WorldWideScience

Sample records for vulvovaginitis

  1. Recurrent vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anna M; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Vulvovaginitis (VV) is one of the most commonly encountered problems by a gynecologist. Many women frequently self-treat with over-the-counter medications, and may present to their health-care provider after a treatment failure. Vulvovaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis may occur as discreet or recurrent episodes, and have been associated with significant treatment cost and morbidity. We present an update on diagnostic capabilities and treatment modalities that address recurrent and refractory episodes of VV.

  2. [Vulvovaginitis in young girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejek, Anita; Kellas-Sleczka, Sylwia; Kozak-Darmas, Iwona; Bilska, Anna; Zamłyński, Jacek; Horak, Stanisław; Nowak, Leszek

    2009-12-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause of gynecological complaints in young girls. Factors which cause vulvovaginitis include, among other things, low level of sexual hormones (hypoestrogenism), the anatomical proximity of the rectum and delicate vulvar skin and vaginal mucosa. Usually vulvovaginitis in young girls is caused by non-specific factors. The aim of the study was to present the most frequent causes of vulvovaginitis in young girls.

  3. Clinical Recommendation: Vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Andrea; Romano, Mary

    2016-12-01

    Vulvovaginitis is a commonly encountered condition among prepubertal and adolescent females. The objective of this report is to provide the latest evidence regarding the diagnosis and management of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal and adolescent females. In this systematic review we used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation evidence system. Vulvovaginal complaints are common in the pediatric and adolescent age group. The patient's age in conjunction with history and associated complaints will guide evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment. Treatment should include counseling on hygiene and voiding techniques as well as therapy for any specific pathogens identified.

  4. Vulvovaginitis and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Bharti; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is a commonly encountered comorbid condition of diabetes, and is linked to poor glycaemic control. Proper, timely diagnosis and management is necessary to ensure optimal perineal/genital and metabolic health. Knowledge of current guidelines and recommendations helps in achieving this goal. This review describes the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, differential diagnosis, management and prevention of VV in diabetes.

  5. Vulvovaginitis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, Metella; Di Maggio, Floriana; Di Paolo, Gilda; Bruni, Vincenzina

    2010-04-01

    Symptoms related to vulvitis and vulvovaginitis are a frequent complaint in the paediatric age. Knowledge of the risk factors and the pathogenetic mechanisms, combined with thorough clinical examination, helps to distinguish between dermatological diseases, non-specific vulvitis and vulvovaginitis proper. On the basis of microbiological data, the most common pathogens prove to be Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae and Enterobius vermicularis; fungal and viral infections are less frequent. The possibility of isolating opportunistic pathogens should also be considered. In rare situations, the isolation of a micro-organism normally transmitted by sexual contact should prompt a careful evaluation of possible sexual abuse. Current treatments for specific and non-specific forms are outlined, together with pointers for the evaluation of recurrence.

  6. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jack D

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a common cause of significant morbidity in women in all strata of society affecting millions of women worldwide. Previously, RVVC occurrence was limited by onset of menopause but the widespread use of hormone replacement therapy has extended the at-risk period. Candida albicans remains the dominant species responsible for RVVC, however optimal management of RVVC requires species determination and effective treatment measures are best if species-specific. Considerable progress has been made in understanding risk factors that determine susceptibility to RVVC, particularly genetic factors, as well as new insights into normal vaginal defense immune mechanisms and their aberrations in RVVC. While effective control of RVVC is achievable with the use of fluconazole maintenance suppressive therapy, cure of RVVC remains elusive especially in this era of fluconazole drug resistance. Vaccine development remains a critical challenge and need.

  7. VULVO-VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS ASSOCIATED WITH ACITRETIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STURKENBOOM, MCJM; MIDDELBEEK, A; VANDENBERG, LTWD; VANDENBERG, PB; STRICKER, BHC; WESSELING, H

    The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis among the users of acitretin. The incidence rate ratio of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis was estimated in a cohort of acitretin users by using prescription sequence analysis. Study subjects were 196 women between 15 and 45 years

  8. VULVO-VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS ASSOCIATED WITH ACITRETIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STURKENBOOM, MCJM; MIDDELBEEK, A; VANDENBERG, LTWD; VANDENBERG, PB; STRICKER, BHC; WESSELING, H

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis among the users of acitretin. The incidence rate ratio of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis was estimated in a cohort of acitretin users by using prescription sequence analysis. Study subjects were 196 women between 15 and 45 years

  9. Group A Streptococcus vulvovaginitis in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Lacy, Judith; Hillard, Paula A

    2008-08-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus-associated vulvovaginitis is uncommon in adult women. Clinicians should include group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus as a possible cause of vulvovaginal symptoms in breastfeeding women. Along with appropriate antibiotic therapy, vaginal estrogen therapy may be considered to diminish susceptibility to recurrent infection in women with vaginal atrophy.

  10. Vulvovaginitis candidiasis recurrence during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardiazar, Z; Ronaci, F; Torab, R; Goldust, M

    2012-04-15

    Vulvovaginitis is the most common gynecologic condition seen by practitioners rendering primary care to women. Vulvovaginitis Candidiasis (VVC) is the most common type of vaginitis and this study aimed at specifying VVC recurrence during pregnancy. In this prospective study, 150 pregnant women suffering from vaginal excretion, morsus and itching were studied. Initially, the patients were treated using clotrimazole local cream (5 g) for 7 successive days. After initial treatment, the patients were freely visited once a month until delivery considering vaginitis symptoms and VVC recurrence was examined during pregnancy. Mean age of the understudy mothers was 27.26 +/- 3.76. Mean of recurrence number was 0.17 +/- 0.48 during the first trimester. Mean of recurrence number was 0.92 +/- 0.76 during the second trimester. Mean of recurrence number was 2.16 +/- 0.63 during the third trimester. Statistically significant difference was between recurrences during three trimesters of pregnancy (p < 0.001). There is statistically significant difference between mean number of recurrences during three trimesters of pregnancy.

  11. Vulvovaginitis and other common childhood gynaecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Anne S

    2011-04-01

    Paediatric gynaecological problems, especially those involving the vulvar area, are common in childhood. The conditions frequently seen include recurrent bacterial vulvovaginitis, vulvar irritation, labial adhesions and dermatological conditions. The presentation and management of these conditions will be reviewed.

  12. [Yeast species in vulvovaginitis candidosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes-Nikodém, Éva; Tamási, Béla; Mihalik, Noémi; Ostorházi, Eszter

    2015-01-04

    Bevezetés: A leggyakoribb gombás megbetegedés a vulvovaginitis candidosa, de kevés információ áll rendelkezésre a kórokozók antimikrobiális érzékenységéről. Célkitűzés: A szerzők összehasonlítják a vulvovaginitis candidosából kitenyésztett sarjadzógomba-speciesek hagyományos, „gold standard” módszerrel és a Semmelweis Egyetemen bevezetésre került új molekuláris eljárással történő azonosítását. Módszer: Vulvovaginitis candidosából izolált 370 sarjadzógomba-tenyészet fenotipikus és Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDITOF) -módszerrel történő azonosítása. Eredmények: Leggyakoribb kórokozó a Candida albicans volt (85%), utána a Candida glabrata, majd egyéb Candida speciesek következtek. A MALDITOF-módszer segítségével azonosítható volt a hazánkban csak néhány esetben leírt flukonazolrezisztens Candida dubliniensis, és jól elkülöníthető volt a flukonazolérzékeny Candida albicanstól. Következtetések: Jelenleg nincs ajánlás a vulvovaginitisben előforduló patogén sarjadzó gombák antifungális érzékenységének értékelésére, csak a különböző speciesek természetes rezisztenciája ismert. Ezért lényeges a ritkább Candida speciesek felismerése és azonosítása is, amelyre elsősorban a MALDITOF-módszer alkalmas. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(1), 28–31.

  13. VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDA INFECTION PREVALENCE IN TASHKENT

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    Uktam Ziyadullaev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The information on the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis does not always reflect real situation regarding this disease, since the frequency of patients’ self- treatment remains high, as evidenced by the results of the studies based on anonymous surveys. The prevalence of this disease is growing steadily both in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in the world.  Accumulated problems have provided grounds to conduct the research on the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in the juvenile age population of Tashkent city. Method: The study included examining of 2107 adolescent aged girls of high schools, lyceums and colleges of Tashkent city. Results: Thus, in the studied region the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in adolescent population is high, which in turn requires to take steps to further improve treatment and prevention.  

  14. Childhood vulvovaginitis: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Yuan; Wan, Chuan; Tseng, Ching-Chang

    2006-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in young prepubertal girls is a common problem in clinical practice. No specific infective pathogen is identified in most of the children. The reported common microbes include group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae and some Gram-negative bacilli. Sexually transmitted pathogens such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are important causes of vulvovaginitis in children suffering from sexual abuse. We report two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis presenting with profuse purulent vaginal discharge, and H. influenzae and N. gonorrhoeae identified respectively. Both girls denied any sexual exposure and there was no evidence of sexual abuse. They responded well to antibiotic treatment, and no symptoms recurred in the following months. We would like to emphasize the defined etiology of childhood vulvovaginitis and appropriate treatment, in addition to gynecological evaluation for evidence of sexual abuse.

  15. [Recurrent vulvovaginitis: diagnostic assessment and therapeutic management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Santos, A; Pereiro, M; Toribio, J

    2008-04-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginitis is a common problem in clinical practice. Management is often complicated by a long history of inappropriate treatments based on tentative diagnoses after an incomplete diagnostic workup. We review the most common causes of recurrent vulvovaginitis; the appropriate steps with which to establish a diagnosis, from the medical history through to the additional tests needed; and, finally, the best therapeutic options. We will focus on infectious, irritant, allergic, and hormonal causes as the ones of most interest to the dermatologist. Given that infection is the most frequent cause of these processes and also a common reason for inopportune treatment, we will pay particular attention to infectious etiologies and their differential diagnosis.

  16. Vulvovaginal pyoderma gangrenosum secondary to rituximab therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Shreya; Selva-Nayagam, Priya; Hamann, Ian; Fischer, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Rituximab is being used increasingly for the treatment of B-cell malignancies and nonmalignant conditions. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare neutrophilic dermatosis, which can be either idiopathic or associated with underlying systemic inflammatory conditions. We present a series of 4 patients who presented with ulcerative pyoderma gangrenosum in the vulvovaginal area after treatment with rituximab.

  17. Acute cervicitis and vulvovaginitis may be associated with Cytomegalovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Abou, Magali; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in immunocompetent hosts is generally asymptomatic or may present as a mononucleosic syndrome. Its association with acute cervicitis and vulvovaginitis has rarely been reported.

  18. Impact of vulvovaginal health on postmenopausal women: a review of surveys on symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish SJ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sharon J Parish,1 Rossella E Nappi,2 Michael L Krychman,3 Susan Kellogg-Spadt,4 James A Simon,5 Jeffrey A Goldstein,6 Sheryl A Kingsberg7 1Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo University, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3Southern California Center for Sexual Health and Survivorship Medicine and Clinical Faculty University of California Irvine, Newport Beach and Irvine, CA, USA; 4Pelvic and Sexual Health Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Obstetrics and Gynecology, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA; 6Novo Nordisk Inc, Princeton, NJ, USA; 7Departments of Reproductive Biology and Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Several recent, large-scale studies have provided valuable insights into patient perspectives on postmenopausal vulvovaginal health. Symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy, which include dryness, irritation, itching, dysuria, and dyspareunia, can adversely affect interpersonal relationships, quality of life, and sexual function. While approximately half of postmenopausal women report these symptoms, far fewer seek treatment, often because they are uninformed about hypoestrogenic postmenopausal vulvovaginal changes and the availability of safe, effective, and well-tolerated treatments, particularly local vaginal estrogen therapy. Because women hesitate to seek help for symptoms, a proactive approach to conversations about vulvovaginal discomfort would improve diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: health care professional, hypoactive sexual desire disorder, local vaginal estrogen therapy, quality of life, urinary tract infection, vulvovaginal atrophy

  19. VULVOVAGINITIS BACTERIANA EN LA PREPÚBER

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa R.,Gabriel; Sánchez D.,Paola

    2005-01-01

    Considerando la alta incidencia de vulvovaginitis en la consulta de ginecología pediátrica y de adolescentes, y los aspectos únicos de la microbiología y endocrinología de la paciente prepúber se presenta una revisión de la literatura con lo más relevante de los últimos 5 años, en lo que se refiere a epidemiología, etiología, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la vulvovaginitis bacteriana específica de la niña prepúber. No existe claridad acerca de la microflora vaginal normal, lo cual dificulta en...

  20. Update on alternative therapies for vulvovaginal atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chollet J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Janet A Chollet1,2 1Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, 2Pear Tree Pharmaceuticals, Waltham, MA, USA Abstract: Although systemic absorption of estrogen with local treatment for vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA is most likely to be negligible, it is unknown whether this minimal absorption will affect outcomes in women with breast cancer. Use of adjuvant therapy with aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer is associated with high incidence of VVA symptoms. Because of the impact of moderate to severe VVA symptoms on the quality of life in breast cancer survivors, there has been an intense search for alternative therapies. Further, the publicity that followed the publication of data from the Women’s Health Initiative Study has led to the suggestion by the medical community to use the lowest dose therapy possible for minimal time duration in order to avoid risks. This article will highlight the progress in alternative therapies for VVA. Keywords: vulvovaginal atrophy, hormone therapy, alternative therapy

  1. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological c...

  2. Semiquantitative Bacterial Observations With Group B Streptococcal Vulvovaginitis

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    G. R. G. Monif

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Group B streptococcal (GBS vulvovaginitis is a poorly-delineated clinical entity. The purpose of this study is to report semiquantitative data from four cases of GBS vulvovaginitis and to comment on their significance in terms of the in vitro inhibitory capabilities of GBS.

  3. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the

  4. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the usua

  5. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  6. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnancy treated with clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haram, K; Digranes, A

    1978-01-01

    An open trial of local clotrimazole therapy in 56 pregnant women with vulvovaginal candidiasis is reported. The diagnosis was confirmed by mycotic culture. The patients were given one vaginal tablet daily and cream was applied to the vulva 2 or 3 times daily. Their male partners were treated with cream only. The duration of therapy was 6 days. Fifty of the patients (89.3%) were clinically cured after 6 days of therapy. Six patients (10.7%) had slight complaints and 10 (17.9%) without symptoms or signs of infection harboured Candida albicans or other yeast species in the genital tract. Six of the patients were given a second treatment with clotrimazole and their remaining symptoms subsided. Candidiasis recurred later in pregnancy in 4 of the 56 patients studied. The implications of the presence of Candida in the genital tract are discussed. It is concluded that clotrimazole is an effective antimycotic agent which can be used for vulvovaginal candidasis during pregnancy without causing side effects. Two of the patients had trichomoniasis concurrently. One of these was cured with clotrimazole.

  7. Surgical management of vulvovaginal agglutination due to lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Pamela S; Haefner, Hope K

    2016-02-01

    Lichen planus is a rare dermatological disorder that is often associated with painful and disfiguring vulvovaginal effects. At the University of Michigan Center for Vulvar Diseases, we see many women with vulvovaginal lichen planus each year, with marked scarring and vulvovaginal agglutination that precludes vaginal intercourse and causes difficulty with urination. Through our experience, we developed a protocol for the operative management and postoperative care for severe vulvovaginal agglutination. Our objective is to share this protocol with a wider audience so that providers who see patients with these devastating effects of lichen planus can benefit from our experience to better serve this patient population. The figure represents a case of erosive lichen planus with early vaginal agglutination. The video reviews the pathophysiology and presentation of lichen planus. We then present a case of scarring and agglutination in a young woman, including our surgical management and postoperative care recommendations.

  8. An Overview of Vulvovaginal Atrophy‑Related Sexual Dysfunction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estrogen therapy is the most effective option and is the current standard of care for vulvovaginal atrophy‑related sexual ... researchers are beginning to uncover many physical causes for sexual .... density, determine the risk of fractures, confirm.

  9. Recurrent group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in adult women: family epidemiology.

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    Sobel, Jack D; Funaro, Deana; Kaplan, Edward L

    2007-03-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) vulvovaginitis has been reported in prepubertal girls. In adult women, a vaginal carrier state has been described, but vulvovaginitis is rarely reported. We describe 2 cases of recurrent GAS vulvovaginitis in women whose husbands were gastrointestinal carriers of GAS. Characterization of the isolated strains demonstrated that identical emm types of GAS were shared by partners. Treatment of both partners resulted in resolution of vaginitis. On the basis of negative vaginal culture results obtained after treatment of each individual episode of vaginitis, we believe that the female patients were reinfected as a result of exposure to their husbands, with shedding likely to have occurred in bed. These cases reiterate the necessity for adequate screening of the patient's family and contacts in cases of recurrent GAS infection by culturing all potential areas of GAS carriage.

  10. Vulvovaginitis: screening for and management of trichomoniasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Julie; Yudin, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    To review the evidence and provide recommendations on screening for and management of vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis. OUTCOMES evaluated include the efficacy of antibiotic treatment, cure rates for simple and complicated infections, and the implications of these conditions in pregnancy. Published literature was retrieved through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in June 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., vaginitis, trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis) and key words (bacterial vaginosis, yeast, candidiasis, trichomonas vaginalis, trichomoniasis, vaginitis, treatment). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date limits, but results were limited to English or French language materials. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2014. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects 75% of women at least once. Topical and oral antifungal azole medications are equally effective. (I) 2. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is defined as 4 or more episodes per year. (II-2) 3. Trichomonas vaginalis is a common non-viral sexually transmitted infection that is best detected by antigen testing using vaginal swabs collected and evaluated by immunoassay or nucleic acid amplification test. (II-2) 4. Cure rates are equal at up to 88% for trichomoniasis treated with oral metronidazole 2 g once or 500 mg twice daily for 7 days. Partner treatment, even without

  11. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  12. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Aydın, Faruk; Karagüzel, Gülay; İMAMOĞLU, Mustafa; Ökten, Ayşenur

    2012-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazoleresistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identifica...

  13. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Pregnant Women and its Importance for Candida Colonization of Newborns

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    Zisova Liliya G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second most common cause of vaginitis worldwide (after bacterial candidiasis. Maternal vulvovaginal candidiasis is a major risk factor for Candida colonization and infection of the infant where prognosis depends on different predisposing factors. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the etiological structure of vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnant women and its impact on Candida colonization of newborns.

  14. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gülçin Bayramoğlu; Faruk Aydın; Gülay Karagüzel; Mustafa İmamoğlu; Ayşenur Ökten

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazoleresistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identifica...

  15. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Aydın, Faruk; Karagüzel, Gülay; İmamoğlu, Mustafa; ÖKTEN, Ayşenur

    2012-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazoleresistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identifica...

  16. Vulvovaginitis and other common vulvar disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, Ellen S

    2012-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis, labial adhesions, and other vulvar disorders occur commonly in children and can provoke high anxiety in both the parent and child. Performed correctly, the pediatric gynecologic examination can diagnose and treat, educate and reassure both parent and child. This examination requires patience, sensitivity, direct communication with the child as well as with the parent, and an open manner that inspires trust in both parties to manage a potentially anxiety-provoking situation. This chapter will review common vulvar disorders, including vulvovaginitis, lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, bubble bath vaginitis, labial adhesions, urethral prolapse, and other common problems. A discussion of childhood sexual abuse is beyond the scope of this chapter, with appropriate references available elsewhere. Practical pearls will be offered to make this exam easy for the primary care clinician and/or subspecialist.

  17. Relationship between infectious agents for vulvovaginitis and skin color

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    Rosekeila Simoes Nomelini

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND Objective: Many factors influence occurrences of vulvovaginitis. The aims here were to assess skin color and age-related differences in the vaginal flora and occurrences of vulvovaginitis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study; tertiary referral hospital (Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba. METHODS: Healthy women who underwent routine outpatient gynecological assessments were assessed for vulvovaginitis and vaginal flora and then divided into whites (n = 13,881 and nonwhites (n = 5,295. Statistical analysis was performed using the X² test, logistic regression and odds ratios. RESULTS: The vaginal microflora was skin-color dependent, with greater occurrence of clue cells, Trichomonas vaginalis and coccobacilli in nonwhite women (p < 0.0001. Döderlein bacilli and cytolytic flora were more prevalent in white women (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively. The vaginal microflora was age-dependent within the skin color groups. Among the nonwhite women, clue cells were more prevalent in women aged 21 to 50 years; Trichomonas in women up to 40 years and coccobacili in women between 21 and 40 years (P < 0.05. During the proliferative and secretory phases, the nonwhite women were more likely to present clue cells, Trichomonas, Candida and coccobacilli (OR, proliferative phase: 1.31, 1.79, 1.6 and 1.25 respectively; secretory phase: 1.31, 2.88, 1.74 and 1.21 respectively, while less likely to present Döderlein flora (OR, proliferative phase: 0.76; secretory phase: 0.66, compared with white women, irrespective of age. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in vulvovaginitis occurrence relating to skin color, which may be associated with variations in vaginal flora.

  18. [Vulvovaginitis: vaginal pH changes and associated microflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Ana Conceiçáo Ribeiro Dantas; Sisenando, Herbert Ary Arzabe Anteza Costa Nóbrega; Pereira, Alessandra Ramalho; Vale, Ana Patrícia Medeiros; Pires, Leila Monte; de Araújo, Jarine Torres; Ramos, Eleni Souto Nóbrega

    2005-01-01

    To establish a correlation between pH vaginal and the microflora associated in carriers of vulvovaginites. In the present study, the cytopathological examination and the vaginal flow in a group of 65 sexually active women had been carried through, 20 and 72 years, taken care of in the Laboratório de Citologia Clínica do Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, for determination of microorganisms in cervicovaginal sample and of pH in the vaginal flow. Associating pH vaginal with the presence of vulvovaginitis, it was evidenced that the Candida sp. occurred more frequently in pH 4.0, Trichomonas vaginalis in pH 6.0, Gardnerella vaginalis in pH 5.0, coconuts in pH 5.0, bacilli in pH 4.0 and cocos/bacilos in pH 6.0. It was observed that all the patients had presented at least one type of ethiological agent of vulvovaginiti and an associated microflora. The joint accomplishment of the cytological examinations and the determination of pH revealed important for directing the microflora associated with the vulvovaginiti, suggesting, of this form, that pH vaginal plays preponderant role how much to the presence of the infectious agents in the vaginal ecosystem.

  19. Boric acid for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegkes, Ioannis D; Zarkada, Ioanna M; Falagas, Matthew E

    2011-08-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) remains a challenge to manage in clinical practice. Recent epidemiologic studies indicate that non-albicans Candida spp. are more resistant to conventional antifungal treatment with azoles and are considered as causative pathogens of vulvovaginal candidiasis. We searched PubMed and Scopus for studies that reported clinical evidence on the intravaginal use of boric acid for vulvovaginal candidiasis. We identified 14 studies (2 randomized clinical trials [RCTs], 9 case series, and 4 case reports) as eligible for inclusion in this review. Boric acid was compared with nystatin, terconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, buconazole, and miconazole; as monotherapy, boric acid was studied in 7 studies. The mycologic cure rates varied from 40% to 100% in patients treated with boric acid; 4 of the 9 included case series reported statistically significant outcomes regarding cure (both mycologic and clinical) rates. None of the included studies reported statistically significant differences in recurrence rates. Regarding the adverse effects caused by boric acid use, vaginal burning sensation (boric acid is a safe, alternative, economic option for women with recurrent and chronic symptoms of vaginitis when conventional treatment fails because of the involvement of non-albicans Candida spp. or azole-resistant strains.

  20. Two cases of group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults in a sexual health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Susan; Morgan, Jane

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of group A streptococcus (GAS) causing vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults are described. A review of the literature of genital GAS is made, as this is an uncommon cause of vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults. Contrasts are made between anogenital carriage of GAS and group B streptococcus (GBS) to highlight the differences in anogenital carriage between these two organisms.

  1. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

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    Gülçin Bayramoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp. has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole-resistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identification of the bacteria and making antibiotic susceptibility testing in these cases should not be overlooked.

  2. Prevalence of vulvovaginitis and bacterial vaginosis in patients with koilocytosis

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    Ana Claudia Camargo Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Empirical discussion regarding an association between koilocytosis and vulvovaginitis often occurs. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of microorganisms associated with bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginitis in women with and without koilocytosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study including two cohorts of women (with and without koilocytosis who attended a cancer hospital in the city of Goiânia, state of Goiás. METHODS: A total of 102 patients entered the study. The whiff test, Gram and Papanicolaou staining and bacterial and fungal culturing were performed. The results were observed using univariate analysis. The odds ratio and confidence interval (CI of the variables were calculated; P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of bacterial colonization was similar in patients with and without koilocytosis. The odds ratio for candidiasis was 1.43 (CI 1.05-1.95 and the odds ratio for trichomoniasis was 1.78 (CI 1.49-2.12, in patients with koilocytosis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of candidiasis and trichomoniasis seems to be higher in patients with koilocytosis.

  3. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences.

  4. Characterization and identification of microbial communities in bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpigel, N Y; Adler-Ashkenazy, L; Scheinin, S; Goshen, T; Arazi, A; Pasternak, Z; Gottlieb, Y

    2017-01-01

    Bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) is a severe and potentially fatal disease of post-partum cows that emerged in Israel after large dairy herds were merged. While post-partum cows are commonly affected by mild vulvovaginitis (BVV), in BNVV these benign mucosal abrasions develop into progressive deep necrotic lesions leading to sepsis and death if untreated. The etiology of BNVV is still unknown and a single pathogenic agent has not been found. We hypothesized that BNVV is a polymicrobial disease where the normally benign vaginal microbiome is remodeled and affects the local immune response. To this end, we compared the histopathological changes and the microbial communities using 16S rDNA metagenetic technique in biopsies taken from vaginal lesions in post-partum cows affected by BVV and BNVV. The hallmark of BNVV was the formation of complex polymicrobial communities in the submucosal fascia and abrogation of neutrophil recruitment in these lesions. Additionally, there was a marked difference in the composition of bacterial communities in the BNVV lesions in comparison to the benign BVV lesions. This difference was characterized by the abundance of Bacteroidetes and lower total community membership in BNVV. Indicator taxa for BNVV were Parvimonas, Porphyromonas, unclassified Veillonellaceae, Mycoplasma and Bacteroidetes, whereas unclassified Clostridiales was an indicator for BVV. The results support a polymicrobial etiology for BNVV.

  5. The role of cystovaginoscopy and hygienic advice in girls referred for symptoms of vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Ashok Daya; Hurst, Katherine Victoria; Steinbrecher, Henrik

    2012-05-01

    Vulvovaginitis is a common presenting symptom referred to a paediatric urology clinic. Some of these patients undergo diagnostic cystovaginoscopy to determine whether there is any underlying anatomical cause for the persistent infection. However, in the majority of the patients, no underlying abnormality is found and they are given hygienic advice and prescribed bio yoghurt postoperatively. This study examines the outcome in these patients after hygienic advice is given: determining whether cystovaginoscopy was really necessary and whether it changed the management of vulvovaginitis.

  6. Acute cervicitis and vulvovaginitis may be associated with Cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou, Magali; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-04-19

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in immunocompetent hosts is generally asymptomatic or may present as a mononucleosic syndrome. Its association with acute cervicitis and vulvovaginitis has rarely been reported. A 24-year-old woman presented with pelvic pain, vulvodynia, abnormal vaginal discharge, burning with urination, fatigue, fever, vomiting and diarrhoea. The vulva and cervix were red with vesicular lesions on the cervix. Genital herpes simplex infection (HSV) was suspected and valacyclovir was given orally. However, serial viral cultures performed 7 weeks apart did not isolate HSV as suspected, but CMV was confirmed by immunofluorescence and early antigen research. Blood tests confirmed an acute CMV infection. Typical inclusions were found at histology. Symptoms resolved slowly with persistence of cervical lesions at 7 weeks from diagnosis. The frequency of CMV genital infection is probably underestimated. The infection is not always asymptomatic and might be confused with genital HSV infection. The clinical course is longer.

  7. Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovnik, Andraž; Golle, Andrej; Novak, Dušan; Arko, Darja; Takač, Iztok

    2015-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) affects around three-quarters of all women during their reproductive age, although the exact incidence of VVC is difficult to determine because many patients are self-treated. The infections are divided into complicated and uncomplicated. Uncomplicated VVC is most effectively treated with local azoles. Oral treatment with a single dose of fluconazole is also effective for treating uncomplicated VVC. Treatment of complicated VVC is prolonged and most commonly consists of multiple doses of oral fluconazole or at least 1 week of local azoles. The role of probiotics in treating VVC is still disputed. This article presents a review of the literature on the various treatment options for VVC. Treatment for the most common pathogens that cause complicated VVC is also discussed.

  8. Lamisil Versus Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

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    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole.Materials and Methods: In the present study women suspected to have vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled and disease confirmed using direct smear and culture examination from vaginal discharge. Then, patients were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (32 cases was treated with clotrimazole and the next (25 cases with Lamisil. All patients were followed-up to three weeks of treatment and therapeutic effects of both antifungal were compared.Results: Our results shows that 12 (37.5% patients were completely treated with clotrimazole during two weeks and, 6(18.8% patients did not respond to drugs and were refereed for fluconazole therapy. Fourteen (43.8% patients showed moderate response and clotrimazole therapy was extended for one more week. When Lamisil was administrated, 19 (76.0% patients were completely treated with Lamisil in two weeks, and 1 (4.0% of the patients did not respond to the drug and was refereed for fluconazole therapy. Five (20.0% of our patients showed moderate response and Lamisil therapy was extended for one more week.Conclusion: Our results show that vaginal cream, 1% Lamisil, could be suggested as a first-line treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  9. Systemic vs. Topical Therapy for the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

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    Sebastian Faro

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 75% of all women will experience at least 1 episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC during their lifetimes. Most patients with acute VVC can be treated with short-term regimens that optimize compliance. Since current topical and oral antifungals have shown comparably high efficacy rates, other issues should be considered in determining the most appropriate therapy. It is possible that the use of short-duration narrow-spectrum agents may increase selection of more resistant organisms which will result in an increase of recurrent VVC (RVVC. Women who are known or suspected to be pregnant and women of childbearing age who are not using a reliable means of contraception should receive topical therapy, as should those who are breast-feeding or receiving drugs that can interact with an oral azole and those who have previously experienced adverse effects during azole therapy. Because of the potential risks associated with systemic treatment, topical therapy with a broad-spectrum agent should be the method of choice for VVC, whereas systemic therapy should be reserved for either RVVC or cases where the benefits outweigh any possible adverse reactions.

  10. Prevalence and clinico-mycological profile of vulvovaginal candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital

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    Rupal Samal

    2015-08-01

    Results: Among 125 cases studies, 62 positive cases for Candidiasis were reported with an approximate incidence of 50%. Further speciation identification showed C. albicans positivity in 45 cases and 17 cases for non albicans species. Women of second and third decade were predominantly affected by vulvovaginal candidiasis with abdominal pain and pruritis being a common clinical presentation. Conclusions: The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis is on higher margin especially among reproductive age group. Clinical profile must be further correlated with laboratory data for speciation, thereby guiding in prompt and appropriate treatment modalities on best patient care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1142-1147

  11. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used by Dutch general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.; Korporaal, H.; Vinkers, M.T.; Belkum, A. van; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Helmerhorst, T.J.M.; Meijden, W.I. van der

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish how general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands diagnose and treat vaginal candidiasis. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to 1160 Dutch GPs. The GPs were asked to make an inventory of the annual number of consultations for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Furthermore, information

  12. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used by Dutch general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.; Korporaal, H.; Vinkers, M.T.; Belkum, A. van; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Helmerhorst, T.J.M.; Meijden, W.I. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish how general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands diagnose and treat vaginal candidiasis. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to 1160 Dutch GPs. The GPs were asked to make an inventory of the annual number of consultations for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Furthermore, information

  13. Epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of yeasts causing vulvovaginitis in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarra, Soledad; Morano, Susana; Dudiuk, Catiana; Mancilla, Estefanía; Nardin, María Elena; de Los Angeles Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2014-10-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common mycosis. However, the information about antifungal susceptibilities of the yeasts causing this infection is scant. We studied 121 yeasts isolated from 118 patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and molecular methods, including four phenotypic methods described to differentiate Candida albicans from C. dubliniensis. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI documents M27A3 and M27S4 using the drugs available as treatment option in the hospital. Diabetes, any antibacterial and amoxicillin treatment were statistically linked with vulvovaginal candidiasis, while oral contraceptives were not considered a risk factor. Previous azole-based over-the-counter antifungal treatment was statistically associated with non-C.albicans yeasts infections. The most common isolated yeast species was C. albicans (85.2 %) followed by C. glabrata (5 %), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3.3 %), and C. dubliniensis (2.5 %). Fluconazole- and itraconazole-reduced susceptibility was observed in ten and in only one C. albicans strains, respectively. All the C. glabrata isolates showed low fluconazole MICs. Clotrimazole showed excellent potency against all but seven isolates (three C. glabrata, two S. cerevisiae, one C. albicans and one Picchia anomala). Any of the strains showed nystatin reduced susceptibility. On the other hand, terbinafine was the less potent drug. Antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon supporting the use of azole antifungals as empirical treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  14. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used by Dutch general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.; Korporaal, H.; Vinkers, M.T.; Belkum, A. van; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Helmerhorst, T.J.M.; Meijden, W.I. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish how general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands diagnose and treat vaginal candidiasis. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to 1160 Dutch GPs. The GPs were asked to make an inventory of the annual number of consultations for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Furthermore, information

  15. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used by Dutch general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.; Korporaal, H.; Vinkers, M.T.; Belkum, A. van; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Helmerhorst, T.J.M.; Meijden, W.I. van der

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish how general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands diagnose and treat vaginal candidiasis. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to 1160 Dutch GPs. The GPs were asked to make an inventory of the annual number of consultations for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Furthermore, information

  16. Vulvovaginitis: perspectivas etiológicas y epidemiológicas

    OpenAIRE

    L. Bautista-Samperio; A. Ruiz-Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta una breve revisión sobre los conceptos de: Vulvovaginitis, Candidiasis vaginal, Tricomoniasis vaginal, Vaginosis bacteriana y Herpes genital. En algunos casos se presentan pormenorizadamente aspectos esenciales para el diagnóstico clínico y el tratamiento farmacológico

  17. Fluorometric determination of acid proteinase activity in Candida albicans strains from diabetic patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Zuhal; Kilic, Nedret; Kalkanci, Ayse

    2011-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most frequent disorders in obstetrics and gynaecology. Approximately three-quarters of all adult women experience at least one episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis during their life span. Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the rate of vaginal colonisation and infection with Candida species. The secreted acid proteinase might be especially relevant in the pathogenesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The aim of this study was to determine the acid proteinase activity in the samples of Candida albicans from diabetic patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis by a fluorometric method. Vaginal swabs were taken from 33 women (aged between 22 and 57 years) having symptoms of vaginitis. Patients were divided into three groups: control group, controlled diabetic group and uncontrolled diabetic group. The proteinase activity in the culture supernatants was determined by a modified fluorometric method. Acid proteinase activities were significantly increased in the uncontrolled diabetic group in comparison with both the control group and the controlled diabetic group (P albicans pathogenesis in diabetic patients. Improving glucose control may reduce the risk of Candida colonisation and potentially symptomatic infection, among women with diabetes and hence may be useful even for weaker enzyme activity measurements.

  18. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee; Lee, Mee-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded....

  19. Effects of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis on productivity in a dairy herd in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, S; Mazuz, M; Brenner, J; Friedgut, O; Koren, O; Goshen, T; Elad, D

    2008-05-01

    Bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) is characterized by the development of a necrotic vulvovaginal lesion, almost exclusively in post-parturient first-lactation cows, associated with Porphyromonas levii. The scope of this survey was to evaluate the impact of BNVV on herd productivity as a means to rationally evaluate the resources that should be allocated in dealing with the syndrome. During an outbreak of BNVV in a dairy herd, following the introduction of a large number of cows from another farm, the impact of the animals' origin (local or transferred) and BNVV (positive or negative) upon involuntary culling rate, milk yield and days between pregnancies were assessed. The results indicated that the number of days between pregnancies was significantly higher in first-lactation cows with BNVV but was not influenced by the other independent variables. None of the other variables included in this survey had any effect on the involuntary culling rate and milk yield.

  20. Severe vulvovaginitis as a presenting problem of type 2 diabetes in adolescent girls: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Jacqueline; Hayward, Jenette; Sellers, Elizabeth; Dean, Heather

    2011-04-01

    This article describes the presentation of 4 adolescent girls who sought medical attention for severe vulvovaginitis and were subsequently found to have type 2 diabetes. Symptomatic vulvovaginitis is rare in adolescent girls, and its presence should alert health care providers to test for underlying hyperglycemia. These 4 girls represent 8.5% of the females with new-onset type 2 diabetes during a 3-year period (2007-2009). The 4 cases fulfilled the current Canadian Diabetes Association screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in youth, yet none of these girls had been screened. These cases highlight the need for better awareness of screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in adolescents. Consideration should be given in clinical practice guidelines to including the presence of unusual or severe infections as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in youth.

  1. Factors involved in patient choice of oral or vaginal treatment for vulvovaginal candidiasis

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    Sobel JD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Jack D SobelDivision of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is an extremely common cause of vaginal symptoms in women. Multiple antifungal products are available by either the oral or vaginal route, although no new drugs have become available for two decades. Given the therapeutic equivalence of the antimycotic agents and their routes of administration, the specific drug and formulation selected is entirely arbitrary in relation to final treatment outcome. Nevertheless, multiple factors affecting preference, both practitioner-dependent and patient-dependent, impact on selection of a specific drug and route of administration.Keywords: antifungal drugs, antimycotics, Candida vaginitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis

  2. The Effects of Ozonated Olive Oil and Clotrimazole Cream for Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara, Fatemeh; Zand-Kargar, Ziba; Rajabi, Omid; Berenji, Fariba; Akhlaghi, Farideh; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Azizi, Hoda

    2016-07-01

    Context • Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most common infection of the vulvovagina, which manifests with itching, a burning sensation, and leucorrhea. Some infections have been reported to be tolerant to conventional treatments, especially in immunosuppressed patients. New studies have suggested that ozone, which is the allotropic form of oxygen, may have antifungal effects. Objective • The study intended to compare the effects of ozononated olive oil and clotrimazole in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Design • Patients were randomly assigned either to an ozone group or to a clotrimazole group in a randomized, controlled trial. Setting • The study took place in the Department of Gynecology of the School of Medicine at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in Mashhad, Iran. Participants • Participants were 100 female patients who had been referred to the women's gynecology clinic at the Omolbanin and Ghaem Hospitals and who had confirmed vulvovaginal candidiasis. Intervention • Patients in the ozone group were treated with ozonated olive oil or those in the clotrimazole group were treated with clotrimazole for 7 d. Outcome Measures • Patients were evaluated through an interview and a paraclinical examination at baseline and postintervention. The study measured changes in itching, burning, and leucorrhea using a questionnaire that patients completed at the end of the study and determined the presence of an infection with vaginal candidiasis through a culture both before acceptance into the study and after the treatments, if accepted. Results • Ozone and clotrimazole both reduced symptoms significantly and led to a negative culture for vaginal candidiasis (P .05). However, clotrimazole decreased the burning sensation significantly more than did ozone (P olive oil in the improvement of the clinical and paraclinical aspects of treatment of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, the research team suggests that the treatment can be an

  3. Interspecies differences of candida species causing recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in response to fluconazole treatment

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    Siamak Naji

    2017-07-01

    Methods: The cross-sectional study was performed at Kowsar Gynecology Center, Motahhari educational hospital and Medical Mycology Center, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia, Iran, from October 2013 to July 2015. Those patients referred to the clinic with symptoms of vaginal discharge, itching or burning that swab samples from endo-exocervix and distal fornix discharge were taken. The vaginal discharge samples submitted to Medical Mycology Center, Urmia School of Medicine for the direct microscopic examination and cultures. Identification at the level of species was performed using CHROMagar Candida and Corn meal agar media. The molecular test polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP used for confirming culture results. For the susceptibility assay, disc diffusion method was performed with fluconazole and clotrimazole. Results: In these study 198 samples collected from patients with symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis, 77 vulvovaginal candidiasis cases were identified. Candida species are common in primary and recurrent cases in terms of frequency, Candida albicans (85.7%, Candida krusei (10.2% and Candida glabrata (4.1% were identified respectively. Total of 27 cases of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, 10 cases were resistant to both clotrimazole and fluconazole (37% was observed that the most common species are resistant to treatment were Candida albicans by (82.1%, Candida krusei (14.3% and Candida glabrata (3.6% respectively. Drug resistance in Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata causing recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis included 69.1%, 75% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: Our findings have shown frequency of resistant non-albicans Candida species to fluconazole and clotrimazole is increasing. There is a considerable difference between Candida albicans and non-albicans species, Candida glabrata for the resistance to fluconazole and clotrimazole.

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone intra vaginal administration for the management of postmenopausal vulvovaginal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, David F

    2015-01-01

    The effects of intravaginal administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for the management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy are reviewed. A literature search related to vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal atrophy, atrophic vaginitis, estrogen, dehydroepiandrosterone, vulvar itching, burning, dryness, dyspareunia, and libido was performed. Relevant articles addressing the incidence, management, and outcome of DHEA therapy were identified and used for this Expert Opinion. DHEA compared to a placebo is an effective treatment improving symptoms of vaginal atrophy: dyspareunia, burning, itching, and dryness. Objective parameters of vaginal atrophy, specifically pH, vaginal maturation index (VMI), and investigator-evaluated changes in the vagina: moisture, epithelia integrity and color were improved compared to baseline and placebo. There were significant improvements in libido and dyspareunia with the intravaginal use of DHEA that contribute to improved quality of life for postmenopausal women. Dehydroepiandrosterone administered intravaginally on a daily basis is an effective treatment for symptoms, and signs of vulvovaginal atrophy along with libido in postmenopausal women. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'.

  5. Chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis: what we know and what we have yet to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gayle

    2012-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is defined as vulvovaginitis, causally associated with Candida species in the vagina. It is seen commonly in vulval clinics as a cause of persistent vulvovaginitis and yet this chronic condition is yet to be formally defined and explained. The classic symptom complex of chronic itch, pain and dyspareunia exacerbating premenstrually and remitting during menstruation associated with an erythematous vulval eruption is well described but the exact aetiology remains elusive. Research in recent years has suggested that VVC is not an opportunistic infection or an immunodeficiency but a hypersensitivity response to a commensal organism that may be genetically determined. Further, it is apparent on clinical grounds that oestrogen plays an essential permissive role and that, in healthy non-diabetic patients, VVC does not occur in the absence of oestrogen whether endogenous or exogenous. The nature of this relationship has not been established. In this article I discuss the diagnostic features of VVC, its management and what is currently understood of its aetiology.

  6. Prevalence, susceptibility profile and proteinase production of yeasts causing vulvovaginitis in Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Sema Keceli; Budak, Fatma; Yucesoy, Gulseren; Susever, Serdar; Willke, Ayse

    2006-02-01

    In this study the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), antifungal susceptibility and proteinase production of isolated Candida species were investigated. Vaginal swabs were collected from symptomatic women with vulvovaginitis attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic of Kocaeli University, Turkey. The relation between risk factors, such as pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, antibiotic and corticosteroid use, history of sexually transmitted diseases and contraceptive methods, was recorded. Candida spp. were identified by conventional methods, then evaluated for proteinase secretion in a medium containing casein. Antifungal susceptibility was determined according to the NCCLS microdilution method. The prevalence of women with vulvovaginitis was 35.7% (170/6080) and 16% (28/170) of them were diagnosed as VVC. Candida albicans was the dominant species: 21 (75%), followed by 4 C. glabrata (14%), 2 C. tropicalis (7%), and one C. krusei (3.5%). All isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B, except one C. krusei, one C. glabrata and one C. albicans that were resistant to fluconazole. Proteinase production was determined in 19 (90.5%) C. albicans and in all C. tropicalis isolates. Proteinase activity was not associated with antifungal resistance. No association was found between risk factors and VVC.

  7. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among nonpregnant women attending a tertiary health care facility in Abuja, Nigeria

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    Emeribe AU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Uchenna Emeribe,1 Idris Abdullahi Nasir,2 Justus Onyia,2 Alinwachukwu Loveth Ifunanya31Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, School of Health Technology, Tsafe, Zamfara State, NigeriaBackground: Candida spp. are normal flora of the vagina that eventually become pathogenic under some prevailing conditions, and thus present as a common etiology of vulvovaginitis. When prompt recognition and laboratory confirmation is not achieved, this could lead to devastating genital discomfort and a major reason for frequent hospital visits.Aims: This was a cross-sectional prospective study that aimed to determine the prevalence and some associated risk factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC among nonpregnant women attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada.Subjects and methods: A pair of high vaginal swab and endocervical swab samples was collected from each of 200 individual participating subjects. They were separately inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and incubated aerobically at 33°C for 48 hours. Ten percent KOH wet mount and Gram staining was done on swabs and colonies, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data.Results: Of the 200 participating subjects, the prevalence of Candida albicans was 6.5% and that of non-albicans candidiasis 7.5%. Candidiasis was observed mostly among the 20- to 30-year age-group. All subjects with Candida-positive culture had been on antibacterial therapy prior to participating in this study – 28 (100%. There was a statistical relationship between the prevalence of VVC with previous antibacterial therapy (P<0.05, but not with age or other prevailing health conditions studied (P>0.05.Conclusion: The outcome of this study

  8. Antifungal Susceptibilities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginitis and Epidemiology of Recurrent Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sandra S.; Galask, Rudolph P.; Messer, Shawn A.; Hollis, Richard J.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Pfaller, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    There are limited data regarding the antifungal susceptibility of yeast causing vulvovaginal candidiasis, since cultures are rarely performed. Susceptibility testing was performed on vaginal yeast isolates collected from January 1998 to March 2001 from 429 patients with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis. The charts of 84 patients with multiple positive cultures were reviewed. The 593 yeast isolates were Candida albicans (n = 420), Candida glabrata (n = 112), Candida parapsilosis (n = 30), Candida krusei (n = 12), Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( n = 9), Candida tropicalis (n = 8), Candida lusitaniae (n = 1), and Trichosporon sp. (n = 1). Multiple species suggesting mixed infection were isolated from 27 cultures. Resistance to fluconazole and flucytosine was observed infrequently (3.7% and 3.0%); 16.2% of isolates were resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 1 μg/ml). The four imidazoles (econazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole) were active: 94.3 to 98.5% were susceptible at ≤1 μg/ml. Among different species, elevated fluconazole MICs (≥16 μg/ml) were only observed in C. glabrata (15.2% resistant [R], 51.8% susceptible-dose dependent [S-DD]), C. parapsilosis (3.3% S-DD), S. cerevisiae (11.1% S-DD), and C. krusei (50% S-DD, 41.7% R, considered intrinsically fluconazole resistant). Resistance to itraconazole was observed among C. glabrata (74.1%), C. krusei (58.3%), S. cerevisiae (55.6%), and C. parapsilosis (3.4%). Among 84 patients with recurrent episodes, non-albicans species were more common (42% versus 20%). A ≥4-fold rise in fluconazole MIC was observed in only one patient with C. parapsilosis. These results support the use of azoles for empirical therapy of uncomplicated candidal vulvovaginitis. Recurrent episodes are more often caused by non-albicans species, for which azole agents are less likely to be effective. PMID:15872235

  9. Patient preferences and treatment safety for uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis in primary health care

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    Hernández Susana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginitis is a common complaint in primary care. In uncomplicated candidal vaginitis, there are no differences in effectiveness between oral or vaginal treatment. Some studies describe that the preferred treatment is the oral one, but a Cochrane's review points out inconsistencies associated with the report of the preferred way that limit the use of such data. Risk factors associated with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis still remain controversial. Methods/Design This work describes a protocol of a multicentric prospective observational study with one year follow up, to describe the women's reasons and preferences to choose the way of administration (oral vs topical in the treatment of not complicated candidal vaginitis. The number of women required is 765, they are chosen by consecutive sampling. All of whom are aged 16 and over with vaginal discharge and/or vaginal pruritus, diagnosed with not complicated vulvovaginitis in Primary Care in Madrid. The main outcome variable is the preferences of the patients in treatment choice; secondary outcome variables are time to symptoms relief and adverse reactions and the frequency of recurrent vulvovaginitis and the risk factors. In the statistical analysis, for the main objective will be descriptive for each of the variables, bivariant analysis and multivariate analysis (logistic regression.. The dependent variable being the type of treatment chosen (oral or topical and the independent, the variables that after bivariant analysis, have been associated to the treatment preference. Discussion Clinical decisions, recommendations, and practice guidelines must not only attend to the best available evidence, but also to the values and preferences of the informed patient.

  10. Chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis in patients using a levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Yvonne; Fischer, Gayle

    2016-12-13

    Chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis is usually responsive to therapy with oral antifungals. We present a case series of 13 patients with this condition who were also using a levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). All cases responded to ongoing oral fluconazole therapy while the LNG-IUS was in situ. The LNG-IUS was removed in six patients and of these, two experienced clinical improvement with lower fluconazole dosage requirements and three experienced complete resolution of symptoms. One remains on fluconazole 100 mg daily. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  11. [Vulvovaginal candidiasis: prevalence of different Candida species in the Liege region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senterre, J M; Carpentier, M; Foidart, J M

    2005-11-01

    We calculated the prevalences of different yeast species isolated from more than 20,000 vulvovaginal specimens carried out at the CHR hospital in Liege. To assess the value of the observed relative frequencies, the culture results of 149 samples were confronted with those of a real-time PCR technique of fungal identification. With a prevalence close to 90%, Candida albicans remains the largely dominant species. In contrast with other teams, we observed no increase of the prevalences of Candida non-albicans species.

  12. Photodynamic therapy as a new approach in vulvovaginal candidiasis in murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Maria E.; Lopes, Rubia G.; Prates, Renato A.; Sousa, Aline; Ferreira, Luis R.; Fernandes, Adjaci U.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Deana, Alessandro M.

    2015-02-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common cause of vaginal infections. This study investigates the efficiency of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against yeast cells in mice. Methylene blue (MB), malachite green (MG), and a special designed protoporphirin (PpNetNI) were used as photosensitizers. Female BALB-c mice were infected with Candida albicans ATCC 90028. PDT was applied with two different light sources, intravaginal and transabdominal. Vaginal washes were performed and cultivated for microbial quantification. Antimicrobial PDT was able to decrease microbial content with MB and PpNetNI (pcandidiasis.

  13. Prevalence Rate of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis and Identification of Candida Species in Women in Referred to Hamedan Hospitals 2013 - 2014, West of Iran

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    Reza Habibipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common gynecological finding among the women worldwide. Objectives In this study determine of prevalence rate of vulvovaginal candidiasis and identification of Candida species was investigated. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study study, 350 females selected and examined by wet mount and culture procedure. Results The prevalence rate, by means of culture procedure was 26%. Candida albicans was responsible for 81.3% episodes of volvovaginal candidiasis. Conclusions In order to decrease the prevalence rate of vulvovaginitis, more epidemiological surveillance and accurate informative programs about public health care, symptoms and signs and transmission ways should be performed in the future.

  14. [The statement of Polish Gynecological Society Experts on the treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis with prolonged releasing 2% butoconazole nitrate vaginal cream--state of art in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert Board of Polish Gynecological Society

    2009-04-01

    Vulvovaginal infection is the most common cause of gynecological problems in sexually active women. Knowledge about pharmacological properties of drugs used in treatment vulvovaginal candidiasis allows for tailoring therapy to each patient. 2% butoconazole nitrate vaginal cream is modern and up to date option for treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis. Short- and long-term therapeutic efficacy of butoconazole vaginal cream was confirmed in numerous high reliability clinical trials. Good tolerance, high effectiveness of single therapeutic dose and high level of patient's acceptance gives the specialist powerful and efficient tool for management of VVC.

  15. (Gynazole-1® Compared to Fluconazole 150 mg Tablets (Diflucan® in the Time to Relief of Symptoms in Patients With Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

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    Larry S. Seidman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is estimated that as many as 13 million cases of vulvovaginal infection occur in the United States annually, the majority of which are the result of Candida albicans infection. The symptoms of vulvovaginal infections are often painful and distressing to the patient. The objective of this study was to compare the time to symptomatic relief of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC with butoconazole nitrate 2% Site Release® vaginal cream (Gynazole-1® and oral fluconazole 150 mg tablets (Diflucan®.

  16. Development of a real-time PCR assay for the direct detection of Candida species causing Vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Keith D; Schlaberg, Robert

    2017-01-25

    Identification of Candida species by traditional methods can be time-consuming and have limited analytical sensitivity. We developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection and differentiation of Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Overall, this PCR assay is a powerful diagnostic tool offering superior accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.

  17. Biofilm formation on intrauterine devices in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auler, Marcos E; Morreira, Debora; Rodrigues, Fabio F O; Abr Ao, Mauricio S; Margarido, Paulo F R; Matsumoto, Flavia E; Silva, Eriques G; Silva, Bosco C M; Schneider, René P; Paula, Claudete R

    2010-02-01

    A biofilm is a complex community of surface-associated cells enclosed in a polymer matrix. They attach to solid surfaces and their formation can be affected by growth conditions and co-infection with other pathogens. The presence of biofilm may protect the microorganisms from host defenses, as well as significantly reduce their susceptibility to antifungal agents. Pathogenic microbes can form biofilms on the inert surfaces of implanted devices such as catheters, prosthetic cardiac valves and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The present study was carried out to analyze the presence of biofilm on the surface of intrauterine devices in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, and to determine the susceptibility profile of the isolated yeasts to amphotericin B and fluconazole. Candida albicans was recovered from the IUDs and it was found to be susceptible to the antifungal agents when tested under planktonic growing conditions. These findings indicate the presence of the biofilm on the surface of the IUD as an important risk factor for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  18. ERG11 mutations associated with azole resistance in Candida albicans isolates from vulvovaginal candidosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin; Wang; Li-Hua; Huang; Ji-Xue; Zhao; Man; Wei; Hua; Fang; Dan-Yang; Wang; Hong-Fa; Wang; Ji-Gang; Yin; Mei; Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the azole susceptibility of Candida albicans(C.albicans)from vulvovaginal candidosis patients and to analyze the relationship between ERG11 gene mutations in these isolates and azole resistance.Methods: Three hundred and two clinical isolates of Candida species were collected.Azole susceptibility was tested in vitro in microdilution studies. The ERG11 genes of 17 isolates of C. albicans(2 susceptibles, 5 dose-dependent resistants and 10 resistants) were amplified and sequenced.Results: Of the 302 isolates collected, 70.2% were C. albicans, of which 8.5%, 3.8% and4.2% were resistant to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole, respectively. In total,27 missense mutations were detected in ERG11 genes from resistant/susceptible dosedependent isolates. Among them, Y132 H, A114 S, and Y257 H substitutions were most prevalent and were known to cause fluconazole resistance. G464 S and F72 S also have been proved to cause fluconazole resistance. Two novel substitutions(T285A, S457P) in hotspot regions were identified.Conclusions: Twenty seven mutations in the ERG11 gene were identified in azoleresistant C. albicans isolates, which indicated a possible relation with the increase in resistance to azole drugs and the recurrence of vulvovaginal candidosis. The relationship of two novel substitutions(T285A, S457P) with fluconazole resistance needs to be further verified by site-directed mutagenesis.

  19. ERG11 mutations associated with azole resistance in Candida albicans isolates from vulvovaginal candidosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Li-Hua Huang; Ji-Xue Zhao; Man Wei; Hua Fang; Dan-Yang Wang; Hong-Fa Wang; Ji-Gang Yin; Mei Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the azole susceptibility of Candida albicans (C. albicans) from vulvovaginal candidosis patients and to analyze the relationship between ERG11 gene mutations in these isolates and azole resistance. Methods:Three hundred and two clinical isolates of Candida species were collected. Azole susceptibility was tested in vitro in microdilution studies. The ERG11 genes of 17 isolates of C. albicans (2 susceptibles, 5 dose-dependent resistants and 10 resistants) were amplified and sequenced. Results:Of the 302 isolates collected, 70.2%were C. albicans, of which 8.5%, 3.8%and 4.2%were resistant to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole, respectively. In total, 27 missense mutations were detected in ERG11 genes from resistant/susceptible dose-dependent isolates. Among them, Y132H, A114S, and Y257H substitutions were most prevalent and were known to cause fluconazole resistance. G464S and F72S also has been proved to cause fluconazole resistance. Two novel substitutions (T285A, S457P) in hotspot regions were identified. Conclusions:Twenty seven mutations in the ERG11 gene were identified in azole-resistant C. albicans isolates, which indicated a possible relation with the increase in resistance to azole drugs and the recurrence of vulvovaginal candidosis. The relationship of two novel substitutions (T285A, S457P) with fluconazole resistance needs to be further verified by site-directed mutagenesis.

  20. Candida duobushaemulonii: an emerging rare pathogenic yeast isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatto, Humberto Fabio; Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Del Negro, Gilda MB; Girão, Manoel João BC; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; Ishida, Kelly; Gompertz, Olga Fischman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Candida species isolated from women diagnosed with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) and their partners; and to evaluate the fluconazole (FLZ) susceptibility of the isolates. In a period of six years, among 172 patients diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis, 13 women that presented RVVC and their partners were selected for this investigation. The isolates were obtained using Chromagar Candida medium, the species identification was performed by phenotypic and molecular methods and FLZ susceptibility was evaluated by E-test. Among 26 strains we identified 14Candida albicans, six Candida duobushaemulonii, four Candida glabrata, and twoCandida tropicalis. Agreement of the isolated species occurred in 100% of the couples. FLZ low susceptibility was observed for all isolates of C. duobushaemulonii (minimal inhibitory concentration values from 8-> 64 µg/mL), two C. glabrataisolates were FLZ-resistant and all C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates were FLZ-susceptible. This report emphasises the importance of accurate identification of the fungal agents by a reliable molecular technique in RVVC episodes besides the lower antifungal susceptibility profile of this rare pathogen C. duobushaemulonii to FLZ. PMID:27304096

  1. Topical metronidazole and clotrimazole in the treatment of vulvo-vaginal infections during pregnancy

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    Lorenzo Pradelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulvo-vaginal infections are the most common gynaecological pathologies seen in clinical practice. While being predominantly benign, although disturbing, in non pregnant women, their presence during pregnancy has been associated with peri-natal and obstetric complications. The opportunity to prevent these adverse outcomes, especially prematurity and low birth weight, has to be cautiously balanced against the potential to induce fetal toxicity, inherently related to the continuous exchanges among maternal and fetal blood that occurs in the placenta. In this paper, a brief overview of the evidence regarding efficacy, safety and utility during pregnancy of topical clotrimazole and metronidazole, whose combined spectrum covers the great majority of the involved pathogens, is provided. These antimicrobials, especially when applied topically, are highly effective and have been used in pregnant women for many years without evidence of adverse outcomes; in conclusion it appears that they hold an adequate risk-to-benefit ratio and represent valid therapeutic options in the treatment of vulvo-vaginal infections during pregnancy.

  2. Isolation of caprine herpesvirus 1 from a major outbreak of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, K L; Fitzgerald, C J; Ficorilli, N; Studdert, M J

    2008-04-01

    We describe an outbreak of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis caused by Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV1) in a group of approximately 200, 8 month old virgin does that were imported to Victoria from New Zealand. CpHV1 was isolated in cell cultures from vaginal swabs from three of three affected does but not from two bucks that had been with the does. The identity of the virus as a herpesvirus was confirmed by negative stain electron microscopy. Restriction endonuclease DNA fingerprint analysis showed that the DNA fingerprints were similar, but not identical, to previously described CpHV1 isolates made in New Zealand, New South Wales, and in other parts of the world. Acute and convalescent phase sera from selected does supported the diagnosis of CpHV1 infection. It is most likely that the disease was initiated by reactivation of latent virus in at least one of four bucks that served the does, since each was positive for CpHV neutralising antibody when first tested. This is the first report of CpHV infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in goats in Victoria and to our knowledge appears to be one of the largest outbreaks recorded anywhere.

  3. Vulvovaginal-gingival Lichen Planus: Association with Lichen Planopilaris and Stratified Epithelium-specific Antinuclear Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Malgorzata; Banka-Wrona, Agnieszka; Skrok, Anna; Rakowska, Adriana; Górska, Renata; Solomon, Lynn W; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal-gingival lichen planus (VVG-LP) consists of a triad of symptoms: vulval, vaginal and gingival lichen planus lesions. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of lesions in various anatomical locations in patients with VVG-LP. The study included 126 consecutive patients with lichen planus. Sixteen (12.7%) patients fulfilled the criteria of VVG-LP. In 12/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP scalp lesions were also observed. Stratified epithelium-specific antinuclear antibodies (SES-ANA) and anti-ΔNp.3α antibodies were detected in 10/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP and in 15/110 (13.6%) patients with other forms of lichen planus (p lichen planopilaris. The new entity may be termed "vulvovaginal-gingival-pilar lichen planus" and our study indicates that SES-ANA is a marker of this type of lichen planus with extensive, severe and refractory-to-therapy involvement of the mucous membranes, skin and scalp.

  4. Candida duobushaemulonii: an emerging rare pathogenic yeast isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatto, Humberto Fabio; Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Del Negro, Gilda Mb; Girão, Manoel João Bc; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; Ishida, Kelly; Gompertz, Olga Fischman

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Candida species isolated from women diagnosed with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) and their partners; and to evaluate the fluconazole (FLZ) susceptibility of the isolates. In a period of six years, among 172 patients diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis, 13 women that presented RVVC and their partners were selected for this investigation. The isolates were obtained using Chromagar Candida medium, the species identification was performed by phenotypic and molecular methods and FLZ susceptibility was evaluated by E-test. Among 26 strains we identified 14 Candida albicans, six Candida duobushaemulonii, four Candida glabrata, and two Candida tropicalis. Agreement of the isolated species occurred in 100% of the couples. FLZ low susceptibility was observed for all isolates of C. duobushaemulonii (minimal inhibitory concentration values from 8-> 64 µg/mL), two C. glabrata isolates were FLZ-resistant and all C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates were FLZ-susceptible. This report emphasises the importance of accurate identification of the fungal agents by a reliable molecular technique in RVVC episodes besides the lower antifungal susceptibility profile of this rare pathogen C. duobushaemulonii to FLZ.

  5. [Gynazol for treatment of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis--our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, E

    2007-01-01

    to have a personal experience concerning the therapeutic characteristics of the new product GYNAZOL (Gedeon Richter, Ltd)--5 g. vaginal cream for treatment of vulvo-vaginal candidosis (VVC). 31 women in reproductive and climacteric age suffering from acute or chronic VVC. inquiry, clinical and laboratory. 25 patients were clinically cured of VVC, 5 reported an improvement, 1-changed for the worse; in 27 microscopic investigation is negative for yeasts; in 20 the improvement is established in 1-3 days; the patient's evaluation is very good and good in 26 of them; 25 patients reported high acceptance. Vaginal cream GYNAZOL (Gedeon Richter, Ltd) is high effective for the treatment of vulvo-vaginal candidosis and leads to fast relieve of the symptoms. It seems to be more effective in acute than in chronic VVC. The main advantages are very convenient and easy way of application using a single dose applicator and reported an excellent compliance. The patients did not reported adverse effects in practice. On the basis of literature and our experience we can recommend GYNAZOL vaginal cream for wide use in everyday gynecological practice.

  6. Role of female intimate hygiene in vulvovaginal health: Global hygiene practices and product usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Bruning, Elizabeth; Rubino, Joseph; Eder, Scott E

    2017-09-01

    Women use various feminine hygiene products, often as part of their daily cleansing routine; however, there is a paucity of published medical literature related to the external vulva and how personal hygiene practices can affect it. This review article provides background information on the physiological changes that occur during women's lives and reviews the relevance of transient and resident microbiota as they relate to common vaginal and vulvar disorders. It also discusses the need for female intimate hygiene, common practices of feminine hygiene from a global perspective, and the potential benefits of using suitable external, topical feminine vulvar washes to minimize the risk of vulvovaginal disorders and to improve overall intimate health in women around the world. Supported by international guidelines, daily gentle cleansing of the vulva is an important aspect of feminine hygiene and overall intimate health. Women should be encouraged to choose a carefully formulated and clinically tested external wash that provides targeted antimicrobial and other health benefits without negatively impacting on the natural vulvovaginal microbiota.

  7. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded. Results Girls aged 4 to 6 years were at the highest risk of pediatric vulvovaginitis. Seasonal distribution indicated obvious peaks in summer and winter. Of the 120 subjects, specific pathogens were identified in the genital specimens in only 20 cases (16.7%). Streptococcus pyogenes (n=12, 60%) was the leading cause of specific vulvovaginitis. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in one patient. No cases presented with enteric pathogens, such as Shigella or Yersinia. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, swimming, and bubble bath use was reported in 37.5%, 15.8%, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Recent upper respiratory tract infection was not significantly correlated with the detection of respiratory pathogens in genital specimens (P>0.05). Of 104 patients who underwent perineal hygienic care, 80 (76.9%) showed improvement of symptoms without antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the efficacy of hygienic care was not significantly different between patients with or without specific pathogens (P>0.05). Conclusion Specific pathogens were only found in 16.7% of pediatric vulvovaginitis cases. Our results indicate an excellent outcome with hygienic care, irrespective of the presence of specific pathogens. PMID:27004204

  8. The PAV trial: Does lactobacillus prevent post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN24141277

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley Susan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines are used by many consumers, and increasingly are being incorporated into the general practitioner's armamentarium. Despite widespread usage, the evidence base for most complementary therapies is weak or non-existent. Post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis is a common problem in general practice, for which complementary therapies are often used. A recent study in Melbourne, Australia, found that 40% of women with a past history of vulvovaginitis had used probiotic Lactobacillus species to prevent or treat post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. There is no evidence that this therapy is effective. This study aims to test whether oral or vaginal lactobacillus is effective in the prevention of post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. Methods/design A randomised placebo-controlled blinded 2 × 2 factorial design is being used. General practitioners or pharmacists approach non-pregnant women, aged 18–50 years, who present with a non-genital infection requiring a short course of oral antibiotics, to participate in the study. Participants are randomised in a four group factorial design either to oral lactobacillus powder or placebo and either vaginal lactobacillus pessaries or placebo. These interventions are taken while on antibiotics and for four days afterwards or until symptoms of vaginitis develop. Women self collect a vaginal swab for culture of Candida species and complete a survey at baseline and again four days after completing their study medications. The sample size (a total of 496 – 124 in each factorial group is calculated to identify a reduction of half in post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis from 23%, while allowing for a 25% drop-out. An independent Data Monitoring Committee is supervising the trial. Analysis will be intention-to-treat, with two pre-specified main comparisons: (i oral lactobacillus versus placebo and (ii vaginal lactobacillus versus placebo.

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas; Márcia Sacramento Cunha Machado; Bruno Fernando Borges da Costa e Silva; Rodrigo Fernandes Weyll Pimentel; Tatiana Teixeira Ferreira; Fernanda Maria Silva Leoni; Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolesc...

  10. Scientific Rationale and Algorithmization of Sochi Resort Natural and Preformed Physical Therapeutic Factors in the Course of Combined Treatment of Patients with Chronic Vulvovaginitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kirill V. Gordon; Evgenii F. Filippov; Svetlana M. Avtomeenko

    2012-01-01

    Chronic vulvovaginitis is the most wide-spread gynecological pathology among women of childbearing age. The chief causations of nonspecific vulvovaginitis are reduction in oestrogen, disturbances in vaginal acidity, intestine dysbacteriosis, local and general immune disturbances. The growth of vagina opportunistic pathogenic flora is closely connected with the increase of bacterial slimes on vagina mucus. Sulphur balneotherapy in the form of general baths and vaginal irrigations, mechanical p...

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas; Márcia Sacramento Cunha Machado; Bruno Fernando Borges da Costa e Silva; Rodrigo Fernandes Weyll Pimentel; Tatiana Teixeira Ferreira; Fernanda Maria Silva Leoni; Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolesc...

  12. Candidíase vulvovaginal: sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal concomitante Vulvovaginal candidiasis: symptomatology, risk factors and concomitant anal colonization

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    Antônio Arildo Reginaldo de Holanda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal quanto a sintomatologia, fatores de risco e resultados da cultura anal, identificar a freqüência de Candida albicans e não C. albicans e correlacionar as colonizações anal e vaginal. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 99 pacientes com suspeita clínica de candidiase vulvovaginal, procedentes de Natal, RN, atendidas entre maio de 2003 e maio de 2005, perfazendo-se o total de 294 coletas. O material clínico, colhido por zaragatoas, foi semeado em CHROMagar Candida®. As leveduras foram identificadas pelo método clássico, além da prova de crescimento a 42 e 45ºC e da prova do caldo Sabouraud hipertônico. A sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal foram analisados de acordo com a positividade ou negatividade para Candida spp. As culturas positivas para C. albicans nos dois sítios foram comparadas com outros resultados encontrados. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste do chi2, com correção de Yates e o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a espécie mais frequente foi C. albicans em 69% dos casos. Uso de roupas íntimas justas e/ou sintéticas, presença de doenças alérgicas, ocorrência de prurido, leucorréia e hiperemia apresentaram associação com a positividade vaginal para Candida spp. A chance de uma paciente com colonização anal positiva de apresentar positividade vaginal concomitante foi 2,8 e 4,9 vezes maior, respectivamente, para Candida spp e C. albicans. A chance de uma paciente com cultura anal positiva para C. albicans de apresentar resultado vaginal positivo foi 3,7 vezes maior quando comparada a espécies não C. albicans. CONCLUSÕES: C. albicans foi a espécie mais comum, tendo sido observada associação da positividade vaginal para Candida spp com uso de roupas justas e/ou sintéticas, doenças alérgicas, prurido, leucorréia e eritema (pPURPOSE: to analyze patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis with respect to risk factors, symptomatology

  13. Vulvovaginitis e infecciones de transmisión sexual en la adolescencia

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    B. Gigliola Gannoni, Dra.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las vulvovaginitis corresponden a las inflamaciones de la vulva y la vagina. La etiología en su mayoría es secundaria a una infección. Los principales agentes etiológicos son: Candida albicans, Gardenerella vaginalis y Trichomonas. Las infecciones de transmisión sexual son un motivo de preocupación y consulta creciente en el grupo de adolescentes, siendo las más frecuentes las causadas por Chlamydia Trachomatis, Virus Papiloma Humano y Virus Herpes simple. En este capítulo se revisan las diferentes etiologías, entregando además al ginecólogo general, algunas herramientas que facilitan el abordaje, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento en este grupo etario.

  14. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in Mato Grosso, Brazil: pregnancy status, causative species and drugs tests

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    Luciana Basili Dias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Causative agent in majority of VVC is Candida albicans, but infection due to non-C. albicans is common. Use of empiric antifungal therapy in Brazil due to syndromic management of vulvovaginitis could act as risk factor for increase resistance among VVC causative agents. From Mato Grosso patients, 160 with culture-proved among 404 women who had clinical symptoms of VVC, were enrolled in this study. 70 non-pregnant women and 90 pregnant women were included. Candida albicans was the most prevalent, representing 72.9% in the non-pregnant group and 92.3% in the pregnant group. Differences in species distribution were noted between the two groups, being C. parapsilosis the second more prevalent species among non-pregnant women. Susceptibility testing revealed high susceptibility to fluconazole (except for C. krusei, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and amphotericin B regardless the species (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei analyzed.

  15. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-15

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections.

  16. Graft-versus-Host Disease-Associated Vulvovaginal Symptoms after Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Christopher P; Sargent, Rachel E; Chung, Nadia T; Lacey, James V; Wakabayashi, Mark T

    2016-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective review to assess the prevalence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-associated gynecologic conditions among bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients at City of Hope Medical Center. We calculated the associations among the estimated risks of various gynecologic complications, including vaginal stenosis, by performing chi-square tests and t-test statistics. Between 2010 and 2014, 180 patients were referred to the gynecologic clinic after their BMT. One hundred twenty-four patients (69%) had GVHD; among these patients, 51 (41%) experienced dyspareunia and 43 (35%) had vaginal stenosis. GVHD patients were significantly more likely to have vaginal stenosis (P vulvovaginal symptoms, such as dyspareunia and pelvic pain. Patients with GVHD are at high risk for vaginal stenosis requiring the use of a vaginal dilator. However, they are at low risk for developing UI and POP.

  17. Sample-based assessment of the microbial etiology of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, S; Mazuz, M; Brenner, J; Friedgut, O; Stram, Y; Koren, O; Goshen, T; Elad, D

    2007-07-15

    A semiquantitative evaluation of potential bacterial pathogens was correlated to the severity of lesions during an outbreak of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) on an Israeli dairy herd. Bacteriologic examination of 287 vaginal swabs from 104 post-calving heifers showed a highly significant correlation between Porphyromonas levii colony forming unit numbers and the clinical scores of the lesions, when assessed by an ordinal regression statistical model. No such correlation was found for the other bacteria included in the study. Nineteen samples taken for virological examinations resulted negative for bovine herpes viruses 1, 2, 4 and 5. Thus the results of this study substantiate the essential role of P. levii in the etiology of BNVV and indicate that BHV4 is not required as a predisposing factor to the syndrome.

  18. Single and multiple dose Fluconazole in the treatment of candidia vulvovaginitis: a prospective comparative study

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    Ashrafinia M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis, the most common type of vaginitis, is usually caused by Candidia albicans. Patients experience a variety of symptoms. There are many types of vulvovaginal candidiasis with various microbial causes, symptoms, host circumstances, recurrence rates, and responses to treatment. The purpose of this study was to find the best method of treatment of complicated vaginitis as determined by its high prevalence, varying symptoms and signs and patient complaints.Methods: In this open clinical trial without placebo control, we studied all patients aged 18 to 65 years, suffering from vaginitis symptoms that presented at the gynecological clinic of Arash Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during the year 2004. After obtaining informed consent, we assessed the response to a treatment of single 150 mg dose of fluconazole in one group, and sequential 150 mg doses of fluconazole in the other. The analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software (version 11.Results: With regard to symptom severity, no significant difference was found between the groups. The rate of excoriation and fissure formation demonstrated significant difference between the two groups (p=0.048. Assessment of clinical and mycological response proved that patients with severe vaginitis treated with sequential doses of fluconazole had a better general status than those in the other group. The difference between the severity of vaginitis and positive response to the treatment in culture was not significant among patients with recurrent vaginitis.Conclusion: Patients with mild to moderate recurrent vaginitis show better response to treatment. The high rate of positive culture on day 35 reconfirms the limitation of fluconazole and other azoles as fungistatic drugs.

  19. Phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida spp. isolates from vulvovaginitis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhani, S; Sepahvand, A; Mirzaee, M; Anbari, K

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida isolates from 82 vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and to study the relationship of these activities with vulvovaginitis. Totally 82 Candida isolates from vagina samples of VVC patients were randomly collected over the period between September and December 2014 from hospitalized patients at the general hospitals of Lorestan province, Iran. Isolates were previously identified by conventional mycological methods. The phospholipase and proteinase activities were evaluated by Egg yolk agar, Tween 80 opacity medium and agar plate methods. The most common Candida species was identified Candida albicans (n=34, 41.5%), followed by Candida famata (n=13, 15.8%), Candida tropicalis (n=11, 13.4%), and Candida parapsilosis (n=9, 11%). The most phospholipase activity was observed in Candida colliculosa (40%), followed by C. famata (38.5%), and Candida krusei (33.3%). The findings revealed that the correlation between phospholipase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.91). All Candida spp. exhibited considerable proteinase activity; so that 100% of C. colliculosa, C. parapsilosis, Candida kefyr, and Candida intermedia isolates produced high proteinase activity with Pz 4+ scores. There was a significant correlation between proteinase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC (P=0.009). The obtained findings revealed that Candida spp. isolates may produce both virulence factors, phospholipase and proteinase. Although the phospholipase production was only observed in Candida spp. and VVC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Characterization of Candida Species Isolated from cases of Vulvovaginitis in women referring to selected gynecological clinics

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    Batol Bonyadpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: About 20% of non-pregnant women aged 15 to 55 harbour Candida albicans in the vagina .the aimed to determine the Characterization of Candida Species Isolated from women with Vulvovaginitis candidates (VVC of reproductive ages. Methods: this descriptive study was conducted on 280 of who were selected for gathering samples by Purposive sampling based on their history and characteristics of vaginal discharges in 2009. Among these patients, 105 ones were diagnosed with candidiasis. The data were collected using demographic information form and disease symptoms. the species were differentiated using germ tube test, chrome agar test, and chlamidospore test. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16, using Descriptive Statistics Results: the prevalence of candida vaginitis was 9.3%.105 samples obtained from patients.. Chlamidospore was detected in 54.3% of the corn meal agar media. Besides, in chrome agar test, 41.9% of the samples turned into green representing candida albicans. In germ tube test, on the other hand, 70.5% of the samples were candida albicans, while 29.5% were candida non-albicans. Overall, The frequency of the Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and  the Candida Krusei were  66.6% , 219%  , 8.6% ,  and 2.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Candida albicans was the most common species leading to the Vulvovaginitis in patients with VCC while other species were at the secondary importance stages.Due to inaccurate diagnosis of the disease based on the clinical symptoms, fungal culture is recommended as a standard diagnostic method.

  1. Antifungal susceptibility and molecular typing of 115 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vulvovaginal candidiasis patients in 3 Shanghai maternity hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chunmei; Zhang, Hongju; Tang, Zhenhua; Chen, Huifen; Gao, Jing; Yue, Chaoyan

    2016-05-01

    In our multicenter study, we studied the distribution of Candida species in vulvovaginal candidiasis patients and investigated antifungal susceptibility profile and genotype of Candida albicans in vaginal swab. A total of 115 Candida albicans strains were detected in 135 clinical isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration determinations showed that 83% and 81% of the 115 Candida albicans strains were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) was applied to identify clonally related isolates from different patients at the local level. All tested strains were classified into genotype A (77.4%), genotype B (18.3%), and genotype C (4.3%). Genotype A was further classified into five subtypes and genotype B into two subtypes.Candida albicans was the dominant pathogen of vulvovaginal candidiasis, the majority belonging to genotype A in this study. Exposure to azoles is a risk factor for the emergence of azole resistance among Candida albicans isolated from VVC patients.

  2. Epidemiology and eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV) virus in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV) is a significant disease among domestic and wild cattle. The BHV-1 infection was first detected in Finland in 1970; presumably it was imported in 1968. The infection reappeared in the large-scale bulk-tank milk surveillances which started in 1990, and was eradicated in 1994. Our aim is to describe the epidemiology of this infection in Finland, and its eradication. Materials and methods The offic...

  3. CHANGING TRENDS OF CANDIDA ISOLATES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN IN VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS CASES OF TRIPURA, NORTH EAST INDIA

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    Jhinuk Basu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Candida species are a part of the complex endogenous vaginal microflora, which under pathological condition cause vulvovaginal candidiasis. Worldwide it is the second most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginosis and in India it accounts for 18-20% of clinical visits. AIM: To determine the spectrum of Candida species among the subjects of suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis with an objective to isolate and identify all the Candida species and determine their antifungal susceptibility pattern. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was cross sectional observational, conducted on 275 symptomatic outdoor and admitted patients in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in a tertiary care hospital in Tripura between August 2012 and April 2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Discharge was collected from patients and identified by Grams staining and wet mount test. Culturing was done in Sabouraud dextrose agar followed by speciation through germ tube test, corn meal agar morphologies and chromogenic identification in HiCrome agar. Antifungal susceptibility was determined through E-test for Polyenes and Azoles. RESULT: Vulvovaginal candidiasis was found at a frequency of 25% with non-albicans Candida species (62% prevailing over C. albicans (38%. Highest frequency was observed in the 40–49 age group. Highest susceptibility was seen for fluconazole and least for ketoconazole. CONCLUSION: The frequency of vulvovaginal candidiasis was found to be higher than other prevalence studies from India. The study also showed increasing shift towards non-albicans Candida species from C. albicans. The reason for high frequency among the menopausal group and ectopic pregnancy cases could be topics for future studies. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were effective towards most species and hence could be used to treat the local population.

  4. Ureaplasma diversum as a cause of pustular vulvovaginitis in bovine females in Vale Guapore, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeti, João Guilherme L N; Lana, Marconni V C; Silva, Gustavo S; Lerner, Letycia; de Campos, Camila G; Haruni, Fernanda; Colodel, Edson M; Costa, Eduardo F; Corbellini, Luis G; Nakazato, Luciano; Pescador, Caroline A

    2014-08-01

    Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with various reproductive problems in cattle that include granular vulvovaginitis, weak calves, and abortion. This study was conducted in a beef herd situated in the Middle-West region of Brazil, and the objectives were to verify the presence of U. diversum and to elucidate its possible relationships with independent variables in this bovine herd population. A total of 134 vaginal mucous swabs were taken for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of these, 51 (38 %) were PCR positive for U. diversum. Of the 58 heifers with vulvovaginal lesions characterized by hyperemia, granulated lesions, and edema distributed throughout the vulvar mucosa, 37 (64 %) were U. diversum positive; of the 76 heifers without reproductive lesions, 14 (18 %) were U. diversum positive. All tested samples were negative for bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the following two variables were significantly associated with the presence of U. diversum: the presence of vulvar lesions (p = 0.001) and the presence of a progesterone (P4) device (p = 0.001). These findings indicate that U. diversum should be considered a pathogen that is associated with pustular vulvovaginitis in heifers from the Mato Grosso state and that additional studies of the risk factors associated with intravaginal P4 device transmission should be performed.

  5. Non-hormonal treatment of vulvo-vaginal atrophy-related symptoms in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tersigni, C; Di Simone, N; Tempestilli, E; Cianfrini, F; Russo, R; Moruzzi, M C; Amar, I D; Fiorelli, A; Scambia, G; Villa, P

    2015-01-01

    In post-menopausal period vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA)-related symptoms may seriously affect women's quality of life. Hormonal replacement therapy effectively relieves these symptoms but it is not always safe or accepted, and a non-hormonal treatment is often needed instead. Over a period of 12 weeks, we tested the effect of a twice-a-week vulvo-vaginal application of a hyaluronic acid, AC collagen, isoflavones and vitamins-based cream (Perilei Pausa) on 35 women in post-menopausal period, reporting VVA-related symptoms. After 12 weeks of treatment with Perilei Pausa a significant improvement in vaginal dryness, vulvo-vaginal itching, dyspareunia (P vaginal paleness and petechiae was also reduced (P = 0.037, P = 0.016 and P = 0.032, respectively). No significant difference in terms of maturation value of cervico-vaginal epithelium was observed. In conclusion, Perilei Pausa may represent an effective and safe alternative treatment of symptomatic VVA in post-menopausal women.

  6. Vulvovaginal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vagina or by taking a pill. What causes bacterial vaginosis? Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an overgrowth of the bacteria ... certain types of infections. Bacteria: One-celled organisms. Bacterial Vaginosis: A type of vaginal infection caused by the ...

  7. Vulvovaginal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on either side of the vaginal opening. The clitoris is located at the top of the labia ... opening that produce a fluid during sexual activity. Clitoris: An organ that is located near the opening ...

  8. Streptococcal vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Warren R

    2009-07-01

    Dialogues in Dermatology, a monthly audio program from the American Academy of Dermatology, contains discussions between dermatologists on timely topics. Commentaries from Dialogues Editor-in-Chief Warren R. Heymann, MD, are provided after each discussion as a topic summary and are provided hear as a special service to readers of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

  9. Guideline: vulvovaginal candidosis (AWMF 015/072), S2k (excluding chronic mucocutaneous candidosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendling, Werner; Brasch, J; Cornely, O A; Effendy, I; Friese, K; Ginter-Hanselmayer, G; Hof, H; Mayser, P; Mylonas, I; Ruhnke, M; Schaller, M; Weissenbacher, E-R

    2015-03-01

    The oestrogenised vagina is colonised by Candida species in at least 20% of women; in late pregnancy and in immunosuppressed patients, this increases to at least 30%. In most cases, Candida albicans is involved. Host factors, particularly local defence mechanisms, gene polymorphisms, allergies, serum glucose levels, antibiotics, psycho-social stress and oestrogens influence the risk of candidal vulvovaginitis. Non-albicans species, particularly Candida glabrata, and in rare cases also Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cause less than 10% of all cases of vulvovaginitis with some regional variation; these are generally associated with milder signs and symptoms than normally seen with a C. albicans-associated vaginitis. Typical symptoms include premenstrual itching, burning, redness and odourless discharge. Although itching and redness of the introitus and vagina are typical symptoms, only 35-40% of women reporting genital itching in fact suffer from vulvovaginal candidosis. Medical history, clinical examination and microscopic examination of vaginal content using 400× optical magnification, or preferably phase contrast microscopy, are essential for diagnosis. In clinically and microscopically unclear cases and in chronically recurring cases, a fungal culture for pathogen determination should be performed. In the event of non-C. albicans species, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) should also be determined. Chronic mucocutaneous candidosis, a rarer disorder which can occur in both sexes, has other causes and requires different diagnostic and treatment measures. Treatment with all antimycotic agents on the market (polyenes such as nystatin; imidazoles such as clotrimazole; and many others including ciclopirox olamine) is easy to administer in acute cases and is successful in more than 80% of cases. All vaginal preparations of polyenes, imidazoles and ciclopirox olamine and oral triazoles (fluconazole, itraconazole) are equally effective (Table ); however, oral

  10. Fatores associados à candidíase vulvovaginal: estudo exploratório

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    Rosa Maria Inês da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar fatores de risco para candidíase vulvovaginal identificados ao exame e anamnese ginecológica, em amostra de conveniência. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, com amostra de conveniência, envolvendo todas as trabalhadoras (135 de uma indústria de confecção em Criciúma (SC, sintomáticas e assintomáticas, no período de julho a setembro de 2002. Foi utilizada, como técnica de coleta dos dados, entrevista roteirizada investigando-se possíveis fatores de risco. O exame ginecológico detectou a presença ou não de sinais clínicos de vulvovaginites. Realizou-se cultura de secreção vaginal em meio de ágar Sabouraud para isolamento de Candida sp. Os dados foram processados e analisados no programa Epi-Info, versão 6.0. A medida de intensidade de associação usada foi a razão de prevalência. O intervalo de confiança adotado para inferência estatística foi de 95%. A análise multivariada dos dados foi realizada pelo programa SPSS versão 10.0, empregando-se modelo de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que a prevalência da candidíase vulvovaginal foi de 19,3%. A freqüência de vulvovaginite diagnosticada pelo exame clínico foi de 17%, com sensibilidade de 38% e especificidade de 88%. O fator de risco significante para vulvovaginite por Candida nessa população foi a presença de ciclos menstruais regulares e para vulvovaginite clínica foi o uso de hormônios e idade entre 25 e 34 anos. CONCLUSÃO: a prevalência de candidíase vulvovaginal é alta entre mulheres consideradas hígidas e o fator de risco encontrado com significância estatística foi a presença de ciclos menstruais regulares, reforçando a importância de possível relação entre ciclo hormonal e esta infecção. Devido à limitação do presente estudo, esta possível associação, juntamente com outras, devem ser estudadas num futuro desenho de coorte com amostra de tamanho apropriado e medidas de níveis hormonais ao longo

  11. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: species distribution, fluconazole resistance and drug efflux pump gene overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie-Yu; Liu, Jin-Hui; Liu, Fa-Di; Xia, Yan-Hua; Wang, Jing; Liu, Xi; Zhang, Zhi-Qin; Zhu, Na; Yan-Yan; Ying, Ying; Huang, Xiao-Tian

    2014-10-01

    The increasing incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and the emergence of fluconazole resistance are an indisputable fact. However, little information is available regarding the correlation between fluconazole resistance in vaginal Candida albicans and the expression of drug efflux pump genes. In this study, we investigated the species distribution, fluconazole susceptibility profiles and the mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in Candida strains. In total, 785 clinical Candida isolates were collected from patients with VVC. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species(n = 529) followed by C. glabrata (n = 164) and C. krusei (n = 57). Of all Candida isolates, 4.7% were resistant to fluconazole. We randomly selected 18 fluconazole resistant isolates of C. albicans to evaluate the expression of CDR1, CDR2, MDR1 and FLU1 genes. Compared with fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans isolates, CDR1 gene expression displayed 3.16-fold relative increase, which was statistically significant. CDR2, MDR1 and FLU1 overexpression was observed in several fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates, but statistical significance was not achieved. These results demonstrate a high frequency of non-albicans species (32.6%); however, C. albicans is the most common Candida species implicated in vaginitis, and this strain displays considerable fluconazole resistance. Meanwhile, our study further indicates that fluconazole resistance in C. albicans may correlate with CDR1 gene overexpression.

  12. Antifungal Activity of Brazilian Propolis Microparticles against Yeasts Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

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    Kelen Fátima Dalben Dota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis, a resinous compound produced by Apis mellifera L. bees, is known to possess a variety of biological activities and is applied in the therapy of various infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis ethanol extract (PE and propolis microparticles (PMs obtained from a sample of Brazilian propolis against clinical yeast isolates of importance in the vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC. PE was used to prepare the microparticles. Yeast isolates (n=89, obtained from vaginal exudates of patients with VVC, were exposed to the PE and the PMs. Moreover, the main antifungal drugs used in the treatment of VVC (Fluconazole, Voriconazole, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Miconazole and Amphotericin B were also tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined according to the standard broth microdilution method. Some Candida albicans isolates showed resistance or dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs and Amphotericin B. Non-C. albicans isolates showed more resistance and dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs than C. albicans. However, all of them were sensitive or dose-dependent susceptible for Amphotericin B. All yeasts were inhibited by PE and PMs, with small variation, independent of the species of yeast. The overall results provided important information for the potential application of PMs in the therapy of VVC and the possible prevention of the occurrence of new symptomatic episodes.

  13. Non-hormonal topical treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy: an up-to-date overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A; Ewies, A A A

    2013-06-01

    Vulvovaginal atrophy-related symptoms exert a negative impact on the quality of life of up to 50% of postmenopausal women. Many of them decline to use topical vaginal estrogen, which is the standard effective therapy, due to the adverse publicity over recent years, and seek for alternatives. Further, there are no safety studies to support the use of topical vaginal estrogen in breast cancer survivors, and it is considered as contraindicated by many health-care professionals. Vaginal moisturizers and lubricants as well as regular sexual activity may be helpful to such women. Vaginal moisturizers may have an equivalent efficacy to topical vaginal estrogen and should be offered to women wishing to avoid the use of hormonal therapy. Lubricants are usually used during sexual intercourse to provide temporary relief from vaginal dryness and dyspareunia; however, they have no long-term therapeutic effects. We provide in this systematic review up-to-date information, for women and health-care professionals, about the use, safety and efficacy of the available vaginal moisturizers and lubricants.

  14. Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Gels with Propolis (EPP-AF in Preclinical Treatment of Candidiasis Vulvovaginal Infection

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    Andresa Aparecida Berretta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second cause of vaginal infection in the USA. Clinical treatment of C. albicans infections is routinely performed with polyenes and azole derivatives. However, these drugs are responsible for undesirable side effects and toxicity. In addition, C. albicans azole and echinocandin resistance has been described. Propolis is a bee product traditionally used due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other properties. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate different propolis presentations in order to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. The methodologies involved antifungal evaluation, chemical analysis, and the effects of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of propolis based gels. The obtained results demonstrated the fungicide action of propolis extracts against all three morphotypes (yeast, pseudohyphae, and hyphae studied. The highest level of fungal cytotoxicity was reached at 6–8 hours of propolis cell incubation. Among the based gel formulations developed, the rheological and mucoadhesive results suggest that propolis based carbopol (CP1% and chitosan gels were the most pseudoplastic ones. CP1% was the most mucoadhesive preparation, and all of them presented low thixotropy. Results of in vivo efficacy demonstrated that propolis based gels present antifungal action similar to clotrimazole cream, suggesting that future clinical studies should be performed.

  15. Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Gels with Propolis (EPP-AF) in Preclinical Treatment of Candidiasis Vulvovaginal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Bom, Vinícius Pedro; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second cause of vaginal infection in the USA. Clinical treatment of C. albicans infections is routinely performed with polyenes and azole derivatives. However, these drugs are responsible for undesirable side effects and toxicity. In addition, C. albicans azole and echinocandin resistance has been described. Propolis is a bee product traditionally used due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other properties. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate different propolis presentations in order to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. The methodologies involved antifungal evaluation, chemical analysis, and the effects of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of propolis based gels. The obtained results demonstrated the fungicide action of propolis extracts against all three morphotypes (yeast, pseudohyphae, and hyphae) studied. The highest level of fungal cytotoxicity was reached at 6–8 hours of propolis cell incubation. Among the based gel formulations developed, the rheological and mucoadhesive results suggest that propolis based carbopol (CP1%) and chitosan gels were the most pseudoplastic ones. CP1% was the most mucoadhesive preparation, and all of them presented low thixotropy. Results of in vivo efficacy demonstrated that propolis based gels present antifungal action similar to clotrimazole cream, suggesting that future clinical studies should be performed. PMID:23997797

  16. Susceptibility and molecular characterization of Candida species from patients with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Gheniffer; Vicente, Vania Aparecida; Gomes, Renata Rodrigues; Muro, Marisol Dominguez; Pinheiro, Rosangela Lameira; Ferrari, Carolina; Herkert, Patricia Fernanda; Takimura, Marcos; Carvalho, Newton Sérgio de; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects women of reproductive age, which represents approximately 15-25% of vaginitis cases. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize yeast from the patients irrespective of the presentation of clinical symptoms. The isolates were subjected to in vitro susceptibility profile and characterization by molecular markers, which intended to assess the distribution of species. A total of 40 isolates were obtained and identified through the CHROMagar, API20aux and by ITS and D1/D2 regions sequencing of DNAr gene. Candida albicans strains were genotyped by the ABC system and the isolates were divided into two genotypic groups. The identity of the C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. kefyr and Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates was confirmed by the multilocus analysis. The strains of Candida, isolated from patients with complications, were found to be resistant to nystatin but sensitive to fluconazole, amphotericin B and ketoconazole, as observed by in vitro sensitivity profile. The isolates from asymptomatic patients, i.e., the colonized group, showed a dose-dependent sensitivity to the anti-fungal agents, fluconazole and amphotericin B. However, the isolates of C. albicans that belong to distinct genotypic groups showed the same in vitro susceptibility profile.

  17. Vulvovaginal gingival lichen planus: report of two cases and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUCCHESE, A.; DOLCI, A.; MINERVINI, G.; SALERNO, C.; DI STASIO, D.; MINERVINI, G.; LAINO, L.; SILVESTRE, F.; SERPICO, R.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of skin and mucous membranes. Approximately 20% of women with oral lichen planus develops lesions in the genital mucosa. In 1982, Pelisse described a special form of lichen planus (LP), which consists of a triad of symptoms: vulval, vaginal and gingival (VVG)-LP lesions. Aim of the present report is to report two new cases and review the international literature. Material and methods Two cases of VVG-LP are reported and a review of recent literature is performed. Results The onset of erosive or ulcerative mouth lesions may precede or follow by months or even years the onset of vulvovaginal lesions. Vaginal agglutination is associated with the postmenopausal state in conjunction with a dermatologic condition. Intra-lesional corticosteroids have a role in localized chronic ulceration, while systemic therapies such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, hydroxychloroquine, ciclosporin, methotrexate, retinoids, thalidomide and photo chemotherapy have been used in more severe cases with varying success. Conclusions VVG-LP is rather a rare condition and has been documented in the literature mainly in the form of case reports. Lack of a precise diagnostic criteria of VVG-LP depends on the specialists. PMID:28042431

  18. Susceptibility and molecular characterization of Candida species from patients with vulvovaginitis

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    Gheniffer Fornari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects women of reproductive age, which represents approximately 15–25% of vaginitis cases. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize yeast from the patients irrespective of the presentation of clinical symptoms. The isolates were subjected to in vitro susceptibility profile and characterization by molecular markers, which intended to assess the distribution of species. A total of 40 isolates were obtained and identified through the CHROMagar, API20aux and by ITS and D1/D2 regions sequencing of DNAr gene. Candida albicans strains were genotyped by the ABC system and the isolates were divided into two genotypic groups. The identity of the C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. kefyr and Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates was confirmed by the multilocus analysis. The strains of Candida, isolated from patients with complications, were found to be resistant to nystatin but sensitive to fluconazole, amphotericin B and ketoconazole, as observed by in vitro sensitivity profile. The isolates from asymptomatic patients, i.e., the colonized group, showed a dose-dependent sensitivity to the anti-fungal agents, fluconazole and amphotericin B. However, the isolates of C. albicans that belong to distinct genotypic groups showed the same in vitro susceptibility profile.

  19. Comparison of Fluconazole and Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Acute Candida Albicans Vulvovaginitis

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    Fatemeh Bahadori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared two antifungal drugs, fluconazole and clotrimazole for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 women with vulvo vaginal candidiasis during a six month period. All patients answered a standard questionnaire containing questions about symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis and presence of vaginal discharge and signs of vulvar and vaginal inflammation were documented according to physical examination. Two swabs of vaginal discharge were obtained for each woman, one for direct smear, another for culture. The culture medium was Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA. Patients were randomized into two groups of clotrimazole (vaginal cream for 7 days and 150 mg fluconazole in a single dose. Clinical and paraclinical responses were calculated.Results: Clinical improvement occurred in 96 cases (80%. This value was 86.7% and 73.3%for clotrimazole and fluconazole, respectively (P-value=0.04. Paraclinical response on tenth day of treatment was observed in 87 patients (72.5%. This value was 66.7% and 78.3%for clotrimazole and fluconazole groups, respectively (P-value=0.110. Mean days of treatment was 4.06 ±1.30 days for clotrimazole and 2.70 ±0.78 days for fluconazole (p value =0.031.Conclusion: Most of the clinical and paraclinical responses to the drugs used for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis are in the favour of fluconazole.

  20. Candida vulvovaginitis: A store with a buttery and a show window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Sobel, Jack D

    2017-02-01

    Although being an utterly frequent, non-mortal, yet distressing disease, and despite good knowledge of the pathogenesis and the availability of specific and safe treatment, vulvovaginal Candida (VVC) infection remains one of the most enigmatic problems for both physicians and patients. Good treatment requires a proper diagnosis. Too many caregivers (and patients treating themselves) react too simple-minded on the symptoms of VVC and treat VVC where they see it on the vulva. In this opinion paper, we plea for a thorough examination of women with VVC, especially in those women who suffer from recurrent disease since a long time, sometimes decades, which necessitates intensive examination of the vaginal flora, as this is invariably the reservoir for relapses and recurrent vulvitis. Examination of such complicated cases requires experienced clinical judgement, expertise bedside phase contrast microscopy of fresh vaginal fluid, classical cultures on Sabouroud medium and, if still unresolved, repetitive cultures taken by the patient herself at moments of symptoms, and/or nuclear acid amplification techniques to detect Candida genes in the vaginal fluid. Even if only vulvitis is evident, thorough expert examination of vaginal fluid is obligatory to diagnose VVC.

  1. Treating vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause: how important is vaginal lubricant and moisturizer composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D.; Panay, N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vaginal dryness is a common condition that is particularly prevalent during and after the menopause, and is one of the symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause. The impact of vaginal dryness on interpersonal relationships, quality of life, daily activities, and sexual function can be significant, but is frequently underestimated. Furthermore, barriers exist to treatment-seeking, and this condition is often underreported and undertreated. Greater education about vaginal dryness and the range of available treatments is essential to encourage more women to seek help for this condition. Personal lubricants and moisturizers are effective at relieving discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse for women with mild to moderate vaginal dryness, particularly those who have a genuine contraindication to estrogen, or who choose not to use estrogen. However, there is a distinction between lubricants and moisturizers, and notable differences between commercially available products. Women should be advised to choose a product that is optimally balanced in terms of both osmolality and pH, and is physiologically most similar to natural vaginal secretions. A series of recommendations for the use of vaginal lubricants and moisturizers, either on their own or in combination with systemic or topical hormone replacement therapy, is presented. PMID:26707589

  2. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Concentration in Vaginal Fluid: Relation to Bacterial Vaginosis and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghini, Joziani; Giraldo, Paulo C; Linhares, Iara M; Ledger, William J; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-08-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a component of innate immunity that prevents iron uptake by microorganisms. We evaluated whether NGAL was present in vaginal fluid and whether concentrations were altered in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Vaginal secretions from 52 women with VVC, 43 with BV, and 77 healthy controls were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for NGAL and for concentrations of L-lactic acid. The median concentration of NGAL in vaginal fluid was significantly higher in control women (561 pg/mL) than in women with BV (402 pg/mL; P = .0116) and lower in women with VVC (741 pg/mL; P = .0017). Median lactic acid levels were similar in controls (0.11 mmol/L) and women with VVC (0.13 mmol/L) and were lower in women with BV (0.02 mmol/L; P < .0001). The NGAL and lactic acid concentrations were highly correlated (P < .0001). A decrease in Lactobacilli and/or lactic acid plus the absence of leukocytes results in lower vaginal NGAL levels that might facilitate the growth of bacteria associated with BV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Treating vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause: how important is vaginal lubricant and moisturizer composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D; Panay, N

    2016-04-01

    Vaginal dryness is a common condition that is particularly prevalent during and after the menopause, and is one of the symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause. The impact of vaginal dryness on interpersonal relationships, quality of life, daily activities, and sexual function can be significant, but is frequently underestimated. Furthermore, barriers exist to treatment-seeking, and this condition is often underreported and undertreated. Greater education about vaginal dryness and the range of available treatments is essential to encourage more women to seek help for this condition. Personal lubricants and moisturizers are effective at relieving discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse for women with mild to moderate vaginal dryness, particularly those who have a genuine contraindication to estrogen, or who choose not to use estrogen. However, there is a distinction between lubricants and moisturizers, and notable differences between commercially available products. Women should be advised to choose a product that is optimally balanced in terms of both osmolality and pH, and is physiologically most similar to natural vaginal secretions. A series of recommendations for the use of vaginal lubricants and moisturizers, either on their own or in combination with systemic or topical hormone replacement therapy, is presented.

  4. Gene Polymorphisms in Pattern Recognition Receptors and Susceptibility to Idiopathic Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

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    Diana eRosentul

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Approximately 5% of women suffer from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC. It has been hypothesized that genetic factors play an important role in the susceptibility to RVVC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of genetic variants of genes encoding for Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs on susceptibility to RVVC.Study design. For the study, 119 RVVC patients and 263 healthy controls were recruited. Prevalence of polymorphisms in five PRRs involved in recognition of Candida were investigated in patients and controls. In silico and functional studies were performed to assess their functional effects. Results. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in TLR1, TLR4, CLEC7A and CARD9 did not affect the susceptibility to RVVC. In contrast, a non-synonymous polymorphism in TLR2 (rs5743704, Pro631His increased the susceptibility to RVVC almost 3-fold. Furthermore, the TLR2 rs5743704 SNP had deleterious effects on protein function as assessed by in-silico analysis, and in-vitro functional assays suggested that it reduces production of IL-17 and IFN upon stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with C. albicans. No effects were observed on serum MBL concentrations.Conclusion. Genetic variation in TLR2 may significantly enhance susceptibility to RVVC by modulating host defense mechanisms against Candida. Additional studies are warranted to assess systematically the role of host genetic variation for susceptibility to RVVC.

  5. Primary vulvovaginal choriocarcinoma: a case report of unusual presentation and literature review

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    Ushashree Das

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Only one case of primary extra uterine vaginal choriocarcinoma and one case of primary vulvar choriocarcinoma have been reported in literature. This is a case of 27 year old lady who presented with a 10cm × 7cm× 5cm vulvar mass with pain abdomen since 1 month, to the Gynecologic oncology outpatient. The mass was smooth, hard and fixed to underlying structures. Multiple bilateral inguinal lymph nodes were enlarged. Vulvar biopsy with Immunohistochemistry proved it to be choriocarcinoma. CT scan thorax, abdomen and pelvis showed multiple bilateral lung metastases, empty uterine cavity and normal sized uterus with a vaginal mass extending up to introitus encasing urethra and anal canal with multiple enlarged pelvic & inguinal lymph nodes. Final diagnosis of Primary Vulvovaginal choriocarcinoma FIGO stage III and WHO score-12 was made. Multidrug chemotherapy with Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin-D, Folinic Acid, Cyclophosphamide and Vincristine (EMA-CO was started then shifted to Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin-D, Folinic Acid and Cisplatin (EMA-EP regimen followed by Paclitaxel & Carboplatin, because of poor response. Patient’s βHCG became 1.57IU/L with resolution of all lesions after 5 three weekly cycles of Paclitaxel & Carboplatin. Now she is planned for three more cycles of chemotherapy. This case highlights another atypical presentation of choriocarcinoma. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 470-472

  6. The efficacy and safety of clotrimazole vaginal tablet vs. oral fluconazole in treating severe vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofang; Li, Ting; Fan, Shangrong; Zhu, Yuxia; Liu, Xiaoping; Guo, Xuedong; Liang, Yiheng

    2016-07-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of two doses of clotrimazole vaginal tablet 500 mg with two doses of oral fluconazole 150 mg in treating severe vulvovaginal candidiasis (SVVC), 240 consecutive patients with SVVC were studied at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital between June 2014, and September 2015. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive treatment with either two doses of clotrimazole vaginal tablet or two doses of oral fluconazole. The clinical cure rates in the clotrimazole group and the fluconazole group at days 7-14 follow-up were 88.7% (102/115) and 89.1% (98/110) respectively; the clinical cure rates at days 30-35 in the two groups were 71.9% (82/114) and 78.0% (85/109) respectively. The mycological cure rates at days 7-14 follow-up in the two groups were 78.3% (90/115) and 73.6% (81/110) respectively. The mycological cure rates of the patients at days 30-35 in the two groups were 54.4% (62/114) and 56.0% (61/109) respectively (P > 0.05). The adverse events of clotrimazole were mainly local. This study demonstrated that two doses of clotrimazole vaginal tablet 500 mg were as effective as two doses of oral fluconazole 150 mg in the treatment of patients with SVVC and could be an appropriate treatment for this disorder.

  7. Efficient diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis by use of a new rapid immunochromatography test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Pilon, Françoise; Beucher, Bertrand; Poulain, Daniel; Robert, Raymond

    2009-12-01

    The clinical symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are nonspecific, and misdiagnosis is common, leading to a delay in the initiation of antifungal treatment. We evaluated a new immunochromatography test (ICT), the CandiVagi assay (SR2B, Avrille, France), for the rapid diagnosis of VVC. This test, which employs an immunoglobulin M antibody directed against the beta-1,2-mannopyranosyl epitopes found in the yeast cell wall, was compared with direct microscopic examination and culture of vaginal swabs. Two-hundred five women were investigated, including 130 women with symptomatic vaginitis and 75 asymptomatic controls. Two vaginal swabs were obtained from each woman: one was used to prepare a wet mount and Gram-stained preparations for direct microscopic examination and was also cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the isolation of Candida spp., and the second swab was used for ICT. The sensitivities of microscopic examination, culture, and ICT for the diagnosis of VVC were 61%, 100%, and 96.6%, respectively, while the specificities of the three methods were 100%, 82%, and 98.6%, respectively. ICT had a negative predictive value of 98.6%, a positive predictive value of 96.6%, and an efficiency of 98%. ICT provided a rapid result and a better compromise between sensitivity and specificity than conventional microscopy and culture for the diagnosis of VVC. This easy-to-perform diagnostic test will be useful to practitioners treating women with symptoms of vaginitis.

  8. Scientific Rationale and Algorithmization of Sochi Resort Natural and Preformed Physical Therapeutic Factors in the Course of Combined Treatment of Patients with Chronic Vulvovaginitis

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    Kirill V. Gordon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic vulvovaginitis is the most wide-spread gynecological pathology among women of childbearing age. The chief causations of nonspecific vulvovaginitis are reduction in oestrogen, disturbances in vaginal acidity, intestine dysbacteriosis, local and general immune disturbances. The growth of vagina opportunistic pathogenic flora is closely connected with the increase of bacterial slimes on vagina mucus. Sulphur balneotherapy in the form of general baths and vaginal irrigations, mechanical physiotherapy promotes disruption of bacterial slimes, oestrogen elevation, immune reconstruction and vaginal biocenosis, which has positive effect on patients’ fertility level, frequency of obstetrical and perinatal pathologies.

  9. Patología infecciosa: vulvovaginitis, enfermedades de transmisión sexual, enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica, abscesos tubo-ováricos Infectious pathology: vulvovaginitis, sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubo-ovarian abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ibarrola; Benito, J.; B. Azcona; N. Zubeldía

    2009-01-01

    Las enfermedades de transmisión sexual son aquellas en las que la principal vía de infección es el contacto íntimo. Son numerosas las pacientes que acuden a urgencias por esta causa, tanto por la clínica como por las implicaciones sociales. Los síntomas más frecuentes son dolor abdominal bajo, sangrados vaginales, o flujo vaginal excesivo o molesto. Las vulvovaginitis son uno de los problemas principales en la práctica clínica diaria del ginecólogo. La úlcera genital cuya etiología principal ...

  10. Patología infecciosa: vulvovaginitis, enfermedades de transmisión sexual, enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica, abscesos tubo-ováricos Infectious pathology: vulvovaginitis, sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubo-ovarian abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ibarrola; Benito, J.; B. Azcona; N. Zubeldía

    2009-01-01

    Las enfermedades de transmisión sexual son aquellas en las que la principal vía de infección es el contacto íntimo. Son numerosas las pacientes que acuden a urgencias por esta causa, tanto por la clínica como por las implicaciones sociales. Los síntomas más frecuentes son dolor abdominal bajo, sangrados vaginales, o flujo vaginal excesivo o molesto. Las vulvovaginitis son uno de los problemas principales en la práctica clínica diaria del ginecólogo. La úlcera genital cuya etiología principal ...

  11. Vulvovaginitis y balanopostitis pustular sugerente a herpesvirus caprino-1 en cabras (Querétaro, México)

    OpenAIRE

    Irma Eugenia Candanosa Aranda; Mayra Sierra García; Alejandra Sánchez Cervantes; Gerardo Salas Garrido; Adriana Méndez Bernal; Laura Cobos Marín; Lorenzo Álvarez Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    La vulvovaginitis y balanopostitis pustular infecciosa en cabras es producida por herpesvirus caprino 1 (CpHV-1), de la familia Herpesviridae subfamilia Alphaherpesvirinae, que ocasionalmente produce aborto, enteritis neonatal y enfermedad respiratoria en las cabras adultas. En un rebaño de 244 cabras de genotipo lechero y cárnico; se realizaron exámenes físicos de hembras y sementales en los que se observaron lesiones vulvares y prepuciales. Se realizó la necropsia de cuatro animales adultos...

  12. Microflora composition of urogenital tracts of women with nonspecific vulvo-vaginitis and vaginosis in Dnipropetrovsk region

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Ponedilok; V. G. Gavryliuk; Y. V. Khlopova; A. I. Vinnikov

    2012-01-01

    The spectrum of causative agents of nonspecific infections of the women urogenital tracts is studied. It is established that the typical etiological agents of the vaginosis are yeast-like fungi Candida albicans (35.7 %) and Escherichia coli (30.2 %), and the clinical isolates of E. coli (47.3 %) and Proteus mirabilis (15.8 %) are usual for vulvovaginitis. The frequency of detection of the causative agents of inflammatory genito-urinary diseases in women of different age groups varies: strains...

  13. Highlights Regarding Host Predisposing Factors to Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Chronic Stress and Reduced Antioxidant Capacity.

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    Luciene Akimoto-Gunther

    Full Text Available We studied host factors that could predispose women to develop recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC, including glycemia, insulin resistance, chronic stress, antioxidant capacity, overall immune status, local inflammation and vaginal microbiota. The presence of yeasts in vaginal culture was screened in 277 women, with or without signs and symptoms of VVC and RVVC. The presence of an inflammatory process and microbiota were analyzed through vaginal bacterioscopy and cervical-vaginal cytology, respectively. Fasting-blood samples were collected by standard venipuncture for biochemical analyses. Flow cytometry was employed to obtain the T helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio, and insulin resistance was assessed by the HOMA index (HI. Yeasts were isolated from 71 (26% women: 23 (32.4% with a positive culture but without symptoms (COL, 22 (31% in an acute episode (VVC, and 26 (36.6% with RVVC. C. albicans was the main yeast isolated in all clinical profiles. The control group (negative culture comprised 206 women. Diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance were more associated with the positive-culture groups (COL, VVC and RVVC than with negative ones. The RVVC group showed lower mean levels of cortisol than the control group and lower antioxidant capacity than all other groups. The T Helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio was similar in all groups. The RVVC group showed a similar level of vaginal inflammation to the control group, and lower than in the COL and VVC groups. Only the CVV group showed a reduction in vaginal lactobacillus microbiota. Our data suggest that both chronic stress (decreased early-morning cortisol levels and reduced antioxidant capacity can be host predisposing factors to RVVC.

  14. Species Distribution and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Vulvovaginal Candida Isolates in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Juan Wang; Dai Zhang; Zhao-Hui Liu; Wen-Xiang Wu; Hui-Hui Bai; Han-Yu Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background:Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was a common infection associated with lifelong harassment of woman's social and sexual life.The purpose of this study was to describe the species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida species (Candida spp.) isolated from patients with WC over 8 years.Methods:Species which isolated from patients with WC in Peking University First Hospital were identified using chromogenic culture media.Susceptibility to common antifungal agents was determined using agar diffusion method based on CLSI M44-A2 document.SPSS software (version 14.0,Inc.,Chicago,IL,USA) was used for statistical analysis,involving statistical description and Chi-square test.Results:The most common strains were Candida (C.) albicans,80.5% (n =1775) followed by C.glabrata,18.1% (n =400).Nystatin exhibited excellent activity against all species (<4% resistant [R]).Resistance to azole drugs varied among different species.C albicans:clotrimazole (3.1% R) < fluconazole (16.6% R) < itraconazole (51.5% R) < miconazole (54.0% R);C.glabrata:miconazole (25.6% R) < clotrimazole (50.5% R) < itraconazole (61.9% R) < fluconazole (73.3% R);Candida krusei:clotrimazole (0 R) < fluconazole (57.7% R) < miconazole (73.1% R) < itraconazole (83.3% R).The susceptibility offluconazole was noticeably decreasing among all species in the study period.Conclusions:Nystatin was the optimal choice for the treatment of WC at present.The species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp.isolated from patients with VVC had changed over time.

  15. Vaginal nystatin versus oral fluconazole for the treatment for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaoping; Wu, Cong; Xu, Lixuan; Li, Jianling

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a common condition that can physically and psychologically impact patients. We compared the efficacy and safety of vaginal nystatin suppositories for 14 days each month versus standard oral fluconazole regimens for the treatment for RVVC. Patients (n = 293) were enrolled in the study from April 2010 to September 2013. After the initial therapy, the mycological cure rates were 78.3% (119/152) and 73.8% (104/141) in the nystatin group and fluconazole group, respectively (95% CI, 0.749-2.197, p > 0.05). The mycological cure rates at the end of maintenance therapy were 80.7% (96/119) and 72.7% (72/99) in the two groups, respectively (95% CI, 0.954-3.293, p > 0.05).The mycological cure rates at the end without treatment for 6 months were 81.25% (78/96) and 82.19% (60/73) in the two groups, respectively (95% CI, 0.427-2.066, p > 0.05). The mycological cure rates of RVVC caused by C. albicans were 84.0% (89/106) and 81.8% (99/121) in the two groups, respectively. The mycological cure rates of RVVC caused by C. glabrata were 64.3% (27/42) and 12.5% (2/16) in the two groups, respectively. The initial and 6-month maintenance therapy were successful in five of the nine patients in the nystatin group with RVVC caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida, whereas in the fluconazole group, initial therapy failed in all patients with RVVC caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida (n = 7). We conclude that both fluconazole and nystatin therapies are effective in treating RVVC. Nystatin may also be effective for the treatment for RVVC caused by C. glabrata or fluconazole-resistant Candida.

  16. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment

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    Matheus Aparecido dos Santos Ramos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul. belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens extract that was not loaded (E or loaded (SE into a liquid crystal precursor system (S for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS. These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC.

  17. Species Distribution and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Vulvovaginal Candida Isolates in China

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    Wang, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Dai; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Wu, Wen-Xiang; Bai, Hui-Hui; Dong, Han-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was a common infection associated with lifelong harassment of woman's social and sexual life. The purpose of this study was to describe the species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida species (Candida spp.) isolated from patients with VVC over 8 years. Methods: Species which isolated from patients with VVC in Peking University First Hospital were identified using chromogenic culture media. Susceptibility to common antifungal agents was determined using agar diffusion method based on CLSI M44-A2 document. SPSS software (version 14.0, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis, involving statistical description and Chi-square test. Results: The most common strains were Candida (C.) albicans, 80.5% (n = 1775) followed by C. glabrata, 18.1% (n = 400). Nystatin exhibited excellent activity against all species (<4% resistant [R]). Resistance to azole drugs varied among different species. C. albicans: clotrimazole (3.1% R) < fluconazole (16.6% R) < itraconazole (51.5% R) < miconazole (54.0% R); C. glabrata: miconazole (25.6% R) < clotrimazole (50.5% R) < itraconazole (61.9% R) < fluconazole (73.3% R); Candida krusei: clotrimazole (0 R) < fluconazole (57.7% R) < miconazole (73.1% R) < itraconazole (83.3% R). The susceptibility of fluconazole was noticeably decreasing among all species in the study period. Conclusions: Nystatin was the optimal choice for the treatment of VVC at present. The species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from patients with VVC had changed over time. PMID:27174323

  18. Highlights Regarding Host Predisposing Factors to Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Chronic Stress and Reduced Antioxidant Capacity

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    Akimoto-Gunther, Luciene; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza; Takahachi, Gisele; Irie, Mary Mayumi T.; Miyamoto, Sônia; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes; Svidzinsk, Terezinha I. Estivalet

    2016-01-01

    We studied host factors that could predispose women to develop recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), including glycemia, insulin resistance, chronic stress, antioxidant capacity, overall immune status, local inflammation and vaginal microbiota. The presence of yeasts in vaginal culture was screened in 277 women, with or without signs and symptoms of VVC and RVVC. The presence of an inflammatory process and microbiota were analyzed through vaginal bacterioscopy and cervical-vaginal cytology, respectively. Fasting-blood samples were collected by standard venipuncture for biochemical analyses. Flow cytometry was employed to obtain the T helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio, and insulin resistance was assessed by the HOMA index (HI). Yeasts were isolated from 71 (26%) women: 23 (32.4%) with a positive culture but without symptoms (COL), 22 (31%) in an acute episode (VVC), and 26 (36.6%) with RVVC. C. albicans was the main yeast isolated in all clinical profiles. The control group (negative culture) comprised 206 women. Diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance were more associated with the positive-culture groups (COL, VVC and RVVC) than with negative ones. The RVVC group showed lower mean levels of cortisol than the control group and lower antioxidant capacity than all other groups. The T Helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio was similar in all groups. The RVVC group showed a similar level of vaginal inflammation to the control group, and lower than in the COL and VVC groups. Only the CVV group showed a reduction in vaginal lactobacillus microbiota. Our data suggest that both chronic stress (decreased early-morning cortisol levels) and reduced antioxidant capacity can be host predisposing factors to RVVC. PMID:27415762

  19. Determination of virulence factors and biofilm formation among isolates of vulvovaginal candidiasis

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    Tapan Majumdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Under morphogenesis-inducing conditions, Candida spp. begins to undergo yeast-to-hypha switch. This shift from commensal to pathogenic state is dependent on several virulence factors. Aim: To find out whether the isolated Candida spp. were pathogens causing vulvovaginal candidiasis or mere bystanders. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study conducted on 275 symptomatic hospital patients in Tripura between August 2012 and April 2015. Subjects and Methods: Discharge was collected from patients and identified by Grams staining and wet mount test. Culturing was done in Sabouraud dextrose agar followed by speciation. To test for virulence factors, assays for adherence, plasma coagulase, phospholipase, lipase, protease, hemolysin, and biofilm formation were carried out. Statistical Analysis Used: Significance between two groups was compared using one-way analysis of variance along with Tukey test, and Chi-square 2 × 2 contingency table at 95% confidence interval. Results: Fifty-six Candida spp. could be isolated in the study which was used for further virulence tests. One hundred percent of isolates expressed adherence. Among other virulence factors, maximum virulence 25 (45% was shown through protease production. Hemolysin production and biofilm formation were the second most 22 (39% expressed virulence factors. In a comparison of virulence factors between biofilm-forming isolates and planktonic cells, significant difference was seen for plasma coagulase and hemolysin production. Conclusions: All the isolates expressed one or more virulence factors. Adherence was expressed in all isolates but highest number was observed for Candida albicans. Furthermore, C. albicans strain number was highest for protease, hemolysin and coagulase expression and biofilm formation. Candida krusei isolates were the least in number for expressing any of the virulence factors. Significantly higher number of biofilm forming isolates produced

  20. β-Glucan induces reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils to improve the killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

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    Patricia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent. Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the β-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with β-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. β-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that β-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of β-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release.

  1. β-Glucan induces reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils to improve the killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

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    Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Godoy, Janine da Silva Ribeiro; Negri, Melyssa; Lima, Nayara Cristina Alves de; Fiorini, Adriana; Hatanaka, Elaine; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent). Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the β-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1β, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with β-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. β-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that β-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of β-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release.

  2. Association between group A beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women: a case-control study.

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    Bruins, M J; Damoiseaux, R A M J; Ruijs, G J H M

    2009-08-01

    Guidelines for the management of vaginal discharge mention Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as causes and do not recommend full microbiological culture. The role of non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci in vaginal cultures is unclear, except for group A streptococci that are known to cause vulvovaginitis in children. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women. Cases were women with recurrent vaginal discharge from whom a sample was cultured. Controls were asymptomatic women who consented to submitting a vaginal swab. Group A streptococci were isolated from 49 (4.9%) of 1,010 cases and not from the 206 controls (P < 0.01). Isolation rates of group C, F and G streptococci were low and did not differ statistically between cases and controls. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci are associated with vaginal discharge in adult women. The other non-group B streptococci require more study. For the adequate management of vaginal discharge, culturing is necessary if initial treatment fails. Guidelines should be amended according to these results.

  3. Association between the vaginal microbiota, menopause status, and signs of vulvovaginal atrophy.

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    Brotman, Rebecca M; Shardell, Michelle D; Gajer, Pawel; Fadrosh, Doug; Chang, Kathryn; Silver, Michelle I; Viscidi, Raphael P; Burke, Anne E; Ravel, Jacques; Gravitt, Patti E

    2014-05-01

    The vaginal microbiota helps protect the female genital tract from disease. We sought to describe the composition of the vaginal microbiota in premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women and to explore the association between the microbiota and vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA). Eighty-seven women (aged 35-60 y) were classified as premenopausal (n = 30), perimenopausal (n = 29), or postmenopausal (n = 28) according to Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop guidelines. Midvaginal bacterial community composition was characterized by 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis. Bacterial communities clustered into six community state types (CSTs), of which four were dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus iners, or Lactobacillus jensenii, and two (CST IV-A and CST IV-B) had low relative abundance of Lactobacillus. CST IV-A was characterized by Streptococcus and Prevotella, whereas CST IV-B was characterized by Atopobium. There were significant associations between menopause stage and CST (P = 0.004) and between VVA and CST (P = 0.002). Perimenopausal women were more likely to be classified as CST IV-A or L. gasseri CST, whereas postmenopausal women were often classified as CST IV-A. CSTs dominated by L. crispatus and L. iners were more prevalent in premenopausal women. Nineteen participants had signs of mild or moderate VVA. Compared with women with no VVA, the vaginal microbiota of women with mild or moderate atrophy had 25-fold greater odds of being classified as CST IV-A versus L. crispatus CST (adjusted odds ratio, 25.89; 95% credible interval, 2.98-406.79). A distinct bacterial community state (CST IV-A) with a low relative abundance of Lactobacillus is associated with VVA. Future studies recruiting a larger number of women are needed to replicate the findings. This study provides an impetus for future longitudinal studies designed to manage, modulate, and restore vaginal microbiota homeostasis, which would provide stronger evidence for

  4. VULVOVAGINITIS IN SWINE – AN OCCURENCE REPORT VULVOVAGINITES EM SUÍNOS – RELATO DE UM CASO

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    Clóvis Alves Pereira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A case of vulvovaginitis in a four months old Landrace gilt due to ingestion of contaminated corn by the toxine zearalenone, produced by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, has its clinical evidence based in the lack of symptoms after the change of food.

    Relata-se um caso de vulvovaginite em uma marrã de quatro meses de idade da raça Landrace, devido à ingestão de milho contaminado pela toxina zearalenone, produzida pelo fungo Fusarium graminearum. O diagnóstico foi fundamentado na sintomatologia clínica e no desaparecimento dos sintomas após a mudança da alimentação.

  5. Clinical predictors of adverse course of nonspecific bacterial vulvovaginitis at girls born from mothers with dysplasia of connective tissue

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    Mozes V.G.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: To define clinical predictors of adverse course of nonspecific bacterial vulvovaginitis (NBV at girls born from mothers with the undifferentiated forms of dysplasia of connective tissue (UFDCT. Materials: At 157 girls clinical research, bacteriological and bacterioscopy research of leucorrhoea from vagina has been conducted, NBV has been diagnosed at 111 girls. At all girls and at their mothers the immunity has been investigated; at all mothers of girls with NBV phenotypic reveals of UFDCT have been found out. Results: At girls with NBV born from mothers with UFDCT severe course of a disease has been marked; and at mothers with UFDCT and at their children with NBV disorders of humoral immunity have been revealed. Presence of more than 5 stigmas of dysembryogenesis with prevalence of thoracodiaphragmatic, articular, cosmetic syndromes and pathology of organs of vision at mothers of girls with NBV is possible to use as predictors of adverse course of the disease

  6. Microflora composition of urogenital tracts of women with nonspecific vulvo-vaginitis and vaginosis in Dnipropetrovsk region

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    A. O. Ponedilok

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of causative agents of nonspecific infections of the women urogenital tracts is studied. It is established that the typical etiological agents of the vaginosis are yeast-like fungi Candida albicans (35.7 % and Escherichia coli (30.2 %, and the clinical isolates of E. coli (47.3 % and Proteus mirabilis (15.8 % are usual for vulvovaginitis. The frequency of detection of the causative agents of inflammatory genito-urinary diseases in women of different age groups varies: strains of E. coli are often found in patients of 1–12 years (47.3 % and in women of 43–66 years old (36.0 %, but C. albicans – in patients of 18–42 years (39.0 %. High levels of the resistance to penicilline, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in selected clinical isolates of opportunistic microorganisms are determined.

  7. [Place of vulvovaginal candidiasis in the lower genital tract infections and associated risk factors among women in Benin].

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    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Adisso, S; Djamal, J; Sanni, R; Amangbegnon, R; Biokou-Bankole, B; Kinde Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the place of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) in the lower genital infections and seek risk factors among women in Benin. The study was conducted in the laboratory of mycology of Hôpital de la Mère et de l'Enfant Lagune (Homel) from 1st March to 31st July, 2013. It involved all the women who were asked a vaginal swab and gave their consent in written form. After administration of a questionnaire, the vaginal samples were collected with sterile cotton swabs for a test with potassium hydroxide, an estimation of vaginal pH, direct microscopic examination, fresh, and after a Gram stain and culture on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol, ordinary agar and fresh blood agar. One hundred and thirty-one women were included in the study period. Clinical signs were dominated by vaginal discharge (74.8%), followed by vulvar pruritus (51.9%) and dyspareunia (36.6%). Culture on Sabouraud was positive in 51 cases or 38.9%. Candida albicans was isolated in 96.1% of cases, against 3.9% of Candida glabrata. The risk factors involved were: pregnancy, antibiotics, synthetic underclothing and frequent wearing tight pants. In addition of Candida, Gardnerella vaginalis was found in 36.6% of samples with an association with C. albicans in 28.2% of cases. This study showed that vulvovaginal candidiasis is the leading cause of lower genital tract infections in women in Benin with involvement of several risk factors which research is needed to develop appropriate preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Treatment of acute and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC/rVVC)--state of art in 2008. Expert Board of Polish Gynecological Society].

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    Kotarski, Jan; Drews, Krzysztof; Maleszka, Romuald; Rechberger, Tomasz; Woroń, Jarosław; Tomaszewski, Jacek

    2008-09-01

    Vulvovaginal infection is the most common cause of gynecological problems in sexually active women. Few years ago it was not considered as serious disease which may cause major health implications. Currently we are aware that it implies life worsening, temporal indisposition, postoperative complications and even life threatening sepsis in patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units. Knowledge about pharmacological properties of drugs used in treatment vulvovaginal candidiasis allows for tailoring therapy to each patient. Fluconazole is modern and up to date option for treatment of VVC/rVVC. Short- and long-term therapeutic efficacy of fluconazole was confirmed in numerous high reliability clinical trials. Good tolerance, wide range of single therapeutic dose and high level of patient's acceptance gives the specialist powerful and efficient tool for management of VVC/rVVC.

  9. Epidemiology and eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV virus in Finland

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    Hyytiäinen Mauno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV is a significant disease among domestic and wild cattle. The BHV-1 infection was first detected in Finland in 1970; presumably it was imported in 1968. The infection reappeared in the large-scale bulk-tank milk surveillances which started in 1990, and was eradicated in 1994. Our aim is to describe the epidemiology of this infection in Finland, and its eradication. Materials and methods The official sources of pertinent information, the legal basis for the disease control and the serological methods for the detection of the infection are described. Results and conclusion Ten AI bulls were found to be seropositive in 1970–1971. The total number of herds with BHV-1 antibody positive animals in the large-scale surveillance in 1990 and subsequent epidemiological investigations in 1991 was five, and the total number of seropositive animals was 90. The five herds formed three epidemiological units; semen of at least one bull seropositive in 1971 had been used in each unit. This remained the only plausible route of infection in each of the three units. Using the 'test and slaughter' approach and total stamping out in one herd the infection was eradicated in 1994.

  10. The program for eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in the Republic of Serbia

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    Lazić Sava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV are diseases that affect cattle population of all breeds, categories and age. Both diseases, especially infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, poses severe health threat and causes major economic losses and is considered one of the “most costly” disease in cattle industry. The causal agent of the disease is a virus and any detection of IBR/IPV specific antibodies in non-vaccinated cattle, either in blood or milk, indicates that animal is infected and represents the source of infection. Countries with developed and intensive cattle breeding have been developed and implemented their national eradication programs to control IBR/IPV in accordance with international regulations. In this article, we outlined the needs and program for the eradication of IBR/IPV in the Republic of Serbia. The eradication program for IBR/IPV is an extensive process that requires systematic strategy involving different phases and activities. The eradication process from the moment of implementation until obtaining IBR/IPV-free status can last over several years and requires joint work and considerable financial resources that will be compansated with the elimination of IBR/IPV from the herd. This article gives an overview of all stages and activities regarding eradication of the disease and certification and maintaining of IBR/IPV-free herd status.

  11. Epidemiology and eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV) virus in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuotio, Lasse; Neuvonen, Erkki; Hyytiäinen, Mauno

    2007-01-01

    Background Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV) is a significant disease among domestic and wild cattle. The BHV-1 infection was first detected in Finland in 1970; presumably it was imported in 1968. The infection reappeared in the large-scale bulk-tank milk surveillances which started in 1990, and was eradicated in 1994. Our aim is to describe the epidemiology of this infection in Finland, and its eradication. Materials and methods The official sources of pertinent information, the legal basis for the disease control and the serological methods for the detection of the infection are described. Results and conclusion Ten AI bulls were found to be seropositive in 1970–1971. The total number of herds with BHV-1 antibody positive animals in the large-scale surveillance in 1990 and subsequent epidemiological investigations in 1991 was five, and the total number of seropositive animals was 90. The five herds formed three epidemiological units; semen of at least one bull seropositive in 1971 had been used in each unit. This remained the only plausible route of infection in each of the three units. Using the 'test and slaughter' approach and total stamping out in one herd the infection was eradicated in 1994. PMID:17222341

  12. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

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    Zhu, Yuxia; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Li, Jianling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8%), C. orthopsilosis (7.9%) and C. metapsilosis (14.3%). The signs and symptoms of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis sensu lato, including itching, erythema and abnormal discharge, were milder than those caused by C. albicans. None of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole or itraconazole. The resistance rates of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were 2.3, 1.5, 3.1 and 0.8%, respectively. Both C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. albicans were susceptible to nystatin. The mycological eradication rate at follow-up days 7-14 and 30-35 were 77.8% (49/63) and 76.2% (48/63), respectively, when treated with various antifungal agents and regimens. We conclude that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were present in the vaginal samples of VVC patients. The symptoms and signs of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis are milder than those caused by C. albicans. The antifungal susceptibility and therapeutic efficacy in patients colonised by C. parapsilosis sensu lato were similar to those observed in C. albicans-colonised patients.

  13. Mannose-binding lectin codon 54 gene polymorphism and vulvovaginal candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Nedovic, Bojan; Posteraro, Brunella; Leoncini, Emanuele; Ruggeri, Alberto; Amore, Rosarita; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a key role in the human innate immune response. It has been shown that polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene, particularly at codon 54 (variant allele B; wild-type allele designated as A), impact upon host susceptibility to Candida infection. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess the association between MBL2 codon 54 genotype and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) or recurrent VVC (RVVC). Studies were searched in MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science until April 2013. Five studies including 704 women (386 cases and 318 controls) were part of the meta-analysis, and pooled ORs were calculated using the random effects model. For subjects with RVVC, ORs of AB versus AA and of BB versus AA were 4.84 (95% CI 2.10-11.15; P for heterogeneity = 0.013; I(2) = 68.6%) and 12.68 (95% CI 3.74-42.92; P for heterogeneity = 0.932, I(2) = 0.0%), respectively. For subjects with VVC, OR of AB versus AA was 2.57 (95% CI 1.29-5.12; P for heterogeneity = 0.897; I (2) = 0.0%). This analysis indicates that heterozygosity for the MBL2 allele B increases significantly the risk for both diseases, suggesting that MBL may influence the women's innate immunity in response to Candida.

  14. Antifungal peptides: a potential new class of antifungals for treating vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siew Mei Samantha; Yap, Yi Yong Alvin; Cheong, Jin Wei Darryl; Ng, Fui Mee; Lau, Qiu Ying; Barkham, Timothy; Teo, Jeanette Woon Pei; Hill, Jeffrey; Chia, Cheng San Brian

    2017-03-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis/candidosis is a common fungal infection afflicting approximately 75% of women globally caused primarily by the yeast Candida albicans. Fluconazole is widely regarded as the antifungal drug of choice since its introduction in 1990 due to its high oral bioavailability, convenient dosing regimen and favourable safety profile. However, its widespread use has led to the emergence of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, posing a universal clinical concern. Coupled to the dearth of new antifungal drugs entering the market, it is imperative to introduce new drug classes to counter this threat. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are potential candidates due to their membrane-disrupting mechanism of action. By specifically targeting fungal membranes and being rapidly fungicidal, they can reduce the chances of resistance development and treatment duration. Towards this goal, we conducted a head-to-head comparison of 61 short linear AMPs from the literature to identify the peptide with the most potent activity against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans. The 11-residue peptide, P11-6, was identified and assayed against a panel of clinical C. albicans isolates followed by fungicidal/static determination and a time-kill assay to gauge its potential for further drug development. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The 2015 International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) Terminology of Vulvar Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions.

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    Bornstein, Jacob; Bogliatto, Fabrizio; Haefner, Hope K; Stockdale, Colleen K; Preti, Mario; Bohl, Tanja G; Reutter, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The impact of terminology for vulvar intraepithelial lesions has been significant over the years, because it has affected diagnosis, treatment, and research. The introduction of the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) in 2012 raised 2 concerns in relation to vulvar lesions: firstly, the absence of reference to "differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia" (differentiated VIN) could lead to its being overlooked by health care providers, despite its malignant potential. Secondly, including the term "low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion" (LSIL) in LAST recreated the potential for overdiagnosis and overtreatment for benign, self-limiting lesions. The International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) assigned the terminology committee the task of developing a terminology to take these issues into consideration. The committee reviewed the development of terminology for vulvar SILs with the previous 2 concerns in mind and reviewed several new terminology options. The final version accepted by the ISSVD contains the following:•Low-grade SIL of the vulva or vulvar LSIL, encompassing flat condyloma or human papillomavirus effect.•High-grade SIL or vulvar HSIL (which was termed "vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia usual type" in the 2004 ISSVD terminology).•Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, differentiated type. The advantage of the new terminology is that it includes all types of vulvar SILs, it provides a solution to the concerns in relation to the application of LAST to vulvar lesion, and it is in accordance with the World Health Organization classification as well as the LAST, creating unity among clinicians and pathologists.

  16. Miconazole nitrate vaginal suppository 1,200 mg versus oral fluconazole 150 mg in treating severe vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaopingliu; Liang, Yiheng

    2015-01-01

    Miconazole is a synthetic imidazole antifungal that has a broad spectrum of activity against Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of miconazole nitrate vaginal suppository and oral fluconazole in treating severe vulvovaginal candidiasis (SVVC). In this prospective, randomized case control study, 577 cases of consecutive patients with SVVC were studied at the Gynecological Clinic of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2010. Patients with SVVC were treated with two doses of miconazole nitrate vaginal suppository 1,200 mg or two doses of fluconazole 150 mg. The patients were followed up for 7-14 and 30-35 days following the second dose of therapy. The mycological cure rates of the patients on days 7-14 of follow-up were 75.9% (220/290) and 84.0% (241/287) in the miconazole and fluconazole groups, respectively (p 0.05). The study demonstrated that two doses of miconazole nitrate vaginal suppository 1,200 mg were as effective as two doses of an oral fluconazole 150 mg regimen in the treatment of patients with SVVC. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Higiene e cuidados com a genitália em mulheres com vulvovaginites = : Hygiene and genital care of women with vulvovaginitis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Grigol Bardin

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A vaginose bacteriana (VB) e a candidíase vaginal (CV) são as vulvovaginites (VV) mais frequentemente encontradas em mulheres durante o ciclo reprodutivo. Embora os tratamentos dessas VV estejam esclarecidos, a prevenção ainda é pouco estudada. Os hábitos de higiene e cuidados diários com a genitália feminina são fatores que podem influenciar o ecossistema vulvovaginal, facilitando a instalação dessas VV. OBJETIVO: Verificar os hábitos de lavagem, uso de absorventes higiênicos, pr...

  18. Phospholipase and Aspartyl Proteinase Activities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassyouni, Rasha H; Wegdan, Ahmed Ashraf; Abdelmoneim, Abdelsamie; Said, Wessam; AboElnaga, Fatma

    2015-10-01

    Few research had investigated the secretion of phospholipase and aspartyl proteinase from Candida spp. causing infection in females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women and compare the ability of identified Candida isolates to secrete phospholipases and aspartyl proteinases with characterization of their genetic profile. The study included 80 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 100 non-diabetic females within the child-bearing period. Candida strains were isolated and identified by conventional microbiological methods and by API Candida. The isolates were screened for their extracellular phospholipase and proteinase activities by culturing them on egg yolk and bovine serum albumin media, respectively. Detection of aspartyl proteinase genes (SAP1 to SAP8) and phospholipase genes (PLB1, PLB2) were performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated that vaginal candidiasis was significantly higher among the diabetic group versus nondiabetic group (50% versus 20%, respectively) (p = 0.004). C. albicans was the most prevalent species followed by C. glabrata in both groups. No significant association between diabetes mellitus and phospholipase activities was detected (p = 0.262), whereas high significant proteinase activities exhibited by Candida isolated from diabetic females were found (82.5%) (p = 0.000). Non-significant associations between any of the tested proteinase or phospholipase genes and diabetes mellitus were detected (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it is noticed that the incidence of C. glabrata causing VVC is increased. The higher prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among diabetics could be related to the increased aspartyl proteinase production in this group of patients.

  19. The effects of bovine necrotic vulvo-vaginitis on reproductive and production performance of Israeli 1st calf heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshen, T; Ben-Gera, J; Koren, O; Bdolah-Abram, T; Elad, D

    2012-04-01

    Bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) is a syndrome unique to Israel characterized by necrotic lesion in the caudal vagina mainly in first calf heifers after calving, associated with Porphyromonas levii. The objectives of this study were to analyze the impact of BNVV on reproductive performance, milk production and survival in the heard of first calf dairy heifers in affected farms, and to verify if the effects of BNVV are severity-dependent. For assessment of the severity level a scale of 4 degrees was formed, and cows were scored 4 to 6 d after calving. Data were obtained from two dairy farms during 2006-07, consisting of 603 lactations. The incidence and the severity of BNVV declined between 2006 and 2007, and severe BNVV tended to be more prevalent in the summer. The odds to conceive in the first artificial insemination of BNVV cow tended to be lower than healthy cows (OR = 0.676, P = 0.052). Cows with BNVV had longer empty period (145.8 d vs. 135.1 d of healthy cows, P = 0.031), but only severe BNVV had a negative effect on the odds of the cow to be empty at 150 d in milk (DIM) (OR = 2.05, P = 0.052). Severe BNVV also affected the mean survival time to conception (155.9 d vs. 142.3 d, P = 0.042). All BNVV severity degrees had a negative effect on milk production. The effect on milk production was not limited only to the beginning of the lactation, cows with BNVV produced 338.1 kg milk less than healthy cows (P = 0.016) in 305 d corrected lactation. The effect on milk production was not severity depended. No effect on survival time in the herd was demonstrated.

  20. Species distribution and susceptibility of Candida isolates from patient with vulvovaginal candidiasis in Southern China from 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X P; Fan, S R; Peng, Y T; Zhang, H P

    2014-06-01

    To determine the Candida species involved and the antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Candida organisms were cultured from samples obtained from patients with VVC at Gynecology Department of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from April 2003 to September 2012. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed using a commercial agar diffusion test. A total of 3181 yeasts isolates, mostly Candida, were obtained from 3141 patients with VVC. Two species of Candida were isolated from each of 40 patients (1.3%, 40/3141). C. albicans were the predominant Candida species (2705 strains, 85.0%) in VVC, followed by C. glabrata (337 strains, 10.6%), C. parapsilosis (49 strains, 1.5%), C. tropicalis (31 strains, 1.0%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (23 strains, 0.7%), C. krusei (15 strains, 0.5%), Candida famata (11 strains, 0.4%), Rhodotorula sp. (6 strains, 0.2%), and C. lusitaniae (2 strains, 0.1%). Antifungal susceptibility was tested in a total of 1942 strains from patients with VVC. All of the C. albicans isolates obtained were susceptible to nystatin. The resistant rate of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole was 1.1% (18/1612), 2.2% (36/1612), 4.2% (68/1612), and 0.9% (14/1612). The resistant rate of non-albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, and clotrimazole was 11.8% (39/329), 2.5% (8/329), 1.8% (6/329), and 4.3% (14/329). C. albicans was the predominant Candida species isolated from this series of patients with VVC. Resistance of vaginal C. albicans isolates to antifungal agents was infrequent. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Vaginal Heparan Sulfate Linked to Neutrophil Dysfunction in the Acute Inflammatory Response Associated with Experimental Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junko; Noverr, Mairi C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite acute inflammation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) during vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), clearance of Candida fails to occur. The purpose of this study was to uncover the mechanism of vaginal PMN dysfunction. Designs included assessing PMN migration, proinflammatory mediators, and tissue damage (by analysis of the activity of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) in mice susceptible (C3H/HeN-C57BL/6) or resistant (CD-1) to chronic VVC (CVVC-S or CVVC-R) and testing morphology-specific Candida albicans strains under conditions of preinduced PMN migration (CVVC-S mice) or PMN depletion (CVVC-R mice). In vitro designs included evaluation of C. albicans killing by elicited vaginal or peritoneal PMNs in standard or vaginal conditioned medium (VCM). Results showed that despite significant migration of PMNs and high levels of vaginal beta interleukin-1 (IL-1β) and alarmin S100A8, CVVC-S mice failed to reduce vaginal fungal burden irrespective of morphology or whether PMNs were present pre- or postinoculation, and had high LDH levels. In contrast, CVVC-R mice had reduced fungal burden and low LDH levels following PMN recruitment and IL-1β/S100A8 production, but maintained colonization in the absence of PMNs. Elicited vaginal and peritoneal PMNs showed substantial killing activity in standard media or VCM from CVVC-R mice but not in VCM from CVVC-S mice. The inhibitory effect of VCM from CVVC-S mice was unaffected by endogenous or exogenous estrogen and was ablated following depletion/neutralization of Mac-1 ligands using Mac-1+/+ PMNs or recombinant Mac-1. Heparan sulfate (HS) was identified as the putative inhibitor as evidenced by the rescue of PMN killing following heparanase treatment of VCM, as well as by inhibition of killing by purified HS. These results suggest that vaginal HS is linked to PMN dysfunction in CVVC-S mice as a competitive ligand for Mac-1. PMID:28292981

  2. Efficacy of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on moderate to severe dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy, and of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Koltun, William; Vachon, Andrée; Young, Douglas; Frenette, Louise; Portman, David; Montesino, Marlene; Côté, Isabelle; Parent, Julie; Lavoie, Lyne; Beauregard, Adam; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Balser, John; Moyneur, Érick

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to confirm the local beneficial effects of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, Prasterone) on moderate to severe dyspareunia or pain at sexual activity, the most frequent symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy due to menopause or genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial, the effect of daily intravaginal 0.50% DHEA (6.5 mg) (Prasterone, EndoCeutics) was examined on four coprimary objectives, namely percentage of parabasal cells, percentage or superficial cells, vaginal pH, and moderate to severe pain at sexual activity (dyspareunia) identified by the women as their most bothersome vulvovaginal atrophy symptom. The intent-to-treat population included 157 and 325 women in the placebo and DHEA-treated groups, respectively. After daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% DHEA for 12 weeks, when compared to baseline by the analysis of covariance test, the percentage of parabasal cells decreased by 27.7% over placebo (P DHEA (Prasterone) has shown clinically and highly statistically significant effects on the four coprimary parameters suggested by the US Food and Drug Administration. The strictly local action of Prasterone is in line with the absence of significant drug-related adverse events, thus showing the high benefit-to-risk ratio of this treatment based upon the novel understanding of the physiology of sex steroids in women.

  3. Emergence of non-albicans Candida among candidal vulvovaginitis cases and study of their potential virulence factors, from a tertiary care center, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Kumari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Candida species and study some of their virulence factors among thevulvovaginal candidiasis(VVCpatients. Study Design and Settings: The study was conducted in a Tertiary Care University Hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out prospectively for a period of 1 year. High vaginal swabs (HVSs were collected from women in childbearing age group attending the gynecology and obstetrics out-patient departments with the complaints suggestive of vulvovaginitis. Samples were plated on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar slope. Candida spp. isolated was further speciated based on microscopy, biochemical tests and culture characteristics on special media. Virulence factors of these strains were determined by biofilm formation and phospholipase activity. Result: A total of 464 HVS from 232 patients with the complaints of vulvovaginitis were included in this study. Following laboratory workup, 71 specimens were positive for genus Candida (30.6%. Further speciation showed 32.4% as Candida albicans, 45.07% Candida parapsilosis and 22.53% of Candida glabrata. Biofilm production was shown by 50 candidal strains (70.4% and phospholipase activity was given by 41 candidal strains (57.74%. Conclusion: Our study suggests increasing prevalence of non-albicans Candida among the VVC cases along with their virulence factors. Therefore, we recommend that microbiological investigation upto species level should be mandatory to determine the emergence of non-albicans Candida as a major cause of VVC.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6±1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28 and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30. Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P=0.02 and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P=0.01. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.

  5. A 5-year (2000-2004) epidemiological survey of Candida and non-Candida yeast species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis in Graz, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulitsch, A; Weger, W; Ginter-Hanselmayer, G; Marth, E; Buzina, W

    2006-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidasis (VVC) is a common disease. The majority of cases is caused by Candida albicans, but in recent years an increase has been observed in the frequency of non-albicans Candida infections, especially due to C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of non-albicans Candida infections in patients suffering from VVC. Therefore, the statistical data of culture-confirmed VVC ascertained at the Institute of Hygiene (Medical University Graz) have been studied. Altogether, 10,463 samples from patients with vulvovaginal complaints were analysed in the years 2000-2004, a number of 3184 proved to be culture-positive for yeast. Candida albicans was the most prevalent cause in 87.9% of all cases. Non-albicans Candida yeast were detected in 12.1%, mainly C. glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During a 1-year period 185 patients showed more than one episode of VVC. Patients aged 21-40 years were significantly more prone to suffer from VVC compared with other age-related groups.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for bacterial vaginosis and other vulvovaginitis in a population of sexually active adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth Moreira; Machado, Márcia Sacramento Cunha; Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando Borges da; Pimentel, Rodrigo Fernandes Weyll; Ferreira, Tatiana Teixeira; Leoni, Fernanda Maria Silva; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12-28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14-30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.

  7. Patología infecciosa: vulvovaginitis, enfermedades de transmisión sexual, enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica, abscesos tubo-ováricos Infectious pathology: vulvovaginitis, sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubo-ovarian abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ibarrola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades de transmisión sexual son aquellas en las que la principal vía de infección es el contacto íntimo. Son numerosas las pacientes que acuden a urgencias por esta causa, tanto por la clínica como por las implicaciones sociales. Los síntomas más frecuentes son dolor abdominal bajo, sangrados vaginales, o flujo vaginal excesivo o molesto. Las vulvovaginitis son uno de los problemas principales en la práctica clínica diaria del ginecólogo. La úlcera genital cuya etiología principal es el herpes, seguida de la sífilis y el chancroide incrementa el riesgo para contraer la infección por el VIH y modifica el curso de otras enfermedades de transmisión sexual. La enfermedad pélvica inflamatoria engloba a las infecciones del tracto genital superior femenino. La importancia del diagnóstico precoz y su tratamiento adecuado reside tanto por las complicaciones en la fase aguda como por las secuelas, que incluyen el dolor crónico y la esterilidad.Sexually transmitted diseases are those where the principal path of infection is through intimate contact. Numerous patients attend Accidents and emergencies for this reason, both because of the clinical features and because of social implications. The most frequent symptoms are lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding or excessive or troubling vaginal flow. Vulvovaginites are one of the principal problems in the everyday clinical practice of gynaecology. A genital ulcer whose principal aetiology is herpes, followed by syphilis and chancroid, increases the risk of contracting HIV infection and alters the course of other sexually transmitted diseases. Inflammatory pelvic disease encompasses infections of the upper female genital tract. The importance of early diagnosis and suitable treatment is both due to the complications in its acute phase and to its sequels, which include chronic pain and sterility.

  8. The in vitro and in vivo efficacy of fluconazole in combination with farnesol against Candida albicans isolates using a murine vulvovaginitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozó, Aliz; Domán, Marianna; Majoros, László; Kardos, Gábor; Varga, István; Kovács, Renátó

    2016-11-01

    Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits biofilm formation in Candida albicans. Previous in vitro data suggest that, in combination with certain antifungals, farnesol may have an adjuvant anti-biofilm agent. However, the in vivo efficacy of farnesol is very questionable. Therefore, the in vitro and in vivo activity of fluconazole combined with farnesol was evaluated against C. albicans biofilms using fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) determination, time-kill experiments and a murine vulvovaginitis model. The median biofilm MICs of fluconazole-sensitive C. albicans isolates ranged between 4 -> 512 mg/L and 150-300 μM for fluconazole and farnesol, respectively. These values were 512 -> 512 mg/L and > 300 μM for fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates. Farnesol decreased the median MICs of fluconazole by 2-64-fold for biofilms. Based on FICI, synergistic interaction was observed only in the case of the sessile SC5314 reference strain (FICIs: 0.16-0.27). In time-kill studies, only the 512 mg/L fluconazole and 512 mg/L fluconazole + 75 μM farnesol reduced biofilm mass significantly at each time point in the case of all isolates. The combination reduced the metabolic activity of biofilms for all isolates in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Our findings revealed that farnesol alone was not protective in a murine vulvovaginitis model. Farnesol was not beneficial in combination with fluconazole for fluconazole-susceptible isolates, but partially increased fluconazole activity against one fluconazole-resistant isolate, but not the other one.

  9. Genetic and Phenotypic Screening of Mannose-Binding Lectin in Relation to Risk of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Infections in Women of North India: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Namarta; Singh, Jatinder; Sharma, Sujata; Arora, Hardesh; Kaur, Manpreet

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent Vulvovaginal Infections (RVVI) is common problem associated with women of reproductive age. The function and deleterious effect of Mannose Binding Lectin 2 (MBL2) common polymorphisms are reported to be associated with various diseases. However, the role of MBL2 promoter gene polymorphisms and their combined effect with structural variant along with Serum Mannose Binding Lectin (sMBL) levels in RVVI has not been investigated. The study included 258 RVVI cases and 203 age matched healthy controls. These were investigated for the distribution of MBL2 codon 54 and promoter polymorphisms by Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR). sMBL levels were quantified by Enzyme Linked Immnosorbent Assay (ELISA). The frequency of X allele and its genotypes was significantly high in cases than controls conferring risk toward RVVI and its types (p Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC), and MI cases compared to controls (p < 0.05). VVC patient showed significantly low sMBL levels than RVVI and MI cases (p < 0.05). The mean sMBL levels segregated based on MBL2 genotypes and haplotypes showed significant difference in different cases groups with controls. The findings of the present study suggested that MBL2 Y/X polymorphism and low sMBL levels were associated with susceptibility to RVVI either it is BV, VVC, or MI. Thus MBL deficiency in women with RVVI may contribute to decreased efficiency in clearing of pathogens. Hence, specific measures like administration of purified or recombinant MBL might decrease the incidence of vaginal infections recurrences and more-effective treatment. PMID:28197138

  10. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans and its related species Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana isolated from vulvovaginal samples in a hospital of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theill, Laura; Dudiuk, Catiana; Morano, Susana; Gamarra, Soledad; Nardin, María Elena; Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Candida africana taxonomical status is controversial. It was proposed as a separate species within the Candida albicans species complex; however, phylogenetic analyses suggested that it is an unusual variety of C. albicans. The prevalence of C. albicans-related species (Candida dubliniensis and C. africana) as vulvovaginal pathogens is not known in Argentina. Moreover, data on antifungal susceptibility of isolates causing vulvovaginal candidiasis is scarce. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vaginal samples and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of vaginal C. albicans species complex strains. We used a molecular-based method coupled with a new pooled DNA extraction methodology to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. africana in a collection of 287 strains originally identified as C. albicans isolated from an Argentinian hospital during 2013. Antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and terbinafine were evaluated by using the CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Of the 287 isolates, 4 C. dubliniensis and one C. africana strains (1.39% and 0.35% prevalence, respectively) were identified. This is the first description of C. africana in Argentina and its identification was confirmed by sequencing the ITS2 region and the hwp1 gene. C. dubliniensis and C. africana strains showed very low MIC values for all the tested antifungals. Fluconazole-reduced-susceptibility and azole cross-resistance were observed in 3.55% and 1.41% of the C. albicans isolates, respectively. These results demonstrate that antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon in this kind of isolates. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. 复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病与女性生殖支原体感染的关系%Association between recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) and urogenital tract mycoplasma infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯新青; 李大宁

    2010-01-01

    @@ 外阴阴道念珠菌病(Vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)是常见妇科疾病,病原体主要为白念珠菌,易出现反复发作情况.若经过治疗,临床症状和体征消失,真菌学检查为阴性后症状重现,真菌学检查又呈阳性,则属复发.

  12. Vulvovaginal hygiene and care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupte Pushpa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of the skin is very important, which is achieved by a thin acid film - the acid mantle. Human skin has an acid mantle of pH 4-6. It prevents invasion by pathogenic organisms, acting as a first-line defence and helping in a disease-free existence. The vaginal mucosa has a similar acid mantle. Here, the natural acidic pH is maintained by lactic acid, an integral part of the vaginal ecosystem. This can be easily lost due to the lack of awareness of local care or various aggressive hygiene practices in addition to various diseases. Gentle cleansing along with good moisturization can go a long way in keeping the vulva healthy.

  13. Analysis of Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis%外阴阴道念珠菌病的致病菌群分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海萍; 王桂芝; 王君; 臧运书; 葛红芬; 王莹莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis in Qingdao and surrounding areas.Methods Vaginal discharge specimens were collected from 362 patients with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis in the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College from May 2011 to November 2011,and subjected to routine fungal culture.The Candida isolates were identified by using Sabouraud dextrose agar,CHROMagar medium,germ tube test with serum,and API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System.Results Totally,313 (86.46%) Candida strains were isolated from the specimens of 362 patients.Of these Candida strains,275 were identified as Candida albicans,38 as non-albicans Candida species,including 13 Candida glabrata strains,8 Candida parapsilosis strains,7 Candida tropicalis strains,5 Candida krusei strains,1 Candida lusitaniae strain,1 Candida dubliniensis strain,1 Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain,1 Pichia ohmeri strain and 1 Trichosporon mucoides strain.Conclusions As far as vulvovaginal candidiasis is concerned,Candida albicans is still the most prevalent pathogen,and Candida glabrata appears to be the predominant species in pathogenic non-albicans Candida species.%目的 探讨青岛及周边地区外阴阴道念珠菌病致病菌的菌种特征.方法 采用常规念珠菌培养方法鉴定菌种,包括沙氏培养基,血清芽管实验,CHROMagar念珠菌显色培养基及API 20C AUX酵母菌鉴定系统.结果 2011年5~11月共收集362例妇科门诊患者的阴道分泌物,病原学分析显示,念珠菌阳性例数为313例,总感染率为86.46%,菌种构成分布为白念珠菌275株,光滑念珠菌13株,近平滑念珠菌8株,热带念珠菌7株,克柔念珠菌5株,葡萄牙念珠菌1株,都柏林念珠菌1株,粘质红酵母菌1株,奥默毕赤酵母菌1株,粘性丝孢酵母菌1株.结论 白念珠菌仍是外阴阴道念珠菌病的常见致病菌,非白念以光滑念珠菌为主.

  14. 北京市昌平地区外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的流行病学研究%Epidemiology research of vulvovaginal candidiasis in Changping District of Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晔; 周明芳; 王君伟; 樊翌明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical features and risk factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods The study was designed as an prospective case-controlled study. 945 cases with positive-cultured Vaginal Candida yeast and 945 cases with negative-cultured fungus were included in the case-control study. Multi-factor Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Results Candida albicans infection was the most common reason for vulvovaginal candidiasis, accounting for 80.42%, and patients aged 25-35 had the highest incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Multi-factor Logistic regression showed that using period pad in non-menstrual period (OR = 3.457, 95% CI: 1.379-5.865), antibiotic application (OR =3.279, 95% CI: 1.222-4.753), the number of sexual partners ≥ 2 in 1 year (OR =2.865, 95% CI: 1.467-3.456), induced abortion≥2 (OR- 1.645, 95% CI: 0.964-3.563) were the risk factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Conclusion The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis is easily found in women during their reproductive age, Candida albicans infection is the most common cause of the disease. Using period pad in non-menstrual period, antibiotic application, the number of sexual partners ≥ 2 in 1 year, induced abortion ≥ 2 are risk factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis.%目的 探讨外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的临床特征和相关危险因素.方法 采用前瞻性研究方法,对945例阴道假丝酵母菌培养阳性者及945例真菌培养阴性者,进行病例对照研究.采用多因素Logistic回归分析外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的影响因素.结果 外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病以白色假丝酵母菌感染最为常见,占80.42%,25~35岁发病率最高.多因素Logistic回归分析显示:非月经期使用护垫(OR = 3.457,95%CI:1.379~5.865)、抗生素应用(OR = 3.279,95%CI:1.222~4.753)、1年内性伴侣数≥2个(OR = 2.865,95%CI:1.467~3.456)、人工流产≥2次(OR = 1.645,95%CI:0

  15. Expression and Significance of NF-κB, IL-1β and COX-2 in the Murine Model of Estrogen-dependent Experimental Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-rong CHEN; Ya-li LIU; Dun-zhen XIAO; Jun GAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible role of estrogen in the pathogenesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC).Methods Estrogen-dependent experimental murine model of C. albicans vaginal infection was established by injecting subcutaneously with estradiol benzoate and then 5 × 106 stationary-phase C. albicans blastoconidia was inoculated intravaginally to mice (group EI),and other 3 groups were set up: estrogen-treated but not infected (group E) ;estrogen-untreated but infected (group Ⅰ);normal control (group C).The dynamic change of colony-forming unit (CFU) of cervivovaginal lavage fluid was observed. Vaginal tissues at different time points (d 2,d 4,d 7 and d 14) after inoculation of C.albicans were obtained.In situ hybridization staining was used to detect expression of on d 4 and d 7 (P<0.01).Conclusions In the murine model of estrogen-dependent experimental VVC,estrogen promotes the infection establishment by up-regulating expression of CO X-2 via activating NF-κB signal pathway,and the high expression of COX-2 promoted by the interaction of IL-1β and NF-κB after infection formation was involved in persistence of infection.

  16. Determination of Drug Susceptibility of Candida Strains Isolated From Patients With Recurrent Candida Vulvovaginitis and Investigation of Predisposing Factors of the Disease

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    Minooeianhaghighi MH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis RVVC(, which is mostly caused by Candida albicans C. albicans(, is the second common cause of genital tract infection in females. Th purpose of this research was to identify Candida isolates from RVVC, identify predisposing factors and determine antifungal effct of flconazole against Candida strains isolated from the patients. Methods: In this descriptive-laboratory study, 20 patients with confimed diagnosis of RVVC were selected. Yeast isolates were characterized using mycological standard methods, including culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium and CHROM agar, germ tube test and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR-RFLP( technique. Th susceptibility of Candida isolates against flconazole was determined by microdilution broth method. Results: Th average age of the patients was 29.43 ± 4.63 years. Candida albicans was obtained from 100% of the samples. Th most common clinical sign was vaginal discharge 60%( in females with positive culture. Statistical correlations were observed between parturition frequency and low RVVC occurrence as well as between the previous antifungal therapy and RVVC occurrence. Th mean minimum inhibitory concentration MIC( and minimum fungicidal concentration MFC( of flconazole against diffrent C. albicans strains was determined as 45.3863 µg/mL and 63 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the uncertainty of diagnosis of this disease according to clinical symptoms and also, due to the resistance of Candida species, using culture and molecular methods are recommended as standard methods of diagnosis.

  17. Humoral immune responses to Candida albicans complement receptor 3-related protein in the atopic subjects with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Novel sensitive marker for Candida infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulovičová, Ema; Bujdáková, Helena; Chupáčová, Jarmila; Paulovičová, Lucia; Kertys, Pavol; Hrubiško, Martin

    2015-03-01

    In vitro evaluation of specific anti-Candida albicans sera antibodies based on synthetically prepared complement receptor 3-related protein (CR3-RP) mimicking the structure of native complement receptor 3 in a cohort of 72 patients with atopy and recurrent Candida vulvovaginitis (RVC) revealed effective humoral response against Candida CR3-RP. The most significant have been IgM and IgA isotype antibodies (33 and 47% positive cases, respectively). The quantitative evaluation of anti-CR3RP isotype antibodies was confronted with results of commercial ELISA anti-C. albicans antibodies diagnostics based on C. albicans cell wall mannan and β-glucan antigens, the most significant correlation being observed with anti-CR3-RP IgM and anti-β-D-glucan IgM (r(2) = 0.624) followed by isotype IgA (r(2) = 0.381). The immunogenicity and immunoreactivity of CR3RP antigen in RVC patients' sera had been evaluated with regard to the results reached by counterimmunoelectrophoresis and heterogeneous enzyme immunoassay. Obviously, synthetically prepared CR3-RP mimicking the Candida cell-wall-derived structure moiety represents a promising immunological tool not only for Candida serodiagnostics, but also prospectively for follow-up of targeted antifungal therapy and as promising Candida vaccine candidate.

  18. Granular Vulvovaginitis Syndrome in Nelore pubertal and post pubertal replacement heifers under tropical conditions: role of Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, M L; Kunz, T L; Oliveira Filho, B D; Porto, R N G; Oliveira, C M G; Brito, W M E D; Viu, M A O

    2009-10-01

    In order to determine the role of Mycoplasma spp, Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1 as causal agents of Granular Vulvovaginitis Syndrome in Nelore heifers raised under tropical conditions and based on the hypothesis that stressful conditions during puberty or breeding season would be a determinant factor for the infection, 340 heifers not vaccinated against BHV-1 were divided in Post-pubertal, in the beginning of the first breeding season, and Pubertal heifers. The vaginal lesion score (VLS) Grade 1 to 4 was giving according to lesion area and severity. Vaginal mucus was used to isolate Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1. The predominant VLS was 2. No sample was positive for BHV-1; 48% were positive for Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum, or both, with predominance of Ureaplasma diversum. Serum neutralization for BHV-1 showed more positive animals in pubertal group (23%); 3 of the paired sera demonstrated seroconversion. These data indicated that post-pubertal and pubertal Nelore heifers raised under extensive conditions are more susceptible to Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma diversum. The hypothesis that the stress of pubertal period could lead to an acute vaginal infection by HBV-1 was not proofed.

  19. Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns, In Vitro Production of Virulence Factors, and Evaluation of Diagnostic Modalities for the Speciation of Pathogenic Candida from Blood Stream Infections and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Tellapragada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. have emerged as successful pathogens in both invasive and mucosal infections. Varied virulence factors and growing resistance to antifungal agents have contributed to their pathogenicity. We studied diagnostic accuracy of HiCrome Candida Differential Agar and Vitek 2 Compact system for identification of Candida spp. in comparison with species-specific PCR on 110 clinical isolates of Candida from blood stream infections (54, 49% and vulvovaginal candidiasis (56, 51%. C. albicans (61% was the leading pathogen in VVC, while C. tropicalis (46% was prominent among BSIs. HiCrome Agar and Vitek 2 Compact had good measures of agreement (κ 0.826 and 0.895, respectively, in comparison with PCR. We also tested these isolates for in vitro production of proteinase, esterase, phospholipases, and biofilms. Proteinase production was more among invasive isolates (P=0.017, while phospholipase production was more among noninvasive isolates (P=0.001. There was an overall increase in the production of virulence factors among non-albicans Candida. Identification of clinical isolates of Candida up to species level either by chromogenic agar or by Vitek 2 Compact system should be routinely done to choose appropriate therapy.

  20. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: new terminology for vulvovaginal atrophy from the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health and the North American Menopause Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, David J; Gass, Margery L S

    2014-10-01

    In 2012, the Board of Directors of the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health (ISSWSH) and the Board of Trustees of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) acknowledged the need to review current terminology associated with genitourinary tract symptoms related to menopause. The 2 societies cosponsored a terminology consensus conference, which was held in May 2013. Members of the consensus conference agreed that the term genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) is a medically more accurate, all-encompassing, and publicly acceptable term than vulvovaginal atrophy. GSM is defined as a collection of symptoms and signs associated with a decrease in estrogen and other sex steroids involving changes to the labia majora/minora, clitoris, vestibule/introitus, vagina, urethra and bladder. The syndrome may include but is not limited to genital symptoms of dryness, burning, and irritation; sexual symptoms of lack of lubrication, discomfort or pain, and impaired function; and urinary symptoms of urgency, dysuria and recurrent urinary tract infections. Women may present with some or all of the signs and symptoms, which must be bothersome and should not be better accounted for by another diagnosis. The term was presented and discussed at the annual meeting of each society. The respective Boards of NAMS and ISSWSH formally endorsed the new terminology--genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM)--in 2014.

  1. 两性霉素B对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病抗真菌后巩固治疗效果观察%Amphotericin B therapy in consolidating antifungal treatment effects of vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉梅; 张斌

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析外阴阴道假丝酵母菌患者的临床有效治疗方法。方法:选取外阴阴道假丝酵母菌患者共104例作为研究对象,随机分为两组。其中对照组使用克霉唑治疗,实验组使用两性霉素B治疗,观察比较两组患者疗效。结果:实验组患者疼痛、阴道充血水肿改善高于对照组,P<0.05,差异有统计学意义;两组患者瘙痒症状、分泌物改善比较差异不明显,P>0.05,差异无统计学意义。结论:对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌患者使用两性霉素B治疗具有较好的效果,是一种有效的治疗方案。%Objectives:To explore clinically effective treatment for patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods:104 patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis were selected and randomly divided into two groups.Control group and experimental group adopted clotrimazole and amphotericin B therapy respectively;efficacy of the two groups were compared.Results:As for improvement in pain,vaginal congestion and edema of experimental group was higher than control group,P0.05.Conclusion:Amphotericin B therapy is of effective efficiency for patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  2. Analysis of the Causes of the Local Hui Nationality Women Vulvovaginal Candidiasis%探讨本地区回族女性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病高发的病因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王银川

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cause of the region's women vulvovaginal candidiasis high.Methods Selected from January 2012 to January 2014 in our hospital during the obstetrics and gynecology clinic diagnosed vulvovaginal candidiasis Muslim women 100 patients aged 14 to 50 years,mean age 32 years,after detailed history,al aspects were retrospectively analyzed and summarized.Results Candida causes of the high incidence of female genital vagina caused in the region include excessive cleaning,early marriage and pregnancy,and so on a variety of factors.Conclusion Variety of causes have led to Muslim women in the region vulvovaginal candidiasis high.%目的:探讨本地区女性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病高发的病因。方法选取2012年01月~2014年01月在我院妇产科门诊确诊为外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的回族女性100例,年龄14~50岁,平均年龄32岁,详细询问病史后,从各方面进行回顾性分析和总结。结果造成本地区女性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌高发的原因包括过度清洁、早婚早孕等等各种因素。结论多种病因均导致本地区回族女性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病高发。

  3. Fenticonazole Activity Measured by the Methods of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and CLSI against 260 Candida Vulvovaginitis Isolates from Two European Regions and Annotations on the Prevalent Genotypes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Stavroula; Aoun, Michel; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Baka, Stavroula; Logothetis, Emanuel; Kalambokas, Theodoros; Zannos, Andreas; Papadias, Konstantine; Grigoriou, Odysseas; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Velegraki, Aristea

    2009-01-01

    The activity of fenticonazole was studied against 260 West and Southeast European vulvovaginal candidiasis isolates, and low MICs were displayed. Fenticonazole was assessed by European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and CLSI microdilution methods for the first time, and the results showed excellent agreement (97%) and significant interclass correlation coefficient (P < 0.0001). Also, the levels of agreement for the results for itraconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole were 84%, 90%, and 98% (P < 0.0001), respectively. Multilocus typing by PCR fingerprinting and subsequent cluster analysis delineated geographically associated alignments for Candida albicans and fluconazole resistance-related clusters for Candida glabrata. PMID:19223627

  4. Fenticonazole activity measured by the methods of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and CLSI against 260 Candida vulvovaginitis isolates from two European regions and annotations on the prevalent genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Stavroula; Aoun, Michel; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Baka, Stavroula; Logothetis, Emanuel; Kalambokas, Theodoros; Zannos, Andreas; Papadias, Konstantine; Grigoriou, Odysseas; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Velegraki, Aristea

    2009-05-01

    The activity of fenticonazole was studied against 260 West and Southeast European vulvovaginal candidiasis isolates, and low MICs were displayed. Fenticonazole was assessed by European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and CLSI microdilution methods for the first time, and the results showed excellent agreement (97%) and significant interclass correlation coefficient (P < 0.0001). Also, the levels of agreement for the results for itraconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole were 84%, 90%, and 98% (P < 0.0001), respectively. Multilocus typing by PCR fingerprinting and subsequent cluster analysis delineated geographically associated alignments for Candida albicans and fluconazole resistance-related clusters for Candida glabrata.

  5. Detection of phospholipase activity of Candida albicans and non albicans isolated from women of reproductive age with vulvovaginal candidiasis in rural area

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    S R Fule

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is most common accounting for 17 to 39% of symptomatic women. Both Candida albicans and non albicans Candida species are involved in VVC. Amongst various virulence factors proposed for Candida, extracellular phospholipases is one of the virulence factor implicated in its pathogenicity. With this background the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of different Candida species and to detect phospholipase producing strains isolated from symptomatic women with VVC. Materials and Methods: At least two vaginal swabs from 156 women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal discharge were collected. Direct microscopy and Gram′s stained smear examined for presence of budding yeast and pseudo mycelia followed by isolation and identification of Candida species. Extracellular phospholipase activity was studied by inoculating all isolates on Sabouraud′s dextrose egg yolk agar (SDA medium. Results: Of the 156 women with curdy white discharge alone or in combination with other signs, 59 (37.82% women showed laboratory evidence of VVC. A total of 31 (52.54% women had curdy white discharge followed by 12 (20.33% with other signs and symptoms. C. albicans (62.59% and non albicans Candida (37.28% in a ratio of 1.68:1 were isolated. Of the 37 strains of C. albians 30 (81.08% showed the enzyme activity. Seventeen (56.66% strains showed higher Pz value of < 0.70 (++++. Conclusion: Although there may be typical clinical presentation of Candidiasis. all the patients did not show laboratory evidence of infection. Pregnancy was found to be major risk factor for development of VVC. C. albicans was prevalent species but non albicans species were also frequently isolated. Extracellular phospholipase activity was seen in C. albicans and not in non albicans Candida isolates.

  6. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S Y; Cheah, Y K; Seow, H F; Sandai, D; Than, L T L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. © 2015 The Authors published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. 外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病治疗的研究进展%Progress on the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏艳

    2011-01-01

    外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)是育龄期妇女的常见病.针对VVC的治疗方法主要有局部用药和口服用药,两种方法均有效.大量抗真菌药物的出现使选择用药出现争论.一般认为,唑类是首选用药,制霉菌素、两性霉素B和硼酸是二线用药,乳酸杆菌活菌制剂、精油疗法、抗过敏药为辅助用药.非传统疗法可治疗较顽同的病例.治疗中也需要考虑其他一些重要因素,包括妊娠、月经、药物敏感性、个人喜好等.%Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)is a common disease, occurring mostly in women of childbearing age. Currently available options for the treatment of VVC include local and oral therapy. Both alternatives are effective. The availability of numerous antifungal drugs for topical administration makes the selection quite challenging. Now it is generally considered that azoles is the preference, with nystatin, amphotericin B and boric acid considered as secondline alternatives, with lactobacillus, oils and antihistamine as adjuvant alternatives. Unconventional approaches may also be regarded as suitable in patients refractory to usual treatments. When treatment of VVC, some other important issues should be taken into consideration, such as pregnancy, menopause, drug hypersensitivity, women′s preference and so on.

  8. Quercetin Assists Fluconazole to Inhibit Biofilm Formations of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida Albicans in In Vitro and In Vivo Antifungal Managements of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mei; Wang, Hui; Zhu, LiJuan

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common gynecological disease. Candida albicans is believed to be mainly implicated in VVC occurrence, the biofilm of which is one of the virulence factors responsible for resistance to traditional antifungal agents especially to fluconazole (FCZ). Quercetin (QCT) is a dietary flavonoid and has been demonstrated to be antifungal against C. albicans biofilm. 17 C. albicans isolates including 15 clinical ones isolated from VVC patients were employed to investigate the effects of QCT and/or FCZ on the inhibition of C. albicans biofilm. We observed that 64 µg/mL QCT and/or 128 µg/mL FCZ could (i) be synergistic against 10 FCZ-resistant planktonic and 17 biofilm cells of C. albicans, (ii) inhibit fungal adherence, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), flocculation, yeast-to-hypha transition, metabolism, thickness and dispersion of biofilms; (iii) down-regulate the expressions of ALS1, ALS3, HWP1, SUN41, UME6 and ECE1 and up-regulate the expressions of PDE2, NRG1 and HSP90, and we also found that (iv) the fungal burden was reduced in vaginal mucosa and the symptoms were alleviated in a murine VVC model after the treatments of 5 mg/kg QCT and/or 20 mg/kg FCZ. Together with these results, it could be demonstrated that QCT could be a favorable antifungal agent and a promising synergist with FCZ in the clinical management of VVC caused by C. albicans biofilm. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Antifungal effects of Lavandula binaludensis and Cuminum cyminum essential oils against Candida albicans strains isolated from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooeianhaghighi, M H; Sepehrian, L; Shokri, H

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), which affects approximately 5% of women of reproductive age, is defined as 4 or more episodes of symptomatic Candida vaginitis within a year. The purposes of this study were to determine the chemical compositions and antifungal susceptibility of Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) and Lavandula binaludensis (L. binaludensis) essential oils and their combination against Candida albicans (C. albicans) strains isolated from patients with RVVC. C. albicans isolates were identified via germ tube test, CHROMagar and RapID Yeast Plus System. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The broth microdilution method was used as antifungal susceptibility test (CLSI-M27-A3). The GC-MS analysis allowed 13 components to be determined; the main components of C. cyminum and L. binaludensis essential oils were γ-terpinene (21.07%) and 1,8-cineole (71.56%), respectively. L. binaludensis and C. cyminum oils were effective in inhibiting C. albicans growth at mean concentrations of 7.91±1.61μg/mL and 8.00±1.89μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the combination of C. cyminum with L. binaludensis oils were more active causing inhibition in all C. albicans isolates, with concentrations varying from 3.90 to 11.71μg/mL (mean value: 7.22±1.69μg/mL). The results suggested the potential substitution of the antifungal chemicals by C. cyminum and L. binaludensis essential oils as natural inhibitors to control the growth of the most important pathogenic Candida species and alternative therapies for RVVC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Quercetin Assists Fluconazole to Inhibit Biofilm Formations of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida Albicans in In Vitro and In Vivo Antifungal Managements of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is a common gynecological disease. Candida albicans is believed to be mainly implicated in VVC occurrence, the biofilm of which is one of the virulence factors responsible for resistance to traditional antifungal agents especially to fluconazole (FCZ. Quercetin (QCT is a dietary flavonoid and has been demonstrated to be antifungal against C. albicans biofilm. Methods: 17 C. albicans isolates including 15 clinical ones isolated from VVC patients were employed to investigate the effects of QCT and/or FCZ on the inhibition of C. albicans biofilm. Results: We observed that 64 µg/mL QCT and/or 128 µg/mL FCZ could (i be synergistic against 10 FCZ-resistant planktonic and 17 biofilm cells of C. albicans, (ii inhibit fungal adherence, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH, flocculation, yeast-to-hypha transition, metabolism, thickness and dispersion of biofilms; (iii down-regulate the expressions of ALS1, ALS3, HWP1, SUN41, UME6 and ECE1 and up-regulate the expressions of PDE2, NRG1 and HSP90, and we also found that (iv the fungal burden was reduced in vaginal mucosa and the symptoms were alleviated in a murine VVC model after the treatments of 5 mg/kg QCT and/or 20 mg/kg FCZ. Conclusion: Together with these results, it could be demonstrated that QCT could be a favorable antifungal agent and a promising synergist with FCZ in the clinical management of VVC caused by C. albicans biofilm.

  11. A randomized clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of terconazole vaginal suppository versus oral fluconazole for treating severe vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhu, Yuxia; Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaoping; Xu, Huicong; Liang, Yiheng

    2015-06-01

    Terconazole is a new, broad-spectrum, triazole antifungal agent. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a 6-day course of a terconazole vaginal suppository (80 mg) with two doses of oral fluconazole (150 mg) for the treatment of severe vulvovaginal candidiasis (SVVC). In this prospective, randomized case-control study, 140 consecutive patients with SVVC were enrolled at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from July 1, 2013, through June 31, 2014. Patients with SVVC, initially at a 1:1 ratio, were randomly assigned to receive treatment with either the terconazole vaginal suppository or oral fluconazole. The patients had follow-up visits at 7-14 days and 30-35 days following the last dose of therapy. The clinical cure rates in the terconazole group and the fluconazole group were, respectively, 81.0% (47/58) and 75.8% (50/66) at follow-up day 7-14 and 60.3% (35/58) and 56.1% (37/66) at day 30-35. The mycological cure rates in the two groups were, respectively, 79.3% (46/58) and 71.2% (47/66) at follow-up day 7-14 and 62.1% (36/58) and 53.0% (35/66) at day 30-35 (P > .05 for all). Local irritation was the primary adverse event associated with terconazole, whereas systemic side effects were associated with fluconazole; however, these effects were minimal. This study demonstrated that a terconazole vaginal suppository (80 mg daily for 6 days) was as effective as two dose of oral fluconazole (150 mg) in the treatment of patients with SVVC; as such, terconazole could be a choice for therapy of this disorder. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology.

  12. Guideline vulvovaginal candidosis (2010) of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics, the Working Group for Infections and Infectimmunology in Gynecology and Obstetrics, the German Society of Dermatology, the Board of German Dermatologists and the German Speaking Mycological Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendling, W; Brasch, J

    2012-07-01

    Candida (C.) species colonize the estrogenized vagina in at least 20% of all women. This statistic rises to 30% in late pregnancy and in immunosuppressed patients. The most often occurring species is Candida albicans. Host factors, especially local defense deficiencies, gene polymorphisms, allergic factors, serum glucose levels, antibiotics, psychosocial stress and estrogens influence the risk for a Candida vulvovaginitis. In less than 10% of all cases, non-albicans species, especially C. glabrata, but in rare cases also Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cause a vulvovaginitis, often with fewer clinical signs and symptoms. Typical symptoms include premenstrual itching, burning, redness and non-odorous discharge. Although pruritus and inflammation of the vaginal introitus are typical symptoms, only less than 50% of women with genital pruritus suffer from a Candida vulvovaginitis. Diagnostic tools are anamnesis, evaluation of clinical signs, the microscopic investigation of the vaginal fluid by phase contrast (400 x), vaginal pH-value and, in clinically and microscopically uncertain or in recurrent cases, yeast culture with species determination. The success rate for treatment of acute vaginal candidosis is approximately 80%. Vaginal preparations containing polyenes, imidazoles and ciclopiroxolamine or oral triazoles, which are not allowed during pregnancy, are all equally effective. C. glabrata is resistant to the usual dosages of all local antimycotics. Therefore, vaginal boric acid suppositories or vaginal flucytosine are recommended, but not allowed or available in all countries. Therefore, high doses of 800 mg fluconazole/day for 2-3 weeks are recommended in Germany. Due to increasing resistence, oral posaconazole 2 × 400 mg/day plus local ciclopiroxolamine or nystatin for 15 days was discussed. C. krusei is resistant to triazoles. Side effects, toxicity, embryotoxicity and allergy are not clinically important. A vaginal clotrimazole treatment in the first trimester of

  13. DETECTION OF IL-17 IN BLOOD AND VAGINAL SECRETIONS OF VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS PATIENTS%外阴阴道念珠菌病患者血液及阴道分泌物IL-17的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琦巍

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨不同严重程度外阴阴道念珠菌患者血液及阴道分泌物中细胞因子IL-17的表达水平与其发病程度之间的关系.[方法]68例VVC女性患者分为轻中度VVC组(27例)、重度VVC组(21例)、RVVC组(20例).同时,随机选择同期健康体检妇女26例为对照组.ELISA法检测各组血液及阴道分泌物中的IL-17表达水平.[结果]各组外阴阴道念珠菌病患者的阴道分泌物和血液中的IL-17表达水平均高于对照组(P<0.05),且各组间比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);组间两两比较,重度外阴阴道念珠菌病组和RVVC组IL-17的水平均高于对照组(P<0.05);RVVC组IL-17水平高于对照组(P<0.05).[结论]外阴阴道念珠菌患者血液及阴道分泌物中IL-17的表达异常可能与外阴阴道念珠菌病的发病、病情严重程度和复发有关.%[Objective] To investigate the IL-17 cytokine expression in vulvovaginal candidiasis patient's blood and vaginal secretions of and its relationship between disease severity. [Methods] 68 VVC women were divided into mild and moderate group (27 cases) , severe VVC group (21 cases) , RVVC group (20 cases). Meanwhile, the 26 healthy women were randomly selected as control group. ELJSA method was used to delect the IL-17 expression in blood and vaginal secretions. [ Results] The IL-17 levels in vaginal secretions and blood of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis were higher (P < 0.05), and the differences among groups were significant (P< 0.05); between any two groups, IL-17 levels in severe vulvovaginal candidiasis group and RVVC group were higher than that in control group (P<0.05); IL-17 level in RVVC group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). [Conclusion] The abnormal expression of IL-17 in blood and vaginal secretions of vulvovaginal candidiasis patients may be associated with the incidence of incidence, severity and recurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  14. [Study of acute vulvovaginitis in sexually active adult women, with special reference to candidosis, in patients of the Francisco J. Muñiz Infectious Diseases Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Luis; Arechavala, Alicia; Negroni, Ricardo

    2004-12-01

    The results of microbiological vaginal secretions samples obtained from 749 women (from July 2001 to July 2002) were studied in the Bacteriology Unit of the Francisco Javier Muñiz Hospital from Buenos Aires. All patients suffered acute vulvovaginitis were child bearing and sexually active women, 334 of them were HIV-positive. The following are the results of the microbiological studies: Lactobacillus spp 50.6%, Gardnerella vaginalis 25.6%, Candida spp 17.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 5.3%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 0.3% and B group Streptococcus 0.8%. Candida vaginitis was significantly more frequent in HIV-positive patients, (21.6% vs 14%; p = 0.0086); meanwhile, trichomoniasis was less common although the difference was not statistically significant (3.6 vs 6.7%, p = 0.0810). The following Candida species were isolated in this study: Candida albicans 76.8%, Candida glabrata 15.6%, Candida parapsilosis 2.9%, Candida tropicalis 1.5% and Candida krusei 0.7%. Eight cases (6.2%) of vaginitis were produced by two Candida species (C. albicans and C. glabrata), and in three cases (2.17%) Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated. Five women suffering acute vaginitis with Candida spp presented another etiologic agent of vaginal infection, three cases T. vaginalis and two cases G. vaginalis. The following are some of the most important findings of this study: 1) Half of the patients presented a normal microbial biota; 2) Candida spp vaginitis was significantly more frequent among HIV-positive women; 3) we observed a high incidence of Candida glabrata infections (15.9%), 4) 6.2% of vaginal candidiasis were caused by more than one Candida species and, 5) the susceptibility pattern of C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates against fluconazole was similar to the one observed in other studies. The majority of C. albicans isolates were susceptible to fluconazole (MIC90 = 0.5 microg/ml) meanwhile C. glabrata strains were much less susceptible to this drug (MIC50 and MIC90 = 32 microg/ml).

  15. Efficacy of vitamin B complex as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis: An in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei-Guo; Huang, Ying; Xu, Yuan-Hong; Cao, Yun-Xia

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the efficacy of vitamin B complex as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in vitro and in vivo. One-hundred fifty-eight complicated VVC patients were randomly divided into group A (treated with suppository+oral antifungal agents), group B (treated with suppository+vaginal cream), and group C (treated with suppository+vaginal cream+oral vitamin B complex). A mouse model of VVC was established. Eighty VVC mice were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the dose of vitamin B complex (20 mice in each group): V1 group (injected with 150μL normal salin), V2 group (injected with 50μL vitamin B complex solution+100μL normal saline), V3 group (injected with 100μL vitamin B complex solution+50μL normal saline), and V4 group (injected with 150μL vitamin B complex solution). After 4 weeks of treatment, the vaginal secretion was obtained for microscopic smear examination. HE stainning was performed to observe histopathological changes of vaginal tissues. The expressions of inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA. Meanwhile, VVC model of vaginal epithelial cells was established. The effects of different concentrations of vitamin B complex on anti-fungal effect of fluconazole were detected in vitro. After the treatment, complicated patients in the group C had significantly higher effective rates than those in the group A and group B. After the intra-gastric administration, the microscopic smear examination found that obvious pseudohypha in cluster with a lot of blastospores can be seen in the vaginal secretions of mice in the V1 group under the microscope. There was significant difference between mice treated with different dosages of vitamin B complex. The inflammatory response of mice in the V1 group was significantly higher than those in other groups and the inflammation response reduced with the increase of vitamin B complex dosage. The vitamin B complex elevated the curative effects of

  16. Results of treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis%治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 李嫱; 苏应仙

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察根据药敏试验选择敏感抗真菌药口服联合氯喹那多-普罗雌烯阴道片治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(RVVC)的疗效.方法 将59例RVVC患者随机分为两组,采用强化和巩固治疗,观察组30例口服敏感药物,阴道放置氯喹那多-普罗雌烯阴道片,对照组29例口服氟康唑,阴道放置氯喹那多-普罗雌烯阴道片,治疗3个月.治疗后1个月、3个月复查.结果 治疗后1个月观察总有效率,观察组100%,对照组69.0%(P<0.01),治疗后3个月观察复发率,观察组3.7%,对照组42.1%(P<0.01).结论 治疗RVVC应进行真菌培养及药敏试验,选择敏感药物口服联合氯喹那多-普罗雌烯阴道片治疗调整菌群,改善阴道微环境可提高治愈率,减少复发.%Objective To observe the effects of chlorquinaldol-promestriene vaginal tablets on recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). Methods There 59 RVVC patients were divided randomly into treatment group consisted of 30 patients given sensitive antifungals and chlorquinaldol-promestriene vaginal tablets, and control group consisted of 29 patients given fluconazol for oral use and chlorquinaldol-promestriene vaginal tablets for aeourse of 3 months. Results The total effective rate of the treatment group was 100%,and that of control group was 69.0%(P<0.01) a month after treatment. The recurrent rate of the treatment group was 3.7%,and the rate of control group was 42.1%(P<0.01) 3 months. after treatment. Conclusions Sensitive antifungals combined with chlorquinaldol-promestriene vaginal tablets is effective for treatment of RWC.

  17. Alcohol dehydrogenase Ⅰ expression correlates with CDR1, CDR2 and FLU1 expression in Candida albicans from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui; ZHANG Xiao-li; GAO Lai-qiang; LI Shui-xiu; SONG Yan-jun; ZHANG Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background The most critical mechanism governing drug resistance in Candida albicans (C.albicans) involves efflux pumps,the functionality of which largely depends on energy metabolism.Alcohol dehydrogenase Ⅰ (ADH1) plays an important role in intracellular energy metabolism.The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between ADH1 and drug resistance in C.albicans.Methods Twenty clinical C.albicans samples isolated from individual patients diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis,and two C.albicans strains obtained from a single parental source (the fluconazole (FLC)-sensitive strain CA-1S and the FLC-resistant strain CA-16R) were included in our study.In accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 guidelines,we used the microdilution method to examine the FLC minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to measure the mRNA expression levels of ADH1 and the azole resistance genes CDR1,CDR2,MDR1,FLU1 and ERG11 in all the isolates.Results A highly significant positive correlation between the mRNA levels of ADH1 and the MICs (rs =0.921,P=0.000),as well as positive correlations between the mRNA level of ADH1 and those of CDR1,CDR2 and FLU1 (rs of 0.704,0.772 and 0.779,respectively,P <0.01),were observed in the 20 clinical C.albicans samples.The relative expression of ADH1 was upregulated 10.63-to 17.61-fold in all of the drug-resistant isolates.No correlations were found between the mRNA levels of ADH1 and those of MDR1 or ERG11 (P >0.05).The mRNA levels of the examined drug resistance genes were higher in the CA-16R strain than in CA-1S,and the mRNA levels of ADH1 in CA-16R were 11.64-fold higher than those in CA-1S (P <0.05).Conclusions These results suggest that high levels of ADH1 transcription are implicated in FLC resistance in C.albicans and that the mRNA expression levels of ADH1 are positively correlated with those of CDR1,CDR2 and FLU1.

  18. Homology of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis and Intestinal Candidiasis Infection%复发性假丝酵母菌性外阴阴道炎与肠道假丝酵母菌感染的同源性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏艳; 林晓丽; 金志军; 左绪磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To research the homology of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) and intestinal candidiasis infection. Methods: The vaginal discharge and archos swabs of all the 203 patients were cultivated. Then the double -positive samples were cultivated in YPD medium and the genome DNA of the samples was extracted and the homology was analysed by using PCR. Results: Of the 203 patients, 66 double-positive samples were cultivated. There were 45 samples (100%) in RVVC group, and 21 samples (13.29%) in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) group (x2=120.013, P<0.01). The homology of candida from the double-positive patients was up to 94.44%. Conclusion: There is some close relationship between intestinal candidiasis infection and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.%目的:探讨复发性假丝酵母菌性外阴阴道炎与肠道假丝酵母菌感染的同源性.方法:分别采集和鉴定假丝酵母菌性外阴阴道炎(VVC)和复发性假丝酵母菌性外阴阴道炎(RVVC)感染者阴道和肠道的菌株,采用PCR方法进行阴道和肠道菌株同源性分析.结果:203例患者中VVC组158人,RVVC组45人.共有66例患者经菌株鉴定为阴道和肠道同时感染假丝酵母菌,其中VVC患者21例(13.29%),RVVC患者45例(100%)(x2=120.013,P<0.01);肠道和阴道标本同源性占94.44%.结论:复发性假丝酵母菌性外阴阴道炎与肠道假丝酵母菌感染之间关系密切.

  19. 氟康唑胶囊治疗复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病的疗效观察%The Cinical effect of Di.ucan in the Treatment of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建华

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察氟康唑胶囊疗复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病的疗效,探讨临床价值.方法 收集本院200 例复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病患者的临床资料,进行回顾性分析;随机分为2组,对照组(n=100) 给予口服氟胞嘧啶片(剂量150mg/ 次,1 次/d,连用7d) 治疗,观察组(n=100) 给予口服氟康唑胶囊(剂量150mg/ 次,1 次/周,连用两周)治疗,对比两组治疗效果.结果 所有患者分别于治疗后4周、6个月、12 个月进行复查,对比同期观察组与对照组的治疗效果,观察组的治疗显效率明显优于对照组,差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 氟康唑胶囊治疗复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病,疗效确切、可缩短病程,具有临床推广价值.%Objective: To observe the treatment effect of diflucan in the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and to explore the clinical value. Methods: 200 patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis were ramdomly divided into two groups. The control group (n=100) took the flucytosine tablets (150mg-dose once daily,7days). The observe group (n=100) took an oral diflucan(150mg-dose once a week). Evaluate the efficiency of the two groups after the treatment ended in 4 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. Results: The clinical treatment efficiency of the observe group was much better than the control group (P<0.05) in the same period after the treatment finished. Conclusion: Diflucan capsules treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, efficacy, may shorten the course, with the clinical value.

  20. Correlação entre os resultados laboratoriais e os sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e relevância dos parceiros sexuais na manutenção da infecção em São Paulo, Brasil Relationship of laboratory results with clinical signs and symptoms of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and the significance of the sexual partners for the maintenance of the infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Fabio Boatto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: relacionar as leveduras identificadas aos sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e investigar a importância dos parceiros sexuais na reincidência da infecção. MÉTODOS: foi desenvolvido estudo prospectivo de julho de 2001 a julho de 2003 com uma amostra de mulheres residentes na Grande São Paulo. Foram avaliadas 179 pacientes com suspeita clínica de vaginite fúngica, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos. Os critérios para exclusão foram: gravidez, comprometimento imunológico intrínseco e extrínseco, incluindo AIDS, diabetes, imunossupressão, pacientes em terapia com corticosteróides, antibióticos ou hormônios, em pós-menopausa, em uso de dispositivo intra-uterino e duchas vaginais ou espermicidas. Amostras de secreções vaginais ou da glande dos parceiros sexuais de pacientes com vaginite de repetição foram coletadas para microscopia e cultura de fungos. Colônias fúngicas isoladas em CHROMagar Candida foram identificadas por provas clássicas. O teste exato de Fisher foi usado para correlacionar o quadro clínico com as leveduras isoladas das pacientes. RESULTADOS: os sinais e sintomas clínicos mais relevantes na candidíase vulvovaginal foram prurido e corrimento, seguidos por eritema e edema, estatisticamente independente do agente etiológico. Leveduras foram diagnosticadas por microscopia direta em 77 pacientes com vulvovaginites, sendo obtidos 40 cultivos de Candida spp. Candida albicans (70%, C. glabrata (20%, C. tropicalis (7,5% e C. guilliermondii (2,5% foram identificadas. As leveduras prevalentes nos parceiros foram C. albicans e C. glabrata. As mesmas espécies foram detectadas nas companheiras e parceiros em 87% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: as vulvovaginites fúngicas foram mais freqüentes em mulheres entre 18 e 34 anos de idade. Não foi observada correlação entre as espécies de leveduras detectadas e a sintomatologia clínica. Os parceiros sexuais podem ser importantes

  1. Lipoinjerto laminar: un tratamiento prometedor con factores vasculares estromales para las vulvo-vaginitis crónicas Lipoenxertia laminar: um tratamento promissor com factores vasculares estromais para as vulvo-vaginetes crônicas Lamellar fatgrafting: a promissing treatment with stromal vascular fraction in recurrent vulvo-vaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ithamar N. Stocchero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Una de las situaciones más problemáticas para la vida íntima de una mujer, sobre todo si es joven, son las vulvo-vaginitis de repetición. Junto al herpes genital recidivante, suele ser causa de disarmonía en la relación de pareja por la situación en sí y por la frecuente presencia de dolor. Presentamos un caso exitoso en el que se aplicó un nuevo tratamiento consistente en la utilización de liponinjerto laminar submucoso, con preservación de la fracción vascular estromal (FVE, rica en células tronco derivadas de ese tejido (ADSCs, capaces de inducir neoangiogénesis que promoverá la defensa inmunológica normal de la mucosa de la vagina. De esta forma evitamos el uso de antibióticos y de otras terapias más costosas y, sobre todo, favoreciendo una vida sexual normal. Describimos en el presente artículo la técnica empleada.Uma das situações mais inconvenientes para a vida íntima de uma mulher, mormente jovem, é a vulvo-vaginite de repetição. Se acompanhada de herpes genital recidivante, não raro estabelece a desarmonia entre o casal dada à inconveniência da situação, além da dor, freqüentemente presente. Buscar o tratamento adequado, não prescrevendo apenas a antibióticoterapia, mas visando aumentar a resistência imunológica local da paciente, tem sido o objetivo de pesquisas nos últimos anos. Com o conhecimento da ação inflamatória induzida pelo tecido adiposo, associada à transferência de fatores vasculares estromais (FVE, grande fonte de células-tronco derivadas daquele tecido (ADSCs - Adipose- Derived Stromal/Stem Cells,bem como de indutores da angiogênese, facilitadora do acesso de células de defesa, foi idealizada uma nova e promissora linha de tratamento para estas pacientes: a lipoenxertia laminar. Relata-se a técnica bem sucedida, utilizada neste caso.One of the most inconvenient situations for a woman, mostly if young, is the recurrent vulvo-vaginitis. With the presence of a returning genital

  2. Sexually transmitted infections associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity Infecciones de transmisión sexual asociadas a síntomas vulvovaginales en adolescentes que niegan vida sexual activa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Velarde-Jurado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic evidence of a probable sexually transmitted infection associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of female adolescents, aged 10-18 years were reviewed. These women received first-time medical care for vulvovaginitis, between 1995 and 1999 at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, (Children's Hospital. Comparisons between groups were performed, as appropriate, by the unpaired Student's t-test, the Z test or the chi-square test; statistically significant differences were set at a two-tailed pOBJETIVO: Identificar datos clínicos, de laboratorio y ultrasonográficos que permitan el diagnóstico de una infección de transmisión sexual asociada a síntomas vulvovaginales en las pacientes adolescentes que niegan vida sexual activa. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes de las adolescentes de 10 a 18 años de edad que requirieron atención médica de primera vez por vulvovaginitis entre 1995 y 1999 en el Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Las comparaciones entre grupos se llevaron a cabo con la prueba t de Student, la prueba de Z, o la de ji-cuadrada. Se utilizó un valor de p<0.05 para establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Se calcularon razones de momios con intervalos de confianza de 95%. RESULTADOS: De 258 adolescentes, en 53 (20.5% se identificó un microrganismo de transmisión sexual y 52 de ellas negaron tener vida sexual activa. No hubo diferencias estadísticas entre los dos grupos de adolescentes en cuanto a la edad, los años de estudio, el nivel socioeconómico, la maduración sexual y la presencia de menarquia. El dolor abdominal en los cuadrantes inferiores, la coloración anormal de la secreción vaginal, un cultivo urinario positivo y un estudio ultrasonográfico abdominal compatible con enfermedad pélvica inflamatoria estuvieron asociados con

  3. Genital/Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience genital itching, burning, and sometimes a "cottage cheese-like" vaginal discharge. Men with genital candidiasis may ... number of Candida organisms are present. A fungal culture may not always be useful because Candida species ...

  4. 一般人群育龄妇女外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带情况及相关行为因素分析%Analysis on the carrier situation and related behavioral factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis in women of child bearing age among the general population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秀; 肖敏; 郭爱华; 李汉金; 胡序怀

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解一般人群育龄妇女外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带情况和不同避孕方法、行为因素对女性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带的影响.方法:通过对育龄妇女体检采集的阴道分泌物进行培养,诊断女性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带情况,并对所有对象进行问卷调查,了解相关的行为因素.结果:深圳地区一般人群育龄妇女阴道假丝酵母菌携带率15.4%.初中文化程度以下妇女阴道假丝酵母菌检出率为16.4%,高中及以上文化程度妇女的检出率为15.1%.采取不同避孕方法的妇女阴道假丝酵母菌携带率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带有影响的因素分别有:洗澡时采用盆浴(P=0.011)、内裤与袜子混洗(P=0.020)、浴盆与洗脚盆共用(P=0.049)和非经期使用卫生护垫(P=0.001),而其他调查相关因素差异无统计学意义.结论:采用阴道分泌物培养的方式检测假丝酵母菌检出率高.深圳市一般人群育龄妇女外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带率在正常范围内.文化程度、避孕方法对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带无影响(P>0.05).盆浴、内裤袜子混洗、浴盆与洗脚盆共用及非经期使用卫生护垫是妇女外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带的危险因素.%Objective: To understand the carrier situation of vulvovaginal candidiasis in women of child bearing age among the general population and the effects of different contraceptive methods and behavioral factors on vulvovaginal candidiasis carrier. Methods: The vaginal secretion samples of women of child bearing age were obtained during physical examination and cultured, the carrier situation of female vulvovaginal candidiasis was diagnosed, and all the objects were surveyed by a questionnaire, the related behavioral factors were understood. Results:The carrying rate of vulvovaginal candidiasis in women of child bearing age among the general population in Shenzhen was 15.4%. The detection rates

  5. Clinical Observation of Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablet in the Treatment of Pregnancy with Vulvovaginal Candi-diasis%克霉唑阴道片治疗妊娠合并念珠菌性阴道炎的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖金英; 冯燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察克霉唑阴道片治疗妊娠合并念珠菌性阴道炎的疗效和安全性。方法:106例妊娠合并念珠菌性阴道炎患者随机分为观察组(56例)和对照组(50例)。观察组患者于用药前清洗外阴部,保持洁净,用送药器将克霉唑阴道片1片放入阴道内5~6 cm处,每2日1次;对照组患者于用药前清洁外阴部,用送药器将乳酸菌素阴道胶囊1粒放入阴道内5~6 cm处,每日1次。两组疗程均为8d。治疗期间停止性生活,避免使用其他药物。观察两组患者的临床疗效、念珠菌清除率、妊娠情况及不良反应发生情况。结果:观察组患者总有效率、念珠菌清除率均显著高于对照组,带菌率显著低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组患者妊娠情况、不良反应发生率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:克霉唑阴道片治疗妊娠合并念珠菌性阴道炎疗效显著,可清除念珠菌,安全性较好。%OBJECTIVE:To observe the efficacy and safety of Clotrimazole vaginal tablet in the treatment of pregnancy with vulvovaginal candidiasis. METHODS:106 pregnant patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis were randomly divided into observation group (56 cases) and control group (50 cases). Observation group was given one tablet Clotrimazole vaginal tablet,washed the genital area before treatment to keep clean and one Clotrimazole vaginal tablet was sent to intravaginal 5-6 cm,once every 2 day. Control group was given Lactobacillus vaginal capsule,once a day,washed the genital area before treatment and one Lactobacillus vaginal capsule was sent to intravaginal 5-6 cm. The treatment course for both groups was 8 d. No sexual activities during treatment and no other drugs. Clinical efficacy,clearance rate of candidiasis,pregnancy and incidence of adverse reactions in 2 groups were observed. RESULTS:The total effective rate and clearance rate of candidiasis

  6. Concurrent Infection of Mycoplasma or Chlamydia Trachomatis on Vulvovaginal Candidiasis%外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病伴发支原体及沙眼衣原体感染的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英汉; 李东; 冯辉; 刘静

    2016-01-01

    Complicated infection of vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC)with mycoplasma / chlamydia trachomatis(CT) was investigated,choosing 86 female patients with recurrent VVC(RVVC),219 female patients with simple VVC and 200 health examining females who underwent ureaplasma urealyticum(Uu),mycoplasma hominis(Mh)and CT detection. Candida in vaginal discharge from all women with VVC was identified by fungal culture. The rates of Uu positive,Mh positive and mixed positive in both RVVC group and simple VVC group were significantly higher than those in control group respectively(P 0. 05). The positive rate of Uu was sig-nificantly different between positive and negative fungal culture groups(P 0. 05). The infection rate of Uu in patients with VVC was signif-icantly higher than that in normal population,suggested that Candida mixed with infection of Uu would lead to the oc-currence of VVC,especial the recurrence of VVC.%为研究外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(Vulvovaginal Candidiasis,VVC)患者合并支原体和衣原体感染情况,对86例复发性 VVC(recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis,RVVC)患者、219例单纯性 VVC 患者以及健康妇女200例,分别进行解脲脲原体(Ureaplasma urealyticum,Uu)、人型支原体( mycoplasma hominis,Mh)和沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia trachomatis,CT)检测;所有 VVC 病例均进行真菌培养。RVVC 组和单纯 VVC 组与对照组之间 Uu、Mh 及 Uu 混合 Mh 阳性率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P 约0.05)。而三组之间 CT 和 CT 混合支原体阳性率比较,均无显著性差异(P 跃0.05)。真菌培养阳性组与阴性组之间,Uu 阳性率比较有显著性差异(P 约0.05),而CT 阳性率比较无显著性差异(P 跃0.05)。结果表明,VVC 患者合并 Uu 感染较正常人群明显增高,假丝酵母菌与 Uu 混合感染可能导致 VVC 的发生和复发。

  7. 洁阴洗剂治疗复发性念珠菌性外阴阴道炎的疗效观察%The Efficacy of Jieyin Lotion in the Treatment of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨洁阴洗剂治疗复发性念珠菌性外阴阴道炎的疗效及应用价值。方法:选择笔者所在医院收治的160例复发性念珠菌性外阴阴道炎患者作为研究对象,随机分为对照组和观察组,对照组采用口服氟康唑进行治疗,观察组在对照组治疗的基础上联合使用洁阴洗剂进行治疗,观察两组临床治疗效果。结果:观察组总有效率为76.25%,对照组总有效率为57.50%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组治疗后1、2、3个月复发率均少于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:采用洁阴洗剂联合口服氟康唑治疗复发性念珠菌性外阴阴道炎疗效优于单纯口服氟康唑的治疗,复发率较低,值得在临床上大力推广使用。%Objective:To investigate the efficacy and application value of Jieyin lotion in the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Method:160 cases patients in author’s hospital with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis for the study were randomly divided into control group and observation group,the control group were treated with oral fluconazole,the observation group were treated with Jieyin lotion treatment on the basis of the control group treatment method,the clinical effect of two groups were observed.Result:The total effective rate in the observation group was 76.25%,the total effective rate in the control group was 57.50%,the two groups by statistical analysis,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).After treatment 1,2,3 month,the recurrence rate in the observation group were less than the control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The effective of Jieyin lotion combined with oral fluconazole treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is better than oral fluconazole treatment,the recurrence rate is low,it is used in clinical practice to promote.

  8. Avaliação Clínica e Laboratorial de Crianças e Adolescentes com Queixas Vulvovaginais Clinical and Laboratorial Evaluation of Children and Teenagers with Vulvovaginal Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam da Silva Wanderley

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analisar as queixas vulvovaginais mais freqüentemente observadas no Ambulatório de Ginecologia Infanto-puberal (AGIP do Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB. Métodos: foram avaliados retrospectivamente 210 prontuários de meninas, até 18 anos de idade, que procuraram o AGIP/HUB com queixas vulvovaginais. Analisaram-se as queixas mais freqüentes e os agentes etiológicos mais observados à secreção vaginal. Resultados: a idade média das 210 pacientes estudadas, até dezoito anos, foi de 12 ± 2,3 anos e as queixas mais comuns foram o corrimento vaginal e o prurido vulvar. Alterações inflamatórias inespecíficas foram observadas em 147 destas pacientes (70% as quais foram tratadas com orientação a respeito de vestuário, de atividades diárias e de higiene. As outras 63 pacientes, nas quais foi observado um agente etiológico específico, necessitaram de tratamento medicamentoso apropriado. Somente em pacientes com vida sexual ativa foram observados infecções por Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomoma vaginalis, HPV, assim como sífilis. Para estas pacientes a idade da sexarca foi de 14,1 ± 1,6 anos. Vinte pacientes apresentaram queixas vulvares concomitantemente, de fácil manuseio e orientação. Conclusão: higiene, vestuário e orientação adequada às pacientes e seus familiares são fundamentais para o controle e tratamento das queixas vulvovaginais, quase sempre dispensando o uso de antimicrobianos.Purpose: to assess the commonest vulvovaginal complaints and vaginal discharge etiology in the Child and Teenager Gynecologic Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital of Brasília (AGIP/HUB. Methods: we evaluated retrospectively 210 charts of patients, younger than 19 years old, who attended AGIP/HUB with vulvovaginal complaints. Results: the average age of the 210 patients was 12 ± 2.3 years, and the vaginal discharge and vulvar pruritus were the commonest complaints. Unspecific inflammatory conditions were

  9. 妊娠期妇女外阴阴道假丝酵母菌感染治疗情况分析%Analysis of the treatment of women vulvovaginal Candida yeast infection during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付郁

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠期妇女外阴阴道假丝酵母菌(VVC)感染现状及治疗情况。方法:从阴道口及阴道下1/3处取白色凝固或豆渣样分泌物置于玻片上,用生理盐水悬滴法,直接镜检,显微镜下见芽孢和假丝者为假丝酵母菌(+),同时询问患者的用药治疗情况。并将93例妊娠妇女炎症患者与210例非妊娠妇女炎症患者检出率及用药情况进行比较。结果:93例妊娠妇女中,共检出假丝酵母菌53例,检出率56.99%。用药治疗43例,用药率46.24%。210例非妊娠妇女发炎患者中,共检出假丝酵母菌91例,检出率43.33%。用药治疗189例,用药率90.00%。结论:有症状的妊娠妇女较非妊娠妇女外阴道假丝酵母菌检出率明显增高。而用药治疗人数却较少,为了提高妊娠妇女的生活质量,积极诊断和治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病是非常必要的。%Objective:To investigate the infection status and treatment situation of women vulvovaginal Candida yeast infection during pregnancy.Methods:We took white coagulation or bean dregs like discharge on the slide from the vaginal orifice and under 1/3 of it.We used physiological saline hanging drop method to direct microscopic examination.Under the microscope we saw bacillus and candida were candida albicans(+).We also asked the drug treatment of patients.We compared the detection rate and drug use situation of 93 cases of pregnant women with inflammation and 210 cases of non pregnancy women with inflammation. Results:In 93 cases of pregnant women,53 cases were detected candida;the detection rate was 56.99%.43 cases were given the drug treatment;the medication rate was 46.24%.In 210 cases of non inflamed pregnant women,91 cases were detected candida;the detection rate was 43.33% .189 cases were given the drug treatment;the treatment rate was 90% .Conclusion:The vulvovaginal Candida positive rate of the pregnant women with symptoms is significantly higher

  10. The Role of T cell Subsets and Cytokines Involved in the Pathogenesis of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis%T细胞亚群及相关细胞因子在复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病发病中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊艳; 占志萍; 孔祥君; 李维云; 聂振华

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨T细胞亚群及局部分泌物中相关的细胞因子在复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病发病机制中的作用.方法 采用碱性磷酸酶-抗碱性磷酸酶(APAAP)桥联酶法技术,对28例外阴阴道念珠菌病(VVC)、35例复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病(RVVC)和31例健康对照者外周血进行T淋巴细胞亚群CD4+,CD8+细胞检测,EUSA法检测以上各组女性阴道分泌物中IL-12,IL-4和IFN-γ的表达水平.结果 RVVC组CD4+T淋巴细胞低于VVC组和对照组(P均0.05),但均高于对照组(P均0.05).结论 复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病患者可能存在一定的免疫缺陷,Th1型和Th2型细胞因子的表达异常可能与外阴阴道念珠菌病的发病以及复发有关.%Objective To study the role of T cell subsets and cytokine involved in the vaginal secretions of vulvovaginal candidiasis patients in the pathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods Alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatas (APAAP) was used to detect CD4 + and CD8 +T lymphocytes of 28 cases vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVS) ,35 cases recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) patients and 31 cases health control. The expression level of IL-4,IL-12,IFN-γ in the vaginal secretions from vulvovaginal candidiasis patients were detected by ELISA and compared with that from normal controls. Results CD4 + T ymphocytes in recurrent groups were lower than that of original and normal control groups, and CD8 + T lymphocytes were higher than that of original and normal control groups. The level of IL-12 in original groups was the hightest in the three groups,while no significant difference in IFN-γ between recurrent and original groups was found , and yet higher than that in normal control groups. There was no significant difference in IL-4 in these three groups. Conclusions Certain immune deficiencies were found in the patients of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. The abnormal expression of Th1 type and Th2 type cytokines may be associated

  11. Analysis of the Relapse Factors of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Huizhou Region%惠州地区复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病复发因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平; 董佳辉; 吴海娟; 林泳婷; 黄小跃

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relapse factors of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis(RVVC).Method:50 patients were diagnosed RVVC and 50 patients with initial or occasional vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC)were included. 15 items of factors about the lifestyle and the physiological status before the onset of disease were analyzed between the two groups respectively. Result:The top five factors in RVVC group were:sexual activity within 5 days before the onset of disease,poor physical condition,mental negative emotions,menstrual onset and partners with genital candidiasis. There were the significant difference between the two groups in 5 factors:poor physical condition,mental negative emotions,menstrual cramps,partner with genital candidiasis and frequency of sexual activity(≥3 times)(P0.05). Conclusion:The relapse of RVVC has a significant relationship with sexual activity within 5 days before the onset of disease,poor physical condition,mental negative emotions,menstrual onset and partners with genital candidiasis.%目的:探讨复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病(RVVC)病情复发因素。方法:选取确诊为RVVC的患者50例和初次或偶发的外阴阴道念珠菌病(VVC)患者50例,分别对两组患者发病前15项生活和生理状况进行调查对比分析。结果:RVVC组排在前5位的因素依次为:发病前5 d内性生活、生理状况差、心理负面情绪、月经来潮和性伴同患生殖器念珠菌病;在生理状况差、心理负面情绪、月经来潮、性伴同患生殖器念珠菌病和性生活频率(≥3次)5个因素,两组间比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:RVVC患者病情复发与发病前5 d内性生活、生理状况差、心理负面情绪、月经来潮和性伴同患生殖器念珠菌病有明显关系。

  12. 外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的阴道菌群结构分析%Analysis of the structure of vaginal microbiota in vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳才颜; 刘木彪; 黄宜娥; 周宏伟; 叶桂娥

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析比较单纯性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(vvc)和复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(RVVC)阴道细菌菌群结构的差异.方法 采集VVC患者5例、RVVC患者5例及健康育龄期女性2例的阴道后穹窿分泌物,提取样品中细菌总DNA,扩增16SrRNA V4区基因,比较三组的菌属构成、alpha多样性、beta多样性.结果 与健康组相比,VVC患者乳杆菌属比例显著降低,加德纳菌、普氏菌属、双歧杆菌等菌属相对丰富度升高,菌群Alpha多样性也明显增加(P<0.05).RVVC患者乳杆菌属主要以惰性乳杆菌为优势菌,约占80%.结论 VVC组阴道菌群乳杆菌属比例降低,加德纳菌、普氏菌属、双歧杆菌等菌属丰富度增加.RVVC组以惰性乳杆菌为优势菌.%Objective To analyze and compare vaginal microbiomes with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis(RVVC).Methods The vaginal swabs of the vaginal fornix were collected from 5 VVC patients,5 RVVC patients and 2 healthy women at child-bearing ages.Microbiota composition,alpha diversity and beta diversity among three groups were determined by analyzing the 16S rRNA V4 hypervariable region amplified from total genomic DNA prepared from the swabs.Results Compared with the healthy group,the proportion of Lactobacillus spp was significantly decreased,and Gardnerella,Prevotella,Bifidobacterium were relative abundance,and alpha diversity of community structures also was significantly increased in VVC group (P<0.05).L.iners was the predominant vaginal species in Lactobacillus spp in RVVC patients,accounted for about 80%.Conclusion The proportion of Lactobacillus spp in the vaginal microbiota of the VVC group was decreased,with increased of gardnerella,prevotella,bifidobacterium and other bacterial species.L.iners was the predominant bacteria in RVVC group.

  13. 硝酸舍他康唑栓治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病28例%28 Cases of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treated with Sertaconazole Nitrate Suppositories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董迪荣; 周春; 张元珍; 马玲; 郭清莲

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价硝酸舍他康唑栓治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的疗效及安全性.方法 采用随机双盲对照试验.治疗组及对照组各30例,分别外用硝酸舍他康唑栓300 mg和克霉唑栓500 mg,用药1或2次.停药后(7±1) d及28~35 d时进行观察.结果 治疗组28例、对照组30例纳入分析,治疗组和对照组停药后(7±1) d临床有效率分别为89.29%,86.67%(P>0.05);用药结束后28~35 d时的临床有效率分别为81.48%,66.67%(P>0.05);均未发生与药物相关的不良反应.结论 硝酸舍他康唑栓治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病有效,安全.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sertaconazole nitrate suppositories for treating vulvovaginal candidiasis Methods A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted 30 cases in both treatment group and control one were applied with sertaconazole nitrate suppositories and clotrimazole ones for1-2 times respectively Patients were evaluated at day 7±1 and day 28-35 after ceasing medication Results 28 cases in the medical trial group and 30 cases in control were evaluated; The clinical efficacy at day7±1 were 89.29% in the test group and 86.67% in control group; and 81.48% versus 66. 67% at day 28-35 after drug withdrawn, respectively No treament related adverse events occurred in both groups Conclusion This study suggests that sertaconazole nitrate suppositories are effective and safe for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis

  14. Observation of the Curative Effect of Clotrimazole Combined With Fluconazole in the Treatment of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis%克霉唑联合氟康唑治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱屹峰; 陈丽红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the efifcacy of clotrimazole combined with lfuconazole in the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods 85 patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis were randomly divided into control group (40 cases) and treatment group (45 cases), the control group was taken clotrimazole alone, the treatment group was taken clotrimazole combined with fluconazole therapy. Results The total efifciency of the patients in the treatment group were higher than that of control group (P recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.%目的:探究克霉唑联合氟康唑治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的临床疗效。方法选取我院复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病患者85例,随机分为对照组40例和治疗组45例,对照组单独使用克霉唑治疗,治疗组采用克霉唑联合氟康唑治疗。结果治疗组患者治疗总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05),不良反应发生率低于对照组(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义。结论采用克霉唑联合氟康唑治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病,患者治疗总有效率高,不良反应少,临床疗效显著。

  15. Observation of 300 cases for severe vulvovaginal candidiasis treated with three regimen%3种方案治疗重度外阴阴道念珠菌病300例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯兰凤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe and evaluate the curative effects of three regimens for severe vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Methods 300 patents with VVC were divided into three groups. Group A; 100 women, were scrubbed their walls of the vagina with the iodophor solution (0. 5 g/L) and sprayed with the nysfungin powder in hospital for 7 consecutive days. Group B: 100 women, Oral Fluconazole ISOrag quaque day, for the first day and third day. Group C; 100 women, Oral Fluconazole 150 mg quaque day for the first day, and were scrubbed their walls of the vagina with the iodophor solution and sprayed with the nysfungin powder in hospital for 7 consecutive days. Satisfaction, efficacy, and microscopic examination of fungal were observed. Results There was no significant difference between Group A and Group C on satisfaction 1, 3 and 6 days after treatment ( P >0.05). Satisfaction in Group A and Group C was higher than that in Group B ( P 0.05 ). The effective rate and long term effect in Group A and Group C were higher than that in Group B ( P <0.05). Conclusion Three projects for VVC were all effective. The improvement of symptoms in group with vaginal medication is superior to those with oral medication. The long - term curative effectiveness of vaginal medication combined with oral medication is better than that of vaginal medication alone.%目的 观察3种方案治疗重度外阴阴道念珠茵病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)的临床疗效.方法 将300例重度VVC患者随机分为3组,制霉素粉组100例予0.5%碘伏液擦拭阴道外阴后,阴道外阴喷洒制霉素粉,连用7d;氟康唑组予氟康唑150 mg,每日1次口服;联合用药组予氟康唑150 mg,每日1次口服,同时予0.5%碘伏液擦拭阴道外阴后,阴道外阴喷洒制霉素粉,连用7d.观察3组满意度、疗效及真菌镜检情况.结果 制霉素粉组与联合用药组用药第1、3、6d后满意度比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),制霉素粉组、联合用药组治疗后

  16. Analysis and research on treatment and course for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis%复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病治疗方案及疗程的研究分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨研究复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病治疗方案及疗程.方法 将我院从2011年9月至2012年6月收治的300例复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病患者按照随机数表法均分为3组,A组100例采用硝酸咪康唑栓200 mg/d治疗7~10d,B组100例采用硝酸咪康唑栓400 mg/d治疗4~7d,C组100例在B组基础上在第4日、第7日和第10日口服氟康唑150 mg.分别统计记录治疗后2d、7d、14 d的真菌转阴率和用药依从性,并根据临床症状评判治疗疗效;随访跟踪6个月,统计复发率.结果 三组患者在2d、7d、14 d的真菌转阴率和复发率上组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在用药依从性和症状消失时间上,B、C两组优于A组,C组治疗有效率为97%,高于A组、B组,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 口服用药联合局部用药能有效提高复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病治疗疗效,短期安全高浓度用药能提高用药依从性.%Objective To investigate the treatment and course for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.Methods 300 patients were divided into 3 groups according to the random number table:group A of 100 patients with miconazole nitrate suppository 200mg/d treatment for 7-10 d,100 cases of group B miconazole nitrate suppository 400 mg/d treatment for 4-7 days,the group C,100 cases on the basis of group B in the 4th,the 7th and the 10th day of oral fluconazole 150 mg.We collected the data of treatment efficience.Results The 2 d,7 d,14 d of fungal negative rate and recurrence rate in the patients of three groups had no statistical significant difference (P>0.05); for the medication compliance and symptoms,group B and C were better than those in group A,group C treatment response rate was 97%,higher than that of group A and group B,the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion The combined topical oral medication can effectively improve the recurrent vulvovaginal

  17. 外阴阴道念珠菌病的念珠菌种类及抗真菌药物敏感性分析%Species and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida in Patients with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小平; 樊尚荣; 彭燕婷; 张慧萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine species and antifungal drug susceptibility of Candida from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC). Methods We enrolled 3 141 patients with VVC who received treatment in gynecological clinic of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from April,2003 to September,2012. Specimens of Candida were collected from enrolled patients,API Candida system was used to identify the species,and Rosco Disk Diffusion method was employed to test drug susceptibility. Results A total of 3 182 strains of two species' candida were extracted from 41 patients. C. albicans was the predominant species(2 705 strains,85. 0%)in VVC,followed by C. glabrata(338 strains),C. parapsilosis(49 strains), C. tropicalis(31 strains),Saccharomyces cerevisiae(23 strains),C. krusei(15 strains),Candida famata(11 strains), Rhodotorula sp. ( 6 strains ), C. lusitaniae ( 2 strains ) and Candida humicola ( 2 strains ) . The drug resistance rate of C. albicans to fluconazole,itraconazole,miconazole,clotrimazole,and nystatin were 1. 1%(18/1 612),2. 2%(36/1 612), 4. 2%(68/1 612),0. 9%(14/1 612) and 0. Conclusion Candida albicans is the predominant Candida species in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Resistance of vaginal C. albicans to antifungal agents is infrequent.%目的:明确外阴阴道念珠菌病( VVC)患者分离的念珠菌种类及对抗真菌药物的敏感性。方法选取2003年4月—2012年9月就诊于北京大学深圳医院妇科门诊的3141例VVC患者为研究对象。采集念珠菌标本进行培养,采用API Candida鉴定分离菌株,采用Rosco纸片扩散法进行抗真菌药敏试验。结果共分离出3182株念珠菌(从41例患者中分离出两种念珠菌)。其中白念珠菌分离最多,占85.0%(2705株),其次依次为光滑念珠菌(338株)、近平滑念珠菌(49株)、热带念珠菌(31株)、酿酒酵母菌(23株)、克柔念珠菌(15株)、无名念珠菌(11株)、红酵母菌(6

  18. A clinical observation of therapeutic effect of clotrimazole suppositories combined with itraconazole for vulvovaginal candidiasis%克霉唑加伊曲康唑治疗阴道假丝酵母菌病观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹瑞芳; 廖艳丹

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe therapeutic effect of combined use of clotrimazole suppositories and itraconazole capsules for recurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Methods The clinical date of 562 patients with VVC diagnosed and treated in gynecological clinic of The Second Yichang Municipal People's Hospital, Hubei Province over a period from March, 2005 to January, 2009 who were followed-up were collected. All primary and recurrent patients were divided into two groups and were treated with vaginal clotrimazole suppositories alone ( group A: vaginal clotrimazole suppositories alone for primary patients, n=221; group C: vaginal clotrimazole suppositories alone for recurrent patients, n=63) or vaginal clotrimazole suppositories combined with oral administration of itraconazole capsules (combined use group, including group B: vaginal clotrimazole suppositories combined with oral administration of itraconazole capsules for primary patients, n=213; group D: vaginal clotrimazole suppositories combined with oral administration of itraconazole capsules for recurrent patients, n=65. The recurrence rate of patients in the two therapy groups were compared. Results In recurrence rate of primary patients, there was not significant difference between group A and group B (χ2=2.86, P>0.05). The recurrence rate of recurrent patients in the combined use group (group D) was significantly lower than that in single use group (group C ) (χ2=4.11, P0.05);复发病例两药联合使用的患者其复发率明显低于单用克霉唑栓组(χ2=4.11,P<0.05).结论 克霉唑栓联合伊曲康唑口服对初发外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病患者治疗后复发率无明显改变,但能有效降低复发外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的复发率,宜推广使用.

  19. 复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病白色念珠菌基因型与临床症状的相关性%Correlation between Candida albicans genotypes and symptoms of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩丽; 曾俊; 何援利; 宗利丽

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究复发性外阴阴道念珠菌(recurrent vulvovaginal candidasis,RVVC)白色念珠菌基因型与临床症状严重程度的相关性.方法 从临床确诊为RVVC患者的阴道分泌物中分离念珠菌,并对患者进行VVC评分,采用ITS1区单链构型多态性(SSCP)分析和大亚基rRNA基因D1/D2区序列分析相结合的方法进行菌种鉴定,应用微卫星CAI位点的SSCP和GeneScan分析相结合的方法进行白色念珠菌(Candida albicans)的基因型测定.结果 RVVC分泌物中白色念珠菌45株,其CAI区共有12种基因型,优势基因型为32-46和30-45,与其余10种非优势基因型对应的RVVC患者临床VVC评分相比,差异无统计学意义.结论 基因型为CAI30-45和CAI32-46的白色念珠菌菌株在引起RVVC的病例中占有明显优势,但是优势基因型与RVVC患者临床症状严重程度无相关性.

  20. BV和VVC患者阴道灌洗液中相关细胞因子水平检测及意义%Detection and significance of cytokines in cervicovaginal lavage fluid in patients with bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯贺强; 张学军; 戴随

    2011-01-01

    目的 提高细菌性阴道病(BV)和外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)诊疗水平.方法 采集35例健康育龄妇女(对照组)、35例BV患者(BV组)、35例VVC患者(VVC组)阴道灌洗液,用ELISA法检测三组相关细胞因子(IL-2、IL-8、IFN-γ、IL-4、IL-13、IL-10、IgE)水平.结果 与对照组比较,BV组IL-2显著降低,IL-13、IL-4、IL-10显著升高,IL-8、IFN-γ、IgE无明显变化;VVC组IFN-γ显著降低,IL-2、IL-13、IL-4、IgE显著升高,IL-8、IL-10无显著变化.讨论 BV与VVC均存在Th1/Th2平衡失调,检测两种疾病局部细胞因子的变化有助于更好的控制感染.%Objective To improve the diagnosis and treament level of bacterial vaginosis(BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC).Methods Cervicovaginal lavage fluid was collected from 35 healthy women in child-bearing age ( control group) ,35 patients with BC(BV group) ,35 patients with VVC (WC group).The level of cytokines (IL-2, IL-8,IFN-γ,IL-4,IL-13 ,IL-10,IgE)of the three groups were detected by ELISA.Results Compared with the control group, the IL-2 of BV group decreased significantly,IL-13,IL-4,IL-10 increased significantly,IL-8,IFN-γ,IgE had no significant change;the IFN-γof VVC group decreased significantly, IL-2,IL-13,IL-4,IgE increased obviously,IL-8,IL-10 had no significant change.Conclusions The un-balance of Th1/Th2 is common in BV and VVC, detecting the changes of local cytokine is helpful for controling their inflammation better.

  1. 复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病前瞻对比治疗的探讨%Study on the prospective comparison treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何若英; 杨雪霞; 李锦玉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the reasonable and effective treatment program of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis(RVVC) Methods A total of 96 women with RVVC were randomly divided into two treatment groups .Group A took single-dose oral itraconazole capsule 0.1 × Bid for 7 days course of treatment; on the basis of group A, group B were treated with clotrimazole suppositories 0.15 via vaginamedication.The two groups would continue to consolidate the treratment for 6 courses after 2-3days menstruation. Sex- ual partners balanop-osthitis secretions were given anti-fungal treatment with fungal culture positive. The assessment of curative effect were at the end of 4th、 8th、 12th、 24th week treatment. Results Of 10 sexual partners with balanitis or redundant prepuce was fungi positive.Another sexual partners of 86 without balanitis or redundant prepuce were only 2 cases found fungal.There were no statistical differemce between group A, B after 4weeks(χ~2=0, P> 0.05) .A group was more efficient than B group after 8 weeks(χ~2=8.98, P0.05,差异无显著意义;(2)A与B比较8周后的治愈率,χ~2=8.98,P<0.01,差异有显著意义;(3)A与B比较24周后复发率,χ~2=26.50,P<0.0.1,差异有显著意义.结论 RVVC不是一种性传播性疾病,但其性伴侣有龟头炎、包皮过长时必须服药治疗,如果性伴侣没有包皮过长及龟头炎时,则无需同时治疗.小剂量、长时间口服伊曲康唑及口服加阴道用药治疗RVVC近期均有较好的疗效,但远期疗效,联合用药优于单纯口服药物.

  2. Observation on the long-term efficacy of 120 cases with severe vulvovaginal candidiasis%120例重度外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的远期疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 贾晓红

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore a reasonable, normative and effective treatment protocol of severe vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) . Methods: 120 patients with severe VVC were selected and divided into A group and B group randomly. 60 patients in A group were treated with oral administration of itraconazole, 200 mg per day for three days, at the same time, they were treated with vaginal administration of miconazole capsule ( 1 200 mg) every other two days for two times. 60 patients in B group were treated with vaginal administration of miconazole capsule (1 200 mg) after menstruation for three menstrual cycles based on the treatment methods of A group. Results: The short - term efficacies in the two groups were remarkable, there was no significant difference between the two groups ( P > 0. 05 ), but there was significant difference in long - term efficacy between the two groups (P < 0. 05) . The recurrence rate in B group was lower than that in A group. Conclusion: Joint application of itraconazole and miconazole may improve the long - term efficacy of severe VVC obviously and prevent the recurrence of VVC.%目的:探讨重度外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)合理规范有效的治疗方案.方法:选择120例重度VVC患者并随机分为A、B两组.A组60例,口服伊曲康唑200 mg/d,连续3天,同时阴道局部使用硝酸咪康唑阴道软胶囊1 200 mg,1次/3天,2日疗法.B组60例,A组方法+以后于月经干净后阴道局部使用硝酸咪康唑阴道软胶囊1 200 mg,连续用药3个月经周期.结果:A、B两组近期疗效显著,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);远期疗效两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),B组复发率明显低于A组.结论:伊曲康唑和硝酸咪康唑联合用药优化治疗方案,能明显提高重度VVC的远期疗效,防止VVC的复发.

  3. Diagnosis of trichomonal vaginitis and vulvovaginal candodiasis by dry chemical enzymatic detection%干化学酶法诊断滴虫性阴道炎和外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴武; 任春锋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnosis of trichomonal vaginitis and vulvovaginal candodiasis (VVC) by dry chemical enzymatic detection. Methods According to the instructions, pH, hydrogen peroxide, Leukocyte esterase, neuraminidase,proline aminopeptidase,NAG(N-acetyl-β-Dglucosaminidase) of 300 female vaginal specimen were tested and examinated by microscopic examination of trichomonal vaginalis or Candida albicans at the same time. The specimen of the positive result of trichomonal vaginalis or Candida albicans by dry chemical enzymatic detection but of the negative result of them by microscopic examination were cultured in the trichomonas vaginalis or salmonella chromogenic medium , if the latter is a positive result, we used Chromogenic Candida agar plate in culture. Results The postive rates of trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans by dry chemical enzymatic detection were 8.67% and 16.00% respectively, which were higher than those by microscopic examination(6.67% and 9. 67% , P<0.01).Conclusions Dry chemical enzymatic detection in the diagnose of trichomonal vaginitis and VVC was simple, easy and fast, and its postive rates were higher.%目的 评价干化学酶法诊断滴虫性阴道炎和外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病.方法 将300份阴道分泌物进行pH、过氧化氢、白细胞酯酶、唾液酸苷酶、脯氨酸氨肽酶、乙酰氨基葡萄糖苷酶干化学联检;同时按传统镜检法查滴虫或假丝酵母菌,将干化学酶法滴虫或假丝酵母菌阳性而传统镜检法阴性的标本分别进行阴道滴虫培养和沙氏培养基真菌培养,后者阳性时用显色培养基鉴定.结果 干化学酶法检出滴虫和假丝酵母菌阳性率分别是8.67%和16.00%,分别高于传通镜检法的6.67%和9.67%(P<0.01).结论 干化学酶法诊断滴虫性阴道炎和外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病方便快捷,检出率高.

  4. 抗真菌药物治疗外阴阴道念珠菌病敏感性的临床研究%Clinical Research of Susceptibility to Antifungal Agents in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭爱芹

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨外阴阴道念珠菌病(VVC)的临床特征及抗真菌药物治疗VVC的敏感性.方法 对我院自2008年1月至2011年8月收治的1000例妇科门诊患者的VVC发病情况进行回顾性分析,观察念珠菌对抗真菌药物的敏感性.结果 通过分离1000株念珠菌,白念珠菌为610例(61%),非白念珠菌为390例(39%).白念珠菌及非白念珠菌对氟康唑和伊曲康唑的敏感度比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);对酮康唑和两性霉素B的敏感度比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 白念珠菌是VVC的主要致病菌,非白念珠菌的药物敏感性较白念珠菌低,白念珠菌对抗真菌药物的耐药性不常见.%Objective To discuss the clinical features of vulvovaginal candidiasis( VVC )and the susceptibility to antifungal agents in the treatment. Methods Retrospective analysis of VVC incidence of 1000 gynecological outpatients of our hospital from January 2008 to August 2011 was done, Candida albicans sensitivity to antifungal agents was observed. Results Among the 1000 cases,610 patients( 61% )had Candida albicans,and 390 patients( 39% )had non-Candida albicans. Sensitivity of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans to fluconazole and itraconazole werestatistically significantly different^ P 0. 05 ). Conclusion The main pathogen of VCC is Candida albicans, non-Candida albicans drug sensitivity is lower than Candida albicans, antifungal drug resistance is not common in Candida albicans.

  5. The microecological evaluation of vaginal microflora in the women of serious vulvovaginal candidiasis%重度外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病阴道微生态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文湘; 冯佳; 廖秦平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the microecological evaluation of vaginal microflora in the women of SVVC. Methods 150 women of SVVC were studied by collecting vaginal secretion, and the vagina pH and microecological evaluation based on Gram stained smear were tested. Results ( 1) 74 % of advantage microflora were lactobacillus, and 80. 67 % of the degree of microflora intensive of cases were Ⅱ - Ⅲ76% of the degree of microflora diversity were Ⅱ - Ⅲ. (2) There were 60 cases of cleanness I (40% ) , 53 cases of cleanness II (35. 33% ) , 37 cases of cleanness Ⅲ (24. 67% ). (3) About 68% of them pH was <4. 5. Conclusion SVVC exist a certain degree disorder of vaginal microecosystem, the advantage microflora still are lactobacillus, the degree of microflora intensive and the degree of microflora diversity of the mainly patients are in normal range.%目的 了解重度外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(serious vulvovaginal candidiasis,SVVC)患者的阴道微生态情况.方法 对2008年8月至2009年3月北京大学第一医院SVVC患者共150例,进行阴道分泌物微生态检测.结果 (1)优势菌仍以乳酸杆菌为主,占74%,阴道菌群密集度多在Ⅱ~Ⅲ级,占80.67%;阴道菌群多样性多在Ⅱ~Ⅲ级,占76%.(2)清洁度为Ⅰ度的患者60例,占40%,Ⅱ度的患者53例,占35.33%,Ⅲ度的患者37例,占24.67%.(3) pH<4.5占68%.结论 重度外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病存在着一定程度的阴道微生态紊乱,但是优势菌仍以乳酸杆菌为主,阴道菌群密集度和多样性大部分仍在正常范围.

  6. 靛玉红、蛇床子素抗外阴阴道念珠菌病混合菌生物膜作用的研究%The effects of indirubin and Osthol against mixed biofilms of vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解光艳; 程惠娟; 汪长中; 胡跃龙; 朱玲玲; 孙振新; 李露天

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究中药有效成分靛玉红、蛇床子素抗外阴阴道念珠菌病混合菌生物膜的作用.方法 体外建立白念珠菌(Candida albicans)铜绿假单胞菌(Pseudomonas aeruginosa,P.a)混合菌生物膜(Biofilm,BF),XTT减低法及形态学观察白念珠菌混合菌生物膜的形成过程;形态学观察、活菌计数法评价中药有效成分靛玉红(indirubin)、蛇床子素(Ostho)对白念珠菌混合菌生物膜的最小抑膜浓度(SMIC),并经扫描电镜确认.结果 白念珠菌混合菌48 h能形成成熟的生物膜;62.5 mg/L浓度的靛玉红能抑制白念珠菌混合菌生物膜的形成.500 mg/L浓度的蛇床子素未见有抑制白念珠菌混合菌生物膜的作用.结论 靛玉红由于具有抗生物膜的作用,可用于预防外阴阴道念珠菌病的复发.%Objective To investigate the effects of Chinese Herbal Drugs indirubin and Osthol against mixed biofilms of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Method C. Albicam and P. Aeruginosa were mixed, then the mixed biofilms were developed in vitro. XTT reduction assay and morphological observation were performed to learn the formation process of C. Albicans mixed biofilms. Morphological observation and CFU counting were employed to evaluate the sessile minimal inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) of indirubin and Osthol on C. Albicam mixed biofilms biomass and confirmed by SEM. Result Mature mixed biofilms of C. Albicam and P. Aeruginosa were developed after 48 h in vitro. SMICs of indirubin and Osthol against C. Albicans mixed biofilms biomass were 62.50 mg/L and > 500 mg/L, respectively. Conclusion Indirubin displayed potential to inhibit mixed biofilms of vulvovaginal candidiasis, thus can be used to prevent the recurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  7. Prevalência e caracterização de espécies de lactobacilos vaginais em mulheres em idade reprodutiva sem vulvovaginites Prevalence and characterization of vaginal lactobacillus species in women at reproductive age without vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Melo Brolazo

    2009-04-01

    negative laboratorial diagnosis of vaginal infection, followed up at an outpatient clinic. After being identified by multiplex PCR, the isolates have been submitted to RNAr 16S gene sequencing, when necessary. They have also been evaluated concerning the production of lactic acid, H2O2, bacteriocins and the ability to adhere to epithelial cells. RESULTS: eight-three lactobacillus strains were isolated and identified, L. crispatus (30.1%, L. jensenii (26.5%, L. gasseri (22.9% e L. vaginalis (8.4%, being the prevalent species. Only 20 of those isolates did not present H2O2 production, in detectable amounts. From the 37 strains selected for the test of adhesion to the epithelial cells, 12 presented 50 to 69% of adhesion, 10 presented 70% or more, and the remaining, little or no adhesion at all. None of the tested strains produced bacteriocins. CONCLUSIONS: the lactobacillus species more prevalent in women without vulvovaginitis, isolated in selective culture milieu and identified by molecular methods were L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. gasseri. Besides the fact of being more prevalent, these strains also presented better production of H2O2, and reached lower pH values in the culture milieu.

  8. 复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病患者及性伴侣带菌情况分析%Analysis of yeast species from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and patients' sexual partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗利丽; 王彩丽; 曾俊; 王玉凤; 赵欣; 毛婷

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors related to the recurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis(RVVC). Methods Samples were collected from the discharge of vagina, rectum, oral cavity of 55 patients and the discharge of balanus in their 45 sexual partners. Using SSCP analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain to identify the species of C. albicans of the samples. Genotypes of C. albicans strains were determined with use of SSCP combined to GeneScan analysis of microsatellite CAI of C. albicans. Results The positive rate of vagina, oral and rectal Candida species colonization in the 55 women and 45 men was 100. 0% (55/55) ,61.8% (34/55) ,1.8% (1/55) and 60. 0% (27/45) ,respectively. And the percentage of Candida strains among the vagina, rectum and balanus were concurrent. In the same person, the coincidence of Candida albicans genotype between the discharge from vagina and rectum were 86. 2%. 54. 5% of the Candida albicans genotype of the discharge from the vagina of RVVC patients were same as the discharge from the balanus of her sexual partner. Conclusion The state of having Candida on the rectum or the balanus of sexual partner is one of the potential risk factors of RVVC.%目的 研究复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病(RWC)复发相关因素.方法 选择55例RVVC患者及其中45位患者性伴侣,取阴道、肛门、口腔及龟头分泌物分离念珠菌,采用ITS1区单链构型多态性(SSCP)分析和大亚基26S rDNA基因D1/D2区序列分析相结合的方法进行菌种鉴定,应用微卫星CAI位点的SSCP和基因扫描分析相结合的方法进行白色念珠菌的基因型测定.结果 RVVC患者阴道、肛门、口腔及其性伴侣龟头分泌物的念珠菌培养阳性率分别为100.0%(55/55)、61.8%(34/55)、1.8%(1/55)和60.0%(27/45),各部位念珠菌感染均以白色念珠菌为主,且所占比例无明显差异.同一患者阴道与肛门、阴道与性伴侣龟头分泌物

  9. 210例外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病分组治疗的疗效比较%Comparison of curative effect of grouping treatment for 210 cases with vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳慧; 唐伟琼

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe and evaluate the clinical effects of monotherapy and combined therapy for treatment of vulvovagi-nal candidiasis ( VVC) . Methods: Two hundred and ten patients with VVC were randomly divided into two groups according to Soble classification, the patients in group A were treated with putting miconazole nitrate soft capsule (1 200 mg) into vagina for two courses of treatment ( monotherapy group) , while the patients in group B were treated with putting miconazole nitrate soft capsule ( 1 200 mg) combined with itraconazole capsule into vagina for two courses of treatment (combined therapy group); the curative effects at 7 -14 days and 30 days after treatment were evaluated. Results: Among 210 patients, 177 patients came back for return visit, the clinical effective rates in group A and group B were 87. 7% and 94. 8% , respectively, there was statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05); the negative conversion rates of fungal examination in group A and group B were 95. 1% and 98. 9% , respectively; the medication compliances in group A and group B were 77.9% and 90. 6% , respectively, there was statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0. 05) ; the readmission rates at 30 days after treatment in group A and group B were 16. 9% and 7. 7% , respectively, there was statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Both monotherapy and combined therapy can cure VVC effectively; the clinical effective rate and compliance of combined therapy are superior to those of monotherapy; the recurrence rate of combined oral administration is lower than that of simple vaginal application of drugs.%目的:观察与评价单纯用药与联合用药治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)的临床疗效.方法:根据Soble分类,将210例VVC患者随机分为两组,A组采用硝酸咪康唑阴道软胶囊1 200 mg治疗2个疗程(单纯用药组),B组采用硝酸咪康唑阴道软胶囊1 200 mg

  10. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in a Flemish patient population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, MM; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Boekhout, T; Theelen, B; Matthijs, N; Bauters, T; Nailis, H; Dhont, MA; Rodriguez-Tudela, JL; Nelis, HJ

    2005-01-01

    Increased resistance to fluconazole has been reported in oral, oesophageal and urinary Candida isolates, but this has not been observed commonly in genital tract isolates. The rate of isolation of Candida spp. and their susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine and azoles were determined in a nu

  11. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in a Flemish patient population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, MM; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Boekhout, T; Theelen, B; Matthijs, N; Bauters, T; Nailis, H; Dhont, MA; Rodriguez-Tudela, JL; Nelis, HJ

    2005-01-01

    Increased resistance to fluconazole has been reported in oral, oesophageal and urinary Candida isolates, but this has not been observed commonly in genital tract isolates. The rate of isolation of Candida spp. and their susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine and azoles were determined in a

  12. Oral or intravaginal antifungal for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in China: a systematic review%口服与阴道使用抗真菌药治疗复发性霉菌性阴道炎疗效的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋; 徐红

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of itraconazole,fluconazol and intravaginal medicine for women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.Methods:Many databases were searched,including CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011),PubMed (1979 to January 2011),CBMdisc (1979 to January 2011),CNKI (1979 to January 2011),QINGHUATONGFANG DATABASE (1979 to January 2011) and WANFANG DATABASE (1979 to January 2011).Relevant journals and references were also manually searched.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was screened on itraconazole,fluconazol and intravaginal antifungal for the treatment of women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.Two reviewers independently accomplished study selection and quality assessment,data extraction and analysis according to the Cochrane Handbook for systematic reviews of interventions.RevMan 5.0 was used to account the data.Results:18 RCTs were included.The Meta-analysis showed that the Itraconazole or fluconazol with intravaginal antifungal was more effective than the other treatment.Compared with the intravaginal antifungal,the combined treatment was the same safety.Conclusion:Combined treatment is good choice for curing the recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.%目的:系统评价应用伊曲康唑、氟康唑、阴道用药治疗复发性霉菌性阴炎疗效.方法:遵照Cochrane系统评价方法,检索中英文数据库、专业杂志等.应用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析.结果:18篇临床对照研究Meta分析结果显示:氟康唑与阴道联合用药与阴道用药疗效比较差异有统计学意义[达克宁OR=5.54,95%CI (2.49,12.30),P<0.0001;制霉菌素OR=4.38,95%CI (1.82,l0.53),P=0.00l],氟康唑联合用药与阴道用药不良反应差异无统计学意义[OR=1.93,95% CI (0.58,6.42),P=0.28].伊曲康唑与阴道用药比较不良反应差异有统计学意义[OR=19.10,95%CI (2.51,145.15),P=0.004].结论:伊曲康唑、氟康唑与阴道联合用药能更有效的治疗复发性霉菌性阴道炎,且不

  13. Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treated with Modified WanDaiTang Combined with External Treatment: A Report of 68 Cases%完带汤加味合外治法治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病68例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜敏

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察口服中药完带汤加味联合外用中药熏洗及阴道上药,治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的疗效.方法 将136 例外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病患者随机分为2 组.治疗组68 例,口服中药完带汤加味,自制中药方熏洗外阴并配合阴道上药治疗;对照组68 例,除口服完带汤加味外,其余治疗同对照组.观察2 组治疗后疗效,并对停药后1、2、3 个月的患者进行回访分析.结果 治疗组总有效率98.5%;对照组总有效率89.7%.2 组比较有统计学意义(P<0.05).停药后1 个月,2 组均无复发;2 个月后治疗组2 例复发,对照组4 例复发;3 个月后治疗组3 例复发,对照组9 例复发.2 组复发率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 完带汤加味合外治法治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病效果好,复发率低.%Objective: To explore therapeutic effects of modified WanDaiTang combined with herb fumigating and application in treating vulvovaginal candidiasis. Method: 136 cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis were chosen and divided into treatment group which orally took modified WanDaiTang combined with herb fumigating and application and control group administered with herb fumigating and application. Curative effects for both groups were observed after the treatment and return visits of the patient were analyzed in one month, two months and three months after withdrawal of drugs. Result: Total effective rate of treatment group was 98.5%, higher than 89.7% of control group with statistical meaning (P <0.05). The patients in both groups were cured without relapse in one month after withdrawal of drugs; two patients in treatment group and four patients in control group had relapse in two months; three patients in treatment group and nine cases in control group had relapse in three months. The comparison of recurrence rates of two groups suggested statistical meaning (P<0.05). Conclusion: Modified WanDaiTang combined with external treatment is

  14. Strain identification and drug susceptibility of vaginal isolates from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidasis%复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的菌种及药物敏感度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红珍; 王丽娟; 李丽萍; 罗丽娅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the strain identification,genotyping and drug susceptibility of Candida from the vaginal isolates from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis(RVVC),aiming to pro-vide evidence for diagnosis and treatment of RVVC.Methods Vaginal isolates were obtained from 50 RVVC patients and 50 with vulva vagina candidiasis(VVC)for strain identification.Strain genotyping was carried out using combined methods of CAI-single strand conformation polymorphism(CAI-SSCP)and Genescan analysis. Drug susceptibility test was performed by disk diffusion method.Results In total,1 55 Candida strains were obtained from the vaginal isolates in two groups,consisting of Candida albicans(83.2%)and non-Candida al-bicans(1 6.8%).In the RVVC group,the proportion of Candida albicans was 78.4%,significantly lower compared with 92.5% in the VVC group (P 0.05).The antifungal drug susceptibility of RVVA for Itraconazole was 96.2%,91 .2% for Nys-tatin,82.5% for Ketoconazole,76.5% for Fluconazol,59.8% for Clotrimazole and 53.9% for Miconazol, respectively.Conclusions The distribution of vaginal Candida species in RVVC patients is differed from VVC patients.In the vaginal isolates from RVVC patients,dominant genotype is distributed in the Candida albicans strain.Candida albicans yields certain drug resistance to antifungal agents commonly used in clinical practice. Individualized therapy should be implemented based upon the outcomes of drug susceptibility testing.%目的:分析复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(RVVC)患者阴道分泌物假丝酵母菌菌种和菌株基因型以及其对临床抗真菌药物的敏感度,为临床诊治提供依据。方法选择50例 RVVC 患者(RVVC 组)及50例外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)患者(VVC 组),采集患者的阴道分泌物标本进行菌种鉴定,使用微卫星 CAI 位点单链构象多态性(CAI-SSCP)及基因扫描相结合的方法对菌种进行基因型鉴定,用纸片法对菌

  15. Relevant factors and treatment analysis on vulvovaginal candidasis%外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的相关因素及治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海燕; 郑爱月; 周秀华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relevant factors and therapeutic effect of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in female migrant workers in Shajing street,Shenzhen city. Methods From June 2013 to June 2014,disease conditions of VVC in 800 female migrant workers in Shajing street,Shenzhen city were analyzed.According to epidemiological questionnaires including whether there was VVC or not,they were divided into two groups,infection group (n=420) and non-infection group (control group,n=380).The detection of VVC at different ages,Logistic regression analysis of VVC relevant factors, and therapeutic effect of group A and B in infection group were analyzed and compared. Results From age structure,the maximal VVC infection rate was ranged from 31 to 40 years old.Patients aged over 41 years old were gradually in-creased on the rate of VVC accounting for 7.62%(n=140) and 22.86%at the age group respectively.The number of VVC patients with vagina cleanessⅠtoII was 140(33.33%) andⅢ toⅣ was 280(66.67%),of which bacterial vaginosis(BV) was combined in 70 cases,trichomonal vaginitis (TV) in 28,and atrophic vaginitis (AV) in 24.The factors related to oc-currence of VVC after screening included abortion,use of pads during non-menstrual period,history of vaginitis, in-trauterine device (IUD) placement,use of antibiotics,frequency of sexual activity,vaginal douching,and condoms.The cure rate and marked improvement rate in group A was both much higher than that of control grouprespectively,with statisti-cal difference (P<0.05). Conclusion Through analyzing the disease conditions of VVC in female migrant workers and relevant risk factors analysis on the disease in Shajing street,Shenzhen city,targeted reproductive health education and early intervention aiming at reducing the influence of VVC on reproductive health in female migrant workers and im-proving their quality of lives should be carried out.%目的:探讨深圳沙井街道外来女工外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)的相关

  16. 药物联合波姆光控制重度外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病症状的疗效观察%The clinical effect of POME optical treatment in patients with severe vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石峥; 周红; 杜庆秀

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of local POME optical treatmeat in patients with severe vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) . Methods Ninety-eight patients, who were diagnosed as severe vulvovaginal candidiasis from January to December 2009 in Beijing Wuzhou Women's Hospital gynecologicalclinic,were enrolled into this study and divided into control and physiotherapy groups randomly. The patients of control group (re =48) were treated with oral Fluconazole and had Miconazde Nitrate suppositories settlement into vagina, while in the physiotherapy group (n =50) the patients accepted local POME optical treatment combined with the same medications as control. The therapeutic effect were evaluated and compared according to the subjective symptoms and VVC scores in both groups. Results The clinical symptoms of physiotherapy group were relieved within 4 hours after the treatment, which were significantly depressed compared to before the treatment (itching score 1.4 ±0.3 vs. 2. 8 ±0. 5,P 0.05). Conclusion Local POME optical treatment combined with drug treatment in severe VVC patients not only has better effect than drug treatment alone,but also relieves clinical symptoms more quickly.%目的 探讨局部波姆光理疗对控制重度外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)症状的临床疗效.方法 将我院妇科2009年1-12月确诊的重度VVC患者98例按照不同的治疗方法 分成2组:对照组48例,用口服氟康唑和阴道放置硝酸咪康唑栓治疗;理疗组50例,用局部波姆光理疗联合对照组方法 治疗;通过对患者的主观症状和治疗后VVC分别评分进行比较,观察2组方法 的疗效.结果 理疗组患者的临床症状在治疗后4 h就快速缓解,其中瘙痒评分低于治疗前[(1.4±0.3)分与(2.8±0.5)分,P0.05).结论 局部波姆光理疗联合药物治疗重度VVC,不仅可以加强单纯药物治疗的疗效,而且能快速缓解临床急性期的症状.

  17. The Effects of Terbinafme Hydrochloride Vaginal Effervescent Tablets Combined with Live Lactobacillus Capsule on Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidasis%盐酸特比萘芬阴道泡藤片联合乳杆菌活菌治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病57例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈静; 叶珂帆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe effects of terbinafine hydrochloride vaginal effervescent tablets combined with living preparation of lactobacillus on recurrent vulvovaginal candidasis (RVVC). Methods One hundred and sixty-four patients of RVVC were randomly divided into treatment group treated with terbinafine hydrochloride vaginal effervescent tablets plus live lactobacillus capsule, control group 1 treated with terbinafine hydrochloride vaginal effervescent tablets alone and control group 2 treated with miconazole nitrate vaginal capsules, observing the recurrence rate after treatment one year. Results After one year, the effective rate was 89. 47% ,80.00% ,73.68% and recurrence rate waslO. 00% ,25.64% ,26. 19% in treatment group, control 1 and 2 group respectively. There was a significant difference between treatment group and the two control groups (p<0. 05). Conclusion The combination of terbinafine hydrochloride vaginal effervescent tablets with living preparation of lactobacillus capsule showed satisfactory efficacy and low recurrence rate in treatment recurrent vulvovaginal candidasis.%目的 观察盐酸特比萘芬阴道泡藤片联合乳杆菌活菌治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(RVVC)的临床疗效.方法 将164例RVVC患者随机分为3组,治疗组(57例)予盐酸特比萘芬阴道泡藤片联合乳杆菌活菌胶囊治疗,对照1组(50例)仅予盐酸特比萘芬阴道泡藤片治疗,对照2组(57例)仅予硝酸咪康唑阴道胶囊治疗.3组患者均随访1年.结果 1年后,治疗组、对照1组和对照2组有效率分别为89.47%,80.00%,73.68%,复发率分别为10.00%,25.64%和26.19%,3组的有效率和复发率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论盐酸特比萘芬阴道泡藤片联合乳杆菌活菌治疗RVVC的疗效好,复发率低.

  18. 自制中药洗剂对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病患者阴道内致病菌及正常菌抑制情况的研究%The Study of Compound BaiShe Lotion on Inhibition of Pathogenic Bacteria and Bacillus Lacticus in Patients with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝秀芝; 宁玉梅; 余姬文; 张永为; 李瑞兰

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究自制复方百蛇洗剂对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)患者阴道内假丝酵母菌及乳酸杆菌的抑制情况.方法:取门诊就诊的60例VVC妇女阴道分泌物,培养分离假丝酵母菌及乳酸杆菌,对自制复方百蛇洗剂用肉汤倍比稀释法对临床分离的假丝酵母菌做最低抑菌浓度(The minimum inhibitory concertration,MIC)测定,同时观察在相同浓度下本洗荆对乳酸杆菌的作用.结果:复方百蛇洗剂对假丝酵母菌的最低抑菌浓度为0.5g/mL,在同样浓度下本洗剂对乳酸杆菌没有明显抑制作用.结论:复方白蛇洗剂对感染女性下生殖道白假丝酵母菌有明显抑制作用的同时对阴道正常菌乳酸杆菌没有抑制作用,本洗剂对临床治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病及反复发作的外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病提供了可靠的理论依据.%Objective: To investigate Compound BaiShe Lotion on inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and bacillus lacticus in patients with Vulvovaginal candidiasis.Methods: Candida and bacillus lacticus were separately cultured from the vaginal discharge of 60women with vulv - ovaginal candidiasis in clinic, Compound Baishe Lotion was diluted by bouillon ,The minimum inhibitory concertration of Candida detached from clinic were detected by doubling dilution.meanwhile observe the effect of Compound Baishe Lotion on bacillus lacticus in the same density.Results: the minimum inhibitory concertration of Compound Baishe Lotion on Candida is 0.5g/mL,but for bacillus lacticus , it has no obvious depressant effect under the same density.Conclusions: Compound Baishe Lotion can effectively slay the Candida in female genital tract ,but no inhibition to the normal bacteria bacillus lacticus ,then provides the reliable theory basis for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis and recurrent Candida infection in clinical practice.

  19. Study of local risk factors and treatment in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis%复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病局部病因调查及治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦玉; 李雪莲; 曹帅金; 彭菊兰; 何若英

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the local cause of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and explore a reasonable and effective treatment program.Methods One hundred and fifty-eight cases diagnosed as RVVC were enrolled in the study.Fungal culture of routine anal secretions and secretions of sexual partners balanoposthitis was performed.Another 50 cases with non-vaginal disease at the same time received perianal fungal culture as control.All the patients were randomly divided into three groups.Group A:oral itraconazole 0.1g,twice a day,even serving as a treatment for 7 days.Group B:not only oral itraconazole but 0.15 g clotrimazole vaginal suppositories on the day of a meeting,a total of 10 days for a course of treatment.Group C:further maintenance therapy on the basis of Group B,clotrimazole vaginal suppositories 0.15 g,once every three days,a total of three times.Three groups began repeat treatment at the third day after menstruation ending for six courses.Sexual partners with balanoposthitis secretions positive fungal culture received oral antifungal treatment.After the completion of the 4th,8th,12th,24th week respectively clinical evaluation of efficacy and fungi.Results The positive rate of fungal culture in perianal secretions of 158 patients was 100%(158/158),which of 50 patients with non-vaginal disease was 8%(4/50).The difference between the two kind of patients was statistical significance(P<0.05).Eighteen cases of sexual partners in 158 cases were redundant prepuce or balanitis,and the positive rate of fungal culture in their balanus secretions was 100%(18/18).Another 140 cases of sexual partners were not redundant prepuce or balanitis,the positive rate of fungal culture in their balanus secretions was 1.43%(2/140).There was significantly different(P<0.05).The effective rate in three groups after treatment for 4 weeks was no significantly different(P>0.05).The effective rate in group A was significantly lower than group B and C(P<0.05)after treatment for 8

  20. 妊娠期孕妇糖代谢异常对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌感染及妊娠结局的影响%The influence of gestational abnormal glucose metabolism on vulvovaginal candidiasis infection and pregnan-cy outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of abnormal glucose metabolism on vulvovaginal candidiasis infection and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women.Methods One thousand and fifty-six pregnant women were col-lected who did prenatal examination and termly deliveried in the department of obstetrics and gynecology of our hospi-tal from Jun 2011 to Jun 2013.According to the glucose screening test results, they were divided into glucose normal group(n=624), GCT abnormal group(n=326)and gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) group(n=106).The oc-currence of the vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) infection and pregnancy outcome of the three groups were observed during pregnancy.Results The occurrence rates of VVC of GCT abnormal group and GDM group had no significant differences(P>0.05), but they were significantly higher than those of glucose normal group(P0.05).Conclusion Abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy may increase occurrence risk of VVC, which affects the outcome of pregnancy and in-creases the risk of cesarean section and premature rupture of membranes and intrauterine fetal distress, thus it should be payed more attention to the changes of blood glucose level.Glycated hemoglobin level in pregnant women should be monitored.%目的:探讨妊娠期孕妇糖代谢异常对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌感染及妊娠结局的影响。方法收集行产前检查并足月分娩的初次孕产妇1056例,根据葡萄糖筛查试验( GCT )结果将孕妇分为血糖正常组624例,GCT异常组326例,妊娠期糖尿病( GDM)组106例。观察三组在妊娠期间外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)的发生情况及妊娠结局情况。结果 GDM组、GCT异常组VVC发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但均明显高于血糖正常组(P<0.05);三组VVC复发率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。 GCT异常组、GDM组的胎膜早破、胎儿宫内窘迫发生率、剖宫产率、足月低体重儿率

  1. 盐酸特比萘芬联合氟康唑治疗反复发作念珠菌性阴道炎的疗效和安全性%Therapeutic effects and safety of ternbinafine vaginal effervescent tablets combined with fluconazole in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方洁; 王心; 尚丽新; 刘敬超

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察盐酸特比萘芬联合氟康唑治疗反复发作的念珠菌性阴道炎( recurrent vulvovaginal candidasis ,RVVC)的疗效和安全性。方法228例RVVC患者随机分为氟康唑组(氟康唑150 mg,口服,1次/3 d,共3次)和联合用药组(在氟康唑组的基础上加用盐酸特比萘芬阴道泡腾片,每晚1片放入阴道,50 mg/片,连续应用2周)。观察治疗结束后两组治愈率、临床症状、体征改变、不良反应情况。结果氟康唑组治愈率为81.6%,联合用药组治愈率为92.1%,联合用药组高于氟康唑组,差异有统计学意义(χ2=5.53,P=0.02)。两组治疗后外阴灼痛、外阴瘙痒、阴道分泌物、阴道充血等各项临床症状体征均较治疗前有明显好转。联合用药组阴道分泌物、阴道充血等临床体征较氟康唑组明显减轻,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组不良反应发生率(氟康唑组13.2%,联合用药组14.9%)比较,差异无统计学意义。结论盐酸特比萘芬阴道泡腾片联合氟康唑较单独采用氟康唑治疗RVVC有更高的治愈率,且未增加不良反应。%Objective To study the efficacy and safety of ternbinafine vaginal effervescent tablets combined with fluconazole in the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis ( RVVC) .Methods Totally 228 patients with RVVC were randomly divided into the control group and the study group with 114 cases in each .The control group was treated with fluconazole 150 mg orally for a total of 3 times per 3 days.The study group was given the same drug as the control group and additionally treated with ternbinafine vaginal ef -fervescent tablets 50 mg every day (the treatment course was 14 days).The clinical effect, effective rate and the incidence of adverse reactions in the two groups were compared .Results The total cure rate in the study group was 92.1%, higher than that in the control group ( 81

  2. The analysis of Clinical effects on Treating Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, RVVC with Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine%中西医结合治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病69例临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮香; 王冬莲; 廖湘玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨中西药联合治疗妇女复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的疗效。方法:将69例复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病患者随机分为3组。A组23例:口服抗真菌药氟康唑并阴道上制霉菌素栓(我院自制制剂);B组23例:在A组治疗上,洗液改用阴炎净洗液(我院自制制剂);C组23例:在B组治疗上加服中药汤剂龙胆泻肝汤加味连续10天。结果:A组总有效率52.1%,B组总有效率69.6%, C组的总有效率91.3%, B组有效率高于A组,但组间差异不具有统计学意义, X2=1.889,p>0.05;C组有效率高于B组,差异具有统计学意义,X2=6.036,p0.05). Conclusion:The traditional Chinese and western medicine are effective method to recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  3. 中西医结合治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的临床观察%Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidi-asis with Combination of TCM and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金凤; 刘云波

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical curative effect of combined traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine on recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). Methods: Seventy-one patients with RVVC were randomly divided into observation group (n=36) and control group (n=35), patients in the control group were treated with fluconazole combined nifuratel nysfungin vaginal soft capsules; based on the control group treatmemt, patients of the observation group received syndrome differentiated decoctions of Chinese medicine for fumigation/wash and oral administration. Results: The observation group showed higher cure rate and lower relapse rate than the control group, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The combined treatment of TCM and western medicine has better curative effects for RVVC.%目的:中西医结合治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(RVVC)的临床疗效。方法:71例RVVC患者随机分为观察组(n=36)和对照组(n=35);对照组给予氟康唑联合硝呋太尔制霉素阴道软胶囊;观察组在对照组用药基础上,加中药煎汤熏洗和内服。结果:观察组治愈率高,复发率低,明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:中西医结合治疗RVVC疗效好。

  4. Aspectos virológicos e clínico-patológicos da infecção genital aguda e latente pelo herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2 em bezerras infectadas experimentalmente Virological and clinico-pathological features of acute vulvovaginitis and latent infection by bovine herpesvirus 1.2 in heifers experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Henzel

    2008-03-01

    and cows with bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 (BoHV-1.2 may result in vulvovaginitis and transient infertility. The acute infection is followed by the establishment of latent infection which can be periodically reactivated. We herein describe the virology and clinico-pathological aspects of acute and recrudescent vulvovaginitis in heifers inoculated with a Brazilian BoHV-1.2 isolate recovered from an outbreak of balanoposthitis. Genital inoculation of isolate SV-56/90 (10(8.1TCID50/animal in four eight-months-old heifers resulted in efficient virus replication in the genital mucosa and the development of moderate to severe vulvovaginitis. The inoculated heifers shed virus in genital secretions in titers up to 10(7.3TCID50/mL until day 10 pi and developed genital congestion, swelling, vesicles and pustules. The vesicles and pustules increased in size eventually coalesced and became covered with a yellowish exsudate. These signs appeared at day 2 pi, increased in severity up to days 5 - 8 pi and progressively subsided thereafter. Dexamethasone administration at day 55 pi resulted in virus shedding in vaginal secretions for up to 10 days. Virus reactivation in all animals was accompanied by clinical recrudescence of the disease, yet less severe than during acute infection. Examination of sacral ganglia and lymph nodes by PCR at day 36 post-reactivation revealed the presence of latent viral DNA in the pudendal (4/4, genito-femoral, sciatic and rectal caudal (3/4 and obturator nerve ganglia (1/4; in addition to several regional lymph nodes. These results demonstrate the virulence of isolate SV-56/90 for heifers and pave the way for its use in further pathogenesis studies and vaccine-challenge trials.

  5. Studies of the Clinical Effect for Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis by Using Coptis Chinensis Decoftion Combined with Fluconazole%黄连联合氟康唑治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应基; 李瑞兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨单味黄连煎剂联合氟康唑治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的临床疗效。方法选取2011年6月~2013年6月妇科门诊RVVC患者112例,随机分为两组。观察组60例,单味煎剂阴道给药联合氟康唑口服初始治疗,初始治疗有效者单味黄连煎剂阴道给药维持治疗;对照组62例,克霉唑栓阴道用药联合氟康唑口服初始治疗,初始治疗有效者克霉唑栓阴道给药维持治疗。结果①观察组治愈率(73.34%)低于对照组(75.80%),差异无统计学意义(>0.05);观察组总有效率(91.67%)高于对照组(90.32%),差异无统计学意义(>0.05)。②治疗结束3个月观察组复发率(8.33%)低于对照组(11.29%),差异无统计学意义(>0.05);治疗结束6个月观察组复发率(11.67%)显著低于对照组(25.81%),差异有统计学意义(0.05). the total ef ective rate of observation group (91.67%) was higher than control group (90.32%), the dif erence was not statistically significant ( >0.05). ②Within three months, the recurrence rate of observation group (8.33%) was lower than control group (11.29%),the dif erence was not statistically significant ( >0.05). Within six months , the recurrence rate of observation group(11.67%) was lower than control group(25.81%),the dif erence was statistical y significant ( <0.05). Conclusion Single coptis chinensis decoftion combined with fluconazole on recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is recommendable therapy for its satisfactory ef icacy, mainly in control ing forward recurrence rate.

  6. Efficacy of Ciclopirox Olamine Vaginal Suppositories Combined with Fluconazole in the Treatment of Vul-vovaginal Candidiasis%环吡酮胺阴道栓联合氟康唑治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琇

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察环吡酮胺阴道栓联合氟康唑治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌的疗效观察。方法:74例外阴阴道假丝酵母菌( VVC)感染患者随机分为两组各37例。对照组给予口服氟康唑联合阴道内放置盐酸特比萘芬阴道泡腾片,观察组给予口服氟康唑联合环吡酮胺阴道栓治疗,观察对比两组近期(7 d)、远期(1、3个月)的临床疗效及用药安全性。结果:治疗7 d后,两组临床总有效率差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);1个月后随访,两组复发率比较,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05),3个月后随访,观察组复发率为2.7%,明显低于对照组的22.2%(P0. 05);after the 1-month follow-up,the recurrence rate of the two groups had no significant difference(P>0. 05);after the 3-month follow-up,the re-currence rate of the observation group(2. 7%)was significantly lower than that of the control group(22. 2%,P<0. 05). The two groups showed no serious adverse drug reactions. Conclusion:Fluconazole combined with ciclopirox olamine vaginal suppositories in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidasis exhibits promising curative effect and low recurrence rate without serious adverse reactions.

  7. Observation on Long-Term Follow up Result of Treatment of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis with Ozone%臭氧治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的远期疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄奕璇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the long-term follow up result of treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidasis( RVVC) with ozone,and to cure RWC actually. Methods 152 cases of patients with RVVC in our hospital in recent years were divided into two groups,76 cases in the control group,and 76 cases in the treatment group. The patients in the control group were treated by Clotrimazole and Fluconazole,yet patients in the treatment group were treated by ozone and Fluconazole. Then the treatment efficiency and relapse rate of the two groups were compared in preliminary treatment and maintenance treatment. Results In preliminary treatment,the total effective rate was 100% in the treatment group,with 98.7% in the control group,the difference was not significant (P >0.05). In maintenance treatment,the total effective rate was 100% in the treatment group,with 96.1% in the control group,the difference was not significant (P >0. 05). But half a year after the treatment, the relapse rate was 1.3% in treatment group, with 14.5% in control group,the difference was statistically significant in long-term follow up result of treatment (P <0.05). Conclusion This research proved that the treatment of RVVC with ozone was effective. It cured RWC actually, showing advantages of simple and safe operation,no side effects. The ozone therapy had high clinical value.%目的 观察臭氧治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(RVVC)的远期疗效,从真正意义上治愈RVVC.方法 将揭阳市人民医院门诊收治的RVVC患者152例随机分为对照组76例,治疗组76例,对照组采用传统治疗,予克霉唑栓剂配伍氟康唑口服,治疗组予臭氧治疗配伍氟康唑口服,两组均分初步治疗和巩固治疗,从疗效及复发率比较两组患者的治疗效果.结果 初步治疗:总有效率治疗组100%,对照组98.7%,P>0.05,差异无统计学意义;巩固治疗:总有效率治疗组100%,对照组96.1%,P>0.05,差异无统计学意义,但在全部治

  8. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apparently healthy women reported that about 30% had yeast isolated, confirming ... folks with respect to reproductive tract infections, little interest is shown in some ..... menstrual disorders among young women: A Search for risk modulating ...

  9. Normal Vulvovaginal, Perineal, and Pelvic Anatomy with Reconstructive Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavagal, Sujata; de Farias, Thais F.; Medina, Carlos A.; Takacs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A thorough insight into the female genital anatomy is crucial for understanding and performing pelvic reconstructive procedures. The intimate relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments, and fascia that provide support is complex, but critical to restore during surgery for correction of prolapse or aesthetic reasons. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule with glands, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrounding these structures. Through the perineal membrane and the perineal body, these superficial vulvar structures are structurally related to the deep pelvic muscle levator ani with its fascia. The levator ani forms the pelvic floor with the coccygeus muscle and provides vital support to all the pelvic organs and stability to the perineum. The internal female genital organs include the vagina, cervix, uterus, tubes, and ovaries with their visceral fascia. The visceral fascia also called the endopelvic fascia, surrounds the pelvic organs and connects them to the pelvic walls. It is continuous with the paraurethral and paravaginal fascia, which is attached to the perineal membrane. Thus, the internal and external genitalia are closely related to the muscles and fascia, and work as one functioning unit. PMID:22547969

  10. Vulvovaginitis: promotion of condom use to prevent sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVasseur, J J

    1992-09-01

    Many studies have suggested that merely warning people about the dangers of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and urging the use of condoms as protection will not result in widespread use of condoms. Regular condom use appears to be grounded in knowledge of its effectiveness, perception of STD risk, and belief in a partner's acceptance. But these are not the only barriers to condom use. Negotiating condom use often comes at a sensitive stage in intimate relationships, when individuals prefer to avoid such discussions and simply to trust the powerful and compelling feelings of mutual attraction. This review will consider (1) the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STD transmission, (2) barriers to the use of condoms, and (3) recommended strategies to promote acceptance and use of condoms by heterosexual women.

  11. [Vulvovaginitis: correlation with predisposing factors, clinical manifestations and microbiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosch, S; Fogolín, N; Azzaroni, E; Pairetti, N; Dana, L; Minacori, H; Tita, I; Redona, M; Gribaudo, G

    2006-01-01

    Vaginitis (V) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are one of the most common reasons the middle class patient has to consult a gynaecologist. The purpose of this work is to analyse samples of vaginal fluid targeting the infection etiology and its relationship to related factors: (intrauterine devices, contraceptive pills, condoms, use of antibiotics), symptoms and signs. From November 1, 2001 to October 30, 2003, a cross-section study was carried out of 400 nonpregnant, sexually active women in an age range of 15 to 55. Vaginal secretions were analysed by Gram and Giemsa stains and culturing was used. Interpreting: (1) normal--no observable changes, absence of the infecting agents studied here; (2) infected--changes observed: bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis (CV) and trichomoniasis (TC) and (3) imbalance in vagina ecology, with medium alterations (D). Results obtained: (1) normal: 209 (52.2%); infected: 115 (28.8%) including 13.5% VB, 12.5% CV, 2.8% TC, and (3) 76 (19%) with imbalance of vagina ecology. Bacterial vaginosis and flora imbalance were related to the use of intrauterine devices, and candidiasis to contraceptive pills and previous antibiotic use. The number of symptoms increased in patients with vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis.

  12. Expressions of Toll - like receptors in human vaginal epithelial cells during pregnancy and the correlation with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis%妊娠期Toll样受体在人阴道上皮细胞的表达及其与RVVC的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂欣; 宋慧珍; 易建平

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expressions and clinical significances of Toll - like receptors - TLR2 and TLR4 in human vaginal epithelial tissue during pregnancy and the correlation with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) . Methods; Immunohistochem-ical method was used to detect the expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 in vaginal epithelial cells of 30 pregnant women with RVVC, 30 pregnant women with VVC, and 30 normal pregnant women, Motic Med digital medical image analysis system was used to detect the average optical density (OD) value of positive staining position under each visual field. Results: TLR2 expressed in vaginal epithelial cells of the pregnant women with RVVC, the pregnant women with VVC, and normal pregnant women, the expression levels were (0.434 ± 0. 032), (0.490 ± 0.094), and (0.375 ± 0.062), respectively, there was significant difference among the three groups (P= 21.722, P< 0. 01) . The positive expression rate of TLR2 in vaginal epithelial cells of the pregnant women with VVC was significantly higher than that in vaginal epithelial cells of normal pregnant women (P <0. 05) . The positive expression rate of TLR2 in vaginal epithelial cells of the pregnant women with RVVC was significantly lower than that in vaginal epithelial cells of normal pregnant women (P<0. 05) . TLR4 expressed in vaginal epithelial cells of the pregnant women with RVVC, the pregnant women with VVC, and normal pregnant women, there was significant difference among the three groups (P = 105. 645, P < 0. 01) . The positive expression rate of TLR4 in vaginal epithelial cells of the pregnant women with VVC was significantly higher than that in vaginal epithelial cells of normal pregnant women (P<0. 05) . The positive expression rate of TLR4 in vaginal epithelial cells of the pregnant women with RVVC was significantly lower than that in vaginal epithelial cells of normal pregnant women (P <0. 05) . There was a positive correlation between TLR2 expression and TLR4

  13. In Vitro Inhibition of Vaginal Lactobacillus to Vaginal Candida in Healthy Women and Cases of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis%健康妇女和外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病患者阴道乳杆菌对阴道假丝酵母菌抑制作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施静芳; 刘建华

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨正常健康和外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)妇女阴道分泌物中分离的乳杆菌对假丝酵母菌生长的抑制.方法:健康正常(正常组)和VVC初发(VVC组)妇女各30名,通过定量采集阴道分泌物培养乳杆菌,观察阴道乳杆菌数量及菌种分布情况,并将获得的乳杆菌及VVC患者阴道分泌物中假丝酵母菌分离纯化及鉴定后,采用牛津杯法观察乳杆菌对假丝酵母菌生长的抑制作用,同时比较VVC组和正常组乳杆菌产H2O2能力的差异.结果:①乳杆菌捡出率及菌种分布组间无统计学差异(P>0.05);②VVC组阴道乳杆菌数量的平均对数值与正常组相比显著减少(P<0.01);③阴道内乳杆菌BV试剂盒检测为阴性者,正常组显著高于VVC组(P<0.01);④正常组阴道分离的乳杆菌与VVC组比较,对白色和热带假丝酵母茵的生长抑制有统计学差异(P<0.05),对克柔假丝酵母菌的抑制无统计学差异(P>0.05);正常组分离的嗜酸乳杆菌与VVC组的比较,对白色和热带假丝酵母菌的生长抑制均有统计学差异(P<0.01,P<0.05),对克柔假丝酵母菌的生长抑制无统计学差异(P>0.05);但是正常组和VVC组分离的詹氏乳杆菌对上述3种假丝酵母菌的生长抑制均无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论:①正常妇女与VVC患者阴道内乳杆菌检出率、菌种分布相似,均以嗜酸、詹氏乳杆菌为优势菌种;②VVC患者阴道乳杆菌的数量显著减少;③VVC组产生H2O2的能力下降,可能与VVC发生相关;④正常状态下阴道乳杆菌对假丝酵母菌抑制作用优于VVC感染状态,其中以嗜酸乳杆菌的抑茵作用最为明显.%Objective: To investigate the difference of the growth inhibition of vaginal Lactobacilli to vaginal Candida in healthy women and patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Methods: From 30 healthy women and 30 patients with VVC, the vaginal discharge was collected for the vaginal Lactobacilli to be cultured

  14. Analysis Infection Condition and Curative Effect of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis and Bacterial Vaginosis%单纯外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病与细菌性阴道病现状调查及疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the infection condition and curative effect of woman with vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) or bacterial vaginosis(BV),Methods From June 2009 to December 2010,1280 nonpregnant outpatients were enrolled in this study.Questionnaire investigation,medical history,gynecological checkup and lab results were collected.Incidence rate,influencing factors and curative effects were analyzed.The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Investigation in Human Being of Taian Disabled Soldier Hospital of Shandong.Informed consent was obtained from each patient.Results The incidence rate of VVC and BV were 7.5% and 9.69%,respectively.Vaginal lactobacillus had higher detection rate in VVC group than that in BV group (P<0.01).Gynecological inflammation,contraceptive methods,individual habits,repeated abortion and so on,had the influence of different levels on VVC group and BV group.The key factor of affecting curative effect was not accept the standard treatment.There had significant difference between subgroup A and B in cure rate after treatment (P<0.05).Conclusions VVC and BV are associated with dysbacteriosis in vagina.To strengthen health education and carry on the standard treatment are the effective action for reducing incidence of VVC and BV.%目的 探讨妇女外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)及细菌性阴道病(BV)的感染状况及影响疗效的相关因素.方法 随机选取2009年6月至2010年12月于本院妇科门诊就诊及查体的1280例非妊娠妇女的临床资料为研究对象,将确诊为VVC和BV的患者分别纳入VVC组(n=96)和BV组(n=124),并根据治疗配合情况,将上述两组继续分别分为A亚组(按医嘱用药者)和B亚组(未按要求用药或性伴侣拒绝接受治疗者).采取问卷调查、病史采集、妇科查体及实验室检查等方式,对VVC和BV发病率、影响因素、治疗效果等进行对比分析(本研究遵循的程序符合本院人体试验委员会所制定的伦

  15. The Role of PCR in the Diagnosis of Candida Vulvovaginitis-a New Gold Standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, J D; Akins, Robert A

    2015-06-01

    PCR is recognized as a reliable technique for detection of all types of microorganisms. Being highly objective and reproducible also sensitive and specific, PCR is now widely used for sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis. Potential, however, exists for detecting non-pathogens, and not identifying a pathogenic state decreases specificity or clinical significance. PCR Candida tests of vaginal specimens are now widely available and frequently used offering a modest to moderate increase in sensitivity and are likely to replace traditional culture and DNA homology testing. Nevertheless, there remain considerable gaps in our knowledge regarding the usefulness and applications of these expensive tests.

  16. Circulating Heat Shock Proteins in Women With a History of Recurrent Vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Giraldo

    1999-01-01

    70-kDa heat shock proteins (hsp60 and hsp70, respectively in the circulation of women with or without a history of recurrent BV or candidal vaginitis and with or without a current lower genital tract infection. Heat shock protein expression is associated with a down-regulation of proinflammatory immune responses that would inhibit microbial infection.

  17. Neutrophilic granulocytes reactive response in candida vulvovaginitis patients with intracellular microorganism persistence complications

    OpenAIRE

    YAKOVYCHUK NINA DMYTRIVNA; DJUIRIAK VALENTYNA STEPANIVNA

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphic neutrophilic granulocytes reactive response and body immune reactivity in general considerably decrease in patients suffering from candida vaginitis on the basis of intracellular microorganisms persistence.

  18. [Infectious pathology: vulvovaginitis, sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubo-ovarian abscesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola Vidaurre, M; Benito, J; Azcona, B; Zubeldía, N

    2009-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are those where the principal path of infection is through intimate contact. Numerous patients attend Accidents and emergencies for this reason, both because of the clinical features and because of social implications. The most frequent symptoms are lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding or excessive or troubling vaginal flow. Vulvovaginites are one of the principal problems in the everyday clinical practice of gynaecology. A genital ulcer whose principal aetiology is herpes, followed by syphilis and chancroid, increases the risk of contracting HIV infection and alters the course of other sexually transmitted diseases. Inflammatory pelvic disease encompasses infections of the upper female genital tract. The importance of early diagnosis and suitable treatment is both due to the complications in its acute phase and to its sequels, which include chronic pain and sterility.

  19. Co-occurrence of Gardnerellavaginalis and Candida sp. in women with and without vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eleutério Junior

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To detect the co-occurrence of Gardnerellavaginalis and Candida sp.in women with and without vaginal symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in women seeking treatment in a Brazilian city from March to November 2014. Data, such as age and symptoms, were noted from patients. Vaginal content samples were obtained with a swab of the vaginal wall and were fixed in ATTS (Ambient Temperature Transport System. The Affirm VPIII test (Becton Dickinson and Company, Sparks, MD, USA was used to identify the pathogen. Fisher's exact test with a 95% confidence interval was used for the statistical analysis. Results: In total, 160 women were studied, and 13 cases were excluded. Of the 147 remaining women, fifty-two women were asymptomatic, and 95 women reported symptoms. An association between Gardnerellavaginalis(Gv and Candida sp. (Ca was noted in 9 cases (6.1%. Gv + Ca was observed in 1 case (1.9% in the asymptomatic group and in 12 cases (12.6% in the symptomatic group (p= 0,0361. Vaginal inflammation signs were observed in 8/8 (100% cases of cooccurrence (p<0.005. Conclusion: The co-occurrence of Gardnerellavaginalis and Candida sp. is not rare and is frequently associated with symptoms and mucosal inflammation signs.

  20. Oral and vulvo-vaginal lichenoid reactions due to mitotane (Lysodren)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmouchkovitch, Arthur; Herry, Héloïse; Thuillier, Philippe; Kerlan, Véronique; Fleuret, Camille; Le Toux, Guy; Boisramé, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose of pharmacovigilance (drug safety) is collection, detection, assessment, monitoring, and prevention of adverse effects with pharmaceutical products. It is meant to identify, characterize, prevent, or minimize actual or potential risks relating to medicinal products. To prevent these adverse effects and improve our practice, health professionals have a duty to report side effects to assess this risk and evaluate the benefit/risk requirements. Mitotane (Lysodren) is used for treating adrenocortical carcinoma. Currently, no side effects concerning oral and genital mucosa have been reported. Case Summary: This case report is about a 50 years old woman. Six months after the initiation on mitotane treatment, she developed erosive lesions located on the oral and vaginal mucosa. These drug reactions were diagnosed as erosive lichen planus by the biopsy. This lichenoid lesions were resistant to the usual treatments, mitotane being at the time not replaceable. Conclusion: This case describes an unreported adverse effect of mitotane, it is – to our knowledge – the 1st description of erosive lichenoid drug reaction due to Mitotane. PMID:28079787

  1. Vulvovaginitis: correlación con factores predisponentes, aspectos clínicos y estudios microbiológicos Vulvovaginitis: correlation with predisposing factors, clinical manifestations and microbiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fosch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Las vaginitis (V y vaginosis bacterianas (VB constituyen uno de los principales motivos de consultas ginecológicas. El objeto de este trabajo fue analizar muestras de flujos vaginales para identificar la etiología infecciosa y su relación con factores predisponentes asociados (dispositivos intrauterinos, anticonceptivos orales, preservativos y antibióticos previos, y con signos y síntomas. Entre el 1/11/01 y el 30/10/03 se realizó un estudio de corte transversal con 400 mujeres en edad reproductiva y no embarazadas, en un rango de edad de 15 a 55 años. En el laboratorio se analizó el contenido vaginal mediante examen en fresco, coloraciones (Gram y Giemsa y cultivo. Interpretación: 1 normales (sin alteraciones manifiestas y sin detección de los agentes infecciosos estudiados, 2 infecciosos (con alteraciones manifiestas: vaginosis bacteriana (VB, candidiasis vaginal (CV y tricomoniasis (TC, 3 desequilibrio de la ecología vaginal (con alteraciones intermedias (D. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: 1 normales, 209 (52,2%; 2 infecciosos, 115 (28,8%, los que incluyeron: VB, 13,5%; CV, 12,5%; TC, 2,8%; y 3 desequilibrio de la ecología vaginal, 76 (19%. La vaginosis bacteriana y los desequilibrios de la flora se asociaron con la utilización de dispositivos intrauterinos, y la candidiasis con el uso de anticonceptivos orales y tratamiento antibiótico previo. Las pacientes con candidiasis vaginal y tricomoniasis presentaron mayor porcentaje de síntomas.Vaginitis (V and bacterial vaginosis (BV are one of the most common reasons the middle class patient has to consult a gynaecologist. The purpose of this work is to analyse samples of vaginal fluid targeting the infection etiology and its relationship to related factors: (intrauterine devices, contraceptive pills, condoms, use of antibiotics, symptoms and signs. From November 1, 2001 to October 30, 2003, a cross-section study was carried out of 400 nonpregnant, sexually active women in an age range of 15 to 55. Vaginal secretions were analysed by Gram and Giemsa stains and culturing was used. Interpreting: (1 normal - no observable changes, absence of the infecting agents studied here; (2 infected - changes observed: bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis (CV and trichomoniasis (TC and (3 imbalance in vagina ecology, with medium alterations (D. Results obtained: (1 normal: 209 (52.2%; infected: 115 (28.8% including 13.5%VB, 12.5% CV, 2.8% TC, and (3 76 (19% with imbalance of vagina ecology. Bacterial vaginosis and flora imbalance were related to the use of intrauterine devices, and candidiasis to contraceptive pills and previous antibiotic use. The number of symptoms increased in patients with vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis.

  2. ALS1 and ALS3 gene expression and biofilm formation in Candida albicans isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Roudbarmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results attained indicated that there is an association between the expression of ALS1 and ALS3 genes and fluconazole resistance in C. albicans. A considerable percent of the isolates expressing the ALS1 and ALS3 genes may have contributed to their adherence to vagina and biofilm formation.

  3. 外阴阴道念珠菌病的治疗%Treatments of Vulvovaginal candidiasis (a review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红宾; 刘淮

    2001-01-01

    @@ 念珠菌感染是一种十分常见的妇科疾病,在无症状的女性人群中,20%的女性阴道或外阴部位可分离到白色念珠菌,75%的女性一生中至少要感染一次生殖道念珠菌病(Vilvovaginal candidiasis VVC),而约半数的妇女感染过多次,约有5%的患者成为复发性或慢性生殖道念珠菌病[1].

  4. Identification of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium and Mycoplasma canadense from outbreaks of granulopapular vulvovaginitis in dairy cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnyansky, I; Brenner, J; Alpert, N; Benjamin, A; Bernstein, M; Elad, D; Blum, S; Friedgut, O; Rotenberg, D

    2009-09-12

    A syndrome in which white foci and granulopustular lesions appeared on the vaginal mucous membranes of Holstein cows in several dairy herds in Israel is described. During clinical and diagnostic investigations, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium was isolated from 11 of 20 clinical cases. Vaginal swabs taken from the same cows yielded three isolates of Mycoplasma canadense, which were all associated with the M bovigenitalium infection. Two isolates of small, round, non-enveloped viral particles were approximately 25 nm in diameter and characteristic of enteroviruses on negative-staining electron microscopy.

  5. 外阴阴道念珠菌感染研究进展%Development in research on vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌秀凤; 童华

    2003-01-01

    念珠菌外阴阴道炎是流行广泛的妇科常见疾病,长期以来一直困扰着全球数以万计的妇女,对妇女身心健康有很大影响.深入了解念珠菌阴道炎的病原学特性及发病机制,对指导本病的预防和治疗有重要意义.

  6. A Multi-center, Double-blind, Randomized Study, Comparing Clindamycin Phosphate Vaginal Cream 2% (Watson Laboratories, Inc.) to Clindesse® (Ther-Rx™, Clindamyin Phosphate Vaginal Cream 2%) and Both Active Treatments to a Placebo Control in the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis in Non-pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS; Signs and Symptoms to be Evaluated and Recorded Include:; Vaginal Discharge: Color, Odor, and Consistency;; Vulvovaginal Itching and Irritation (Subjective): Absent, Mild, Moderate, or Severe; Vulvovaginal Inflammation (Objective): Absent, Mild, Moderate, or Severe.

  7. Advances on diagnosis and treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis%外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的诊治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏

    2008-01-01

    外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(Vulrovaginal candidiasis,VVC)是一种常见的妇科疾病,在细菌感染的外阴阴道炎之后位于外阴阴道感染性炎症的第二位,有慢性、长期和复发倾向。资料显示,有75%的妇女在一生中患过VVC。近年来国内外对VVC的诊断及治疗研究较多,本文就诊断及治疗方面作如下总结。

  8. The analysis of candida and drug susceptibility of recurrent vulvovaginal candidasis%RVVC阴道假丝酵母菌及其药敏情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小军; 吴少苑; 何亮; 王冲

    2013-01-01

    目的 检测引起RVVC的阴道假丝酵母菌的构成及其药敏谱.方法 应用科玛嘉假丝酵母菌显色培养基和API20 CAUX鉴定分离菌株,应用纸片扩散法进行体外药敏试验.结果 培养分离的123株菌中白假丝酵母菌占78.5%,光滑假丝酵母菌占14.8%,热带假丝酵母菌占3.0%,近平滑假丝酵母菌占2.3%、克柔假丝酵母菌占1.4%;123株白假丝酵母菌药敏率由高到低依次是制霉菌素、克霉唑、伊曲康唑、咪康唑、氟康唑、酮康唑.结论 不仅根据药敏结果实施个体化治疗方案,还要继续加深RVVC发病机制的认识,才有可能更有效治疗RVVC.

  9. 阴道非白念珠菌的PCR-RFLP鉴定%Identification of non-Candida albicans from Patients with Vulvovaginal Candidasis by PCR-RFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武燕; 骆志成; 魏玉平

    2008-01-01

    目的 对分离自外阴阴道念珠病菌(VVC)患者阴道的常见致病性非白念珠菌进行聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)方法的鉴定.方法 首先采用芽管试验、厚壁孢子试验、法国科玛嘉(CHROMagar)念珠茼显色培养基及API20CAUX酵母菌鉴定系统将分离自VVC患者阴道内的念珠菌菌株鉴定到种,然后采用真菌通用引物将4种常见非白念珠菌(包括光滑念珠菌、近平滑念珠菌、克柔念珠菌和热带念珠菌)进行PCR扩增,并选用Msp Ⅰ和HaeⅢ两种内切酶对扩增产物进行酶切分析.结果 在4种非白念珠菌中光滑念珠菌15株(7.50%),近平滑念珠菌7株(3.50%),克柔念珠菌5株(2.50%),热带念珠菌2株(1.00%);PCR扩增后均产生稳定、清晰的条带,扩增产物经MspⅠ,HaeⅢ酶切后分别产生4种和2种特异性带型.结论 外阴阴道念珠菌病非白念珠菌中以光滑念珠菌为主;PCR-RFLP方法在鉴定常见致病性非白念珠菌中比较可靠、稳定、特异,但仍有方法繁琐等不足之处.

  10. 范瑞强教授治疗复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病经验%Professor Fan Ruiqiangs Experience of Treating Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 樊志奇; 范瑞强

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent Vulvo Vaginal Candidiasis(RVVC)is a type of common mycoses in the vagina which is caused by Monilia.In Pro-fessor Fan Ruiqiangs opinion,the pathogenesis of RVVC is the accumulation of damp heat giving birth to worms,as time goes by,liver-spleen becomes disordered,with spleen being deficient and liver being stagnant.When it confers to treatment of RVVC,professor Fan considers that external treatment is more important than internal treatment,and syndrome differentiation should be applied.%复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病(Recurrent Vulvo Vaginal Candidiasis,RVVC)是一种常见的由念珠菌感染引起的女性外阴皮肤黏膜真菌病。范瑞强教授认为该病的病机主要是湿热蕴结,湿热生虫,日久肝脾不和,脾虚肝郁,治疗方面,范教授认为本病的治疗应以外治为主,内外兼顾,内治则应辨证论治。

  11. The identification of 94 clinical isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in Fujian area%福建地区94例女性阴道念珠菌感染分离株分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柏叡; 江爱萍; 徐明; 卢万丁; 蔡蕾

    2014-01-01

    目的 对福建地区临床阴道分泌物分离出的(94株)念珠菌菌株进行分类鉴定,并通过分子生物学及API试验分析传统科玛嘉分类方法的准确性.方法 ①通过科玛嘉显色培养基鉴定菌种,并观察菌株显微镜下形态学表现.②通过ITS区段分子生物学序列分析进行菌种鉴定.③将科玛嘉试验与ITS区段序列分析结果与化验室检验报告结果对比,将鉴定差别菌株进一步行API试验及LSU区段序列分析.结果 ①94株念珠菌经鉴定结果为白念珠菌78株、光滑念珠菌10株、近平滑念珠菌3株、热带念珠菌1株、酿酒假丝酵母菌1株及其中1株为光滑念珠菌及近平滑念珠菌混合感染.②科玛嘉试验可良好的鉴定念珠菌,但对于少见菌种(如酿酒假丝酵母菌)仍缺乏特异性.③一般化验室通过简单菌落形态学及简易科玛嘉检测鉴定仍存在一定误差率(10/94).④分子生物学方法鉴定菌种准确性高,且可从基因序列分析中鉴定包含C.parapsilosis sensu strico,Candida metapsilosis以及Candida orthopsilosis的近平滑念珠菌复合体菌种.结论 福建地区女性外阴感染的菌种仍以白念珠菌为主,但非白念珠菌的感染也占据相当的比例(16/94),而在检测方法上,分子生物学技术较科玛嘉试验更能准确的鉴定念珠菌菌种.

  12. 致阴道病的白念珠菌多位点序列分型分析及遗传多样性%Multilocus sequence typing and genetic diversity ofCandida albicans in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志恒; 应春妹; 赵虎

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular epidemiology of 114C. albicans strains isolated from the vaginal discharge of female patients treated in three obstetrics and gynecology hospitals in Shanghai by analyzing the relationship between the main genotypes and resistance proifle, and the relationship between genetic diversity and cluster ofC. albicans.Methods A total of 114 strains ofC. albicans were collected from the Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital Corporation and the International Peace Maternity & Child Health Hospital of China welfare institute. Phylogenetic analysis of strains were carried out by eBURST.C. albicans strains were also analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The susceptibility of theC. albicans strains was tested by ATB FUNGUS 3.Results A total of 47 diploid strain types (DSTs) were identiifed from the 114 strains, 30 of which were known types. DST 79 and DST 435 were the main types. Of the 114C. albicans strains, 96.5% were susceptible to lfucytosine, 100% to amphotericin B, 85.1% to lfuconazole, 55.2% to itraconazole and 84.3% to voriconazole.Conclusions The pathogenicC. albicans strains isolated from different obstetrics and gynecology hospitals in Shanghai were originated from multiple clones, the main type of which was DST 79 and DST 435 with certain degree of antifungal resistance. MLST typing suggests that genetic diversity is present in theC. albicans strains isolated in Shanghai area. The clustering analysis ofC. albicans strains is consistent with its genotypes.%目的:对上海市3所妇产科医院分离的114株白念珠菌进行分子流行病学研究,分析本地专科医院分离的白念珠菌主要基因型别与菌株耐药关系,并了解菌株间遗传多样性与种群分类关系。方法收集来自复旦大学附属妇产科医院、上海市第一妇幼保健院和国际和平妇幼保健院共114株白念珠菌,采用eBURST进行菌株亲缘性分析,多位点序列分型(MLST)方法进行分型,并采用ATBTM FUNGUS 3试剂盒作真菌体外药物敏感试验。结果114株菌株中共有47种DST型(diploid strain types, DST),其中已知30种,主要组群为DST 79和DST 435。114株白念珠菌对氟胞嘧啶、两性霉素B、氟康唑、伊曲康唑、伏立康唑敏感率分别为96.5%、100%、85.1%、55.2%、84.3%。结论上海地区不同妇产科医院致病性白念珠菌呈多克隆系,但主要为DST 79和DST 435型,且具有一定耐药性。通过应用MLST分型方法,初步发现上海地区白念珠菌具有遗传多样性,且种群分类与基因分型具有相关性。

  13. An Evaluation of Theraphy with Fluconazole 150 mg Tablets Compared to Fluconazole 150 mg Tablets Plus Dermoxen Lenitiva Cream in The Time to Reduce Simptomatology in Women with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Carati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. Authors investigated first of all the time to onset of first relief of symptoms. Secondary measures included the time to overall relief of symptoms and the reoccurrence rate over the first 45 days after the first visit. Methods. A randomized, open-label, parallel study evaluated 47 women with moderate to severe symptoms of Vulvo Vaginal Candidiasis (VVC. Patients were divided into two groups of treatment: group 1 followed a therapy with Fluconazole 150 mg tablets, while group 2 had a therapy based on Fluconazole 150 mg tablets coadjuvated by Dermoxen Lenitiva cream. Results. The time at which 50% of patients experienced first relief of symptoms was 24.6 hours for Group 1, while for Group 2 it was 12.4 hours (P<0.05. There were significant differences between the two groups in respect to the time of first relief of symptoms and reoccurrence of infection within 45 days of treatment. Conclusions. Combined treatment with Fluconazole 150 mg tablets and by Dermoxen Lenitiva cream provides statistically significant improvement in the time of first relief of symptoms, complete relief of symptoms and relapse time in the treatment of VVC compared to fluconazole 150 mg tablets only.

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUPPOSITORY OR WITH ORAL DRUG ON RECUURENT VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS%栓剂或联合口服用药治疗复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旭军

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨局部使用达克宁栓或联合口服氟康唑治疗复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病(RVVC)的临床疗效.方法:将2001年10月~2004年10月门诊收治的复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病患者100例,随机分为两组,在强化治疗达到真菌学治愈后,给予巩固治疗6个月,定期观察、分析临床治疗的有效率.强化治疗期A组(n=50)局部用达克宁栓(含硝酸咪康唑200 mg)每日1次,连续7 d;B组(n=50)除局部用达克宁栓外,加口服氟康唑(150 mg/d,连用3 d).巩固治疗期则依法每月治疗1个疗程,B组氟康唑改为顿服150 mg.总疗程为7个月.结果:经强化治疗及巩固治疗后,B组总有效率明显高于A组(P<0.05).结论:氟康唑联合达克宁栓治疗复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病是一种既安全又有效的方法,值得推广应用.

  15. Role of health education on therapeutic effect of vulvovaginal candidasis%外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的原因分析及健康教育干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎秀梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解已婚妇女进行妇科疾病普查期间,发现外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的原因,针对性给予患者相应的护理干预、健康教育观察效果.方法 回顾性分析l 578例已婚妇女进行妇科疾病普查后资料,确诊为外阴阴道假丝酵母茵病患者117例,分别为其实施综合治疗及健康教育,针对引起的原因给予相应的护理干预.结果 外阴阴道假丝酵母茵病与用药情况、个人疾病史、工作、生活、卫生习惯密切相关.结论 针对性地帮助患者认识并注意消除或控制外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的原因,采取综合治疗及健康教育、护理干预措施相结合,能有效提高外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的治愈率,降低复发率.

  16. 复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病菌种的26S rDNA序列分析%Analysis on recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis monilia germs of 26S rDNA sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟绍琴; 许瑞环; 李康; 黄兴国; 陈亦微

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨基于核糖体基因26S rDNA D1/D2区序列分析法在临床酵母菌菌种鉴定中的应用.方法 收集来源于复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病分泌物标本93株,PCR扩增其26S rDNA D1/D2区,对扩增产物进行序列测定和分析,并与基因库中的基因序列进行同源性比对.结果 所有菌株均鉴定到种,同源性达99%和100%,同属于真菌双核亚界、子囊菌门、酵母菌科的3个属,89株为candida,3株为Kodamaea,1株为Pichia.其中candida中有7个种,38株candida glabrata,23株 candida albicans,16株candida parapsolisis,9株candida metapdilosis,1株candida orthopsilisis,1株 candida tropicalis,1株candida nivariensis;3株Kodamaea ohmeri;1株Pichia kudriavzevii.结论 复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病的病原体主要为candida属的candida glabrata、candida albicans 和candida parapsolisis,非candida albicans占75.27%是其特征;26SrDNA D1/D2区序列分析为临床酵母菌的分子水平鉴定提供了一种准确、可行的方法.%Objective To explore the ribosomes gene based on 26S rDNA D1/D2 area sequence analysis method in the clinical application of yeast strain identification. Methods To collect from recurrent genital vaginal moniiiosis secretion specimens of 93 plants,PCR amplification its 26S rDNA D1/D2 area,the amplification products scries were determined and analyzed,and the genetic sequences with gene pool than homology. Results All strains arc identification to the kind,the homology of 99% and 100%, belong to the fung, dikarya, ascomycota, saccharomycctaccac of this three genera,89 strains for Candida,3 strains for Kodamaca,for Pichia 1 strain. One of seven kinds of Candida,38 strains Candida glabrata, Candida albicans 23 strains, 16 strains Candida parapsolisis, 9 of Candida mctapdilosis, Candida orthopsilisis 1 strain,Candida tropicalis 1 strain, 1 strain Candida nivaricnsis;3 strains Kodamaca ohmcri;Pichia kudriavzevii 1 strain. Conclusion Recurrent genital vaginal moniliosis pathogen of Candida mainly for Candida glabrata, Candida albicans and Candida parapsolisis,the Candida albicans arc take 75. 27% of its characteristic; 26S rDNA D1/D2 area scries analysis for clinical yeast molecular level appraisal provides a accurate and feasible method.

  17. Antifungal susceptibilities of candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis as determined by using CLSI broth microdilution%外阴阴道念珠菌病的念珠菌对抗真菌药物的敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小芳; 樊尚荣; 刘小平; 黎婷; 梁轶珩; 梁丽芬

    2016-01-01

    目的 在体外比较念珠菌对常见抗真菌药物的敏感性,以期指导临床用药.方法 对采集自外阴阴道念珠菌病患者的念珠菌应用微量肉汤稀释法抗真菌药物敏感试验参考方法(M27-A3、M27-S4)进行体外药物敏感试验.结果 共检测1 139株念珠菌中,白念珠菌、光滑念珠菌、近平滑念珠菌、热带念珠菌的氟康唑和伊曲康唑耐药率分别为8.72%、6.12%、1.88%、38.64%和7.96%、40.14%、15.09%、36.36%.光滑念珠菌、热带念珠菌和近平滑念珠菌对伊曲康唑耐药率高于白念珠菌者(P<0.05).热带念珠菌对氟康唑耐药率高于白念珠菌者(P<0.05).白念珠菌对氟康唑的耐药率高于近平滑念珠菌者(P<0.05).非白念珠菌的几种唑类MIC几何均值高于白念珠菌者(P<0.05).特比奈芬对所有检测的念珠菌MIC90均超过32μ g/ml.结论 白念珠菌对唑类普遍敏感,念珠菌对制霉菌素普遍敏感和特比奈芬普遍耐药.

  18. Infectious Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009409 Pathogenesis analysis of vulvovaginal candidiasis in a mouse model using oligonucleotide microarrays.SHE Xiaodong,et al.Instit Dermatol,CAMS & PUMC,Nanjing 210042.Chin J Dermatol 2009;42(10):681-684. Objective To investigate the pathogenesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis.Methods Thirty mice were randomly and equally divided into 3 groups,i.e.,infected

  19. Desquamativ inflammatorisk vaginit- en overset sygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Eva; Meinert, Mette; Baumgartner-Nielsen, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In case of pelvic pain desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is an important differential diagnosis Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) is an uncommon, severe form of chronic vaginitis of unknown aetiology. The syndrome is characterised by profuse vaginal discharge, vulvovaginal irritation...

  20. Ved smerter i underlivet er deskvamativ inflammatoriskvaginitis en vigtig differentialdiagnose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Eva; Baumgartner-Nielsen, Jane; Meinert, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) is an uncommon, severe form of chronic vaginitis of unknown aetiology. The syndrome is characterised by profuse vaginal discharge, vulvovaginal irritation, dyspareunia and vaginal erythema. As the symptoms and signs are nonspecific, other causes of purulent...

  1. RVVC患者阴道念珠菌菌种分布及优势种白念珠菌基因型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗利丽; 王彩丽; 王玉凤; 赵欣; 曾俊; 毛婷

    2010-01-01

    @@ 外阴阴道念珠菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)是一种由念珠菌(Candida spp.)引起的阴道黏膜感染性疾病.约75%的育龄妇女一生中发病一次,其中5%以上的患者发展为复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病(recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, RVVC) ~([1]).

  2. 纳米银抗菌凝胶联合氟康唑治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌疗效观察%Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Nano Silver Antibacterial Gel Combined with Fluconazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨纳米银抗菌凝胶联合氟康唑治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病疗效。方法选择门诊确诊的外阴阴道假丝酵母菌患者58例随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组氟康唑单次口服150mg,纳米银抗菌凝胶连用6d。对照组纳米银抗菌凝胶连用6d,对比疗效。结果两组停药后7d总有效率为93.3%和82.1%,两组在下次月经干净后总有效率为93.3%和78.6%。结论纳米银抗菌凝胶联合氟康唑治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌具有较好的疗效。%Objective To explore the nano silver antibacterial gel with fluconazole therapy vulva vagina candida disease curative ef ect. Methods Clinic diagnosis of patients with vulva vagina candida 58 cases were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, treatment group fluconazole single oral 150 mg, a laparoscope, usual y connected to a nano silver antibacterial gel 6 days. A laparoscope, usual y connected to a control group of nano silver antibacterial gel 6 days, compare the curative ef ect. Results Two groups of seven days after the drug was stopped the total ef ective rate was 93.3%and 82.1%, the two groups in next time menstruation clean after the total ef ective rate was 93.3%and 93.3%. Conclusion Nano silver antibacterial gel with fluconazole therapy vulva vagina candida has good curative ef ect.

  3. 美扶伊曲康唑联合康妇特栓治疗严重外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病临床观察%Clinical observation on serious vulvo-vaginal candida mycoderma bacteria treated by Itraconazole Capsules combined with Confort Pessaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴应兰; 郭英; 李小平

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨美扶伊曲康唑联合康妇特栓治疗严重外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)的临床效果.方法:回顾性分析我院2008年2月一2009年8月在妇产科门诊诊断为严重外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病100例患者的临床治疗资料,将100例患者随机分为两组,研究组50例采用美扶伊曲康唑联合康妇特栓治疗,对照组50例单纯使用达克宁栓200 mg治疗.结果:研究组总显效率为98%,对照组为86%,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(氏0.05).结论:美扶伊曲康唑联合康妇特栓治疗严重外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病效果好.

  4. 康妇特栓剂治疗120例外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病近期疗效分析%Analysis of Effect!of Confort Pessaries on Treatment of 120 Cases of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高中泽

    2006-01-01

    目的:了解康妇特栓剂治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的近期疗效及安全性.方法:康妇特栓剂与硝酸咪康唑栓剂进行比较研究.结果:治疗组治疗6d假丝酵母菌阴转率为93.3%,总体疗效分别为95.8%,不良反应发生率为2.5%,对照组假丝酵母菌阴转率为92.5%,总体疗效为96.6%,不良反应发生率为3.3%,治疗组与对照组治疗结果比较无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论:康妇特栓剂对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病具有确切疗效,同时克服了药液外溢的缺点.

  5. 定君生联合凯妮汀治疗复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病临床观察%Observation on the effects of canesten vaginal tablet combined with live lactobacillus capsulre on recurrent vulvovaginal candidasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海波; 何娅绒; 李爱莉; 任菊霞

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究联合运用定君生和凯妮汀对复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病的临床治疗效果及治疗后复发情况.方法 复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病患者97例,随机分为治疗组和对照组,分别给予定君生(0.25g/d)联合凯妮汀(500mg/3d),及凯妮汀(500mg/3d)单用治疗.结果 单用凯妮汀能有效降低患者症状积分,治愈率为54.2%,复发率达到30.1%;定君生联合凯妮汀显著降低患者症状积分,并且治愈率达到85.7%,且复发率仅为4.8%.结论 定君生和凯妮汀联用能显著提高对复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病的治愈率,且显著降低复发率,是一种有效的治疗方法.

  6. Investigation on the Drug Sensitivity in Patients with Vulvovaginal Candidasis in STD Clinic in the Past Five Years%性病门诊5年中可疑念珠菌性外阴阴道炎患者念珠菌流行病学调查及耐药性监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费实; 李季; 李平; 黎小东; 宋卫忠; 张锡宝

    2005-01-01

    目的:研究疑似外阴阴道炎患者念珠菌菌种的分布及对氟康唑和伊曲康唑的药物敏感性监测.方法:常规分离菌株并鉴定,药敏采用E-test方法测定念珠菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC).结果:阴道分泌物分离念珠菌419例,其中:白念珠菌348株(83.1%),光滑念珠菌35株(8.4%),近平滑念珠菌17株(4%),热带念珠菌8株(2%),清酒念珠菌4株(1%),克柔念珠菌5株(1%).419株中对氟康唑、伊曲康唑耐药分别有13株(3%)、66株(16%),双重耐药7株占2%.结论:在疑似念珠菌性外阴阴道炎(VVC)患者分离的念珠菌中,仍以白念珠菌为优势菌株.念珠菌对伊曲康唑和氟康唑的耐药显示逐年增高趋势,不同念珠菌对常用抗真菌药物敏感性存在差异,部分菌种存在交叉耐药,非白念珠菌交叉耐药明显高于白念珠菌.

  7. Shigella flexneri-induced vaginitis in a prepubertal children: description of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Restelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In prepuberal girls vulvo-vaginitis are caused by germs of intestinal origin,mycetes, Gardnerella vaginalis, protozoa. Shigella is an uncommon agent able to induce valvovaginitis in children. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with chronic vulvo-vaginitis caused by S. flexneri. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing revealed that S. flexnery was sensible to cefotaxime, amoxicillin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, but resistant to amikacin, cefazolin, gentamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. A treatment with ciprofloxacin brought to a rapid resolution of all symptoms. At the follows up at 3 and 6 months the patient did not report symptoms of infection or articular cartilage abnormality; microbiological evaluations were also negative. Even if it is a single case report and other clinical trial may be performed in order to validate this hypothesis,we speculate that in patient with vulvo-vaginal infection living in environment with low hygiene care, a carefully microbiological evaluation of uncommon agents may be performed.

  8. [Bacterial vaginosis: efficacy of a local treatment with a gel containing a fraction derived from propinibacterium acnes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Gian B; Marotto, Maria F; Orrù, Marisa M; Pilloni, Monica; Zedda, Pierina; D'Alterio, Maurizio; Paoletti, Anna M

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is favored by a decreased activity of vaginal immune system. The fraction derived from Propionibacterium acnes is known to activate the immune system and is used parenterally to treat respiratory and urinary infections. The employ of a fraction derived from Propionibacterium acnes locally, in the context of the vaginal immune system, is made possible by a vaginal gel in which this fraction is associated with hyaluronic acid, well-known for its moisturizing activity, and polycarbophil, capable of miming the function of cervical mucus. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether this preparation is efficacy in the treatment of vulvovaginal symptoms associated to BV. After the diagnosis of BV and the evaluation of a Visual Analogic Score >6 for vulvovaginal itch and burning, 33 women participated in this study on a voluntary basis. They were treated with a vaginal gel (Immunovag®, Depofarma, Italy) for 5 days, with one vulvovaginal application a day. The day following the last application, the subjects reported a significant reduction of vulvovaginal symptoms and a significant reduction of vulvovaginal erythema and leucorrhea. In the vaginal swab performed before the treatment, anaerobic microorganisms were positive in 82% and negative in 18% of cases; when tested the day following the end of treatment, it was positive in 25% and negative in 75% of subjects. Symptom reduction rates did not differ between the groups with positive or negative vaginal swab. The results obtained in the subjects treated with Immunovag® were similar to those obtained in a group of women with BV treated with clindamycin cream (one daily vulvovaginal application of 100 mg, for 5 days). The activation of the vaginal immune system induced by Immunovag® can antagonize the symptoms of BV and counteract the growth of vaginal anaerobic microorganisms.

  9. Dermatosis associated with menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya A Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is defined as permanent irreversible cessation of menses brought by decline in ovarian follicular activity. Hormonal alteration results in various physical, psychological, and sexual changes in menopausal women. Associated dermatological problems can be classified as physiological changes, age-related changes, changes due to estrogen deficiency and due to hormone replacement therapy. Dermatosis seen due to estrogen deficiency includes Atrophic Vulvovaginitis, Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus, Dyaesthetic Vulvodynia, Hirsutism, Alopecia, Menopausal Flushing, Keratoderma Climactericum, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Dermatologists and gynecologists need to be familiar with the problems of menopausal women, as with increase in life expectancy, women passing through this phase is rising.

  10. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilienne Verkaeren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Group A Streptococcus (GAS is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner.

  11. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaeren, Emilienne; Epelboin, Loïc; Epelboin, Sylvie; Boddaert, Nathalie; Brossier, Florence; Caumes, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner.

  12. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes.

  13. Vulvar and Vaginal Atrophy: Physiology, Clinical Presentation, and Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Sagie, Ahinoam

    2015-09-01

    Vulvovaginal atrophy is a common condition associated with decreased estrogenization of the vaginal tissue. Symptoms include vaginal dryness, irritation, itching, soreness, burning, dyspareunia, discharge, urinary frequency, and urgency. It can occur at any time in a woman's life cycle, although more commonly in the postmenopausal phase, during which the prevalence is approximately 50%. Despite the high prevalence and the substantial effect on quality of life, vulvovaginal atrophy often remains underreported and undertreated. This article aims to review the physiology, clinical presentation, assessment, and current recommendations for treatment, including aspects of effectiveness and safety of local vaginal estrogen therapies.

  14. Atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stika, Catherine S

    2010-01-01

    With the loss of estrogen that occurs with menopause, physiologic and structural changes occur within the vulvovaginal mucosa that lead to a condition commonly called atrophic vaginitis. Although mild genital changes occur in most women, 10-47% of postmenopausal women will develop one or more debilitating symptoms that include vulvovaginal dryness, dyspareunia, vulvar itching or pain, recurrent urinary tract infections, as well as abnormal vaginal discharge. Topical estrogen replacement therapies reverse these mucosal changes and are effective treatments for the symptoms of atrophic vaginitis. Vaginal moisturizers and lubricants also provide symptomatic relief for vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, respectively. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Benign tumors of vulva: review and case report of achrocordon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtémoc Galeana Castillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The vulvovaginal region is a very complex area because of its anatomy and the fact that it can be source of a large number of benign tumors and less frequent malignant tumors. In recent decades, there have been significant gains in the diagnosis and treatment of vulvovaginal tumors, thanks to the contributions of cellular and molecular biology. The purpose of this review article is to serve as a practical reference for clinical and pathological diagnosis as well as in the outpatient treatment and monitoring of these benign tumors.

  16. Amputação abdômino-perineal mais colostomia para-vaginal no tratamento do câncer reto-anal Abdomino-perineal amputation plus para-vaginal colostomy in the treatment of reto-anal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcino Lázaro da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O apresenta uma proposta e as tentativas iniciais para evitar a colostomia abdominal quando esta tem que ser definitiva. Na mulher foi possível a sua execução, desde que se aproveitou o tono da musculatura esfincteral vulvovaginal quando ela pode ser preservada na amputação de reto-ânus. O colo, preparado com as válvulas, desce posteriormente à vagina, por dentro do conjunto esfincteral vulvovaginal. As observações iniciais mostram que esta tentativa poderia ser incrementada para melhores estudos de continência.The Author presents a proposal and lhe initial attempties to avoid the abdominal colostomy when it has to be definitive. In the woman was possible its execution, since it took advantage from the vulvovaginal esfincteral muscle nohen it can be preserved ot the anus-rectum amputation. The colon, prepared wit the valves, descend posteriorily from the vagina, inside the vulvo-vaginal esfincteral group. The initial observations shows that this attempt could be better developed for cotinency etudies.

  17. Vaginal infections update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Vaginal symptoms are one of the leading reasons that women visit their health care providers. Women often self-diagnose and may treat themselves inappropriately. This article describes the etiology, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of the 3 most common vaginal infections: bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  18. Bovine herpesvirus 1 interferes with TAP-dependent peptide transport and intracellular trafficking of MHC class I molecules in human cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppers-Lalic, D.; Rychlowski, M.; Leeuwen, D.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Ressing, M.E.; Neefjes, J.J.; Bienkowska-Szewczyk, K.; Wiertz, E.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), the cause of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cattle, establishes a lifelong infection, despite the presence of antiviral immunity in the host. BoHV-1 has been shown to elude the host immune system, but the viral gene products

  19. Syndrome in question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yinhua; Qiao, Jianjun; Fang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome is characterized by erosions and desquamation of the vulva, vagina, and gingiva. We reported a case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with an 8-year history of damage to the vulval and perianal anatomy and limitation of mouth opening. The patient's symptoms were relieved after treatment with topical tacrolimus cream.

  20. 臭氧治疗严重外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小燕

    2010-01-01

    @@ 本院采用氟康唑口服、硝酸益康唑栓阴道放置,结合臭氧治疗方法,治疗严重外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC),取得了临床满意疗效.现报告如下.

  1. 念珠菌性阴道炎合并解脲脲原体感染的临床治疗观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志喜

    2003-01-01

    @@ 念珠菌性阴道炎(Vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)是一种常见妇科炎症,解脲脲原体感染也是一种常见的性传播疾病,有较高的感染率,是引起不育症的主要原因之一.

  2. A retrospective analysis of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (bovine herpes virus-1) surveillance program in Norway using Monte Carlo simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Tharaldsen, J.; Jarp, J.

    2001-01-01

    Serological surveillance for antibodies against bovine herpes virus type I (BHV-1) which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis has been carried out since 1992 in Norway. Since 1993 (when a single infected herd was detected) all bulk-milk and pooled-serum...

  3. 38 CFR 4.116 - Schedule of ratings-gynecological conditions and disorders of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly compensation. 7610Vulva, disease or injury of (including vulvovaginitis). 7611Vagina, disease or injury of. 7612Cervix, disease or injury of. 7613Uterus, disease, injury, or adhesions of. 7614Fallopian tube, disease, injury, or adhesions of (including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)). 7615Ovary...

  4. Efficacy of Amla (Emblica officinanis and Shibe yamani (potash alum in the management of Candida vaginitis: a randomized standard controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuma Zaki

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Test drugs provide statistically significant improvement in vulvovaginal pruritus, vaginal discharge and in wet mount test without any apparent side effects. It can serve as an alternative treatment for Candida vaginitis. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1601-1606

  5. Molecular Characterization of Candida africana in Genital Specimens in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida africana, an emerging yeast pathogen, is closely related to Candida albicans and most commonly involved in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC. However, its prevalence in candidal balanoposthitis is still unclear. In this study, the prevalence of C. africana in both candidal balanoposthitis and VVC in a sexually transmitted diseases (STD clinic in Shanghai, China, was analyzed, and the molecular characterization and susceptible profiles of C. africana isolates were investigated. As results, C. africana was only isolated in 5 out of 79 (6.3% cases of candidal balanoposthitis rather than cases with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Among them, 4 out of 5 isolates share the same genotype of DST 782 with an isolate from vaginal swab in Japan published previously. All C. africana isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and micafungin.

  6. KANDIDIASIS VAGINA YANG MENDAPAT TERAPI SISTEMIK DAN TOPIKAL: SEBUAH LAPORAN KASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Made Rendy Sanjaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Kandidiasis vulvovaginitis ialah penyakit jamur candida yang mengenai mukosa vagina danvulva.Penyebabnya yang tersering biasanya adalah candida albicans.Gejala klinis KandidiasisVulvovaginitis ialah gatal didaerah vulva, dan pada yang berat terdapat rasa panas,dispaneuria.lesi eritema, hiperemis dilabia mayora, dan vagina 1/3 bawah. Dilaporkan satu  kasusseorang wanita. berumur 26 tahun dengan keluhan keputihan pada daerah vagina sertamengalami kegatalan dan rasa nyeri terjadi sejak 2 minggu yang lalu. Pada gambaran klinis tampak dinding vagina eritema, erosi dengan secret putih kental. Pada pengecatan gram darisecret mukosa vagina didapatkan leukosit blastopsora dan pseudohifa. Pemerikaan KOH 10%dari sekret vagina didapatkan blastopore dan pesudohifa.Penanganan yang diberikan adalah obatsistemik dengan flukonazol 1x150 mg dosis tunggal dan topical diberikan ketokenazol cream.Prognosis kasus tersebut adalah baik..

  7. The Absence of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine Causes Attenuation of Virulence of Candida albicans upon Interaction with Vaginal Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manczinger, Máté; Bocsik, Alexandra; Kocsis, Gabriella F.; Vörös, Andrea; Hegedűs, Zoltán; Marton, Annamária; Vízler, Csaba; Tubak, Vilmos; Deli, Mária; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, István; Lakatos, Lóránt

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the molecular events underlying vulvovaginal candidiasis, we established an in vitro system. Immortalized vaginal epithelial cells were infected with live, yeast form C. albicans and C. albicans cultured in the same medium without vaginal epithelial cells were used as control. In both cases a yeast to hyphae transition was robustly induced. Whole transcriptome sequencing was used to identify specific gene expression changes in C. albicans. Numerous genes leading to a yeast to hyphae transition and hyphae specific genes were upregulated in the control hyphae and the hyphae in response to vaginal epithelial cells. Strikingly, the GlcNAc pathway was exclusively triggered by vaginal epithelial cells. Functional analysis in our in vitro system revealed that the GlcNAc biosynthesis is involved in the adherence to, and the ability to kill, vaginal epithelial cells in vitro, thus indicating the key role for this pathway in the virulence of C. albicans upon vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26366412

  8. 细胞因子在外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病中的表达和意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡京辉; 蒋珊珊

    2010-01-01

    @@ 外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(Vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)是常见的阴道感染性疾病,其发病率仅次于滴虫性阴道炎.超过75%的妇女一生至少患过一次念珠菌性外阴阴道炎[1],其中少数妇女(大约少于5%)发展成为复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis,RVVC).妊娠期妇女的念珠菌感染率明显高于非妊娠期妇女,其发病率约为15%,大约是非妊娠期妇女的2倍[2].

  9. 伊悦联合定君生治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌性阴道病的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延霞

    2005-01-01

    外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,WC)是最常见的妇女外阴阴道炎症之一。据国外报道,在所有外阴、阴道炎中其发生率最高,达到39%,有75%的妇女一生中至少有1次VVC感染史,而每年发生4次及以上的复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis,RVVC)的患者,约占5%。WC的反复发作严重影响着育龄妇女的身心健康,也成为临床妇产科医生较棘手的问题。

  10. 复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 魏月华; 王慧; 黄小红

    2006-01-01

    外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)是由假丝酵母菌感染引起的外阴阴道炎症,也称外阴阴道念珠菌病,是最常见的妇女外阴阴道炎症之一。流行病学研究显示,外阴阴道念珠病的发病呈持续上升趋势,而5%的妇女反复发生VVC,称为复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病(recurret vulvovaginal candidiasis,RVVC),严重影响育龄妇女的身心健康。本文旨在比较采取不同的巩固治疗方案的疗效。

  11. 外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病治疗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永洁

    2009-01-01

    外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)是一种主要累及阴道黏膜的假丝酵母菌感染性疾病,临床通常表现为外阴瘙痒,阴道分泌物异常。VVC发病率很高,国外资料显示,约有75%的妇女一生中至少患过一次VVC,其中有5%-10%的患者发展为复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis,RVVC)。

  12. 复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷晔红; 黄醒华

    2004-01-01

    每年发生外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病,也称外阴阴道念珠菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)4次及以上或发生与抗生素治疗无关的、厂VC3次以上者称为复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis,RVVC)。有5%的妇女反复发生VVC,严重影响着育龄妇女的身心健康。本文复习有关文献,就RVVC病因、发病机制、治疗和研究进展作一综述。

  13. 硝酸咪康唑加氟康唑治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凤英; 张锋英

    2010-01-01

    @@ 复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis,RVVC)是指外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)经过治疗,临床症状和体征消失,真菌学检查阴性后又出现症状,且真菌学检查阳性或1 a内反复发作4次或4次以上[1].RVVC虽然较WC少见,但因其经常发作,严重影响了妇女的身心健康,我院采用硝酸咪康唑栓加氟康唑联合治疗RWC 32例,取得较好疗效.

  14. 复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艺; 李红宾

    2009-01-01

    复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病(RVVC recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis)是一种由念珠菌引起的妇产科常见病,是外阴阴道念珠菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)的一种复杂形式,系指12个月中确实发作4次或4次以上有症状的VVC。国外报道有近40%-75%的成年妇女在一生中发生过外阴阴道念珠菌病,约5%成年妇女有复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病。

  15. Skin infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllegger, Robert R; Häring, Nina S; Glatz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of infectious diseases can occur in pregnancy. Their acquisition, clinical presentation, and course during gestation may be altered due to an impairment of the maternal cellular immunity. Some infectious diseases can lead to serious consequences for the mother or the offspring, including congenital malformations. This review describes in detail the clinical presentation, course, management, and associated maternal and fetal risks of selected viral (varicella-zoster virus infections, condylomata acuminata), fungal (candida vulvovaginitis), bacterial (Lyme borreliosis), and parasitic (scabies) infections. The treatment options are critically reviewed. First-line therapies include acyclovir and varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin for varicella-zoster virus infections, surgical modalities for genital warts, topical clotrimazole and oral fluconazole for Candida vulvovaginitis, amoxicillin and cefuroxime for Lyme borreliosis, and permethrin for scabies. A synopsis of maternal and fetal risks of other important infections is also included. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 复发性念珠菌性阴道炎致病菌种及耐药情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕燕; 孙世宏; 刘正华

    2010-01-01

    @@ 念珠菌性阴道炎(Vulvovaginal Candidasis, VVC)是发生于育龄妇女的一种常见疾病,5%~10%的患者则会在一次发作之后逐渐发展为复发性念珠菌性阴道炎(Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidasis,RVVC)(每年至少发作3次以上).1为探讨RVVC菌种构成和耐药与复发的关系,我科对78株RVVC念珠菌进行真菌培养鉴定及药物敏感试验.现将结果报道如下.

  17. The Absence of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine Causes Attenuation of Virulence of Candida albicans upon Interaction with Vaginal Epithelial Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manczinger, Máté; Bocsik, Alexandra; Kocsis, Gabriella F; Vörös, Andrea; Hegedűs, Zoltán; Ördögh, Lilla; Kondorosi, Éva; Marton, Annamária; Vízler, Csaba; Tubak, Vilmos; Deli, Mária; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, István; Lakatos, Lóránt

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the molecular events underlying vulvovaginal candidiasis, we established an in vitro system. Immortalized vaginal epithelial cells were infected with live, yeast form C. albicans and C. albicans cultured in the same medium without vaginal epithelial cells were used as control. In both cases a yeast to hyphae transition was robustly induced. Whole transcriptome sequencing was used to identify specific gene expression changes in C. albicans. Numerous genes leading to a yeast to hyphae transition and hyphae specific genes were upregulated in the control hyphae and the hyphae in response to vaginal epithelial cells. Strikingly, the GlcNAc pathway was exclusively triggered by vaginal epithelial cells. Functional analysis in our in vitro system revealed that the GlcNAc biosynthesis is involved in the adherence to, and the ability to kill, vaginal epithelial cells in vitro, thus indicating the key role for this pathway in the virulence of C. albicans upon vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  18. The Absence of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine Causes Attenuation of Virulence of Candida albicans upon Interaction with Vaginal Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máté Manczinger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the molecular events underlying vulvovaginal candidiasis, we established an in vitro system. Immortalized vaginal epithelial cells were infected with live, yeast form C. albicans and C. albicans cultured in the same medium without vaginal epithelial cells were used as control. In both cases a yeast to hyphae transition was robustly induced. Whole transcriptome sequencing was used to identify specific gene expression changes in C. albicans. Numerous genes leading to a yeast to hyphae transition and hyphae specific genes were upregulated in the control hyphae and the hyphae in response to vaginal epithelial cells. Strikingly, the GlcNAc pathway was exclusively triggered by vaginal epithelial cells. Functional analysis in our in vitro system revealed that the GlcNAc biosynthesis is involved in the adherence to, and the ability to kill, vaginal epithelial cells in vitro, thus indicating the key role for this pathway in the virulence of C. albicans upon vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  19. High Virulence and Antifungal Resistance in Clinical Strains of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy-Pérez, Eric; Paniagua-Contreras, Gloria Luz; Rodríguez-Purata, Pamela; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Vázquez-Villaseñor, Marco; Díaz-Velásquez, Clara; Uribe-García, Alina; Vaca, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Antifungal resistance and virulence properties of Candida albicans are a growing health problem worldwide. To study the expression of virulence and azole resistance genes in 39 clinical strains of C. albicans, we used a model of infection of human vaginal epithelial cells with C. albicans strains isolated from Mexican women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The strains were identified by PCR amplification of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of rRNA. The detection and expression of virulence genes...

  20. Foreign body in vagina: a cause of persistent vaginal discharge in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pallavee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge in pediatric patients, while not uncommon, is commonly believed to be due to such causes as absence of the protective effect on the vaginal mucosa. However, other causes need also to be kept in mind. We report a case of chronic vaginal discharge in a 5 yr old, who had retained a foreign body in her vagina for 6-7 months. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 224-225

  1. A Rare Clinical Presentation of Giant Bilateral Labial Fibroepithelial Stromal Polyps in Patient with Psoriasis Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Filiz Avsar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroepithelial polyps (FEPs are rarely seen lesions of the lower female genital tract with polypoid proliferations of stroma. These tumors usually present in the vulvovaginal region of the reproductive aged women. In this presentation, we report a case of a psoriatic woman who developed unusual multiple polypoid lesions approximately 15 cm in size arising from both left and right labia minora and unique connection of FEPs with psoriasis disease.

  2. Management of osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms: focus on bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogen combination

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkin S; Pickar JH

    2013-01-01

    Sebastian Mirkin,1 James H Pickar21Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Loss of estrogen production in women during menopause results in a state of estrogen deficiency which has been associated with multiple problems, including vasomotor symptoms, symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy, bone loss, and difficulties with sleep, mood, memory, and sexual activity. The only treatment option currently availa...

  3. Atención Ginecológica en pediatría: Algunos resultados de nuestro trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 150 pacientes de 0 a 10 años de edad, atendidas con historias clínicas en la consulta de Ginecología Infanto Juvenil en el municipio Playa, entre el 1ro. de septiembre de 1996 y el 30 de noviembre del 2001, donde se analizaron las siguientes variables: principales motivos de consulta en relación con la edad, principales causas de leucorrea o vulvovaginitis, causas de trastornos de la pubertad y causas de dolor pelviano. Se concluye que los principales motivos de consulta fueron la leucorrea o vulvovaginitis, los trastornos de la pubertad y el dolor pelviano, y las principales causas de éstas fueron la vaginosis bacteriana como principal causa de leucorrea; la telarquia precoz, en el trastorno de la pubertad y la giardiasis, en el dolor pelviano en la mayoría de las niñas.A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients aged 0-10 years, seen with their medical histories at the Pediatric-Juvenile Gynecology Outpatient Service in Playa municipality from September 1st,1996 to November 30th,2001. The study analyzed the following variables: principal reasons for going to see the gynecologist according to age, main causes of leukorrhea or vulvovaginitis, causes of puberty disorders and of pelvic pain. It was concluded that the main reasons for going to the gynecologist were leukorrhea or vulvovaginitis, puberty disorders and pelvic pain, whereas the main cause of leukorrhea was bacterial vaginosis, puberty disorders resulted from premature thelarche, and pelvic pain was caused by giardiasis in most of the girls.

  4. 舒康凝胶剂治疗念珠菌外阴阴道炎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗静

    2006-01-01

    我院自2004年12月至2005年11月应用舒康凝胶剂治疗念珠菌外阴阴道炎(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)500例,并与达克宁栓局部用药治疗的500例作对照,取得了满意的疗效。现报告如下。

  5. 不同方法治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的效果观察与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗翔宇

    2010-01-01

    @@ 假丝酵母菌病(Vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)是一种主要累及阴道黏膜的假丝酵母菌感染性疾病,表现为外阴瘙痒、白带增多、豆腐渣样和乳酪样、灼痛等症状,阴道分泌物涂片在显微镜下找到典型的菌丝及芽孢.

  6. 定君生联合制霉菌素治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洞云; 林丽; 张红霞

    2007-01-01

    外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)复发率高,因此需研究一种简便、有效且效果持久的治疗方法.我们应用定君生与制霉菌素联合治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病,疗效满意,现报道如下.

  7. 妊娠期妇女生殖道念珠菌病66例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素景; 赵瑞红

    2005-01-01

    在妊娠期,外阴阴道念珠菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)的发病率和严重程度均有所升高,妊娠期VVC的发生率大约是非妊娠期妇女的2倍,孕期妇女阴道念珠菌病的治愈率低于非孕期妇女。

  8. Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), classified as an alphaherpesvirus, is a major pathogen of cattle. Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and systemic infection in neonates. When animals survive, a life-long latent infection is established in nervous sensory ganglia. Several reactivation stimuli can lead to viral re-excretion, which is responsible for the...

  9. [Dowling-Degos disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Redondo, V; Losada, A; Zulaica, A; Cebreiro, C; Cervantes, R; Toribio, J

    1990-01-01

    We report two cases of Dowling-Degos' disease, one affecting the vulvovaginal semimucose, and one associated to a terminal malignant neoplasia. We remark the importance of this knowledge in order to distinguish it from malignant acanthosis nigricans or other patterns of melanosis or lentiginosis when located within mucose or semimucose, specially at the genitals. All cases associated to malignant neoplasia described are emphasized. However Dowling-Degos' disease is considered to be a nonparaneoplasic genodermatoses, this association should be taken into account.

  10. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento; Carlos Henrique Camargo; Alessandro Lia Mondelli; Maria Fátima Sugizaki; Terue Sadatsune; Eduardo Bagagli

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Ca...

  11. Vaginal Health During Breast Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Sandy J; Bober, Sharon

    2016-05-01

    There are increasing numbers of breast cancer survivors. Chemotherapy or endocrine therapy result in effects on vaginal health that may affect quality of life. These effects may impact sexual function, daily comfort, or the ability to perform a pelvic examination. Vulvovaginal atrophy, or genitourinary syndrome of menopause, may be treated with nonhormonal or hormonal measures. Breast cancer survivors who are menopausal and/or on endocrine therapy should be screened for issues with vaginal health and counseled about treatment options.

  12. Frequency of Genital Involvement in Women with Oral Lichen Planus in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davarmanesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lichen Planus is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of immunological basis and unknown etiology. women with oral lichen planus may have concomitant manifestations in vulvovaginal areas. Objective. To determine the frequency and risk factors of genital involvement in a group of Iranian women affected by oral lichen planus. Methods. Thirty-six women with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus were evaluated for demographic, historical, and clinical parameters of the oral disease. All the patients were referred for careful vulvovaginal examination, as well as histopathological assessment upon clinical indication. Results. Nineteen patients complained from genital symptoms but the number of women with the final diagnosis of genital lichen planus (=2 was too small to show any correlation with the parameters evaluated. Conclusion. In spite of low genital involvement possibly due to inadequate patient population, lack of follow-up visits, and contribution of genetic or ethnic factors, for conservative patient care, women with the oral lichen planus in particular those having some relevant genital symptoms, should preferably be referred for careful vulvovaginal examination. Multicenter cohort studies on women of different geographical regions or ethnicities who have genital lichen planus alone or in combination with other common sites are encouraged.

  13. Presence of Ureaplasma diversum in the genital tracts of female dairy cattle in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Jaqueline B; Silva, Gustavo S; Rocha, Priscylla S; Pitchenin, Letícia C; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Pescador, Caroline A

    2017-02-01

    Ureaplasma diversum infection in bovine females may result in various reproductive problems, including granular vulvovaginitis, abortion, weak calves, salpingitis, and spontaneous abortion. The presence of U. diversum in a dairy bovine population from midwestern Brazil has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether U. diversum was present in dairy cattle from midwestern Brazil using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vulvovaginal mucus was analyzed from 203 cows located in six municipalities in the north region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A total of 25% of dairy cows with vulvovaginitis were positive for U. diversum. The factors evaluated were included in a multivariable logistic regression model with the presence of at least one positive cow in the herd serving as the dependent variable. Three variables were significantly associated with a U. diversum-positive PCR and were included in the final multivariable model: number of parities, vulvar lesions, and reproductive problems. For each new parity, the chance of U. diversum infection decreased 0.03-fold, indicating that cows with the highest number of parities were more protected. The presence of vulvar lesions was increased 17.6-fold in females positive for U. diversum, suggesting that this bacterium could be related to the red granular lesions in the vulvar mucosa, whereas reproductive problems were increased 7.6-fold. However, further investigations should be conducted to ascertain the effects of U. diversum in association with other mycoplasma species in the herds studied.

  14. Premenstrual vaginal colonization of Candida and symptoms of vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Cathy J; Grando, Danilla; Garland, Suzanne M; Myers, Stephen; Fairley, Christopher K; Pirotta, Marie

    2012-11-01

    Although premenstrual exacerbation of vulvovaginal symptoms attributed to Candida spp. is well documented, the causation of these symptoms is not well understood. This study describes the daily vaginal colonization of Candida in three women. A single pilot study was designed to test the methodology of the proposed randomized controlled trial, Garlic and Candida. This study reports the colonization of Candida spp. in three women. Ten women aged 18-50 who reported at least one episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis were recruited by the University of Melbourne. Each participant took daily vaginal swabs for 2 weeks during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle, which were analysed for quantitative colony counts of Candida spp. Of these, three women were colonized with Candida spp. For the first time, to our knowledge, daily colonization of Candida during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is described in three women, demonstrating an increase in the colony count preceding symptom development. This small study demonstrated the colonization of Candida spp. during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in three women. Candida colonization is poorly understood, yet investigating the relevance of the link between symptom exacerbation and the menstrual cycle in those women who experience recurrent episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis may influence the management of this condition.

  15. Cellular angiofibroma in women: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandato, Vincenzo Dario; Santagni, Susanna; Cavazza, Alberto; Aguzzoli, Lorenzo; Abrate, Martino; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2015-07-19

    Cellular Angiofibroma (CA) represents a quite recently described mesenchymal tumour that occurs in both genders, in particular in the vulvo-vaginal region in women and in the inguino-scrotal area in men. The first description of this tumour dates from Nucci et al. article in 1997; since then, the literature reports different reviews and case report of this tumour in both genders, but no article specifically addressing CA treatment and follow-up in women. In this review we collected all 79 published female CA cases, analyzing the clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical features of the tumour.CA affects women mostly during the fifth decade of life, it is generally a small and asymptomatic mass that mainly arises in the vulvo-vaginal region, although there are reported pelvic and extra-pelvic cases. The treatment requires a simple local excision due to an extremely low ability to recurrent locally and no chance to metastasize. Throughout the immunohistochemical and pathological findings it is also easily possible a differential diagnosis from the other soft tissue tumours which affect the vulvo-vaginal area, such as spindle cell lipoma, solitary fibrous tumour, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma.

  16. MICROBIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF VAGINAL SWABS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevitha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bacterial vaginosis (BV, an alteration of vaginal flora involving a decrease in Lactobacilli and predo minance of anaerobic bacteria, is the most common cause of vaginal complaints for women of chil dbearing age .Causative agents include Gardnerella vaginalis, facultative lactobacilli, My coplasma hominis, Viridans streptococci & anaerobic bacteria. The most frequent manifestation s of genitourinary candidiasis is vulvovaginal candidiasis & is diagnosed in 40 % of women with vaginal complaints. The present study was undertaken to study the occurrence of Bac terial vaginosis & Vulvovaginal candidiasis in women with vaginal complaints. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 100 High vaginal swabs with H/O white discharge per vaginum f or a period of 6 months from June 2011.Swabs were stained by Grams method & were cult ured. RESULTS: Out of 100 samples, in 35(35%Gram smear findings were normal & no growth in culture. 26(26%samples had polymorphs with Gardnerella morphotype, gram negative c urved rods, fusiforms & Lactobacilli were absent/present in low numbers(1 to 2+, the sme ar was interpreted as consistent with BV. 15 samples (15% had the growth of Candida spp. In the remaining 24 samples, the Gram stain findings had only vaginal epithelial cells with Lactobacilli, but the culture had the growth o f Group B Streptococcus 10(10%, E. coli & coliforms 10(10%,Enterococcus spp 14(14%which could just be colonisers. CONCLUSION: Bacterial vaginosis is the predominant cause of leuc orrhoea (26% followed by vulvovaginal candidiasis accounting for 15 % of the cases. Detection of intrapartum vaginal colonisation of Group B Streptococci, E. coli & colif orms & Enterococcus spp. in pregnant women is of significance as it can get transmitted to the neonate & cause sepsis

  17. Treating dyspareunia caused by vaginal atrophy: a review of treatment options using vaginal estrogen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Kingsberg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available SA Kingsberg¹, S Kellogg², M Krychman³1University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University Cleveland OH, USA; 2The Pelvic and Sexual Health Institute of Philadelphia, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA; 3Southern California Center for Sexual Health and Survivorship Medicine, Newport Beach, CA, USAAbstract: Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA and dryness are common symptoms of the decline in endogenous production of estrogen at menopause and often result in dyspareunia. Yet while 10% to 40% of women experience discomfort due to VVA, it is estimated that only 25% seek medical help. The main goals of treatment for vaginal atrophy are to improve symptoms and to restore vaginal and vulvar anatomic changes. Treatment choices for postmenopausal dyspareunia resulting from vulvovaginal atrophy will depend on the underlying etiology and might include individualized treatment. A number of forms of vaginal estrogen and manner of delivery are currently available to treat moderate to severe dyspareunia caused by VVA. They all have been shown to be effective and are often the preferred treatment due to the targeted efficacy for urogenital tissues while resulting in only minimal systemic absorption. Both healthcare professionals and patients often find it difficult to broach the subject of sexual problems associated with VVA. However, with minimal effort to initiate a conversation about these problems, healthcare providers can provide useful information to their postmenopausal patients in order to help them each choose the optimal treatment for their needs and symptoms.Keywords: dyspareunia, postmenopausal vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal estrogen therapy

  18. Bacterial vaginosis in the context of lichen sclerosus in a prepubertal girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feito-Rodríguez, Marta; Noguera-Morel, Lucero; Casas-Rivero, José; García-Rodríguez, Julio; de Lucas-Laguna, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus cause most vulvovaginal infections seen in prepubertal girls. Bacterial vaginosis is a common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age but is rare in children. Data are insufficient to suggest that bacterial vaginosis is an exclusively sexually transmitted disease. We report a 10-year-old girl with no history or suspicion of sexual abuse who developed bacterial vaginosis in the context of a lichen sclerosus being treated with tacrolimus ointment. Secondary bacterial infection in lichen sclerosus is uncommon. We speculate that the immunosuppressive effect of topical tacrolimus could have triggered the infection.

  19. VULVODINIA: UN DIAGNÓSTICO OLVIDADO FRENTE AL DOLOR VULVAR

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    La vulvodinia es una patología compleja y de difícil tratamiento. Se define como un dolor crónico de la vulva, que puede ser generalizado o localizado. La primera vez que se escribe sobre esta fue en 1889, por Skene. Sin embargo, es sólo hasta 1976, que los miembros de la International Society for Study of Vulvovaginal Diseases, reconocieron el dolor vulvar como una entidad patológica. Se estima una prevalencia de un 15%, con unas 14 millones de mujeres que lo padecen en EEUU. Generalmente co...

  20. A Study Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases With Application Of Syndromic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Hasan Hana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in Assam Medical College was studied for a period of one year. The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases was 1.43%. Out of 150 patients the number of patients with genitoulcerative diseases was syphilis 27 (18%, herpes genitalis 26(17.33%, condyloma acuminate 30 (20%, chancroid 11 (7.33%, donovanosis 2(1.33% and LGV 1(0.67%. Patients with urethral or vaginal discharge comprised of gonorrhoea 4(2.67% Vulvovaginitis 14 (9.33%, NGU 12(8.00%, trichomoniasis 2(1.33%, balanoposthitis 17(11.33%.

  1. Syndromes Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent technologies have been developed to identify the specific microbial agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chancroid, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus and HIV infection. However, it is also crucial to recognize syndromes that may be caused by one or more sexually transmitted pathogens. When laboratory services are lacking or are inadequate to provide timely results to enable appropriate treatment, some patients must be managed and treated syndromically. Most Canadian laboratories should be able to provide diagnostic services to determine the etiology of syndromes such as cervicitis, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis, genital ulcers, sexually transmitted infection (STI-related enteric infections, epididymitis, hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, vulvovaginitis and vaginosis.

  2. 定君生治疗阴道假丝酵母菌病的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彩飞

    2008-01-01

    阴道假丝酵母菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)是女性阴道感染中最常见的疾病之一。作者2007年1月至2008年1月采用乳杆菌活菌胶囊(定君生)联合硝酸咪康唑(达克宁)治疗VVC30例,疗效满意。报告如下。

  3. 健脾利湿清热方防治念珠菌性外阴阴道炎复发的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕秀香

    2011-01-01

    @@ 念珠菌性外阴阴道炎(Vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)是女性常见病、多发病,易复发,严重影响患者的日常工作与生活.笔者以健脾利湿清热方口服辅以外用达克宁栓防治念珠菌性外阴阴道炎复发,现将结果总结报道如下.

  4. 氟康唑联合达克宁栓、硼酸治疗复发性念珠菌性外阴阴道炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党云杰

    2004-01-01

    @@ 念珠菌性外阴阴道炎(vulvovaginal candidiasis,简称VVC)是一种妇科常见病,由于反复发作,患者非常痛苦.我院应用氟康唑联合达克宁栓、硼酸治疗复发性念珠菌性外阴阴道炎(Recurrent vvc,简称RVVC)31例效果良好,现报告如下.

  5. 外阴阴道念株菌病复发438例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党云杰

    2005-01-01

    外阴阴道念株菌病(Vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVc)又称为霉菌性阴道炎,是妇科常见病,有3/4的妇女一生中将患1次,有5%~10%将复发,严重影响生活质量。对我院2003-01~2004-12复发的438例分析如下。

  6. 孕期妇女阴道念珠菌感染情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白桦

    2006-01-01

    外阴、阴道念珠菌性炎(vulvovaginitis candidiasis,VVC)是妇科常见病、多发病,近年来其发病率呈上升趋势。其中以白色念珠菌(candida albicans,CA)为主,占80%~90%。孕期妇女特殊的生理及解剖结构决定了其患VVC发病率高。近年来VVC对孕产妇及新生儿的危害也越来越受到重视。

  7. 复发性念珠菌外阴阴道炎的诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董悦

    2000-01-01

    @@ 念珠菌外阴阴道炎又称外阴阴道念珠菌病(vuvovaginalcandidiasis,简称VVC). VVC分为两大类,一类为单纯性VVC,另一类为难治性VVC,复发性VVC和严重的VVC均属后者,见表1.本文主要讨论复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病(recur-rent vulvovaginal candidiasis,简称RVVC).

  8. 克霉唑治疗妊娠期念珠菌性阴道炎80例疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜秀英

    2003-01-01

    @@ 念珠菌性阴道炎(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)是一种常见病,妊娠期VVC的发病率更高,且易复发.治疗妊娠期VVC的药物不但要疗效好,还要使用方便,对胎儿无影响,我们应用克霉唑治疗妊娠期VVC 80例,取得了良好效果,现报告如下.

  9. 外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的复发因素及治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项志明

    2009-01-01

    @@ 外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)也称外阴阴道念珠菌病,是仅次于细菌性阴道病的最常见的阴道感染性疾病.70%~75%的女性一生至少感染一次外阴阴道念珠菌,40%~45%的女性经历过外阴阴道念珠菌病复发[1].由于VVC近年来发病率呈明显上升的趋势[2].

  10. Recrudescent herpes labialis mimicking primary herpes labialis in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Shaveta Sood; Aneet Mahendra; Sanjeev Gupta; Shalu Chandna; Sarabjit Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Context: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is prevalent worldwide. Herpes labialis is caused predominantly by HSV-1, and herpes vulvo-vaginitis is caused predominantly by HSV-2. HSV-2 may result in significant morbidity and mortality for infected neonates exposed during delivery .Due to this fact, a large amount of literature exists for HSV-2 but data for HSV -1 is scanty. Case Report : We report two cases of recrudescent herpes labialis in 3 rd trimester of pregnancy with extensive peri-o...

  11. Inhalant allergy compounding the chronic vaginitis syndrome: characterization of sensitization patterns, comorbidities and responses to sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, Demetrios S; Stockdale, Colleen K; Duquette, Daniel R; Morris, Mary S

    2016-09-01

    To characterize sensitization patterns, diagnoses and comorbidities, and to assess the response of lower genital tract symptoms to sublingual immunotherapy for airborne allergens in a select population of patients with chronic vaginitis. Fifty-two patients referred for allergy evaluation over a 44 month period were studied. Charts were retrospectively reviewed to establish: (1) gynecological diagnoses, (2) allergic-immunological diagnoses, and (3) IgE-mediated sensitivity to airborne allergens on presentation. Patients were contacted at 9-50 months of treatment to assess response to sublingual immunotherapy based on a questionnaire addressing frequency and severity of symptoms and use of medication to control symptoms. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was identified in 34 (65 %); vulvar vestibulitis syndrome in 12 (23 %); and contact dermatitis in 10 (19 %) patients. Comorbidities included: non-reflux gastrointestinal complaints in 11 (21 %), gastroesophageal reflux in 5 (9 %), migraines in 9 (17 %), chronic non-migrainous headaches in 8 (17 %), and chronic sinusitis in 6 patients (11 %). Asthma was diagnosed in 8 patients (15 %). Oral allergy syndrome was present in 6 (11 %). Most frequent sensitivities were to: ragweed in 33 (63 %), molds in 26 (50 %), dust mites in 23 (44 %), and grass in 12 (23 %) patients. Mono-sensitization was demonstrated for ragweed in 7 (13 %), and for molds, dust mites and grass for 3 (5 %) patients each. Candida sensitization was identified in 15 patients with chronic vaginitis (28 %). Eleven patients with recurrent vulvovaginal diagnosis (32 %) showed Candida sensitization. Response to immunotherapy was generally favorable with pruritus/irritation being more responsive than visceral pain. In a Midwestern referral population, chronic vaginitis compounded by inhalant allergy showed: (1) high incidence rate of recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, (2) Candida IgE-mediated sensitization in less than one-third of

  12. Vaginitis Caused by Corynebacterium amycolatum in a Prepubescent Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Lifeng; Zeng, Wenjie; Xu, Haiou

    2015-12-01

    Vaginal discharge is the most common gynecological symptom in prepubescent girls. We report a case of vaginitis caused by Corynebacterium amycolatum in a prepubescent girl and successful treatment with targeted antibiotics. Vaginal discharge is most commonly attributed to poor hygiene or nonspecific irritants; however, some patients have recurrent vulvovaginitis that is primarily caused by a variety of bacteria. For these patients, identifying the associated pathogens is critical for treatment. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical Patterns of Candida Infections in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, J Pratiba; Kelkar, S S

    1980-01-01

    One hundred consecutive cases of candidiasis in Bombay were studied. In each case the suspicion was confirmed by isolation typing of the Candida species. The clinical was as follows: vulvo-vaginitis 30%; intertrigo 18%; onychia and paronychia 12%; thrush 16%; generalised cutaneous candidasis 8%, enteritis 3%; bronchitis 12% and urinary tract infection 1%. When compared to a study carried out in Bombay in 1966, there was an increase in the frequency of disseminated cutaneous candidiasis and a reduction in the cases of intertrigo and onychia and paronychia.

  14. [The role of streptococci in psoriasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, J C

    2009-02-01

    Infections with Streptococcus pyogenes are highly relevant among the environmental factors that contribute to first onset or relapses of psoriasis in predisposed individuals. Streptococcal angina or pharyngitis, but also perianal streptococcal dermatitis, vulvovaginitis or balanoposthitis are potential causes. Several mechanisms such as molecular mimicry or superantigens may be involved. Many patients develop a chronic streptococcal infection or colonization that may result from the ability of streptococci for intracellular uptake and persistence in epithelial cells. Whether and under what conditions a curative treatment of streptococcal infection by tonsillectomy or antibiotic treatment may affect the course of psoriasis, as proposed by several observations, needs to be determined in more detail by clinical trials.

  15. Vacunas contra el herpesvirus bovino-1: una mirada desde el pasado hacia el futuro de la inmunización

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El herpesvirus Bovino-1 (BHV-1) es uno de los principales patógenos que afecta el
    ganado; la infección primaria se acompaña de varias manifestaciones clínicas tales
    como la rinotraqueitis, aborto, vulvovaginitis/balanopostitis pustular y en algunos
    casos, enfermedad neurológica. Luego de la recuperación, la infección persiste durante
    toda la vida del individuo en un estado de latencia en ganglios nervioso trigémino o
    sacro. La Organizació...

  16. In vitro synergistic activity of lidocaine and miconazole against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição dos Santos Oliveira Cunha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the main yeast isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC and a major antifungal used to treat VVC is miconazole (MZ, it shows local toxic effects, such as irritation and burns. The lidocaine (LD is a local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic activity of LD/MZ against 19 strains of C. albicans isolated from vaginal secretion. 78.9% of the strains were susceptible to the combination LD/MZ, demonstrating synergism of drugs. These drugs can be used to produce vaginal creams to treat VVC, especially drug resistant.

  17. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis as a manifestation of vitamin D deficiency associated with Crohn disease: case reports and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacocke, Monica; Djurkinak, Erin; Tsou, Hui C; Thys-Jacobs, Susan

    2010-07-01

    Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) is a chronic disorder associated with yellow vaginal discharge, vulvovaginal burning and pruritus, and dyspareunia. The cause of DIV is unknown; however, infectious, hormonal, and inflammatory etiologies have been proposed. In this series, we observe the association of DIV and vitamin D deficiency by reporting 4 cases of women with DIV and vitamin D deficiency associated with Crohn disease. We further show that the DIV symptoms resolve when the circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-HD) returned to normal. These data provide further support for the notion that DIV can be associated with vitamin D deficiency and DIV symptoms reflect altered vaginal mucous membrane function.

  18. Genitofemoral neuralgia: adding to the burden of chronic vulvar pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verstraelen H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hans Verstraelen,1 Eline De Zutter,1 Martine De Muynck2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium Abstract: The vulva is a particularly common locus of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics that occurs in women of any age, though most women with neuropathic type chronic vulvar pain will remain undiagnosed even following multiple physician visits. Here, we report on an exemplary case of a middle-aged woman who was referred to the Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic with debilitating vulvar burning and itching over the right labium majus that had been persisting for 2 years and was considered intractable. Careful history taking and clinical examination, followed by electrophysiological assessment through somatosensory evoked potentials was consistent with genitofemoral neuralgia, for which no obvious cause could be identified. Adequate pain relief was obtained with a serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and topical gabapentin cream. We briefly discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of genitofemoral neuralgia and provide a series of clues to guide clinicians in obtaining a presumptive diagnosis of specific neuropathic pain syndromes that may underlie chronic vulvar pain. We further aim to draw attention to the tremendous burden of chronic, unrecognized vulvar pain. Keywords: vulvar pain, genitofemoral nerve, neuropathic pain, vulvodynia, vulvar disease

  19. Detection of the Human 70-kD and 60-kD Heat Shock Proteins in the Vagina: Relation to Microbial Flora, Vaginal pH, and Method of Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Giraldo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the 60-kD and 70-kD heat shock proteins (hsp60 and hsp70 in the vaginas of 43 asymptomatic women of reproductive age with or without a history of recurrent vulvovaginitis (RVV were compared. Vaginal wash samples were obtained and assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for human hsp60 and hsp70. Heat shock protein 70 was not detected in any of the 19 women with no history of RVV, and hsp60 was present in only one woman in this group. In contrast, in the RVV group, 11 (45.8% were hsp60-positive and eight (33.3% were hsp70-positive. The presence of either heat shock protein in the vagina was associated with an elevated vaginal pH (>4.5. Bacterial vaginosis or Candida was identified in some of the asymptomatic subjects; their occurrence was significantly higher in women with vaginal hsp70 than in women with no heat shock proteins. Oral contraceptives were used by 35.7% of subjects who were negative for vaginal heat shock proteins, as opposed to only 12.5% of women who were positive for hsp70 and 8.3% who were positive for hsp60. Expression of heat shock proteins in the vagina may indicate an altered vaginal environment and a susceptibility to vulvovaginal symptoms. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 7:23–25, 1999.

  20. [Use of probiotics and prebiotics in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Calatayud, Guillermo; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2015-02-07

    Probiotics are used in a great number of both paediatric and adult diseases, mainly in gastrointestinal disorders, like diarrhoea. Nevertheless, their beneficial effect on immune alterations, such as atopic dermatitis and, more recently, in women related diseases such as vulvovaginitis and mastitis have also been observed. However, the use of probiotics is not completely implemented into the routine clinical practice for primary care physicians. There is still a great controversy with scarce scientific evidence, due to the diversity in the designs thereof which justifies the variability in the efficacy results. This outcome leads to difficulties in developing definitive treatment guidelines although there are exceptions, for example, WGO. The aim of this workshop, held at the VI Congress of the Spanish Society of Probiotics and Prebiotics is the training of primary care physicians, both paediatricians and general practitioners in the clinical applications of these nutritional preparations in different diseases: acute diarrhoea; antibiotic associated diarrhoea, necrotizing enterocolitis, employment in infant milk formulas, infant colic, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as vulvovaginitis and mastitis.

  1. A prospective observational study of vulvovagintis in pregnant women in Argentina, with special reference to candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, María J; Cuestas, María L; Cervetto, María M; Landaburu, María F; Mujica, María T

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of yeast, bacteria or protozoa in pregnant women and to correlate the possible associations of these microorganisms and their relationships with vulvovaginitis (VV) and cervicitis. Vaginal specimens were collected and prepared for smears in microscope slides for the evaluation of yeast, Trichomonas vaginalis and bacteria. Samples were cultured in specific culture medium. Cervical specimens were used to investigate the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis. We enrolled 210 pregnant women, aged 10-42 years old. Of them, 38.1% were symptomatic. Symptoms were most prevalent in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy coincident with a major prevalence of microorganisms. In this study, 39.5% of pregnant women had normal microbial biota and symptoms of VV due to non-infectious causes were observed (6.2%). The occurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 25% and Candida albicans with a prevalence of 80.7% was the dominant species (P = 0.005) while non-albicans Candida species and other yeast were more common in asymptomatic ones (P = 0.0038). The frequency of bacterial vaginosis, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were 18.1%, 1.4, 1.4% and 0.5% respectively.

  2. [Identification and susceptibility against fluconazole and albaconazole of 100 yeasts' strains isolated from vaginal discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechavala, Alicia I; Bianchi, Mario H; Robles, Ana María; Santiso, Gabriela; Negroni, Ricardo

    2007-12-31

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a condition that affects a great number of fertile women. It is considered the second cause of genital infection after vaginosis due to GAM complex. Candida albicans is the most frequent isolated species from vaginal discharge. However, sometimes more than one yeast species could be found in the same clinical sample that are more resistant to antifungal drugs. Nowadays, it is necessary to identify properly up to species level the isolated microorganism and to determine the antifungal susceptibility profile. One hundred strains obtained from vaginal discharge of 94 patients suffering acute vulvovaginal candidiasis were studied. The identification of the isolates showed: C. albicans 86%, Candida glabrata 6%, Candida inconspicua 3%, Candida krusei 2% and Candida intermedia, Candida holmii and Trichosporon asahii one case each. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of all the yeasts against fluconazole and albaconazole were performed. C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. inconspicua were the most resistant against fluconazole, on the other hand albicans was susceptible to this drug. All the isolates presented MIC against albaconazole much lower than fluconazole.

  3. 中西药治疗复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇

    2011-01-01

    外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)是由假丝酵母菌引起的一种常见的外阴阴道炎.国外资料显示约有75%妇女一生中至少患过一次本病,其中约40% ~ 50%经历过一次复发.复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis,RVVC)是指VVC患者经治疗临床症状体征消失,真菌学检查阴性后又出现症状,真菌学检查阳性,并且一年发作四次或以上者[1],久治不愈.笔者从2008 - O1~ 2010 - 10采用中药熏洗加西药口服外用治疗本病,取得一定治疗效果.报告如下.

  4. 外阴阴道念珠菌病致病机制和免疫防御机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菲; 廖秦平

    2006-01-01

    外阴阴道念珠菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)是妇科常见病,75%的女性一生中至少患过一次VVC。5%~10%的妇女患VVC后经过治疗,临床症状和体征消失,真菌学检查阴性后又出现症状,经真菌检查又显阳性,称为VVC复发。每年发作≥4次称为复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病(recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis,RwC)。RWC少见但反复发作,久治不愈,严重影响妇女身心健康。深入了解WC的病原学特性、发病机制及机体的免疫防御反应,对指导本病的预防和治疗有重要意义。

  5. 复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病与妊娠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂欣; 黄亚绢

    2009-01-01

    外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病是一种十分常见的妇科疾病,Ringdahl EN报道75%的女性一生中至少感染1次生殖道假丝酵母菌(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC),约半数的妇女感染过多次,约有5%-10%的患者成为复发性生殖道假丝酵母菌病(recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis,RVVC)。妊娠期妇女酵母菌性阴道炎的发病率大约是非妊娠妇女的3倍,复发率更高。在RVVC妇女中,对个别症状的发作,抗真菌药物的治疗有效,但不能抑制其复发。反复发作不仅给孕妇身心造成极大的痛苦,而且可能延及子代的生活质量(早产、新生儿感染)。

  6. 复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的治疗现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江筠; 张桂玉

    2009-01-01

    @@ 复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis,RVVC),是指一年内有症状并经真菌学证实的外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)发作4次或以上.国外资料显示,约75%妇女一生中至少患过1次外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病,45%妇女经历过2次或2次以上的发作,而在这些患者中约5%发展成RVVC[1].由于病原菌和机体双方面的多种因素,使该病顽固难治.其复发问题一直困扰着患者与临床妇科医师,目前国内外尚无成熟治疗方案,已成为近年研究热点.本文将治疗现状综述如下,从而为有针对性地做好该病的预防与治疗措施提供一定的科学依据.

  7. [A rare cause of postpartum hemorrhage: a genital thrombus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmuller, D; Pequegnot-Jeannin, C; Rabenja, C A; Koeberle, P; Schaal, J P; Maillet, R

    1997-01-01

    Puerperal hematoma is a grave but fortunately rare hemorrhagic post-partum complication (occurring in less than 1:1000 deliveries). The hematoma arises due to detachment of para-vaginal conjunctive tissue. In this type of tissue, no natural hemostasis take place and the hematoma may spread into the retroperitoneal cavity. The different risk factors include primiparity, instrumental extraction of the foetus, pre-eclampsia, twin pregnancy and the presence of vulvo-vaginal varicose veins. External bleeding may not always be evident and other clinical symptoms may be delayed. Despite this, rapid course may still occur with drastic consequences. When a case is referred, an examination of the vulvo-vaginal region is mandatory, resuscitation and surgery performed immediately. If this fails angiographic embolization should be carried out. The prognostic outcome of this rare case of post-partum hemorrhagia is highly dependent on early diagnosis and rapid treatment involving close cooperation between obstetricians and anesthetists, and also of rapid embolization to prevent possible intractable hematomas.

  8. Management of persistent vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirjesy, Paul

    2014-12-01

    With vaginitis remaining a common condition that leads women to seek care, it is not surprising that some women develop chronic vulvovaginal problems that are difficult to diagnose and treat. With a differential diagnosis that encompasses vulvar disorders and infectious and noninfectious causes of vaginitis, accurate diagnosis is the cornerstone of choosing effective therapy. Evaluation should include a symptom-specific history, careful vulvar and vaginal examination, and office-based tests (vaginal pH, amine test, saline and 10% potassium hydroxide microscopy). Ancillary tests, especially yeast culture with speciation, are frequently crucial to obtaining a correct diagnosis. A heavy but normal physiologic discharge can be determined by excluding other causes. With vulvovaginal candidiasis, differentiating between Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida infection has important treatment ramifications. Most patients with C albicans infections can be successfully treated with maintenance antifungal therapy, usually with fluconazole. Although many non-albicans Candida, particularly Candida glabrata, may at times be innocent bystanders, vaginal boric acid therapy is an effective first choice for many true non-albicans Candida infections. Recurrent bacterial vaginosis, a difficult therapeutic challenge, can often be controlled with maintenance therapy. Multiple options, especially high-dose tinidazole, have been used for metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis. With the aging of the U.S. population, atrophic vaginitis and desquamative inflammatory vaginitis, both associated with hypoestrogenism, are encountered frequently in women with persistent vaginitis.

  9. Cervical Ectropion May Be a Cause of Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Leia; King, Michelle; Brillhart, Heather; Goldstein, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is a poorly understood chronic vaginitis with an unknown etiology. Symptoms of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis include copious yellowish discharge, vulvovaginal discomfort, and dyspareunia. Cervical ectropion, the presence of glandular columnar cells on the ectocervix, has not been reported as a cause of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. Although cervical ectropion can be a normal clinical finding, it has been reported to cause leukorrhea, metrorrhagia, dyspareunia, and vulvovaginal irritation. Patients with cervical ectropion and desquamative inflammatory vaginitis are frequently misdiagnosed with candidiasis or bacterial vaginosis and repeatedly treated without resolution of symptoms. We report the case of a 34-year-old woman with a 4-year history of profuse yellowish discharge and dyspareunia. Upon presentation, her symptoms and laboratory results met the criteria for desquamative inflammatory vaginitis, but the standard treatments did not provide long-lasting relief. As a last resort, cryotherapy (cryosurgery) of her cervix was performed for treatment of her cervical ectropion, which provided complete resolution of her symptoms. Mitchell L, King M, Brillhart H, Goldstein A. Cervical Ectropion May Be a Cause of Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis. Sex Med 2017;5:e212-e214. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High prevalence of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction in hospitalized elderly women with urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talasz, Helena; Jansen, Stephan C; Kofler, Markus; Lechleitner, Monika

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in hospitalized elderly women with urinary incontinence (UI). A cross-sectional study was performed using data of 704 patients, routinely collected by means of a clinical UI assessment. Only 25.5% of the patients were able to perform normal PFM contractions (Oxford grading scale score ≥3); 74.5% were unable to contract their PFM or showed weak PFM activity without circular contraction or elevation of the vagina. Vulvovaginal mucosal dystrophy was noted in 84% of the patients. A significant positive correlation of PFM function was found to cognitive status (MMSE score), mobility (Tinetti performance score), and history of previous PFM training; a negative correlation of PFM function was found to patients' age and vulvovaginal mucosal dystrophy, and no significant correlation to body mass index, parity, or history of hysterectomy. Targeted clinical UI assessment including digital vaginal palpation should be performed in all incontinent elderly women in order to detect PFM dysfunction and to optimize therapeutic measures.

  11. Management of osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms: focus on bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogen combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkin S

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sebastian Mirkin,1 James H Pickar21Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Loss of estrogen production in women during menopause results in a state of estrogen deficiency which has been associated with multiple problems, including vasomotor symptoms, symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy, bone loss, and difficulties with sleep, mood, memory, and sexual activity. The only treatment option currently available to address multiple postmenopausal symptoms in women with an intact uterus is estrogen/progestin-containing hormone therapy (HT. Concerns surrounding side effects and published data regarding the association of HT with the increased risk for breast cancer have induced a decrease in the number of women seeking, initiating, and continuing this type of therapy. A combination containing bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens (BZA/CE maintains the established benefits of estrogen therapy for treatment of postmenopausal vasomotor symptoms, vulvovaginal atrophy, and osteoporosis, while certain estrogenic effects, such as stimulation of the uterus and breast, are antagonized without the side effects associated with HT. BZA/CE has been evaluated in a series of multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and active-controlled Phase III trials known as the Selective estrogens, Menopause, And Response to Therapy (SMART trials. BZA/CE demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements in vasomotor symptoms, vulvovaginal atrophy, and a protective effect on the skeleton. These clinical benefits were associated with an acceptable safety profile and an improved tolerability compared with HT. BZA/CE showed a favorable safety profile on the breast, endometrium, and ovaries. The incidence of venous thromboembolism was low and the risk does not appear to be any greater than for CE alone or BZA alone or greater than HT. The incidence of coronary heart disease and

  12. 龙胆泻肝汤联合克霉唑栓治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌感染50例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俏春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Longdan Xiegan decoction combined with clotrimazole suppositories on the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis infection. Methods 100 cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis infection were selected in our hospital and were randomly divided into observation group and control group. The control group was given clotrimazole vaginal irrigation; the observation group was given Longdan Xiegan decoction oral treatmenton on the basis of the control group. Results The total efficiency of the observation group and the control group was 94% and 76%, respectively. There was statistically significant difference ( P<0.05) ; after follow-up, the recurrence rate of the control group was 30%, and was 10% in the observation group, this had statistically significant difference ( P<0.05) . Conclusion On the clinical treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis infection, Longdan Xiegan decoction combined with clotrimazole suppositories can obtain ideal curative effect, had low recurrence rate, and should be widely popularized in clinic.%目的:探讨龙胆泻肝汤联合克霉唑栓治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌感染的疗效。方法选取我院2013年—2014年收治的100例假性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌感染患者,随机分为观察组和对照组,对照组实行西医克霉唑栓阴道上药的治疗,观察组则在西医治疗的基础上联合应用龙胆泻肝汤口服治疗。结果观察组的总有效率达到94%,对照组则为76%,比较差异具有统计学上的意义(P<0.05);经随访后,对照组的复发率为30%,观察组则为10%,两组差异也具有统计学上的意义(P<0.05)。结论在外阴阴道假丝酵母菌感染的临床治疗上,龙胆泻肝汤联合克霉唑栓可以取得理想的治疗效果,而且复发率较低,应当在临床上推广应用。

  13. Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-19

    Information is presented on the treatment of infections associated primarily with sexual transmission. Attention is directed to the following: gonorrhea (urogenital gonorrhea, anal and pharyngeal gonorrhea, resistant infections, and gonorrhea in pregnancy); syphilis (syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis); nongonococcal urethritis and related infections (diseases of infancy and other chlamydial infections); and vaginitis (trichomoniasis, trichomoniasis in pregnancy, nonspecific vaginitis, vulvovaginal candidasis); chancroid; pediculosis pubis; venereal warts; and genital herpes simplex. 5 days of oral tetracycline HCI taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals is recommended for urogenital gonorrhea in both women and men. Anal gonorrhea in women can be treated like urogenital gonorrhea, but men should be treated with intramuscular procaine penicillin G or spectinomycin. Pregnant women can be treated with the same regimens of penicillin G, amoxicillin, or ampicillin as other patients. Parenteral penicillin G remains the drug of choice for treating all stages of syphilis. Either a tetracycline or an erythromycin taken for 7 days is usually effective against nongonococcal urethritis and related infections. Neonatal pneumonia caused by "Chlamydia" can be treated with systemic erythromycin for 14 days. Suspected infectious vaginitis is best managed by making a specific etiologic diagnosis. The important of sexual transmission in vulvovaginal candidiasis is most likely low and remains to be determined in nonspecific vaginitis. Metronidazole remains the treatment of choice for trichomoniasis unless contraindicated by pregnancy or hypersensitivity. Metronidazole is the drug of choice for nonspecific vaginitis. Several remedies are available for treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Topical antifungal drugs are effective, but recurrences are frequent. Although common in the U.S., chancroid is prevalent in other areas of the world. Resistant infections can be

  14. Premenarchal labia minora hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoon Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Labia minora hypertrophy is a relatively uncommon surgical entity being popularised in the realm of vulvovaginal plastic surgeries. Apart from the unaesthetic appearance of the hypertrophied minora, these cases are also associated with itching, hygiene problem, pain while sitting down, sports activities, difficulty in wearing tight clothing, bleeding and discomfort while or after sexual intercourse, social embarrassment, insecurity and psychological diminution of confidence and self-esteem. In a country like India, due to sociocultural reasons, patients hesitate to consult a doctor for such deformities. Most of the patients suffer in silence for years. Although common in the west, very few surgeons in the country perform this simple and rewarding surgery. Here, we are presenting a case of premenarchal juvenile labia minora hypertrophy (JLMH in an 8-year-old child. Labial hypertrophy in this age group is uncommon. We were unable to find hypertrophy of labia minora in the eight-year-old child on English literature search.

  15. Herpetiform genital lesions in a heifer with mucosal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabis, J J; Szkudlarek, L; Risatti, G R; Sura, R; Garmendia, A E; Van Kruiningen, H J

    2008-03-01

    A 14-month-old heifer with a 17-day history of unresponsive bloody diarrhea was necropsied. There were focal, pink-red erosions of the nares and hard palate; ulcers and fissures of the tongue; and multiple ulcerative lesions of the alimentary canal. Interdigital skin of both rear limbs was ulcerated and bleeding; and the margins of the vulva contained punctiform red ulcers. The gross lesions were consistent with mucosal disease. Histopathology and laboratory testing ruled out rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, and vesicular stomatitis, and identified bovine virus diarrhea virus to be the cause of this disease. Lesions of the vulva similar to those seen in some stages of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis were negative for bovine herpesvirus-1 and tested positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by immunohistochemistry.

  16. "The first cut is the deepest": a psychological, sexological and gynecological perspective on female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Giussy; Facchin, Federica; Meschia, Michele; Vercellini, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    In recent years increased numbers of healthy women and girls have been seeking female genital cosmetic surgery for esthetic reasons and/or to enhance sexual functioning. This phenomenon is associated with the development of a new vulvovaginal standard due to Internet pornography and the increased exposure of female genitalia. This strict standard may negatively affect women's psychological health and cause increased insecurity, which may drive even teenagers to seek female genital cosmetic surgery. Psychological counseling is recommended to inform women that surgery is not a definitive solution to treat psychologically based pain or dysfunction. Moreover, there is no robust evidence supporting the effectiveness of female genital cosmetic surgery, especially regarding sexual enhancement, as underlined by major scientific societies. The importance of a definite regulation of female genital cosmetic surgery should be emphasized and be based on an ethically oriented, multidisciplinary model aimed at providing exhaustive information on all gynecological, sexological, and psychological concerns raised by this type of surgery.

  17. Crohn disease and the gynecologic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, Cleve; Trinidad, Mari Charisse; Heitlinger, Leo; Anasti, James

    2013-01-01

    Although Crohn disease (CD) is considered an inflammatory bowel disease, extraintestinal gynecologic manifestations are varied, frequent, and oftentimes difficult to manage. Its predilection for young and reproductive-age women makes it an important disease process for the gynecologist to understand, as its complications can have long-term repercussions on the developmental, sexual, reproductive, and psychological health of affected women. Patients may present with a variety of vulvovaginal, perineal, perianal, and urologic complaints. Perianal involvement from an intestinal fistula is the most common skin manifestation seen in CD. Other gynecologic manifestations include metastatic CD and rectovaginal and urovaginal fistulas. Recognition and accurate diagnosis of extraintestinal gynecologic manifestations, as well as a good understanding of the gynecologic effects of chronic disease, are necessary for optimal management. The article provides an overview of CD and highlights the gynecologic considerations in caring for women affected by this disease.

  18. Eosinofilia no sangue periférico de mulheres com candidiase vaginal recorrente

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz Filho,José; Gonçalves,Ana Katherine; Cavalcante Júnior,Geraldo Barroso; Pessoa,Daliana Caldas; Eleutério Júnior,José; Giraldo, Paulo César; Sales, Valéria Soraya de Farias

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Quantificar o número de células de defesa e os níveis de imunoglobulina E (IgE) no sangue periférico em amostra de mulheres com candidíase vaginal recorrente. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal com 60 mulheres, 40 com candidíase vulvovaginal e 20 do grupo controle (sem doença). As células de defesa foram identificadas utilizando um sistema de impedância combinada com a citometria de fluxo, os níveis de IgE total e específica foram medidos por meio de técnicas de quimiluminescência...

  19. Speciation and susceptibility testing of Candida isolates from vaginal discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Muthusamy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a normal commensal that takes the role of a pathogen under compromised conditions. Increased longevity of human life and immunocompromised conditions together paves the way for the increase in opportunistic infections like candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common cause of vaginal discharge next to Chlamydia.1 VVC is the leading cause of abnormal vaginal discharge due to microbial causes. Untreated VVC is a possible risk factor for acquisition of HIV.2 Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including VVC can reduce the transmission of HIV since STIs and HIV have the common mode of transmission and one enhances the risk of infection with the other. Early diagnosis and treatment of candidiasis can reduce the pregnancy related morbidity

  20. Canadian Laboratory Standards for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Best Practice Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI continue to spread, and show no international boundaries. Diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis, which we thought were under control in Canadian populations, have increased in incidence. Sexually transmitted or associated syndromes such as cervicitis, enteric infections, epididymitis, genital ulcers, sexually related hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis and vulvovaginitis present a challenge for the physician to identify the microbial cause, treat the patient and manage contacts. During the past 10 years, new technologies developed for the diagnosis of STIs have provided a clearer understanding of the real accuracy of traditional tests for the diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis B virus, human papillomaviruses, HIV, Haemophilus ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis and mycoplasmas. This has presented a major challenge to the diagnostic laboratory, namely, selecting the most sensitive and specific test matched with the most appropriate specimens to provide meaningful and timely results to facilitate optimal patient care.

  1. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  2. Preventing HPV-Related Cancers - We Are All In This Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Sarah; Scarinci, Isabel; Kimberlin, David; Straughn, J Michael

    2017-02-21

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, which include cervical, vulvovaginal, anal and oropharyngeal cancers, are on the rise in the United States. Although the HPV vaccine has been on the market for ten years, HPV vaccination rates are well below national goals. Research has identified many barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination, and provider recommendation remains the most important factor in parental and patient decisions to vaccinate. While much of the burden of HPV vaccine provision falls on pediatricians and primary care providers, they cannot do it alone. As clinicians who care for a large proportion of HPV-related conditions, OBGYNs and other women's healthcare providers must share the responsibility for vaccination of eligible patients. OBGYNs can support the efforts to eradicate HPV-related disease in their patients and their families via multiple avenues, including providing the HPV vaccine and being community leaders in support of vaccination.

  3. Recent Applications of Ion Mobility Spectrometry in Diagnosis of Vaginal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeev Karpas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal infections (vaginosis globally affect more than 15% of the female population of reproductive age. However, diagnosis of vaginosis and differentiating between the three common types: bacterial vaginosis (BV, vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC, and trichomoniasis are challenging. Elevated levels of the biogenic amines, trimethylamine (TMA, putrescine, and cadaverine have been found in vaginal discharge fluid of women with vaginosis. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS is particularly suitable for measurement of amines even in complex biological matrices due to their high proton affinity and has been shown to be suitable for the diagnosis of vaginal infections. Recent developments that have increased the accuracy of the technique for diagnosis of BV and simplified sample introduction are described here.

  4. [Group A streptococcal perineal infection in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskas, M; Levy, C; Romain, O; Schlemmer, C; Béchet, S; Bonacorsi, S; Bidet, Ph; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    Perineal diseases in children are usually caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). If the natural course of untreated cases is not known, it is well known that symptoms do not resolve spontaneously and can persist often for many months, until appropriate diagnosis and effective treatment are instituted. Furthermore, failures and recurrences after penicillin treatment are frequent. From 2009 to 2014, 165 perineal infections (median age: 48 months, extremes: 0.4-139) were enrolled by 15 pediatricians: 4 balanitis, 29 vulvo-vaginal diseases and 132 perianal infections. Painful defecation, anal fissures and macroscopic blood in stools were significantly more frequent in GAS perianal infections than negative GAS infections (p<0.01). The performance of GAS-rapid antigen test compared to the GAS culture was : sensitivity 97 % [CI 95 %: 89-100 %], specificity 76 % [CI 95 %: 66-84 %], negative predictive value 97 % [CI 95 %: 91-100 %], positive predictive value 71 % [CI 95 %: 60-80 %].

  5. Candidiasis: a fungal infection--current challenges and progress in prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, Umme; Shivakumar, Hosakote G; Vaghela, Rudra; Osmani, Riyaz Ali M; Shrivastava, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Despite therapeutic advances candidiasis remains a common fungal infection most frequently caused by C. albicans and may occur as vulvovaginal candidiasis or thrush, a mucocutaneous candidiasis. Candidiasis frequently occurs in newborns, in immune-deficient people like AIDS patients, and in people being treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. It is mainly due to C. albicans while other species such as C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei are increasingly isolated. OTC antifungal dosage forms such as creams and gels can be used for effective treatment of local candidiasis. Whereas, for preventing spread of the disease to deeper vital organs, candidiasis antifungal chemotherapy is preferred. Use of probiotics and development of novel vaccines is an advanced approach for the prevention of candidiasis. Present review summarizes the diagnosis, current status and challenges in the treatment and prevention of candidiasis with prime focus on host defense against candidiasis, advancements in diagnosis, probiotics role and recent progress in the development of vaccines against candidiasis.

  6. 复发性念珠菌外阴阴道炎240例治疗观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄立冬

    2008-01-01

    念珠菌性外阴阴道炎(recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis,RVVC)是妇科常见病,多数病例一经治疗即可痊愈,但少数病例治疗效果较差,反复发作,难以根治,严重影响患者正常的工作和生活。我院2005年3月至2006年10月诊治240例念珠菌性外阴阴道炎患者,现将治疗结果报告如下。

  7. Insights from human studies into the host defense against candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, Scott G

    2012-04-01

    Candida spp. are the most common cause of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections in humans. Studies using mutant strains of mice have provided initial information about the roles of dectin-1, CARD9, and Th17 cytokines in the host defense against candidiasis. Recent technological advances have resulted in the identification of mutations in specific genes that predispose humans to develop candidal infection. The analysis of individuals with these mutations demonstrates that dectin-1 is critical for the host defense against vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. They also indicate that CARD9 is important for preventing both mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, whereas the Th17 response is necessary for the defense against mucocutaneous candidiasis. This article reviews the recent studies of genetic defects in humans that result in an increased susceptibility to candidiasis and discusses how these studies provide new insight into the host defense against different types of candidal infections.

  8. 浅谈生活习惯与外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕利峰

    2010-01-01

    @@ 外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)也称外阴阴道念珠菌病,是一种由假丝酵母菌引起的机会性真菌感染,是常见的妇产科感染性疾病.大约75%的妇女在一生中至少感染一次VVC,而且另有5%~10%的妇女患有复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(RVVC,1年有4次或以上发作)[1].

  9. Congenital candidiasis as a subject of research in medicine and human ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczylas, Michał M; Walat, Anna; Kordek, Agnieszka; Loniewska, Beata; Rudnicki, Jacek; Maleszka, Romuald; Torbé, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Congenital candidiasis is a severe complication of candidal vulvovaginitis. It occurs in two forms,congenital mucocutaneous candidiasis and congenital systemic candidiasis. Also newborns are in age group the most vulnerable to invasive candidiasis. Congenital candidiasis should be considered as an interdisciplinary problem including maternal and fetal condition (including antibiotic therapy during pregnancy), birth age and rare genetic predispositions as severe combined immunodeficiency or neutrophil-specific granule deficiency. Environmental factors are no less important to investigate in diagnosing, treatment and prevention. External factors (e.g., food) and microenvironment of human organism (microflora of the mouth, intestine and genitalia) are important for solving clinical problems connected to congenital candidiasis. Physician knowledge about microorganisms in a specific compartments of the microenvironment of human organism and in the course of defined disorders of homeostasis makes it easier to predict the course of the disease and allows the development of procedures that can be extremely helpful in individualized diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  10. Human Dectin-1 Deficiency and Mucocutaneous Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferwerda, Bart; Ferwerda, Gerben; Plantinga, Theo S.; Willment, Janet A.; van Spriel, Annemiek B.; Venselaar, Hanka; Elbers, Clara C.; Johnson, Melissa D.; Cambi, Alessandra; Huysamen, Cristal; Jacobs, Liesbeth; Jansen, Trees; Verheijen, Karlijn; Masthoff, Laury; Morré, Servaas A.; Vriend, Gert; Williams, David L.; Perfect, John R.; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Wijmenga, Cisca; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Adema, Gosse J.; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Brown, Gordon D.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Mucocutaneous fungal infections are typically found in patients who have no known immune defects. We describe a family in which four women who were affected by either recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis or onychomycosis had the early-stop-codon mutation Tyr238X in the β-glucan receptor dectin-1. The mutated form of dectin-1 was poorly expressed, did not mediate β-glucan binding, and led to defective production of cytokines (interleukin-17, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-6) after stimulation with β-glucan or Candida albicans. In contrast, fungal phagocytosis and fungal killing were normal in the patients, explaining why dectin-1 deficiency was not associated with invasive fungal infections and highlighting the specific role of dectin-1 in human mucosal antifungal defense. PMID:19864674

  11. The urogenital system and the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Agius, J; Brincat, M P

    2015-01-01

    The major cause of urogenital atrophy in menopausal women is estrogen loss. The symptoms are usually progressive in nature and deteriorate with time from the menopausal transition. The most prevalent urogenital symptoms are vaginal dryness, vaginal irritation and itching. The genitourinary syndrome of menopause includes vulvovaginal atrophy and the postmenopausal modifications of the lower urinary tract. Dyspareunia and vaginal bleeding from fragile atrophic skin are common problems. Other urogenital complaints include frequency, nocturia, urgency, stress urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections. Atrophic changes of the vulva, vagina and lower urinary tract can have a large impact on the quality of life of the menopausal woman. However, hormonal and non-hormonal treatments can provide patients with the solution to regain the previous level of function. Therefore, clinicians should sensitively question and examine menopausal women, in order to correctly identify the pattern of changes in urogenital atrophy and manage them appropriately.

  12. Barriers to effective treatment of vaginal atrophy with local estrogen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne ReiterMid-County Health Center, Largo, FL, USAAbstract: Vaginal atrophy is a common condition among postmenopausal women, among whom many exhibit both vulvovaginal symptoms (eg, dryness, irritation, itching, and pain with intercourse and urinary symptoms (eg, increased frequency, urgency, incontinence, urinary tract infections, and dysuria. Unfortunately, few women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy report seeking treatment from a health care provider. The goal of this article is to examine reasons why patients and health care providers do not engage in discourse regarding this important topic. It is important to initiate conversations with postmenopausal women and counsel them on both why the changes occur and potential treatment options.Keywords: local estrogen therapy, vaginal atrophy, barriers, postmenopausal women

  13. Recrudescent herpes labialis mimicking primary herpes labialis in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaveta Sood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection is prevalent worldwide. Herpes labialis is caused predominantly by HSV-1, and herpes vulvo-vaginitis is caused predominantly by HSV-2. HSV-2 may result in significant morbidity and mortality for infected neonates exposed during delivery .Due to this fact, a large amount of literature exists for HSV-2 but data for HSV -1 is scanty. Case Report : We report two cases of recrudescent herpes labialis in 3 rd trimester of pregnancy with extensive peri-oral lesions resembling primary herpes labialis. There was no obvious cause of immunosupression. The patients were followed up with a normal outcome of pregnancy and no fetal abnormality. Conclusions : The reasons for such extensive perioral lesions are uncertain. Immunosupression of pregnancy may be a factor in a sub group of patients.

  14. Recrudescent herpes labialis mimicking primary herpes labialis in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaveta Sood

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection is prevalent worldwide. Herpes labialis is caused predominantly by HSV-1, and herpes vulvo-vaginitis is caused predominantly by HSV-2. HSV-2 may result in significant morbidity and mortality for infected neonates exposed during delivery. Due to this fact, a large amount of literature exists for HSV-2 but data for HSV -1 is scanty. Case Report: We report two cases of recrudescent herpes labialis in 3rd trimester of pregnancy with extensive peri-oral lesions resembling primary herpes labialis. There was no obvious cause of immunosupression. The patients were followed up with a normal outcome of pregnancy and no fetal abnormality. Conclusions: The reasons for such extensive perioral lesions are uncertain. Immunosupression of pregnancy may be a factor in a sub group of patients.

  15. Vaginal myofibroblastoma with glands expressing mammary and prostatic antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenfels, I; Chlumská, A

    2012-01-01

    A case of unusual vaginal myofibroblastoma containing glands which expressed mammary and prostatic markers is described. The tumor occurred in 70-year-old woman in the proximal third of the vagina. It showed morphology and immunophenotype typical of so-called cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma. The peripheral zone of the lesion contained a few groups of glands suggesting vaginal adenosis or prostatic-type glands on initial examination. The glands showed a surprising simultaneous expression of mammary markers mammaglobin and GCDFP-15 and prostatic markers prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). Immunostains for alpha-smooth muscle actin, p63 and CD10 highlighted the myoepithelial cell layer of the glands. The finding indicates that simultaneous use of both mammary and prostatic markers for examination of unusual glandular lesions in the vulvovaginal location can be helpful for an exact diagnosis, and can contribute to better understanding of prostatic and mammary differentiations in the female lower genital tract.

  16. β-Microseminoprotein endows post coital seminal plasma with potent candidacidal activity by a calcium- and pH-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edström Hägerwall, Anneli; Rydengård, Victoria; Fernlund, Per;

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune factors controlling Candida albicans are mostly unknown. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is common in women and affects approximately 70-75% of all women at least once. Despite the propensity of Candida to colonize the vagina, transmission of Candida albicans following sexual intercourse...... identify β-microseminoprotein as an important innate immune factor active against C. albicans and may help explain the low sexual transmission rate of Candida....... is very rare. This prompted us to investigate whether the post coital vaginal milieu contained factors active against C. albicans. By CFU assays, we found prominent candidacidal activity of post coital seminal plasma at both neutral and the acid vaginal pH. In contrast, normal seminal plasma did...

  17. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  18. The microbiota and microbiome in aging: potential implications in health and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Heidi J; Quagliarello, Vincent J

    2015-04-01

    Advances in bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing allow for characterization of the human commensal bacterial community (microbiota) and its corresponding genome (microbiome). Surveys of healthy adults reveal that a signature composite of bacteria characterizes each unique body habitat (e.g., gut, skin, oral cavity, vagina). A myriad of clinical changes, including a basal proinflammatory state (inflamm-aging), that directly interface with the microbiota of older adults and enhance susceptibility to disease accompany aging. Studies in older adults demonstrate that the gut microbiota correlates with diet, location of residence (e.g., community dwelling, long-term care settings), and basal level of inflammation. Links exist between the microbiota and a variety of clinical problems plaguing older adults, including physical frailty, Clostridium difficile colitis, vulvovaginal atrophy, colorectal carcinoma, and atherosclerotic disease. Manipulation of the microbiota and microbiome of older adults holds promise as an innovative strategy to influence the development of comorbidities associated with aging.

  19. Successful treatment of refractory Trichomonas vaginalis infection using intravenous metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Isobel; Carne, Christopher; Sonnex, Christopher; Carmichael, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted protozoan infection resulting in a vulvo-vaginitis and altered vaginal discharge in symptomatic women. Since its introduction in the 1960 s, metronidazole has been the first-line drug for trichomonal infection. Other nitroimidazoles, such as tinidazole, are used as alternative regimens with similar activity but at a greater expense. Treatment failure usually represents patient non-compliance or reinfection, although metronidazole resistance has previously been documented. Sensitivity testing is currently not available in the UK. Patients with disease unresponsive to first-line treatments pose a major challenge, as therapeutic options are limited. This case looks at a patient with refractory disease over an 18-month period, where intravenous infusion of metronidazole resulted in cure after multiple previous therapy failures. There is limited evidence to endorse the use of intravenous metronidazole, and this case report provides further support for its efficacy.

  20. 外阴阴道念珠菌病真菌培养的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云晓; 宋文耀

    2004-01-01

    外阴阴道念珠菌病(vulvovaginal candidasis,简称VVC)是最常见的妇科炎症之一。对于VVC的临床诊断目前主要依赖于典型的临床症状、体征及阴道分泌物的化验。传统的化验方法为悬滴湿片法(及白带常规),往往准确率不高而易漏诊。随着临床真菌感染率的不断增高以及临床医务工作者对真菌检验的要求提高,使真菌培养在临床应用日

  1. 尖锐湿疣复发与念珠菌发病相关性的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马元龙; 萨仁高娃; 许琳; 李浩; 布和其其格

    2011-01-01

    尖锐湿疣(Condyloma acuminatum,CA)是临床上最常见的性传播疾病之一,由人类乳头瘤病毒(Human papillomavirus,HPV)感染引起,治疗后容易复发。已有资料表明尖锐湿疣与念珠菌感染关系密切[1,2],在临床上我们也发现大量的尖锐湿疣病人并发念珠菌感染,为了探讨尖锐湿疣与念珠菌性龟头炎(Candidal balanopasthitis,CB)及外阴阴道念珠菌病(Vulvovaginal candidasis,VVC)的相关性,笔者对2008-01~2010-08诊治及随访到的260例伴有念

  2. 外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建华; 王宇光

    2005-01-01

    外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)也称外阴阴道念珠菌病,为常见的外阴、阴道炎症。约有10%的非妊娠妇女,30%的妊娠妇女阴道中有假丝酵母菌寄生而无症状。70%妇女一生中至少感染过一次。白色假丝酵母菌(candida albicans)是主要病原体(80%~90%),其他如光滑假丝酵母菌(candida glabrata)、热带假丝酵母菌(candida tropicalis)、近平滑假丝酵母菌(candida parasilosis)等占少数。

  3. Biofilms: An Underappreciated Mechanism of Treatment Failure and Recurrence in Vaginal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, Christina A; Schwebke, Jane R

    2015-08-15

    Biofilms are microbial communities of surface-attached cells embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix. They are of major medical significance because they decrease susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and enhance the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Biofilm-associated bacterial and fungal microorganisms have increasingly been recognized to play a role in multiple infectious diseases, particularly in their persistence and recurrence. More recently, biofilms have also been implicated in vaginal infections, notably bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly in the setting of treatment failure and recurrence. The purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of biofilms on the management and treatment of BV and recurrent VVC and highlight the need for additional research and development of novel therapeutics targeting pathogenic vaginal biofilms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Changes in vaginal microbiota following antimicrobial and probiotic therapy

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    Jean M. Macklaim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The composition of the vaginal microbiota is known to be important for health. When infections occur, antimicrobial therapy is often poorly efficacious. Objective and design: We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize changes in the bacterial microbiota following oral antimicrobial and probiotic interventions. Results: While the bacterial vaginal profiles of women with vulvovaginal candidiasis were dominated by lactobacilli as in healthy women, and unchanged by therapy, Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella, Atopobium, Sneathia, and Megasphaera dominated the vagina of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV, and treatment with tinidazole plus Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14+L. rhamnosus GR-1 resulted in an increased relative abundance of indigenous L. iners or L. crispatus. Conclusions: The ability to restore homeostasis provides a rationale for conjoint use of probiotics with antibiotic treatment of BV.

  5. Design and Materials Selection: analysis of similar sanitary pads for daily use

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    M Pohlmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hygiene practices have effects on vulvovaginal microbiota. Specific products for intimate female hygiene are available in the market, such as the sanitary pads. Since these pads were introduced in the market , they became the focus of research that seek to improve their shape, manufacturing processes and the properties of materials used in order to provide more benefits to users. Thus, the present study aimed to characterize the fabrics used in daily sanitary pads, focusing on the development of future products. The spectra generated by FTIR/ATR suggest that the samples were composed of polypropylene. The photomicrographs showed that the polymeric outer layer was made of nonwoven fabric manufactured by spunbond and point bonding processes.

  6. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Paula Matos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  7. Vulvar symptoms in paediatric and adolescent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piippo, S; Lenko, H; Vuento, R

    2000-04-01

    Vulvovaginal symptoms in children and young adolescents are not yet very well understood, nor is the actual incidence known. This study evaluates the character and possible infectious aetiology of vulvar symptoms of females aged up to 16 y. The signs, symptoms and bacteriological findings of 68 consecutive cases were studied. The study was conducted in the University Hospital of Tampere at a special gynaecological consultation clinic for children and adolescents. Sixty-eight patients were included in the study: 48 girls (71%) were prepubertal, at Tanner stage M1P1, 26 patients were 2-4-y-old and 15 were 5-7-y-old. The duration of symptoms was known for 46 patients: 41% had had symptoms for >1 mo and 20% for >6 mo. Forty-eight patients had abnormal clinical findings on examination and 16 (33%) of them had an infectious aetiology. Streptococcus pyogenes infection was identified in 11 (16%) patients, all of whom had symptoms. Candida was identified in 6 (9%) patients. No infectious aetiology was found among 26 patients who had symptoms and abnormal clinical findings. Vulvovaginal symptoms during childhood are more common among younger children (<7 y). In 67% of patients no infectious aetiology could be found. Samples for microbiological culture should be taken from symptomatic patients and symptomatic areas. Cultures of Candida and bacteria are necessary but usually sufficient. If a microbiological aetiology is established, treatment can be assigned accordingly. Patients with vulvar symptoms and findings but with an unclear aetiology need support and advice on proper hygiene and can intermittently use mild corticosteroids locally.

  8. A study of female genital swabs in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Nwadioha; Julie O Egesie; Henry Emejuo; Elizabeth Iheanacho

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To detect some common microbial agents of vaginal discharge and improve the current syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge. Methods:A prospective study of female genital swabs collected from obstetrics and gynecology units of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria and an analysed of microscopy, culture and sensitivity in the medical microbiology and parasitology laboratory of this hospital were conducted from December 2007 to December 2008. Data on epidemiologic indices were collected from the patients, using structured interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results:Eight hundred and forty Candida species were detected, constituting 60%(n=840) of 1 400 female genital discharge samples of microbial etiology in a total of 2 000 female genital samples received. The distribution of vaginal candidiasis was the highest in young adults aged 21 to 30 years with 43%(n=360) of the total 840 cases. Pregnant women that presented with vaginal candidiasis constituted 40%(n=360) of the total 840 cases. Other risk groups included the immuno-suppression with 24%(n=202), group on hormonal therapy with 15%(n=126) and broad spectrum antibiotics users with 16%(n=134). Conclusions:The results show that Candida is the most common cause of vaginitis and vulvo-vaginal candidiasis followed by C. albicans in the young adults aged 21 to 30 years, pregnant mothers, immuno-suppression, contraceptive and broad spectrum antibiotic users. Proper management of vaginal candidiasis and vulvo-vaginal candidiasis is recommended especially among the risk groups in order to avoid complications and reduce HIV transmission.

  9. Estimated Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jamaica by Literature Review and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, HC; Denning, DW

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Jamaica is one of the largest countries in the Caribbean with a population of 2 706 500. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jamaica is high, while that of tuberculosis (TB) is recorded to be low. In this study, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal infections and some other mycoses in Jamaica. Methods: All published papers reporting on rates of fungal infections in Jamaica and the Caribbean were identified through extensive search of the literature. We also extracted data from published papers on epidemiology and from the World Health Organization (WHO) TB Programme and UNAIDS. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) rates were derived from asthma and TB rates. Where there were no available data on some mycoses, we used specific populations at risk and frequencies of fungal infection of each to estimate national prevalence. Results: Over 57 600 people in Jamaica probably suffer from serious fungal infections each year, most related to ‘fungal asthma’ (ABPA and SAFS), recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Histoplasmosis is endemic in Jamaica, though only a few clinical cases are known. Pneumocystis pneumonia is frequent while cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are rarely recorded. Tinea capitis was common in children. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is very common (3154/100 000) and candidaemia occurs. Subcutaneous mycoses such as chromoblastomycosis and mycetoma also seem to be relatively common. Conclusion: Local epidemiological studies are urgently required to validate or modify these estimates of serious fungal infections in Jamaica. PMID:26426178

  10. [Diagnosis of vaginitis-vaginosis by hibridization with DNA strands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Jesús de la Calle, Iría; Román Enry, Manuela; Aznar Marín, Pilar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Vaginal infections lie among the most common causes women ask for medical advice. In order of frequency bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis are responsible for 90% of vaginitis/vaginosis. To evaluate a DNA hybridization test for simultaneous molecular detection of Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida species and Trichomonas vaginalis, as an alternative to conventional microbiological methods. Cohort, cross-sectional, and comparative study of 1,003 vaginal samples from symptomatic women from our health-care area. Two swabs were obtained from each woman, one for routine microbiological diagnosis of vaginal infection (wet mount, Gram stain, and mycological culture) and the other for the DNA hybridization test (Affirm VPIII, Becton Dickinson). This method detects clinically significant levels of G. vaginalis (2 x 10(5) CFU/ml), Candida spp. (1 x 10(4) cells) and T. vaginalis (5x103 trichomonads). Out of the 1,003 women studied, 30.6% tested positive for bacterial vaginosis, 23.3% for vulvovaginal candidiasis, and 0.5% for trichomoniasis. The Affirm VPIII method turned out positive in 27.5%, 27.4% and 0.5% of cases, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the molecular technique and conventional methods for microbiological diagnosis of vaginitis/ vaginosis (p < 0.05). The Affirm VPIII test correlated well with wet mount, Gram stain and mycological culture. Although its cost is relatively high, it is fast, reproducible, easy, and can be done in either clinical laboratories or Gynecology offices, which permits prescribing a specific early treatment.

  11. La atención ginecológica en niñas de 0 a 10 años

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    Miguel Lugones Botell

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 150 pacientes de 0 a 10 años de edad atendidas con historias clínicas en la consulta de ginecología infantojuvenil en el municipio Playa, entre el 1ro. de septiembre de 1996 y el 30 de noviembre de 2001, y se analizaron las variables siguientes: principales motivos de consulta en relación con la edad, principales causas de leucorrea o vulvovaginitis, causas de trastornos de la pubertad y causas de dolor pelviano. Se concluyó que los principales motivos de consulta fueron la leucorrea o vulvovaginitis, los trastornos de la pubertad y el dolor pelviano. Fue la vaginosis bacteriana la principal causa de leucorrea, la telarquia precoz la principal causa de trastorno de la pubertad, y el dolor pelviano fue ocasionado en la mayoría de las niñas por giardiasis.A retrospective study of 150 patients aged 0-10 years, seen at the infant-juvenile gynecological service in Playa municipality from September 1996 to November, 2001, was made. The following variables were analyzed: main reasons for going to doctor´s in related to age, main causes of leukorrea or vulvovaginits, causes of disorders in puberty and causes of pelvic pain. It was concluded that the main reasons for going to the doctor´s were leukorrea, vulvovaginits, puberty disorders and pelvic pain. Bacterial vaginosis was the main cause of leukorrea, early telarchia was the main cause of puberty disorders whereas pelvic pain was due to giardiasis in most of the girls.

  12. EFFICACY OF SINGLE ORAL DOSE 150 mg FLUCONAZOLE IN TREATMENT OF VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS

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    Shabana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIMS : This study aimed to find out the efficacy of single oral dose 150mg of fluconazole in treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis, to e valuate its safety assessment and the clinical and mycological efficacy assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T his study is carried out in department of obstetrics and gynaecology Gandhi medical college sultania hospital Bhopal and with the help of microbiolo gy department Gandhi medical college Bhopal over a period of one year. It is a hospital based clinical prospective study. RESULTS : Maximum age incidence was found between 21 - 30years. Mostly patients belonged to low socioeconomic status and were uneducated. Maximum patients were married (98% and multiparous (92%, nulliparous formed the smallest group (8%. In factors predisposing to candidiasis, contraceptive methods were found to be important in which maximum incidence was found in patients using oral con traception about 32% and 12% of IUCD users were affected. Other factors were antibiotic treatment (5% and diabetes (2%. Vaginal discharge and pruritis were the two commonest symptoms found. Among the signs vaginal discharge and white plaques was the comm onest sign. On follow up visits 88 cases had complete clinical cure and only 6 cases showed failure and 9 recurrence s . In mycological assessment maximum 135 cases showed complete cure, 6 were failure and 9 recurrence. In overall results, excellent results were found in 88cases, good in 38 cases, fair in 9 cases and recurrence in 9 cases. Recurrences were mainly due to rectal carriers. CONCLUSION: In co n clusion fluconazole was found effective as a systemic single oral dose therapy for acute vulvovaginal cand idiasis. It is proved safe in terms of tolerance and preferred by patients. So in view of its favourable patients acceptability and compliance profile, it is considered as a first line therapeutic choice for treatment of women with vaginal candidiasis.

  13. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Paula Matos Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  14. Phenotypic characterization and adhesive properties of vaginal Candida spp. strains provided by the CHU Farhat Hached (Sousse, Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Emira; Snoussi, Mejdi; Noumi, Inès; Saghrouni, Fatma; Aouni, Mahjoub; Valentin, Eulogio

    2015-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection among women worldwide, being Candida albicans the most commonly isolated species. Therefore, controlling this opportunistic yeast is one of the key factors for reducing nosocomial infection. We investigated several virulence properties of 28 vaginal strains of Candida isolated from Tunisian women suffering from vulvovaginitis. We also analyzed the virulence properties of a clinical Candida krusei strain and five Candida reference strains. Candida strains were subjected to microscopic analysis and culture in Candida ID2 chromogenic medium. The adhesive properties of these strains were estimated by the microtiter plate - the safranin-staining - and the Congo red agar (CRA) methods, for determining yeast ability to form biofilms on biomaterials used in urinary catheter manufacturing. Their potency to produce hydrolytic enzymes was also studied. Our results showed that nine out of the total studied strains produced phospholipase. In addition, very high protease activity was detected in 23 Candida strains. All Candida strains were beta-hemolytic and adhered to polystyrene microtiter plates in varying degrees. Two vaginal C. albicans strains were strongly adhesive to polystyrene and glass slides. Also, our results showed that vaginal Candida strains were more adhesive to the three tested materials than the reference strains. This study shows the presence of a range of virulence and adhesion factors in clinical isolates of vaginal Candida. Consequently, control and treatment of vaginal candidiasis as a means to prevent biofilm formation on urinary catheters is of crucial importance. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of Clinical Tools for Vaginal and Vulvar Symptom Assessment in Cancer Patients and Survivors.

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    Eaton, Anne A; Baser, Raymond E; Seidel, Barbara; Stabile, Cara; Canty, Jocelyn P; Goldfrank, Deborah J; Carter, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Health care professionals can play a pivotal role in promoting vulvovaginal health through assessment and appropriate intervention. To develop and validate brief clinical measurements to facilitate the identification of vulvovaginal symptoms in patients with and survivors of cancer. One hundred seventy-five women survivors of cancer attending a Female Sexual Medicine and Women's Health Program from September 26, 2012 through October 31, 2014 completed the Vaginal Assessment Scale (VAS) and the Vulvar Assessment Scale (VuAS)-a modified version of the VAS that targets vulvar symptoms. Pelvic examination results were recorded using a clinical examination checklist. Internal consistency of the two scales was assessed using Cronbach α, and the correlation between scales and other outcomes was reported. The internal consistency measurements of the VAS and VuAS at the first visit were 0.70 and 0.68, which decreased to 0.53 and 0.66 at the last visit. The VAS composite and VuAS composite scores were moderately correlated with each other (0.42 and 0.45 at first and last visits, respectively). A strong correlation was observed between VAS pain with intercourse and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) pain with intercourse (-0.63 and -0.71 at the first and last visits, respectively). Worse pain with examination, worse functioning on the FSFI pain, lubrication, and total scores, and worse vulvar irritation were correlated with more severe symptoms on the VAS and VuAS. The VAS and VuAS are simple tools that can be used by clinicians to assess health concerns in women diagnosed with and treated for cancer. Validation is needed across diverse settings and groups of women. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 2066例妇女阴道微生态失调构成情况分析%Analysis on 2066 Cases of Imbalance in Female Vaginal Micro-ecological Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖彩艳; 张洪文; 王新; 李菡; 周英

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解妇科门诊妇女阴道微生态平衡失调者白带异常检出率、构成比和年龄分布情况.方法:收集2009年11月-2010年1月在中南大学湘雅二医院妇科门诊就诊的有明显症状妇女的阴道分泌物,采用革兰染色及阴道pH试纸方法检测,同时以问卷方式采集受试者基本资料,并进行相应的统计学处理.结果:4025例患者中有2066例白带检测异常,总检出率为51.33%,其中外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病占28.99%,细菌性阴道病占8.57%,滴虫性阴道病为2.03%,混合性阴道炎为0.48%,未定义及未分类的阴道微生态失调为59.92%.阴道微生态失调妇女各年龄构成中<21岁组为2.4%,21~岁组为32.7%,31~岁组为38.2%,41~岁组为21.7%,>50岁组为5.0%.各种阴道微生态失调的中位数年龄中除混合性阴道炎位于21~30岁,其他均位于31~40岁.结论:阴道微生态平衡失调中外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病构成比明显高于细菌性阴道病、滴虫性阴道炎及混合性阴道炎.外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病、细菌性阴道病、滴虫性阴道炎及混合性阴道炎均好发于生育期年龄女性.除上述阴道炎症外,尚有大部分阴道微生态失调需要定义.%To investigate the gynecological clinic detection rate .proportion and age distribution of vaginal microflora imbalance. Methods:Gram staining gynecological clinic patients with clinical symptoms of vaginal secretions, detection of vaginal pH. Results: Vaginal microbial disorder detection rate was 51.33%, vulvovaginal candidiasis accounted for 28.99%, bacterial vaginosis accounting for 8.57% ,trichomoniasis vaginosis was 2.03%,mixed vaginitis was 0.48% .undefined vaginal microbial imbalance was 59.92%. Vaginal microbial disorders in patients composition of each age group: 50 years old group was 5.0%, all kinds of vaginal micro-ecological imbalance, the median age in addition to mixed vaginitis was in 21-30 years old, the other are

  17. VACUNAS CONTRA EL HERPESVIRUS BOVINO-1: UNA MIRADA DESDE EL PASADO HACIA EL FUTURO DE LA INMUNIZACIÓN Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Vaccine’s: A Look From The Past To The Immunization Future

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    JULIÁN RUIZ-SAENZ

    Full Text Available El herpesvirus Bovino-1 (BHV-1 es uno de los principales patógenos que afecta el ganado; la infección primaria se acompaña de varias manifestaciones clínicas tales como la rinotraqueitis, aborto, vulvovaginitis/balanopostitis pustular y en algunos casos, enfermedad neurológica. Luego de la recuperación, la infección persiste durante toda la vida del individuo en un estado de latencia en ganglios nervioso trigémino o sacro. La Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OIE reporta que la vacunación contra el BHV-1 puede ser efectiva en reducir las manifestaciones clínicas y en consecuencia las pérdidas económicas, pero no logra proteger completamente de la infección. Es por esto que durante los últimos años se han desarrollado gran cantidad de agentes vacunales que van desde las vacunas clásicas inactivadas hasta aquellas que usan tecnología de DNA recombinante. El presente artículo se enfoca en presentar una actualización acerca de las vacunas más usadas desde hace ya varios años y resumir los avances más importantes en la generación de nuevas vacunas contra el BHV-1; tratando así de abrir un nuevo panorama para la generación de vacunas en Colombia.Bovine herpesvirus-1 is one of the most important pathogens of cattle; the primary infection is characterized by clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis and in some cases, neurological signs. After recovering, the virus establishes viral latency in sensory neurons of trigeminal or sacral ganglia. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE reports that vaccination against BHV-1 could be useful to reduce the clinical manifestations and in consequence the economic looses, but it can not protect against the infection. Therefore, a huge amount of vaccines have been developed that includes from classic inactivation to recombinant DNA technologies. This paper makes an updated review about the most used vaccines

  18. Nanostructured lipid system as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of Astronium sp.

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    Bonifácio BV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruna Vidal Bonifácio,1 Matheus Aparecido dos Santos Ramos,1 Patrícia Bento da Silva,2 Kamila Maria Silveira Negri,1 Érica de Oliveira Lopes,1 Leonardo Perez de Souza,3 Wagner Vilegas,4 Fernando Rogério Pavan,1 Marlus Chorilli,2 Taís Maria Bauab11Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Drugs and Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Organic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Coastal Campus of São Vicente, UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, São Vicente, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: The genus Astronium (Anacardiaceae includes species, such as Astronium fraxinifolium, Astronium graveolens, and Astronium urundeuva, which possess anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, healing, and antimicrobial properties. Nanostructured lipid systems are able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects and improving antimicrobial activity. This work aims to evaluate a nanostructured lipid system that was developed as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of hydroethanolic extracts of stems and leaves from Astronium sp. The antifungal activity against C. albicans (ATCC 18804 was evaluated in vitro by a microdilution technique. In addition to the in vitro assays, the Astronium sp. that showed the best antifungal activity and selectivity index was submitted to an in vivo assay using a model of vulvovaginal candidiasis infection. In these assays, the extracts were either used alone or were incorporated into the nanostructured lipid system (comprising 10% oil phase, 10% surfactant, and 80% aqueous phase. The results indicated a minimal inhibitory concentration of 125.00 µg/mL before incorporation into the nanostructured system; this activity was even more enhanced when this extract presented a minimal inhibitory concentration of 15.62 µg/mL after its incorporation. In vivo assay dates showed that the

  19. Effect of calving process on the outcomes of delivery and postpartum health of dairy cows with unassisted and assisted calvings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Szenci, O

    2016-09-01

    Welfare aspects of obstetrical assistance were studied in multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n=176) with (1) unassisted calving in an individual pen (UCIP; n=42), (2) unassisted calving in a group pen (UCG; n=48), (3) assisted calving with appropriately timed obstetrical assistance (ACAP; n=50), and (4) assisted calving with inappropriately timed (premature) obstetrical assistance (ACIN; n=36). Duration of the stages of calving, the prevalence and the degree of dystocia, stillbirth ratio, newborn calf vitality, and the occurrence of postpartum health problems (i.e., retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration) were recorded. The time from amniotic sac and hooves appearance to birth and the total duration of calving (from the onset of calving restlessness to delivery) were shorter for UCG cows than for any other groups. The overall incidence of dystocia was 31.3% in the calvings studied. The prevalence of dystocia was below 10% in cases of unassisted calvings. The proportion of severe dystocia was higher in ACIN cows than in ACAP cows (47.2 vs. 12.0%, respectively). The prevalence of stillbirths was the highest in ACIN calvings (22.2%), followed by ACAP, UCI, and UCG cows (8.0, 4.8, and 0.0%, respectively). The ACIN calves had lower vitality scores than calves born from ACAP, UCG, and UCIP dams immediately after delivery and 24h after birth. Although ACAP calves had lower vitality scores than UCG and UCIP calves at birth, a delayed recovery of vitality was mirrored by satisfactory vitality scores 24h after birth. Retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration occurred more often with assisted dams (i.e., ACAP and ACIN animals) compared with UCIP cows with the highest prevalence in ACIN cows. In UCG cows, no injuries occurred in the vulva or vagina, and we noted only 4 cases of retained placenta (8.3%), proportions lower than in cows with unassisted calving in the maternity pen. Our results suggest that calving in a group might have benefits over calving in an

  20. Lack of influence of dyspareunia on the beneficial effect of intravaginal prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA) on sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David; Bouchard, Céline; Fortier, Michel; Cusan, Leonello; Gomez, José-Luis; Girard, Ginette; Baron, Mira; Ayotte, Normand; Moreau, Michèle; Dubé, Robert; Côté, Isabelle; Labrie, Claude; Lavoie, Lyne; Gilbert, Lucy; Martel, Céline; Balser, John

    2014-07-01

    We have previously observed that intravaginal prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA) improved all domains of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). Investigate the influence of moderate/severe pain at sexual activity (dyspareunia) (MSD) at baseline on FSD following prasterone administration. The effect of daily administration of prasterone (0, 3.25 mg, 6.5 mg or 13 mg) for 12 weeks on FSD in 215 postmenopausal women with or without MSD at baseline was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial. Differences were examined on desire, arousal and orgasm. Comparable benefits were observed in women not having MSD (n = 56) vs. those having MSD (n = 159). The benefits over placebo in prasterone-treated women for desire, avoiding intimacy and vaginal dryness as well as for the total sexual domain of the MENQOL (Menopause Specific Quality of Life) questionnaire, ranged between 18.0% and 38.2% with P values of <0.05 or <0.01 except in one out of 12 subgroups. For the arousal/sensation, arousal/lubrication and summary score of the ASF (Abbreviated Sexual Function) questionnaire, in the MSD+ group, improvements of 64.2% (P = 0.01), 118% (P = 0.001) and 31.1% (P = 0.03) were observed over placebo, respectively, while similar differences (58.0%, 67.6% and 32.1%) did not reach statistical significance in the MSD- group having up to only 44 prasterone-treated women compared with 119 in the MSD+ group. No MSD at baseline does not apparently affect the effects of intravaginal prasterone on sexual dysfunction. Knowing the absence of significant effects of estrogens on FSD, the present data suggest that vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and vulvovaginal sexual dysfunction (VVSD) are two different consequences of sex steroid deficiency at menopause which can respond independently. In addition, the present data seriously question the justification of pain being part of FSD as well as the separation of FSD into

  1. Consulta de Ginecología Infanto-Juvenil, 1999-2000

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    Elena Ávila Gálvez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, a 105 pacientes femeninas de 0 a 19 años de edad que asistieron a la consulta de Ginecología Infanto-Juvenil del Policlínico Docente "Wilfredo Pérez Pérez", de San Miguel del Padrón, de enero de 1999 a diciembre del 2000, con el objetivo de analizar su comportamiento y algunos aspectos relacionados con las niñas y adolescentes, mediante la utilización de algunas variables, y fueron sus principales resultados, el predominio de la adolescencia intermedia y adolescentes solteras con ayuda familiar. El principal diagnóstico definitivo fue la leucorrea-vulvovaginitis para el grupo de 0-10 años, y los trastornos menstruales en el de 11 a 19 años. Como aspectos relevantes aparecen la práctica de relaciones sexuales, la promiscuidad sexual y el no uso de anticonceptivos. Imperó la positividad de los exudados vaginales con cultivo, sobre todo en las niñas, y el estafilococo coagulasa positivo y la monilia fueron los gérmenes más frecuentes.A retrospective and descriptive study of 105 female patients aged 0-19 years, who went from January 1999 to December 2000 to the infantile and juvenile gynecology service of "Wilfredo Pérez Pérez in San Miguel del Padrón municipality, was carried out. The objective was to analyze their behavior and some aspects related to girls and adolescents by using certain variables; the principal results were the prevalence of intermediate adolescence and family-supported single adolescents. The main final diagnosis were leukorrhea-vulvovaginitis for 0-10 years-old group and menstruation disorders in the 11-19 age group. As relevant aspects we found sexual intercourse, promiscuity and the non-use of contraception. Vaginal smears with culture procedures were mostly positive in girls and positive Staphylococcus Coagulase and Candida albicans were the most frequent germs.

  2. Vulvovaginites em mulheres infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana Vaginal infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women

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    Paula Matos Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a freqüência de vulvovaginites em mulheres infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV com mulheres não infectadas. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal com 64 mulheres infectadas pelo HIV e 76 não infectadas. Foram calculadas as freqüências de vaginose bacteriana, candidíase e tricomoníase, que foram diagnosticadas por critérios de Amsel, cultura e exame a fresco, respectivamente. Para análise dos dados, utilizaram-se o teste do c2, teste exato de Fisher e regressão múltipla para verificar a independência das associações. RESULTADOS: a infecção vaginal foi mais prevalente em pacientes infectadas pelo HIV quando comparadas ao Grupo Controle (59,4 versus 28,9%, pPURPOSE: to compare the frequency of vulvovaginitis in women infected with human imunnodeficiency virus (HIV with the frequency in non-infected women. METHODS: a transversal study including 64 HIV infected women and 76 non-infected ones. The frequencies of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis, diagnosed by Amsel's criteria, culture and fresh exam, respectively, were calculated. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multiple regressions to verify the independence of associations were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: the vaginal infection was more prevalent in HIV infected patients, as compared to the control group (59.4 versus 28.9%, p<0,001; Odds Ratio=2.7, IC95%=1.33-5.83, p=0.007. Bacterial vaginosis occurred in 26.6% of the positive-HIV women; vaginal candidiasis, in 29.7% and trichomoniasis, in 12.5% of them. All the infections were significantly more frequent in the group of HIV infected women (p=0.04, 0.02 e 0.04, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: vulvovaginitis is more frequent in HIV infected women.

  3. In vitro Susceptibility of Fluconazole, Clotrimazole and Toucrium Polium Smoke Product on Candida Isolates of Vaginal Candidiasis

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    B Bonyadpour

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It has been estimated that up to 75% of women in their child-bearing age have been affected by vulvovaginal candidiasis at least once in their life time. Almost 45% of women experience this infection two or more times. The antifungal azole group, in topical and oral forms, is the common way of therapy. Herbal products are often used for vulvovaginal therapy. Nowadays, Toucrium polium (TP products are being used as traditional medicine to reduce signs of Candida vaginitis. There is no study regarding to antifungal activity of TP smoke product in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the In vitro activity of TP smoke product against Candida, isolated from women with Candida vaginitis, compared with antifungal drugs which are ordinary used to cure Candida vaginitis. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at the University of Medical Sciences of Shiraz in 1387 (2008. During seven months, samples were taken from 450 patients suffering from urogenital infections and 105 Candida vaginitis were detected. Germ tube test was used for identification of fungal species. TP smoke product was prepared in suitable potency. Antifungal activity of fluconazole, clotrimazole and TP product were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Sterile blank disks were loaded by TP smoke product in potency of 10-240 microliter/disk. Inhibition zone around the disks were measured and compared with each other. Results: 105 Candida species were isolated from the patients. Candida species were identified by germ tube test as Candida albicans 74 (70.5% and Candida non-albicans 31(29.5%.The mean of inhibition zone around the clotrimazole disks was 22±5.39 along with one case of resistance. Forty seven species had resistance to fluconazole while 94% and 55.2.% of all samples were sensitive to clotrimazole and fluconazole respectively. All of the clinical isolates and standard Candida species were sensitive to TP smoke product

  4. 高分辨熔解曲线技术检测阴道念珠菌分型的研究%Identification of Common Vaginal Candida Species by High Resolution Melting Curve Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛玮; 骆志成; 魏玉平; 韩赛楠; 周雅丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the feasibility of identifing common pathogenic Candida clinically isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidasis by high-resolution melting curve analysis ( HRM) method. Methods Germ tube test, chlamydospore test, CHROMagar Candida and API20 kit system were applied to separate non-C. albicans strains from C. albicans. HRM was used to amplify internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA from 5 type strains of 5 pathogenic Candida spp. and 80 clinical Candida isolates. Results Five types of graphic were obtainted after amplifycation from 5 Candida spp. by high-resolution melting curve a-nalysis. Conclusion Candida albicans is the most common pathogenic yeast in the vulvovaginal candidiasis (77.50% ). HRM is able to differentiate clinical Candida species and resulted in being specific, and stable, which can be a good addition to traditional diagnostic approach.%目的 探讨采用高分辨熔解曲线方法鉴定常见致病性念珠菌的可行性,为外阴阴道念珠菌病的分子流行病学及病原学研究奠定基础.方法 用芽管试验、厚壁孢子试验、科玛嘉(CHROMagar)显色培养基及API20C AUX酵母菌鉴定系统对临床致病性念珠菌进行鉴定,然后对5株标准株和80株临床分离株的基因组DNA内转录间隔区进行聚合酶链反应,对扩增产物进行高分辨熔解曲线分型.结果 5株念珠菌标准株和80株临床株聚合酶链反应扩增后,通过熔解曲线技术分析产生5种不同的峰图,即得到念珠菌5种分型.结论 外阴阴道念珠菌的主要致病菌是白念珠菌(77.50%),高分辨熔解曲线方法鉴定常见的致病性念珠菌特异性强、稳定性好,是传统鉴别方法的有益补充.

  5. An Overview of Neovaginal Reconstruction Options in Male to Female Transsexuals

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    Marta Bizic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transsexualism is a complex condition in which the person experiences the inconsistency between the desired gender and their biological gender. Absence of the vagina is devastating in male to female transsexuals. Creation of the neovagina is the main surgical problem in these patients. Historically, beginnings of the neovaginal creation have their roots in the treatment of Mayer-Rokitansky syndrome and conditions such as cloacal anomalies, certain intersex disorders, vaginal malignancies, or severe vaginal trauma, but have more recently found great purpose in male to female sex reassignment surgery. Many operative procedures have been described but none is ideal. Therefore, the search for new, improved solutions continues. In neovaginoplasty reconstruction of the vulvovaginal complex is performed in its entity. The gold standard in neovaginal reconstruction in male to female sex reassignment surgery is penile skin inversion technique with or without scrotal flaps, which enables adequate sensation of the neovagina, good neovaginal depth, good erotic sensitivity of the neclitoris, and esthetically acceptable labia minora and maiora.

  6. Burden of fungal infections in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekiri-Talbi, M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-21

    We report for the first time in Algeria and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the National Office of Statistics (Office National des Statistiques: ONS), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. Algeria has 40.4 million inhabitants, and probably at least 568,900 (1.41%) of Algerians have a serious fungal infection each year. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (485,000) and fungal asthma (72,000) are probably the commonest problems, as there are over 1 million adult asthmatics. Candidaemia is estimated in 2,020 people, invasive aspergillosis in 2,865 people, and intra-abdominal candidiasis in 303 people; these are the most common life-threatening problems. AIDS is uncommon, but cancer is not (45,000 new cases of cancer including 1,500 in children), nor is COPD (an estimated 317,762 patients, of whom 20.3% are admitted to hospital each year). A focus on improving the diagnosis and epidemiological data related to fungal infection is necessary in Algeria.

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usatine, Richard P; Tinitigan, Michelle

    2011-07-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease that affects the skin, oral mucosa, genital mucosa, scalp, and nails. Lichen planus lesions are described using the six P's (planar [flat-topped], purple, polygonal, pruritic, papules, plaques). Onset is usually acute, affecting the flexor surfaces of the wrists, forearms, and legs. The lesions are often covered by lacy, reticular, white lines known as Wickham striae. Classic cases of lichen planus may be diagnosed clinically, but a 4-mm punch biopsy is often helpful and is required for more atypical cases. High-potency topical corticosteroids are first-line therapy for all forms of lichen planus, including cutaneous, genital, and mucosal erosive lesions. In addition to clobetasol, topical tacrolimus appears to be an effective treatment for vulvovaginal lichen planus. Topical corticosteroids are also first-line therapy for mucosal erosive lichen planus. Systemic corticosteroids should be considered for severe, widespread lichen planus involving oral, cutaneous, or genital sites. Referral to a dermatologist for systemic therapy with acitretin (an expensive and toxic oral retinoid) or an oral immunosuppressant should be considered for patients with severe lichen planus that does not respond to topical treatment. Lichen planus may resolve spontaneously within one to two years, although recurrences are common. However, lichen planus on mucous membranes may be more persistent and resistant to treatment.

  8. SUCCENTURIATE PLACENTA: AN INCIDENTAL FINDING DURING CESAREAN SECTION

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    Unmesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 30 years, 4th Gravida with 3 abortions with history of 8 months amenorrhea was admitted to the hospital with chief complaints of leaking per vagina since 4 hours and was not associated with pain abdomen or bleeding per vaginum. Perceiving decreased fetal movements since 6 hours. She had 3 previous missed abortions followed by D and E. In the present pregnancy, gestational age was 32 weeks at the time of admission. Patient’s general condition was stable, all other investigation were found to be normal her pulse was 100 beats/min, tachycardia present, BP -100/70mmHg. On obstetric examination, uterus was 30 weeks size, 1-2 contraction lasting for 15- 20 seconds, Breech presentation, FHR was 124 per minute, regular, decreased liquor clinically. On vulvovaginal examination- Frank leaking per vagina present. Ultrasound showed single live intrauterine pregnancy of 29 weeks 3 days with breech presentation with oligohydramnios, Placenta was at fundal region, Biophysical profile was 6/8, FHR 124 bpm. After taking high risk consent in view of fetal prematurity, patient was posted for Emergency LSCS. And extracted a single live preterm female baby of weight of 1.45 kg by breech. During the cesarean section, on opening abdomen lower segment was found to be congested with torturous vessels. So we suspected missed diagnosis of placenta previa. After delivery of the baby, we found succenturiate lobe of the placenta occupying lower uterine segment with vessels running across the membrane.

  9. [Evaluation of the specificity of skin allergy tests in cattle with IBR-IPV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I E; Arsov, R; Sizov, I; Terziev, S

    1983-01-01

    An allergic and serologic investigation was carried out by the skin allergic test (SAT) and the virus neutralization test (VNT) to demonstrate the presence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis -- infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR-IPV) in cattle divided into three groups according to age, treated with the live attenuated vaccine MK25 against Aujeszky's disease. It was found that this vaccine induced the production of specific antibodies against the virus of IBR-IPV, which could be demonstrated through VNT (beta-variant) in low titers (2-2.5 log10), while through VNT (alfa-variant) no specific antibodies could be found. On the other hand, the virus of Aujeszky's disease did not usually lead or on very rare occasions (massive virus doses and continuous antigenic challenge) led to allergization of the body of cattle for IBR-IPV as well as to a positive SAT. Out of a total of 30 investigated calves only one proved positive by SAT, and 2 others were suspected of being carriers of infection. The problem is discussed of the specificity of SAT and its diagnostic value in IBR-IPV under some epizootiologic circumstances.

  10. Study of epidemiological features of health problems in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in an urban community

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    Manjusha K Deotale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Menopause is said to be universal reproductive phenomenon. Menopause although not a disease is associated with annoying physiological changes and varied symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats, urinary and genital changes, dyspareunia, insomnia and many psychological dysfunctions such as anxiety, depression, lack of concentration and decreased self-esteem. Every woman's experience of the menopause is unique; she may experience all of the symptoms or none of them. Some find the transition barely noticeable while others find it life altering. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among peri and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years residing at Government colony, Bandra, Mumbai, Maharashtra for a period of 1-year. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used for collecting data. A booklet on "care during menopause" was used for giving health education. Results: In this study, mean age at natural menopause was 45.32 years (standard deviation ±2.79. Our study participants reported mostly muscular and joint pain (44.86%, urological symptoms (23.43%, vasomotor symptoms (21.14%, vulvovaginal symptoms (19.43%, psychological symptoms (15.14%, weight gain (14.86%, psychosexual symptoms (11.43% and hirsutism (1.43%. Conclusions: There is a necessity of a multidisciplinary approach to the problems of menopause with more stress on promotive and preventive interventions. There should be provision of relevant health services, health education and promotional activities to cope up with the health needs of women in their postmenopausal years.

  11. Cellular Structural Changes in Candida albicans Caused by the Hydroalcoholic Extract from Sapindus saponaria L.

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    Cristiane S. Shinobu-Mesquita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is a disease caused by the abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Candida albicans is the principal etiological agent involved in VVC, but reports have shown an increase in the prevalence of Candida non-C. albicans (CNCA cases, which complicates VVC treatment because CNCA does not respond well to antifungal therapy. Our group has reported the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts from Sapindus saponaria L. The present study used scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to further evaluate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extract from S. saponaria (HE against yeast obtained from VVC and structural changes induced by HE. We observed the antifungal activity of HE against 125 vaginal yeasts that belonged to four different species of the Candida genus and S. cerevisae. The results suggest that saponins that are present in HE act on the cell wall or membrane of yeast at the first moments after contact, causing damage to these structures and cell lysis.

  12. Cutaneous and Mucosal Lichen Planus: A Comprehensive Review of Clinical Subtypes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Prognosis

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    Farzam Gorouhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a chronic inflammatory disorder that most often affects middle-aged adults. LP can involve the skin or mucous membranes including the oral, vulvovaginal, esophageal, laryngeal, and conjunctival mucosa. It has different variants based on the morphology of the lesions and the site of involvement. The literature suggests that certain presentations of the disease such as esophageal or ophthalmological involvement are underdiagnosed. The burden of the disease is higher in some variants including hypertrophic LP and erosive oral LP, which may have a more chronic pattern. LP can significantly affect the quality of life of patients as well. Drugs or contact allergens can cause lichenoid reactions as the main differential diagnosis of LP. LP is a T-cell mediated immunologic disease but the responsible antigen remains unidentified. In this paper, we review the history, epidemiology, and clinical subtypes of LP. We also review the histopathologic aspects of the disease, differential diagnoses, immunopathogenesis, and the clinical and genetic correlations.

  13. Pathogenic characteristics of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretion preserved under mineral oil

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    B Severo Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretion of pregnant and non-pregnant women - stored in mineral oil at the URM Mycology Collection, Department of Mycology, Federal University of Pernambuco - 30 samples belonging to the genera Candida, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, and Kloeckera, were studied regarding their pathogenic characteristics, ability to grow at room temperature (28°C ± 1°C, 37°C, and 42°C for 72 hours, and production of both phospholipase and proteinase. Results showed that all 30 isolates (100% were able to grow at room temperature and 37°C, and that 17 samples (57% were able to grow at 42°C. Evaluation of enzymatic activity showed protease activity in only two isolates (7%, namely C. maritima and C. obtusa. Phospholipase activity was detected in 20 isolates (67% using soy lecithin as substrate at different temperatures. The characterization of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretion and determination of their enzymatic activity may contribute to understanding the epidemiology of vulvovaginitis and assist in the treatment of patients.

  14. Perceptions of Self-Testing for Chlamydia: Understanding and Predicting Self-Test Use

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    Rachael Powell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-testing technology allows people to test themselves for chlamydia without professional support. This may result in reassurance and wider access to chlamydia testing, but anxiety could occur on receipt of positive results. This study aimed to identify factors important in understanding self-testing for chlamydia outside formal screening contexts, to explore the potential impacts of self-testing on individuals, and to identify theoretical constructs to form a Framework for future research and intervention development. Methods: Eighteen university students participated in semi-structured interviews; eleven had self-tested for chlamydia. Data were analysed thematically usingaFrameworkapproach. Results: Perceivedbenefitsofself-testingincludeditsbeingconvenient, anonymousandnotrequiringphysicalexamination. Therewasconcernabouttestaccuracyandsome participants lacked confidence in using vulvo-vaginal swabs. While some participants expressed concern about the absence of professional support, all said they would seek help on receiving a positive result. Factors identified in Protection Motivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as response efficacy and self-efficacy, were found to be highly salient to participants in thinking about self-testing. Conclusions: These exploratory findings suggest that self-testing independentlyofformalhealthcaresystemsmaynomorenegativelyimpactpeoplethanbeingtested by health care professionals. Participants’ perceptions about self-testing behaviour were consistent with psychological theories. Findings suggest that interventions which increase confidence in using self-tests and that provide reassurance of test accuracy may increase self-test intentions.

  15. Recommendations for Self-Report Outcome Measures in Vulvodynia Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukall, Caroline F; Bergeron, Sophie; Brown, Candace; Bachmann, Gloria; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2017-08-01

    Vulvodynia (idiopathic chronic vulvar pain) is a prevalent condition associated with significant and negative impacts in many areas of function. Despite the increased research interest in vulvodynia in recent years, recommendations for outcome measures for use in clinical trials are missing. The purpose of this paper, therefore, was to provide recommendations for outcome measures for vulvodynia clinical trials so that consistent measures are used across trials to facilitate between-study comparisons and the conduct of large multicenter trials, and to improve measurement of the multiple dimensions of vulvodynia. Given that provoked vestibulodynia (PVD)-characterized by provoked pain localized to the vaginal opening-is the most common subtype of vulvodynia and the current main focus of clinical trials, this paper focused on recommended outcome measures in PVD clinical trials. The framework used to guide the selection of outcome measures was based on the one proposed by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT). The IMMPACT framework provided a well-suited guideline for outcome measure recommendations in PVD clinical trials. However, given the provoked presentation of PVD and the significant impact it has on sexuality, modifications to some of the IMMPACT recommendations were made and specific additional measures were suggested. Measures that are specific to vulvovaginal pain are ideal for adoption in PVD clinical trials, and many such measures currently exist that allow the relevant IMMPACT domains to be captured.

  16. Effect of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the female sexual function in postmenopausal women: ERC-230 open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Céline; Labrie, Fernand; Derogatis, Leonard; Girard, Ginette; Ayotte, Normand; Gallagher, John; Cusan, Leonello; Archer, David F; Portman, David; Lavoie, Lyne; Beauregard, Adam; Côté, Isabelle; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Balser, John; Moyneur, Erick

    2016-03-01

    Intravaginal DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone, prasterone), the exclusive precursor of androgens and estrogens in postmenopausal women, has previously been shown to improve all the domains of sexual function by a strictly local action in the vagina. The well recognized female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire was used in the present study. The long-term effect of 52-week treatment with daily intravaginal 0.50% (6.5 mg) DHEA was evaluated on the various domains of female sexual function using the FSFI questionnaire at baseline, Week 26 and Week 52. One hundred and fifty-four postmenopausal women with at least one mild to severe symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and who have completed the FSFI questionnaire at baseline and at least one post-baseline timepoint were included in the analysis. The FSFI domains desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain were increased by 28%, 49%, 115%, 51%, 41% and 108%, respectively (pDHEA and all its metabolites, including estradiol and testosterone, show no meaningful change, the present clinical data indicate a stimulatory effect of intravaginal DHEA through a strictly local action in agreement with the preclinical data showing that the androgens made locally from DHEA in the vagina induce an increase in local nerve density.

  17. Exposure to fluconazole and risk of congenital malformations in the offspring: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaad, Abdulaziz M S; Kaplan, Yusuf C; Koren, Gideon

    2015-04-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) affects up to 75% of women at least once during their lifetime, mostly during the reproductive age, and recurrence rate is about 50%. Because half of all pregnancies are unplanned and pregnant women have an increased risk of VVC recurrence, the likelihood of inadvertently being exposed to fluconazole in pregnancy is increased. Thus, we aimed to examine the risk of congenital malformations in the offspring of women exposed to fluconazole in the first trimester of pregnancy. The rate for overall malformations was 1.10 (95% CI 0.98-1.25), for heart defect was 1.29 (95% CI 1.05-1.58), for craniofacial defects was 1.25 (95% CI 0.88-1.77), and for limb/musculoskeletal defects was 0.82 (95% CI 0.59-1.13). In conclusion, the use of fluconazole in the first trimester does not appear to increase the overall risk for congennital malformations. More studies are needed to address the potential increased rate of heart defects.

  18. Estudio de intervención en gestantes sobre el conocimiento de las infecciones de transmisión sexual. Joyabaj Guatemala agosto 2010–enero 2011

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    Bárbara Teresa Calderón-Badía

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una intervención educativa con el objetivo de aumentar los conocimientos que en relación a las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS posee un grupo de gestantes en el distrito de salud de Joyabaj, departamento de Quiché durante los meses de agosto de 2010 a enero de 2011. En las pacientes estudiadas predominó la vulvovaginitis por Candida (69.2%, Trichomoniasis (23% y con dilomas (19.1%. Antes de la intervención educativa el 73% de las gestantes no identificó adecuadamente las ITS, el 76.9% no conocía las principales formas de prevención, el 80.7% desconocía el uso adecuado del preservativo como medio de protección, el 50% se informó sobre el tema por medio de amigos. Posterior a la realización de la capacitación se lograron altos niveles de conocimientos sobre los temas evaluados y el 100% de las participantes consideró de gran utilidad el programa para su aprendizaje.

  19. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Evelyn E.; Peters, Brian M.; Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Noverr, Mairi C.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans). Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation. PMID:26807975

  20. A study of some infectious causes of reproductive disorders in cattle owned by resource-poor farmers in Gauteng Province, South Africa

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    S. M. Njiro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty-nine cattle from Gauteng Province in South Africa were tested for various pathogens causing reproductive diseases including bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV virus, Neospora caninum and Brucella abortus using various tests. For BVD/MD virus, 49.37 % tested positive, 74.47 % for IBR/IPV virus, 8.96 % for Neospora caninum and 3.8 % for Brucella abortus. The result for Brucella abortus is higher than the national average, possibly due to the small sample size. A high seroprevalence of antibodies to both BVD/MD virus and IBR/IPV virus was evident. These 2 viruses should be considered, in addition to Brucella abortus, when trying to establish causes of abortion in cattle. The clinical significance of Neospora caninum as a cause of abortion in Gauteng needs further investigation. One hundred and forty-three bulls were tested for Campylobacter fetus and Trichomonas fetus, and a low prevalence of 1.4 % and 2.1 % respectively was found in this study. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Clinical and mycological spectrum of cutaneous candidiasis in Bombay.

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    Shroff P

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 150 patients with cutaneous candidiasis were studied. A detailed clinical history was taken. Scrapings were examined in 10% KOH, and the material cultured on Sabouraud′s agar. Species were identified by the serum germ tube test, sugar fermentation and sugar assimilation tests. Of 150 patients 79 were females. The commonest presentation was intertrigo (75, vulvovaginitis (19 and paronychia (17. A history of chronic exposure to water was obtained in 94 cases, all had erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica and/or paronychia. Diabetes melltius as a predisposing factor was observed in 22 patients. The 10 cases of balanoposthitis had associated diabetes mellitus. Smear and culture were positive in all the patients. C. albicans was isolated in 136 cases, C. tropicalis in 12, and C. guillermondi in 2. The cultures of C. albicans had positive serum germ tube test. The 6 patients in the paediatric age group having perianal/genital involvement had a stools culture positive for C. albicans.

  2. Mycoplasma species and related organisms isolated from ruminants in Britain between 1990 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayling, R D; Bashiruddin, S E; Nicholas, R A J

    2004-10-01

    Between 1990 and 2000, more than 1600 mycoplasmas and the related acholeplasmas were identified from ruminant animals by the Mycoplasma Group at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency--Weybridge. Mycoplasma bovis was the most commonly identified pathogen, mostly from pneumonic calves but occasionally from cattle with mastitis and arthritis. Mycoplasma canis was first isolated in Britain in 1995 from pneumonic calves and the number of isolates increased to 18 per cent of the total mycoplasmas isolated from cattle in 1999. The ELISA for antibodies to M. bovis detected 1971 positive samples (22 per cent) among 8959 serum samples, mainly from pneumonic cattle. Other mycoplasmas identified included Mycoplasma dispar from the lungs of cattle with respiratory disease, and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium from the reproductive tract of cows with vulvovaginitis and infertility. Mycoplasma bovirhinis and Acholeplasma species were found commonly but are thought to be more opportunistic than pathogenic. In sheep and goats, the majority of Mycoplasma species isolated were identified as Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae from pneumonic sheep, Mycoplasma conjunctivae from sheep with keratoconjunctivitis, and the ubiquitous Mycoplasma arginini.

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Essential Oil from the Seed of Anethum graveolens L. against Candida spp.

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    Hong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil produced from the seed of Anethum graveolens L. (Umbelliferae was tested in vitro and in vivo anti-Candida activity. The microbroth dilution method was used in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, according to M27-A3 of the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI. And then, efficacy evaluation of essential oil in the prophylaxis and treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis was performed in immunosuppressed mice. The anti-Candida activity was analyzed by microbiological and histological techniques and was compared with that of fluconazole (FCZ. The results showed essential oil was active in vitro against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.312 μL/mL (for C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei to 0.625 μL/mL (for 6 isolated C. albicans strains. Essential oil (2% v/v was highly efficacious in accelerating C. albicans 09-1555 clearance from experimentally infected mice vagina by prophylaxis and therapeutic treatments. In both therapeutic efficacy and prophylaxis studies, the histological findings confirmed the microbiological results. The experimental results revealed that the tested essential oil is effective against vulvovaginal candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice.

  4. Lasofoxifene for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis

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    E Michael Lewiecki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available E Michael LewieckiNew Mexico Clinical Research & Osteoporosis Center, Albuquerque, NM, USAAbstract: Lasofoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (estrogen agonist/antagonist that has completed phase III trials to evaluate safety and efficacy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and for the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. In postmenopausal women with low or normal bone mineral density (BMD, lasofoxifene increased BMD at the lumbar spine and hip and reduced bone turnover markers compared with placebo. In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, lasofoxifene increased BMD, reduced bone turnover markers, reduced the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, and decreased the risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. In postmenopausal women with low bone mass, lasofoxifene improved the signs and symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy. Clinical trials show that lasofoxifene is generally well tolerated with mild to moderate adverse events that commonly resolve even with drug continuation. Lasofoxifene has been associated with an increase in the incidence of venous thromboembolic events, hot flushes, muscle spasm, and vaginal bleeding. It is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal women at increased risk for fracture in some countries and is in the regulatory review process in others.Keywords: osteoporosis, SERM, fracture, efficacy, safety, BMD, CP-336,156

  5. Candida vaginitis during contraceptive use: the influence of methods, antifungal susceptibility and virulence patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, A B; Küçükgöz-Güleç, U; Aydin, M; Gümral, R; Kalkanci, A; Ilkit, M

    2013-11-01

    No consensus exists about whether contraceptives cause an increased risk of vaginitis, including vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC). We investigated 495 women (252 who used contraceptives; 243 who did not) for the presence of VVC. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed for five antifungal agents and for boric acid, and three virulence factors were also examined. We recovered 129 (26.1%) monofungal populations from vaginal samples of women with acute VVC (AVVC, n = 18), symptomatic recurrent VVC (RVVC, n = 22) and asymptomatic RVVC (n = 28), as well as of other contraceptive users who carried Candida in their vaginas (n = 61). It is important to note that the women who had VVC used the same contraceptive methods (p > 0.05). Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (45%), followed by C. glabrata (40.3%). Most of the vaginal yeast isolates exhibited low minimum inhibitory concentration levels for the five antifungals tested. However, this was not the case for boric acid. In addition, the yeast fungi that was derived from the AVVC and RVVC patients showed higher amounts of haemolytic activity than the yeast fungi found among the controls (p contraception does not predispose women to VVC (p > 0.05). Also, both host- and organism-related factors were required to achieve optimal clinical treatment for VVC.

  6. Analysis of vaginal microenvironment in 435 cases with nonneoplastic epithelial disorders of vulva

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    Lan XIE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the relationship of vaginal micro-ecological condition with the nonneoplastic epithelial disorders of vulva (NNEDV in order to provide clues on diagnosis and treatment of NNEDV. Methods  The outpatient data of 435 cases of NNEDV as diagnosed by biopsy, collected from Jan. 2012 to Jun. 2015 at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate their vaginal microflora. Results  Fifty-four of the 435 patients (12.4% were proved to harbor normal vaginal microflora, and in 381 patients imbalanced vaginal microflora was found (87.6%, and among them the pathogens were clearly diagnosed in 161 cases, accounting for 37.0% (161/435; the incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC was 13.1% and 10.4%, respectively, and it was significantly higher than the incidence of other vaginitis (P<0.05. Conclusion  Most of NNEDV patients are suffering from unbalanced vaginal micro-ecological imbalance, and vaginitis such as BV and VVC may be associated with the NNEDV. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.02.10

  7. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Associations Between Partner Facilitative Responses and Sexual Outcomes in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicoll, Gabrielle; Corsini-Munt, Serena; O Rosen, Natalie; McDuff, Pierre; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-10-03

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a recurrent idiopathic vulvo-vaginal pain associated with negative sexual and psychological consequences. Facilitative partner responses to pain are currently receiving empirical attention because they are positively associated with women's sexual outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which facilitative responses to pain are associated with these outcomes have not been examined. One potential mechanism is sexual assertiveness, which has been found to be associated with better sexual function and satisfaction in women with PVD. The present study examined whether women's sexual assertiveness mediated the association between women's perception of facilitative partner responses and women's sexual function and satisfaction. Women (N = 140) with PVD symptomatology completed self-reported questionnaires evaluating their perception of their partners' facilitative responses, and their own sexual assertiveness, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. Dependent measures were sexual function measured by the Female Sexual Function Index and sexual satisfaction assessed by the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Results indicated that women's higher sexual assertiveness mediated the association between their greater perceived facilitative partner responses and their improved sexual function and satisfaction. Findings suggest a potential mechanism through which partner responses may be associated with women's sexual outcomes.

  8. Classification of Hypertrophy of Labia Minora: Consideration of a Multiple Component Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Pablo I

    2015-11-01

    Labia minora hypertrophy of unknown and under-reported incidence in the general population is considered a variant of normal anatomy. Its origin is multi-factorial including genetic, hormonal, and infectious factors, and voluntary elongation of the labiae minorae in some cultures. Consults with patients bothered by this condition have been increasing with patients complaining of poor aesthetics and symptoms such as difficulty with vaginal secretions, vulvovaginitis, chronic irritation, and superficial dyspareunia, all of which can have a negative effect on these patients' sexuality and self esteem. Surgical management of labial hypertrophy is an option for women with these physical complaints or aesthetic issues. Labia minora hypertrophy can consist of multiple components, including the clitoral hood, lateral prepuce, frenulum, and the body of the labia minora. To date, there is not a consensus in the literature with respect to the classification and definition of varying grades of hypertrophy, aside from measurement of the length in centimeters. In order to offer patients the most appropriate surgical technique, an objective and understandable classification that can be used as part of the preoperative evaluation is necessary. Such a classification should have the aim of offering patients the best cosmetic and functional results with the fewest complications.

  9. Clotrimazole-loaded Eudragit® RS100 nanocapsules: Preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antifungal activity against Candida species

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    Santos, Sara S.; Lorenzoni, Alessandra; Ferreira, Luana M.; Mattiazzi, Juliane; Adams, Andréa I.H. [Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria (Brazil); Denardi, Laura B.; Alves, Sydney H. [Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria (Brazil); Schaffazick, Scheila R. [Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria (Brazil); Cruz, Letícia, E-mail: leticiacruz@smail.ufsm.br [Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria (Brazil)

    2013-04-01

    Clotrimazole is a common choice for the treatment of vulvovaginal infections, but its low solubility and some side effects pose a challenge to its application. This work evaluated the feasibility to formulate clotrimazole-loaded cationic nanocapsules using Eudragit® RS100 and medium chain triglycerides as polymer and oily core, respectively, by the method of interfacial deposition of a preformed polymer. The physicochemical characteristics of nanocapsule formulations were evaluated at 0 day and 60 days after preparation. Particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, pH and drug content were stable during this period. In addition, nanocapsules were able to protect clotrimazole from photodegradation under UV radiation. By the dialysis bag diffusion technique, the nanosized formulations showed prolonged release of clotrimazole by anomalous transport and first order kinetics. A microbiological study was carried out by the microdilution method and showed that nanocapsules (mean size: 144 nm; zeta potential: + 12 mV) maintained the antifungal activity of clotrimazole against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata strains susceptible and resistant to fluconazole. - Highlights: ► Clotrimazole-loaded NC were in the nanometric range and positively charged. ► Physicochemical characteristics of NC were kept for 60 days. ► Nanoencapsulation improved the drug photostability against UV radiation. ► NC prolonged the drug release by anomalous transport and first order kinetics. ► NC were able to maintain clotrimazole activity against Candida species.

  10. Update on lichen planus and its clinical variants

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    Gillian Weston, MSIII

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is an inflammatory skin condition with characteristic clinical and histopathological findings. Classic LP typically presents as pruritic, polygonal, violaceous flat-topped papules and plaques; many variants in morphology and location also exist, including oral, nail, linear, annular, atrophic, hypertrophic, inverse, eruptive, bullous, ulcerative, lichen planus pigmentosus, lichen planopilaris, vulvovaginal, actinic, lichen planus-lupus erythematosus overlap syndrome, and lichen planus pemphigoides. Clinical presentation of the rarer variant lesions may be largely dissimilar to classic LP and therefore difficult to diagnose based solely on clinical examination. However, histopathological examination of LP and LP-variant lesions reveal similar features, aiding in the proper diagnosis of the disease. Management of LP and LP variants aims to control symptoms and to decrease time from onset to resolution; it often involves topical corticosteroids, but varies depending on the severity and location of the lesion. The literature contains an array of reports on the variations in presentation and successful management of LP and its variants. A familiarity with LP and its variants is important in achieving timely recognition and management of the disease.

  11. Vaccines against human papillomavirus infections: protection against cancer, genital warts or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joura, E A; Pils, S

    2016-12-01

    Since 2006, three vaccines against infections and disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) became available in Europe-in 2006 a quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine, in 2007 a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine and in 2015 a nonavalent HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine. HPV 16 and 18 are the most oncogenic HPV strains, causing about 70% of cervical and other HPV-related cancers, HPV 6 and 11 cause 85% of all genital warts. The additional types of the polyvalent vaccine account for about 20% of invasive cervical cancer and >35% of pre-cancer. The potential differences between these vaccines caused some debate. All three vaccines give a robust and long-lasting protection against the strains in the various vaccines. The promise of cross-protection against other types (i.e. HPV 31/33/45) and hence a broader cancer protection was not fulfilled because these observations were confounded by the vaccine efficacy against the vaccine types. Furthermore, cross-protection was not consistent over various studies, not durable and not consistently seen in the real world experience. The protection against disease caused by oncogenic HPV strains was not compromised by the protection against low-risk types causing genital warts. The most effective cancer protection to date can be expected by the nonavalent vaccine, data indicate a 97% efficacy against cervical and vulvovaginal pre-cancer caused by these nine HPV types.

  12. VULVO VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS : IMPORTANCE OF SPECIES IDENTIFICATION

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    Swarajya Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : Vulvo Vaginal Candidiasis is a common nagging problem faced by 75% of women in reproductive age group. Present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Candida in patients suffering from vaginitis , to assess predisposing factors and correlate the symptoms with gram stain for presumptive diagnosis of Candidiasis. METHODS : A prospective study of the laboratory diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC was carried out in 100 women presenting with symptoms suggestive of vaginosis in the reproductive age group. Investigation s included microscopy and culture for yeast. Candida is identified, based on growth on SDA, corn meal agar and Saba raud’s Triphenyl tetrazolium agar, and assimilation and fermentation of sugars. RESULTS : Candida was isolated in 33% of women. Clue cells on gram stain suggestive of bacterial vaginosis was seen in equal number of women, whereas mixed infection was found in 9%. Candida albicans accounted for 15% and nonalbicans species for 85% . O f the non albicans species, Candida glabrata was the commonest (4 2%. Pruritus with or without vaginal discharge and vaginal erythema were the most common symptoms and signs in women with positive Candida culture. CONCLUSION : On comparing the significance of gram stain and culture for presumptive diagnosis of candidiasi s, culture was more significant than gram stain alone. In present study, the rate of culture positivity was 33% and C. glabrata was the predominant species. VVC cannot be diagnosed by clinical criteria alone and requires confirmation by culture including i dentification of species.

  13. Menopause and the vaginal microbiome.

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    Muhleisen, Alicia L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2016-09-01

    For over a century it has been well documented that bacteria in the vagina maintain vaginal homeostasis, and that an imbalance or dysbiosis may be associated with poor reproductive and gynecologic health outcomes. Vaginal microbiota are of particular significance to postmenopausal women and may have a profound effect on vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal dryness, sexual health and overall quality of life. As molecular-based techniques have evolved, our understanding of the diversity and complexity of this bacterial community has expanded. The objective of this review is to compare the changes that have been identified in the vaginal microbiota of menopausal women, outline alterations in the microbiome associated with specific menopausal symptoms, and define how hormone replacement therapy impacts the vaginal microbiome and menopausal symptoms; it concludes by considering the potential of probiotics to reinstate vaginal homeostasis following menopause. This review details the studies that support the role of Lactobacillus species in maintaining vaginal homeostasis and how the vaginal microbiome structure in postmenopausal women changes with decreasing levels of circulating estrogen. In addition, the associated transformations in the microanatomical features of the vaginal epithelium that can lead to vaginal symptoms associated with menopause are described. Furthermore, hormone replacement therapy directly influences the dominance of Lactobacillus in the microbiota and can resolve vaginal symptoms. Oral and vaginal probiotics hold great promise and initial studies complement the findings of previous research efforts concerning menopause and the vaginal microbiome; however, additional trials are required to determine the efficacy of bacterial therapeutics to modulate or restore vaginal homeostasis.

  14. Treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy with 10-μg estradiol vaginal tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panay, Nick; Maamari, Ricardo

    2012-03-01

    Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency can lead to symptoms of urogenital atrophy. Individuals with urogenital atrophy have symptoms that include vaginal dryness, vaginal and vulval irritation, vaginal soreness, pain and burning during urination (dysuria), increased vaginal discharge, vaginal odour, vaginal infections, recurrent urinary tract infections, pain associated with sexual activity (dyspareunia) and vaginal bleeding associated with sexual activity. Despite the frequency and effects of vaginal atrophy symptoms, they are often under-reported and, consequently, under-treated. Therefore, care of a menopausal woman should include a physical assessment of vaginal atrophy and a dialogue between the physician and the patient that explores existing symptoms and their effect on vulvovaginal health, sexuality and quality-of-life issues. The development of the ultra-low-dose 10-µg estradiol vaginal tablets is in line with the requirements of regulatory agencies and women's health societies regarding the use of the lowest effective hormonal dose. Because of its effectiveness and safety profiles, in addition to its minimal systemic absorption, the 10-µg estradiol vaginal tablet can offer greater reassurance to health-care providers and postmenopausal women with an annual estradiol administration of only 1.14 mg.

  15. EFFECT OF HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY ON VAGINAL Candida spp. ISOLATION IN HIV-INFECTED COMPARED TO HIV-UNINFECTED WOMEN

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    Silvia de Souza Dantas ALCZUK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC in HIV-infected women contributed to the impairment of their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART use on the vaginal Candida spp. isolation in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected women. This cross-sectional study included 178 HIV-infected (HIV group and 200 HIV-uninfected women (control that were studied at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE for sexually transmitted diseases (STD/AIDS of the city of Maringá, Brazil, from April 1 to October 30, 2011. The yeasts were isolated and identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin and amphotericin B was tested by the reference microdilution method. Higher frequencies of total vaginal Candida spp. isolation were found in the HIV-infected group than in the control group. However, both groups showed a similar frequency of colonization and VVC. Although C. albicans was the most frequent and sensitive to azolics and polyenes in both HIV-infected and uninfected women, the emerging resistance of C. glabrata to amphotericin B in the HIV-infected women was observed. Although higher frequency of vaginal Candida spp. isolation had been observed in the HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected women, colonization and VVC showed similar frequency in both groups, indicating that HAART appears to protect against vaginal colonization and VVC.

  16. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

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    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  17. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

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    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo. C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources,in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  18. Propolis Is an Efficient Fungicide and Inhibitor of Biofilm Production by Vaginal Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza; Arita, Glaucia Sayuri; Pereira, Raphaela Regina de Araújo; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; Negri, Melyssa; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common genital infections in women. The therapeutic arsenal remains restricted, and some alternatives to VVC treatment are being studied. The present study evaluated the influence of a propolis extractive solution (PES) on biofilm production by Candida albicans isolated from patients with VVC. Susceptibility testing was used to verify the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PES, with fluconazole and nystatin as controls. The biofilm formation of 29 vaginal isolates of C. albicans and a reference strain that were exposed to PES was evaluated using crystal violet staining. Colony-forming units were evaluated, proteins and carbohydrates of the matrix biofilm were quantified, and scanning electron microscopy was performed. The MIC of PES ranged from 68.35 to 546.87 μg/mL of total phenol content in gallic acid. A concentration of 546.87 μg/mL was able to cause the death of 75.8% of the isolates. PES inhibited biofilm formation by C. albicans from VVC. Besides antifungal activity, PES appears to present important antibiofilm activity on abiotic surfaces, indicating that it may have an additional beneficial effect in the treatment of VVC. PMID:25815029

  19. Plastic surgery trends parallel Playboy magazine: the pudenda preoccupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placik, Otto J; Arkins, John P

    2014-09-01

    Aesthetic vulvovaginal procedures are being performed with increased frequency. Many experts have suggested that the growing demand for these procedures relates to the availability and revealing nature of nude images on the Internet and in other media. The authors examined chronologically organized nude photographs from a popular magazine and objectively measured the position of the vulva relative to the center of focus to observe trends for the past 6 decades. Playboy magazine centerfold photographs from 1954 to 2013 were analyzed and categorized. The positions of the vaginal area (V-line) and the breast area (N-line) were measured in relation to the horizontal midline of the photograph. Images also were assessed for degree of grooming and exposure of the breast and pubic areas, as well as visibility of the pudendal cleft, labia majora, and labia minora. Four hundred ninety images met inclusion criteria for the analysis. Full exposure of the V-line increased from 0 instances in the 1950s to 78.6% of images from 2010 through 2013 (P<.001). Moreover, the V-line position became 41.0% closer to the photographic midline (P=.045). The results demonstrate a trend toward increased visibility and prominence of the female genitalia as the focal point of popular nude photographs. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  20. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response.

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    Evelyn E Nash

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC, particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans. Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation.

  1. [Clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and its mixed infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ai-Ping; Xue, Feng-Xia

    2010-12-01

    To investigate clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis (AV) and its mixed infections for diagnosis efficiently. From April 2008 to December 2008, 516 patients with vaginitis treated in Tianjin Medical University General Hospital were enrolled in this study. AV, bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), trichomonal vaginitis (TV), and cytolytic vaginosis (CV) were diagnosed based on symptoms, sign and vaginal discharge examination. Among 516 cases, AV cases were found in 14.7% (76/516), and AV was common vaginal infection. AV mixed infections was diagnosed in 58% (44/76), including mixed with BV (45%, 20/44), mixed with VVC (30%, 13/44), and mixed with TV (25%, 11/44). Those common symptom of AV were yellow vaginal discharge (63%, 20/32), more vaginal discharge (44%, 14/32). Vaginal pH value was usually more than 4.5 (84%, 27/32). Vaginal cleanliness mainly was grade III - IV (88%, 28/32). Six cases with enterococcus faecium and 4 cases with streptococci were frequently isolated. The symptom and sign of mixed AV infection was atypical. Aerobic vaginitis is a common lower vaginal infection and easily mixed with other pathogens, especially with BV, VVC or TV. When patients were diagnosed with AV or other vaginal infection, it should be mentioned whether those patients have mixed vaginal infection or AV.

  2. The effect of vaginal cream containing ginger in users of clotrimazole vaginal cream on vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanian, Sheida; Khalili, Sima; Lorigooini, Zahra; Malekpour, Afsaneh; Heidari-Soureshjani, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common infections of the genital tract in women that causes many complications. Therefore, we examined the clinical effect of ginger cream along with clotrimazole compared to vaginal clotrimazole alone in this study. This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 67 women admitted to the Gynecology Clinic of Hajar Hospital with vaginal candidiasis. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of 33 and 34 people. The diagnosis was made according to clinical symptoms, wet smear, and culture. Ginger-clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% and clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% were administered to groups 1 and 2, respectively, once a day for 7 days and therapeutic effects and symptoms were evaluated in readmission. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22, t-test and Chi-square. The mean value of variables itching (P > 0.05), burning (P > 0.05), and cheesy secretion (P cream containing ginger and clotrimazole 1% was more effective and may be more useful than the clotrimazole to treat vaginal candidiasis.

  3. Targeting renal glucose reabsorption for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus using the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Serge A; Whaley, Jean M; Tirmenstein, Mark; Poucher, Simon M; Reilly, Timothy P; Boulton, David W; Saye, Joanne; List, James F; Parikh, Shamik

    2012-07-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) plays a key role in glucose homeostasis as the key transporter responsible for most renal glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubules of the kidney. Dapagliflozin is a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of SGLT2 that lowers blood glucose levels in an insulin-independent fashion. This novel agent has been studied extensively in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In these clinical trials, dapagliflozin significantly decreased glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose levels when administered alone or as add-on treatment in patients who were already receiving metformin, a sulfonylurea (glimepiride), pioglitazone, or insulin. Moreover, dapagliflozin decreased body weight when taken as monotherapy or in combination with metformin, a sulfonylurea, or insulin, and mitigated weight gain in patients receiving pioglitazone. Consistent with preclinical toxicology studies, dapagliflozin has a manageable adverse event profile that is largely predictable from its mechanism of action. While there are no clinically significant negative effects on renal function or electrolytes, dapagliflozin treatment is associated with increased frequencies of urinary tract infections and vulvovaginitis/balanitis. With a mechanism of action that is distinct from and complementary to that of existing antihyperglycemic therapies, dapagliflozin is an effective antihyperglycemic agent that is well tolerated and may enhance weight loss. As such, dapagliflozin promises to become an important adjunctive therapy for comprehensive treatment of T2DM.

  4. Effect of ultra-low-dose estriol and lactobacilli vaginal tablets (Gynoflor®) on inflammatory and infectious markers of the vaginal ecosystem in postmenopausal women with breast cancer on aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, G; Bellen, G; Neven, P; Grob, P; Prasauskas, V; Buchholz, S; Ortmann, O

    2015-10-01

    This study was a detailed microscopic analysis of the changes of vaginal microflora characteristics after application of 0.03 mg estriol-lactobacilli combination on the vaginal ecosystem in postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) survivors on aromatase inhibitors (AI) with severe atrophic vaginitis. A total of 16 BC women on AI applied daily one vaginal tablet of Gynoflor® for 28 days followed by a maintenance therapy of three tablets weekly for 8 weeks. During four follow up visits a smear from the upper lateral vaginal wall was analysed by phase contrast microscopy at 400 times magnification in order to classify the lactobacillary grades(LBG), bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC), proportional number of leukocytes and evidence of parabasal cells and epitheliolysis. LBG improved from 81% LBG-III at entry to 88% LBG-I&IIa after 2 weeks of initial therapy, which further improved upon follow up (p vaginal use of ultra-low dose estriol and lactobacilli results in rapid and enduring improvement of all markers of the vaginal microflora and epithelial vaginal cell quality in women with breast cancer on AI with dyspareunia. Candida may develop soon after its use, but rapidly disappears again upon their prolonged use. Due to its excellent safety profiles and clinical efficacy we recommend this product as first choice in women on AI with severe dyspareunia.

  5. [Enterobiasis among schoolchildren in a rural population from Estado Falcón, Venezuela, and its relation with socioeconomic level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, María; Cazorla, Dalmiro; Garvett, María

    2002-09-01

    Between may and july 2001, a survey was conducted in order to investigate the prevalence and symptoms of Enterobius vermicularis infection and its relationship with the socio-economic status and household crowding of 154 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years from a rural village in Falcon State, Venezuela. The Graham technique (perianal swabs with an adhesive cellulose tape) was used to perform the parasitological diagnosis. The overall prevalence was high (57.79%). There was no difference in the prevalence between sexes (X2 = 0.005; d.f. = 1) or ages (X2 = 3.63; d.f. = 6) (p > 0.05), suggesting similar risk conditions for all individuals. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (53.9%). Other less frequent manifestations were the following: perianal lesions (34.8%) and vulvovaginitis (32.6%). Graffar analysis revealed that the majority of schoolchildren belong to the poorer socioeconomic strata: IV (55.9%) and V (29.87%), with overcrowded living conditions. The correlation between E. vermicularis infection and crowding rates was found to be statistically significant (r = 0.98; p enterobiasis among schoolchildren from Sabaneta.

  6. 外阴阴道念珠菌病诊断研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震; 王则宇

    2007-01-01

    外阴阴道念珠菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)又称霉菌性阴道炎(mycotic vaginitis)、念珠菌阴道炎(candidal vaginitis)、阴道酵母菌传染病(vaginal yeast infection)等,是由念珠菌感染引起的外阴阴道炎症,是最常见的妇女外阴炎症之一。在美国,VVC是仅次于细菌性阴道病(bacterial candidasis,BV)的最常见的阴道疾病。大多数研究表明,在不同人群中VVC的发病率在5%~15%,50~70%的女性一生至少感染一次VVC,40~50%女性经历过VVC复发。

  7. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder-Nascimento, Ariane; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Sugizaki, Maria Fátima; Sadatsune, Terue; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo). C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources, in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  8. Use of locally delivered dequalinium chloride in the treatment of vaginal infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendling, Werner; Weissenbacher, Ernst Rainer; Gerber, Stefan; Prasauskas, Valdas; Grob, Philipp

    2016-03-01

    Vaginal infections are responsible for a large proportion of gynaecological outpatient visits. Those are bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC), aerobic vaginitis (AV) associated with aerobic bacteria, and mixed infections. Usual treatments show similar acceptable short-term efficacy, but frequent recurrences and increasing microbial resistance are unsolved issues. Furthermore, vaginal infections are associated with a variety of serious adverse outcomes in pregnancy and generally have a major impact on quality of life. Identifying the correct therapy can be challenging for the clinician, particularly in mixed infections. Dequalinium chloride (DQC) is an anti-microbial antiseptic agent with a broad bactericidal and fungicidal activity. Systemic absorption after vaginal application of DQC is very low and systemic effects negligible. Vaginal DQC (Fluomizin vaginal tablets) has been shown to have equal clinical efficacy as clindamycin in the treatment of BV. Its broad antimicrobial activity makes it appropriate for the treatment of mixed vaginal infections and in case of uncertain diagnosis. Moreover, resistance of pathogens is unlikely due to its multiple mode of action, and vaginal DQC provides also a reduced risk for post-treatment vaginal infections. Vaginal DQC (10 mg) as 6-day therapy offers a safe and effective option for empiric therapy of different vaginal infections in daily practice. This review summarizes the available and relevant pharmacological and clinical data for the therapy of vaginal infections with vaginal DQC and provides the rationale for its use in daily gynaecologic practice.

  9. Vaginal Impact of the Oral Administration of Total Freeze-Dried Culture of LCR 35 in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bohbot

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of probiotics in the prevention or treatment of some vaginal infections has been the subject of numerous studies. To assess the presence of Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus (LCR35 in the vagina after an oral administration, an open randomised pilot study was conducted on 20 healthy women of child-bearing age. Materials and Methods. 2 groups of 10 women were given a 28-day oral course, that is, at least 108 CFU/day (group 1 or 2×108 CFU/day (group 2 of LCR35. Nugent score and vaginal screening for LCR35 were undertaken before and after 28 days of treatment. Results. The mean Nugent score decreased in group 1 (−0,2 as well as in group 2 (−0,3. 10% of women in group 1 versus 40% of women in group 2 were carrying LCR35 at the end of the trial. Conclusion. LCR35, at the minimal dose of 2 × 108 CFU/day, can return the Nugent score to normal in healthy women of child-bearing age, by means of a well-tolerated vaginal temporary presence. Phase III clinical trials will specify the preventive or curative impact of this orally administered strain on a range of vaginal disorders such as bacterial vaginosis or vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  10. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of coconut oil-core cationic nanocapsules intended for vaginal delivery of clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara S; Lorenzoni, Alessandra; Pegoraro, Natháli S; Denardi, Laura B; Alves, Sydney H; Schaffazick, Scheila R; Cruz, Letícia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this work was to propose coconut oil-core nanocapsules prepared from Eudragit(®) RS100, a cationic polymer, and to evaluate their potential for vaginal delivery of clotrimazole in candidiasis. Nanocapsule suspensions loaded with clotrimazole at 1.0 and 3.0mg/mL were prepared by interfacial deposition of Eudragit(®) RS100. The physicochemical characterization showed average diameter lower than 200 nm, low polydispersity index, positive zeta potential (+10.94 to +14.57 mV), acid pH values (5.4-5.7) and encapsulation efficiencies close to 100%. After 60 days of storage at room temperature and protected from light, the nanocapsules were reasonably stable. Photodegradation studies showed that nanoencapsulation improved clotrimazole stability against UV radiation. The in vitro drug release at pH 4.5 was characterized by a prolonged release with no burst effect. The nanocapsules were more active than free clotrimazole against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata strains susceptible and resistant to fluconazole. Hence, clotrimazole-loaded coconut oil-core nanocapsules represent promising alternatives to the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  11. Development and psychometric properties of the HPV Impact Profile (HIP) to assess the psychosocial burden of HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, T Christopher; Zhu, Xingshu; Demuro-Mercon, Carla; Cummings, Holly W; Sings, Heather L; Ferris, Daron G

    2009-11-01

    A comprehensive questionnaire designed to assess the full spectrum of potential human papillomavirus (HPV)-related psychosocial effects in women does not exist. The HPV Impact Profile (HIP) was developed to determine the psychosocial impact of HPV infection and related interventions. Draft instrument items and domains were developed using a literature review and cognitive debriefing interviews with women who had experienced HPV-related conditions. An importance rating questionnaire guided item ranking and reduction. A draft questionnaire was pilot-tested for comprehension and ease of completion. Psychometric evaluation of the final HIP was conducted in a survey of 583 women. Data quality, item acceptability, scale acceptability, reliability, and discriminate construct validity were assessed. The final HIP contained 29 items rated on a 0-10 point discretized visual analog scales grouped into seven hypothesized domains. Total HIP scores ranged from 0 (no impact) to 100 (worst impact). Data quality was high, with missing data for items ranging from 0 to 0.7% and over 99% of the scores were computable. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.64 to 0.90 and was > or =0.7 for 5/7 domains. Discriminant construct validity was demonstrated. Appropriate modifications could potentially be made to improve some aspects of the HIP, including modification to include other HPV diseases such as head and neck, anal, and vulvovaginal cancers and HPV disease in men. The disease-specific HIP has favorable reliability and construct validity and a good ability to discriminate among disease severity.

  12. Effect of norfloxacin therapy for acute, uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection on vaginal Candida prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rodrigo M; Zanni, Pâmela C M Delvas; de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Alczuk, Silvia S Dantas; Svidzinski, Terezinha I Estivalet; Consolaro, Márcia E Lopes

    2016-05-01

    Acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections (UTI) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) both occur frequently in women. Although VVC is believed to commonly occur after antibiotic therapy, few studies have demonstrated this association. Thus, the aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of colonization by Candida spp. and VVC after norfloxacin (NOR) use for UTI and the effects on the vaginal microbiota and inflammatory process. This was a prospective cohort study of women with culture-proven UTI who were treated with NOR (antibiotic group). The control group consisted of women with noninfectious diseases or in preventive care. Candida vaginal infections were monitored both clinically and mycologically at baseline and at the follow-up evaluation. All women showed UTI remission after NOR treatment, and no woman in either group, antibiotic and control, showed symptoms of VVC. Both groups showed similar ratios of a positive Candida culture at baseline (6.7 % and 12.8 %, respectively) and at follow-up (3.3 % and 8.5 %, respectively) (p = 0.2768 and p = 0.5035, respectively). The antibiotic group showed no increased risk of Candida colonization or VVC after NOR treatment compared with the control group [odds ratio (OR) 0.556, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.2407-10.05]. NOR was effective for UTI treatment, did not increase the risk of vaginal colonization by Candida or VVC, and did not lead to major disturbances of the vaginal microbiota.

  13. Is the 2003 ISSVD terminology and classification of vulvodynia up-to-date? A neurobiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, L; Radici, G; Lynch, P J

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to determine if the 2003 International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) terminology and classification of vulval pain is up-to-date, according to a current and widely accepted neurobiological pain classification, which divides pain into nociceptive, inflammatory and pathological pain with the latter subdivided into neuropathic and dysfunctional pain. Nociceptive pain is protective, adaptive, high-threshold pain provoked by noxious stimuli. Inflammatory pain is protective, adaptive, low-threshold pain associated with peripheral tissue damage and inflammation. Pathological pain is non-protective, maladaptive, low-threshold pain caused by structural damage to the nervous system (neuropathic pain) or by its abnormal function (dysfunctional pain). The 2003 ISSVD vulval pain classification should be revised in terms of current neurobiological pain information. Inflammatory vulval pain occurs as a result of specific infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. Neuropathic vulval pain arises following a specific neurological disorder, responsible for structural damage to the nervous system. Vulvodynia is dysfunctional vulval pain, caused by abnormal function of the nervous system itself.

  14. Mycoplasma agalactiae in semen and milk of goat from Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno H.L.S. Alves

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In goat and sheep flocks, mycoplasmosis is a disease that may cause severe economical losses associated with polyarthritis, mastitis, agalactia, conjunctivitis, pneumonia and reproductive failure. The latter may involve repeat breeding, granular vulvovaginitis, infertility and abortions. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma in semen and milk samples from naturally infected goat in the semiarid region from Pernambuco State, Northeast from Brazil. Thirty-nine semen samples and 81 milk samples were submitted to DNA extraction using a commercially available kit and following the manufacturer's instructions. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was then performed in accordance with protocols described in the literature. The results of the present study revealed the presence of Ma in the DNA of 17.9% (7/39 of the semen samples and 3.7% (3/81 of the milk samples. The results obtained in the present study confirm the elimination of the DNA of Ma in the semen and milk samples. The presence of this agent in goat flocks is considered very risky in terms of reproductive disorders and contagious agalactia outbreaks in the Northeast region of Brazil.

  15. 北京地区25~54岁已婚妇女下生殖道感染现状调查%Prevalence and determinants of lower reproductive tract infections among women aged 25-54 years in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彩炎; 张为远; 武明辉; 张淞文

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and determinants of the most commonly seen lower reproductive tract infections among women aged 25-54 years in Beijing.Methods The study population consisted of 6339 women aged 25-54 years in 137 communities of Beijing.Focus of this study was to understand the prevalence of the following diseases as:bacterial vaginosis,trichomoniasis and vulvovaginal candidiasis.In addition to their prevalence rates,a generalized equation for estimation was used to analyze those infection-associated factors.Results The overall infection prevalence in the lower reproductive tract was 11.4%,including bacterial vaginitis as 8.7%,trichomonads as 1.0% and vulvovaginal candidiasis as 1.7%.Factors which were found to be significantly associated with lower reproductive tract infections in women were age,profession,family income,number of sex partners and frequency of condom use during sexual contacts.In patients with bacterial vaginitis,both prevalence rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and infection of human papillomavirus were high.Conclusion The prevalence of the most commonly seen lower reproductive tract infections among women aged 25-54 years in Beijing was lower than other areas in China.Lower reproductive tract infections seemed to be related to 30-49 years of age,nongovernmental employee,poverty,higher number of sex partners and not using condoms during sexual contacts.%目的 描述北京地区已婚妇女下生殖道感染现状,分析其危险因素,并探讨其与宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)的关系.方法 用分层抽样的方法,随机选取北京市部分社区作为研究现场,对6339名25~54岁已婚妇女进行问卷调查、妇科检查和实验室检测.结果 北京地区25~54岁已婚妇女下生殖道感染检出率为11.4%,细菌性阴道病检出率为8.7%,滴虫性阴道炎和外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的检出率分别为1.0%和1.7%.妇女下生殖道感染的危险因素主要有年龄、文化程度、职

  16. 匹多莫德联合抗真菌药物治疗复发性念珠菌性阴道炎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗国霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss effect of pidotimod combined with antifungal drugs on recurrent vulvovaginal candidasis(RVVC). Methods 134 RVVC patients were divided into three groups, and then been treated with single nifuratel nysfungin vaginal soft capsules, Itraconazole capsules combined with nifuratel, pidotimod dispersible tablets combined with nifuratel and itraconazole respectively. All patients had been followed up after the end of treatment, meanwhile aetiological examination had been done. Cure rate and efficacy rate expressed as index of treatment effect were calculated. Results Among single nifuratel group, itraconazole combined nifuratel group and pidotimod combined antifungal drugs group, the cure rate and efficacy rate were 20.45%and 70.45%, 38.09%and 71.48%, 47.92%and 87.50%respectively. Effect of pidotimod combined with antifungal drugs is significant stronger than nifuratel single using (P<0.05). Conclusion Therapeutic regimen of pidotimod combined with antifungal drugs is effective in the treatment of RVVC, but side-effect and economy of drugs combination should be considered in popularizing.%目的:探讨匹多莫德联合抗真菌药物治疗复发性念珠菌性阴道炎(recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis,RVVC)的疗效。方法将134例RVVC患者分为三组,分别给予单纯硝呋太尔、斯匹仁诺联合硝呋太尔、匹多莫德联合硝呋太尔与斯匹仁诺治疗,疗程结束后随访并行病原学检查,疗效以治愈率和有效率表示。结果单纯硝呋太尔组治愈率和有效率分别为20.45%和70.45%,硝呋太尔联合斯匹仁诺组治愈率和有效率分别为38.09%和71.48%,匹多莫德联合硝呋太尔、斯匹仁诺组治愈率和有效率分别为47.92%和87.50%。匹多莫德联合抗真菌药疗效较单纯使用硝呋太尔有显著提升(P<0.05)。结论匹多莫德联合抗真菌药物治疗RVVC疗效确切,推广应用时应权衡联合用药的毒副作用和经济性。

  17. 阴道乳杆菌对常见阴道假丝酵母菌抑制作用的体外试验研究%In vitro Experiment on Growth Inhibition Effects of Lactobacillus Strains on Strains of Common Candida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴文星; 刘建华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the growth inhibition effects of Lactobacillus strains on strains of Candida in vitro. Methods: To separate common Lactobacillus strains from healthy women, and common Candida strains from patients with incipient vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), and then to observe the growth inhibition of Lactobacillus strains within the vigorous growing period on strains of Candida by mixed growing in 96-holes plate. Results: Three isolates of Lactobacillus strains from vaginal secretions of healthy women were obtained: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus crispatus, and 3 isolates of Candida from women with incipient VVC: Candida albican, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei. Lactobacilli in the experiment all demonstrated the growth inhibition effects on Candida to certain extent. Lactobacillus acidophilas was superior to Lactobacillus crispatus in the inhibition of all the Candidas in the experiment. Compared with Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilas could significantly inhibit the Candida tropicalis. There was not significant difference in the inhibition of Candidas between Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus casei. While the Lactobacillus crispatus produces H2O2 and the Lactobacillus casei does not. Conclusion: Different ability to inhibit the vaginal Candida. Lactobacillus acidophilas had higher ability in the inhibition of various strains of Candida compared with Lactobacillus crispatus. Compared with Lactobacillus casei, the only advantage of Lactobacillus acidophilus is the high inhibition on Candida tropicalis. The inhibition ability of Lactobacillus strains on Candida may be not merely related to the production capacity of H2O2.%观察阴道乳杆菌菌株在体外实验中对假丝酵母菌生长的抑制作用.方法:分离健康妇女阴道中常见的乳杆菌和外阴、阴道假丝酵母菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)患者阴道中的常见假丝酵母菌,采用96孔板混合生长抑制法观

  18. Neoplasia intraepitelial vulvar: um problema atual Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a current problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Fonseca-Moutinho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A neoplasia intraepitelial da vulva (VIN é uma denominação que foi introduzida incialmente pela International Society for Study of Vulvo-vaginal Diseases (ISSVD e reconhecida posteriormente pela International Society of Gynaecological Pathology (ISGYP e Organização Mundial da Saúde. É uma entidade patológica a que correspondem as VIN de tipo usual (verrucoso, basalióide e misto e as VIN de tipo diferenciado. A incidência das lesões de VIN tem aumentado progressivamente, principalmente em mulheres jovens. A infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV de alto risco, pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, o tabagismo e a neoplasia intraepitelial do colo do útero, da vagina e região anal são factores de risco estabelecidos para as VIN. Não existem sintomas e sinais característicos das VIN, mas a doença se traduz sempre por lesões clinicamente identificáveis. A biópsia com o auxílio do colposcópio permite o diagnóstico. O tratamento da doença está sempre justificado pelo elevado risco de progressão para cancro invasivo. A excisão alargada das lesões ou a sua destruição com laser CO2 têm sido os métodos mais populares de tratamento. Independentemente do método terapêutico utilizado, as taxas de recidiva são elevadas, pelo que está aconselhada a vigilância apertada das doentes após tratamento. A terapêutica tópica com imiquimod se afigura promissora no tratamento das VIN. As vacinas profiláticas contra os tipos de HPV de alto risco prometem se tornar armas poderosas na prevenção primária da doença.Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN is a pathological denomination coined by the International Society for Study of Vulvo-vaginal Diseases (ISSVD and adopted by the International Society of Gynaecological Pathology (ISGYP and by the World Health Organization. VIN is a heterogeneous pathological entity with a usual type (warty, basaloid and mixed and a differentiated type. The incidence of the disease is

  19. Efficacy of the clinical agent VT-1161 against fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant Candida albicans in a murine model of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, E P; Hoekstra, W J; Schotzinger, R J; Sobel, J D; Lilly, E A; Fidel, P L

    2015-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent VVC (RVVC) remain major health problems for women. VT-1161, a novel fungal CYP51 inhibitor which has potent antifungal activity against fluconazole-sensitive Candida albicans, retained its in vitro potency (MIC50 of ≤0.015 and MIC90 of 0.12 μg/ml) against 10 clinical isolates from VVC or RVVC patients resistant to fluconazole (MIC50 of 8 and MIC90 of 64 μg/ml). VT-1161 pharmacokinetics in mice displayed a high volume of distribution (1.4 liters/kg), high oral absorption (73%), and a long half-life (>48 h) and showed rapid penetration into vaginal tissue. In a murine model of vaginal candidiasis using fluconazole-sensitive yeast, oral doses as low as 4 mg/kg VT-1161 significantly reduced the fungal burden 1 and 4 days posttreatment (P fluconazole (MIC of 64 μg/ml) but fully sensitive in vitro to VT-1161 was used. When an isolate partially sensitive to VT-1161 (MIC of 0.12 μg/ml) and moderately resistant to fluconazole (MIC of 8 μg/ml) was used, VT-1161 remained efficacious, whereas fluconazole was efficacious on day 1 but did not sustain efficacy 4 days posttreatment. Both agents were inactive in treating an infection with an isolate that demonstrated weaker potency (MICs of 2 and 64 μg/ml for VT-1161 and fluconazole, respectively). Finally, the plasma concentrations of free VT-1161 were predictive of efficacy when in excess of the in vitro MIC values. These data support the clinical development of VT-1161 as a potentially more efficacious treatment for VVC and RVVC.

  20. VACUNAS CONTRA EL HERPESVIRUS BOVINO-1: UNA MIRADA DESDE EL PASADO HACIA EL FUTURO DE LA INMUNIZACIÓN

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    Ruiz Saenz Julian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El herpesvirus Bovino-1 (BHV-1 es uno de los principales patógenos que afecta el
    ganado; la infección primaria se acompaña de varias manifestaciones clínicas tales
    como la rinotraqueitis, aborto, vulvovaginitis/balanopostitis pustular y en algunos
    casos, enfermedad neurológica. Luego de la recuperación, la infección persiste durante
    toda la vida del individuo en un estado de latencia en ganglios nervioso trigémino o
    sacro. La Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OIE reporta que la vacunación
    contra el BHV-1 puede ser efectiva en reducir las manifestaciones clínicas y en consecuencia
    las pérdidas económicas, pero no logra proteger completamente de la infección.
    Es por esto que durante los últimos años se han desarrollado gran cantidad
    de agentes vacunales que van desde las vacunas clásicas inactivadas hasta aquellas que
    usan tecnología de DNA recombinante. El presente artículo se enfoca en presentar una
    actualización acerca de las vacunas más usadas desde hace ya varios años y resumir los
    avances más importantes en la generación de nuevas vacunas contra el BHV-1;
    tratando así de abrir un nuevo panorama para la generación de vacunas en Colombia.

  1. VACUNAS CONTRA EL HERPESVIRUS BOVINO-1: UNA MIRADA DESDE EL PASADO HACIA EL FUTURO DE LA INMUNIZACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIÁN RUIZ-SAENZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El herpesvirus Bovino-1 (BHV-1 es uno de los principales patógenos que afecta el ganado; la infección primaria se acompaña de varias manifestaciones clínicas tales como la rinotraqueitis, aborto, vulvovaginitis/balanopostitis pustular y en algunos casos, enfermedad neurológica. Luego de la recuperación, la infección persiste durante toda la vida del individuo en un estado de latencia en ganglios nervioso trigémino o sacro. La Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OIE reporta que la vacunación contra el BHV-1 puede ser efectiva en reducir las manifestaciones clínicas y en consecuencia las pérdidas económicas, pero no logra proteger completamente de la infección. Es por esto que durante los últimos años se han desarrollado gran cantidad de agentes vacunales que van desde las vacunas clásicas inactivadas hasta aquellas que usan tecnología de DNA recombinante. El presente artículo se enfoca en presentar una actualización acerca de las vacunas más usadas desde hace ya varios años y resumir los avances más importantes en la generación de nuevas vacunas contra el BHV-1; tratando así de abrir un nuevo panorama para la generación de vacunas en Colombia.

  2. A new model of vaginal infection by Candida albicans in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Márcia A; Donatti, Lucélia; Damke, Edílson; Svidizinski, Terezinha I E; Consolaro, Márcia E L; Batista, Márcia R

    2010-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is regarded as an important public health issue, and several aspects of its pathogenesis are not yet sufficiently clear. Experimental in vivo models of vaginal infection with Candida albicans have been extremely useful in the identification of factors concerning hormonal influences on the infection, the virulence of the yeasts, the susceptibility, and the treatment of the infection. The development of easily manageable, reproducible, and economically viable animal models of VVC is highly important. We describe a simple experimental model of VVC in rats, using a pharmaceutical brand of estradiol hexa-hydrobenzoate for human treatment. All the steps of this model were standardized; and after the experiments, the rats were euthanized for further examination of their tissues by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Standardized features included the use of non-ovariectomized rats, sterile distilled water as the hormone vehicle, estradiol hexa-hydrobenzoate administered at 0.20 mg/week/rat fractionated three times/week, and a yeast suspension of 5 × 10(8) yeasts/ml in a single vaginal administration 1 week after hormone induction. In this way, 100% of the rats were in pseudo-estrus and developed and maintained the infection until the third week of the experiment. Electron microscopy observation of the vagina of the rats confirmed the presence of both pseudo-estrus and vaginal infection. The standardized experimental model proved inexpensive, reproducible, and easily feasible for the induction of vaginal infection with C. albicans and may help to clarify important aspects of the pathogenesis and treatment of VVC.

  3. Prevalence of Candida spp. in cervical-vaginal samples and the in vitro susceptibility of isolates

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    Tchana Martinez Brandolt

    Full Text Available Abstract Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is an infection of the genital mucosa caused by different species of the genus Candida. Considering the lack of data on this topic in the south of Brazil, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of Candida spp. in the cervical-vaginal mucosa of patients treated at a university hospital in southern Rio Grande do Sul, as well as the etiology and the susceptibility of the isolates against fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and nystatin. Samples were collected at the gynecology clinic of the Federal Hospital of the University of Rio Grande, and the isolates were identified using phenotypic and biochemical tests. The susceptibility analysis was performed according to the CLSI M27-A2 protocol. Of the 263 patients included, Candida spp. was isolated in 27%, corresponding to a prevalence of approximately 15% for both VVC and colonization. More than 60% of the isolates were identified as Candida albicans; C. non-albicans was isolated at a rate of 8.6% in symptomatic patients and 14.3% in asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of resistance against fluconazole and itraconazole was 42% and 48%, respectively; the minimal inhibitory concentration of miconazole ranged from 0.031 to 8 µg/mL, and that of nystatin ranged from 2 to >16 µg/mL. The high rate of resistance to triazoles observed in our study suggests the necessity of the association of laboratory exams to clinical diagnosis to minimize the practice of empirical treatments that can contribute to the development of resistance in the isolates.

  4. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guto, John Abuga; Bii, Christine C; Denning, David W

    2016-08-31

    Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009. Of Kenya's population of ~40 million, 43% are under 15 years old and approximately 594,660 Kenyan women get >4 episodes Candida vulvovaginitis annually (2,988/100,000). The HIV/AIDS population at risk of opportunistic infections (OI) is 480,000 and the OI estimates include 306,000 patients with oral thrush (768/100,000), 114,000 with oesophageal candidiasis (286/100,000), 11,900 with cryptococcal meningitis (29/100,000) and 17,000 patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (42/100,000). Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis following TB has a prevalence of 10,848 cases (32/100,000). The adult asthma prevalence is 3.1% and assuming 2.5% have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis then 17,696 (44/100,000) are affected.  Invasive aspergillosis, candidaemia and Candida peritonitis are probably uncommon. Tinea capitis infects 9.6% of children in Kenya, while fungal keratitis and otomycoses are difficult to estimate. At any one time, about 7% of the Kenyan population suffers from a significant fungal infection, with recurrent vaginitis and tinea capitis accounting for 82% of the infections. These estimates require further epidemiological studies for validation.

  5. High Virulence and Antifungal Resistance in Clinical Strains of Candida albicans

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    Eric Monroy-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal resistance and virulence properties of Candida albicans are a growing health problem worldwide. To study the expression of virulence and azole resistance genes in 39 clinical strains of C. albicans, we used a model of infection of human vaginal epithelial cells with C. albicans strains isolated from Mexican women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC. The strains were identified by PCR amplification of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of rRNA. The detection and expression of virulence genes and azole resistance genes MDR1 and CDR1 were performed using PCR and RT-PCR, respectively. All strains were sensitive to nystatin and 38 (97.4% and 37 (94.9% were resistant to ketoconazole and fluconazole, respectively. ALS1, SAP4–SAP6, LIP1, LIP2, LIP4, LIP6, LIP7, LIP9, LIP10, and PLB1-PLB2 were present in all strains; SAP1 was identified in 37 (94.8% isolates, HWP1 in 35 (89.7%, ALS3 in 14 (35.8%, and CDR1 in 26 (66.6%. In nearly all of the strains, ALS1, HWP1, SAP4–SAP6, LIP1–LIP10, PLB1, and PLB2 were expressed, whereas CDR1 was expressed in 20 (51.3% and ALS3 in 14 (35.8%. In our in vitro model of infection with C. albicans, the clinical strains showed different expression profiles of virulence genes in association with the azole resistance gene CDR1. The results indicate that the strains that infect Mexican patients suffering from VVC are highly virulent and virtually all are insensitive to azoles.

  6. Does the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology Short Curriculum Increase Resident Knowledge in Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguelet, P S; Browner-Elhanan, K J; Fleming, N; Karjane, N W; Loveless, M; Sheeder, J; Talib, H J; Wheeler, C; Kaul, P

    2016-12-01

    To determine if the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG) Short Curriculum improves self-reported knowledge in pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) among obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) residents, at programs without PAG-trained faculty. Prospective, cross-sectional exposure to the NASPAG short curriculum with a follow-up questionnaire. Ob/Gyn residency training programs without PAG faculty. Ob/Gyn residents in training from February 2015 to June 2015. Exposure to the NASPAG Short Curriculum. Improvement in self-perceived knowledge after completion of curriculum. Two hundred twenty-seven residents met inclusion criteria; 34 completed the study (15% response). Less than 50% of residents reported adequate knowledge in the areas of prepubertal vaginal bleeding, vulvovaginitis, precocious and delayed puberty, Home environment, Education and Employment, Eating, peer-related Activities, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide/depression, Safety from injury and violence (HEEADSSS) interview, pelvic pain, and bleeding management in teens with developmental delay. After completion of the curriculum, self-reported knowledge improved in 8 of 10 learning objectives, with no significant improvement in bleeding disorders or Müllerian anomalies. There was no association between pretest knowledge and level of residency training, type of residency program, previous exposure to PAG lectures, and previous exposure to patients with PAG complaints. Significant deficiencies exist regarding self-reported knowledge of core PAG topics among Ob/Gyn residents at programs without PAG-trained faculty. Use of the NASPAG Short Curriculum by residents without access to PAG-trained faculty resulted in improved self-reported knowledge in PAG. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and Characterization of Nisin Nanoparticles as Potential Alternative for the Recurrent Vaginal Candidiasis Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Letícia Coli Louvisse; Todaro, Valerio; Sathler, Plinio Cunha; da Silva, Luiz Cláudio Rodrigues Pereira; do Carmo, Flávia Almada; Costa, Cleonice Marques; Toma, Helena Keiko; Castro, Helena Carla; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was the development and characterization of nisin-loaded nanoparticles and the evaluation of its potential antifungal activity. Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida sp. considered as one of the major public health problem currently. The discovery of antifungal agents that present a reduced or null resistance of Candida sp. and the development of more efficient drug release mechanisms are necessary for the improvement of candidiasis treatment. Nisin, a bacteriocin commercially available for more than 50 years, exhibits antibacterial action in food products with potential antifungal activity. Among several alternatives used to modulate antifungal activity of bacteriocins, polymeric nanoparticles have received great attention due to an effective drug release control and reduction of therapeutic dose, besides the minimization of adverse effects by the preferential accumulation in specific tissues. The nisin nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsification and solvent evaporation methods. Nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. Antifungal activity was accessed by pour plate method and cell counting using Candida albicans strains. The in vitro release profile and in vitro permeation studies were performed using dialysis bag method and pig vaginal mucosa in Franz diffusion cell, respectively. The results revealed nisin nanoparticles (300 nm) with spherical shape and high loading efficiency (93.88 ± 3.26%). In vitro test results suggest a promising application of these nanosystems as a prophylactic agent in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and other gynecological diseases.

  8. The clinical and pathomorphological diagnosis of mycotoxicosis in different swine categories

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    Prodanov Jasna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of mycotoxins and mycotoxicosis in veterinary medicine is directly connected to the usage of mouldy and/or adversely stored grains (corn, wheat, barley used in animal feed. In swine production, in our geographical region, the most common are mycotoxicosis caused by zearalenon (F-2 toxin, but aflatoxins, ochratoxin and trichothecenes can also be found. For the known mycotoxins of clinical importance, the response is usually subacute or chronic and the presenting clinical signs are often vague. Mostly the problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake and slow growth. However, if we consider the clinical signs and pathomorphological picture of mycotoxicosis in different swine categories (breeding animals, suckling and weaned piglets, fatteners, the age dependent changes can be found. Some mycotoxins have hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and immunosuppressive effects, which further complicate the clinical and pathomorphological picture and diagnosis of mycotoxicosis in swine. The material for this research included the samples provided from ten swine farms. In different swine categories health disorders, resembling to the problem with mycotoxins were detected. The applied research methods included clinical evaluation and pathomorphological examination and laboratory microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and some mycotoxins (aflatoxins, zearalenon, ochratoxin A and trichothecenes. On the basis of the obtained results, it may be concluded that the most frequently detected mycotoxin in the examined feed samples was zearalenon. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly connected to the reproductive failures and diagnosed health disorders in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, skin necrosis, pneumonia, gastroenteritis.

  9. High Virulence and Antifungal Resistance in Clinical Strains of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Pérez, Eric; Paniagua-Contreras, Gloria Luz; Rodríguez-Purata, Pamela; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Vázquez-Villaseñor, Marco; Díaz-Velásquez, Clara; Uribe-García, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Antifungal resistance and virulence properties of Candida albicans are a growing health problem worldwide. To study the expression of virulence and azole resistance genes in 39 clinical strains of C. albicans, we used a model of infection of human vaginal epithelial cells with C. albicans strains isolated from Mexican women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The strains were identified by PCR amplification of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of rRNA. The detection and expression of virulence genes and azole resistance genes MDR1 and CDR1 were performed using PCR and RT-PCR, respectively. All strains were sensitive to nystatin and 38 (97.4%) and 37 (94.9%) were resistant to ketoconazole and fluconazole, respectively. ALS1, SAP4–SAP6, LIP1, LIP2, LIP4, LIP6, LIP7, LIP9, LIP10, and PLB1-PLB2 were present in all strains; SAP1 was identified in 37 (94.8%) isolates, HWP1 in 35 (89.7%), ALS3 in 14 (35.8%), and CDR1 in 26 (66.6%). In nearly all of the strains, ALS1, HWP1, SAP4–SAP6, LIP1–LIP10, PLB1, and PLB2 were expressed, whereas CDR1 was expressed in 20 (51.3%) and ALS3 in 14 (35.8%). In our in vitro model of infection with C. albicans, the clinical strains showed different expression profiles of virulence genes in association with the azole resistance gene CDR1. The results indicate that the strains that infect Mexican patients suffering from VVC are highly virulent and virtually all are insensitive to azoles. PMID:28058052

  10. Treatment of labial adhesion with topical estrogen and correlation with serum estradiol level

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    Safaian B

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum estradiol level is a controversial prognostic factor in the outcome of labial adhesion. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum estradiol levels and topical estrogen response in patients with labial adhesion.Methods: A prospective interventional study was conducted among girls with labial adhesion that referred to Pediatrics clinic in Taleghani University Hospital, Gorgan city, Iran in 2011. One hundred patients entered the study. The diagnosis was conducted by clinical examination of vestibule area. Inclusion criteria were, three months to eight years old prepuberty girls, no ambiguous genitalia, lack of vulvovaginitis symptoms, labial adhesion more than twenty five percent, no history of previous topical estrogen treatment since two weeks ago and previous incomplete treatment. The patients who did not use proper amount and duration of drug and also with adverse drug reactions during treatment period were excluded from the study. Results: The maximum frequency of labial adhesion was in the group of less than one year old. The minimum frequency of labial adhesion was in the 7-8 years old group. Eighty six patients had complete or partial remission. No evidence of an improvement was observed in fourteen children. Severity of adhesions did not worsen in our patients. Serum estradiol levels were lower in patients who had a positive response to treatment. There were significant differences in serum estradiol levels between full or relative improvement with no improvement groups (P=0.044.Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that the labial adhesion patients with low serum estradiol level had better treatment response after using topical estrogen.

  11. Frequency of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 in beef cattle not vaccinated

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    Ermilton Junio Pereira de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1, is responsible for clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, conjunctivitis, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis. This virus has been responsible for major losses in different productive and reproductive herds in the country. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in beef heifers not vaccinated in Microregion of Imperatriz, Maranhao, and identify the age group most affected by the virus, as well as a study of factors associated with virus infection and to evaluate the indirect ELISA using the serum neutralization (SN as a reference standard. The study was conducted in 48 herds, cutting, distributed in 12 counties of Microregion of Imperatriz. The samples were collected from female cattle stratified into three age groups, ? 12 months, between 12 and 36 months and ? 36 months of age. The samples were subjected to two serological tests, ELISA and SN. In each herd, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied in order to obtain information on management and reproductive sanitary, for the study of risk factors. The frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in Microregion of Imperatriz was 63.23%, and the municipalities of Açailândia Buritirana showed the highest frequencies, both with 80.44%, the most affected age group, the Microregion, was animals aged ? 36 months (69.65%. Based on the results we can conclude that the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 is high, between the age groups most affected were the animals aged ? 36 months were considered risk factors for virus transmission, return to estrus (OR=1.874, recovery of animals from other states / region (OR=1.365 and the creation of goat / sheep associated with bovine (OR=1.348, the indirect ELISA technique showed moderate concordance when compared to SN technique, which is the gold standard technique for diagnosis of BoHV-1.

  12. Frequency of urogenital mycoplasma detection in women of Dnipropetrovsk

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    K. V. Bubalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of urogenital mycoplasmas detection in women of different ages was studied in culture with the help of DUO test-system in order to determine their etiological significance in the development of inflammatory processes of women urogenital tract. We identified the researched cultures Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum in the diagnostic titer >104 TEM/ml indicating severe contamination by microorganisms, and in the titer 104 TEM/ml, 104 TEM/ml was observed in 55 women (46% and 20 women (17%, respectively, and the titer of <103 CFU/ml U. urealyticum was observed in 20 women (17%, and M. hominis in 18 women (15%. Analysis of genital mycoplasmas distribution among women of different ages has shown that there was the certain correlation between the patient age and frequency of genital mycoplasmas detection: the highest detection rate was observed in women age of 24–29. The dominant pathogen of urogenital tract inflammatory processes in women in 24–29 age group is U. urealyticum. The comparison of DUO test-system and PCR data has shown that DUO test-system in culture allowed more sensitive quantitave characterization of mycoplasmas, however, for the more effective laboratory diagnostics it was necessary to use complex methods to increase the probability of pathogen detection. Incidence of mycoplasmas in women with the presence of inflammation was higher than in women having the inflammation in the genital tract. In this case, potential symptom-free carriers exist for the development of inflammation of urogenital tract of women. Scientists have proved that mycoplasma could cause vulvovaginitis, urethritis, paraurethritis, bartholinitis, adnexitis, salpingitis, endometritis, and ovaritis.

  13. Frequency of Haemophilus spp. in urinary and and genital tract samples

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    Tatjana Marijan,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae and H. parainfluenzae isolated from the urinary and genital tracts. Methods Identification of strains bacteria Haemophilus spp. was carried out by using API NH identifi-cation system, and antibiotic susceptibility was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results A total number of 50 (0,03% H. influenzae and 14 (0,01% H. parainfluenzae (out of 180, 415 samples were isolated from genitourinary tract. From urine samples of the girls under 15 years of age these bacteria were isolated in 13 (0,88% and two (0,13% cases, respectively, and only in one case(0,11% of the UTI in boys (H. influenzae. In persons of fertile age, it was only H. influenzae bacteria that was found in urine samples of the five women (0,04% and in three men (0,22%. As a cause of vulvovaginitis, H. influenzae was isolated in four (5,63%, and H. parainfluenzae in two (2,82% girls. In persons of fertile age, H. influenzae was isolated from 10 (0,49% smears of the cervix, and in nine (1,74% male samples. H. parainfluenzae was isolated from seven (1,36% male samples. (p<0.01. Susceptibility testing of H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae revealed that both pathogens were signifi- cantly resistant to cotrimoxasol only (26.0% and 42.9%, respectively. Conclusion In the etiology of genitourinary infections of girls during childhood, genital infections of women in fertile age (especially in pregnant women, and men with cases of epididimytis and/or orchitis,it is important to think about this rare and demanding bacteria in terms of cultivation.

  14. Identification of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal swab by phenotypic methods and multiplex PCR in Duhok, Iraq

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    Ahmed Basheer Mohammed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species are the second most common cause of vulvovaginitis worldwide. The purpose of this study was to identify the species of vaginal Candida isolates by using phenotypic and Multiplex PCR techniques. Methods: 91 isolates from patients admitted to Azadi hospital and Maternity hospital in Duhok city were collected. The vaginal swab specimens were inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Colonies were then sub cultured on Chromogenic Candida agar. Genomic DNA extraction was performed using a Genomic DNA Extraction kit. For rapid identification of Candida spp., specific primers based on the genomic sequence of DNA topoisomerase 11 of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis I, C. parapsilosis II, C. guilliermondi, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, C. kefyr and C. glabrata, C. tropicalis I, C. tropicalis II, C. lusitaniae were used. The multiplex PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 1.5% agarose gel, visualized by staining with ethidium bromide, and photographed. Results: 4 Candida species, namely C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. tropicalis were distinguished by Chromogenic Candida agar on the basis of colony colour and morphology. PCR with the primer mixes yielded 7 different sized of PCR products corresponding to C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. kefyr, C. krusei and C. tropicalis II. The analysis revealed C. glabrata and C. albicans were the most common species isolated with the percentage 40% and 30% respectively. Conclusions: This study concluded that phenotypic characteristics on selective agar medium such as chromogenic candida agar are useful for presumptive identification of Candiada spp. with the support of molecular method such as multiplex PCR. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3211-3216

  15. Comparative analysis of replication characteristics of BoHV-1 subtypes in bovine respiratory and genital mucosa explants: a phylogenetic enlightenment

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    Steukers Lennert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In general, members of the Alphaherpesvirinae use the epithelium of the upper respiratory and/or genital tract as a preferential site for primary replication. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 may replicate at both sites and cause two major clinical entities designated as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis/balanoposthitis (IPV/IPB in cattle. It has been hypothesized that subtype 1.1 invades preferentially the upper respiratory mucosa whereas subtype 1.2 favors replication at the peripheral genital tract. However, some studies are in contrast with this hypothesis. A thorough study of primary replication at both mucosae could elucidate whether or not different BoHV-1 subtypes show differences in mucosa tropism. We established bovine respiratory and genital organ cultures with emphasis on maintenance of tissue morphology and viability during in vitro culture. In a next step, bovine respiratory and genital mucosa explants of the same animals were inoculated with several BoHV-1 subtypes. A quantitative analysis of viral invasion in the mucosa was performed at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post inoculation (pi by measuring plaque latitude and penetration depth underneath the basement membrane. All BoHV-1 subtypes exhibited a more profound invasion capacity in respiratory tissue compared to that in genital tissue at 24 h pi. However, at 24 h pi plaque latitude was found to be larger in genital tissue compared to respiratory tissue and this for all subtypes. These similar findings among the different subtypes take the edge off the belief of the existence of specific mucosa tropisms of different BoHV-1 subtypes.

  16. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Findings of Candidiasis and Trichomoniasis in Women Supported by Selected Health Centers of Tabriz, Iran

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    Sehhatie-Shafaie Fahimeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vulvovaginitis candidiasis and trichomoniasis constitute at least 50% of infectious vaginitis cases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical findings of candidiasis and trichomoniasis in women supported by selected health centers of Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, in which 1000 women who had the study criteria were selected by random sampling. In addition, 12 health centers of Tabriz were selected for this study. A questionnaire was used to obtain their personal and reproductive information, checklist for clinical observations, and culture methods (sabouraud dextrose agar and diamond for diagnose vaginal infections. Results: The prevalence of candidiasis and trichomoniasis were 25.2 and 9.2%, respectively. Findings showed that candidiasis infection, history of diseases, vaginal pH, number of coitus, number of delivery, and number of vaginal delivery, breast feeding status, method of last delivery, and contraceptive methods are risk factors for candidacies. Moreover, age at marriage, personal health, sexual hygiene, and vaginal pH are risk factors for trichomoniasis. A statistically significant relationship was observed between candidiasis and clinical findings, such as pruritus, pruritus during coitus, burning sensation with coitus, dysuria in woman and her husband, dyspareunia, low abdominal pain, urinal symptoms, vaginal status, amount of discharge, consistency appearance, and color of discharges. Furthermore, a significant relationship was observed between trichomoniasis and dysuria, and appearance and color of vaginal discharge. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of candidiasis, trichomoniasis infections, and infected women as asymptomatic carriers, it seems necessary to pay more attention to these infections and make efforts for their prevention.

  17. [Statement of the Polish Gynecological Society Expert Group on the use of Macmiror Complex 500].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The group of experts representing the Polish Gynecologic Society has issued this statement based on the review of available literature on the potential benefits of the use of Macmiror Complex 500 in obstetrical and gynecologic practice. Mixed Vaginitis (MV) eg. the vaginal infection caused by at least two out of the triad of pathogens (fungi, bacteria and Trichomonas Vaginalis [TV]), constitutes the type of vaginitis which is underestimated as for its prevalence. Mixed pathogens are responsible for as much as one third of all vaginal infections. Macmiror Complex 500 contains two active ingredients: nifuratel and nystatin. Macmiror Complex 500 affects all common causes of vulvovaginitis, i.e. bacteria, yeasts and TV. At the same time, it is not effective against Lactobacillus spp., which is a clear advantage in the treatment of vaginal infections. The antibacterial spectrum of nifuratel includes aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Moreover nifuratel is effective against Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp., it has an anti-trichomonal effect comparable to metranidazole and shows certain activity against Candida spp. Nystatin is effective against Candida albicans and is even very effective against Candida glabrata which is usually more resistant to imidazole antifungal agents. Nystatin's importance is rising due to the current increase of candidoses caused by non-albicans types. This increase is especially perceptible in recurring candidoses. The review of the available literature on the effectiveness of Macmiror Complex 500 in the OB/GYN practice leads to the following conclusions: the exeptionally broad antibacterial and antifungal and trichomonicidal activity of this formulation makes it a drug of choice in cases where MV is suspected. The possibility to treat both partners, favorable safety profile in pregnant patients and the availability of both vaginal ovules and the cream with applicator makes this drug an effective and suitable treatment option in

  18. Pathogenicity of local isolate virus BHV-1 as the aetiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Bali Cattle

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    Rini I Damayanti

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were used as control animals. Isolate I and III were originated from semen from IBR positive bulls number G 867 and G 148 respectively whereas isolate II was collected from vaginal mucosa and isolate IV was from nasal mucosa of IBR positive cattle treated with dexamethasone. Clinical response, gross-pathological and histopathological changes were observed. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect the antigen in tissue section. The results show that the BHV-1 local isolates could produce IBR syndrome namely fever and changes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts even though the clinical responses seemed to be disappeared by 21 days PI. Grossly there were hyperaemic nasal and vaginal mucosa and pneumonia whereas histologically there were non suppurative rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonia and vulvovaginitis. Immunohistochemically the antigen was detected in the nasal concha and trachea. Dexamethasone treatment at 60-64 days PI could produce less severe clinical features and the second necroppsy at 69 days PI also results in less severe pathological responses. The findings also suggest that the pathogenicity of BHV-1 local isolates were as follows: isolates I, II, IV and III.

  19. Isolamento e PCR para detecção de Mollicutes em muco vaginal e sua associação com problemas reprodutivos em ovinos criados na região de Piedade, São Paulo, Brasil Mollicutes isolation and PCR on ovine vaginal mucous and its association with reproductive problems in Piedade, SP, Brazil

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    Huber Rizzo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se Mycoplasma spp, Ureaplasma spp e Acholeplasma laidlawiii em amostras de muco vaginal de 60 ovinos, criados na região de Piedade no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, que apresentavam ou não vulvovaginite no exame específico do sistema genital. A caracterização desses microrganismos baseou-se no cultivo e detecção do respectivo DNA pela Reação da Polimerase em Cadeia (PCR com os primers para classe Mollicutes (GPO e MGSO, para o gênero Ureaplasma (UGPF e UGPS e a espécie Acholeplasma laidlawii (UNI e ACH3. A presença de micoplasmas não foi associada com distúrbios do trato reprodutivo dos animais, entretanto todos os isolados obtidos de Ureaplasma spp foram provenientes de animais com distúrbios reprodutivos, sugerindo o possível envolvimento desse agente nas enfermidades da reprodução. A PCR para a espécie Acholeplasma laidlawii detectou somente uma amostra positiva.It was evaluated the presence of Mycoplasma spp, Ureaplasma spp and Acholeplasma laidlawiii in 60 samples of ovine vaginal mucous with the presence or absence of vulvovaginitis in the specific exam of the reproductive tract. The microorganisms were characterized based on bacteriological culture and DNA detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR with specific primers to Mollicutes (GPO and MGSO, Ureaplasma (UGPF and UGPS and Acholeplasma laidlawii (UNI and ACH3. The presence of mycoplasmas could not be associated with reproductive disorders in animals. The PCR to Acholeplasma laidlawii detected only one positive sample. However, all isolations of Ureaplasma spp were from animals presenting reproductive disorders, suggesting a possible involvement of this agent in reproductive diseases.

  20. Throwing the dice for the diagnosis of vaginal complaints?

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    Taras David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Vaginitis is among the most common conditions women are seeking medical care for. Although these infections can easily be treated, the relapse rate is high. This may be due to inadequate use of the diagnostic potential. Methods We evaluated the misjudgement rate of the aetiology of vaginal complaints. A total of 220 vaginal samples from women with a vaginal complaint were obtained and analysed for numbers of total lactobacilli, H2O2-producing lactobacilli, total aerobic cell counts and total anaerobic cell counts including bifidobacteria, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp. Additionally, the presence of Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis was evaluated by DNA-hybridisation using the PCR and Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test, respectively. Results The participating physicians diagnosed Bacterial vaginosis (BV as origin of discomfort in 80 cases, candidiasis in 109 cases and mixed infections in 8 cases. However, a present BV, defined as lack of H2O2-lactobacilli, presence of marker organisms, such as G. vaginalis, Bacteroides spp. or Atopobium vaginae, and an elevated pH were identified in only 45 cases of the women examined. Candida spp. were detected in 46 cases. Interestingly, an elevated pH corresponded solely to the presence of Atopobium vaginae, which was detected in 11 cases. Conclusion Errors in the diagnosis of BV and candida vulvovaginitis (CV were high. Interestingly, the cases of misjudgement of CV (77% were more numerous than that of BV (61%. The use of Amsel criteria or microscopy did not reduce the number of misinterpretations. The study reveals that the misdiagnosis of vaginal complaints is rather high.