologic resection. 3. Select the appropriate local, pedicled, or free-flap reconstruction based on the location of the defect and donor-site characteristics. Peripelvic reconstruction most commonly occurs in the setting of oncologic ablative surgery. The peripelvic area contains several distinct reconstructive regions, including vagina, vulva, penis, and scrotum. Each area provides unique reconstructive considerations. In addition, prior or future radiation therapy or chemotherapy along with cancer cachexia can increase the complexity of reconstruction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Di Rosa


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the efficiency and usefulness of tridimensional printing in plastic and reconstructive surgery for lesions of the maxillofacial region. This was comparison study between two groups of patients. Six patients underwent surgical reconstruction, using a three-dimensional model built on the basis of CT scans (group 1; and six patients underwent surgical reconstruction, without the use of a three-dimensional model (group 2. The following variables were evaluated: age, gender, histological diagnosis, cancer location, size of bone lesion, type of reconstruction, complications and surgical timing. A statistically significant difference was found in microsurgical flap survival (p = 0.019, with a survival rate higher in group 1 than in the controls. This study provides preliminary evidence and partially confirms the validity of three-dimensional technology in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The results so far obtained, however, lead to hope for future uses of this ever-increasing technique.

  20. Craniofacial reconstruction - slideshow (United States)

    ... GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Craniofacial reconstruction - series—Normal anatomy URL of this page: // ...

  1. Reconstructing Community History (United States)

    Shields, Amy


    History is alive and well in Lebanon, Missouri. Students in this small town in the southwest region of the state went above and beyond the community's expectations on this special project. This article describes this historical journey which began when students in a summer mural class reconstructed a mural that was originally created by a…

  2. 'grass roots' reconstructive action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses a two year action research investigation of conceptual, evaluation and adoption tensions that led to a revised approach to environmental ... a sustained dialogue around the prevailing science curriculum, local environmental issues and everyday classroom activities fostered reconstructive change at a ...

  3. Urogenital Reconstructive Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte Kaasgaard

    Urogenital reconstructive surgery Lotte Kaasgaard Jakobsen1 Professor Henning Olsen1 Overlæge Gitte Hvistendahl1 Professor Karl-Erik Andersson2 1 – Dept. of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital 2 – Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University hospital Background: Congenital obstruction...

  4. Reconstructing Progressive Education (United States)

    Kaplan, Andy


    The work of Colonel Francis W. Parker, the man whom Dewey called "the father of progressive education," provides a starting point for reconstructing the loose ambiguities of progressive education into a coherent social and educational philosophy. Although progressives have claimed their approach is more humane and sensitive to children, we need…

  5. Breast reconstruction: Correlation between different procedures, reconstruction timing and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelkov Katarina


    Full Text Available Introduction. Improved psychophysical condition after breast reconstruction in women has been well documented Objective. To determine the most optimal technique with minimal morbidity, the authors examined their results and complications based on reconstruction timing (immediate and delayed reconstruction and three reconstruction methods: TRAM flap, latissimus dorsi flap and reconstruction with tissue expanders and implants. Methods. Reconstruction was performed in 60 women of mean age 51.1 years. We analyzed risk factors: age, body mass index (BMI, smoking history and radiation therapy in correlation with timing and method of reconstruction. Complications of all three methods of reconstruction were under 1.5-2-year follow-up after the reconstruction. All data were statistically analyzed. Results. Only radiation had significant influence on the occurrence of complications both before and after the reconstruction, while age, smoking and BMI had no considerable influence of the development of complications. There were no statistically significant correlation between the incidence of complications, time and method of reconstruction. Conclusion. Any of the aforementioned breast reconstruction techniques can yield good results and a low rate of re-operations. To choose the best method, the patient needs to be as well informed as possible about the options including the risks and benefits of each method.

  6. Rapid prototyping-assisted maxillofacial reconstruction. (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Tang, Zhangui; Liu, Ousheng; Peng, Zhiwei


    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have found many uses in dentistry, and especially oral and maxillofacial surgery, due to its ability to promote product development while at the same time reducing cost and depositing a part of any degree of complexity theoretically. This paper provides an overview of RP technologies for maxillofacial reconstruction covering both fundamentals and applications of the technologies. Key fundamentals of RP technologies involving the history, characteristics, and principles are reviewed. A number of RP applications to the main fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, including restoration of maxillofacial deformities and defects, reduction of functional bone tissues, correction of dento-maxillofacial deformities, and fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses, are discussed. The most remarkable challenges for development of RP-assisted maxillofacial surgery and promising solutions are also elaborated.

  7. Microstructure alterations in the base material, heat affected zone and weld metal of a 440-VVER-reactor pressure vessel caused by high fluence irradiation during long term operation: material: 15 Ch2MFA {approx} 0, 15 C-2,5 Cr-0, 7Mo-0,3 V; Veraenderungen der Mikrostruktur in Grundwerkstoff, WEZ und Schweissgut eines 440-VVER-Reaktordruckbehaelters, verursacht durch Neutronenbestrahlung im langzeitigen Betrieb; Werkstoff: 15 Ch2MFA {approx} 0,15 C-2,5 Cr-0, 7Mo-0,3 V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maussner, G.; Scharf, L.; Langer, R. [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Gurovich, B. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Within the scope of the Tacis `91/1.1 project of the European Community, ``Reactor Vessel Embrittlement``, specimens were taken from the heavily irradiated circumferential welds of a VVER pressure vessel. The cumulated fast neutron fluence in the specimens amounts to up to 6.5 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -}2 (E > 0.5 MeV). For the multi-laboratory, coordinated study, the specimens were cutted for mechanical testing as well as analytical, microstructural and microanalytical examinations in the base metal, HAZ and weld metal with respect to the effects of reactor operatio and post-irradiation annealing as well as thermal treatment (475 C, 560 C). The analytical transmission electron microscopy (200 kV) revealed the alterations found in the mechanical properties to be due to the formation of black dots and irradiation-induced segregations and accumulations of copper and carbides. These effects, caused by operation, (neutron radiation, temperature), are much more significant in the HAZ than in the base metal. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des von der Europaeischen Union beauftragten Tacis `91/1.1 Programms `Reactor Vessel Embrittlement` wurden Bohrkerne aus dem hochbestrahlten Rundnahtbereich eines VVER-Reaktordruckbehaelters entnommen. Die kumulierte schnelle Neutronenfluenz in diesen Proben betraegt bis zu 6,5 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} (E>0,5 MeV). In einer gemeinschaftlichen Untersuchung wurden mechanisch-technologische, chemische sowie mirkostrukturelle Untersuchungen an Grundwerkstoff-, WEZ- und Schweissgutproben im vergleichbaren Ausgangs-, bestrahlten und anschliessend waermebehandelten (475 C, 560 C) Werkstoffzustand durchgefuehrt. Die analytische Durchstrahlelektronenmikroskopie (200 kV) laesst als Ursache fuer die festgestellten Veraenderungen der mechanischen Eigenschaften die Bildung von Versetzungsringen (black dots) sowie von bestrahlungsinduzierten Ausscheidungen und Anreicherungen von Kupfer in den Karbiden erkennen. Diese Effekte, als Folge der betrieblichen

  8. The evolving breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur


    The aim of this editorial is to give an update on the use of the propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP/TDAP-flap) within the field of breast reconstruction. The TAP-flap can be dissected by a combined use of a monopolar cautery and a scalpel. Microsurgical instruments are generally...... not needed. The propeller TAP-flap can be designed in different ways, three of these have been published: (I) an oblique upwards design; (II) a horizontal design; (III) an oblique downward design. The latissimus dorsi-flap is a good and reliable option for breast reconstruction, but has been criticized...... for morbidity and complications. The TAP-flap does not seem to impair the function of the shoulder or arm and the morbidity appears to be scarce. However, an implant is often needed in combination with the TAP-flap, which results in implant related morbidity over time. The TAP-flap seems to be a promising tool...

  9. Iraq: Reconstruction Assistance (United States)


    Effectiveness..., October 18, 2007, p. x. 51 Shawn Dorman, “Iraq PRTs: Pins on a Map,” Foreign Service Journal, March 2007; Testimony of Ginger Cruz, Deputy... Blood Money, Little, Brown, and Company, 2006; SIGIR, Iraq Reconstruction: Lessons in Program and Project Management, March 2007; and Glenn Zorpette...local participation that would have made projects more effective. Among widely circulated reasons were a failure to anticipate post-invasion security

  10. Reconstructing relational information. (United States)

    Horecka, Kevin M; Dulas, Michael R; Schwarb, Hillary; Lucas, Heather D; Duff, Melissa; Cohen, Neal J


    Hippocampal involvement in learning and remembering relational information has an extensive history, often focusing specifically on spatial information. In humans, spatial reconstruction (SR) paradigms are a powerful tool for evaluating an individuals' spatial-relational memory. In SR tasks, participants study locations of items in space and subsequently reconstruct the studied display after a short delay. Previous work has revealed that patients with hippocampal damage are impaired both in overall placement accuracy as well as on a specific measure of relational memory efficacy, "swaps" (i.e., when the relative location of two items is reversed). However, the necessity of the hippocampus for other types of spatial-relational information involved in reconstruction behaviors (e.g., where in the environment and relative to which other items an item was located) have not yet been investigated systematically. In this work, three patients with hippocampal damage and nine healthy matched comparison participants performed an SR task. An analysis framework was developed to independently assess three first-order types of relations: (1) memory for the binding of specific item identities to locations, (2) memory for arrangement of items in relation to each other or the environment bounds, regardless of memory for the item identity, and (3) higher-order, compound relational errors (i.e., errors involving multiple pieces of relational information). Reconstruction errors were evaluated to determine the degree to which patients and comparisons differed (or not) on each type of spatial-relational information. Data revealed that the primary group difference in performance was for identity-location information. However, when the locations of items were evaluated without regarding the identities, no group difference was found in the number of item placements to studied locations. The present work provides a principled approach to analysis of SR data and clarifies our understanding of

  11. ATLAS Muon Reconstruction Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Spearman, W; The ATLAS collaboration


    In 2012 the LHC will be operated in a mode leading to up to 40 inelastic pp collisions per bunch crossing, so-called "pile-up". The reconstruction and identification of muons produced in a hard collisions is difficult in this challenging environment. Di-muon decays of J/ψ mesons and Z bosons have been used to study the muon reconstruction and identification efficiency of the ATLAS detector as a function of the muon transverse momentum from pT=4 GeV to pT=100 GeV and the number of inelastic collisions per event. The results show a steep efficiency turn-on curve reaching its plateau value of 100% at pT ~ 6 GeV and no dependence of the muon reconstruction efficiency on the amount pile-up. The studies also reveal that the use of inner detector tracks allows us to distinguish between isolated muons and non-isolated muons produced in jets with high separation power even at the highest pile-up levels.

  12. Reconstruction of the perineum. (United States)

    Wong, David Sau-Yan


    The pelvic and perineal regions are affected by a heterogeneous spectrum of pathologies, many with a tendency to recur. Extensive mutilation carries physical, sexual, and psychological sequelae. Primary reconstruction reduces morbidity and shortens recovery. Modern management calls for a multidisciplinary approach. Not uncommonly, patients come with previous surgery and/or chemoirradiation. They may also be elderly and debilitated. The literature on reconstruction of the perineum can be confusing because knowledge has evolved by an accumulation of isolated short reports of individual methods. This led to the lack of a unifying basis for nomenclature and a failure to relate specific techniques to their roles in repairing particular types of defects. This article gives an overall summary of the approaches in a structured and rational manner. Defects of the external pelvis and perineal lining are usually amenable to coverage with local or regional fasciocutaneous flaps, if primary closure or skin graft is not appropriate. These flaps depend on the integrity of the vascular territories of the internal pudendal, the upper medial thigh plexus, or the descending branches of the inferior gluteal. The location and extent of the resection usually determine the requirements of the reconstruction and may dictate the choice of options. When defects are pelviperineal, particularly when the vagina needs to be reconstructed, myocutaneous flaps are of proven advantage in dealing with both the resurfacing as well as providing the bulk needed to fill the pelvic cavity after extensive resections. The rectus, gluteus, and gracilis are the best known options. Owing to the intrinsic limitations with the gracilis flap, the rectus and gluteus flaps have largely superseded its role in most situations. The rectus flap, in particular, provides good bulk as well as reliable skin. The use of muscle sparing flaps based on the perforator principle in suitable instances has increasingly been

  13. optimization for trenchless reconstruction of pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhmakov Gennadiy Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available Today the technologies of trenchless reconstruction of pipelines are becoming and more widely used in Russia and abroad. One of the most perspective is methods is shock-free destruction of the old pipeline being replaced with the help of hydraulic installations with working mechanism representing a cutting unit with knife disks and a conic expander. A construction of a working mechanism, which allows making trenchless reconstruction of pipelines of different diameters, is optimized and patented and its developmental prototype is manufactured. The dependence of pipeline cutting force from knifes obtusion of the working mechanisms. The cutting force of old steel pipelines with obtuse knife increases proportional to the value of its obtusion. Two stands for endurance tests of the knifes in laboratory environment are offered and patented.

  14. On Stack Reconstruction Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Аkeliev


    Full Text Available The paper describes analytical investigations that study relation of fuel combustion regimes with concentration values of sulphur anhydride in flue gases and acid dew point. Coefficients of convective heat transfer at internal and external surfaces of stacks have been determined in the paper. The paper reveals the possibility to reconstruct stacks while using gas discharging channel made of composite material on the basis of glass-reinforced plastic which permits to reduce thermo-stressed actions on reinforced concrete and increase volume of released gases due to practically two-fold reduction of gas-dynamic pressure losses along the pipe length.

  15. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.


    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  16. Non-microsurgical breast reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sheel


    Full Text Available Breast reconstruction after mastectomy should aim at resulting in an aesthetic outcome that matches the patient′s expectations and without interfering in the oncologic treatment. Whether the reconstruction is performed immediately or in a delayed fashion depends on various factors, which needs detailed attention. Autologous tissue, implants or both are used in the reconstruction. This article reviews the current concepts in these, with emphasis on non-microsurgical methods of using the autologous tissue for reconstruction. Breast conservation has become an accepted practice of treatment. Reconstruction in these situations as well as in an occasion when the surgery is done for failed breast conservation is discussed in detail. The article also reviews the various methods for nipple reconstruction available.

  17. LHCb; LHCb Jet Reconstruction

    CERN Multimedia

    Augusto, O


    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It has been designed to collide proton beams at an energy up to 14 TeV in the center of mass. In 2011, the data taking was done with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV, the instant luminosity has reached values greater than $4 \\times 10^{32} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and the integrated luminosity reached the value of 1.02 $fb^{-1}$ on the LHCb. The jet reconstruction is fundamental to observe events that can be used to test pertubative QCD (pQCD). It also provides a way to observe standard model channels and searches for new physics like SUSY. The anti-kt algorithm is a jet reconstruction algorithm that is based on the distance of the particles on the space $\\eta \\times \\phi$ and on the transverse momentum of particles. To maximize the energy resolution all information about the trackers and the calo...

  18. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison


    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  19. Unfavourable results in thumb reconstruction (United States)

    Kumta, Samir M.


    The history of thumb reconstruction parallels the history of hand surgery. The attributes that make the thumb unique, and that the reconstructive surgeon must assess and try to restore when reconstructing a thumb, are: Position, stability, strength, length, motion, sensibility and appearance. Deficiency in any of these attributes can reduce the utility of the reconstructed thumb. A detailed assessment of the patient and his requirements needs to be performed before embarking on a thumb reconstruction. Most unsatisfactory results can be attributed to wrong choice of procedure. Component defects of the thumb are commonly treated by tissue from adjacent fingers, hand or forearm. With refinements in microsurgery, the foot has become a major source of tissue for component replacement in the thumb. Bone lengthening, osteoplastic reconstruction, pollicisation, and toe to hand transfers are the commonest methods of thumb reconstruction. Unfavourable results can be classified as functional and aesthetic. Some are common to all types of procedures. However each type of reconstruction has its own unique set of problems. Meticulous planning and execution is essential to give an aesthetic and functionally useful thumb. Secondary surgeries like tendon transfers, bone grafting, debulking, arthrodesis, may be required to correct deficiencies in the reconstruction. Attention needs to be paid to the donor site as well. PMID:24501466

  20. Reducing the effects of acoustic heterogeneity with an iterative reconstruction method from experimental data in microwave induced thermoacoustic tomography. (United States)

    Wang, Jinguo; Zhao, Zhiqin; Song, Jian; Chen, Guoping; Nie, Zaiping; Liu, Qing-Huo


    An iterative reconstruction method has been previously reported by the authors of this paper. However, the iterative reconstruction method was demonstrated by solely using the numerical simulations. It is essential to apply the iterative reconstruction method to practice conditions. The objective of this work is to validate the capability of the iterative reconstruction method for reducing the effects of acoustic heterogeneity with the experimental data in microwave induced thermoacoustic tomography. Most existing reconstruction methods need to combine the ultrasonic measurement technology to quantitatively measure the velocity distribution of heterogeneity, which increases the system complexity. Different to existing reconstruction methods, the iterative reconstruction method combines time reversal mirror technique, fast marching method, and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique to iteratively estimate the velocity distribution of heterogeneous tissue by solely using the measured data. Then, the estimated velocity distribution is used subsequently to reconstruct the highly accurate image of microwave absorption distribution. Experiments that a target placed in an acoustic heterogeneous environment are performed to validate the iterative reconstruction method. By using the estimated velocity distribution, the target in an acoustic heterogeneous environment can be reconstructed with better shape and higher image contrast than targets that are reconstructed with a homogeneous velocity distribution. The distortions caused by the acoustic heterogeneity can be efficiently corrected by utilizing the velocity distribution estimated by the iterative reconstruction method. The advantage of the iterative reconstruction method over the existing correction methods is that it is successful in improving the quality of the image of microwave absorption distribution without increasing the system complexity.

  1. Reconstructing the Alcatraz escape (United States)

    Baart, F.; Hoes, O.; Hut, R.; Donchyts, G.; van Leeuwen, E.


    In the night of June 12, 1962 three inmates used a raft made of raincoatsto escaped the ultimate maximum security prison island Alcatraz in SanFrancisco, United States. History is unclear about what happened tothe escapees. At what time did they step into the water, did theysurvive, if so, where did they reach land? The fate of the escapees has been the subject of much debate: did theymake landfall on Angel Island, or did the current sweep them out ofthe bay and into the cold pacific ocean? In this presentation, we try to shed light on this historic case using avisualization of a high-resolution hydrodynamic simulation of the San Francisco Bay, combined with historical tidal records. By reconstructing the hydrodynamic conditions and using a particle based simulation of the escapees we show possible scenarios. The interactive model is visualized using both a 3D photorealistic and web based visualization. The "Escape from Alcatraz" scenario demonstrates the capabilities of the 3Di platform. This platform is normally used for overland flooding (1D/2D). The model engine uses a quad tree structure, resulting in an order of magnitude speedup. The subgrid approach takes detailed bathymetry information into account. The inter-model variability is tested by comparing the results with the DFlow Flexible Mesh (DFlowFM) San Francisco Bay model. Interactivity is implemented by converting the models from static programs to interactive libraries, adhering to the Basic ModelInterface (BMI). Interactive models are more suitable for answeringexploratory research questions such as this reconstruction effort. Although these hydrodynamic simulations only provide circumstantialevidence for solving the mystery of what happened during the foggy darknight of June 12, 1962, it can be used as a guidance and provides aninteresting testcase to apply interactive modelling.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korolev


    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of meniscal repair during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction.Materials and methods: 45 patients who underwent meniscal repair during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction between 2007 and 2013 by the same surgeon were included in the study. In total, fifty meniscus were repaired (26 medial and 24 lateral. Procedures included use of one up to four Fast-Fix implants (Smith & Nephew. In five cases both medial and lateral meniscus were repaired. Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scales were used for long-term outcome analysis.Results: 19 male and 26 female patients were included in the study aging from 15 to 59 years (mean age 33,2±1,5. Median time from injury to surgical procedure was zero months (ranging zero to one. Mean time from surgery to scale analysis was 55,9±3 months (ranged 20-102. Median Cincinnati score was 97 (ranged 90-100, with excellent results in 93% of cases (43 patients and good results in 7% (3 patients. Median IKDC score was 90,8 (ranged 86,2-95,4, with excellent outcomes in 51% of cases (23 patients, good in 33% (15 patients and satisfactory in 16% (7 patients. Median Lysholm score was 95 (ranged 90-100, with excellent outcomes in 76% of cases (34 patients and good in 24% (11 patients. Authors identified no statistical differences when comparing survey results in age, sex and time from trauma to surgery.Conclusions: Results of the present study match the data from orthopedic literature that prove meniscal repair as a safe and efficient procedure with good and excellent outcomes. All-inside meniscal repair can be used irrespectively of patients' age and is efficient even in case of delayed procedures.

  3. Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas

    ), the classical reconstruction methods suffer from their inability to handle limited and/ or corrupted data. Form any analysis tasks computationally demanding segmentation methods are used to automatically segment an object, after using a simple reconstruction method as a first step. In the literature, methods...... such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction...... problem. The tests showed a clear improvement for realistic materials simulations and that the one-stage method was clearly more robust toward noise. The noise-robustness result could be a step toward making this method more applicable for lab-scale experiments. We have introduced a segmentation...

  4. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (United States)

    Wilde, Jeffrey; Bedi, Asheesh; Altchek, David W.


    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common surgical procedures, with more than 200,000 ACL tears occurring annually. Although primary ACL reconstruction is a successful operation, success rates still range from 75% to 97%. Consequently, several thousand revision ACL reconstructions are performed annually and are unfortunately associated with inferior clinical outcomes when compared with primary reconstructions. Evidence Acquisition: Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database (1988-2013) as well as from textbook chapters and surgical technique papers. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The clinical outcomes after revision ACL reconstruction are largely based on level IV case series. Much of the existing literature is heterogenous with regard to patient populations, primary and revision surgical techniques, concomitant ligamentous injuries, and additional procedures performed at the time of the revision, which limits generalizability. Nevertheless, there is a general consensus that the outcomes for revision ACL reconstruction are inferior to primary reconstruction. Conclusion: Excellent results can be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability but are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction. A staged approach with autograft reconstruction is recommended in any circumstance in which a single-stage approach results in suboptimal graft selection, tunnel position, graft fixation, or biological milieu for tendon-bone healing. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): Good results may still be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability, but results are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction: Level B. PMID:25364483


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna


    WWTPs fail to perform proper treatment due to their being worn-out and obsolete. However a tougher legislation accelerates their reconstruction. Approaches to the WWTP reconstruction should demonstrate a strong economic and technological base. The author proposes a new algorithm for their reconstruction. A sensible combination of the principles of WWTP restructuring, development of new fine wastewater cleaning methods, and assimilation of new materials and chemical agents will help resolve the vital problem of waste water discharge into Russia's water bodies. This is the first methodology of reconstruction of WWTPs developed on the basis of the above concept and supported by practical implementation.

  6. Synthetic Event Reconstruction Experiments for Defining Sensor Network Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, J K; Kosovic, B; Belles, R


    An event reconstruction technology system has been designed and implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This system integrates sensor observations, which may be sparse and/or conflicting, with transport and dispersion models via Bayesian stochastic sampling methodologies to characterize the sources of atmospheric releases of hazardous materials. We demonstrate the application of this event reconstruction technology system to designing sensor networks for detecting and responding to atmospheric releases of hazardous materials. The quantitative measure of the reduction in uncertainty, or benefit of a given network, can be utilized by policy makers to determine the cost/benefit of certain networks. Herein we present two numerical experiments demonstrating the utility of the event reconstruction methodology for sensor network design. In the first set of experiments, only the time resolution of the sensors varies between three candidate networks. The most ''expensive'' sensor network offers few advantages over the moderately-priced network for reconstructing the release examined here. The second set of experiments explores the significance of the sensors detection limit, which can have a significant impact on sensor cost. In this experiment, the expensive network can most clearly define the source location and source release rate. The other networks provide data insufficient for distinguishing between two possible clusters of source locations. When the reconstructions from all networks are aggregated into a composite plume, a decision-maker can distinguish the utility of the expensive sensor network.

  7. Evidence-Based ACL Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There is controversy in the literature regarding a number of topics related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACLreconstruction. The purpose of this article is to answer the following questions: 1 Bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB reconstruction or hamstring reconstruction (HR; 2 Double bundle or single bundle; 3 Allograft or authograft; 4 Early or late reconstruction; 5 Rate of return to sports after ACL reconstruction; 6 Rate of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction. A Cochrane Library and PubMed (MEDLINE search of systematic reviews and meta-analysis related to ACL reconstruction was performed. The key words were: ACL reconstruction, systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The main criteria for selection were that the articles were systematic reviews and meta-analysesfocused on the aforementioned questions. Sixty-nine articles were found, but only 26 were selected and reviewed because they had a high grade (I-II of evidence. BPTB-R was associated with better postoperative knee stability but with a higher rate of morbidity. However, the results of both procedures in terms of functional outcome in the long-term were similar. The double-bundle ACL reconstruction technique showed better outcomes in rotational laxity, although functional recovery was similar between single-bundle and double-bundle. Autograft yielded better results than allograft. There was no difference between early and delayed reconstruction. 82% of patients were able to return to some kind of sport participation. 28% of patients presented radiological signs of osteoarthritis with a follow-up of minimum 10 years.

  8. Application status of three-dimensional CT reconstruction in hepatobiliary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Chao


    Full Text Available With the development of imaging technology, three-dimensional CT reconstruction has been widely used in hepatobiliary surgery. Three-dimensional CT reconstruction can divide and reconstruct two-dimensional images into three-dimensional images and clearly show the location of lesion and its relationship with the intrahepatic bile duct system. It has an important value in the preoperative assessment of liver volume, diagnosis and treatment decision-making process, intraoperative precise operation, and postoperative individualized management, and promotes the constant development of hepatobiliary surgery and minimally invasive technology, and therefore, it holds promise for clinical application.

  9. Study of Threat Scenario Reconstruction based on Multiple Correlation (United States)

    Yuan, Xuejun; Du, Jing; Qin, Futong; Zhou, Yunyan


    The emergence of intrusion detection technology has solved many network attack problems, ensuring the safety of computer systems. However, because of the isolated output alarm information, large amount of data, and mixed events, it is difficult for the managers to understand the deep logic relationship between the alarm information, thus they cannot deduce the attacker’s true intentions. This paper presents a method of online threat scene reconstruction to handle the alarm information, which reconstructs of the threat scene. For testing, the standard data set is used.

  10. Total airway reconstruction. (United States)

    Connor, Matthew P; Barrera, Jose E; Eller, Robert; McCusker, Scott; O'Connor, Peter


    We present a case of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that required multilevel surgical correction of the airway and literature review and discuss the role supraglottic laryngeal collapse can have in OSA. A 34-year-old man presented to a tertiary otolaryngology clinic for treatment of OSA. He previously had nasal and palate surgeries and a Repose tongue suspension. His residual apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 67. He had a dysphonia associated with a true vocal cord paralysis following resection of a benign neck mass in childhood. He also complained of inspiratory stridor with exercise and intolerance to continuous positive airway pressure. Physical examination revealed craniofacial hypoplasia, full base of tongue, and residual nasal airway obstruction. On laryngoscopy, the paretic aryepiglottic fold arytenoid complex prolapsed into the laryngeal inlet with each breath. This was more pronounced with greater respiratory effort. Surgical correction required a series of operations including awake tracheostomy, supraglottoplasty, midline glossectomy, genial tubercle advancement, maxillomandibular advancement, and reconstructive rhinoplasty. His final AHI was 1.9. Our patient's supraglottic laryngeal collapse constituted an area of obstruction not typically evaluated in OSA surgery. In conjunction with treating nasal, palatal, and hypopharyngeal subsites, our patient's supraglottoplasty represented a key component of his success. This case illustrates the need to evaluate the entire upper airway in a complicated case of OSA. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. History of reconstructive rhinoplasty. (United States)

    Mazzola, Isabella C; Mazzola, Riccardo F


    Amputation of the nose was practiced as a sign of humiliation to adulterers, thieves, and prisoners of war by certain ancient populations. To erase this disfigurement, numerous techniques were invented over the centuries. In India, where this injury was common, advancement cheek flaps were performed (around 600 BC). The forehead flap was introduced much later, probably around the 16th century. The Venetian adventurer Manuzzi, in writing a report about the Mughal Empire in the second half of the 17th century gave the description of the forehead rhinoplasty. Detailed information concerning the Indian forehead flap reached the Western world in 1794, thanks to a letter to the editor that appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine. From this episode, one can date the beginning of a widespread interest in rhinoplasty and in plastic surgery in general. In Europe, nasal reconstruction started in the 15th century in Sicily with the Brancas, initially with cheek flaps and then with arm flaps. At the beginning of the 16th century, rhinoplasty developed in Calabria (Southern Italy) with the Vianeos. In 1597, Gaspare Tagliacozzi, Professor of Surgery at Bologna, improved the arm flap technique and published a book entirely devoted to this art. He is considered the founder of plastic surgery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Reconstructing human evolution

    CERN Multimedia



    One can reconstruct human evolution using modern genetic data and models based on the mathematical theory of evolution and its four major factors : mutation, natural selection, statistical fluctuations in finite populations (random genetic drift), and migration. Archaeology gives some help on the major dates and events of the process. Chances of studying ancient DNA are very limited but there have been a few successful results. Studying DNA instead of proteins, as was done until a few years ago, and in particular the DNA of mitochondria and of the Y chromosome which are transmitted, respectively, by the maternal line and the paternal line, has greatly simplified the analysis. It is now possible to carry the analysis on individuals, while earlier studies were of necessity based on populations. Also the evolution of ÒcultureÓ (i.e. what we learn from others), in particular that of languages, gives some help and can be greatly enlightened by genetic studies. Even though it is largely based on mechanisms of mut...

  13. Orthotopic neobladder reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne T. S. Chang


    Full Text Available Orthotopic neobladder reconstruction is becoming an increasingly common urinary diversion following cystectomy for bladder cancer. This is in recognition of the potential benefits of neobladder surgery over creation of an ileal conduit related to quality of life (QoL, such as avoiding the need to form a stoma with its cosmetic, psychological and other potential complications. The PubMed database was searched using relevant search terms for articles published electronically between January 1994 and April 2014. Full-text articles in English or with English translation were assessed for relevance to the topic before being included in the review. Patients with neobladders have comparable or better post-operative sexual function than those with ileal conduits. They also have comparable QoL to those with ileal conduits. Orthotopic neobladder is a good alternative to ileal conduit in suitable patients who do not want a stoma and are motivated to comply with neobladder training. However, the selection of a neobladder as the urinary diversion of choice requires that patients have good renal and liver functions and are likely to be compliant with neobladder training. With benefits also come potential risks of neobladder formation. These include electrolyte abnormalities and nocturnal incontinence. This short review highlights current aspects of neobladder formation and its potential advantages.

  14. Shading correction assisted iterative cone-beam CT reconstruction (United States)

    Yang, Chunlin; Wu, Pengwei; Gong, Shutao; Wang, Jing; Lyu, Qihui; Tang, Xiangyang; Niu, Tianye


    Recent advances in total variation (TV) technology enable accurate CT image reconstruction from highly under-sampled and noisy projection data. The standard iterative reconstruction algorithms, which work well in conventional CT imaging, fail to perform as expected in cone beam CT (CBCT) applications, wherein the non-ideal physics issues, including scatter and beam hardening, are more severe. These physics issues result in large areas of shading artifacts and cause deterioration to the piecewise constant property assumed in reconstructed images. To overcome this obstacle, we incorporate a shading correction scheme into low-dose CBCT reconstruction and propose a clinically acceptable and stable three-dimensional iterative reconstruction method that is referred to as the shading correction assisted iterative reconstruction. In the proposed method, we modify the TV regularization term by adding a shading compensation image to the reconstructed image to compensate for the shading artifacts while leaving the data fidelity term intact. This compensation image is generated empirically, using image segmentation and low-pass filtering, and updated in the iterative process whenever necessary. When the compensation image is determined, the objective function is minimized using the fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm accelerated on a graphic processing unit. The proposed method is evaluated using CBCT projection data of the Catphan© 600 phantom and two pelvis patients. Compared with the iterative reconstruction without shading correction, the proposed method reduces the overall CT number error from around 200 HU to be around 25 HU and increases the spatial uniformity by a factor of 20 percent, given the same number of sparsely sampled projections. A clinically acceptable and stable iterative reconstruction algorithm for CBCT is proposed in this paper. Differing from the existing algorithms, this algorithm incorporates a shading correction scheme into the low

  15. Reconstructing Forty Years of Landsat Observations (United States)

    Meyer, D. J.; Dwyer, J. L.; Steinwand, D.


    In July 1972, NASA launched the Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS), the first of what was to be the series of Earth-observing satellites we now know as the Landsat system. This system, originally conceived in the 1960's within the US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey (USGS), has continued with little interruption for over 40 years, creating the longest record of satellite-based global land observations. The current USGS archive of Landsat images exceeds 4 million scenes, and the recently launched Landsat 8 platform will extend that archive to nearly 50 years of observations. Clearly, these observations are critical to the study of Earth system processes, and the interaction between these processes and human activities. However, the seven successful Landsat missions represent more of an ad hoc program than a long-term record of consistent observations, due largely to changing Federal policies and challenges finding an operational home for the program. Technologically, these systems evolved from the original Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) through the Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) systems, to the current Observational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) systems. Landsat data were collected globally by a network of international cooperators having diverse data management policies. Much of the oldest data were stored on archaic media that could not be retrieved using modern media readers. Collecting these data from various sensors and sources, and reconstructing them into coherent Earth observation records, posed numerous challenges. We present here a brief overview of work done to overcome these challenges and create a consistent, long-term Landsat observation record. Much of the current archive was 'repatriated' from international cooperators and often required the reconstruction of (sometimes absent) metadata for geo-location and radiometric calibration. The older MSS data, some of which had

  16. Rational reconstructions of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstaedt, Peter


    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...

  17. Pressure Vessel Calculations for VVER-440 Reactors (United States)

    Hordósy, G.; Hegyi, Gy.; Keresztúri, A.; Maráczy, Cs.; Temesvári, E.; Vértes, P.; Zsolnay, É.


    Monte Carlo calculations were performed for a selected cycle of the Paks NPP Unit II to test a computational model. In the model the source term was calculated by the core design code KARATE and the neutron transport calculations were performed by the MCNP. Different forms of the source specification were examined. The calculated results were compared with measurements and in most cases fairly good agreement was found.

  18. Tau reconstruction and identification algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 15, 2012 ... 13.35.Dx. 1. Introduction. Tau is the heaviest known lepton (Mτ = 1.78 GeV) which decays into lighter leptons. (BR ∼ 35%) or hadrons τh (BR ∼ 65%) in the presence of up to two neutrinos. The τ reconstruction algorithms are using decay mode identification techniques which allow one to reconstruct τh with ...

  19. Reconstructive challenges in war wounds


    Bhandari, Prem Singh; Maurya, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Mrinal Kanti


    War wounds are devastating with extensive soft tissue and osseous destruction and heavy contamination. War casualties generally reach the reconstructive surgery centre after a delayed period due to additional injuries to the vital organs. This delay in their transfer to a tertiary care centre is responsible for progressive deterioration in wound conditions. In the prevailing circumstances, a majority of war wounds undergo delayed reconstruction, after a series of debridements. In the recent m...

  20. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer. (United States)

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P


    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  1. Analytical reconstructions for PET and spect employing L1-denoising

    KAUST Repository

    Barbano, PE.


    We propose an efficient, deterministic algorithm designed to reconstruct images from real Radon-Transform and Attenuated Radon-Transform data. Its input consists in a small family of recorded signals, each sampling the same composite photon or positron emission scene over a non-Gaussian, noisy channel. The reconstruction is performed by combining a novel numerical implementation of an analytical inversion formula [1] and a novel signal processing technique, inspired by the work of Tao and Candes [2] on code reconstruction. Our approach is proven to be optimal under a variety of realistic assumptions. We also indicate several medical imaging applications for which the new technology achieves high fidelity, even when dealing with real data subject to substantial non-Gaussian distortions. © 2009 IEEE.

  2. Regularization Reconstruction Method for Imaging Problems in Electrical Capacitance Tomography (United States)

    Chu, Pan; Lei, Jing


    The electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is deemed to be a powerful visualization measurement technique for the parametric measurement in a multiphase flow system. The inversion task in the ECT technology is an ill-posed inverse problem, and seeking for an efficient numerical method to improve the precision of the reconstruction images is important for practical measurements. By the introduction of the Tikhonov regularization (TR) methodology, in this paper a loss function that emphasizes the robustness of the estimation and the low rank property of the imaging targets is put forward to convert the solution of the inverse problem in the ECT reconstruction task into a minimization problem. Inspired by the split Bregman (SB) algorithm, an iteration scheme is developed for solving the proposed loss function. Numerical experiment results validate that the proposed inversion method not only reconstructs the fine structures of the imaging targets, but also improves the robustness.

  3. Development of the core safety regulation technology for the SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nam Zin; Kim, Do Sam; Lee, Kyeong Taek; Park, Young Ryoung; Lee, Gil Soo; Kim, Jong Woon; Yun, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Myung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    As the SMART-P is different from existing general reactors, new regulation technology is required to understand and assess the SMART-P for its regulatory reviews. One of the these technologies is related to the core design analysis. Because the SMART-P used metallic fuels, this study also collects general metallic nuclear fuel data and SMART-P's metallic fuel data from the materials studied by KAERI. The core design methodologies of KWU, ABB-CE, Westinghouse, Studsvik, Scandpower, US NRC and domestic research centers were investigated. Specially, The Hellios lattice core was studied for hexagonal nuclear fuel assembly calculation. Also, the VVER-1000 benchmark problem was analyzed by the PARCS code which has been developed by U.S. NRC. In this study, a AFEN-based computing code KORDAX os developed for the regulatory review of the SMART-P. KORDAX which is a nodal code using AFEN method dose not use transverse integration and this it can give higher accuracy results. Also, Because KORDAX is useful for hexagonal core and uses a method different with the core design code of the SMART-P developed by KAERI, it is judged that KORDAX can be an independent and reliable regulation verification code. In the next year study, HELIOS will be further studied as a core lattice code, and a hexagonal kinetics code which is based on AFEN method will be developed more systematically.

  4. On $\\mathfrak{I}$-reconstruction Property


    Vashisht, L. K.; Khattar, Geetika


    Reconstruction property in Banach spaces introduced and studied by Casazza and Christensen in [1]. In this paper we introduce reconstruction property in Banach spaces which satisfy $\\mathfrak{I}$-property. A characterization of reconstruction property in Banach spaces which satisfy $\\mathfrak{I}$-property in terms of frames in Banach spaces is obtained. Banach frames associated with reconstruction property are discussed.

  5. Reconstruction from divergent ray projections (United States)

    Sastry, C. S.; Singh, Santosh


    Despite major advances in x-ray sources, detector arrays, gantry mechanical design and special computer performances, computed tomography (CT) enjoys the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm as its first choice for the CT image reconstruction in the commercial scanners [1]. Over the years, a lot of fundamental work has been done in the area of finding the sophisticated solutions for the inverse problems using different kinds of optimization techniques. Recent literature in applied mathematics is being dominated by the compressive sensing techniques and/or sparse reconstruction techniques [2], [3]. Still there is a long way to go for translating these newly developed algorithms in the clinical environment. The reasons are not obvious and seldom discussed [1]. Knowing the fact that the filtered back projection is one of the most popular CT image reconstruction algorithms, one pursues research work to improve the different error estimates at different steps performed in the filtered back projection. In this paper, we present a back projection formula for the reconstruction of divergent beam tomography with unique convolution structure. Using such a proposed approximate convolution structure, the approximation error mathematically justifies that the reconstruction error is low for a suitable choice of parameters. In order to minimize the exposure time and possible distortions due to the motion of the patient, the fan beam method of collection of data is used. Rebinning [4] transformation is used to connect fan beam data into parallel beam data so that the well developed methods of image reconstruction for parallel beam geometry can be used. Due to the computational errors involved in the numerical process of rebinning, some degradation of image is inevitable. However, to date very little work has been done for the reconstruction of fan beam tomography. There have been some recent results [5], [6] on wavelet reconstruction of divergent beam tomography. In this paper

  6. ACTS: from ATLAS software towards a common track reconstruction software (United States)

    Gumpert, C.; Salzburger, A.; Kiehn, M.; Hrdinka, J.; Calace, N.; ATLAS Collaboration


    Reconstruction of charged particles’ trajectories is a crucial task for most particle physics experiments. The high instantaneous luminosity achieved at the LHC leads to a high number of proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing, which has put the track reconstruction software of the LHC experiments through a thorough test. Preserving track reconstruction performance under increasingly difficult experimental conditions, while keeping the usage of computational resources at a reasonable level, is an inherent problem for many HEP experiments. Exploiting concurrent algorithms and using multivariate techniques for track identification are the primary strategies to achieve that goal. Starting from current ATLAS software, the ACTS project aims to encapsulate track reconstruction software into a generic, framework- and experiment-independent software package. It provides a set of high-level algorithms and data structures for performing track reconstruction tasks as well as fast track simulation. The software is developed with special emphasis on thread-safety to support parallel execution of the code and data structures are optimised for vectorisation to speed up linear algebra operations. The implementation is agnostic to the details of the detection technologies and magnetic field configuration which makes it applicable to many different experiments.

  7. Corneal reconstruction by stem cells and bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjamaa O


    Full Text Available Olli ArjamaaDepartment of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Almost 300 million people are visually impaired worldwide due to various eye diseases such as cataracts, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and corneal diseases. Notably, ten million people are blind because of severe ocular surface diseases and the majority of cases occur in developing countries. Blinding ocular surface diseases have, however, become treatable by grafting of surface layers, or by full-thickness transplantation of the cornea. As the demand for human corneal tissue for surface reconstruction and transplantation far exceeds the supply, methods are being developed to supplement tissue donation. Xenotransplantation of the cornea or cells from genetically modified pigs may become one of the solutions. Transplantation of limbal stem cells within tissue biopsies, to restore the transparency of the cornea is another remarkable method, which has shown its potential in several clinical studies. The combination of stem cell technology and engineering of biocompatible tissue equivalent, still at preclinical stage, has shown us how synthetic corneal tissue is able to guide cultured corneal stromal stem cells of human origin, to become native-like stroma, the most important layer of the cornea. These findings give hope for a large-quantity production of biomaterial for corneal reconstruction. As such, clinical ophthalmologists should become more familiar with the methods of laboratory science.Keywords: eye, grafting, keratoplasty, xenotransplantation, cell reservoir, biocompatible tissue equivalent

  8. Ethical issues in plastic and reconstructive surgery. (United States)

    Sterodimas, Aris; Radwanski, Henrique N; Pitanguy, Ivo


    Plastic, reconstructive, and cosmetic surgery refers to a variety of operations performed in order to repair or restore body parts to look normal or to enhance a certain structure or anatomy that is already normal. Several ethical considerations such as a patient's right for autonomy, informed consent, beneficence, and nonmalfeasance need to be given careful consideration. The principal objective of the medical profession is to render services to humanity with full respect for human dignity. Plastic surgeons should merit the confidence of patients entrusted to their care, rendering to each a full measure of service and devotion. They require an extensive amount of education and training. The increases in demand for aesthetic plastic surgery and the advocacy of practice in the media have raised concerns about the circumstances under which cosmetic surgery is ethical and permissible. Innovative research, and new technologies derived from such research, almost always raises ethical and policy concerns. Medical ethics regulate what is, and what is not, correct in promoting plastic surgery to the public. It is essential to create an educated and informed public about the ethical issues in the plastic and reconstructive surgery field. Plastic surgeons need to carefully evaluate the degree of deformity, physical and emotional maturity, and desired outcome of patients who request plastic surgery procedures. Science is a powerful force for change in modern society and plastic surgeons have a responsibility to shepherd that change with thoughtful advocacy and careful ethical scrutiny of their own behavior.

  9. Qualification of the nuclear reactor core model DYN3D coupled to the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET, applied as an advanced tool for accident analysis of VVER-type reactors. Final report; Qualifizierung des Kernmodells DYN3D im Komplex mit dem Stoerfallcode ATHLET als fortgeschrittenes Werkzeug fuer die Stoerfallanalyse von WWER-Reaktoren. T. 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, U.; Kliem, S.; Krepper, E.; Mittag, S; Rohde, U.; Schaefer, F.; Seidel, A.


    The nuclear reactor core model DYN3D with 3D neutron kinetics has been coupled to the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET. In the report, activities on qualification of the coupled code complex ATHLET-DYN3D as a validated tool for the accident analysis of russian VVER type reactors are described. That includes: - Contributions to the validation of the single codes ATHLET and DYN3D by the analysis of experiments on natural circulation behaviour in thermohydraulic test facilities and solution of benchmark tasks on reactivity initiated transients, - the acquisition and evaluation of measurement data on transients in nuclear power plants, the validation of ATHLET-DYN3D by calculating an accident with delayed scram and a pump trip in VVER plants, - the complementary improvement of the code DYN3D by extension of the neutron physical data base, implementation of an improved coolant mixing model, consideration of decay heat release and xenon transients, - the analysis of steam leak scenarios for VVER-440 type reactors with failure of different safety systems, investigation of different model options. The analyses showed, that with realistic coolant mixing modelling in the downcomer and the lower plenum, recriticality of the scramed reactor due to overcooling can be reached. The application of the code complex ATHLET-DYN3D in Czech Republic, Bulgaria and the Ukraine has been started. Future work comprises the verification of ATHLET-DYN3D with a DYN3D version for the square fuel element geometry of western PWR. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Reaktorkernmodell DYN3D mit 3D Neutronenkinetik wurde an den Thermohydraulik-Systemcode ATHLET angekoppelt. Im vorliegenden Bericht werden Arbeiten zur Qualifizierung des gekoppelten Codekomplexes zu einem validierten Hilfsmittel fuer Stoerfallablaufanalysen zu Reaktoren des russischen Typs WWER dargestellt. Diese umfassten im einzelnen: - Beitraege zur Validierung der Einzelcodes ATHLET und DYN3D anhand der Nachrechnung von Experimenten zum

  10. A Novel Parallel Method for Speckle Masking Reconstruction Using the OpenMP (United States)

    Li, Xuebao; Zheng, Yanfang


    High resolution reconstruction technology is developed to help enhance the spatial resolution of observational images for ground-based solar telescopes, such as speckle masking. Near real-time reconstruction performance is achieved on a high performance cluster using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). However, much time is spent in reconstructing solar subimages in such a speckle reconstruction. We design and implement a novel parallel method for speckle masking reconstruction of solar subimage on a shared memory machine using the OpenMP. Real tests are performed to verify the correctness of our codes. We present the details of several parallel reconstruction steps. The parallel implementation between various modules shows a great speed increase as compared to single thread serial implementation, and a speedup of about 2.5 is achieved in one subimage reconstruction. The timing result for reconstructing one subimage with 256×256 pixels shows a clear advantage with greater number of threads. This novel parallel method can be valuable in real-time reconstruction of solar images, especially after porting to a high performance cluster.

  11. Reconstruction of on-axis lensless Fourier transform digital hologram with the screen division method (United States)

    Jiang, Hongzhen; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yong; Li, Dong; Chen, Zhu; Zheng, Fanglan; Yu, Deqiang


    An effective approach for reconstructing on-axis lensless Fourier Transform digital hologram by using the screen division method is proposed. Firstly, the on-axis Fourier Transform digital hologram is divided into sub-holograms. Then the reconstruction result of every sub-hologram is obtained according to the position of corresponding sub-hologram in the hologram reconstruction plane with Fourier transform operation. Finally, the reconstruction image of on-axis Fourier Transform digital hologram can be acquired by the superposition of the reconstruction result of sub-holograms. Compared with the traditional reconstruction method with the phase shifting technology, in which multiple digital holograms are required to record for obtaining the reconstruction image, this method can obtain the reconstruction image with only one digital hologram and therefore greatly simplify the recording and reconstruction process of on-axis lensless Fourier Transform digital holography. The effectiveness of the proposed method is well proved with the experimental results and it will have potential application foreground in the holographic measurement and display field.

  12. Image-reconstruction methods in positron tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, David W; CERN. Geneva


    Physics and mathematics for medical imaging In the two decades since the introduction of the X-ray scanner into radiology, medical imaging techniques have become widely established as essential tools in the diagnosis of disease. As a consequence of recent technological and mathematical advances, the non-invasive, three-dimensional imaging of internal organs such as the brain and the heart is now possible, not only for anatomical investigations using X-rays but also for studies which explore the functional status of the body using positron-emitting radioisotopes and nuclear magnetic resonance. Mathematical methods which enable three-dimentional distributions to be reconstructed from projection data acquired by radiation detectors suitably positioned around the patient will be described in detail. The lectures will trace the development of medical imaging from simpleradiographs to the present-day non-invasive measurement of in vivo boichemistry. Powerful techniques to correlate anatomy and function that are cur...

  13. Emerging Trends in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. (United States)

    Budny, Jacob; Fox, Joseph; Rauh, Michael; Fineberg, Marc


    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed and researched orthopedic procedures. As technology and comparative research have advanced, surgical practices have changed to achieve a superior outcome. Our group performed a survey of orthopedic surgeons to evaluate current practice trends and techniques as a follow-up to similar surveys performed in 1999 and 2006. In a survey between 2013 and 2014 consisting of 35 questions regarding the surgical technique, graft choice, fixation method, and perioperative care in ACL reconstruction was sent electronically to the members of the American Orthopaedic Society of Sports Medicine and the Arthroscopy Association of North America. Responses were recorded and compared with previous results. Survey responses were received from 824 active surgeons. Of the respondents, 89.4% are subspecialty trained, 98% of which in sports medicine. Preoperatively, full-knee extension was the only "very significant" factor in surgical timing. Approach preference via an arthroscopic-assisted single-incision approach predominated (89%)-similar to earlier results. Bone-patellar-tendon-bone use decreased relative to hamstring allograft at 45 and 41%, respectively. Tibial tunnel placement shifted anteriorly and femoral tunnel placement shifted posterosuperiorly as compared with the results obtained 5 years ago. Femoral drilling through a low medial portal was preferred in 47% of responses, increased from 15%. Preferred fixation on both the tibial and femoral sides was either metal or bioabsorbable interference screws. The use of transfixation pins and other devices decreased. Postoperative rehab protocols did not significantly change, 68.7% preferred full-weight bearing, 55% using a range of motion knee brace locked in extension, 66.4% starting physical therapy 1 week postoperatively, with unrestricted activity at 6 to 9 months. Overall, an increasing trend toward using hamstring autograft and drilling the

  14. Polaron-Driven Surface Reconstructions (United States)

    Reticcioli, Michele; Setvin, Martin; Hao, Xianfeng; Flauger, Peter; Kresse, Georg; Schmid, Michael; Diebold, Ulrike; Franchini, Cesare


    Geometric and electronic surface reconstructions determine the physical and chemical properties of surfaces and, consequently, their functionality in applications. The reconstruction of a surface minimizes its surface free energy in otherwise thermodynamically unstable situations, typically caused by dangling bonds, lattice stress, or a divergent surface potential, and it is achieved by a cooperative modification of the atomic and electronic structure. Here, we combined first-principles calculations and surface techniques (scanning tunneling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy) to report that the repulsion between negatively charged polaronic quasiparticles, formed by the interaction between excess electrons and the lattice phonon field, plays a key role in surface reconstructions. As a paradigmatic example, we explain the (1 ×1 ) to (1 ×2 ) transition in rutile TiO2 (110 ) .

  15. Polaron-Driven Surface Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Reticcioli


    Full Text Available Geometric and electronic surface reconstructions determine the physical and chemical properties of surfaces and, consequently, their functionality in applications. The reconstruction of a surface minimizes its surface free energy in otherwise thermodynamically unstable situations, typically caused by dangling bonds, lattice stress, or a divergent surface potential, and it is achieved by a cooperative modification of the atomic and electronic structure. Here, we combined first-principles calculations and surface techniques (scanning tunneling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy to report that the repulsion between negatively charged polaronic quasiparticles, formed by the interaction between excess electrons and the lattice phonon field, plays a key role in surface reconstructions. As a paradigmatic example, we explain the (1×1 to (1×2 transition in rutile TiO_{2}(110.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Cuza


    Full Text Available On the fields of State natural reservation "Plaiul Faguluit", towards to the improvement of the forest healthy have been made end tests some ecological reconstruction technologies of stands. Those technologies permit the building of durmast and beech plantations under the cover of existing forests, with o minimum prepare works or without soil disturbing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Juhász


    Full Text Available LiDAR technology has become one of the major remote sensing methods in the last few years. There are several areas, where the scanned 3D point clouds can be used very efficiently. In our study we review the potential applications of LiDAR data in military historical reconstruction. Obviously, the base of this kind of investigation must be the archive data, but it is an interesting challenge to integrate a cutting edge method into such tasks. The LiDAR technology can be very useful, especially in vegetation covered areas, where the conventional remote sensing technologies are mostly inefficient. We review two typical sample projects where we integrated LiDAR data in military historical GIS reconstruction. Finally, we summarize, how laser scanned data can support the different parts of reconstruction work and define the technological steps of LiDAR data processing.

  18. User Interface for the SMAC Traffic Accident Reconstruction Program


    Rok Krulec; Milan Batista


    This paper describes the development of the user interfacefor the traffic accident reconstruction program SMAC. Threebasic modules of software will be presented. Initial parametersinput and visualization, using graphics library for simulation of3D space, which form a graphical user interface, will be explainedin more detail. The modules have been developed usingdifferent technologies and programming approaches to increaseflexibility in further development and to take maximumadvantage of the c...

  19. User Interface for the SMAC Traffic Accident Reconstruction Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Krulec


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of the user interfacefor the traffic accident reconstruction program SMAC. Threebasic modules of software will be presented. Initial parametersinput and visualization, using graphics library for simulation of3D space, which form a graphical user interface, will be explainedin more detail. The modules have been developed usingdifferent technologies and programming approaches to increaseflexibility in further development and to take maximumadvantage of the currently accessible computer hardware, sothat module to module communication is also mentioned.

  20. Rational Reconstructions of Modern Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstaedt, Peter


    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of modern physics, such as the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of relativity as well as quantum mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results.

  1. A Convex Formulation for Magnetic Particle Imaging X-Space Reconstruction. (United States)

    Konkle, Justin J; Goodwill, Patrick W; Hensley, Daniel W; Orendorff, Ryan D; Lustig, Michael; Conolly, Steven M


    Magnetic Particle Imaging (mpi) is an emerging imaging modality with exceptional promise for clinical applications in rapid angiography, cell therapy tracking, cancer imaging, and inflammation imaging. Recent publications have demonstrated quantitative mpi across rat sized fields of view with x-space reconstruction methods. Critical to any medical imaging technology is the reliability and accuracy of image reconstruction. Because the average value of the mpi signal is lost during direct-feedthrough signal filtering, mpi reconstruction algorithms must recover this zero-frequency value. Prior x-space mpi recovery techniques were limited to 1d approaches which could introduce artifacts when reconstructing a 3d image. In this paper, we formulate x-space reconstruction as a 3d convex optimization problem and apply robust a priori knowledge of image smoothness and non-negativity to reduce non-physical banding and haze artifacts. We conclude with a discussion of the powerful extensibility of the presented formulation for future applications.

  2. An Improved Method for Power-Line Reconstruction from Point Cloud Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Guo


    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust algorithm to reconstruct power-lines using ALS technology. Point cloud data are automatically classified into five target classes before reconstruction. In order to improve upon the defaults of only using the local shape properties of a single power-line span in traditional methods, the distribution properties of power-line group between two neighbor pylons and contextual information of related pylon objects are used to improve the reconstruction results. First, the distribution properties of power-line sets are detected using a similarity detection method. Based on the probability of neighbor points belonging to the same span, a RANSAC rule based algorithm is then introduced to reconstruct power-lines through two important advancements: reliable initial parameters fitting and efficient candidate sample detection. Our experiments indicate that the proposed method is effective for reconstruction of power-lines from complex scenarios.

  3. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test: Trajectory, Atmosphere, and Aerodynamics Reconstruction (United States)

    Kutty, Prasad; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Blood, Eric M.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Shoenenberger, Mark; Dutta, Soumyo


    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator, which is part of the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology development project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and Supersonic Parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. This test was used to validate the test architecture for future missions. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, atmosphere, and aerodynamics. The results of the reconstruction show significantly higher lofting of the trajectory, which can partially be explained by off-nominal booster motor performance. The reconstructed vehicle force and moment coefficients fall well within pre-flight predictions. A parameter identification analysis indicates that the vehicle displayed greater aerodynamic static stability than seen in pre-flight computational predictions and ballistic range tests.

  4. Trajectory Auto-Corrected image reconstruction. (United States)

    Ianni, Julianna D; Grissom, William A


    To estimate k-space trajectory errors in non-Cartesian acquisitions and reconstruct distortion-free images, without trajectory measurements or gradient calibrations. The Trajectory Auto-Corrected image Reconstruction method jointly estimates k-space trajectory errors and images, based on SENSE and SPIRiT parallel imaging reconstruction. The underlying idea is that parallel imaging and oversampling in the center of k-space provides data redundancy that can be exploited to simultaneously reconstruct images and correct trajectory errors. Trajectory errors are represented as weighted sums of trajectory-dependent error basis functions, the coefficients of which are estimated using gradient-based optimization. Trajectory Auto-Corrected image Reconstruction was applied to reconstruct images and errors in golden angle radial, center-out radial, and spiral in vivo 7 Tesla brain acquisitions in five subjects. Compared to reconstructions using nominal trajectories, Trajectory auto-corrected image reconstructions contained considerably less blurring and streaking and were of similar quality to images reconstructed using measured k-space trajectories in the center-out radial and spiral cases. Reconstruction cost function reductions and improvements in normalized image gradient squared were also similar to those for images reconstructed using measured trajectories. Trajectory Auto-Corrected image Reconstruction enables non-Cartesian image reconstructions free from trajectory errors without the need for separate gradient calibrations or trajectory measurements. Magn Reson Med 76:757-768, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A survey of urban reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Musialski, Przemyslaw


    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of urban reconstruction. While there exists a considerable body of literature, this topic is still under active research. The work reviewed in this survey stems from the following three research communities: computer graphics, computer vision and photogrammetry and remote sensing. Our goal is to provide a survey that will help researchers to better position their own work in the context of existing solutions, and to help newcomers and practitioners in computer graphics to quickly gain an overview of this vast field. Further, we would like to bring the mentioned research communities to even more interdisciplinary work, since the reconstruction problem itself is by far not solved. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of urban reconstruction. While there exists a considerable body of literature, this topic is still under active research. The work reviewed in this survey stems from the following three research communities: computer graphics, computer vision and photogrammetry and remote sensing. Our goal is to provide a survey that will help researchers to better position their own work in the context of existing solutions, and to help newcomers and practitioners in computer graphics to quickly gain an overview of this vast field. Further, we would like to bring the mentioned research communities to even more interdisciplinary work, since the reconstruction problem itself is by far not solved. © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Reconstructing Death in Postmodern Society. (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert


    Examines interaction between emerging thanatological movement and its sociohistorical context. Notes that thanatology will take on new shape as individuals and society attempt to cope with postmodernistic forces and deconstructive mentality. Considers prospect for authentic solidarity against distress in reconstructed death system. (Author/NB)

  7. PRISM3/GISS Topographic Reconstruction (United States)

    Sohl, Linda E.; Chandler, Mark A.; Schmunk, Robert B.; Mankoff, Ken; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Foley, Kevin M.; Dowsett, Harry J.


    The PRISM3/GISS topographic reconstruction is one of the global data sets incorporated into a new reconstruction for the mid-Piacenzian warm interval of the Pliocene, at about 3.3 to 3.0 Ma. The PRISM3/GISS topography-gridded data set is a digitization of a graphical reconstruction, provided at 2 deg x 2 deg resolution and based on updated paleoaltimetry data and a refined land/ocean mask. Mid-Piacenzian topography as shown in this data set is generally quite similar to modern topography, with three notable differences: (1) the coastline as shown is 25 meters higher than modern sea level, reflecting the hypothesized reduction in ice sheet volume; (2) Hudson Bay is filled in to low elevation, in the absence of evidence for submergence at that time; and (3) the West Antarctic ice sheet is absent, permitting open seaways to exist in Ellsworth and Marie Byrd Lands. Two alternate ice sheet configurations with corresponding vegetation schemes are available; one is a minor modification of the PRISM2 ice reconstruction, and one is derived from the British Antarctic Survey Ice Sheet Model (BAS ISM).

  8. Reconstructive hermeneutics in African Christology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 10, 2015 ... The text of the Greek New Testament has been reconstructed from ... pieces of information and tradition found in the sources. The theologies of Paul ..... with the object of doing a contextual and relevant Christology for their ...

  9. Accommodative Reconstruction in Prose Recall. (United States)

    Spiro, Rand J.


    Reports an experiment which supports the predictions of the accommodative-reconstruction hypothesis that recall is not based on retrieval of stored traces of interpreted experience. It involves accommodating details of what is to be remembered to what is known at the time of recall. (PMJ)

  10. Generating harmonized SUV within the EANM EARL accreditation program: software approach versus EARL-compliant reconstruction. (United States)

    Lasnon, Charline; Salomon, Thibault; Desmonts, Cédric; Dô, Pascal; Oulkhouir, Youssef; Madelaine, Jeannick; Aide, Nicolas


    Evolutions in hardware and software PET technology, such as point spread function (PSF) reconstruction, have been shown to improve diagnostic performance, but can also lead to important device-dependent and reconstruction-dependent variations in standardized uptake values (SUVs). This may preclude the multicentre use of SUVs as a prognostic or diagnostic tool or as a biomarker of the early response to antineoplastic treatments. This study compared two SUV harmonization strategies using a newer reconstruction algorithm that improves lesion detection while maintaining comparability with older systems: (1) the use of a second reconstruction compliant with harmonization standards and (2) the use of a proprietary software tool (EQ.PET). PET data from 50 consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients were reconstructed with PSF reconstruction for optimal tumor detection and an ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM3D) reconstruction to mimic a former generation PET. An additional PSF reconstruction was performed with a 7 mm Gaussian filter (PSF7, first method), and, post-reconstruction, the EQ filter (same Gaussian filter) was applied to the PSF data (PSFEQ, second method) for harmonization purposes. The 7 mm kernel filter was chosen to comply with the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) standards. SUVs for all reconstructions were compared with regression analyses and/or Bland-Altman plots. Overall, 171 lesions were analyzed: 55 lung lesions (32.2%), 87 lymph nodes (50.9%), and 29 metastases (16.9%). In these lesions, the mean PSF7/OSEM3D ratios for SUVmax and SUVpeak were 1.02 (95% CI: 0.93-1.11) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.95-1.14), respectively. The mean PSFEQ/OSEM3D ratios for SUVmax and SUVpeak were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.91-1.11) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.94-1.14), respectively. When comparing PSF7 and PSFEQ, Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean PSF7/PSFEQ ratios for SUVmax and SUVpeak were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.96-1.06) and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.97-1.04), respectively


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wendel


    Full Text Available Novel image acquisition tools such as micro aerial vehicles (MAVs in form of quad- or octo-rotor helicopters support the creation of 3D reconstructions with ground sampling distances below 1 cm. The limitation of aerial photogrammetry to nadir and oblique views in heights of several hundred meters is bypassed, allowing close-up photos of facades and ground features. However, the new acquisition modality also introduces challenges: First, flight space might be restricted in urban areas, which leads to missing views for accurate 3D reconstruction and causes fracturing of large models. This could also happen due to vegetation or simply a change of illumination during image acquisition. Second, accurate geo-referencing of reconstructions is difficult because of shadowed GPS signals in urban areas, so alignment based on GPS information is often not possible. In this paper, we address the automatic fusion of such partial reconstructions. Our approach is largely based on the work of (Wendel et al., 2011a, but does not require an overhead digital surface model for fusion. Instead, we exploit that patch-based semi-dense reconstruction of the fractured model typically results in several point clouds covering overlapping areas, even if sparse feature correspondences cannot be established. We approximate orthographic depth maps for the individual parts and iteratively align them in a global coordinate system. As a result, we are able to generate point clouds which are visually more appealing and serve as an ideal basis for further processing. Mismatches between parts of the fused models depend only on the individual point density, which allows us to achieve a fusion accuracy in the range of ±1 cm on our evaluation dataset.

  12. CT radiation dose and iterative reconstruction techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padole, Atul; Ali Khawaja, Ranish Deedar; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Singh, Sarabjeet


    .... CT image quality is dependent on the selected image reconstruction algorithm. 3. Iterative reconstruction algorithms have reemerged with the potential of radiation dose optimization by lowering image noise. 4...

  13. CT radiation dose and iterative reconstruction techniques. (United States)

    Padole, Atul; Ali Khawaja, Ranish Deedar; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Singh, Sarabjeet


    1. CT radiation dose optimization is one of the major concerns for the scientific community. 2. CT image quality is dependent on the selected image reconstruction algorithm. 3. Iterative reconstruction algorithms have reemerged with the potential of radiation dose optimization by lowering image noise. 4. Tube current is the most common parameter used to reduce radiation dose along with iterative reconstruction. 5. Tube potential (kV) is also used for dose optimization with iterative reconstruction in CT angiography protocols and small patients.

  14. Thermographic image reconstruction using ultrasound reconstruction from virtual waves

    CERN Document Server

    Burgholzer, Peter; Gruber, Jürgen; Mayr, Günther


    Reconstruction of subsurface features from ultrasound signals measured on the surface is widely used in medicine and non-destructive testing. In this work, we introduce a concept how to use image reconstruction methods known from ultrasonic imaging for thermographic signals, i.e. on the measured temperature evolution on a sample surface. Before using these imaging methods a virtual signal is calculated by applying a transformation to the measured temperature evolution. The virtual signal is calculated locally for every detection point and has the same initial temperature distribution as the measured signal, but is a solution of the wave equation. The introduced transformation can be used for every shape of the detection surface and in every dimension. It describes all the irreversibility of the heat diffusion, which is responsible that the spatial resolution gets worse with increasing depth. Up to now, for thermographic imaging mostly one-dimensional methods, e.g., for depth-profiling were used, which are sui...

  15. Vertex Reconstruction in ATLAS Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Matt; The ATLAS collaboration


    Vertex reconstruction is the process of taking reconstructed tracks and using them to determine the locations of proton collisions. In this poster we present the performance of our current vertex reconstruction algorithm, and look at investigations into potential improvements from a new seed finding method.

  16. Reconstruction of CT images by the Bayes- back projection method

    CERN Document Server

    Haruyama, M; Takase, M; Tobita, H


    In the course of research on quantitative assay of non-destructive measurement of radioactive waste, the have developed a unique program based on the Bayesian theory for reconstruction of transmission computed tomography (TCT) image. The reconstruction of cross-section images in the CT technology usually employs the Filtered Back Projection method. The new imaging reconstruction program reported here is based on the Bayesian Back Projection method, and it has a function of iterative improvement images by every step of measurement. Namely, this method has the capability of prompt display of a cross-section image corresponding to each angled projection data from every measurement. Hence, it is possible to observe an improved cross-section view by reflecting each projection data in almost real time. From the basic theory of Baysian Back Projection method, it can be not only applied to CT types of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation. This reported deals with a reconstruction program of cross-section images in the CT of ...

  17. [Ecological restoration and reconstruction of degraded lakeside zone ecosystem]. (United States)

    Yan, Changzhou; Jin, Xiangcan; Zhao, Jingzhu; Ye, Chun; Wang, Zhongqiong


    As a kind of aquatic-terrestrial ecotone, lakeside zone plays an important role in the lake basin ecosystem, and has high ecological, social and economic values. Its functions include lake buffer, conservation of biological diversities and special habitats, dike protection from soil erosion, and economic and esthetics values. The main factors inducing lakeside zone degradation are the anthropogenic activities that caused the converse succession of communities and the decline of ecological function. The theoretical basis of ecological restoration and reconstruction of degraded lakeside zone is restoration ecology; while the technologies are of three types, i. e., habitat restoration and reconstruction, species restoration and reconstruction, and structural and functional restoration. A three-year case study on the ecosystem restoration and recontruction of degraded lakeside zone of Erhai Lake in Yunnan Province showed that the aquatic macrophytes were restored, purifying function was distinct, algae were restrained, and the component and individuals of zooplankton were changed. In a word, the biological diversity and stability in the degraded lakeside-zone ecosystem increased after the restoration and reconstruction.

  18. Ultra-Fast Image Reconstruction of Tomosynthesis Mammography Using GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arefan D


    Full Text Available Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT is a technology that creates three dimensional (3D images of breast tissue. Tomosynthesis mammography detects lesions that are not detectable with other imaging systems. If image reconstruction time is in the order of seconds, we can use Tomosynthesis systems to perform Tomosynthesis-guided Interventional procedures. This research has been designed to study ultra-fast image reconstruction technique for Tomosynthesis Mammography systems using Graphics Processing Unit (GPU. At first, projections of Tomosynthesis mammography have been simulated. In order to produce Tomosynthesis projections, it has been designed a 3D breast phantom from empirical data. It is based on MRI data in its natural form. Then, projections have been created from 3D breast phantom. The image reconstruction algorithm based on FBP was programmed with C++ language in two methods using central processing unit (CPU card and the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU. It calculated the time of image reconstruction in two kinds of programming (using CPU and GPU.

  19. Direct reconstruction of dark energy. (United States)

    Clarkson, Chris; Zunckel, Caroline


    An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With so few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space. We present a new nonparametric method which can accurately reconstruct a wide variety of dark energy behavior with no prior assumptions about it. It is simple, quick and relatively accurate, and involves no expensive explorations of parameter space. The technique uses principal component analysis and a combination of information criteria to identify real features in the data, and tailors the fitting functions to pick up trends and smooth over noise. We find that we can constrain a large variety of w(z) models to within 10%-20% at redshifts z≲1 using just SNAP-quality data.

  20. Ear Reconstruction in Young Children. (United States)

    Reinisch, John


    The use of a porous high-density polyethylene ear implant, rather than a costal cartilage framework, allows ear reconstruction in young children before they enter school. The fact that the growth of the normal ear matures early allows for good symmetry. If the implant is covered completely with a large, well-vascularized superficial parietal fascia flap and appropriately color-matched skin, an ear with excellent projection and definition can be obtained with minimal complications and long-term viability. Ear reconstruction in young children is preferred by the author because the necessary fascial flap coverage is thinner, easier to harvest than in older patients, and can be done in a single outpatient procedure with minimal discomfort or psychological trauma. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff


     We propose a method for restoring the surface of tooth crowns in a 3D model of a human denture, so that the pose and anatomical features of the tooth will work well for chewing. This is achieved by including information about the position and anatomy of the other teeth in the mouth. Our system...... contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors...... regularization of the log-likelihood estimate based on differential geometrical properties of teeth surfaces, and we show general conditions under which this may be considered a Bayes prior.Finally we use Bayes method to propose the reconstruction of missing data, for e.g. finding the most probable shape...

  2. Reconstruction of complete interval tournaments

    CERN Document Server

    Iványi, Antal


    Let $a, b$ and $n$ be nonnegative integers $(b \\geq a, \\ b > 0, \\ n \\geq 1)$, $\\mathcal{G}_n(a,b)$ be a multigraph on $n$ vertices in which any pair of vertices is connected with at least $a$ and at most $b$ edges and \\textbf{v =} $(v_1, v_2, ..., v_n)$ be a vector containing $n$ nonnegative integers. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of such orientation of the edges of $\\mathcal{G}_n(a,b)$, that the resulted out-degree vector equals to \\textbf{v}. We describe a reconstruction algorithm. In worst case checking of \\textbf{v} requires $\\Theta(n)$ time and the reconstruction algorithm works in $O(bn^3)$ time. Theorems of H. G. Landau (1953) and J. W. Moon (1963) on the score sequences of tournaments are special cases $b = a = 1$ resp. $b = a \\geq 1$ of our result.

  3. Network reconstruction via density sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Squartini, Tiziano; Gabrielli, Andrea; Garlaschelli, Diego


    Reconstructing weighted networks from partial information is necessary in many important circumstances, e.g. for a correct estimation of systemic risk. It has been shown that, in order to achieve an accurate reconstruction, it is crucial to reliably replicate the empirical degree sequence, which is however unknown in many realistic situations. More recently, it has been found that the knowledge of the degree sequence can be replaced by the knowledge of the strength sequence, which is typically accessible, complemented by that of the total number of links, thus considerably relaxing the observational requirements. Here we further relax these requirements and devise a procedure valid when even the the total number of links is unavailable. We assume that, apart from the heterogeneity induced by the degree sequence itself, the network is homogeneous, so that its link density can be estimated by sampling subsets of nodes with representative density. We show that the best way of sampling nodes is the random selecti...

  4. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnie Schmittberger


    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  5. Analysis of an Optimized MLOS Tomographic Reconstruction Algorithm and Comparison to the MART Reconstruction Algorithm (United States)

    La Foy, Roderick; Vlachos, Pavlos


    An optimally designed MLOS tomographic reconstruction algorithm for use in 3D PIV and PTV applications is analyzed. Using a set of optimized reconstruction parameters, the reconstructions produced by the MLOS algorithm are shown to be comparable to reconstructions produced by the MART algorithm for a range of camera geometries, camera numbers, and particle seeding densities. The resultant velocity field error calculated using PIV and PTV algorithms is further minimized by applying both pre and post processing to the reconstructed data sets.

  6. Dental implants in oral cancer reconstruction. (United States)

    Kim, D David; Ghali, G E


    Endosseous implants have revolutionized dental prosthetic rehabilitation, providing a reliable, a stable, and an aesthetic option for dental reconstruction. Dental implants have similarly improved the functionality of reconstructions following cancer surgery. The use of dental implants in oral cancer reconstruction can be divided into 2 categories: (1), for retention of a prosthetic device, for example, palatal obturator, used as the primary means of maxillary reconstruction, and (2), for dental rehabilitation after bony reconstruction of the jaws. This article discusses these different uses of endosseous implants in patients with head and neck cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Reduction of the Graph Reconstruction Conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monikandan S.


    Full Text Available A graph is said to be reconstructible if it is determined up to isomor- phism from the collection of all its one-vertex deleted unlabeled subgraphs. Reconstruction Conjecture (RC asserts that all graphs on at least three vertices are reconstructible. In this paper, we prove that interval-regular graphs and some new classes of graphs are reconstructible and show that RC is true if and only if all non-geodetic and non-interval-regular blocks G with diam(G = 2 or diam(Ḡ = diam(G = 3 are reconstructible

  8. Mandibular segmental reconstruction with iliac crest. (United States)

    Obiechina, A E; Ogunlade, S O; Fasola, A O; Arotiba, J T


    Twenty patients consisting of 14 males and 6 females with benign destructive lesions of the mandible were reconstructed using free nonvascularised iliac crest. Harvested bone was contoured and secured with 0.5 mm stainless steel wire and reinforced with maxillo-mandibular fixation. Five patients has hemimandibulectomy with immediate reconstruction. The other 15 patients had 1 to 3 segments of the mandible reconstructed. There was only one failure. Mouth opening and closure were centric except in the patients that had hemimandibulectomy without condylar reconstruction. Mastication and facial appearance were satisfactory. In conclusion, the iliac crest is recommended for reconstruction of hemimandible as well as long contiguous segments of the mandible.

  9. Accurate Accident Reconstruction in VANET


    Kopylova, Yuliya; Farkas, Csilla; Xu, Wenyuan


    Part 9: Short Papers; International audience; We propose a forensic VANET application to aid an accurate accident reconstruction. Our application provides a new source of objective real-time data impossible to collect using existing methods. By leveraging inter-vehicle communications, we compile digital evidence describing events before, during, and after an accident in its entirety. In addition to sensors data and major components’ status, we provide relative positions of all vehicles involv...

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. (comps.)


    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  11. Fourier reconstruction with sparse inversions


    Zwartjes, P.M.


    In seismic exploration an image of the subsurface is generated from seismic data through various data processing algorithms. When the data is not acquired on an equidistantly spaced grid, artifacts may result in the final image. Fourier reconstruction is an interpolation technique that can reduce these artifacts by generating uniformly sampled data from such non-uniformly sampled data. The method works by estimating via least-squares inversion the Fourier coefficients that describe the non-un...

  12. Craniofacial reconstruction following oncologic resection. (United States)

    Hanasono, Matthew M; Hofstede, Theresa M


    The ability to reliably reconstruct complex and sizable wounds has decreased the morbidity of skull base surgery substantially, preventing major complications and allowing treatment of tumors previously considered inoperable. Addressing facial nerve function with static and dynamic procedures as well as fabrication of craniofacial prostheses to replace delicate facial landmarks has further increased surgeons' ability to restore the appearance and function of the face. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Two-Dimensional Impact Reconstruction Method for Rail Defect Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao


    Full Text Available The safety of train operating is seriously menaced by the rail defects, so it is of great significance to inspect rail defects dynamically while the train is operating. This paper presents a two-dimensional impact reconstruction method to realize the on-line inspection of rail defects. The proposed method utilizes preprocessing technology to convert time domain vertical vibration signals acquired by wireless sensor network to space signals. The modern time-frequency analysis method is improved to reconstruct the obtained multisensor information. Then, the image fusion processing technology based on spectrum threshold processing and node color labeling is proposed to reduce the noise, and blank the periodic impact signal caused by rail joints and locomotive running gear. This method can convert the aperiodic impact signals caused by rail defects to partial periodic impact signals, and locate the rail defects. An application indicates that the two-dimensional impact reconstruction method could display the impact caused by rail defects obviously, and is an effective on-line rail defects inspection method.

  14. Surgical reconstruction for fibular hemimelia. (United States)

    Paley, Dror


    Fibular hemimelia presents with foot deformity and leg length discrepancy. Previous classifications have focused on the degree of fibular deficiency rather than the type of foot deformity. Published methods of surgical reconstruction have often failed due to residual or recurrent foot deformity. The purpose of this report is to introduce new classification and reconstruction methods. The Paley SHORDT procedure is used to stabilize the ankle when there is a hypoplastic distal fibula with a dynamic valgus deformity. It involves shortening and realignment of the distal tibia relative to the fibula. In contrast, the Paley SUPERankle procedure is used when there is a fixed equinovalgus foot deformity. The SUPERankle uses a supramalleolar shortening-realignment osteotomy and/or subtalar osteotomies with anlage resection. Due to the bony instead of soft tissue correction of deformity, residual or recurrent deformity is prevented. Weakening of gastro-soleus and peroneal muscles is avoided by shortening of the tibia instead of tendon lengthening. The limitation of ankle motion is related to ankle dysplasia rather than surgery or lengthening. A plantigrade-stable foot and ankle leads to an excellent functional result comparable or better than a Syme's amputation with prosthetic fitting. Serial lengthening procedures combined with the SHORDT or SUPERankle reconstruction lead to limb length equalization with a plantigrade, painless, functional foot.

  15. Graph reconstruction with a betweenness oracle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Mikkel; Bodwin, Greg; Rotenberg, Eva


    Graph reconstruction algorithms seek to learn a hidden graph by repeatedly querying a blackbox oracle for information about the graph structure. Perhaps the most well studied and applied version of the problem uses a distance oracle, which can report the shortest path distance between any pair....... Despite this, we are able to develop betweenness reconstruction algorithms that match the current state of the art for distance reconstruction, and even improve it for certain types of graphs. We obtain the following algorithms: 1. Reconstruction of general graphs in O(n2) queries 2. Reconstruction...... of degree-bounded graphs in Õ(n3/2) queries 3. Reconstruction of geodetic degree-bounded graphs in Õ(n) queries In addition to being a fundamental graph theoretic problem with some natural applications, our new results shed light on some avenues for progress in the distance reconstruction problem....

  16. Breast reconstruction following amputation for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnjić Milan


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Today, breast reconstruction is a widely accepted method in the treatment of breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy. Reconstruction methods are associated with an acceptable number of complications and reconstruction favorably impacts quality of life. The aim of the study was to present our experience in breast reconstruction. Methods. We presented here a four-year experience with 84 patients with breast reconstruction after modified radical mastectomy. Results. Implant reconstructions were most common, 44 (52.3%, with primary reconstruction in 31(70.4% and secondary in 13 (29.5% women. Lattisimus dorsi flap (LDF and implant were utilized in 32 (38% of the patients, with primary reconstruction in 24 (75% and secondary in 8 (25% women. Transversal rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM flap was rarely used - just in 8 (9.5% patients and only for secondary breast reconstruction. Postoperatively, some early complications such as hematoma, seroma, infections and partial flap necrosis were observed in 10 (11.9% patients. Late complications, such as implant rejection, hypertrophic scarring and hernias at the flap elevation site, were noted in 10 (11.9% cases. Implant loss occurred in 5 (5.9% cases. All the complications were successfully managed, and patients rated their reconstruction as follows: excellent, 49 (59% cases; very good, 20 (24%, and good, 14 (16.8%. In one case, disease progression was observed 6 months after the primary breast reconstruction. Conclusion. Breast reconstruction is an acceptable method in the treatment of breast cancer in patients in the need for or with already performed mastectomy. The choice of reconstruction approach depends on the breast volume, patient's wish and experience of surgical team. Our results suggest the advantage of breast reconstruction with LDF with implant, since the technique is safe, complications relatively rare and easily manageable, and the results are excellent or very good

  17. Reconstructed imaging of acoustic cloak using time-lapse reversal method (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Cheng, Ying; Xu, Jian-yi; Li, Bo; Liu, Xiao-jun


    We proposed and investigated a solution to the inverse acoustic cloak problem, an anti-stealth technology to make cloaks visible, using the time-lapse reversal (TLR) method. The TLR method reconstructs the image of an unknown acoustic cloak by utilizing scattered acoustic waves. Compared to previous anti-stealth methods, the TLR method can determine not only the existence of a cloak but also its exact geometric information like definite shape, size, and position. Here, we present the process for TLR reconstruction based on time reversal invariance. This technology may have potential applications in detecting various types of cloaks with different geometric parameters.

  18. Perennial border reconstruction in the castle park in Lednice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kuťková


    Full Text Available The objective of the project was to make the design documentation for the reconstruction of the perennial border in the castle park in Lednice. The castle park is a part of Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape, which was inscribed in the World Heritage List of UNESCO for its unique value in 1996. The landscape architect of the original project was Markéta Roder-Müller (1898–1981. The result of this project is documenting the flower bed development in time and analysis of design basics, principles and approaches of Müller’s work. The design documentation for perennial border renewal was made with Müller’s landscape design style in mind and time schedule and technologies for perennial border renewal were recommended. Flower bed was reconstructed in autumn of 2010 according to the established design documentation and work schedule.

  19. Inner Detector Track Reconstruction and Alignment at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Danninger, Matthias; The ATLAS collaboration


    The Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is responsible for reconstructing the trajectories of charged particles (‘tracks’) with high efficiency and accuracy. It consists of three subdetectors, each using a different technology to provide measurements points. An overview of the use of each of these subdetectors in track reconstruction, as well as the algorithmic approaches taken to the specific tasks of pattern recognition and track fitting, is given. The performance of the Inner Detector tracking will be summarised. Of crucial importance for optimal tracking performance is precise knowledge of the relative positions of the detector elements. ATLAS uses a sophisticated, highly granular software alignment procedure to determine and correct for the positions of the sensors, including time-dependent effects appearing within single data runs. This alignment procedure will be discussed in detail, and its effect on Inner Detector tracking for LHC Run 2 proton-proton collision data highlighted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustikova Yuliya Olegovna


    Full Text Available Nowadays in Russian cities a significant part of the housing stock in areas of existing buildings has a high level of physical and moral deterioration, indicators of infrastructure elements do not meet the current and future requirements. Reconstruction of residential buildings is one of the important directions in solving the housing problem. This will allow us to not only extend the life cycle but also significantly improve the quality of housing, eliminate a communal settlement, provide the houses with modern engineering equipment, improve architectural expressiveness of buildings and increase their energy efficiency. For buildings of different construction periods an individual approach is required in the development of methods and technologies of reconstruction. At the same time, the process should take place not in a separate building but in a group of buildings, neighborhood or district. This makes it possible to undertake a comprehensive assessment of the urban development situation and make the most rational decisions to meet modern conditions, and provide logical connection between various architectural trends. At the same time, there are possibilities for compaction and decompaction of buildings, the rational use of inter-district, underground space and communication systems. Moscow region is a large region, which occupies an area of 46 thousand square kilometers. The region includes more than 38 municipalities (municipal districts, urban and rural settlements. The region’s population is more than 7 million people. Moscow oblast has a central location in the Russian Federation and a close relationship with the capital. This relationship with Moscow is manifested through common social, scientific, industrial, transport links, environmental protection problems, labor resources. In 2016 the total area of the housing stock in Moscow region was about 220 million sq. m. The total area of dilapidated and emergency housing stock is just

  1. Reconstruction of Anacostia wetlands: success? (United States)

    Hammerschlag, R.S.; Perry, M.C.


    Historically, the tidal Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. had been an extensive system of freshwater tidal marshes replete with a full array of wetland vegetation dominated by wild rice. The local Nacochtank Indians had found the abundant fish and wildlife sufficient to sustain their daily lives. White man's intrusion upon the landscape gradually brought about deterioration of the natural (and associated cultural) system. Total demise followed mid-20th century dredge and fill channelization, which was conducted from the confluence of the Anacostia with the Potomac near the heart of Washington, D.C. to the terminus of the tidal regime at Bladensburg, Maryland. The National Park Service (NPS) became the manager for much of the land along the Anacostia, particularly the eastern bank. As part of its planning effort, the NPS envisioned returning portions of the Anacostia under its control to a natural system as a vignette. The concept was based on bringing back as comprehensive a collection of vegetation and wildlife as possible through the reestablishment of tidal marshes at Kenilworth and Kingman. The resultant wetlands were to be made accessible to the public both logistically and through a well designed interpretative program. In fact, this vision has been realized due to an impressive cooperative effort among a number of Federal and local agencies and organizations. In 1993, 32 acres of freshwater tidal marsh were reconstructed at Kenilworth. Based upon the 5-year monitoring program that has been in place since reconstruction, several generalizations may be made concerning the degree of success of the marsh reconstruction. Water quality in the marsh system and nearby tidal waters has not been noticeably improved. The poor quality may be clue to the overwhelmingly high loads (e.g., sediment, nutrients, etc.) brought in on the twice daily tidal cycle from the Anacostia and to the relatively small volume of water which actually interacts with the emergent marsh

  2. Multi-core parallel reconstruction method for cone-beam computed tomography (United States)

    Li, Mingjun; Zhang, Dinghua; Huang, Kuidong; Yu, Qingchao; Zhang, Shunli


    In the application of nondestructive testing and evaluation, this paper mainly deals with the problem of improving the image reconstruction speed in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). FDK algorithm is a time costing method for CBCT image reconstruction, due to the voluminous data and long operating process. With the help of data organization and task distribution, we improved the SIMD instructions in Z-line data first reconstruction algorithm, which is an improved method based on the FDK algorithm. And then, we run it parallelized with multi-core technology and a certain divide-and-conquer strategy to get a fast reconstruction speed in CBCT. Finally, we evaluate the effectiveness of our method from a numerical test of a blade model on an 8-core computer with four channel memory. Our method has got a considerable speedup ratio of 217.22 to the FDK algorithm, and implemented the back-projection process of reconstructing the inscribed cylinder of 5123 reconstruction space in about 30 seconds. It has got the same image quality with the Z-line data first method, which retains the computational precision with FDK algorithm. Basically, our method has met the requirement of real-time reconstruction.

  3. Universal data-based method for reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Grebogi, Celso; Lai, Ying-Cheng


    To understand, predict, and control complex networked systems, a prerequisite is to reconstruct the network structure from observable data. Despite recent progress in network reconstruction, binary-state dynamics that are ubiquitous in nature, technology, and society still present an outstanding challenge in this field. Here we offer a framework for reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics by developing a universal data-based linearization approach that is applicable to systems with linear, nonlinear, discontinuous, or stochastic dynamics governed by monotonic functions. The linearization procedure enables us to convert the network reconstruction into a sparse signal reconstruction problem that can be resolved through convex optimization. We demonstrate generally high reconstruction accuracy for a number of complex networks associated with distinct binary-state dynamics from using binary data contaminated by noise and missing data. Our framework is completely data driven, efficient, and robust, and does not require any a priori knowledge about the detailed dynamical process on the network. The framework represents a general paradigm for reconstructing, understanding, and exploiting complex networked systems with binary-state dynamics.

  4. Immediate Debridement and Reconstruction with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoseob Lim


    Full Text Available Background Poststernotomy mediastinitis is a rare, but life-threatening complication,thus early diagnosis and proper management is essential for poststernotomy mediastinitis.The main treatment for mediastinitis is aggressive debridement. Several options exist forreconstruction of defects after debridement. The efficacy of immediate debridement andreconstruction with a pectoralis major muscle flap designed for the defect immediately afterthe diagnosis of poststernotomy mediastinitis is demonstrated.Methods Between September 2009 and June 2011, 6 patients were referred to the Departmentof Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and the Department of Thoracic and CardiovascularSurgery of Ajou University Hospital for poststernotomy mediastinitis. All of the patientsunderwent extensive debridement and reconstruction with pectoralis major muscle flaps,advanced based on the pedicle of the thoracoacromial artery as soon as possible followingdiagnosis. A retrospective review of the 6 cases was performed to evaluate infection control,postoperative morbidity, and mortality.Results All patients had complete wound closures and reduced severity of infections basedon the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels and a reduction inpoststernal fluid collection on computed tomography an average of 6 days postoperatively.A lack of growth of organisms in the wound culture was demonstrated after 3 weeks. Therewere no major wound morbidities, such as hematomas, but one minor complication requireda skin graft caused by skin flap necrosis. No patient expired after definitive surgery.Conclusions Immediate debridement and reconstruction using a pectoralis major muscle flapis a safe technique for managing infections associated with poststernotomy mediastinitis,and is associated with minimal morbidity and mortality.

  5. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)


    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories under contract with the Centers for Disease Control. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  6. Reconstruction of speech from whispers. (United States)

    Morris, Robert W; Clements, Mark A


    This paper investigates a method for the real-time reconstruction of normal speech from whispers. This system could be used by aphonic individuals as a voice prosthesis. It could also provide improved verbal communication when normal speech is not appropriate. The normal speech is synthesized using the mixed excitation linear prediction model. Differences between whispered and phonated speech are discussed and methods for estimating the parameters of this model from whispered speech for real-time synthesis are proposed. This includes smoothing the noisy linear prediction spectra, modifying the formants, and synthesizing of the excitation signal. Trade-offs between computational complexity, delay, and accuracy of different methods are discussed.

  7. Homotopy Based Reconstruction from Acoustic Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa

    with known geometry. The results of the methods shown here can be used to gain objective knowledge about the reconstructed features. It is envisioned that due to the generic nature of the algorithms developed in this research, domains other than fisheries research can benefit from the reconstruction...... are reconstruction from an organised set of linear cross sections and reconstruction from an arbitrary set of linear cross sections. The first problem is looked upon in the context of acoustic signals wherein the cross sections show a definite geometric arrangement. A reconstruction in this case can take advantage...... of the inherent arrangement. The problem of reconstruction from arbitrary cross sections is a generic problem and is also shown to be solved here using the mathematical tool of continuous deformations. As part of a complete processing, segmentation using level set methods is explored for acoustic images and fast...

  8. Simulation and Track Reconstruction for Beam Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman


    Beam telescopes are an important tool to test new detectors under development in a particle beam. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, its predicted position on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them do not account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framework along with the General Broken ...

  9. Method for position emission mammography image reconstruction (United States)

    Smith, Mark Frederick


    An image reconstruction method comprising accepting coincidence datat from either a data file or in real time from a pair of detector heads, culling event data that is outside a desired energy range, optionally saving the desired data for each detector position or for each pair of detector pixels on the two detector heads, and then reconstructing the image either by backprojection image reconstruction or by iterative image reconstruction. In the backprojection image reconstruction mode, rays are traced between centers of lines of response (LOR's), counts are then either allocated by nearest pixel interpolation or allocated by an overlap method and then corrected for geometric effects and attenuation and the data file updated. If the iterative image reconstruction option is selected, one implementation is to compute a grid Siddon retracing, and to perform maximum likelihood expectation maiximization (MLEM) computed by either: a) tracing parallel rays between subpixels on opposite detector heads; or b) tracing rays between randomized endpoint locations on opposite detector heads.

  10. Complications of Radical Cystectomy and Orthotopic Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen Tan


    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy and orthotopic reconstruction significant morbidity and mortality despite advances in minimal invasive and robotic technology. In this review, we will discuss early and late complications, as well as describe efforts to minimize morbidity and mortality, with a focus on ileal orthotopic bladder substitute (OBS. We summarise efforts to minimize morbidity and mortality including enhanced recovery as well as early and late complications seen after radical cystectomy and OBS. Centralisation of complex cancer services in the UK has led to a fall in mortality and high volume institutions have a significantly lower rate of 30-day mortality compared to low volume institutions. Enhanced recovery pathways have resulted in shorter length of hospital stay and potentially a reduction in morbidity. Early complications of radical cystectomy occur as a direct result of the surgery itself while late complications, which can occur even after 10 years after surgery, are due to urinary diversion. OBS represents the ideal urinary diversion for patients without contraindications. However, all patients with OBS should have regular long term follow-up for oncological surveillance and to identify complications should they arise.

  11. Low-Cost 3D Printing Orbital Implant Templates in Secondary Orbital Reconstructions. (United States)

    Callahan, Alison B; Campbell, Ashley A; Petris, Carisa; Kazim, Michael

    Despite its increasing use in craniofacial reconstructions, three-dimensional (3D) printing of customized orbital implants has not been widely adopted. Limitations include the cost of 3D printers able to print in a biocompatible material suitable for implantation in the orbit and the breadth of available implant materials. The authors report the technique of low-cost 3D printing of orbital implant templates used in complex, often secondary, orbital reconstructions. A retrospective case series of 5 orbital reconstructions utilizing a technique of 3D printed orbital implant templates is presented. Each patient's Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data were uploaded and processed to create 3D renderings upon which a customized implant was designed and sent electronically to printers open for student use at our affiliated institutions. The mock implants were sterilized and used intraoperatively as a stencil and mold. The final implant material was chosen by the surgeons based on the requirements of the case. Five orbital reconstructions were performed with this technique: 3 tumor reconstructions and 2 orbital fractures. Four of the 5 cases were secondary reconstructions. Molded Medpor Titan (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI) implants were used in 4 cases and titanium mesh in 1 case. The stenciled and molded implants were adjusted no more than 2 times before anchored in place (mean 1). No case underwent further revision. The technique and cases presented demonstrate 1) the feasibility and accessibility of low-cost, independent use of 3D printing technology to fashion patient-specific implants in orbital reconstructions, 2) the ability to apply this technology to the surgeon's preference of any routinely implantable material, and 3) the utility of this technique in complex, secondary reconstructions.

  12. Considerations on Xi- reconstruction in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Brochu, F.M.


    This paper describes an alternative method of charged hyperon reconstruction applicable to the LHCb experiment. It extends the seminal work of the FOCUS collaboration to the specific detector layout of LHCb and addresses the reconstruction ambiguities reported in their earlier work, leading to improvements in the reconstruction efficiency for the specific cases of Xi- and Omega- baryon decays to a charged meson and a Lambda baryon.

  13. Current Reconstruction Options for Traumatic Thumb Loss. (United States)

    Graham, David J; Venkatramani, Hari; Sabapathy, S Raja


    Traumatic loss of a thumb results in notable functional impairment. Multiple reconstructive procedures have been described to address these deficits. Compared with no reconstruction, any procedure is of benefit. However, each of the described methods offers subtle benefits and downsides and may be more applicable in certain situations. We present a review of current reconstructive options for traumatic thumb amputation in 2016. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Muon Reconstruction Performance of the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Marchese, Luigi; The ATLAS collaboration


    Muons are of key importance to study some of the most interesting physics topics at the LHC. We show the status of the performance of the muon reconstruction in the analysis of proton-proton collisions at the LHC, recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2016. Reconstruction efficiency and momentum resolution have been measured using J/Psi and Z decays for different classes of reconstructed muons.

  15. Primary vertex reconstruction with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server



    Efficient and precise reconstruction of the primary vertex in a LHC collision is essential for determining the full kinematic properties of a hard-scatter event and of soft interactions as a measure of the amount of pile-up. The reconstruction of primary vertices in the busy, high pile-up environment of Run-2 of the LHC is a challenging task. The algorithms developed by the ATLAS experiments to reconstruct multiple vertices with small spatial separation are presented.

  16. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Rehabilitation (United States)

    Wright, Rick W.; Haas, Amanda K.; Anderson, Joy; Calabrese, Gary; Cavanaugh, John; Hewett, Timothy E.; Lorring, Dawn; McKenzie, Christopher; Preston, Emily; Williams, Glenn; Amendola, Annunziato


    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rehabilitation has evolved over the past 20 years. This evolution has been driven by a variety of level 1 and level 2 studies. Evidence Acquisition: The MOON Group is a collection of orthopaedic surgeons who have developed a prospective longitudinal cohort of the ACL reconstruction patients. To standardize the management of these patients, we developed, in conjunction with our physical therapy committee, an evidence-based rehabilitation guideline. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Results: This review was based on 2 systematic reviews of level 1 and level 2 studies. Recently, the guideline was updated by a new review. Continuous passive motion did not improve ultimate motion. Early weightbearing decreases patellofemoral pain. Postoperative rehabilitative bracing did not improve swelling, pain range of motion, or safety. Open chain quadriceps activity can begin at 6 weeks. Conclusion: High-level evidence exists to determine appropriate ACL rehabilitation guidelines. Utilizing this protocol follows the best available evidence. PMID:26131301

  17. Canonical Source Reconstruction for MEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Mattout


    Full Text Available We describe a simple and efficient solution to the problem of reconstructing electromagnetic sources into a canonical or standard anatomical space. Its simplicity rests upon incorporating subject-specific anatomy into the forward model in a way that eschews the need for cortical surface extraction. The forward model starts with a canonical cortical mesh, defined in a standard stereotactic space. The mesh is warped, in a nonlinear fashion, to match the subject's anatomy. This warping is the inverse of the transformation derived from spatial normalization of the subject's structural MRI image, using fully automated procedures that have been established for other imaging modalities. Electromagnetic lead fields are computed using the warped mesh, in conjunction with a spherical head model (which does not rely on individual anatomy. The ensuing forward model is inverted using an empirical Bayesian scheme that we have described previously in several publications. Critically, because anatomical information enters the forward model, there is no need to spatially normalize the reconstructed source activity. In other words, each source, comprising the mesh, has a predetermined and unique anatomical attribution within standard stereotactic space. This enables the pooling of data from multiple subjects and the reporting of results in stereotactic coordinates. Furthermore, it allows the graceful fusion of fMRI and MEG data within the same anatomical framework.

  18. Iterative Reconstruction of Memory Kernels. (United States)

    Jung, Gerhard; Hanke, Martin; Schmid, Friederike


    In recent years, it has become increasingly popular to construct coarse-grained models with non-Markovian dynamics to account for an incomplete separation of time scales. One challenge of a systematic coarse-graining procedure is the extraction of the dynamical properties, namely, the memory kernel, from equilibrium all-atom simulations. In this article, we propose an iterative method for memory reconstruction from dynamical correlation functions. Compared to previously proposed noniterative techniques, it ensures by construction that the target correlation functions of the original fine-grained systems are reproduced accurately by the coarse-grained system, regardless of time step and discretization effects. Furthermore, we also propose a new numerical integrator for generalized Langevin equations that is significantly more accurate than the more commonly used generalization of the velocity Verlet integrator. We demonstrate the performance of the above-described methods using the example of backflow-induced memory in the Brownian diffusion of a single colloid. For this system, we are able to reconstruct realistic coarse-grained dynamics with time steps about 200 times larger than those used in the original molecular dynamics simulations.

  19. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction. (United States)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim


    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  20. [Phoniatric aspects of reconstructive laryngectomy]. (United States)

    Genovese, E; Calearo, C; Bignardi, I


    Reconstructive laryngectomy has been performed at the E.N.T. Clinic in Ferrara for some time. After surgery the patients undergo speech therapy and phoniatric treatment for a period of time varying from 2 to 6 months. In order to better evaluate the vocal quality obtained after such reeducation the vocal emissions of 25 patients were examined and recorded. The recorded material, made up of prolonged vowels and 6 phonetically balanced sentences, was then evaluated by a panel of 7 "trained" listeners. The evaluation score-card proposed by Woiers in 1977 was used in taking the data. This not only provides a scale for evaluating the main voice quality features, but also includes a final judgement on parameters including intelligibility, acceptability and pleasantness. Statistical processing of the data inherent to voice quality indicated a decrease in intensity and pitch when compared to normal values. Nonetheless, the listening test showed a high degree of intelligibility, acceptability and pleasantness. These values confirm the fact that, although the new voice achieved through reconstructive laryngectomy surgery is less sonorous, it allows for perfectly understandable, socially acceptable speech.

  1. Variable Weighted Ordered Subset Image Reconstruction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiao Pan


    Full Text Available We propose two variable weighted iterative reconstruction algorithms (VW-ART and VW-OS-SART to improve the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART and establish their convergence. In the two algorithms, the weighting varies with the geometrical direction of the ray. Experimental results with both numerical simulation and real CT data demonstrate that the VW-ART has a significant improvement in the quality of reconstructed images over ART and OS-SART. Moreover, both VW-ART and VW-OS-SART are more promising in convergence speed than the ART and SART, respectively.

  2. Distributed Reconstruction via Alternating Direction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyuan Wang


    Full Text Available With the development of compressive sensing theory, image reconstruction from few-view projections has received considerable research attentions in the field of computed tomography (CT. Total-variation- (TV- based CT image reconstruction has been shown to be experimentally capable of producing accurate reconstructions from sparse-view data. In this study, a distributed reconstruction algorithm based on TV minimization has been developed. This algorithm is very simple as it uses the alternating direction method. The proposed method can accelerate the alternating direction total variation minimization (ADTVM algorithm without losing accuracy.

  3. Phase-constrained parallel MR image reconstruction. (United States)

    Willig-Onwuachi, Jacob D; Yeh, Ernest N; Grant, Aaron K; Ohliger, Michael A; McKenzie, Charles A; Sodickson, Daniel K


    A generalized method for phase-constrained parallel MR image reconstruction is presented that combines and extends the concepts of partial-Fourier reconstruction and parallel imaging. It provides a framework for reconstructing images employing either or both techniques and for comparing image quality achieved by varying k-space sampling schemes. The method can be used as a parallel image reconstruction with a partial-Fourier reconstruction built in. It can also be used with trajectories not readily handled by straightforward combinations of partial-Fourier and SENSE-like parallel reconstructions, including variable-density, and non-Cartesian trajectories. The phase constraint specifies a better-conditioned inverse problem compared to unconstrained parallel MR reconstruction alone. This phase-constrained parallel MRI reconstruction offers a one-step alternative to the standard combination of homodyne and SENSE reconstructions with the added benefit of flexibility of sampling trajectory. The theory of the phase-constrained approach is outlined, and its calibration requirements and limitations are discussed. Simulations, phantom experiments, and in vivo experiments are presented.

  4. Reconstruction of convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus


    We present two algorithms for reconstruction of the shape of convex bodies in the two-dimensional Euclidean space. The first reconstruction algorithm requires knowledge of the exact surface tensors of a convex body up to rank s for some natural number s. When only measurements subject to noise...... measurements. From a generalized version of Wirtinger's inequality, we derive stability results that are utilized to ensure consistency of both reconstruction procedures. Consistency of the reconstruction procedure based on measurements subject to noise is established under certain assumptions on the noise...

  5. Reconstruction of convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus

    We present two algorithms for reconstruction of the shape of convex bodies in the two-dimensional Euclidean space. The first reconstruction algorithm requires knowledge of the exact surface tensors of a convex body up to rank s for some natural number s. The second algorithm uses harmonic intrinsic...... volumes which are certain values of the surface tensors and allows for noisy measurements. From a generalized version of Wirtinger's inequality, we derive stability results that are utilized to ensure consistency of both reconstruction procedures. Consistency of the reconstruction procedure based...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging with nonlinear gradient fields signal encoding and image reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Gerrit


    Within the past few decades magnetic resonance imaging has become one of the most important imaging modalities in medicine. For a reliable diagnosis of pathologies further technological improvements are of primary importance. This text deals with a radically new approach of image encoding: The fundamental principle of gradient linearity is challenged by investigating the possibilities of acquiring anatomical images with the help of nonlinear gradient fields. Besides a thorough theoretical analysis with a focus on signal encoding and image reconstruction, initial hardware implementations are tested using phantom as well as in-vivo measurements. Several applications are presented that give an impression about the implications that this technological advancement may have for future medical diagnostics.   Contents n  Image Reconstruction in MRI n  Nonlinear Gradient Encoding: PatLoc Imaging n  Presentation of Initial Hardware Designs n  Basics of Signal Encoding and Image Reconstruction in PatLoc Imaging n ...

  7. A new approach to position reconstruction in TOFPET

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Nagendra Nath


    Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) is a state-of-the-art technique in designing sophisticated apparatus for various applications in science and technology. We adopted MCS based on GEANT (GEometry ANd Tracking) in order to design a simple timeof-flight positron emission tomography (TOFPET). In MCS studies, a new method of position reconstruction of positron-electron annihilation points has been developed so far. Simulation results show that this technique may not be useful for small animal imaging camera but might be practicable in diagnostic TOFPET camera. Specific issue of this simulation technique is discussed.

  8. Imagined Affordance: Reconstructing a Keyword for Communication Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nagy


    Full Text Available In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology studies, emerging theories of materiality, affect, and mediation all necessitate a richer and more nuanced definition for affordance than the field currently uses. To solve this, we develop the concept of imagined affordance. Imagined affordances emerge between users’ perceptions, attitudes, and expectations; between the materiality and functionality of technologies; and between the intentions and perceptions of designers. We use imagined affordance to evoke the importance of imagination in affordances—expectations for technology that are not fully realized in conscious, rational knowledge. We also use imagined affordance to distinguish our process-oriented, socio-technical definition of affordance from the “imagined” consensus of the field around a flimsier use of the term. We also use it in order to better capture the importance of mediation, materiality, and affect. We suggest that imagined affordance helps to theorize the duality of materiality and communication technology: namely, that people shape their media environments, perceive them, and have agency within them because of imagined affordances.

  9. Sport Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirkbride, T


    Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...

  10. Assistive Technology (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  11. ROI reconstruction for model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) via a coupled dictionary learning (United States)

    Ye, Dong Hye; Srivastava, Somesh; Thibault, Jean-Baptiste; Sauer, Ken D.; Bouman, Charles A.


    Model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithms have shown significant improvement in CT image quality by increasing resolution as well as reducing noise and artifacts. In diagnostic protocols, radiologists often need the high-resolution reconstruction of a limited region of interest (ROI). This ROI reconstruction is complicated for MBIR which should reconstruct an image in a full field of view (FOV) given full sinogram measurements. Multi-resolution approaches are widely used for this ROI reconstruction of MBIR, in which the image with a full FOV is reconstructed in a low-resolution and the forward projection of non-ROI is subtracted from the original sinogram measurements for high-resolution ROI reconstruction. However, a low-resolution reconstruction of a full FOV can be susceptible to streaking and blurring artifacts and these can be propagated into the following high-resolution ROI reconstruction. To tackle this challenge, we use a coupled dictionary representation model between low- and high-resolution training dataset for artifact removal and super resolution of a low-resolution full FOV reconstruction. Experimental results on phantom data show that the restored full FOV reconstruction via a coupled dictionary learning significantly improve the image quality of high-resolution ROI reconstruction for MBIR.

  12. Long-term functional outcome of mandibular reconstruction with stainless steel AO reconstruction plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Minnen, B; Nauta, JM; Vermey, A; Bos, RRM; Roodenburg, JLN

    Mandibular continuity defects are usually reconstructed with bone grafts. However, factors associated with the tumour and the patient can still be reasons to choose reconstruction plates. The aim of this study was to find out the results of mandibular reconstructions with stainless steel AO

  13. Accurate Sample Time Reconstruction of Inertial FIFO Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Stieber


    Full Text Available In the context of modern cyber-physical systems, the accuracy of underlying sensor data plays an increasingly important role in sensor data fusion and feature extraction. The raw events of multiple sensors have to be aligned in time to enable high quality sensor fusion results. However, the growing number of simultaneously connected sensor devices make the energy saving data acquisition and processing more and more difficult. Hence, most of the modern sensors offer a first-in-first-out (FIFO interface to store multiple data samples and to relax timing constraints, when handling multiple sensor devices. However, using the FIFO interface increases the negative influence of individual clock drifts—introduced by fabrication inaccuracies, temperature changes and wear-out effects—onto the sampling data reconstruction. Furthermore, additional timing offset errors due to communication and software latencies increases with a growing number of sensor devices. In this article, we present an approach for an accurate sample time reconstruction independent of the actual clock drift with the help of an internal sensor timer. Such timers are already available in modern sensors, manufactured in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS technology. The presented approach focuses on calculating accurate time stamps using the sensor FIFO interface in a forward-only processing manner as a robust and energy saving solution. The proposed algorithm is able to lower the overall standard deviation of reconstructed sampling periods below 40 μ s, while run-time savings of up to 42% are achieved, compared to single sample acquisition.

  14. Accurate Sample Time Reconstruction of Inertial FIFO Data. (United States)

    Stieber, Sebastian; Dorsch, Rainer; Haubelt, Christian


    In the context of modern cyber-physical systems, the accuracy of underlying sensor data plays an increasingly important role in sensor data fusion and feature extraction. The raw events of multiple sensors have to be aligned in time to enable high quality sensor fusion results. However, the growing number of simultaneously connected sensor devices make the energy saving data acquisition and processing more and more difficult. Hence, most of the modern sensors offer a first-in-first-out (FIFO) interface to store multiple data samples and to relax timing constraints, when handling multiple sensor devices. However, using the FIFO interface increases the negative influence of individual clock drifts-introduced by fabrication inaccuracies, temperature changes and wear-out effects-onto the sampling data reconstruction. Furthermore, additional timing offset errors due to communication and software latencies increases with a growing number of sensor devices. In this article, we present an approach for an accurate sample time reconstruction independent of the actual clock drift with the help of an internal sensor timer. Such timers are already available in modern sensors, manufactured in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The presented approach focuses on calculating accurate time stamps using the sensor FIFO interface in a forward-only processing manner as a robust and energy saving solution. The proposed algorithm is able to lower the overall standard deviation of reconstructed sampling periods below 40 μ s, while run-time savings of up to 42% are achieved, compared to single sample acquisition.

  15. Identity Restored: Nesmin's Forensic Facial Reconstruction in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Anđelković


    Full Text Available A wide range of archaeological human remains stay, for the most part, anonymous and are consequently treated as objects of analysis; not as dead people. With the growing availability of medical imaging and rapidly developing computer technology, 3D digital facial reconstruction, as a noninvasive form of study, offers a successful method of recreating faces from mummified human remains. Forensic facial reconstruction has been utilized for various purposes in scientific investigation, including restoring the physical appearance of the people of ancient civilizations which is an important aspect of their individual identity. Restoring the identity of the Belgrade mummy started in 1991. Along with the absolute dating, gender, age, name, rank and provenance, we also established his genealogy. The owner of Cairo stela 22053 discovered at Akhmim in 1885, and the Belgrade coffin purchased in Luxor in 1888, in which the mummy rests, have been identified as the very same person. Forensic facial reconstruction was used to reproduce, with the highest possible degree of accuracy, the facial appearance of the mummy Nesmin, ca. 300 B.C., a priest from Akhmim, when he was alive.

  16. Three-Dimensional Printing: Custom-Made Implants for Craniomaxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery. (United States)

    Matias, Mariana; Zenha, Horácio; Costa, Horácio


    Craniomaxillofacial reconstructive surgery is a challenging field. First it aims to restore primary functions and second to preserve craniofacial anatomical features like symmetry and harmony. Three-dimensional (3D) printed biomodels have been widely adopted in medical fields by providing tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. Craniomaxillofacial reconstructive surgery was one of the first areas to implement 3D printing technology in their practice. Biomodeling has been used in craniofacial reconstruction of traumatic injuries, congenital disorders, tumor removal, iatrogenic injuries (e.g., decompressive craniectomies), orthognathic surgery, and implantology. 3D printing has proven to improve and enable an optimization of preoperative planning, develop intraoperative guidance tools, reduce operative time, and significantly improve the biofunctional and the aesthetic outcome. This technology has also shown great potential in enriching the teaching of medical students and surgical residents. The aim of this review is to present the current status of 3D printing technology and its practical and innovative applications, specifically in craniomaxillofacial reconstructive surgery, illustrated with two clinical cases where the 3D printing technology was successfully used.

  17. Robust method for stator current reconstruction from DC link in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... induction motor drive, using a dSPACE 1104 controller board is presented to validate the proposed algorithm. Keywords: Algorithm, current-reconstruction, current-sensor, dc-link, hysteresis modulation, three-phase induction motor. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 10, 2010, pp.

  18. Holographic reconstruction by compressive sensing (United States)

    Leportier, T.; Park, M.-C.


    Techniques based on compressive sensing (CS) have been proposed recently for the optical capture of compressed holographic data. However, even though several remarkable articles have presented mathematical theories and numerical simulations, only a few experimental demonstrations have been reported. In this paper, we investigate the use of different metrics for the estimation of sparsity and show that the Gini index is the most consistent. In addition, we compare the sparsifying bases based on discrete cosine transform, Fourier transform and Fresnelets. We demonstrate that the Fresnelets basis is the best choice for the reconstruction of digital holograms by CS. Finally, we present an experimental set-up for optical acquisition of phase-shifted holograms with an imaging system based on a single-pixel sensor.

  19. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)


    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon and Washington, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on human (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data; Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits and; Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  20. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. (comps.)


    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed.

  1. Reconstruction and Identification of Photons

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS Collaboration


    This note presents the description and performance of photon identification methods in ATLAS. The reconstruction of an electromagnetic object begins in the calorimeter, and the inner detector information determines whether the object is a photon - either converted or unconverted - or an electron. Three photon identification methods are presented: a simple cut-based method, a Loglikelihood- ratio-based method and a covariance-matrix-based method. The shower shape variables based on calorimeter information and track information used in all three methods are described. The efficiencies for single photons and for photons from the benchmark H !gg signal events, as well as the rejection of the background from jet samples, are presented. The performance of the cut-based method on high-pT photons from a graviton decay process G!gg is also discussed.

  2. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim


    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function...... was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery...... pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the implementation of the pathway. The enhanced recovery after surgery pathway included preoperative high-dose steroid, daily assessment...

  3. Inverse imbalance reconstruction in rotordynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramlau, R. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Linz (Austria). Johann Radon Inst. for Computational and Applied Mathematics; Dicken, V. [MeVis GmbH, Bremen (Germany); Maass, P. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Technomathematik; Streller, C. [Rolls-Royce Germany GmbH, Dahlewitz (Germany); Rienaecker, A. [MTU Aero Engines GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)


    The goal of this work is to establish and compare algorithms for inverse imbalance reconstruction in aircraft turbines. Such algorithms are based on a validated whole engine model of a turbo engine under consideration. Base on the model, the impact of an imbalance distribution on the vibration behaviour of the turbine can be described as a matrix-vector multiplication Af = g, where f is the imbalance distribution and g the vibration response. It turns out that the matrix A is very ill-conditioned. As the measured data is highly affected with noise, we have to use regularization methods in order to stabilize the inversion. Our main interest was in the use of nonlinear regularization methods, in particular nonlinear filtered singular value decomposition and conjugate gradient regularization. (orig.)

  4. Proximal Gastrojejunal Reconstruction after Pancreaticoduodenal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wayne


    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction by proximal gastrojejunostomy, and distal biliary and pancreatic anastomoses is infrequently used after resection of the head of the pancreas because of fear of fistulas and cholangitis. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is being performed more frequently for cystic malignant and premalignant lesions. Because of this there is a need for endoscopic visualization and biopsy of the residual pancreatic duct, since multi-centricity is characteristic of some of these malignancies. Since endoscopic access of the bile duct and pancreatic duct is difficult and unsuccessful in 50–70% after B II or Roux Y reconstruction, we prospectively studied the merit and complications (early and late of proximal gastrojejunal (PGJ reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenal resection. Material and Methods. Thirty nine consecutive, non-radomized patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and PGJ reconstruction over 14 mos. There were 21 males and 18 females. Results. 7 patients with IPMN have undergone repeat CT scanning for surveillance, with 3 requiring repeat EUS and ERCP. There were no technical difficulties accessing the pancreas or the pancreatic duct, supporting the PGJ reconstruction. Conclusion. Proximal gastrojejunal reconstruction following pancreaticoduodenal resection may be safely done with similar morbidity to traditional pancreaticojejunal reconstructions. PGJ reconstruction may be of greater value when direct visual access to the bile duct or pancreatic duct is necessary, and should be considered when doing resection for mucinous cysts or IPMN of the head of the pancreas.

  5. Knee Bracing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Merchán, E Carlos


    Although some articles in the literature are in favor of the use of a postoperative brace after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, this review found that several systematic reviews and other reports on the topic do not support the use of a postoperative brace after ACL reconstruction. There is no scientific evidence so far to support the routine use of a functional knee brace following a successful ACL reconstruction in the postoperative course. Most authors believe that bracing is not necessary. There is insufficient evidence to inform current practice. Good-quality randomized trials are required to remedy this situation. Future studies should better define the role of a brace following ACL surgery. A search of MEDLINE for articles published between January 1, 1995, and September 30, 2013, was performed. Key search terms used were ACL reconstruction and knee brace. Ninety-one articles were found, but only 28 focused on the subject of bracing after ACL reconstruction and were selected for this review. Several systematic reviews and randomized, controlled trials on the topic do not recommend the use of postoperative brace after ACL reconstruction. Postoperative bracing after ACL reconstruction does not seem to help with pain, function, rehabilitation, and stability. The literature does not support the use of a postoperative brace following ACL reconstruction. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e602-e609.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Application of Neural Networks for Energy Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Damgov, Jordan


    The possibility to use Neural Networks for reconstruction ofthe energy deposited in the calorimetry system of the CMS detector is investigated. It is shown that using feed-forward neural network, good linearity, Gaussian energy distribution and good energy resolution can be achieved. Significant improvement of the energy resolution and linearity is reached in comparison with other weighting methods for energy reconstruction.

  7. Squark and Gluino Reconstruction in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chiorboli, Massimiliano


    The capability of the CMS detector to reconstruct squark and gluino masses is investigated, and a reconstruction method is developed and applied in three different mSUGRA scenarios. Under the assumption of a known m (chi_1 0), and with favourable parameters, an accuracy of 1 to 2% on the squark and gluino masses can be achieved with 10fb-1.

  8. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.S. Ibrahim (Ahmed)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Over the last decade the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in reconstructive breast surgery has been transformative. Some authors have gone as far as to suggest that it is the single most important advancement in prosthetic breast reconstruction. ADMs are able

  9. IC plasty for reconstruction of axillary defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir El Mazouz


    Full Text Available Reconstruction of axillary defects following surgery or trauma has always been a significant challenge for plastic surgeons. A variety of reconstruction options are available, including directed cicatrization, skin grafts and local flaps, but all of these procedures may allow skin contracture and leave unsightly scars.

  10. Primary Vertex Reconstruction with the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Casper, David William; The ATLAS collaboration


    ATLAS reconstructs primary vertices with high efficiency and resolution. These vertices serve as input to other mission critical analysis tools, and are relied on by many physics analyses. This presentation surveys the ATLAS primary vertex reconstruction algorithms, and describes validity checks done using real data. The complications introduced by pileup are discussed, along with refinements currently under study.

  11. Oral cavity reconstruction with the masseter flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahieu, R.; Russo, S.; Gualtieri, T.; Colletti, G.; Deganello, A.

    The purpose of this report is to highlight how an unusual, outdated, unpopular and overlooked reconstructive method such as the masseter flap can be a reliable, straightforward and effective solution for oral reconstruction in selected cases. We report the transposition of the masseter crossover

  12. Thermal injury in TAPIA breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Gunnarsson, Gudjon L.; Sørensen, Jens Ahm


    be due to the relative high frequency of this type of reconstructions. Reports of thermal injury to reconstructions using the Latissimus Dorsi flap are rare. The injuries previously described are most often caused by severe heat exposure. The thoracodorsal artery perforator (TAP)-flap can be used...

  13. Labral reconstruction: when to perform and how

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J White


    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the understanding of the anatomy and function of the hip joint has continuously evolved, and surgical treatment options for the hip have significantly progressed. Originally, surgical treatment of the hip primarily involved resection of damaged tissue. Procedures that maintain and preserve proper hip anatomy, such as labral repair and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI correction, have shown superior results, in terms of pain reduction, increased function, and ability to return to activities. Labral reconstruction is a treatment option that uses a graft to reconstruct the native labrum. The technique and outcomes of labral reconstruction have been described relatively recently, and labral reconstruction is a cutting edge procedure that has shown promising early outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the current literature on hip labral reconstruction. We will review the indications for labral reconstruction, surgical technique and graft options, and surgical outcomes that have been described to date. Labral reconstruction provides an alternative treatment option for challenging intra-articular hip problems. Labral reconstruction restores the original anatomy of the hip and has the potential to preserve the longevity of the hip joint. This technique is an important tool in the orthopaedic surgeon’s arsenal for hip joint treatment and preservation.

  14. Reconstruction of a ring applicator using CT imaging: impact of the reconstruction method and applicator orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Tanderup, Kari; Bergstrand, Eva Stabell


    in multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR) and (3) library plans, using pre-defined applicator geometry (LIB). The doses to the lead pellets were calculated. The relative standard deviation (SD) for all reconstruction methods was less than 3.7% in the dose points. The relative SD for the LIB method...... applicator set and six lead pellets representing dose points, was used. The phantom was CT scanned with the ring applicator at four different angles related to the image plane. In each scan the applicator was reconstructed by three methods: (1) direct reconstruction in each image (DR), (2) reconstruction...

  15. Track reconstruction in CMS high luminosity environment

    CERN Document Server

    Goetzmann, Christophe


    The CMS tracker is the largest silicon detector ever built, covering 200 square meters and providing an average of 14 high-precision measurements per track. Tracking is essential for the reconstruction of objects like jets, muons, electrons and tau leptons starting from the raw data from the silicon pixel and strip detectors. Track reconstruction is widely used also at trigger level as it improves objects tagging and resolution.The CMS tracking code is organized in several levels, known as iterative steps, each optimized to reconstruct a class of particle trajectories, as the ones of particles originating from the primary vertex or displaced tracks from particles resulting from secondary vertices. Each iterative step consists of seeding, pattern recognition and fitting by a kalman filter, and a final filtering and cleaning. Each subsequent step works on hits not yet associated to a reconstructed particle trajectory.The CMS tracking code is continuously evolving to make the reconstruction computing load compat...

  16. Track reconstruction in CMS high luminosity environment

    CERN Document Server



    The CMS tracker is the largest silicon detector ever built, covering 200 square meters and providing an average of 14 high-precision measurements per track. Tracking is essential for the reconstruction of objects like jets, muons, electrons and tau leptons starting from the raw data from the silicon pixel and strip detectors. Track reconstruction is widely used also at trigger level as it improves objects tagging and resolution.The CMS tracking code is organized in several levels, known as iterative steps, each optimized to reconstruct a class of particle trajectories, as the ones of particles originating from the primary vertex or displaced tracks from particles resulting from secondary vertices. Each iterative step consists of seeding, pattern recognition and fitting by a kalman filter, and a final filtering and cleaning. Each subsequent step works on hits not yet associated to a reconstructed particle trajectory.The CMS tracking code is continuously evolving to make the reconstruction computing load compat...

  17. Sparse Image Reconstruction in Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer

    (CS), have shown significant empirical potential for this purpose. For example, total variation regularized image reconstruction has been shown in some cases to allow reducing x-ray exposure by a factor of 10 or more, while maintaining or even improving image quality compared to conventional...... and limitations of sparse reconstruction methods in CT, in particular in a quantitative sense. For example, relations between image properties such as contrast, structure and sparsity, tolerable noise levels, suficient sampling levels, the choice of sparse reconstruction formulation and the achievable image...... applications. This thesis takes a systematic approach toward establishing quantitative understanding of conditions for sparse reconstruction to work well in CT. A general framework for analyzing sparse reconstruction methods in CT is introduced and two sets of computational tools are proposed: 1...

  18. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and knee osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Paschos, Nikolaos K


    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a traumatic event that can lead to significant functional impairment and inability to participate in high-level sports-related activities. ACL reconstruction is considered the treatment of choice for symptomatic ACL-deficient patients and can assist in full functional recovery. Furthermore, ACL reconstruction restores ligamentous stability to normal, and, therefore, can potentially fully reinstate kinematics of the knee joint. As a consequence, the natural history of ACL injury could be potentially reversed via ACL reconstruction. Evidence from the literature is controversial regarding the effectiveness of ACL reconstruction in preventing the development of knee cartilage degeneration. This editorial aims to present recent high-level evidence in an attempt to answer whether ACL injury inevitably leads to osteoarthritis and whether ACL reconstruction can prevent this development or not.

  19. Equilibrium Reconstruction on the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel A. Lazerson, D. Gates, D. Monticello, H. Neilson, N. Pomphrey, A. Reiman S. Sakakibara, and Y. Suzuki


    Equilibrium reconstruction is commonly applied to axisymmetric toroidal devices. Recent advances in computational power and equilibrium codes have allowed for reconstructions of three-dimensional fields in stellarators and heliotrons. We present the first reconstructions of finite beta discharges in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The plasma boundary and magnetic axis are constrained by the pressure profile from Thomson scattering. This results in a calculation of plasma beta without a-priori assumptions of the equipartition of energy between species. Saddle loop arrays place additional constraints on the equilibrium. These reconstruction utilize STELLOPT, which calls VMEC. The VMEC equilibrium code assumes good nested flux surfaces. Reconstructed magnetic fields are fed into the PIES code which relaxes this constraint allowing for the examination of the effect of islands and stochastic regions on the magnetic measurements.

  20. Innovations in diabetic foot reconstruction using supermicrosurgery. (United States)

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Hong, Joon Pio


    The treatment of diabetic foot ulceration is complex with multiple factors involved, and it may often lead to limb amputation. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach is warranted to cover the spectrum of treatment for diabetic foot, but in complex wounds, surgical treatment is inevitable. Surgery may involve the decision to preserve the limb by reconstruction or to amputate it. Reconstruction involves preserving the limb with secure coverage. Local flaps usually are able to provide sufficient coverage for small or moderate sized wound, but for larger wounds, soft tissue coverage involves flaps that are distantly located from the wound. Reconstruction of distant flap usually involves microsurgery, and now, further innovative methods such as supermicrosurgery have further given complex wounds a better chance to be reconstructed and limbs salvaged. This article reviews the microsurgery involved in reconstruction and introduces the new method of supermicrosurgery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Bayesian image reconstruction: Application to emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, J.; Llacer, J.


    In this paper we propose a Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) method of image reconstruction in the Bayesian framework for the Poisson noise case. We use entropy to define the prior probability and likelihood to define the conditional probability. The method uses sharpness parameters which can be theoretically computed or adjusted, allowing us to obtain MAP reconstructions without the problem of the grey'' reconstructions associated with the pre Bayesian reconstructions. We have developed several ways to solve the reconstruction problem and propose a new iterative algorithm which is stable, maintains positivity and converges to feasible images faster than the Maximum Likelihood Estimate method. We have successfully applied the new method to the case of Emission Tomography, both with simulated and real data. 41 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Precise 3D Track Reconstruction Algorithm for the ICARUS T600 Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antonello


    Full Text Available Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach to 3D reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to the track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of stopping particle tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  3. Precise 3D track reconstruction algorithm for the ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M


    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach of three-dimensional reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of real data tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  4. Magneto-acousto-electrical measurement based electrical conductivity reconstruction for tissues. (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Gepu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong


    Based on the interaction of ultrasonic excitation and magneto-electrical induction, magneto-acousto-electrical (MAE) technology was demonstrated to have the capability of differentiating conductivity variations along the acoustic transmission. By applying the characteristics of the MAE voltage, a simplified algorithm of MAE measurement based conductivity reconstruction was developed. With the analyses of acoustic vibration, ultrasound propagation, Hall Effect and magneto-electrical induction, theoretical and experimental studies of MAE measurement and conductivity reconstruction were performed. The formula of MAE voltage was derived and simplified for the transducer with strong directivity. MAE voltage was simulated for a 3-layer gel phantom and the conductivity distribution was reconstructed using the modified Wiener inverse filter and Hilbert transform, which was also verified by experimental measurements. The experimental results are basically consistent with the simulations, and demonstrate that the wave packets of MAE voltage are generated at tissue interfaces with the amplitudes and vibration polarities representing the values and directions of conductivity variations. With the proposed algorithm, the amplitude and polarity of conductivity gradient can be restored and the conductivity distribution can also be reconstructed accurately. The favorable results demonstrate the feasibility of accurate conductivity reconstruction with improved spatial resolution using MAE measurement for tissues with conductivity variations, especially suitable for non-dispersive tissues with abrupt conductivity changes. This study demonstrates that the MAE measurement based conductivity reconstruction algorithm can be applied as a new strategy for non-destructive real-time monitoring of conductivity variations in biomedical engineering.

  5. High Performance 3D PET Reconstruction Using Spherical Basis Functions on a Polar Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cabello


    Full Text Available Statistical iterative methods are a widely used method of image reconstruction in emission tomography. Traditionally, the image space is modelled as a combination of cubic voxels as a matter of simplicity. After reconstruction, images are routinely filtered to reduce statistical noise at the cost of spatial resolution degradation. An alternative to produce lower noise during reconstruction is to model the image space with spherical basis functions. These basis functions overlap in space producing a significantly large number of non-zero elements in the system response matrix (SRM to store, which additionally leads to long reconstruction times. These two problems are partly overcome by exploiting spherical symmetries, although computation time is still slower compared to non-overlapping basis functions. In this work, we have implemented the reconstruction algorithm using Graphical Processing Unit (GPU technology for speed and a precomputed Monte-Carlo-calculated SRM for accuracy. The reconstruction time achieved using spherical basis functions on a GPU was 4.3 times faster than the Central Processing Unit (CPU and 2.5 times faster than a CPU-multi-core parallel implementation using eight cores. Overwriting hazards are minimized by combining a random line of response ordering and constrained atomic writing. Small differences in image quality were observed between implementations.

  6. Sensemaking technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research scope: The scope of the project is to study technological implementation processes by using Weick's sensemaking concept (Weick, 1995). The purpose of using a social constructivist approach to investigate technological implementation processes is to find out how new technologies transform...... technologies results in emerging changes in the organisation's social networks and roles and how these changes affect the organisation's use of new technology (Barley 1986; 1990: Compton, White & DeWine 1991; Orlikowski 2000,)....

  7. Virtual surgery simulation in orbital wall reconstruction: integration of surgical navigation and stereolithographic models. (United States)

    Novelli, Giorgio; Tonellini, Gabriele; Mazzoleni, Fabio; Bozzetti, Alberto; Sozzi, Davide


    Correction of post traumatic orbital and zygomatic deformity is a challenge for maxillofacial surgeons. Integration of different technologies, such as software planning, surgical navigation and stereolithographic models, opens new horizons in terms of the surgeons' ability to tailor reconstruction to individual patients. The purpose of this study was to analyze surgical results, in order to verify the suitability, effectiveness and reproducibility of this new protocol. Eleven patients were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were: unilateral orbital pathology; associated diplopia and enophthalmos or exophthalmos, and zygomatic deformities. Syndromic patients were excluded. Pre-surgical planning was performed with iPlan 3.0 CMF software and we used Vector Vision II (BrainLab, Feldkirchen, Germany) for surgical navigation. We used 1:1 skull stereolithographic models for all the patients. Orbital reconstructions were performed with a titanium orbital mesh. The results refer to: correction of the deformities, exophthalmos, enophthalmos and diplopia; correspondence between reconstruction mesh positioning and preoperative planning mirroring; and the difference between the reconstructed orbital volume and the healthy orbital volume. Correspondence between the post-operative reconstruction mesh position and the presurgical virtual planning has an average margin of error of less than 1.3 mm. In terms of en- and exophthalmos corrections, we have always had an adequate clinical outcome with a significant change in the projection of the eyeball. In all cases treated, there was a complete resolution of diplopia. The calculation of orbital volume highlighted that the volume of the reconstructed orbit, in most cases, was equal to the healthy orbital volume, with a positive or negative variation of less than 1 cm(3). The proposed protocol incorporates all the latest technologies to plan the virtual reconstruction surgery in detail. The results obtained from our experience

  8. Essai de classement typo-technologique des araires à partir des pièces métalliques découvertes en Gaule romaine en vue de leur reconstitution Setting up of a typological-technological classification method to try to reconstruct ards from metallic pieces found in Roman Gaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marbach


    Full Text Available Les pièces métalliques d’instruments aratoires sont, pour la Gaule romaine, pratiquement les seuls éléments archéologiques à notre disposition nous permettant de reconstruire ces outils. Des auteurs tels que S.E. Rees (G.B., R. Pohanka (Autriche et surtout J. Henning (Europe du sud-est ont fait des propositions de reconstitution des instruments aratoires de cette époque. Que faut-il en penser ? Une méthode de recherche a été élaborée à partir d’une analyse fine des pièces métalliques d’un catalogue de ces pièces pour les Gaules. Les socs ont été classés en fonction de leur surface utile, de la forme de leur douille de fixation et de l’angle d’usure de la pièce avec le sol, quand il est observable. Pour les reilles, le classement est identique et la longueur de la soie est ici prise en compte. À partir des valeurs retenues pour ces pièces et d’une étude technique avec modélisation de l’instrument aratoire, les possibilités de reconstruction des araires ont été étudiées. On souhaite ainsi rappeler aux chercheurs combien il est important de publier les pièces retrouvées avec le maximum de précision, dans les dessins et les mesures. En conclusion, pour les araires à soc à douille, de nombreuses incertitudes demeurent, sauf pour les socs de petites surfaces utiles, qui sont généralement des araires manche-sep. Pour les araires à reille, la reconstruction des instruments semble accessible, y compris la longueur du timon de traction ou chambige. Quelques exemples concrets de reconstitution sont présentés, dont un araire tourne-oreille.Metallic pieces of tilling implements from Roman Gaul, are practically the only archaeological elements at our disposal to reconstruct the tools. Authors such as S.E. Rees (GB, R. Pohanka (Austria, and above all J. Henning (South East of Europe have made proposals concerning the reconstruction of tilling implements of that period. What is to be thought of these

  9. [Hydroxyapatite for experimental laryngotracheal reconstruction]. (United States)

    Qin, Y; Yu, M; Han, D


    The porous hydroxyapatite (HA) tubiform prosthesis was employed for reconstruction of large circumferential defect of the larynx and cervical trachea. The biocompatibility, bioactivity and biofunctionality of the HA prosthesis were evaluated, and the feasibility for laryngotracheal reconstruction was discussed. Twelve healthy canines were used to establish the experimental models, a large portion of cricoid cartilage and upper ten-ring segment of cervical trachea were resected and substituted with a corresponding 5 cm HA prosthesis by end-to-end anastomosis. Six months later, the eight survival canines were sacrificed and the HA prostheses with surrounding tissues were removed. They were observed in decalcified sections by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Two canines died in the immediate postoperative period with unknown reason and another two deaths were attributed to obstruction caused by the complete dislocation of the HA prostheses owing to rupture of the sutures within three weeks after operation. Eight canines survived up to six months. The implanted HA prostheses were tolerated in all cases without any rejection and dislocation or shift. An excellent airway was obtained and no signs of dyspnea and suffocation were found though there were hypergranulation and scar formation occurred at the site of anastomosis. Morphologic examination revealed that collagen fibers, new vessels and plenty of cells penetrated deeply into the pores of HA, and occupying the outer two third of HA wall. HA prostheses were surrounded by connective tissues and anchored firmly to the neighboring tissues, including the ends of the cricoid and tracheal cartilage by ingrowths of cartilaginous tissue into the macropores of the HA. However, the luminal surface of HA prosthesis was not covered at all section levels by respiratory mucosa. The implantation of the porous HA tubiform prosthesis can maintain the normal respiratory function of the experimental canines, but the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahman Pally Balkishan


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To study the technical details involving commonly performed flap surgeries - Narayanan flap (forehead and scalp flap, Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous (PMMC flap and deltopectoral flap. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective study, which consisted of sample size of 30 in a period of 2 years. All the patients who presented to OGH with symptoms and signs of carcinoma cheek were diagnosed and confirmed by edge biopsy, FNAC of nodes in neck, x-ray mandible, orthopantomogram, liver function tests. RESULTS Out of the 30 patients, the malignant lesion was arising from alveolar ridge in 2 (6.7%, buccal mucosa in 16 (53.3%, floor of the mouth in 2 (6.7%, hard palate in 2 (6.7%, retromolar trigone in 1 (3.3%, lip in 3 (10% and tongue in 4 (13.3% patients. Highest number of patients were found to be in the age groups of 61-70 (40% and 51-60 (26.7% each. Median age is 64.3 years. Out of 30 cases in the study, 18 (60% were male and another 12 (40% were females. About 66.7% of the patients indulged in chewing tobacco, 13.35 in tobacco chewing and smoking and about 20% in tobacco chewing along with smoking and alcohol consumption. Out of 30 cases in the study, 20 (66.7% presented with ulcer, 8 (26.7% with ulcer and swelling while 2 (6.6% presented with trismus. Stage IV (40% were more in number. Histopathology report confirms well-differentiated SCC in 80% and in this sample no specimen is poorly differentiated. All patients underwent wide local excision. Out of the 30 cases, 6 patients were stage I who did not undergo neck dissection. Maximum number of patients underwent hemimandibulectomy (53.3%, 20% of the patients did not undergo mandibulectomy. Maximum number of reconstructions were done with pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps+deltopectoral flap (PMMC+DP in 18 (60% cases .Out of the 24 cases in our study who underwent reconstruction with the flaps described above, marginal necrosis occurred in 2 (8.3% patients with PMMC+DP flaps while

  11. The quality of three-dimensional images reconstructed with volume-scan CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimbashi, Takeshi; Sakurai, Nobuaki; Watanabe, Norimitsu (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Takagi, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Yutaka


    Volume-scan CT is based on slip-ring technology which leads to continuous scanning. It permits remarkable reduction in scanning time, which is especially meaningful where children and elderly patients are concerned. One scan takes one second, with a maximum continuous time of 50 seconds. Slice widths of 2, 3, 5 and 100 mm can be selected and table changed from 1.5 to 20 mm/second. The reconstruction index is 1 to 10 mm, and reconstruction time about 10 seconds. As both the patient and table are moved simultaneously, it is possible to scan a wide area in a short time. Volume-scan CT is suitable for three-dimensional (3-D) images because of the good continuity of slices. The authors reconstructed 3-D phantom images using both ordinary CT and volume-scan CT, and then compared the quality of these images. Under the condition of 3 mm slice width and 3 mm/sec table speed, the 3-D images reconstructed with volume-scan CT were clearly better than those reconstructed using ordinary CT. The quality of both has improved after interpolation. In particular, the periorbital and zygomatic areas of 3-D images reconstructed with volume-scan CT are quite natural. When a phantom was scanned under the condition of 10 mm slice width and 10 mm/sec table speed, the quality of 3-D image reconstructed with ordinary CT was not sufficient to be distinct. Even under interpolation, the quality of image was not natural. Useful images could not be obtained when the phantom was moving. It was found that volume-scan CT is suitable for reconstruction of 3-D images. (author).

  12. An alternative technique for immediate breast reconstruction. (United States)

    Komenaka, Ian K; Maffi, Terry R; Davis, Karole M; Klemens, Anne E; Bouton, Marcia E; Pennington, Robert E


    Immediate reconstruction has demonstrated superior cosmesis compared with delayed reconstruction, however, unexpected final pathology may necessitate post mastectomy radiation. We describe an alternative technique for immediate breast reconstruction. Twelve patients underwent 14 skin-sparing mastectomies from July 2006 to December 2009. The skin-sparing mastectomies and sentinel node biopsies were performed through a periareolar incision. At the completion of the operation the incision was closed in a transverse fashion. No simultaneous reconstruction was performed. No drains were placed. After 3 days seroma developed, which maintained the integrity of the skin envelope and appearance of a breast. Nine patients (75%) had a contraindication to breast conservation. All patients were clinically node negative and 67 per cent were clinical stage 0. The majority (75%) experienced an adverse change from clinical stage to final pathologic stage. Four patients (33%) required postmastectomy radiation. The mean time from oncologic procedure to initial reconstruction procedure was 14 days. Two patients (17%) developed postoperative infections. This technique allows immediate reconstruction and avoids the fear of adverse final pathology indicating radiation to the reconstructed breast. In addition, it provides flexibility in scheduling for the surgeons and allows the patient to maintain the appearance of the breast.

  13. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning. (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor


    Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery.

  14. The Danish Knee Ligament Reconstruction Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahr-Wagner L


    Full Text Available Lene Rahr-Wagner, Martin Lind Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Sports Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Abstract: The Danish Knee Ligament Reconstruction Registry was established in 2005 as a web-based nationwide clinical database with the purpose of improving the monitoring and quality of both primary and revision knee ligament reconstructions in Denmark. All primary and revision anterior and posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions as well as collateral ligament and multiligament reconstructions are recorded. Main variables include sex, age, cause of injury, objective ligament instability, and surgical data, such as affected ligament, graft- and implant choice, operation technique among other things. The operating surgeon prospectively collects the data. Hence, detailed preoperative, intraoperative, and 1-year follow-up data are recorded by the operating surgeon using a standardized form and a secured Internet portal. The number of procedures registered in the database each year is ~2,500 and the first 9 years, in total, 22,775 procedures have been registered. Since the beginning of the database multiple papers have been published in international peer-reviewed journals, improving the knowledge of patients treated with knee ligament reconstruction surgery. This paper reviews the content, organization, and published research from the Danish Knee Ligament Reconstruction Registry. Keywords: ligament reconstruction, anterior cruciate ligament, operation technique, database, graft choice, femoral tunnel drilling, patient-reported outcome measure


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Golubev


    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess early and long-term results of the pediatric hand reconstructions with posterior interosseous flap, including those in children younger than 3 years old. Materials and methods: results of the hand reconstructions with posterior interosseous artery reverse flap were studied in 10 children (4 males and 6 females aged from 1 year and 1 month to 13 years old. In 4 cases flap coverage were performed due to acquired posttraumatic hand deformity, in 6 cases reconstruction was assumed for congenital hand deformities. Combined procedures consisted of posterior interosseous artery flap coverage and other types of microsurgical reconstructions were suggested in 4 patients. Preoperative color doppler visualization of the posterior interosseous vessels were mandatory. All flaps were risen under 3.5x-4.5x magnification. Results: all flaps survived completely in 3 weeks postoperatively. There were no postoperative complications such as flap’s arterial or venous insufficiency, deep infection, or posterior interosseous nerve palsy. Nearly whole group (9 of 10 of patients and/or their parents were satisfied with the esthetic view of the reconstructed hand and donor site of the forearm 1 year postoperatively. Conclusion: posterior interosseous flap is a reliable and versatile option in pediatric hand reconstructions, providing excellent skin coverage with good color match and texture. Preservation of major vascular bundles of the forearm (radial and ulnar arteries during flap harvest gives a possibility to perform a simultaneous microsurgical reconstructions of the hand (e.g. free toe transfer.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Cole


    limited prosthetic resurfacing. Section VI is "Operative treatment-elbow" including chapters arthroscopy, nonprosthetic elbow arthroplasty, biological resurfacing. The Section VII is "Operative treatment-foot and ankle" including chapters about ankle arthroscopy and cartilage repair in the ankle.The text is one of the most comprehensive and up-to-date references in the treatment of cartilage pathologies and biological joint reconstruction. Some other minimal invasive surgical techniques such as prosthetic partial resurfacing or some osteotomies are also subjected as other alternative treatments for joint restoration. Basic sciences, diagnostic imaging, pharmacological treatment and neutraceuticals, and rehabilitation are making the text. The chapter about future developments in cartilage repair is not only describing the recent technology, different types of tissue engineering and related centers in the world but also gives an idea for the possibilities of future in cartilage repair. Chapters about surgical techniques and procedures are uniformly composed of parts including introduction, preoperative evaluation, surgical technique, postoperative issues, results and references in which the techniques and management described in detail. Numerous high quality images, rich illustrations and figures, page design and also colored tables about key points, protocols, or helpful hints makes the reading and understanding easier

  17. 3D Printing: current use in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Dedhia, Raj; Cervenka, Brian; Tollefson, Travis T


    To review the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, with a focus on current uses in surgical training, surgical planning, clinical outcomes, and biomedical research. To evaluate the limitations and future implications of 3D printing in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. Studies reviewed demonstrated 3D printing applications in surgical planning including accurate anatomic biomodels, surgical cutting guides in reconstruction, and patient-specific implants fabrication. 3D printing technology also offers access to well tolerated, reproducible, and high-fidelity/patient-specific models for surgical training. Emerging research in 3D biomaterial printing have led to the development of biocompatible scaffolds with potential for tissue regeneration in reconstruction cases involving significant tissue absence or loss. Major limitations of utilizing 3D printing technology include time and cost, which may be offset by decreased operating times and collaboration between departments to diffuse in-house printing costs SUMMARY: The current state of the literature shows promising results, but has not yet been validated by large studies or randomized controlled trials. Ultimately, further research and advancements in 3D printing technology should be supported as there is potential to improve resident training, patient care, and surgical outcomes.

  18. Surgical reconstruction of tuberous breasts. (United States)

    Foustanos, Andreas; Zavrides, Harris


    Tuberous breast deformity is a rare entity affecting young women bilaterally or unilaterally. It requires surgical correction, depending on the severity of the clinical expression, because of its aesthetic appearance. Since the presentation of the malformation by Rees and Aston in 1976, many surgical procedures have been developed, but the deformity still is one of the most challenging congenital breast anomalies. Between September 1999 and September 2005, eight patients with tuberous breast deformity underwent surgery in our department. A two-stage approach was used to manage 14 tuberous breasts. We used a combination of anatomic textured tissue expanders with magnetic injection sites and silicone gel implants. Other reconstructive procedures such as mastopexy, breast reduction, and areolar reduction can be considered. Our long-term results, with a maximum follow-up of 6 years, were satisfying. They have been uniformly good and compare favorably with those presented in the literature when the use of other methods. This two-stage approach is a relatively simple, safe, and technically easy procedure that is easy to learn. The results achieved with this approach seem to be reliable and gratifying.

  19. The BABAR Prompt Reconstruction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanzman, Thomas


    BABAR is an experiment designed to explore the nature of CP violation and other physics in the B B-bar system starting in the Spring of 1999. The experiment is situated at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center where the former PEP electron-positron storage ring has been upgraded to an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} asymmetric storage facility. The electrons at 9 GeV/c and positrons at 3.1 GeV/c will collide at the Y(4S) with a luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The BABAR detector will record the B and B-bar decays resulting from the Y(4S). With careful vertexing, particle ID and other measurements, asymmetries between the B and B-bar decays will be analyzed. The expected data rate reaches 100 Hz of {approximately}32 kByte events recorded to mass storage. This results in {approximately}10{sup 9} logged events per year of operation. The raw data, combined with reconstructed and simulated data, is expected to yield {approximately}300 TB of stored data per year. With this large flow of data, it becomes essential to optimize the automation and reliability associated with the initial phases of data processing.

  20. Research on 3D reconstruction of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Pan-fei


    Full Text Available In order to associate with using acoustic emission, ultrasonic or other means to locate damage of concrete, based on the concrete CT image information, the research of 3D reconstruction of concrete crack structure was completed by using Amira 5.2.1 3D reconstruction software. Experiments showed that: three dimensional reconstruction of concrete can reflect the real crack structure, and distribution of aggregate concrete of three dimensional model established was basically in accordance with the original CT image, which laid the good foundation to simulate and analysis by using ANSYS finite element software in the future.

  1. Vertex Reconstruction for AEGIS’ FACT Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Themistokleous, Neofytos


    My project dealt with the development of a vertex reconstruction technique to discriminate antihydrogen from background signals in the AEGIS apparatus. It involved the creation of a Toy Monte-Carlo to simulate particle annihilation events, and a vertex reconstruction utility based on the Bayesian theory of probability. The first results based on 107 generated events with single track in the detector are encouraging. For such events, the algorithm can reconstruct the z-coordinate accurately , while for the r-coordinate the result is less accurate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setefanus Suprajitno


    Full Text Available Tony Morrison's fifth novel, Beloved (1987, explores the degradation of slavery imposed upon slaves, even when they were owned by a "humane" slave master. The novel is set in the Reconstruction period, the period after the American civil war. The word reconstruction may be used for the Afro-Americans, especially for the Afro-American women who face double discrimination for being black and women. In dealing with women's oppression, Afro-American women have to reconstruct themselves as an act of survival, and to be aware of the horrors of the experiences which their ancestors had to go through.

  3. Improving analytical tomographic reconstructions through consistency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Arcadu, Filippo; Stampanoni, Marco; Marone, Federica


    This work introduces and characterizes a fast parameterless filter based on the Helgason-Ludwig consistency conditions, used to improve the accuracy of analytical reconstructions of tomographic undersampled datasets. The filter, acting in the Radon domain, extrapolates intermediate projections between those existing. The resulting sinogram, doubled in views, is then reconstructed by a standard analytical method. Experiments with simulated data prove that the peak-signal-to-noise ratio of the results computed by filtered backprojection is improved up to 5-6 dB, if the filter is used prior to reconstruction.

  4. [Full thickness reconstruction of the nasal pyramid]. (United States)

    Darsonval, V; Arnaud, D; Duron, J-B; Bardot, J; Rousseau, P


    Nasal lesions, which are often carcinomas, require a histological control of the excision sometimes forcing to postpone the reconstruction source of nasal mutilation disfiguring. Reconstructive procedures have made steady progress and the notion of reconstruction in three planes advocated by Tiersch has been improved in a major way by Millard, Burget and Menick, who added an essential aesthetic dimension. We present our experience in this field by selecting procedures that seem most appropriate and describing the key points of the operating process, which remain the guarantee of both therapeutic and aesthetic success. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. The Longest Haplotype Reconstruction Problem Revisited (United States)

    Dondi, Riccardo

    The Longest Haplotype Reconstruction (LHR) problem has been introduced in Computational Biology for the reconstruction of the haplotypes of an individual, starting from a matrix of incomplete haplotype fragments. In this paper, we reconsider the LHR problem, proving that it is NP-hard even in the restricted case when the input matrix is error-free. Then, we investigate the approximation complexity of the problem, showing that it cannot be approximated within factor 2^{log^{δ}nm } for any constant δNP ⊆ DTIME[2 polylognm ]. Finally, we give a fixed-parameter algorithm, where the parameter is the size of the reconstructed haplotypes.

  6. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images (United States)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen


    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  7. Being technological (United States)

    Denning, Kathryn


    SETI's essential premises involve evolution in multiple domains: cosmology, biology, culture and technology. Comparatively little has been written about the last of these, technology, in relation to SETI's targets, but it is a crucial variable and well worth deep examination. In particular, it would seem prudent to consider carefully our assumptions about hypothetical extraterrestrial societies which have developed technology that SETI could detect, or which could detect, at interstellar distances, the existence of intelligent life on Earth. This paper contributes to that effort by reflecting upon our habits of projecting terracentric assumptions onto hypothetical worlds, exploring dominant narratives about technological development and presenting varied philosophical theories about the nature of technology. It highlights the cultural aspects of technology here on Earth, particularly their role in the development of radio technology. In the end, it is clear that technology need not develop along a prescribed, linear path; projections about extraterrestrial societies which rely on this assumption need to be reconsidered.

  8. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  9. Casting Technology. (United States)

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others


    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  10. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...

  11. No economic benefit of early knee reconstruction over optional delayed reconstruction for ACL tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A; Englund, Martin; Stefan Lohmander, L.


    Background To analyse 5-year cost-effectiveness of early versus optional delayed acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods 121 young, active adults with acute ACL injury to a previously uninjured knee were randomised to early ACL reconstruction (n=62, within 10 weeks of injury......) or optional delayed ACL reconstruction (n=59; 30 with ACL reconstruction within 6-55 months); all patients received similar structured rehabilitation. Real life data on health care utilisation and sick leave were obtained from regional and national registers. Costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were...... discounted at 3%. Full-analysis set (based on study randomisation) and as-treated analysis (according to actual treatment over 5 years) principles were applied. Results Mean cost of early ACL reconstruction was €4695 higher than optional delayed ACL reconstruction (p=0.19) and provided an additional 0...

  12. Tissue Engineering in Vesical Reconstruction | Morsi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TE) and describes the possible future clinical application in bladder reconstruction. Material and Methods: This review is based on an electronic search of the PubMed database and recently published presentations between November 2008 and ...

  13. SIMD studies in the LHCb reconstruction software

    CERN Document Server

    Campora Perez, D H


    During the data taking process in the LHC at CERN, millions of collisions are recorded every second by the LHCb Detector. The LHCb Online computing farm, counting around 15000 cores, is dedicated to the reconstruction of the events in real-time, in order to filter those with interesting Physics. The ones kept are later analysed $Offline$ in a more precise fashion on the Grid. This imposes very stringent requirements on the reconstruction software, which has to be as efficient as possible. Modern CPUs support so-called vector-extensions, which extend their Instruction Sets, allowing for concurrent execution across functional units. Several libraries expose the Single Instruction Multiple Data programming paradigm to issue these instructions. The use of vectorisation in our codebase can provide performance boosts, leading ultimately to Physics reconstruction enhancements. In this paper, we present vectorisation studies of significant reconstruction algorithms. A variety of vectorisation libraries are analysed a...

  14. Reconstructing speech from human auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian N Pasley


    Full Text Available How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. To address this question, we used intracranial recordings from nonprimary auditory cortex in the human superior temporal gyrus to determine what acoustic information in speech sounds can be reconstructed from population neural activity. We found that slow and intermediate temporal fluctuations, such as those corresponding to syllable rate, were accurately reconstructed using a linear model based on the auditory spectrogram. However, reconstruction of fast temporal fluctuations, such as syllable onsets and offsets, required a nonlinear sound representation based on temporal modulation energy. Reconstruction accuracy was highest within the range of spectro-temporal fluctuations that have been found to be critical for speech intelligibility. The decoded speech representations allowed readout and identification of individual words directly from brain activity during single trial sound presentations. These findings reveal neural encoding mechanisms of speech acoustic parameters in higher order human auditory cortex.

  15. Speeding up image reconstruction in computed tomography

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Computed tomography (CT) is a technique for imaging cross-sections of an object using X-ray measurements taken from different angles. In last decades a significant progress has happened there: today advanced algorithms allow fast image reconstruction and obtaining high-quality images even with missing or dirty data, modern detectors provide high resolution without increasing radiation dose, and high-performance multi-core computing devices are there to help us solving such tasks even faster. I will start with CT basics, then briefly present existing classes of reconstruction algorithms and their differences. After that I will proceed to employing distinctive architectural features of modern multi-core devices (CPUs and GPUs) and popular program interfaces (OpenMP, MPI, CUDA, OpenCL) for developing effective parallel realizations of image reconstruction algorithms. Decreasing full reconstruction time from long hours up to minutes or even seconds has a revolutionary impact in diagnostic medicine and industria...

  16. War And Reconstruction: Four Comparative Case Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . J. Buchan, The African Colony (London, 1903); W B Worsfold,. The Reconstruction of the Nell' Colonies under Lord Milner, 2 vols (London, 1913). ... demonstrated in conflicts over tariffs, over nullification (the right of a state government to.

  17. The early days of nasal reconstruction. (United States)

    Ellis, Harold


    Most healthcare professionals, if asked, would say that plastic and reconstructive surgery is a recent phenomenon. So most of it is, but, rather surprisingly, the story of replacing the absent nose goes back for many centuries.

  18. Innovative rapid construction/reconstruction methods. (United States)


    Innovative construction and reconstruction methods provide the opportunity to significantly reduce the time of roadway projects while maintaining the necessary quality of workmanship. The need for these rapid methods stems from the increase in ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Riss


    Full Text Available Background. Pelvic reconstructive surgery requires a solid understanding of the anatomy of the small pelvis and the pelvic floor, in particular to avoid complications during and after pelvic reconstructive surgery.Methods. Possible complications of the pelvic floor reconstructive surgery are analised. There are 2 typical surgical problems encountered in pelvic reconstructive surgery: lesion of adjacent structures (rectum, bladder, ureter, small bowel and hemorrhage.Results. Postoperatively there is always a risk of pain, stenosis and dyspareunia, erosion of allograft, voiding problems, incontinence and prolapse.Conclusions. These complications can be reduced by insisting on an exact preoperative diagnosis and by choosing the correct procedure, by having a good knowledge of anatomy and by using meticulous surgical technique.

  20. 40 CFR 60.15 - Reconstruction. (United States)


    ... description of the existing air pollution control equipment and the proposed air pollution control equipment... of this part may include specific provisions which refine and delimit the concept of reconstruction...

  1. Building Reconstruction Using DSM and Orthorectified Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hossein Arefi; Peter Reinartz


      High resolution Digital Surface Models (DSMs) produced from airborne laser-scanning or stereo satellite images provide a very useful source of information for automated 3D building reconstruction...

  2. DD4Hep based event reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)683529; Frank, Markus; Gaede, Frank-Dieter; Hynds, Daniel; Lu, Shaojun; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Petric, Marko; Simoniello, Rosa; Voutsinas, Georgios Gerasimos

    The DD4HEP detector description toolkit offers a flexible and easy-to-use solution for the consistent and complete description of particle physics detectors in a single system. The sub-component DDREC provides a dedicated interface to the detector geometry as needed for event reconstruction. With DDREC there is no need to define an additional, separate reconstruction geometry as is often done in HEP, but one can transparently extend the existing detailed simulation model to be also used for the reconstruction. Based on the extension mechanism of DD4HEP, DDREC allows one to attach user defined data structures to detector elements at all levels of the geometry hierarchy. These data structures define a high level view onto the detectors describing their physical properties, such as measurement layers, point resolutions, and cell sizes. For the purpose of charged particle track reconstruction, dedicated surface objects can be attached to every volume in the detector geometry. These surfaces provide the measuremen...

  3. Vertex Reconstruction and Performance in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, Ben William; The ATLAS collaboration


    Efficient and precise reconstruction of the primary vertices in LHC collisions is essential in both the reconstruction of the full kinematic properties of a hard-scatter event and of soft interactions as a measure of the amount of pile-up. The reconstruction of the primary vertices in the busy, high pile up environment of the LHC is a challenging task. The challenges and novel methods developed by the ATLAS experiment to reconstruct vertices in such environments will be presented. The performance of the current vertexing algorithms using Run-2 data will be presented and compared to results from simulation. Additionally, data-driven methods to evaluate vertex resolution, and details of upgrades to the ATLAS inner detector will be presented.

  4. Social consciousness in post-conflict reconstruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gans, Ben; Rutkowski, Anne; Kaminski, B.; Kersten, G.E.; Szapiro, T.

    This paper sheds light on the complexities intergovernmental organizations are facing during post-conflict reconstruction. The article discusses the added-value of Social Responsibility in the context of the Comprehensive Approach, involving collaboration amongst defense, diplomacy and development.

  5. Assistive Technologies (United States)

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.


    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  6. Technology Tiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer


    A technology tier is a level in a product system: final product, system, subsystem, component, or part. As a concept, it contrasts traditional “vertical” special technologies (for example, mechanics and electronics) and focuses “horizontal” feature technologies such as product characteristics...

  7. Earthing Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent


    In this article, we reflect on the conditions under which new technologies emerge in the Anthropocene and raise the question of how to conceptualize sustainable technologies therein. To this end, we explore an eco-centric approach to technology development, called biomimicry. We discuss opposing

  8. Building a New South Africa Volume 3: Science and Technology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Building a New South Africa Volume 3: Science and Technology Policy ... 1992 symposium on the role of research in transforming South Africa, the democratic movement requested that IDRC support a mission on science and technology (S&T) policy. ... Volume 4: Environment, Reconstruction, and Development ...

  9. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 2: Trajectory, Atmosphere, and Aerodynamics Reconstruction (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Van Norman, John W.


    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of aerodynamic decelerator technologies developed by the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology demonstration project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large-mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and supersonic parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The purpose of this test was to validate the test architecture for future tests. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. The Supersonic Disksail parachute developed a tear during deployment. The second flight test occurred on June 8th, 2015, and incorporated a Supersonic Ringsail parachute which was redesigned based on data from the first flight. Again, the inflatable decelerator functioned as predicted but the parachute was damaged during deployment. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, main motor thrust, atmosphere, and aerodynamics.

  10. Language distance and tree reconstruction (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio


    Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others.

  11. Reconstructing the ancestral vertebrate brain. (United States)

    Sugahara, Fumiaki; Murakami, Yasunori; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Kuratani, Shigeru


    Highly complicated morphologies and sophisticated functions of vertebrate brains have been established through evolution. However, the origin and early evolutionary history of the brain remain elusive, owing to lack of information regarding the brain architecture of extant and fossil species of jawless vertebrates (agnathans). Comparative analyses of the brain of less studied cyclostomes (only extant agnathan group, consisting of lampreys and hagfish) with the well-known sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) are the only tools we have available to illustrate the ancestral architecture of the vertebrate brain. Previous developmental studies had shown that the lamprey lacked well-established brain compartments that are present in gnathostomes, such as the medial ganglionic eminence and the rhombic lip. The most accepted scenario suggested that cyclostomes had fewer compartments than that of the gnathostome brain and that gnathostomes thus evolved by a stepwise addition of innovations on its developmental sequence. However, recent studies have revealed that these compartments are present in hagfish embryos, indicating that these brain regions have been acquired before the split of cyclostomes and gnathostomes. By comparing two cyclostome lineages and gnathostomes, it has become possible to speculate about a more complex ancestral state of the brain, excluding derived traits in either of the lineages. In this review, we summarize recent studies on the brain development of the lamprey and hagfish. Then, we attempt to reconstruct the possible brain architecture of the last common ancestor of vertebrates. Finally, we discuss how the developmental plan of the vertebrate brain has been modified independently in different vertebrate lineages. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  12. Computer Based Road Accident Reconstruction Experiences


    Milan Batista; Tone Magister; Leon Bogdanović


    Since road accident analyses and reconstructions are increasinglybased on specific computer software for simulationof vehicle d1iving dynamics and collision dynamics, and forsimulation of a set of trial runs from which the model that bestdescribes a real event can be selected, the paper presents anoverview of some computer software and methods available toaccident reconstruction experts. Besides being time-saving,when properly used such computer software can provide moreauthentic and more tru...

  13. Reconstructions in ultrasound modulated optical tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Allmaras, Moritz


    We introduce a mathematical model for ultrasound modulated optical tomography and present a simple reconstruction scheme for recovering the spatially varying optical absorption coefficient from scanning measurements with narrowly focused ultrasound signals. Computational results for this model show that the reconstruction of sharp features of the absorption coefficient is possible. A formal linearization of the model leads to an equation with a Fredholm operator, which explains the stability observed in our numerical experiments. © de Gruyter 2011.

  14. Developments on jet reconstruction by DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Kiskinen, A


    The most relevant techniques used by DELPHI to identify jets in multihadronic final states are reviewed. The performance of jet reconstruction algorithms is analysed together with the additional use of energy and momentum conservation in order to allow for a precise reconstruction of the event kinematics. Also jet flavour tagging methods are summarised. Applications in some analyses like searches for new particles such as Higgs bosons, W mass physics and QCD studies are presented. (9 refs).

  15. [Urethral reconstruction using buccal mucosa transplants]. (United States)

    Engel, O; Ahyai, S; Rink, M; Eichelberg, C; Dahlem, R; Fisch, M


    Buccal mucosa is the ideal material for urethral reconstruction because it is easy to harvest, is accustomed to permanent moisture and can be used at any location in the urethra. Stricture length and local conditions of the urethra have to be considered to decide which technique is required to reconstruct the urethra. Open urethroplasty with buccal mucosa has a success rate over 85% and should be used after unsuccessful internal urethrotomy and primarily in longer strictures.

  16. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Izak


    Full Text Available This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  17. Reconstruction for breast cancer in a nutshell. (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is a disease many will experience. Depending on the size of the cancer, the size of the host breast, and whether it is multi-focal, a mastectomy may be recommended as part of the treatment. If this is the case, an immediate breast reconstruction may be offered. This article will describe the three main types of breast reconstruction and discuss pertinent issues regarding this, including complications, surgery to the other (contraleteral) breast and potential psychological implications of this surgery.

  18. [Reconstruction of Vehicle-human Crash Accident and Injury Analysis Based on 3D Laser Scanning, Multi-rigid-body Reconstruction and Optimized Genetic Algorithm]. (United States)

    Sun, J; Wang, T; Li, Z D; Shao, Y; Zhang, Z Y; Feng, H; Zou, D H; Chen, Y J


    To reconstruct a vehicle-bicycle-cyclist crash accident and analyse the injuries using 3D laser scanning technology, multi-rigid-body dynamics and optimized genetic algorithm, and to provide biomechanical basis for the forensic identification of death cause. The vehicle was measured by 3D laser scanning technology. The multi-rigid-body models of cyclist, bicycle and vehicle were developed based on the measurements. The value range of optimal variables was set. A multi-objective genetic algorithm and the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm were used to find the optimal solutions, which were compared to the record of the surveillance video around the accident scene. The reconstruction result of laser scanning on vehicle was satisfactory. In the optimal solutions found by optimization method of genetic algorithm, the dynamical behaviours of dummy, bicycle and vehicle corresponded to that recorded by the surveillance video. The injury parameters of dummy were consistent with the situation and position of the real injuries on the cyclist in accident. The motion status before accident, damage process by crash and mechanical analysis on the injury of the victim can be reconstructed using 3D laser scanning technology, multi-rigid-body dynamics and optimized genetic algorithm, which have application value in the identification of injury manner and analysis of death cause in traffic accidents.

  19. Immediate nipple reconstruction in combination with implant reconstruction using dermal sling. (United States)

    Filobbos, George; Hamnett, Nathan; Hardwicke, Joseph; Skillman, Joanna


    The inferior de-epithelialized dermal flap with implant is increasingly used for immediate breast reconstruction. We have adapted the technique to provide concurrent immediate nipple reconstruction by recruiting the triangle of skin above the excised nipple as a modified C-V flap. The safety and efficacy of this technique has been assessed in 15 patients, of which eight were bilateral and seven were unilateral cases. We suggest that this is a safe, reliable, and original technique for immediate nipple reconstruction in patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction with an inferior dermal sling and implant. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Periacetabular reconstruction with a new endoprosthesis. (United States)

    Menendez, Lawrence R; Ahlmann, Elke R; Falkinstein, Yuri; Allison, Daniel C


    Reconstruction of the Type II pelvic resection is challenging. Currently available reconstructive options have inherent problems including graft and implant failure, pain, poor function, and high major complication rates. The periacetabular reconstruction (PAR) endoprosthesis was designed to be secured with internal fixation and bone cement to the remaining ilium and support a reconstructed acetabulum. This construct potentially avoids the complications of graft or hardware failure, while maintaining early mobilization, comfort, limb lengths, and function. We retrospectively reviewed 25 patients who underwent Type II pelvic resection and reconstruction with the PAR endoprosthesis, analyzing function, complications, and survivorship. The minimum followup was 13 months (mean, 29.4 months; range, 13 to 108 months). We compared the PAR data with the literature for the Mark II saddle endoprosthesis. The PAR's average MSTS score was 20.8 (67%), major complications occurred in 14 (56%), and implant survivorship was 84% at 2 years and 60% at 5 years. The rate of failure at the ilium-saddle interface was lower and implant survivorship higher than those in the published literature for the Mark II saddle. We recommend use of the PAR endoprosthesis for reconstruction of large defects following Type II pelvic resection. The modified saddle design provides greater inherent stability, allowing for faster rehabilitation and improved longevity without increased complications and is an improvement over the currently available saddle prostheses. Level III, retrospective case series. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  1. Simulation and track reconstruction for beam telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman


    Beam telescopes are used for testing new detectors under development. Sensors are placed and a particle beam is passed through them. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, it’s predicted hits on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them don’t account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framew...

  2. Iterative CBCT reconstruction using Hessian penalty (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Sun, Nanbo; Wang, Jing; Tan, Shan


    Statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms have shown potential to improve cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality. Most iterative reconstruction algorithms utilize prior knowledge as a penalty term in the objective function. The penalty term greatly affects the performance of a reconstruction algorithm. The total variation (TV) penalty has demonstrated great ability in suppressing noise and improving image quality. However, calculated from the first-order derivatives, the TV penalty leads to the well-known staircase effect, which sometimes makes the reconstructed images oversharpen and unnatural. In this study, we proposed to use a second-order derivative penalty that involves the Frobenius norm of the Hessian matrix of an image for CBCT reconstruction. The second-order penalty retains some of the most favorable properties of the TV penalty like convexity, homogeneity, and rotation and translation invariance, and has a better ability in preserving the structures of gradual transition in the reconstructed images. An effective algorithm was developed to minimize the objective function with the majorization-minimization (MM) approach. The experiments on a digital phantom and two physical phantoms demonstrated the priority of the proposed penalty, particularly in suppressing the staircase effect of the TV penalty.

  3. Nonholonomic catheter path reconstruction using electromagnetic tracking (United States)

    Lugez, Elodie; Sadjadi, Hossein; Akl, Selim G.; Fichtinger, Gabor


    Catheter path reconstruction is a necessary step in many clinical procedures, such as cardiovascular interventions and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. To overcome limitations of standard imaging modalities, electromagnetic tracking has been employed to reconstruct catheter paths. However, tracking errors pose a challenge in accurate path reconstructions. We address this challenge by means of a filtering technique incorporating the electromagnetic measurements with the nonholonomic motion constraints of the sensor inside a catheter. The nonholonomic motion model of the sensor within the catheter and the electromagnetic measurement data were integrated using an extended Kalman filter. The performance of our proposed approach was experimentally evaluated using the Ascension's 3D Guidance trakStar electromagnetic tracker. Sensor measurements were recorded during insertions of an electromagnetic sensor (model 55) along ten predefined ground truth paths. Our method was implemented in MATLAB and applied to the measurement data. Our reconstruction results were compared to raw measurements as well as filtered measurements provided by the manufacturer. The mean of the root-mean-square (RMS) errors along the ten paths was 3.7 mm for the raw measurements, and 3.3 mm with manufacturer's filters. Our approach effectively reduced the mean RMS error to 2.7 mm. Compared to other filtering methods, our approach successfully improved the path reconstruction accuracy by exploiting the sensor's nonholonomic motion constraints in its formulation. Our approach seems promising for a variety of clinical procedures involving reconstruction of a catheter path.

  4. Trends in Materials Science for Ligament Reconstruction. (United States)

    Sava, Oana Roxana; Sava, Daniel Florin; Radulescu, Marius; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Ficai, Denisa; Veloz-Castillo, Maria Fernanda; Mendez-Rojas, Miguel Angel; Ficai, Anton


    The number of ligament injuries increases every year and concomitantly the need for materials or systems that can reconstruct the ligament. Limitations imposed by autografts and allografts in ligament reconstruction together with the advances in materials science and biology have attracted a lot of interest for developing systems and materials for ligament replacement or reconstruction. This review intends to synthesize the major steps taken in the development of polymer-based materials for anterior cruciate ligament, their advantages and drawbacks and the results of different in vitro and in vivo tests. Until present, there is no successful polymer system for ligament reconstruction implanted in humans. The developing field of synthetic polymers for ligament reconstruction still has a lot of potential. In addition, several nano-structured materials, made of nanofibers or in the form of ceramic/polymeric nanocomposites, are attracting the interest of several groups due to their potential use as engineered scaffolds that mimic the native environment of cells, increasing the chances for tissue regeneration. Here, we review the last 15 years of literature in order to obtain a better understanding on the state-of-the-art that includes the usage of nano- and poly-meric materials for ligament reconstruction, and to draw perspectives on the future development of the field. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  5. The Convolutional Visual Network for Identification and Reconstruction of NOvA Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psihas, Fernanda [Indiana U.


    In 2016 the NOvA experiment released results for the observation of oscillations in the vμ and ve channels as well as ve cross section measurements using neutrinos from Fermilab’s NuMI beam. These and other measurements in progress rely on the accurate identification and reconstruction of the neutrino flavor and energy recorded by our detectors. This presentation describes the first application of convolutional neural network technology for event identification and reconstruction in particle detectors like NOvA. The Convolutional Visual Network (CVN) Algorithm was developed for identification, categorization, and reconstruction of NOvA events. It increased the selection efficiency of the ve appearance signal by 40% and studies show potential impact to the vμ disappearance analysis.

  6. Three-dimensional digital reconstruction of human placental villus architecture in normal and complicated pregnancies. (United States)

    McCarthy, R; Orsi, N M; Treanor, D; Moran, O; Vernooij, M; Magee, D R; Roberts, N; Stahlschmidt, J; Simpson, N A B


    This study aimed to examine the use of digital technology in the three-dimensional reconstruction of human placentas. Placentas obtained at term elective caesarean section were sampled, formalin-fixed and embedded in paraffin. Two hundred 5 μm consecutive sections were cut from each specimen and the resultant slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Slides were then scanned and the digitised images reconstructed using customised software. Three-dimensional reconstructions were successfully achieved in placentas from normal pregnancies and those complicated by pre-eclampsia, growth restriction, and gestational diabetes. Marked morphological differences were readily identifiable, most clearly in the stem villus architecture. This method is an emerging research tool for examining placental histoarchitecture at high resolution and gaining clinically relevant insight into the placental pathology allied to pregnancy complications such as PET, IUGR and GD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptive slab laser beam quality improvement using a weighted least-squares reconstruction algorithm. (United States)

    Chen, Shanqiu; Dong, LiZhi; Chen, XiaoJun; Tan, Yi; Liu, Wenjin; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Ping; Xu, Bing; Ye, YuTang


    Adaptive optics is an important technology for improving beam quality in solid-state slab lasers. However, there are uncorrectable aberrations in partial areas of the beam. In the criterion of the conventional least-squares reconstruction method, it makes the zones with small aberrations nonsensitive and hinders this zone from being further corrected. In this paper, a weighted least-squares reconstruction method is proposed to improve the relative sensitivity of zones with small aberrations and to further improve beam quality. Relatively small weights are applied to the zones with large residual aberrations. Comparisons of results show that peak intensity in the far field improved from 1242 analog digital units (ADU) to 2248 ADU, and beam quality β improved from 2.5 to 2.0. This indicates the weighted least-squares method has better performance than the least-squares reconstruction method when there are large zonal uncorrectable aberrations in the slab laser system.

  8. Rehanging Reynolds at the British Institution: Methods for Reconstructing Ephemeral Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Roach


    Full Text Available Reconstructions of historic exhibitions made with current technologies can present beguiling illusions, but they also put us in danger of recreating the past in our own image. This article and the accompanying reconstruction explore methods for representing lost displays, with an emphasis on visualizing uncertainty, illuminating process, and understanding the mediated nature of period images. These issues are highlighted in a partial recreation of a loan show held at the British Institution, London, in 1823, which featured the works of Sir Joshua Reynolds alongside continental old masters. This recreation demonstrates how speculative reconstructions can nonetheless shed light on ephemeral displays, revealing powerful visual and conceptual dialogues that took place on the crowded walls of nineteenth-century exhibitions.

  9. CVN A Convolutional Visual Network for Identication and Reconstruction of NOvA Events (United States)

    Psihas, Fernanda; NOvA Collaboration


    In the past year, the NOvA experiment released results for the observation of neutrino oscillations in the νμ and νe channels as well as νe cross section measurements using neutrinos from Fermilab’s NuMI beam. These and other measurements in progress rely on the accurate identication and reconstruction of the neutrino avor and energy recorded by our detectors. This presentation describes the rst application of convolutional neural network technology for event identication and reconstruction in particle detectors such as NOvA. The Convolutional Visual Network (CVN) Algorithm was developed for identication, categorization, and reconstruction of NOvA events. It increased the selection efficiency of the νe appearance signal by 40% and studies show potential impact to the νμ disappearance analysis.

  10. The Convolutional Visual Network for Identification and Reconstruction of NOvA Events (United States)

    Psihas, Fernanda; NOvA Collaboration


    In 2016 the NOvA experiment released results for the observation of oscillations in the vμ and ve channels as well as ve cross section measurements using neutrinos from Fermilab’s NuMI beam. These and other measurements in progress rely on the accurate identification and reconstruction of the neutrino flavor and energy recorded by our detectors. This presentation describes the first application of convolutional neural network technology for event identification and reconstruction in particle detectors like NOvA. The Convolutional Visual Network (CVN) Algorithm was developed for identification, categorization, and reconstruction of NOvA events. It increased the selection efficiency of the ve appearance signal by 40% and studies show potential impact to the vμ disappearance analysis.

  11. Hardware complications in oromandibular defects: Comparing scapular and fibular based free flap reconstructions. (United States)

    Tsang, Gordon F Z; Zhang, Han; Yao, Christopher; Kolarski, Mirko; Gullane, Patrick J; Irish, Jonathan C; Brown, Dale H; Chepeha, Douglas B; Goldstein, David P; Gilbert, Ralph W; de Almeida, John R


    Despite improvements in surgical technique and technology, hardware complications occur relatively frequently. This study analyzes hardware complications in patients undergoing oromandibular reconstruction using scapular (SFF) or fibular (FFF) free flaps. Retrospective data for 178 patients was obtained (1999-2014) at University Hospital Network (Toronto, Canada). Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify risk factors for hardware complications. Patients with FFF reconstruction (n=129) had significantly more hardware complications than those with SFF (n=49) (16% vs. 2%;p=0.01). Surgical site infection (SSI) (OR=7.05; phardware complications on univariable analysis. Flap type (OR=0.12; p=0.04) was an independent predictor of plate complication after adjusting for SSI. A subgroup analysis suggested a trend towards fewer hardware complications with SFF stratified by mandibular defect type. Scapular free flaps are associated with a lower rate of hardware-related complications in oromandibular reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggio, A.J. (ed.)


    This issue of Energy and Technology Review contains: Neutron Penumbral Imaging of Laser-Fusion Targets--using our new penumbral-imaging diagnostic, we have obtained the first images that can be used to measure directly the deuterium-tritium burn region in laser-driven fusion targets; Computed Tomography for Nondestructive Evaluation--various computed tomography systems and computational techniques are used in nondestructive evaluation; Three-Dimensional Image Analysis for Studying Nuclear Chromatin Structure--we have developed an optic-electronic system for acquiring cross-sectional views of cell nuclei, and computer codes to analyze these images and reconstruct the three-dimensional structures they represent; Imaging in the Nuclear Test Program--advanced techniques produce images of unprecedented detail and resolution from Nevada Test Site data; and Computational X-Ray Holography--visible-light experiments and numerically simulated holograms test our ideas about an x-ray microscope for biological research.

  13. Soulful Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent


    , - in short modernity - have taken away from human existence. What old technology has removed now comes back through new technology promoting a better humanity. The present article investigates how digital technology and affects are presented and combined, with examples from everyday imagery, e.g. TV...... or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. Technology is seen as creating a techno-transcendence towards a more qualified humanity which is in contact with fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities that technology, industrialization, and rationalization......Samsung introduced in 2008 a mobile phone called "Soul" made with a human touch and including itself a "magic touch". Through the analysis of a Nokia mobile phone TV-commercials I want to examine the function and form of digital technology in everyday images. The mobile phone and its digital camera...

  14. Connected Filtering by Reconstruction : Basis and New Advances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael H.F.


    Openings-by-reconstruction are the oldest connected filters, and indeed, reconstruction methodology lies at the heart of many connected operators such as levelings. Starting out from the basic reconstruction principle of iterated geodesic dilations, extensions such as the use of reconstruction

  15. Award Fee Process for Contractors Involved in Iraq Reconstruction (United States)


    Support PMO Project Management Office SIGIR Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction TO Task Order 14 Appendix C. Contract Files... Management Office (PMO) to execute the Iraq infrastructure reconstruction program. During its initial planning stages for the reconstruction of...relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction projects in Iraq funded through the IRRF. The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) established the Project


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael H. F.


    Openings-by-reconstruction are the oldest connected filters, and indeed, reconstruction methodology lies at the heart of many connected operators such as levelings. Starting out from the basic reconstruction principle of iterated geodesic dilations, extensions such as the use of reconstruction

  17. Reconstruction of conductivity change in lung lobes utilizing electrical impedance tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schullcke Benjamin


    Full Text Available Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT is a novel medical imaging technology which is expected to give valuable information for the treatment of mechanically ventilated patients as well as for patients with obstructive lung diseases. In lung-EIT electrodes are attached around the thorax to inject small alternating currents and to measure resulting voltages. These voltages depend on the internal conductivity distribution and thus on the amount of air in the lungs. Based on the measured voltages, image reconstruction algorithms are employed to generate tomographic images reflecting the regional ventilation of the lungs. However, the ill-posedness of the reconstruction problem leads to reconstructed images that are severely blurred compared to morphological imaging technologies, such as X-ray computed tomography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Thus, a correct identification of the particular ventilation in anatomically assignable units, e.g. lung-lobes, is often hindered. In this study a 3D-FEM model of a human thorax has been used to simulate electrode voltages at different lung conditions. Two electrode planes with 16 electrodes at each layer have been used and different amount of emphysema and mucus plugging was simulated with different severity in the lung lobes. Patient specific morphological information about the lung lobes is used in the image reconstruction process. It is shown that this kind of prior information leads to better reconstructions of the conductivity change in particular lung lobes than in classical image reconstruction approaches, where the anatomy of the patients’ lungs is not considered. Thus, the described approach has the potential to open new and promising applications for EIT. It might be used for diagnosis and disease monitoring for patients with obstructive lung diseases but also in other applications, e.g. during the placement of endobronchial valves in patients with severe emphysema.

  18. Investigation of various reconstruction parameters for algebraic reconstruction technique in a newly developed chest digital tomosynthesis (United States)

    Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-s.; Park, H.-S.; Lee, Y.; Seo, C.-W.; Kim, H.-J.


    Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a promising new modality that provides 3D information by reconstructing limited projection views. CDT systems have been developed to improve the limitations of conventional radiography such as image degradation and low sensitivity. However, the development of reconstruction methods is challenging because of the limited projection views within various angular ranges. Optimization of reconstruction parameters for various reconsturction methods in CDT system also is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) method, and to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction parameters for our newly developed CDT system. We designed ART method with 41 projection views over an angular range of ±20°. To investigate the effect of reconstruction parameters, we measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), artifact spread function (ASF), and quality factor (QF) using LUNGMAN phantom included tumors. We found that the proper choice of reconstruction parameters such as relaxation parameter, initial guess, and number of iterations improved the quality of reconstructed images from the same projection views. Optimal values of ART relaxation parameter with uniform (UI) and back-projection (BP) initial guesses were 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. BP initial guess improved image quality in comparison with UI initial guess, in terms of providing a higher CNR and QF values with a faster speed. CNR and QF values improved with increasing number of iteration. Particularly, ART method with BP initial guess (when β = 0.6) after 3-terations provide satisfactory reconstructed image. In conclusion, the use of ART method with proper reconstruction parameters provided better image quality than FBP method as well as conventional radiography. These results indicated that the ART method with optimal reconstruction parameters could improve image quality for nodule detection using the CDT system.

  19. Accident reconstruction using process trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.


    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  20. Computed tomography depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Gonca; Courtier, Jesse L.; Phelps, Andrew; Marcovici, Peter A.; MacKenzie, John D. [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Computed tomography (CT) is extremely important in characterizing blood vessel anatomy and vascular lesions in children. Recent advances in CT reconstruction technology hold promise for improved image quality and also reductions in radiation dose. This report evaluates potential improvements in image quality for the depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo trademark), a technique developed to improve image quality and reduce noise. To evaluate Veo trademark as an improved method when compared to adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR trademark) for the depiction of small vessels on pediatric CT. Seventeen patients (mean age: 3.4 years, range: 2 days to 10.0 years; 6 girls, 11 boys) underwent contrast-enhanced CT examinations of the chest and abdomen in this HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved study. Raw data were reconstructed into separate image datasets using Veo trademark and ASIR trademark algorithms (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). Four blinded radiologists subjectively evaluated image quality. The pulmonary, hepatic, splenic and renal arteries were evaluated for the length and number of branches depicted. Datasets were compared with parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Readers stated a preference for Veo trademark over ASIR trademark images when subjectively evaluating image quality criteria for vessel definition, image noise and resolution of small anatomical structures. The mean image noise in the aorta and fat was significantly less for Veo trademark vs. ASIR trademark reconstructed images. Quantitative measurements of mean vessel lengths and number of branches vessels delineated were significantly different for Veo trademark and ASIR trademark images. Veo trademark consistently showed more of the vessel anatomy: longer vessel length and more branching vessels. When compared to the more established adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm, model

  1. Craniofacial reconstruction using patient-specific implants polyether ether ketone with computer-assisted planning. (United States)

    Manrique, Oscar J; Lalezarzadeh, Frank; Dayan, Erez; Shin, Joseph; Buchbinder, Daniel; Smith, Mark


    Reconstruction of bony craniofacial defects requires precise understanding of the anatomic relationships. The ideal reconstructive technique should be fast as well as economical, with minimal donor-site morbidity, and provide a lasting and aesthetically pleasing result. There are some circumstances in which a patient's own tissue is not sufficient to reconstruct defects. The development of sophisticated software has facilitated the manufacturing of patient-specific implants (PSIs). The aim of this study was to analyze the utility of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) PSIs for craniofacial reconstruction. We performed a retrospective chart review from July 2009 to July 2013 in patients who underwent craniofacial reconstruction using PEEK-PSIs using a virtual process based on computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. A total of 6 patients were identified. The mean age was 46 years (16-68 y). Operative indications included cancer (n = 4), congenital deformities (n = 1), and infection (n = 1). The mean surgical time was 3.7 hours and the mean hospital stay was 1.5 days. The mean surface area of the defect was 93.4 ± 43.26 cm(2), the mean implant cost was $8493 ± $837.95, and the mean time required to manufacture the implants was 2 weeks. No major or minor complications were seen during the 4-year follow-up. We found PEEK implants to be useful in the reconstruction of complex calvarial defects, demonstrating a low complication rate, good outcomes, and high patient satisfaction in this small series of patients. Polyether ether ketone implants show promising potential and warrant further study to better establish the role of this technology in cranial reconstruction.

  2. A novel 3D template for mandible and maxilla reconstruction: Rapid prototyping using stereolithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kumta


    Full Text Available Introduction: Replication of the exact three-dimensional (3D structure of the maxilla and mandible is now a priority whilst attempting reconstruction of these bones to attain a complete functional and aesthetic rehabilitation. We hereby present the process of rapid prototyping using stereolithography to produce templates for modelling bone grafts and implants for maxilla/mandible reconstructions, its applications in tumour/trauma, and outcomes for primary and secondary reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Stereolithographic template-assisted reconstruction was used on 11 patients for the reconstruction of the mandible/maxilla primarily following tumour excision and secondarily for the realignment of post-traumatic malunited fractures or deformity corrections. Data obtained from the computed tomography (CT scans with 1-mm resolution were converted into a computer-aided design (CAD using the CT Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM data. Once a CAD model was constructed, it was converted into a stereolithographic format and then processed by the rapid prototyping technology to produce the physical anatomical model using a resin. This resin model replicates the native mandible, which can be thus used off table as a guide for modelling the bone grafts. Discussion: This conversion of two-dimensional (2D data from CT scan into 3D models is a very precise guide to shaping the bone grafts. Further, this CAD can reconstruct the defective half of the mandible using the mirror image principle, and the normal anatomical model can be created to aid secondary reconstructions. Conclusion: This novel approach allows a precise translation of the treatment plan directly to the surgical field. It is also an important teaching tool for implant moulding and fixation, and helps in patient counselling.

  3. Incidence rate of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. (United States)

    Csintalan, Rick P; Inacio, Maria C S; Funahashi, Tadashi T


    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions are among the most common sports medicine procedures performed in the US each year. Differences have been reported in the incidence rates (IRs) of ACL tears among male and female national elite athletes. However, there is little information in the published literature that assesses IRs for ACL reconstructions done in the Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) setting specifically. Different populations may show variation in ACL reconstruction IRs. This study reports on the IR of ACL reconstructions in a predefined population and compares the differences in age and sex over time. A retrospective analysis of 4485 ACL reconstructions performed within Kaiser Permanente Southern California between 2001 and 2005 was completed by a query of an administrative database. Trends in IRs per 100,000 members were calculated and compared across age, sex, and the five-year study period. Linear regression was used to test trends in IR. Sex distribution was compared using the χ(2) test. Analysis of variance was used to compare the mean age from year to year in males and females. The independent sample t-test was used to compare mean age between males and females for each independent year. The IR of ACL reconstructions in females rose significantly (p = 0.010) from 14.4 in 2001 (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.6-16.3) to 19.3 in 2005 (95% CI, 17.2-21.5). Within specific age groups, IR increased significantly for females age 14 to 17 (p = 0.013), 18 to 21 (p = 0.017), and 45 to 49 years (p = 0.014). The most dramatic change was seen in the female age category of 14 to 17 years, which increased at a rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 members per year. Identifying the sex and age groups with most rapidly increasing rates of ACL reconstructions is important in implementing ACL injury-prevention programs.

  4. Preliminary frequency-domain analysis for the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography (United States)

    Yu, B.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wu, D.; Zeng, Z.; Zeng, M.; Yi, H.; Luo, Z.; Yue, X.; Cheng, J.


    Muon tomography is an advanced technology to non-destructively detect high atomic number materials. It exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering information of muon to reconstruct the scattering density image of the traversed object. Because of the statistics of muon scattering, the measurement error of system and the data incompleteness, the reconstruction is always accompanied with a certain level of interference, which will influence the reconstructed spatial resolution. While statistical noises can be reduced by extending the measuring time, system parameters determine the ultimate spatial resolution that one system can reach. In this paper, an effective frequency-domain model is proposed to analyze the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography. The proposed method modifies the resolution analysis in conventional computed tomography (CT) to fit the different imaging mechanism in muon scattering tomography. The measured scattering information is described in frequency domain, then a relationship between the measurements and the original image is proposed in Fourier domain, which is named as "Muon Central Slice Theorem". Furthermore, a preliminary analytical expression of the ultimate reconstructed spatial is derived, and the simulations are performed for validation. While the method is able to predict the ultimate spatial resolution of a given system, it can also be utilized for the optimization of system design and construction.

  5. Experimental characterization of the quality of image reconstruction from a chromotomographic system (United States)

    Dufaud, Kyle J.; Hawks, Michael R.; Tervo, Ryan


    A fieldable hyperspectral chromotomographic imager has been developed at the Air Force Institute of Technology to refine component requirements for a space-based system. The imager uses a high speed visible band camera behind a direct-vision prism to simultaneously record two spatial dimensions and the spectral dimension. Capturing all three dimensions simultaneously allows for the hyperspectral imaging of transient events. The prism multiplexes the spectral and spatial information, so a tomographic reconstruction algorithm is required to separate hyperspectral channels. The fixed dispersion of the prism limits the available projections, leading to artifacts in the reconstruction which limit the image quality and spectrometric accuracy of the reconstructions. The amount of degradation is highly dependent on the content of the scene. Experiments were conducted to characterize the image and spectral quality as a function of spatial, spectral, and temporal complexity. We find that in general, image quality degrades as the source bandwidth increases. Spectra estimated from the reconstructed data cube are generally best for point-like sources, and can be highly inaccurate for extended scenes. In other words, the spatial accuracy varies inversely with the spectral width, and the spectral accuracy varies inversely with the spatial width. Experiment results also demonstrate the ability to reconstruct hyperspectral images from transient combustion events.

  6. Reconstruction method for inversion problems in an acoustic tomography based temperature distribution measurement (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Liu, Shi; Tong, Guowei


    In industrial areas, temperature distribution information provides a powerful data support for improving system efficiency, reducing pollutant emission, ensuring safety operation, etc. As a noninvasive measurement technology, acoustic tomography (AT) has been widely used to measure temperature distribution where the efficiency of the reconstruction algorithm is crucial for the reliability of the measurement results. Different from traditional reconstruction techniques, in this paper a two-phase reconstruction method is proposed to ameliorate the reconstruction accuracy (RA). In the first phase, the measurement domain is discretized by a coarse square grid to reduce the number of unknown variables to mitigate the ill-posed nature of the AT inverse problem. By taking into consideration the inaccuracy of the measured time-of-flight data, a new cost function is constructed to improve the robustness of the estimation, and a grey wolf optimizer is used to solve the proposed cost function to obtain the temperature distribution on the coarse grid. In the second phase, the Adaboost.RT based BP neural network algorithm is developed for predicting the temperature distribution on the refined grid in accordance with the temperature distribution data estimated in the first phase. Numerical simulations and experiment measurement results validate the superiority of the proposed reconstruction algorithm in improving the robustness and RA.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Yu. Dikov


    Full Text Available Aim of study: improvement of functional and aesthetic results of microsurgery reconstructions of the lower jaw due to the use of the methodology of 3D modeling and 3D printing. Application of this methodology has been demonstrated on the example of treatment of 4 patients with locally distributed tumors of the mouth cavity, who underwent excision of the tumor with simultaneous reconstruction of the lower jaw with revascularized fibular graft.Before, one patient has already undergo segmental resection of the lower jaw with the defect replacement with the avascular ileac graft and a reconstruction plate. Then, a relapse of the disease and lysis of the graft has developed with him. Modeling of the graft according to the shape of the lower jaw was performed by making osteotomies of the bone part of the graft using three-dimensional virtual models created by computed tomography data. Then these 3D models were printed with a 3D printer of plastic with the scale of 1:1 with the fused deposition modeling (FDM technology and were used during the surgery in the course of modeling of the graft. Sterilizing of the plastic model was performed in the formalin chamber.This methodology allowed more specific reconstruction of the resected fragment of the lower jaw and get better functional and aesthetic results and prepare patients to further dental rehabilitation. Advantages of this methodology are the possibility of simultaneous performance of stages of reconstruction and resection and shortening of the time of surgery.

  8. Novel Fourier-based iterative reconstruction for sparse fan projection using alternating direction total variation minimization (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Han-Ming, Zhang; Bin, Yan; Lei, Li; Lin-Yuan, Wang; Ai-Long, Cai


    Sparse-view x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is an interesting topic in CT field and can efficiently decrease radiation dose. Compared with spatial reconstruction, a Fourier-based algorithm has advantages in reconstruction speed and memory usage. A novel Fourier-based iterative reconstruction technique that utilizes non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) is presented in this work along with advanced total variation (TV) regularization for a fan sparse-view CT. The proposition of a selective matrix contributes to improve reconstruction quality. The new method employs the NUFFT and its adjoin to iterate back and forth between the Fourier and image space. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulations and experimental phantom studies. Results of the proposed algorithm are compared with those of existing TV-regularized techniques based on compressed sensing method, as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. Compared with the existing TV-regularized techniques, the proposed Fourier-based technique significantly improves convergence rate and reduces memory allocation, respectively. Projected supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2012AA011603) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61372172).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wefelscheid


    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs offer several new possibilities in a wide range of applications. One example is the 3D reconstruction of buildings. In former times this was either restricted by earthbound vehicles to the reconstruction of facades or by air-borne sensors to generate only very coarse building models. This paper describes an approach for fully automatic image-based 3D reconstruction of buildings using UAVs. UAVs are able to observe the whole 3D scene and to capture images of the object of interest from completely different perspectives. The platform used by this work is a Falcon 8 octocopter from Ascending Technologies. A slightly modified high-resolution consumer camera serves as sensor for data acquisition. The final 3D reconstruction is computed offline after image acquisition and follows a reconstruction process originally developed for image sequences obtained by earthbound vehicles. The per- formance of the described method is evaluated on benchmark datasets showing that the achieved accuracy is high and even comparable with Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR. Additionally, the results of the application of the complete processing-chain starting at image acquisition and ending in a dense surface-mesh are presented and discussed.

  10. Blurring contact maps of thousands of proteins: what we can learn by reconstructing 3D structure (United States)


    Background The present knowledge of protein structures at atomic level derives from some 60,000 molecules. Yet the exponential ever growing set of hypothetical protein sequences comprises some 10 million chains and this makes the problem of protein structure prediction one of the challenging goals of bioinformatics. In this context, the protein representation with contact maps is an intermediate step of fold recognition and constitutes the input of contact map predictors. However contact map representations require fast and reliable methods to reconstruct the specific folding of the protein backbone. Methods In this paper, by adopting a GRID technology, our algorithm for 3D reconstruction FT-COMAR is benchmarked on a huge set of non redundant proteins (1716) taking random noise into consideration and this makes our computation the largest ever performed for the task at hand. Results We can observe the effects of introducing random noise on 3D reconstruction and derive some considerations useful for future implementations. The dimension of the protein set allows also statistical considerations after grouping per SCOP structural classes. Conclusions All together our data indicate that the quality of 3D reconstruction is unaffected by deleting up to an average 75% of the real contacts while only few percentage of randomly generated contacts in place of non-contacts are sufficient to hamper 3D reconstruction. PMID:21232136

  11. Ocular Surface Reconstruction: Recent Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan HN


    protocol of LSCD patients. Autologous limbal transplantation Despite its success, its utility is limited. the requirement for a sizable limbal donation; up to 30-40% must be harvested from the contralateral donor eye and its harvest may theoretically harm the structural integrity, cause subclinical LSCD or cryptogenic changes in the donor eye. Ex vivo expansion and cultivation techniques for autologous limbal stem cells are being actively investigated. , the use of human AM for ocular surface regeneration (OSR and as a growth support substrate for ex vivo expansion of autologous corneal equivalent epithelial cells and their successful OSR in animal cornea model, as well as human, was reported. The conventional cultivation methods for corneal epithelial tissues for clinical transplantation applications involve utilization of xenobiotic materials such as fetal bovine serum (FBS and murine-derived feeder cells. FBS-free culture systems have been developed to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection, but these have the disadvantage of reduced efficacy for cell propagation. it must be emphasized that AMT is not a substitution for LSCT and AMT should not be performed when true LSCD exists because AM only provides a supportive matrix for the limbal stem cells to migrate, proliferate and restore the corneal surface. There are several disadvantages of AMT and LSCT technique. This delicate procedure requires technical skill for the preparation of AM with attached corneal epithelial cells and surgical dexterity to manipulate the AM onto the ocular surface.A rabbit model for transplantation of cultivated corneal limbal stem cells onto corneal stem cell deficient animals was developed & its results are very encouraging for similar studies in human corneal surface reconstruction. Our investigations indicated that Ex vivo cultivation of human corneal limbal stem cells (HCLSC occurred with ease in the thermoresponsive biodegradable gel - “Mebiol Gel”. The growth rate within Mebiol Gel

  12. Effects of acquisition time and reconstruction algorithm on image quality, quantitative parameters, and clinical interpretation of myocardial perfusion imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Menashi, Changez A K; Andersen, Ulrik B


    -RR) and for quantitative analysis (FT-FBP, HT-FBP, and HT-RR). The datasets were analyzed using commercially available QGS/QPS software and read by two observers evaluating image quality and clinical interpretation. Image quality was assessed on a 10-cm visual analog scale score. RESULTS: HT imaging was associated......BACKGROUND: Recently introduced iterative reconstruction algorithms with resolution recovery (RR) and noise-reduction technology seem promising for reducing scan time or radiation dose without loss of image quality. However, the relative effects of reduced acquisition time and reconstruction...... with loss of image quality that was compensated for by RR reconstruction. HT imaging was also associated with increasing perfusion defect extents, an effect more pronounced using RR than FBP reconstruction. Compared to standard FT-FBP, HT-RR significantly reduced left ventricular volumes whereas HT...

  13. An analytical reconstruction model of the spread-out Bragg peak using laser-accelerated proton beams. (United States)

    Tao, Li; Zhu, Kun; Zhu, Jungao; Xu, Xiaohan; Lin, Chen; Ma, Wenjun; Lu, Haiyang; Zhao, Yanying; Lu, Yuanrong; Chen, Jia-Er; Yan, Xueqing


    With the development of laser technology, laser-driven proton acceleration provides a new method for proton tumor therapy. However, it has not been applied in practice because of the wide and decreasing energy spectrum of laser-accelerated proton beams. In this paper, we propose an analytical model to reconstruct the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) using laser-accelerated proton beams. Firstly, we present a modified weighting formula for protons of different energies. Secondly, a theoretical model for the reconstruction of SOBPs with laser-accelerated proton beams has been built. It can quickly calculate the number of laser shots needed for each energy interval of the laser-accelerated protons. Finally, we show the 2D reconstruction results of SOBPs for laser-accelerated proton beams and the ideal situation. The final results show that our analytical model can give an SOBP reconstruction scheme that can be used for actual tumor therapy.

  14. Technological Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Olesen


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify and explain the barriers that prevented the case study organization, an Australasian university, from implementing a groupware package. This is an insider action research case study, using qualitative semi-structured interviews, group and individual training to look at users’ technological frames around the implementation and use of a groupware product. Technological frames were used to enable a systematic examination of the assumptions, expectations, and knowledge of technology; in particular, the use of technological frames reveals aspects of user resistance. While addressing criticisms of the technological frames genre, this study uses technological frames as a lens to examine the underlying drivers and impediments to information systems (IS implementation. In this case study, changes to a groupware product failed to be implemented, not because of user resistance to the product, but because of organizational politics. This study demonstrates how the culture of an organization may stifle the implementation of IS.

  15. Reconstruction of a ring applicator using CT imaging: impact of the reconstruction method and applicator orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellebust, Taran Paulsen [Department of Medical Physics, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway); Tanderup, Kari [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Bergstrand, Eva Stabell [Department of Medical Physics, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway); Knutsen, Bjoern Helge [Department of Medical Physics, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway); Roeislien, Jo [Section of Biostatistics, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway); Olsen, Dag Rune [Institute for Cancer Research, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway)


    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the method of applicator reconstruction and/or the applicator orientation influence the dose calculation to points around the applicator for brachytherapy of cervical cancer with CT-based treatment planning. A phantom, containing a fixed ring applicator set and six lead pellets representing dose points, was used. The phantom was CT scanned with the ring applicator at four different angles related to the image plane. In each scan the applicator was reconstructed by three methods: (1) direct reconstruction in each image (DR) (2) reconstruction in multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR) and (3) library plans, using pre-defined applicator geometry (LIB). The doses to the lead pellets were calculated. The relative standard deviation (SD) for all reconstruction methods was less than 3.7% in the dose points. The relative SD for the LIB method was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than for the DR and MPR methods for all but two points. All applicator orientations had similar dose calculation reproducibility. Using library plans for applicator reconstruction gives the most reproducible dose calculation. However, with restrictive guidelines for applicator reconstruction the uncertainties for all methods are low compared to other factors influencing the accuracy of brachytherapy.

  16. Accuracy of secondary maxillofacial reconstruction with prefabricated fibula grafts using 3D planning and guided reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Rutger H.; Kraeima, Joep; Vissink, Arjan; Lahoda, Lars U.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Reintsema, Harry; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Witjes, Max J.

    Background: We compared the pre-operative 3D-surgical plan with the surgical outcome of complex two-stage secondary reconstruction of maxillofacial defects using inserted implants in the prefabricated fibula graft. Methods: Eleven reconstructions of maxillofacial defects with prefabricated fibulas

  17. Integration of real-time 3D capture, reconstruction, and light-field display (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Pei, Renjing; Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Xiao


    Effective integration of 3D acquisition, reconstruction (modeling) and display technologies into a seamless systems provides augmented experience of visualizing and analyzing real objects and scenes with realistic 3D sensation. Applications can be found in medical imaging, gaming, virtual or augmented reality and hybrid simulations. Although 3D acquisition, reconstruction, and display technologies have gained significant momentum in recent years, there seems a lack of attention on synergistically combining these components into a "end-to-end" 3D visualization system. We designed, built and tested an integrated 3D visualization system that is able to capture in real-time 3D light-field images, perform 3D reconstruction to build 3D model of the objects, and display the 3D model on a large autostereoscopic screen. In this article, we will present our system architecture and component designs, hardware/software implementations, and experimental results. We will elaborate on our recent progress on sparse camera array light-field 3D acquisition, real-time dense 3D reconstruction, and autostereoscopic multi-view 3D display. A prototype is finally presented with test results to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed integrated 3D visualization system.

  18. Feasibility of 3D Reconstruction of Neural Morphology Using Expansion Microscopy and Barcode-Guided Agglomeration. (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Gyu; Dai, Peilun; Wohlwend, Jeremy; Chang, Jae-Byum; Marblestone, Adam H; Boyden, Edward S


    We here introduce and study the properties, via computer simulation, of a candidate automated approach to algorithmic reconstruction of dense neural morphology, based on simulated data of the kind that would be obtained via two emerging molecular technologies-expansion microscopy (ExM) and in-situ molecular barcoding. We utilize a convolutional neural network to detect neuronal boundaries from protein-tagged plasma membrane images obtained via ExM, as well as a subsequent supervoxel-merging pipeline guided by optical readout of information-rich, cell-specific nucleic acid barcodes. We attempt to use conservative imaging and labeling parameters, with the goal of establishing a baseline case that points to the potential feasibility of optical circuit reconstruction, leaving open the possibility of higher-performance labeling technologies and algorithms. We find that, even with these conservative assumptions, an all-optical approach to dense neural morphology reconstruction may be possible via the proposed algorithmic framework. Future work should explore both the design-space of chemical labels and barcodes, as well as algorithms, to ultimately enable routine, high-performance optical circuit reconstruction.

  19. Scientific approach and practical experience for reconstruction of waste water treatment plants in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makisha Nikolay


    Full Text Available Protection of water bodies has a strict dependence on reliable operation of engineering systems and facilities for water supply and sewage. The majority of these plants and stations has been constructed in 1970-1980's in accordance with rules and regulations of that time. So now most of them require reconstruction due to serious physical or/and technological wear. The current condition of water supply and sewage systems and facilities frequently means a hidden source of serious danger for normal life support and ecological safety of cities and towns. The article reveals an obtained experience and modern approaches for reconstruction of waste water and sludge treatment plants that proved their efficiency even if applied in limited conditions such as area limits, investments limits. The main directions of reconstruction: overhaul repair and partial modernization of existing facilities on the basis of initial project; - restoration and modernization of existing systems on the basis on the current documents and their current condition; upgrade of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs performance on the basis of modern technologies and methods; reconstruction of sewage systems and facilities and treatment quality improvement.

  20. Scientific approach and practical experience for reconstruction of waste water treatment plants in Russia (United States)

    Makisha, Nikolay; Gogina, Elena


    Protection of water bodies has a strict dependence on reliable operation of engineering systems and facilities for water supply and sewage. The majority of these plants and stations has been constructed in 1970-1980's in accordance with rules and regulations of that time. So now most of them require reconstruction due to serious physical or/and technological wear. The current condition of water supply and sewage systems and facilities frequently means a hidden source of serious danger for normal life support and ecological safety of cities and towns. The article reveals an obtained experience and modern approaches for reconstruction of waste water and sludge treatment plants that proved their efficiency even if applied in limited conditions such as area limits, investments limits. The main directions of reconstruction: overhaul repair and partial modernization of existing facilities on the basis of initial project; - restoration and modernization of existing systems on the basis on the current documents and their current condition; upgrade of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) performance on the basis of modern technologies and methods; reconstruction of sewage systems and facilities and treatment quality improvement.

  1. Three-Dimensional Anatomic Evaluation of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament for Planning Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Hoshino


    Full Text Available Anatomic study related to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction surgery has been developed in accordance with the progress of imaging technology. Advances in imaging techniques, especially the move from two-dimensional (2D to three-dimensional (3D image analysis, substantially contribute to anatomic understanding and its application to advanced ACL reconstruction surgery. This paper introduces previous research about image analysis of the ACL anatomy and its application to ACL reconstruction surgery. Crucial bony landmarks for the accurate placement of the ACL graft can be identified by 3D imaging technique. Additionally, 3D-CT analysis of the ACL insertion site anatomy provides better and more consistent evaluation than conventional “clock-face” reference and roentgenologic quadrant method. Since the human anatomy has a complex three-dimensional structure, further anatomic research using three-dimensional imaging analysis and its clinical application by navigation system or other technologies is warranted for the improvement of the ACL reconstruction.

  2. Comparing 3D virtual methods for hemimandibular body reconstruction. (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Fiorenza, Luca; Kozakowski, Stephanie; Kullmer, Ottmar


    Reconstruction of fractured, distorted, or missing parts in human skeleton presents an equal challenge in the fields of paleoanthropology, bioarcheology, forensics, and medicine. This is particularly important within the disciplines such as orthodontics and surgery, when dealing with mandibular defects due to tumors, developmental abnormalities, or trauma. In such cases, proper restorations of both form (for esthetic purposes) and function (restoration of articulation, occlusion, and mastication) are required. Several digital approaches based on three-dimensional (3D) digital modeling, computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing techniques, and more recently geometric morphometric methods have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, comparisons among their outcomes are rarely provided. In this contribution, three methods for hemimandibular body reconstruction have been tested. Two bone defects were virtually simulated in a 3D digital model of a human hemimandible. Accordingly, 3D digital scaffolds were obtained using the mirror copy of the unaffected hemimandible (Method 1), the thin plate spline (TPS) interpolation (Method 2), and the combination between TPS and CAD techniques (Method 3). The mirror copy of the unaffected hemimandible does not provide a suitable solution for bone restoration. The combination between TPS interpolation and CAD techniques (Method 3) produces an almost perfect-fitting 3D digital model that can be used for biocompatible custom-made scaffolds generated by rapid prototyping technologies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Energy efficient acquisition and reconstruction of EEG signals. (United States)

    Singh, W; Shukla, A; Deb, S; Majumdar, A


    In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) the energy consumption is dominated by sensing and communication. Previous Compressed Sensing (CS) based solutions to EEG tele-monitoring over WBAN's could only reduce the communication cost. In this work, we propose a matrix completion based formulation that can also reduce the energy consumption for sensing. We test our method with state-of-the-art CS based techniques and find that the reconstruction accuracy from our method is significantly better and that too at considerably less energy consumption. Our method is also tested for post-reconstruction signal classification where it outperforms previous CS based techniques. At the heart of the system is an Analog to Information Converter (AIC) implemented in 65nm CMOS technology. The pseudorandom clock generator enables random under-sampling and subsequent conversion by the 12-bit Successive Approximation Register Analog to Digital Converter (SAR ADC). AIC achieves a sample rate of 0.5 KS/s, an ENOB 9.54 bits, and consumes 108 nW from 1 V power supply.

  4. Reconstruction and restoration of historical buildings of transport infrastructure (United States)

    Kareeva, Daria; Glazkova, Valeriya


    The aim of this article is to identify the main problems in the restoration of the historical objects. For this reason, it is rationally to collect and analyze the existing world experience of restoration. The information which was put together showed that there are some problems which are common and can be solved. In addition, the protection of the Monuments of Culture and Architecture Comittees always makes the restoration and reconstruction of the historical buildings complicated. By the examples of Germany, Italy and Russia it is shown that there are problems in organization, economy, planning and control. Engineers should think of and justify the methodology of organizing and monitoring of the restoration of the historical buildings. As a second solution, it will be possible to minimize time and financial costs through a favorable financial and legal background for investors and through the creation of a system of restoration work organizing. And for a faster process of restoration the imitation programs should be optimized for research and selection of the reconstruction technological and economic methods.

  5. SIRENA software for Athena X-IFU event reconstruction (United States)

    Ceballos, M. T.; Cobo, B.; Peille, P.; Wilms, J.; Brand, T.; Dauser, T.; Bandler, S.; Smith, S.


    The X-ray Observatory Athena was proposed in April 2014 as the mission to implement the science theme "The Hot and Energetic Universe" selected by ESA for L2 (the second Large-class mission in ESA’s Cosmic Vision science programme). One of the two X-ray detectors designed to be onboard Athena is X-IFU, a cryogenic microcalorimeter based on Transition Edge Sensor (TES) technology that will provide spatially resolved high-resolution spectroscopy. X-IFU will be developed by an international consortium led by IRAP (PI), SRON (co-PI) and IAPS/INAF (co-PI) and involving ESA Member States, Japan and the United States. In Spain, IFCA (CSIC-UC) has an anticipated contribution to X-IFU through the Digital Readout Electronics (DRE) unit, in particular in the Event Processor Subsystem. For this purpose and in collaboration with the Athena end-to-end simulations team, we are currently developing the SIRENA package as part of the publicly available SIXTE end-to-end simulator. SIRENA comprises a set of processing algorithms aimed at recognizing, from a noisy signal, the intensity pulses generated by the absorption of the X-ray photons, to lately reconstruct their energy, position and arrival time. This poster describes the structure of the package and the different algorithms currently implemented as well as their comparative performance in the energy resolution achieved in the reconstruction of the instrument events.

  6. Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske


    Research involving ancient DNA (aDNA) has experienced a true technological revolution in recent years through advances in the recovery of aDNA and, particularly, through applications of high-throughput sequencing. Formerly restricted to the analysis of only limited amounts of genetic information, aDNA...... studies have now progressed to whole-genome sequencing for an increasing number of ancient individuals and extinct species, as well as to epigenomic characterization. Such advances have enabled the sequencing of specimens of up to 1 million years old, which, owing to their extensive DNA damage...... and contamination, were previously not amenable to genetic analyses. In this Review, we discuss these varied technical challenges and solutions for sequencing ancient genomes and epigenomes....

  7. Chemistry Technology (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  8. Iterative total-variation reconstruction versus weighted filtered-backprojection reconstruction with edge-preserving filtering (United States)

    Zeng, Gengsheng L; Li, Ya; Zamyatin, Alex


    Iterative image reconstruction with the total-variation (TV) constraint has become an active research area in recent years, especially in x-ray CT and MRI. Based on Green’s one-step-late algorithm, this paper develops a transmission noise weighted iterative algorithm with a TV prior. This paper compares the reconstructions from this iterative TV algorithm with reconstructions from our previously developed non-iterative reconstruction method that consists of a noise-weighted filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm and a nonlinear edge-preserving post filtering algorithm. This paper gives a mathematical proof that the noise-weighted FBP provides an optimal solution. The results from both methods are compared using clinical data and computer simulation data. The two methods give comparable image quality, while the non-iterative method has the advantage of requiring much shorter computation times. PMID:23618896

  9. Fully 3D GPU PET reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz, J.L., E-mail: [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cal-Gonzalez, J. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)


    Fully 3D iterative tomographic image reconstruction is computationally very demanding. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been proposed for many years as potential accelerators in complex scientific problems, but it has not been used until the recent advances in the programmability of GPUs that the best available reconstruction codes have started to be implemented to be run on GPUs. This work presents a GPU-based fully 3D PET iterative reconstruction software. This new code may reconstruct sinogram data from several commercially available PET scanners. The most important and time-consuming parts of the code, the forward and backward projection operations, are based on an accurate model of the scanner obtained with the Monte Carlo code PeneloPET and they have been massively parallelized on the GPU. For the PET scanners considered, the GPU-based code is more than 70 times faster than a similar code running on a single core of a fast CPU, obtaining in both cases the same images. The code has been designed to be easily adapted to reconstruct sinograms from any other PET scanner, including scanner prototypes.

  10. Current trends in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (United States)

    Duquin, Thomas R; Wind, William M; Fineberg, Marc S; Smolinski, Robert J; Buyea, Cathy M


    In 2006, a survey regarding anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction was mailed to physician members of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. A total of 993 responses were received from 1747 possible respondents (57%). The number of ACL reconstructions per year ranged from 1 to 275 (mean=55). The most important factors in the timing of surgery were knee range of motion and effusion. Bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft was most commonly preferred (46%), followed by hamstring tendon autograft (32%) and allografts (22%). Five years earlier, BPTB grafts were more frequent and hamstring tendon and allografts were less frequent (63%, 25%, and 12%, respectively). A single-incision arthroscopic technique was used by 90%. Most allowed return to full activity at 5 to 6 months, with a trend toward earlier return for BPTB grafts; quadriceps strength was an important factor in the decision. There was limited experience (4%) with double-bundle and computer-assisted ACL reconstruction. Arthroscopic-assisted, single-incision reconstruction using a BPTB autograft fixed with metal interference screws remains the most common technique used for primary ACL reconstruction. In the past 5 years, the use of alternative graft sources and methods of fixation has increased. Consensus regarding the best graft type, fixation method, and postoperative protocol is still lacking.

  11. Primary Vertex Reconstruction at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Kathryn; The ATLAS collaboration


    Efficient and precise reconstruction of the primary vertex in an LHC collision is essential in both the reconstruction of the full kinematic properties of a hard-scatter event and of soft interactions as a measure of the amount of pile-up. The reconstruction of primary vertices in the busy, high pile-up environment of Run-2 of the LHC is a challenging task. New methods have been developed by the ATLAS experiment to reconstruct vertices in such environments. Advances in vertex seeding include methods taken from medical imaging, which allow for reconstruction of multiple vertices with small spatial separation. The adoption of this new seeding algorithm within the ATLAS adaptive vertex finding and fitting procedure will be discussed, and the first results of the new techniques from Run-2 data will be presented. Additionally, data-driven methods to evaluate vertex resolution will be presented with special focus on correct methods to evaluate the effect of the beam spot constraint; results from these methods in Ru...

  12. Advanced lip reconstruction: functional and aesthetic considerations. (United States)

    Nabili, Vishad; Knott, Philip D


    The lips have both aesthetic and functional features that serve to provide recognizable individualized beauty, emotional cues, sensual interactions, speech abilities, and oral continence for nutrition. Lip distortion or loss occurring from trauma or neoplasms can have devastating cosmetic and form deficits with resultant psychological, physical, and nutritional detriments. Appropriate reconstruction of the lips requires a balance between form, function, and aesthetics. Conservation of tissue when feasible should be the overall goal followed by exhausting and maximizing on all adjacent local tissue advancements, rotations, and transposition options. Tissue preservation as the first line of lip reconstruction will achieve the highest success in maintaining sphincteric function along with balancing appearance. This goal should be maintained when dealing with simple lacerations with minimal tissue loss to extensive near or total lip defects. We hope to provide an algorithm and review of aesthetic considerations in lip reconstructive techniques for a wide range of lip defects. An anatomic review and historical background followed by aesthetic issues and pearls related to defect size-dependent lip reconstruction techniques will be presented. The emphasis will be on cosmetic issues that arise with lip reconstruction and how to incorporate a detailed preoperative assessment; minimize donor site morbidity; match tissue size, texture, and color; and maintain stomal competence to balance form, function, and beauty.

  13. Mastectomy skin necrosis after microsurgical breast reconstruction. (United States)

    Vargas, Christina R; Koolen, Pieter G; Anderson, Katarina E; Paul, Marek A; Tobias, Adam M; Lin, Samuel J; Lee, Bernard T


    Mastectomy skin necrosis represents a significant clinical morbidity after immediate breast reconstruction. In addition to aesthetic deformity, necrosis of the native mastectomy skin may require debridement, additional reconstruction, or prolonged wound care and potentially delay oncologic treatment. This study aims to evaluate patient and procedural characteristics to identify predictors of mastectomy skin necrosis after microsurgical breast reconstruction. A retrospective review was performed of all immediate microsurgical breast reconstructions performed at a single academic center. Patient records were queried for age, diabetes, active smoking, previous breast surgery, preoperative radiation, preoperative chemotherapy, body mass index, mastectomy type, mastectomy weight, flap type, autologous flap type, and postoperative mastectomy skin flap necrosis. There were 746 immediate autologous microsurgical flaps performed by three plastic surgeons at our institution during the study period. The incidence of mastectomy skin flap necrosis was 13.4%. Univariate analysis revealed a significantly higher incidence of mastectomy skin necrosis in patients with higher mastectomy weight (P necrosis and both increasing mastectomy weight (odds ratio 1.348 per quartile increase, P = 0.009) and diabetes (odds ratio 2.356, P = 0.011). Increasing mastectomy weight and coexisting diabetes are significantly associated with postoperative mastectomy skin necrosis after microsurgical reconstruction. These characteristics should be considered during patient counseling, procedure selection, operative planning, and intraoperative tissue viability assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A parametric reconstruction of the deceleration parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Mamon, Abdulla [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal (India); Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India); Das, Sudipta [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India)


    The present work is based on a parametric reconstruction of the deceleration parameter q(z) in a model for the spatially flat FRW universe filled with dark energy and non-relativistic matter. In cosmology, the parametric reconstruction technique deals with an attempt to build up a model by choosing some specific evolution scenario for a cosmological parameter and then estimate the values of the parameters with the help of different observational datasets. In this paper, we have proposed a logarithmic parametrization of q(z) to probe the evolution history of the universe. Using the type Ia supernova, baryon acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background datasets, the constraints on the arbitrary model parameters q{sub 0} and q{sub 1} are obtained (within 1σ and 2σ confidence limits) by χ{sup 2}-minimization technique. We have then reconstructed the deceleration parameter, the total EoS parameter ω{sub tot}, the jerk parameter and have compared the reconstructed results of q(z) with other well-known parametrizations of q(z). We have also shown that two model selection criteria (namely, the Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion) provide a clear indication that our reconstructed model is well consistent with other popular models. (orig.)

  15. Bandlimited graph signal reconstruction by diffusion operator (United States)

    Yang, Lishan; You, Kangyong; Guo, Wenbin


    Signal processing on graphs extends signal processing concepts and methodologies from the classical signal processing theory to data indexed by general graphs. For a bandlimited graph signal, the unknown data associated with unsampled vertices can be reconstructed from the sampled data by exploiting the spatial relationship of graph signal. In this paper, we propose a generalized analytical framework of unsampled graph signal and introduce a concept of diffusion operator which consists of local-mean and global-bias diffusion operator. Then, a diffusion operator-based iterative algorithm is proposed to reconstruct bandlimited graph signal from sampled data. In each iteration, the reconstructed residuals associated with the sampled vertices are diffused to all the unsampled vertices for accelerating the convergence. We then prove that the proposed reconstruction strategy converges to the original graph signal. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reconstruction strategy with various downsampling patterns, fluctuation of graph cut-off frequency, robustness on the classic graph structures, and noisy scenarios.

  16. Iterative reconstruction of volumetric particle distribution (United States)

    Wieneke, Bernhard


    For tracking the motion of illuminated particles in space and time several volumetric flow measurement techniques are available like 3D-particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) recording images from typically three to four viewing directions. For higher seeding densities and the same experimental setup, tomographic PIV (Tomo-PIV) reconstructs voxel intensities using an iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithm (e.g. multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique, MART) followed by cross-correlation of sub-volumes computing instantaneous 3D flow fields on a regular grid. A novel hybrid algorithm is proposed here that similar to MART iteratively reconstructs 3D-particle locations by comparing the recorded images with the projections calculated from the particle distribution in the volume. But like 3D-PTV, particles are represented by 3D-positions instead of voxel-based intensity blobs as in MART. Detailed knowledge of the optical transfer function and the particle image shape is mandatory, which may differ for different positions in the volume and for each camera. Using synthetic data it is shown that this method is capable of reconstructing densely seeded flows up to about 0.05 ppp with similar accuracy as Tomo-PIV. Finally the method is validated with experimental data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Epishev


    Full Text Available Aim. Clinical use of implants based on patient’s individual topographic anatomical features. Materials and methods. The paper describes two case reports involving the correction of nasal anatomical structure affected during the surgery for facial cancer. Using selective laser sintering technology we manufactured 2 intricate 3D-deformed individual implants from Ti70V30 alloy powders. Implant design was based on CAT/MRT data. Clinical use was conducted on the premises of the department of head and neck surgery in Chelyabinsk Regional Oncological Dispensary. Results. In the fi rst case we obtained an impressive functional result – huge and wide nasal cavity, nose skeleton, and easy nasal breathing. In 30 days we performed endoscopic video-analysis (via nasal passages which showed that 65% of implant surface was covered with mucosa. In the second case, the designed implant allowed the combined surgery including excision of soft tissues, atypical resection of the upper jaw (left part and the left cheek, left maxillary sinusotomy and reconstruction of the left part of the nose and the left cheek with implant and skin fl ap. Conclusion. Clinical use revealed pros and contras of the applied technology. Among contras there are relatively high cost of technology, high standards of competency of a surgeon, a programmer and engineers. Pros include free modeling and setting the implant parameters before operation, exact match between implant size/shape and topographic anatomical data of a certain patient. 

  18. How the machine learning conquers reconstruction in neutrino experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    An evolution from the purely algorithmic approaches towards the machine learning solutions started a few years ago in the neutrino experiments. Now, this process turns into a true boom, especially in the experiments based on the imaging technologies, such as LArTPC’s used in MicroBooNE and DUNE experiments or liquid scintillator detector implemented by the NOvA Collaboration. High resolution, image-like projections of events obtained with these detectors proved to be hard pattern recognition problems for the conventional reconstruction techniques. In the seminar, I will present why the neutrino events are so challenging and how the essential difficulties are now being attacked with the machine learning.

  19. Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xiaoxia; Abbott, Derek


    Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications: Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction presents the necessary algorithms needed to assist screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and these algorithms will play a critical role in the accurate detection of abnormalities present in biomedical imaging. Terahertz biomedical imaging has become an area of interest due to its ability to simultaneously acquire both image and spectral information. Terahertz imaging systems are being commercialized with an increasing number of trials performed in a biomedical setting. Terahertz tomographic imaging and detection technology contributes to the ability to identify opaque objects with clear boundaries,and would be useful to both in vivo and ex vivo environments. This book also: Introduces terahertz radiation techniques and provides a number of topical examples of signal and image processing, as well as machine learning Presents the most recent developments in an emerging field, terahertz radiation Utilizes new methods...

  20. Cured-in-place pipe reconstruction of existing underground systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knasel, J. [Kenny Construction Co., Wheeling, IL (United States)


    This paper describes InLiner USA{reg_sign} which is a cost effective process that allows pipes to be rebuilt without digging and avoids disturbing the area surrounding the pipe. This cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) technology is a unique process for reconstructing deteriorated pipe line systems in municipal and industry applications, which includes powerplants. The process uses a resin that coats and rebuilds th interior of the pipe to improve its structural integrity and corrosion resistance. CIPP creates continuous, seamless construction which increases flow capacities, stops infiltration, improves structural strength, resists long term corrosion and forms its own pipe within a pipe. It can be installed in a matter of hours or days and can be utilized in gravity and pressure pipes for storm sewers, sanitary sewers, combined sewers, water mains, gas mains and process piping.

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction for high-speed volume measurement (United States)

    Lee, Dah-Jye; Lane, Robert M.; Chang, Guang-Hwa


    Volume measurement is an important process for various industries such as food processing, fruit and vegetable grading, etc. Value or price is often determined by the size of product. In seafood industry, for example, oyster meat is separated into four grades before being packaged. Large size grade means higher selling price than small size. More consistent packaging size is also an indication of high quality. Product size can be measured optically with machine vision technology for on-line inspection and grading systems. Most optical grading techniques use a two-dimensional area projection or the weight of the product to estimate the actual product volume. These methods are subject to measurement inaccuracy because of the missing thickness information. An algorithm combines laser triangulation technique with two-dimensional measurement to reconstruct a three-dimensional surface for volume measurement is introduced in this paper. The result of this technique shows a significant accuracy improvement from the area-projection method

  2. [The use of open source software in graphic anatomic reconstructions and in biomechanic simulations]. (United States)

    Ciobanu, O


    The objective of this study was to obtain three-dimensional (3D) images and to perform biomechanical simulations starting from DICOM images obtained by computed tomography (CT). Open source software were used to prepare digitized 2D images of tissue sections and to create 3D reconstruction from the segmented structures. Finally, 3D images were used in open source software in order to perform biomechanic simulations. This study demonstrates the applicability and feasibility of open source software developed in our days for the 3D reconstruction and biomechanic simulation. The use of open source software may improve the efficiency of investments in imaging technologies and in CAD/CAM technologies for implants and prosthesis fabrication which need expensive specialized software.

  3. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  4. Statistical reconstruction for cosmic ray muon tomography. (United States)

    Schultz, Larry J; Blanpied, Gary S; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Fraser, Andrew M; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Klimenko, Alexei V; Morris, Christopher L; Orum, Chris; Sossong, Michael J


    Highly penetrating cosmic ray muons constantly shower the earth at a rate of about 1 muon per cm2 per minute. We have developed a technique which exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering of these particles to perform nondestructive inspection without the use of artificial radiation. In prior work [1]-[3], we have described heuristic methods for processing muon data to create reconstructed images. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood/expectation maximization tomographic reconstruction algorithm designed for the technique. This algorithm borrows much from techniques used in medical imaging, particularly emission tomography, but the statistics of muon scattering dictates differences. We describe the statistical model for multiple scattering, derive the reconstruction algorithm, and present simulated examples. We also propose methods to improve the robustness of the algorithm to experimental errors and events departing from the statistical model.

  5. Focusing criterion in DHM image reconstruction (United States)

    Mihailescu, M.; Mihale, N.; Popescu, R. C.; Acasandrei, A.; Paun, I. A.; Dinescu, M.; Scarlat, E.


    This study is presenting the theoretical approach and the practical results of a precise activity involved in the hologram reconstruction in order to find the optimally focused image of MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultivated on polymeric flat substrates. The morphology and dynamic of the cell is investigated by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) technique. The reconstruction is digitally performed using an algorithm based on the scalar theory of diffraction in the Fresnel approximation. The quality of the 3D images of the cells is crucially depending on the focusing capability of the reconstruction chain to fit the parameters of the optical recorder, particularly the focusing value. Our proposal to find the focused image is based on the images decomposition on gray levels and their histogram analysis. More precisely the focusing criterion is based on the evaluation of the form of this distribution.

  6. Luminosity Spectrum Reconstruction at Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Poss, Stéphane


    A good knowledge of the luminosity spectrum is mandatory for many measurements at future e+e- colliders. As the beam-parameters determining the luminosity spectrum cannot be measured precisely, the luminosity spectrum has to be measured through a gauge process with the detector. The measured distributions, used to reconstruct the spectrum, depend on Initial State Radiation, cross-section, and Final State Radiation. To extract the basic luminosity spectrum, a parametric model of the luminosity spectrum is created, in this case the spectrum at the 3 TeV Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The model is used within a reweighting technique to extract the luminosity spectrum from measured Bhabha event observables, taking all relevant effects into account. The centre-of-mass energy spectrum is reconstructed within 5% over the full validity range of the model. The reconstructed spectrum does not result in a significant bias or systematic uncertainty in the exemplary physics benchmark process of smuon pair production.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushil R. DANG


    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint reconstruction (TMJR is often necessary for patients with severe and/or refractory TMJ disease who have failed conservative treatment. TMJR aids to improve masticatory function and is associated with improved quality of life outcomes. Currently, alloplastic reconstruction is considered as the treatment of choice in most severe TMJ disorders due to its many advantages inclusive but not limited to early mobilization, stable longterm results, and significant improvement in jaw function. Broadly speaking, two types of TMJR prostheses are available for reconstruction: 1 stock, and, 2 custommade prostheses. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a brief overview of the basic principles and fundamentals of TMJR while referencing pertinent existing literature.

  8. Fourier ptychographic reconstruction using Wirtinger flow optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Liheng; Zheng, Guoan; Guo, KaiKai; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai


    Recently Fourier Ptychography (FP) has attracted great attention, due to its marked effectiveness in leveraging snapshot numbers for spatial resolution in large field-of-view imaging. To acquire high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) images under angularly varying illuminations for subsequent reconstruction, FP requires long exposure time, which largely limits its practical applications. In this paper, based on the recently reported Wirtinger flow algorithm, we propose an iterative optimization framework incorporating phase retrieval and noise relaxation together, to realize FP reconstruction using low SNR images captured under short exposure time. Experiments on both synthetic and real captured data validate the effectiveness of the proposed reconstruction method. Specifically, the proposed technique could save around 80% exposure time to achieve similar retrieval accuracy compared to the conventional FP. Besides, we have released our source code for non-commercial use.

  9. Techniques in Iterative Proton CT Image Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Penfold, Scott


    This is a review paper on some of the physics, modeling, and iterative algorithms in proton computed tomography (pCT) image reconstruction. The primary challenge in pCT image reconstruction lies in the degraded spatial resolution resulting from multiple Coulomb scattering within the imaged object. Analytical models such as the most likely path (MLP) have been proposed to predict the scattered trajectory from measurements of individual proton location and direction before and after the object. Iterative algorithms provide a flexible tool with which to incorporate these models into image reconstruction. The modeling leads to a large and sparse linear system of equations that can efficiently be solved by projection methods-based iterative algorithms. Such algorithms perform projections of the iterates onto the hyperlanes that are represented by the linear equations of the system. They perform these projections in possibly various algorithmic structures, such as block-iterative projections (BIP), string-averaging...

  10. Track reconstruction at the energy frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Kastanas, Alex; The ATLAS collaboration


    ATLAS track reconstruction code is continuously evolving to match the demands from the increasing instantaneous luminosity of LHC, as well as the increased centre-of-mass energy. With the increase in energy, events with dense environments, e.g. the cores of jets or boosted tau leptons, become much more abundant. These environments are characterised by charged particle separations on the order of ATLAS inner detector sensor dimensions and are created by the decay of boosted objects. Significant upgrades were made to the track reconstruction code to cope with the expected conditions during LHC run 2. In particular, new algorithms targeting dense environments were developed. These changes lead to a substantial reduction of reconstruction time, while at the same time improving physics performance. The employed methods are presented and the prospects for future applications are discussed. In addition physics performance studies are shown, e.g. a measurement of the fraction of lost tracks in jets with high transver...

  11. Breast Reconstruction and Radiation Therapy: An Update. (United States)

    Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J


    With the indications for radiation therapy in the treatment of breast cancer continuing to expand, many patients present for reconstruction having previously had radiation or having a high likelihood of requiring radiation following mastectomy. Both situations are challenging for the plastic surgeon, with different variables impacting the surgical outcome. To date, multiple studies have been performed examining prosthetic and autologous reconstruction in this setting. The purpose of this article was to provide a general platform for understanding the literature as it relates to reconstruction and radiation through an examination of recent systematic reviews and relevant recent publications. We examined this with a focus on the timing of the radiation, and within this context, examined the data from the traditional surgical outcomes standpoint as well as from a patient-reported outcomes perspective. The data provided within will aid in patient counseling and the informed consent process.

  12. Reconstruction of Low-Mass Electron Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS Collaboration


    This note discusses the reconstruction of J/y and ¡ decays to electron pairs based on ATLAS Monte Carlo simulated signal and background samples. The possible trigger strategies are described, one geared to select two low-energy electromagnetic objects in direct production, the second one taking advantage of the possible presence of a muon in the final state in b¯b production followed by the decay of one b-quark to J/y +X. The low-energy electrons are reconstructed using a dedicated algorithm seeded by a track reconstructed in the inner detector and identified combining information from the inner detector and the electromagnetic calorimeter. The performance of this algorithm is presented and the potential of using such events for early LHC data studies is investigated.

  13. Extremity reconstruction using nonreplantable tissue ("spare parts"). (United States)

    Russell, Robert C; Neumeister, Michael W; Ostric, Srdjan Andrei; Engineer, Nitin J


    After a severe digital or extremity injury, the replantation surgeon should always seek to make the best use out of what tissue is available for reconstruction. Exercising sound surgical judgment and being creative allow the surgeon to restore function to critical areas of the hand or extremity by the judicious use of available tissues that would otherwise be discarded. The use of "spare parts" should, therefore, always be considered to facilitate digital or extremity reconstruction when routine replantation is not possible or is likely to produce a poor functional result. The surgeon should always try to use available nonreplantable tissue to preserve length, obtain soft tissue coverage, or most importantly improve the function of remaining less injured digits. This article presents several case studies that illustrate the principals of spare parts reconstruction performed at the time of the initial debridement using nonreplantable tissue to provide coverage or improve function.

  14. Surface reconstruction from sparse fringe contours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, G.; Parvin, B.


    A new approach for reconstruction of 3D surfaces from 2D cross-sectional contours is presented. By using the so-called ''Equal Importance Criterion,'' we reconstruct the surface based on the assumption that every point in the region contributes equally to the surface reconstruction process. In this context, the problem is formulated in terms of a partial differential equation (PDE), and we show that the solution for dense contours can be efficiently derived from distance transform. In the case of sparse contours, we add a regularization term to insure smoothness in surface recovery. The proposed technique allows for surface recovery at any desired resolution. The main advantage of the proposed method is that inherent problems due to correspondence, tiling, and branching are avoided. Furthermore, the computed high resolution surface is better represented for subsequent geometric analysis. We present results on both synthetic and real data.

  15. Experience of a Reconstruction of "Archaeological" Costume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altynbekov Krym


    Full Text Available The article presents a reconstruction of “archaeological” costume restored by the Ostrov Krym Scientific Restoration Laboratory (Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan by the finds uncovered from Early Iron Age graves. The authors examined organic remains of clothes from barrow no. 11 of Berel burial ground (4th – 3rd centuries BC located on the territory of the Kazakhstan Altai and undertook a partial reconstruction of several items: a fur coat, a headdress and two felt stockings. The accuracy of this reconstruction is confirmed by well-preserved analogues of synchronous Altai barrows on the territory of Russia and Mongolia, belonging to the Pazyryk culture. The article also describes a method by which undisturbed graves can be extracted as one (monolithic block and contains techniques for formation of such blocks in the dig and lab studies of “archaeological” costumes in such blocks, applied by the Ostrov Krym Laboratory.

  16. Quantitative thermoacoustic image reconstruction of conductivity profiles (United States)

    Ogunlade, Olumide; Cox, Ben; Beard, Paul


    A numerical inversion scheme for recovering a map of the absolute conductivity from the absorbed power density map that is conventionally reconstructed in thermacoustic imaging is described. This offers the prospect of obtaining an image that is more closely related to the underlying tissue structure and physiology. The inversion scheme employs a full 3D full wave model of electromagnetic propagation in tissue which is iteratively fitted to the measured absorbed power density map using a simple recursive method. The reconstruction is demonstrated numerically using three examples of absorbers of varying geometries, tissue realistic complex permittivity values and noise. In these examples, the reconstruction is shown to rapidly converge to within good estimates of the true conductivity in less than 20 iterations.

  17. Reconstructing events, from electronic signals to tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Reconstructing tracks in the events taken by LHC experiments is one of the most challenging and computationally expensive software tasks to be carried out in the data processing chain. A typical LHC event is composed of multiple p-p interactions, each leaving signals from many charged particles in the detector and jus building up an environment of unprecedented complexity. In the lecture I will give an overview of event reconstruction in a typical High Energy Physics experiment. After an introduction to particle tracking detectors I will discuss the concepts and techniques required to master the tracking challenge at the LHC. I will explain how track propagation in a realistic detector works, present different techniques for track fitting and track finding. At the end we will see how all of those techniques play together in the ATLAS track reconstruction application.

  18. Current Sensor Fault Reconstruction for PMSM Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Huang


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a current sensor fault reconstruction algorithm for the torque closed-loop drive system of an interior PMSM. First, sensor faults are equated to actuator ones by a new introduced state variable. Then, in αβ coordinates, based on the motor model with active flux linkage, a current observer is constructed with a specific sliding mode equivalent control methodology to eliminate the effects of unknown disturbances, and the phase current sensor faults are reconstructed by means of an adaptive method. Finally, an αβ axis current fault processing module is designed based on the reconstructed value. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified by simulation and experimental tests on the RT-LAB platform.

  19. Current Sensor Fault Reconstruction for PMSM Drives. (United States)

    Huang, Gang; Luo, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Fan; He, Jing; Huang, Yi-Shan


    This paper deals with a current sensor fault reconstruction algorithm for the torque closed-loop drive system of an interior PMSM. First, sensor faults are equated to actuator ones by a new introduced state variable. Then, in αβ coordinates, based on the motor model with active flux linkage, a current observer is constructed with a specific sliding mode equivalent control methodology to eliminate the effects of unknown disturbances, and the phase current sensor faults are reconstructed by means of an adaptive method. Finally, an αβ axis current fault processing module is designed based on the reconstructed value. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified by simulation and experimental tests on the RT-LAB platform.

  20. Paleo-Environmental Reconstruction Using Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther

    The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and expand the methodology and applicability for using ancient DNA deposited in lake sediments to detect and determine its genetic sources for paleo-environmental reconstruction. The aim was furthermore to put this tool into an applicable context...... obtained in paper 2 we developed a holistic metagenomic method combined with shotgun sequencing of ancient DNA in lake sediment samples to reconstruct organismal assemblages in addition to the flora e.g. micro-, meso- and megafauna, fungi and microbial communities (Paper 3). Fundamental processes were...... deposits from the four distinct Greenlandic cultures over the past 4,000 cal. yrs BP, to investigate the applicability of the molecular record as a supplementary tool to reconstruct the cultures resource economies (Paper 5). Lastly, we felt it was timely for a focused review paper summarizing the past...