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Sample records for vulvar lichen sclerosus

  1. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maździarz, Agnieszka; Osuch, Beata; Kowalska, Magdalena; Nalewczyńska, Agnieszka; Śpiewankiewicz, Beata

    2017-09-01

    Vulvar lichen sclerosus is a chronic and incurable disease that causes various unpleasant symptoms and serious consequences. The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus. Participants in the study included 102 female patients aged 19-85 suffer from vulvar lichen sclerosus. The patients underwent photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the course of PDT the 5% 5- aminolevulinic acid was used in gel form. The affected areas were irradiated with a halogenic lamp PhotoDyn 501 (590-760nm) during a 10-min radiation treatment. The treatment was repeated weekly for 10 weeks. PDT has brought about a good therapeutic effect (complete or partial clinical remission), with 87.25% improvement rate in patients suffering from lichen sclerosus. The greatest vulvoscopic response was observed in the reduction of subepithelial ecchymoses and teleangiectasia (78.95%), and the reduction of erosions and fissures (70.97%). A partial remission of lichenification with hyperkeratosis was observed in 51.61% of cases. The least response was observed in the atrophic lesions reduction (improvement in 37.36% of cases). Our patients suffering from vulvar lichen sclerosus demonstrated positive responses to photodynamic therapy and the treatment was well tolerated. Photodynamic therapy used to treat lichen sclerosus yields excellent cosmetic results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Surgical treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Y; Elchalal, U; Abramov, D; Goldfarb, A; Schenker, J G

    1996-03-01

    Surgical therapy of lichen sclerosus of the vulva consists of three main operations: vulvectomy (with or without a skin graft), cryosurgery, and laser ablation. It is indicated in two conditions, either when malignant transformation is present or is likely to occur, or when medical treatment has failed. The overall risk for malignant transformation of vulvar lichen sclerosus is low, ranging between 0 and 9 percent. However, specific histological criteria, such as mixed dystrophy, have recently been associated with higher malignancy rates. Vulvectomy is indicated only when these criteria are met. Both skinning and simple vulvectomies are associated with recurrence rates as high as 50 percent. However, better sexual function and cosmetic results have been reported in the former, especially with concomitant split skin grafting. Cryosurgery also has high recurrence rates, although short-term results are favorable. Although only small series have been reported, laser therapy seems to carry better long-term results than other modes of treatment. Convalescence is complete within 6 weeks posttreatment, and remission rates are as high as 85 percent at 3 years of follow-up. The high recurrence rate of all surgical modalities makes surgical treatment suitable only for patients who failed to respond to multiple medical treatments such as topical high potent steroid ointments, testosterone, and retinoids.

  3. Lichen Sclerosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Lichen Sclerosus Posted under Health Guides . Updated 27 July ... treatments available to help the symptoms. What is lichen sclerosus and what does it look like? Lichen ...

  4. Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is often found in lesions, previously diagnosed as lichen sclerosus, which have progressed to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Nieuwenhof, Hedwig P.; Bulten, Johan; Hollema, Harrie; Dommerholt, Rianne G.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; de Hullu, Joanne A.; van Kempen, Leon C. L. T.

    2011-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is considered to be the precursor lesion of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, of which only 2-5% progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) has been proposed to be the direct precursor lesion, but this is a recently recognized, and a dif

  5. Lichen sclerosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Şeniz Ergin

    1990-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a progressive, inflammatory dermatosis characterized with porcelain white sclerotic plaques most commonly in the anogenital area of postmenopausal women. Children and men can also be affected. Extragenital involvement may occur. Even though the etiology is unknown; autoimmune, genetic, hormonal and infectious factors are suggested. Lichen sclerosus is associated with autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease, alopecia areata, vitiligo, diabetes and pernicious anemia. An ...

  6. Sclerosus and atrophic genital Lichen or vulvar craurosis. About a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Caridad Cabrera Acea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosus and atrophic genital Lichen or vulvar craurosis is an affection characterized by a progressive chronic atrophy of the vulvar skin and mucosa, associated to involutive changes in external genitalia. The presentation of this case was motivated by the unusual appearance of it in our context. A 49 year old white patient with history of hypertension, came to the Dermatology consultation referred by her Family Doctor. She reported that she had had an intense pruritus since approximately eight months in the vulvar region and changes in texture which she stated as ¨hardening sensation¨ which had had intensified, so as irregularities in her menstrual period, all of which was not relieved with the usual treatment as it was interpreted as vaginal parasites. She explained that she suffered from an intense pain during intercourse, more frequently in the last months so as sleeping problems and nervousness. A biopsy was performed and it showed lichen sclerosus. It was treated with local high potency steroids, conjugated estrogens and psychological support. The patient had an evident symptom improvement. She has a periodic evaluation to avoid relapse and /or complications.

  7. What Is Lichen Sclerosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lichen Sclerosus Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Lichen Sclerosus PDF Version Size: 57 KB Audio Version ... Size: 8.6 MB November 2014 What Is Lichen Sclerosus? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series ...

  8. [Lichen sclerosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, M.M. van; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Hoop, D. de; Dukel, L.; Vleuten, C.J.M. van der; Hullu, J.A. de

    2007-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic disorder of skin and mucosa which affects patients of all age groups, particularly women, but also men. It is most commonly seen on the female genital skin, but it also occurs on extragenital areas. Most patients complain of itching and, less frequently, a burning

  9. An autoimmune phenotype in vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus: a Th1 response and high levels of microRNA-155.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlou, Annelinde; Santegoets, Lindy A M; van der Meijden, Willem I; Heijmans-Antonissen, Claudia; Swagemakers, Sigrid M A; van der Spek, Peter J; Ewing, Patricia C; van Beurden, Marc; Helmerhorst, Theo J M; Blok, Leen J

    2012-03-01

    Vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus are T-cell-mediated chronic skin disorders. Although autoimmunity has been suggested, the exact pathogenesis of these disorders is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the molecular and immunological mechanisms critical to the pathogenesis of vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus. By using gene expression profiling and real-time RT-PCR experiments, we demonstrated a significantly increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, CXCR3, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCR5, CCL4, and CCL5) specific for a Th1 IFNγ-induced immune response. In addition, BIC/microRNA-155 (miR-155)--a microRNA involved in regulation of the immune response--was significantly upregulated in lichen sclerosus and lichen planus (9.5- and 17.7-fold change, respectively). Immunohistochemistry showed a significant T-cell response, with pronounced dermal infiltrates of CD4(+), CD8(+), and FOXP3(+) cells. In conclusion, these data demonstrate an autoimmune phenotype in vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus, characterized by increased levels of Th1-specific cytokines, a dense T-cell infiltrate, and enhanced BIC/miR-155 expression.

  10. Influence of treatments on prognosis for vulvar lichen sclerosus: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodrick, Brooks; Belkin, Zoe R; Goldstein, Andrew T

    2013-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is an inflammatory dermatosis with a predilection for the anogential skin. Vulvar LS can be a debilitating disease, causing pruritus and pain, and it carries the potential for atrophy, scarring, and significant functional impairment. Recently, many advances have been made regarding the etiology and natural history of the disease process; however, much debate still exists regarding the most advantageous medical and surgical management of this disorder. In an effort to provide a comprehensive review on current vulvar LS literature, the following three controversies will be discussed: (1) optimal disease treatment, (2) theories behind LS's oncogenicity and treatments for minimizing malignancy, and (3) the value of surgical treatment for LS. Ultra-potent topical corticosteroids (TCSs) are the first-line treatment for vulvar LS, while topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) remain second-line agents for patients for whom TCS treatment resulted in incomplete resolution of symptoms or adverse events. Due to the relapsing nature of the disease, long-term maintenance therapy is often required. In addition, recent advances have contributed to the understanding of the association between LS and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). While the exact mechanism responsible for LS-associated SCC is not known, immune dysregulation and inflammation may play an important role; therefore, successful treatment of LS should be directed towards alleviation of symptoms and reversal of the underlying histopathologic changes. Patients with LS-associated malignancy, as well as patients who need correction of functionally restrictive, scarring processes, can successfully undergo surgical intervention with tissue conservation.

  11. Lichen Sclerosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeniz Ergin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus is a progressive, inflammatory dermatosis characterized with porcelain white sclerotic plaques most commonly in the anogenital area of postmenopausal women. Children and men can also be affected. Extragenital involvement may occur. Even though the etiology is unknown; autoimmune, genetic, hormonal and infectious factors are suggested. Lichen sclerosus is associated with autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease, alopecia areata, vitiligo, diabetes and pernicious anemia. An increased incidence of autoantibodies to the extracellular matrix protein 1 is shown in sera of patients with lichen sclerosus. Familial occurence and an association with HLA DQ7 supports the presence of genetic factors in its etiology. However, the role of estrogen and androgens could not be demonstrated as etiologic factors. Clinical similarity with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans led researches to be held for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies ended with conflicting results. Disease may be triggered with trauma in the presence of genetic predisposition. Pruritus is the main symptom. Pain, burning and dysesthesia may occur. Lichen sclerosus may be confused with sexual abuse in girls. Furthermore, it is more severe in the presence of sexual abuse. If not treated it leads to permanent anatomical disorders in the anogenital region. It is one of the most common cause of acquired phimosis in boys. Meatal stenosis and urinary obstruction may develop. Erectile dysfunction and dyspareunia due to introital stenosis may cause psychosexual problems in men and women. Perianal involvement causes constipation in women and girls. Long-standing anogenital lesions have the risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma. Verrucous carcinoma rarely occurs. Extragenital symptoms do not have similar risks. Ultra-potent topical corticosteroids are used as the first line therapy. In the case of unresponsiveness to corticosteroids the alternative approaches are

  12. Lichen Sclerosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeniz Ergin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus is a progressive, inflammatory dermatosis characterized with porcelain white sclerotic plaques most commonly in the anogenital area of postmenopausal women. Children and men can also be affected. Extragenital involvement may occur. Even though the etiology is unknown; autoimmune, genetic, hormonal and infectious factors are suggested. Lichen sclerosus is associated with autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease, alopecia areata, vitiligo, diabetes and pernicious anemia. An increased incidence of autoantibodies to the extracellular matrix protein 1 is shown in sera of patients with lichen sclerosus. Familial occurence and an association with HLA DQ7 supports the presence of genetic factors in its etiology. However, the role of estrogen and androgens could not be demonstrated as etiologic factors. Clinical similarity with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans led researches to be held for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies ended with conflicting results. Disease may be triggered with trauma in the presence of genetic predisposition. Pruritus is the main symptom. Pain, burning and dysesthesia may occur. Lichen sclerosus may be confused with sexual abuse in girls. Furthermore, it is more severe in the presence of sexual abuse. If not treated it leads to permanent anatomical disorders in the anogenital region. It is one of the most common cause of acquired phimosis in boys. Meatal stenosis and urinary obstruction may develop. Erectile dysfunction and dyspareunia due to introital stenosis may cause psychosexual problems in men and women. Perianal involvement causes constipation in women and girls. Long-standing anogenital lesions have the risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma. Verrucous carcinoma rarely occurs. Extragenital symptoms do not have similar risks. Ultra-potent topical corticosteroids are used as the first line therapy. In the case of unresponsiveness to corticosteroids the alternative approaches are

  13. Early onset vulvar Lichen Sclerosus in premenopausal women and oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthert, Andreas R; Faber, Melanie; Knappe, Gabriele; Hellriegel, Simin; Emons, Günter

    2008-03-01

    For vulvar Lichen sclerosus (LS) immunological factors, genetic predisposition, and decreased 5 alpha-reductase activity have been discussed as aetiological factors. During the last decade an increase of LS in young women has been suspected. Aim of this study was to evaluate data of premenopausal women with early onset LS to find potential risk factors focussing on the use of oral contraceptives. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 40 premenopausal patients with early onset LS regarding use of oral contraceptives (OCPs), and first occurrence of LS. To compare these data in a case-control study we analyzed a matched control group of 110 healthy women. All our LS patients were using OCPs compared to 73 women (66.4%) in the control group. OCPs with anti-androgenic activity (chlormadinone acetate, cyproterone acetate, dienogest, and drospirenone) were used by 28 (70%) of the LS patients and by 35 (47.9%) of the 73 women using OCPs in the control group. Thus, the odds ratio for early onset LS for women using anti-androgenic OCPs was 2.53 (95% CI: 1.12-5.75). Our data suggest that disturbance of the androgen dependent growth of the vulvar skin by OCPs and especially by OCPs with anti-androgenic properties might trigger the early onset of LS in a subgroup of susceptible young women.

  14. In the absence of (early) invasive carcinoma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia associated with lichen sclerosus is mainly of undifferentiated type: New insights in histology and aetiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Seters, van (Manon); F.J.W. ten Kate (Fiebo); M. van Beurden (Marc); R.H.M. Verheijen (René); C.J.L.M. Meijer; M.P.M. Burger; T.J.M. Helmerhorst (Theo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is presumed to be the precursor of invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the vulva. It is commonly assumed that differentiated VIN is related to lichen sclerosus (LS). However, evidence for this is limited to a small n

  15. Clinical recommendation: pediatric lichen sclerosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercaw-Pratt, Jennifer L; Boardman, Lori A; Simms-Cendan, Judith S

    2014-04-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the anogenital region that may present in the prepubertal or adolescent patient. Clinical presentations include significant pruritus, labial adhesions, and loss of pigmentation. Treatment includes topical anti-inflammatory agents and long-term follow-up as there is a high risk of recurrence and an increased risk of vulvar cancer in adult women with history of lichen sclerosus. These recommendations are intended for pediatricians, gynecologists, nurse practitioners and others who care for pediatric/adolescent girls in order to facilitate diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Photodynamic therapy with green light for the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus - Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiecka, B J; Jurczyszyn, K; Nockowski, P; Murawski, M; Ziółkowski, P

    2017-03-01

    The standard treatment for lichen sclerosus (LS) is symptomatic and is primarily based on the chronic use of corticosteroids, sometimes resulting in unsatisfactory effects. Therefore, other non-pharmacological methods are being sought, which are less aggravating for the patient. LS can be treated topically by using photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). Unfortunately, therapy with the red light is often connected with severe local pain during the illumination. Green light can also be characterised by its ability to turn on photodynamic reactions in cells. The aim of this study was an evaluation into the efficacy and tolerance of 5-ALA-PDT with a green light (540nm±15nm) in 11 patients with chronic LS that were characterised by severe itching. The disease lasted from 1.5 to 4 years. All the patients were treated with three sessions of PDT. Following treatment with PDT, a significant improvement of local status, as well as a reduction of the main symptom (pruritus), were observed. No patient complained of severe pain during the sessions that would have required an interruption of irradiation or local application of analgesics. Our preliminary results of using green light in PDT for superficial skin non-oncological lesions are very promising but require further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexual functions and depressive symptoms after photodynamic therapy for vulvar lichen sclerosus in postmenopausal women from the Upper Silesian Region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Olejek, Anita; Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Kozak-Darmas, Iwona; Wloch, Stanislaw

    2009-12-01

    Although lichen sclerosus (LS) may affect women's physical functioning, mood, and quality of life, restricting their physical activities, sexual, and non-sexual contacts, there are limited data on the sexual functioning of women diagnosed with LS. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of photodynamic therapy for vulvar LS on sexual functions and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women from the Upper Silesian Region of Poland. A total of 65 women aged 50-70 visiting an outpatient clinic for assessment of vulvar dermatoses were screened for the clinical trial. Finally, 37 women who met all the inclusion/exclusion criteria were included in the study. All the subjects were treated by topical laser therapy (photodynamic therapy). Sexual functions and depressive symptoms were assessed before and after the therapy using Female Sexual Function Index and Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Sexual behaviors, sexual functions, and depressive symptoms in females after photodynamic therapy for vulvar LS. The total FSFI score was significantly lower after the treatment of vulvar LS as compared with the baseline (median 24.6 vs. 15.9). However, the prevalence of clinically significant FSD was stable throughout the medical intervention except lubrication disorders (higher prevalence after the treatment: 40% vs. 68.57%). Although the scores of BDI at the baseline dropped significantly after the photodynamic therapy (median 12.0 and 9.0, respectively), there were no significant differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms (48.65% vs. 45.94%). Topical laser therapy for vulvar LS has a good clinical outcome, especially in the context of no major negative effects on sexual functioning and the positive impact on the severity of depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women. However, patients should be informed about the possible lubrication disorders following the treatment.

  18. A patient with lichen sclerosus, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Bulten, J.; Hullu, J.A. de

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with vulvar lichen sclerosus, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), and later vulvar cancer. In LCH, high amounts of non functional Langerhans cells are present in the affected tissue, making it possible that LCH may have contributed to vulvar cancer development in this patient.

  19. Bilateral zosteriform extragenital lichen sclerosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Piyush; Jha, Abhijeet Kumar; Mallik, Sambeet Kumar; Raihan, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with asymptomatic eruption on both forearms and lower aspects of the legs for 6 months. The lesions first appeared on his inner aspects of the wrist, the dorsal surface of the hands, and legs and progressed to involve proximal aspects of the extremities. There was no significant past history. On examination, multiple pearly white papules and depigmented atrophic plaques were found bilaterally on the flexors of the arms and the extensors of the legs. The lesions were arranged in a linear manner, following the lines of Blaschko (Figures 1 and 2). The surface of the atrophic plaques was notable for prominent telangiectasia, giving an erythematous appearance. The genitalia, oral cavity, palms, and soles were spared. Systemic examination was noncontributory. Lichen striatus and extragenital lichen sclerosus (ELS) were considered the differential diagnosis. Clinically, the age of the patient, the absence of scaling, and the presence of atrophic plaques and telangiectasia were in favor of ELS. A punch biopsy from an atrophic plaque was performed, and it revealed hyperkeratosis, atrophic epidermis, basal layer vacuolar degeneration, mild lymphocytic infiltration in the dermis, edema, and homogenization of collagen of the upper portion of the dermis (Figures 3 and Figure 4). Histopathologic findings were consistent with lichen sclerosus. A diagnosis of bilateral zosteriform ELS was made.

  20. Recent advances in understanding urethral lichen sclerosus

    OpenAIRE

    Mangera, Altaf; Osman, Nadir; Chapple, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus affecting the male genitalia is a poorly understood but potentially devastating condition. The natural history of the condition is beginning to be understood better with longer follow-up of patients. Recent long-term data suggest that circumcision for lichen sclerosus limited to the prepuce may not be curative as was once thought. In addition, surgical treatments should be followed up for longer periods as recurrences may occur after urethroplasty and perineal urethrostomy.

  1. Recent advances in understanding urethral lichen sclerosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangera, Altaf; Osman, Nadir; Chapple, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus affecting the male genitalia is a poorly understood but potentially devastating condition. The natural history of the condition is beginning to be understood better with longer follow-up of patients. Recent long-term data suggest that circumcision for lichen sclerosus limited to the prepuce may not be curative as was once thought. In addition, surgical treatments should be followed up for longer periods as recurrences may occur after urethroplasty and perineal urethrostomy.

  2. Lichen sclerosus en het syndroom van Turner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ijsselmuiden, Mèlanie N; Bos, Annelies M E; Hoek, Annemieke; van Beek, André P; Kerstens, Michiel N

    2010-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus was diagnosed at a young age (19, 22 and 37 years) in three women with Turner syndrome. The oldest of these patients had probably suffered from this disorder for over 20 years. The relatively young age of these three patients is remarkable. This observation also suggests an

  3. Lichen sclerosus en het syndroom van Turner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ijsselmuiden, Mèlanie N; Bos, Annelies M E; Hoek, Annemieke; van Beek, André P; Kerstens, Michiel N

    2010-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus was diagnosed at a young age (19, 22 and 37 years) in three women with Turner syndrome. The oldest of these patients had probably suffered from this disorder for over 20 years. The relatively young age of these three patients is remarkable. This observation also suggests an increase

  4. Vitiligoid lichen sclerosus: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attili Venkat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many case studies of lichen sclerosus (LS have reported an association of vitiligo. However, such an association is not reported from larger case studies of vitiligo, which happens to be a common disease. Autoimmune etiology suspected in both LS and vitiligo has been considered as the reason for their association in some patients. It has also been suggested that lichenoid inflammation in LS may trigger an autoimmune reaction against melanocytes. Aims: To test this association, we reviewed clinical and histological features of 266 cases of vitiligo and 74 cases of LS in a concurrent study of both diseases. Methods: All outpatients seen in our department between 2003 and 2006 and who were diagnosed as having LS or vitiligo on the basis of clinical and pathologic features were included in the study. Results: Vitiligoid lesions were seen along with stereotypical LS lesions in three patients but all the three lesions had histological features of LS. Oral/genital areas were affected in 57 out of the 74 LS cases and of those, 15 were initially suspected to have vitiligo. These cases with a clinical appearance of vitiligo and histological features of LS were considered as ′vitiligoid LS′, a superficial variant proposed by J. M. Borda in 1968. Association of LS was not observed in the 266 cases of vitiligo. Conclusion: Exclusive oral/genital depigmentation is a common problem and histological evaluation is essential to differentiate vitiligoid LS from true vitiligo. The association of vitiligo with LS may have been documented due to the clinical misdiagnosis of vitiligoid LS lesions as vitiligo as histological investigations were not undertaken in any of the reported cases.

  5. Patient Satisfaction of Surgical Treatment of Clitoral Phimosis and Labial Adhesions Caused by Lichen Sclerosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne N. Flynn, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This study shows high patient satisfaction and low complication risk associated with surgical correction of clitoral phimosis and lysis of vulvar adhesions for VGF caused by LS. Patients reported improvement in clitoral sensation and ability to achieve orgasm, as well as decreased dyspareunia. Surgical correction of vulvar scarring is a viable option to restore vulvar anatomy and sexual function in appropriate candidates with anogenital LS. Flynn AN, King M, Rieff M, Krapf J, and Goldstein AT. Patient satisfaction of surgical treatment of clitoral phimosis and labial adhesions caused by lichen sclerosus. Sex Med 2015;3:251–255.

  6. Lichen sclerosus associated with localized scleroderma: dermoscopy contribution*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Monisa Martins; Cabral, Fernanda; Corrêa, Mariana César; Barcaui, Carlos Baptista; Bressan, Aline Lopes; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis with preferential involvement of the urogenital region. The extragenital involvement is uncommon and is characterized by small rounded macules or papules, pearly white in color. The coexistence of lichen sclerosus and scleroderma plaques in most cases with extragenital location has been reported in the literature. We report a case of lichen sclerosus associated with scleroderma in children, highlighting the importance of dermoscopy in diagnosis. PMID:27579757

  7. Extensive bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukicevic, Jelica

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic disease of unknown etiology characterized by atrophic and sclerotic plaques in both genital and extragenital regions. Extensive bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (BLSA) is a severe variant of the disease with no widely accepted treatment. We present a 63-year-old woman with extensive extragenital, ivory-colored, atrophic plaques on her trunk and extremities and disseminated hemorrhagic bullae. The patient was unsuccessfully treated with standard topical corticosteroid therapy, doxycycline and chloroquine. According to the literature, there is little evidence of the efficacy of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of BLSA. We report a rare case of extensive BLSA that is unresponsive to these drugs.

  8. Extramammary Paget’s Disease Versus Lichen Sclerosus

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    Pappova T.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Burning, itching and dyspareunia are typical symptoms of many genital diseases. These subjective complaints can be misdiagnosed because of different clinical presentations. We present a case report of a postmenopausal woman treated for genital warts over a period of three years followed by the development of leukoplastic lesions in the whitish area clinical classified as Lichen sclerosus (LS. Histology of this lesion revealed carcinoma in situ. After radical surgical removal, vulvar Paget’s disease was histologically verified. LS and extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD belong to a group of uncommon dermatoses which mainly affect the skin of the genitals in postmenopausal women. Ulceration, erosions and leukoplastic lesions can signalize the development of squamous cell carcinoma in association of lichen sclerosus, on the other hand, they can be the sign of EMPD after a long period of time using different topical agents. The importance of reaching the correct diagnosis is essential and can influence current patient investigations and invasive or non-invasive treatment.

  9. Histopathological and clinical traps in lichen sclerosus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brănişteanu, Daciana Elena; Brănişteanu, Daniel Constantin; Stoleriu, Gabriela; Ferariu, Dan; Voicu, Cătălina Maria; Stoica, Loredana Elena; Căruntu, Constantin; Boda, Daniel; Filip-Ciubotaru, Florina Mihaela; Dimitriu, Andreea; Radu, Cezar Doru

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and limited systemic scleroderma (acrosclerosis) are inflammatory skin diseases that ultimately evolve into two distinct modes of atrophic scar formation, but which can easily be confused clinically. They are very rarely associated. The literature has reported cases in which lichen sclerosus was associated with various forms of scleroderma, but often with localized morphea. The characteristic histopathological picture of lichen sclerosus includes a thin epidermis, with orthohyperkeratosis and vascular degeneration in the basal layer, loss of elastic fibers, and band-like inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis, while systemic sclerosis is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen in the dermis, accompanied by reduction in adnexal structures and their entrapment in collagen, and the presence of perivascular lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate. We present the case of a 40-year-old female patient clinically diagnosed with systemic scleroderma and lichen sclerosus involving the genital mucosa. Physical examination in conjunction with laboratory findings (elevated antinuclear, anti-Scl-70, anti-SSA antibodies and immunogram) induced the supposition of the coexistence of lichen sclerosus and systemic scleroderma, fact confirmed by pathological examination. Systemic therapy with corticosteroids, immunosuppressive and phlebotropic drugs, peripheral vasodilators and other tropic adjuvants and topically potent topical corticosteroids was initiated. The course was favorable under therapy, the hardened skin slightly regaining elasticity, relief of itching and disappearance of lichen sclerosus lesions. Our case reaffirms the uncommon association of these two disorders. The importance of history, physical and laboratory examinations in making a diagnosis of certainty in emphasized.

  10. Lichen sclerosus er også en sygdom hos børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baskaramoorthy, Shailajah; Bygum, Anette

    2012-01-01

    of the girls had a classic porcelain white plaque in a figure-of-eight pattern encircling the vaginal introitus and perianal area. The other girl presented with vulvar bleeding raising a suspicion of sexual abuse. Both children were treated with potent topical steroids with an effective response.......Lichen sclerosus in children is an uncommon skin disease with a predilection for the genital region. The disease is primarily seen in prepubertal girls and postmenopausal women. We present two cases of four year-old girls referred with classical symptoms but a long diagnostic latency. One...

  11. Lichen sclerosus of the oral mucosa: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Yolanda; Gavaldá, Carmen; Carbonell, Enrique; Margaix, María; Sarrión, Gracia

    2008-07-01

    Lichen sclerosus or lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory disease predominantly affecting the genital mucosa and skin. Clinically, it is characterized by white atrophic plaques in the anogenital region. The lesions are generally asymptomatic, but may cause discomfort with itching and pain. Extragenital mucosal involvement is very unusual, and lesions limited to the oral mucosa are even less frequent. Knowledge of such lesions is important in order to establish a differential diagnosis with other white oral lesions, and histological confirmation is required. We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with a well delimited, pearly white lesion located in the upper gingival mucosa, lip mucosa and adjacent skin. The lesion had led to loss of periodontal attachment of the affected tooth, causing pain in response to tooth brushing. The biopsy confirmed lichen sclerosus, and treatment was provided in the form of intralesional corticoid injections, followed by improvement of the mucosal lesion, though without recovery of the periodontal loss.

  12. Lichen sclerosus er en forsømt sygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Damsgaard, Knud

    2011-01-01

    We present a small review of lichen sclerosus in women and an update on the newest knowledge, e.g. on calcineurin inhibitors as a choice of treatment. The goal is to put more focus on the disease in Denmark because it is so often diagnosed only with a great delay. We further emphasize the importa......We present a small review of lichen sclerosus in women and an update on the newest knowledge, e.g. on calcineurin inhibitors as a choice of treatment. The goal is to put more focus on the disease in Denmark because it is so often diagnosed only with a great delay. We further emphasize...

  13. Lichen Sclerosus Atrophicus [LSA] in the Areolae: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Padmavathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus (LS is a chronic inflammatory disorder of an unknown aetiology most commonly affecting the anogenital area. However, extragenital involvement also occurs uncommonly. A case of extra-genital LS involving the areolae of both breasts, in a 15-year-old boy, is reported for its rarity.

  14. Childhood lichen sclerosus is a rare but important diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lise Soldbro; Bygum, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic skin disorder with a predilection for the anogenital area. The disease is mostly seen in prepubertal and postmenopausal females. The lesions present as sharply demarcated white plaques encircling the vagina and anus. The atrophic form can lead to scarring...

  15. [Patient with generalized guttate morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, B; Gardeazabal, J; de Lagrán, Z Martínez; Díaz-Pérez, J L

    2008-12-01

    Generalized guttate morphea is a very uncommon clinical entity, and few reports are available in the literature. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy who first attended our clinic in 1990 with guttate morphea on the trunk and upper limbs. These lesions were associated with plaque morphea on his right foot. Twelve years later, lesions with a different appearance to the previous ones were observed in the right pectoral region. Clinically and histopathologically, they resembled lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Given that morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus share certain clinical and pathologic characteristics, some authors believe that these entities may be related or even different presentations of the same disease. The most noteworthy aspect of our case is the type of morphea, as we were unable to find equivalent examples in the literature.

  16. Review of squamous premalignant vulvar lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Hullu, J.A. de

    2008-01-01

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) develops following two different pathways, which have their own premalignant lesions. In the absence of human papilloma virus (HPV), vulvar SCC can develop in a background of lichen sclerosus (LS), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) or both. Th

  17. Review of squamous premalignant vulvar lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Hullu, J.A. de

    2008-01-01

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) develops following two different pathways, which have their own premalignant lesions. In the absence of human papilloma virus (HPV), vulvar SCC can develop in a background of lichen sclerosus (LS), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) or both. Th

  18. Recent advances in understanding urethral lichen sclerosus [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Mangera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus affecting the male genitalia is a poorly understood but potentially devastating condition. The natural history of the condition is beginning to be understood better with longer follow-up of patients. Recent long-term data suggest that circumcision for lichen sclerosus limited to the prepuce may not be curative as was once thought. In addition, surgical treatments should be followed up for longer periods as recurrences may occur after urethroplasty and perineal urethrostomy.

  19. Recent advances in understanding urethral lichen sclerosus [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Altaf Mangera; Nadir Osman; Christopher Chapple

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus affecting the male genitalia is a poorly understood but potentially devastating condition. The natural history of the condition is beginning to be understood better with longer follow-up of patients. Recent long-term data suggest that circumcision for lichen sclerosus limited to the prepuce may not be curative as was once thought. In addition, surgical treatments should be followed up for longer periods as recurrences may occur after urethroplasty and perineal urethrostomy.

  20. Effects of Intravenous Ketamine Infusions in a Neuropathic Pain Patient with Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Ashraf F.; Armstrong, Josh S.; Smith, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    A patient reported to the Florida Spine Institute (Clearwater, Fla., USA) with severe lichen sclerosus of the anogenital region and legs. The patient's pain presentation was neuropathic with hypersensitivity, allodynia, swelling, and weakness. The patient had failed multiple pain management modalities including opioid therapy, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants. The patient completed a standard intravenous ketamine infusion regimen developed at the Florida Spine Institute and reported complete abolishment of her pain syndrome. For the first time, we report that ketamine infusions also dramatically improved a patient's lichen sclerosus. That ketamine is known to have immunomodulatory properties, and given the clinical observations described in this case report, suggests that ketamine should be explored as a possible new therapeutic option for managing lichen sclerosus, especially in cases that are refractory to conventional therapies. PMID:27462225

  1. Bacterial vaginosis in the context of lichen sclerosus in a prepubertal girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feito-Rodríguez, Marta; Noguera-Morel, Lucero; Casas-Rivero, José; García-Rodríguez, Julio; de Lucas-Laguna, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus cause most vulvovaginal infections seen in prepubertal girls. Bacterial vaginosis is a common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age but is rare in children. Data are insufficient to suggest that bacterial vaginosis is an exclusively sexually transmitted disease. We report a 10-year-old girl with no history or suspicion of sexual abuse who developed bacterial vaginosis in the context of a lichen sclerosus being treated with tacrolimus ointment. Secondary bacterial infection in lichen sclerosus is uncommon. We speculate that the immunosuppressive effect of topical tacrolimus could have triggered the infection.

  2. Extra genital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus with cutaneous distribution and morphology simulating lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumi Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA also known as Csillag′s disease, characterized by small, porcelain white, sclerotic areas occur at any site on the skin including mucosa. There is strong association of autoimmune disorders with LSA. Lichen planus (LP is an inflammatory, papulosquamous disorder characterized by erythematous to violaceous, flat topped, polygonal, pruritic papules distributed mainly on flexural aspects like wrist, around ankles, lumbar region, trunk and neck and also involves mucous membranes, hair, and nail. LP and LSA share similar clinical and pathological features. There have been a few reported cases in the literature of the coexistence of LP and LSA. We reported a case of 39-years-old female having LSA with cutaneous distribution and morphologically simulating LP.

  3. Penile lichen sclerosus: An urologist's nightmare! - A single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitendra Pratap; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Goel, Hemant Kumar; Vijay, Mukesh Kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Sudip; Kundu, Anup Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Penile lichen sclerosus (LS) is a nagging condition and its progression result in devastating urinary and sexual problems and reduction in the quality-of-life. This study has been carried out to present our experience about this disease with simultaneous review of the available literature. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has been done at a tertiary care center of eastern India. The data of 306 patients affected with LS were analyzed for clinical presentation, physical examination, investigations, and treatment offered. Results: Presenting symptoms were non-specific. The prepuce was most commonly involved location followed by glans and meatus. Urethral involvement was not isolated as the primary site. Circumcision was done in 237 patients, while 63 patients underwent meatotomy. Thirty-six of 39 cases of LS induced stricture were treated with buccal mucosal graft (BMG) either in one stage or in two stages. Conclusion: LS varies from being a highly aggressive disease of the penis and anterior urethra to a burnt out condition affecting just the meatus and surrounding glans. Early diagnosis and treatment are required to prevent its complication and associated morbidity. Management depends on the anatomical location of lesion, extent of involvement, rapidity of progression and its severity. Use of BMG in LS induced urethral stricture has shown encouraging results. PMID:26229314

  4. Penile Melanosis Associated with Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus: First Description in the Medical Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a 74-year-old male patient with 3-years history of visible discoloration of the glans penis, without subjective complaints. Histopathological examination after incision biopsy revealed a moderate increase in the number of melanocytes in the basal layer with irregular distribution, without melanocytic nests, melanophages in the superficial dermis, and subepidermal sclerosus. No cytologic atypia of melanocytes was detectable. The diagnosis of melanosis of the genitalia in association with lichen sclerosus was made. The importance of the presented cases implicated the unique clinical manifestation of penile melanosis, associated with lichen sclerosus of the penis in one hand, the essential differentiation between malignant melanoma via careful histological examination for diagnosis confirmation in other, in order to optimize the therapeutic behavior.

  5. Granuloma Annulare, Autoimmune Thyroiditis, and Lichen Sclerosus in a Woman: Randomness or Significant Association?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariele De Paola; Anastasia Batsikosta; Luca Feci; Mattia Benedetti; Roberta Bilenchi

    2013-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old Caucasian female with a 2-year history of diffused granuloma annulare (GA), who presented for the simultaneous occurrence of genital lichen sclerosus (LS) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). In our opinion this combination is not just coincidental but may share similar immunopathological mechanisms.

  6. Granuloma Annulare, Autoimmune Thyroiditis, and Lichen Sclerosus in a Woman: Randomness or Significant Association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele De Paola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 60-year-old Caucasian female with a 2-year history of diffused granuloma annulare (GA, who presented for the simultaneous occurrence of genital lichen sclerosus (LS and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT. In our opinion this combination is not just coincidental but may share similar immunopathological mechanisms.

  7. A rare case of unilateral eosinophilic fasciitis associated with ipsilateral extragenital lichen sclerosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis, also known as Shulman's syndrome, is a fibrosing scleroderma-like syndrome, which is a distinct entity. A 55-year-old man, presented with progressive skin darkening, thickening, and tightening over the left lower limb since 6 months. Dermatological examination revealed a hyperpigmented indurated area on the left thigh, extending to the anterior aspect of the left leg. A well-defined hypopigmented indurated plaque was present over the left iliac region. Histopathology and imaging studies confirmed the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis and lichen sclerosus. The indurated lesion on the left lower limb responded dramatically well to oral corticosteroids. This is a rare case of unilateral eosinophilic fasciitis associated with ipsilateral extragenital lichen sclerosus.

  8. 肝肾阴虚型外阴硬化性苔癣与杀伤细胞免疫球蛋白受体基因多态性的相关研究%Association study between vulvar lichen sclerosus of the liver and kidney yin-deficiency type and polymorphisms of killer cell immunoglobulin-like recepter gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂兰; 曹峰林; 赵铭宇; 石晶; 刘树辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation among vulvar lichen sclerosus(VLS),liver and kidneyyindeficiency type and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene polymorphism.Methods Totally 30 patients with liver and kidney indeficiency were as experimental group and the 30 healthy women were as control group.Mter the human genomic DNA of human peripheral blood leukocytes was tested; 14 polymorphisms of KIR gene were amplified by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP) method.Results We detected all the 14 KIR gene polymorphisms in 30 VLS cases and 30 controls.Besides frame gene,phenotype frequency of KIR2DL3,KIR3DL1 gene was also 100% ; phenotype frequency of KIR2DLl was >90%,followed by KIR2DL5,KIR2DS2,KIR2DS4,KIR2DS5 phenotype frequencies.Among them,KIR2DL2 and KIR3DS1 had significant differences between twogroups(P <0.01) ; the gene frequencies were 0.03 and 0.07.There were no significant difference amongother 12 genes (P > 0.05).Conclusions There is a correlation between KIR gene polymorphisms and the onset of the liver and kidney yin deficiency type VLS' inhibitory gene KIR2DL2 ;the activated gene KIR3DS1 may be the antagonistic gene of VLS.The gene differential expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of liver and kidney yin deficiency type VLS.%目的 探讨肝肾阴虚型外阴硬化性苔癣(VLS)与杀伤细胞免疫球蛋白样受体(KIR)基因多态性的相关性.方法 选择30例肝肾阴虚型外阴硬化性苔癣患者作为试验组,30例体检健康女性为对照组.取受试者外周静脉血提取出人类基因组DNA,采用序列特异性引物聚合酶链反应(PCR-SSP)的方法,扩增出KIR基因的14个基因型.结果 30例VLS患者和30例健康对照个体中共检出了14个KIR基因,除框架基因KIR2DL4、KIR3DL2和KIR3DL3之外,KIR3DL1、KIR2DL3基因的表现型频率也是100%,KIR2DL1基因的表现型频率大于90%;其余依次为KIR2DL5、KIR2DS2、KIR2DS4、KIR2DS5

  9. Vulvar Skin Disorders throughout Lifetime: About Some Representative Dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Doyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present general considerations which should be kept in mind by clinicians in charge of women with vulvar diseases. Four representative vulvar dermatoses are described. Lichen simplex chronicus is a pathological condition related to chemical and mechanical irritant agents. Detrimental effects of these irritants, in the presence of other dermatoses, have to be considered when therapeutic responses are unsatisfactory. Lichen sclerosus is the most common vulvar dermatosis in elderly. However, it should be kept in mind that it may be diagnosed at any age. Lichen planus, in spite of sharing a similar range of etiological factors with lichen sclerosus, is a very distinct entity. Finally, Paget’s disease, although rare, is also described especially because of the challenge it represents both clinically and therapeutically.

  10. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, scleroderma en coup de sabre and Lyme borreliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Bonin; Nicoletta Gubertini; Giusto Trevisan

    2011-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicans (LSA) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology, characterized by atrophy. We report a case of LSA with frontoparietal distribution, mimicking scleroderma en coup de sabre, causing scarring alopecia. The case was associated with Borrelia infection. The lesion improved with 2 cycles of antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone 2 gr /day i.v for 21 days associated with UVA-1 therapy and local and systemic vitamin E supply (400 mg 2x/day per os for 3 ...

  11. Small vulvar squamous cell carcinomas and adjacent tissues. A morphologic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hemming; Junge, Jette; Vyberg, Mogens;

    2003-01-01

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinomas are of different subtypes and degrees of differentiation, and may be associated with adjacent lichen sclerosus and/or varying degrees of dysplasia. The aim of this investigation was to study small carcinomas with a diameter of less than 2 cm in order to find...... a possible relation between subtypes of carcinomas and adjacent epithelial changes. Fourteen cases of small vulvar squamous cell carcinomas were totally embedded in paraffin. Serial sectioning made a detailed mapping of all different lesions possible, and a two- and three-dimensional imaging was obtained...... in each case. Seven patients with keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (median age 65) had adjacent lichen sclerosus. All carcinomas were completely surrounded by areas of VIN1. VIN2 and VIN3 were not found. Seven patients without lichen sclerosus (median age 58) showed squamous cell carcinomas...

  12. Interstitial Mycosis Fungoides With Lichen Sclerosus-Like Clinical and Histopathological Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Burak; Kempf, Werner; Seckin, Dilek; Ergun, Tulin; Yucelten, Deniz; Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2016-02-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) simulates a variety of dermatologic disorders histopathologically and clinically, well deserving the designation of a great mimicker. Interstitial MF is a rare, but well-recognized histopathological variant resembling the interstitial form of granuloma annulare or the inflammatory phase of morphea. From a clinical standpoint, MF can have a wide array of manifestations, including an anecdotal presentation with lesions clinically suggestive of lichen sclerosus (LS). We herein report a 25-year-old man with a history of patch-stage MF who later developed widespread LS-like lesions histopathologically consistent with interstitial MF. In some biopsies, additional features resembling LS were discerned. We think that our case might represent a unique variant of interstitial MF presenting with LS-like lesions. The diagnostic challenge arising from this uncommon presentation is discussed together with review of the literature.

  13. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, scleroderma en coup de sabre and Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubertini, Nicoletta; Bonin, Serena; Trevisan, Giusto

    2011-08-03

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicans (LSA) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology, characterized by atrophy. We report a case of LSA with frontoparietal distribution, mimicking scleroderma en coup de sabre, causing scarring alopecia. The case was associated with Borrelia infection. The lesion improved with 2 cycles of antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone 2 gr/day i.v for 21 days associated with UVA-1 therapy and local and systemic vitamin E supply (400 mg 2x/day per os for 3 months). This case stresses the importance of identifying clinical manifestations associated with Lyme disease and the use of tissue PCR to detect borrelial DNA in patients with these lesions, but characterized by negative serology for Borrelia.

  14. Oral lichen sclerosus expressing extracellular matrix proteins and IgG4-positive plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Aquino Xavier, Flavia Calo; Prates, Alisio Alves; Gurgel, Clarissa Araujo; De Souza, Tulio Geraldo; Andrade, Rodrigo Guimaraes; Goncalves Ramos, Eduardo Antonio; Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana Maria; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2014-09-16

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a mucocutaneous disease with uncommon oral involvement. The etiology is not yet well understood, but LS has been associated with autoimmune, genetic, and immunological factors. We report a 47-year-old man with LS that exhibited an asymptomatic white plaque with red patches on the maxillary alveolar mucosa extending to the labial mucosa. He had no other skin disease. Positive immunostaining for tenascin and scarcity of fibronectin suggested extracellular matrix reorganization. Elastin immunostaining indicated a reduction of elastic fibers. Immunoexpression of collagen IV in blood vessels and its absence in the epithelial basement membrane, together with diffuse MMP-9 immunoexpression, suggested altered proteolytic activity. Mast cell staining bordering areas of sclerosis indicated a possible role in the synthesis of collagen. IgG4 positivity in plasma cells suggested a role in the fibrogenesis. This is an unusual presentation of oral LS and we discuss immunohistochemical findings regarding cellular and extracellular matrix components.

  15. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, scleroderma en coup de sabre and Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Bonin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus et atrophicans (LSA is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology, characterized by atrophy. We report a case of LSA with frontoparietal distribution, mimicking scleroderma en coup de sabre, causing scarring alopecia. The case was associated with Borrelia infection. The lesion improved with 2 cycles of antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone 2 gr /day i.v for 21 days associated with UVA-1 therapy and local and systemic vitamin E supply (400 mg 2x/day per os for 3 months. This case stresses the importance of identifying clinical manifestations associated with Lyme disease and the use of tissue PCR to detect borrelial DNA in patients with these lesions, but characterized by negative serology for Borrelia.

  16. Wie krank ist die Vorhaut? Der Lichen sclerosus: Eine wichtige Entität im Kindesalter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert A-K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Das mögliche Behandlungsspektrum nicht retrahierbarer Vorhäute (= Phimose reicht von der topischen Kortisontherapie über vorhauterhaltende Erweiterungsplastiken bis zur radikalen Zirkumzision. Dabei weist die Mehrzahl der klinisch eindeutigen Phimosen eine normale Vorhauthistologie auf. Jedoch kann auch im Kindesalter ein Lichen sclerosus (LS in bis zu 20 % der Zirkumzisionen nachgewiesen werden. Methoden: Zwischen 08/ 2005 und 08/2007 wurden in der Kinderurologischen Klinik Regensburg 222 konsekutive Vorhautbiopsien histologisch untersucht. 69,8 % hatten eine normale Vorhauthistologie, 11,3 % einen LS, 8,1 % einen initialen Lichen und je 3,6 % eine unspezifische Entzündung, eine narbige Fibrose oder eine atopische Dermatitis. Allen 25 Patienten mit klassischem LS wurde eine Nachbehandlung mit topischem Tacrolimus im Sinne einer Anwendungsbeobachtung als „Off-label use“ angeboten. 20 Patienten applizierten postoperativ topisch Tacrolimus-0,1-%-Salbe für 3 Wochen und wurden median 13 Monate nachbeobachtet. 18 Patienten mit einem initialen Lichen wurden im gleichen Zeitraum ohne Therapie nachbeobachtet. Ergebnisse: Die topische Tacrolimus-Applikation wurde nebenwirkungsfrei vertragen, wobei 18 Patienten rezidivfrei blieben. Zwei Glans-Rezidive heilten erneut topisch mit Tacrolimus-0,1-%-Salbe aus. Keiner der Patienten mit einer lichenoiden Frühform erlitt ein Rezidiv oder einen Progress. Schlussfolgerungen: Der LS stellt eine schwer zu charakterisierende Erkrankung der Vorhaut, Glans und anterioren Urethra dar. Da es jedoch keine prädiktiven Faktoren für einen Progress oder ein mögliches Rezidiv des LS gibt, empfiehlt sich eine topische antientzündliche Nachbehandlung bei histologischer Diagnosestellung des LS unabhängig von der Lokalisation. Die anschließende Nachbeobachtung sollte engmaschig sein, um Rezidive frühzeitig erkennen und therapieren zu können.

  17. Human Papillomavirus-Induced Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Vulvar Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regauer, Sigrid; Eberz, Barbara; Reich, Olaf

    2016-10-01

    Approximately 50% of vulvar cancers arise after transforming infections with human papilloma virus (HPV) via the precursor squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). Lichen planus (LP)-associated vulvar cancers are typically HPV negative and arise via the precursor differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (d-VIN). An index case of vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL) in an LP patient prompted this 12-year retrospective analysis about frequency of HPV-induced SIL in 785 biopsies of 584 patients with vulvar LP. All SIL were analyzed for p53 and p16 overexpression and for presence of DNA of 32 HPV subtypes. Nine (1.6%) of 584 women with papular (3) and mucosal "erosive" LP (6) presented with H-SIL (7) and low-grade SIL (2). All SILs harbored HPV16-DNA and showed p16-overexpression. Concomitant immune suppression included T-suppressor lymphocyte deficit (1), systemic (1), and topical (2) cortisone therapy. H-SILs regressed spontaneously (1) or after imiquimod therapy (3). Three women with erosive LP discontinued imiquimod because of side effects and had laser destruction (1), skinning vulvectomy (1), and surgery (1) for definitive treatment. Two women have recurrent vulvar SILs, and 1 woman progressed to invasive SCC. In the same patient population, 16 of 584 women had a d-VIN, and 9 of 16 with progression to SCC. H-SILs in vulvar LP are rare and may occur in the setting of risk factors. If clinical suspicion arises, biopsy and histological examination assist in correct etiologic classification of a precancerous lesion and subsequent therapy decisions. The minimal risk for H-SIL development in vulvar LP patients should not preclude therapy of LP.

  18. Small vulvar squamous cell carcinomas and adjacent tissues. A morphologic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hemming; Junge, Jette; Vyberg, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    in each case. Seven patients with keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (median age 65) had adjacent lichen sclerosus. All carcinomas were completely surrounded by areas of VIN1. VIN2 and VIN3 were not found. Seven patients without lichen sclerosus (median age 58) showed squamous cell carcinomas...... of the keratinizing type (n=2) or the basaloid type (n=5). Five of these cases were incompletely surrounded by varying degrees of dysplasia, mainly VIN2 and VIN3. Two different pathogenetic pathways for the development of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma are likely....

  19. Genital verrucous carcinoma is associated with lichen sclerosus: a retrospective study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S-H; Chi, C-C; Wong, Y W; Salim, A; Manek, S; Wojnarowska, F

    2010-07-01

    The association of lichen sclerosus (LS) with genital squamous cell carcinoma is well recognized. However, the relationship between LS and verrucous carcinoma remains unclear. To evaluate the associations of genital and perianal verrucous carcinomas with LS. We conducted a retrospective study on patients with a genital or perianal verrucous carcinoma and reviewed their histopathology specimens and clinical notes. We also conducted a literature review. We identified a total of 13 patients (including 6 women and 7 men) with a genital or perianal verrucous carcinoma. All 5 women with vulval verrucous carcinoma had coexisting LS (5/5), and 1 man with penile verrucous carcinoma had coexisting LS (1/3). In contrast, no coexisting LS was found in all 5 cases of perianal verrucous carcinoma (0/5). Half of the cases of verrucous carcinoma with coexisting LS had recurrences (3/6), while no recurrences were found in those without coexisting LS (0/7). Our study and review of the literature demonstrate that vulval verrucous carcinoma is strongly associated with LS. In contrast, perianal verrucous carcinoma is not associated with LS. When genital verrucous carcinoma is diagnosed, it is important to consider LS as a potential concomitant diagnosis and offer appropriate treatments and close follow-up to detect recurrence of verrucous carcinoma.

  20. Rapid onset of squamous cell carcinoma in a short-standing lichen sclerosus et atrophicus of the penis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lei; ZHENG Song; GAO Xing-hua

    2009-01-01

    @@ Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) of the male genitalia was a chronic, sclerosing, atrophic process of the glans and foreskin. Atrophy and scarring in the penis can lead to urethral stricture, acquired phimosis,even a significant reduction of physiological function.Though its prognosis is usually benign, the risk of penile carcinoma in patients with LSA remains uncertain. We report a 36-year-old patient of aggressive penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising on LSA of the penis within a short period.

  1. Polarized hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo detection of vulvar lichen sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yingjie; Ren, Wenqi; Liu, Songde; Liu, Peng; Xie, Lan; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Shiwu; Chang, Shufang; Xu, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    Vulvar lichen sclerosis (VLS) is a chronic, inflammatory and mucocutaneous disease of extragenital skin, which often goes undetected for years. The underlying causes are associated with the decrease of VEGF that reduces the blood oxygenation of vulva and the structural changes in the collagen fibrils, which can lead to scarring of the affected area. However, few methods are available for quantitative detection of VLS. Clinician's examinations are subjective and may lead to misdiagnosis. Spectroscopy is a potentially effective method for noninvasive detection of VLS. In this paper, we developed a polarized, hyperspectral imaging system for quantitative assessment. The system utilized a hyperspectral camera to collect the reflectance images of the entire vulva under Xenon lamp illumination with and without a polarizer in front of the fiber. One image (Ipar) acquired with the AOTF parallel to the polarization of illumination and the other image (Iper) acquired with the AOTF perpendicular to the illumination. This paper compares polarized images of VLS in a pilot clinical study. The collected reflectance data under Xenon lamp illumination without a polarizer are calibrated and the hyperspectral signals are extracted. An IRB approved clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the clinical utility for VLS detection. Our pilot study has demonstrated the technical potential of using this polarized hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo detection of vulvar lichen sclerosis.

  2. The presence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in male Chinese lichen sclerosus patients: a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the presence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in male lichen sclerosus patients. We extracted DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded foreskin tissue blocks of 47 male LS patients and 30 healthy men and performed real-time PCR test to detect HPV and EBV. None of the 47 LS patients and 30 healthy men had detectable HPV infection. EBV was detected in 18 LS patients (38.3% and four healthy men (13.3%, the difference is significant (P < 0.05. Tissue blocks with significant inflammatory reaction tend to have higher EBV load. HPV has no significant relationship with LS. Male LS patients have higher EBV infection rate, but the role of EBV in the pathogenesis of LS needs further investigate.

  3. Decorina e Condroitim sulfato na remodelação da matriz extracelular do línquen escleroso vulvar Decorin and chondroitin sulfate in linchen sclerosus extracellular matrix remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Carvalho Corrêa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O líquen escleroso (LS apresenta zona de hialinização do colágeno na derme superior característica, que persiste pouco definida do ponto de vista morfológico e cujo significado permanece sem explicação. Já se pôde demonstrar que no LS há profundas modificações da matriz extracelular (MEC, com acúmulo de proteínas colagênicas e de glicosaminoglicanos sulfatados na região hialina. OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar morfologicamente a presença nessa zona de decorina e condroitim sulfato que, ao interagir com as fibrilas colágenas, entre outras proteínas matriciais, poderiam contribuir para essa peculiar apresentação da MEC. MÉTODOS: 31 casos de LS vulvar foram subdivididos segundo a gradação histológica de Hewitt e analisados por imuno-histoquímica utilizando anticorpos contra decorina e condroitim sulfato revelados pela diaminobenzidina. Esses resultados foram comparados aos do grupo controle constituído por fragmentos de retalhos cutâneos excisados durante cirurgias corretivas da região vulvoperineal. RESULTADOS: Ocorreu predomínio da decorina quando a matriz apresentava um aspecto frouxo/edematoso, e o condroitim sulfato foi mais evidente quando a MEC assumia um padrão compacto, parecendo que ambos contribuem para o aspecto hialino, porém em fases diferentes da patogenia dessa doença. CONCLUSÕES: A seqüência observada na síntese desses proteoglicanos/glicosaminoglicanos levou à suposição de que a decorina seja um possível marcador precoce do LS vulvar e de que o condroitim sulfato possa estar relacionado à contenção da alteração matricial no nível da derme média.BACKGROUND: Lichen sclerosus is characterized by a collagenous hyaline/homogeneous zone at upper dermis, which remains undefined morphologically and biologically. Our previous investigation showed that there are several changes at the extracellular matrix hyaline zone, such as accumulation of collagenic proteins (types I and III and

  4. A Comparative Study Of The Predisposing Factors And Natural History Of Lichen sclerosus ET Atrophicus (LSA In Children And Adults

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    Iraji Fariba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis that results in white plaques with epidermal atrophy usually affecting the genital area in both adults and children. The causes of LSA are not clear but possible predisponsing factors include trauma, infection (borrelia, human papilloma virus, autoimmune diseases and local irritation. This study is a retrospective case review of children and adults with LSA attending the department of Dermatology at the Royal Infirmary in Edinburgh, clinical notes for 22 patients were reviewed for age, sex, personal and familial history, symptoms associated diseases and clinical course and treatment. The mean ages at diagnosis of LSA in 9 children (8F: 1M and 13 adults (13 F were 7 and 57.5 years respectively. The mean duration of illness was 1.5 year in children and 5.5 year in adults. Itching was the most common symptom in both children and adults. Children also suffered with difficulties in defaecation and in micturation , dribbling, incontinence, constipation and bleeding. Atopy and hypothyroidism were common associated conditions in both the groups. Squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva was confirmed in two adult patients. This study showed the variable symptoms in children, which seemed more severe than in the adult population.

  5. Composition of the inflammatory infiltrate in pediatric penile lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (balanitis xerotica obliterans): a prospective, comparative immunophenotyping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, S A; Ciftci, A O; Khine, M M; Rickwood, A M; Ashwood, J; McGill, F; Clapham, E M; van Velzen, D

    1994-01-01

    Dermatopathological evaluation of pediatric preputial inflammatory disease rarely allows for specific diagnosis other than pediatric penile lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (balanitis xerotica obliterans, LSA/BXO). A prospective immunopathological study was performed on 20 consecutive, unselected, clinically and histopathologically confirmed LSA/BXO cases to determine the relative presence of T and B lymphocytes. There were seven cases with early stages of disease, eight with florid disease, and five with later stages of disease. Two ritual circumcision specimens and 12 specimens with non-LSA/BXO balanitis, collected during the same period, were used as controls. The infiltrate in LSA/BXO patients was wholly composed of T cells (positive with UCLH-1 antibody) in all cases. B cells (positive with L-26 antibody) were found only focally in small, discreet, easily recognizable (follicular or early follicle-like) aggregates, positioned slightly deeper than the band-like infiltrate of T cells. T cells were inconspicuous in 9 of the 12 control specimens. In the three other controls, T cells were much more obvious and these patients showed clinical features possibly suggestive of LSA/BXO in early, prediagnosable phases of development. We conclude that limited immunophenotyping may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis in pediatric cases in which only limited tissue is available or the disease may be more difficult to classify with confidence.

  6. Diversity of patient profile, urethral stricture, and other disease manifestations in a cohort of adult men with lichen sclerosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Peter Stanford; Yi, Yooni; Hadj-Moussa, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lichen sclerosus (LS) in men is poorly understood. Though uncommon, it is often severe and leads to repeated surgical interventions and deterioration in quality of life. We highlight variability in disease presentation, diagnosis, and patient factors in male LS patients evaluated at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed charts of male patients presenting to our reconstructive urology clinic with clinical or pathologic diagnosis of LS between 2004 and 2014. Relevant clinical and demographic information was abstracted and descriptive statistics calculated. Subgroup comparisons were made based on body mass index (BMI), urethral stricture, and pathologic confirmation of disease. Results We identified 94 patients with clinical diagnosis of LS. Seventy percent (70%) of patients in this cohort had BMI >30 kg/m2, and average age was 51.5 years. Lower BMI patients were more likely to suffer from urethral stricture disease compared to overweight counterparts (p=0.037). Patients presenting with stricture disease were more likely to be younger (p=0.003). Thirty percent (30%) of this cohort had a pathologic diagnosis of LS. Conclusions Urethral stricture is the most common presentation for men with LS. Many patients endure skin scarring and have numerous comorbidities. Patient profile is diverse, raising the concern that not all patients with clinical diagnosis of LS are suffering from identical disease processes. The rate of pathologic confirmation at a tertiary care institution is alarmingly low. Our findings support a role for increased focus on pathologic confirmation and further delineation of the subtype of disease based on location and clinical manifestations. PMID:27195319

  7. Differential expression of oestrogen receptor isoforms and androgen receptor in the normal vulva and vagina compared with vulval lichen sclerosus and chronic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A H; Guzail, M; Al-Azzawi, F

    2008-02-01

    Although the expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) alpha isoform and androgen receptor (AR) has been examined in vulval lichen sclerosus (VLS), the distribution pattern of ERalpha, ERbeta and AR has not been described in chronic atrophic vaginitis nor correlated with markers of proliferation (Ki-67) in either of these diseased tissues. To measure the levels and distribution of ERalpha, ERbeta and AR immunoreactivity in relation to Ki-67 in normal and diseased vulva and vagina. The expression of ERalpha, ERbeta and AR in relation to the proliferation marker Ki-67 in VLS, squamous hyperplasia of the vulva and chronic atrophic vaginitis was determined by immunohistomorphometric analysis and compared with that in normal vulva and vagina. VLS showed similar ERalpha and ERbeta expression in the 'epidermal' and 'dermal' tissue layers to that of normal vulvae, whereas AR expression appeared to be absent in most cases. ERbeta and Ki-67 expression was correlated with ERalpha expression but only in the 'fibrovascular' layer of the vulva. ERalpha expression was absent from the 'fibromuscular' layer of diseased vulvae, while ERbeta expression was absent in normal tissues but was highly expressed in diseased vulvae. ERalpha expression was significantly correlated with AR expression in the fibrovascular layer of the vagina and inversely correlated with Ki-67 staining in the parabasal cells of the epidermis in patients with chronic atrophic vaginitis. These data suggest that ER expression and levels may be implicated in the aetiopathology of VLS and chronic atrophic vaginitis.

  8. Liquen escleroso extragenital ampollar y hemorrágico: a propósito de un caso Extra-genital bullous and haemorrhagic lichen sclerosus: a case report

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    JM López Bertrán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El liquen escleroso (LE es una enfermedad inflamatoria, crónica y benigna. De etiología desconocida, se ha vinculado con diversos factores autoinmunológicos, genéticos, hormonales, infecciosos y traumáticos. Hay dos variedades clínicas de esta enfermedad: genital y extra-genital. La localización más frecuente en ambos sexos es la genital. Se presenta un caso clínico de LE extra-genital, con lesiones cutáneas poco frecuentes, ampollares y hemorrágicas, que coexistían con placas atróficas de larga evolución, no diagnosticadas previamente.Lichen sclerosus is an inflammatory disease, benign, chronic, of unknown aetiology. It has been linked with many factors such as autoimmune, genetic, hormonal and infectious diseases, as well as trauma. There are two clinical types of this disease: genital and extra-genital. The most frequent in both sexes is the genital form. We present a rare case of extra-genital localization with bullous and haemorrhagic manifestations that co-existed with late atrophic plaques, previously undiagnosed.

  9. The Use of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in the Treatment of Physiological and Pathological Vulvar Dystrophies

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    Maria Giuseppina Onesti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Vulvar dystrophy” is characterized by chronic alterations of vulvar trophism, occurring in both physiological (menopause and pathological (lichen sclerosus, vulvar graft-versus-host disease conditions. Associated symptoms are itching, burning, dyspareunia and vaginal dryness. Current treatments often do not imply a complete remission of symptoms. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs injection represents a valid alternative therapy to enhance trophism and tone of dystrophic tissues. We evaluated efficacy of ADSCs-based therapy in the dystrophic areas. From February to April 2013 we enrolled 8 patients with vulvar dystrophy. A biopsy specimen was performed before and after treatment. Digital photographs were taken at baseline and during the follow-up. Pain was detected with Visual Analogue Scale and sexual function was evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index. All patients received 2 treatments in 3 months. Follow-up was at 1 week , 1 and 3 months, and 1 and 2 years. We obtained a significant vulvar trophism enhancement in all patients, who reported pain reduction and sexual function improvement. Objective exam with speculum was easy to perform after treatment. We believe ADSCs-based therapy finds its application in the treatment of vulvar dystrophies, since ADSCs could induce increased vascularization due to their angiogenic properties and tissue trophism improvement thanks to their eutrophic effect.

  10. Genetic and epigenetic changes in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trietsch, Marjolijn D; Nooij, Linda S; Gaarenstroom, Katja N; van Poelgeest, Mariette I E

    2015-01-01

    Vulvar cancer is a relatively rare gynecologic malignancy with an annual incidence in developed countries of approximately 2 per 100,000 women. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) has two etiological pathways: a high risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent route, which has usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) as a precursor lesion, and an HPV-independent route, which is associated with differentiated VIN (dVIN), lichen sclerosus, and genetic alterations, such as TP53 mutations. Research on the molecular etiology of vulvar cancer has increased in the past years, not only regarding genetic alterations, but also epigenetic changes. In genetic alterations, a mutation irreversibly changes the nucleotide sequence of the DNA, or the number of copies of chromosomes per cell is altered. In epigenetics, the nucleotide sequence remains the same but genes can be 'switched' on or off by, for example, DNA methylation or histone modification. We searched the current literature on genetic and epigenetic alterations in VSCC and its precursor lesions. Many studies have reported a higher incidence of somatic mutations in HPV-negative tumors compared to HPV-positive tumors, with TP53 mutations being the most frequent. Allelic imbalances or loss of heterozygosity are more frequently found in higher stages of dysplasia and in invasive carcinomas, but it is not exclusive to HPV-negative tumors. A limited number of studies are available on epigenetic changes in vulvar lesions, with hypermethylation of CDKN2A being the most frequently investigated change. For most genes, hypermethylation occurs more frequently in vulvar squamous cell carcinomas than in precursor lesions. As most studies have focused on HPV infection and TP53 mutations, we suggest that more research should be performed using whole genome or next generation sequencing to determine the true landscape of genetic and epigenetic alterations in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Líquen escleroso e atrófico: relato de dois casos de apresentação atípica Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus: report of two cases with atypical presentations

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    Weber Soares Coelho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O líquen escleroso e atrófico é doença crônica da pele que se apresenta clinicamente de forma variada. Pode acometer mulheres e, menos freqüentemente, homens e crianças, sendo a área mais afetada a região anogenital. Há forte associação com doenças auto-imunes, e estudos imunogenéticos têm revelado associação com o HLA DQ7. Raramente acomete áreas extragenitais; entretanto, os autores relatam dois casos da doença, com localizações atípicas (extragenitais e fazem uma abordagem terapêutica distinta. O uso tópico de corticoterapia de alta potência é relatado, porém, com riscos; enquanto agentes imunomoduladores tópicos são descritos com boa resposta clínica e com menor risco de atrofia.Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic skin disease with multiple clinical presentations. It affects women, and less frequently men and children. The disease is usually located in the anal and genital regions. There is a strong association with autoimmune diseases, and immunogenetic studies demonstrated an association with HLA DQ7. The disease rarely affects extra-genital regions. The authors report two cases of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in atypical locations (extra-genital, in which different management was used. High potency topical corticosteroid therapy is reported, with risks, however. Topical immunomodulating agents are described, obtaining favorable clinical responses and decreased risk of atrophy.

  12. [Common vulvar dermatologic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Jeskanen, Leila

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of cutaneous diseases can affect genital area. Some of these dermatoses are predominantly present in vulvar area while others primarily occur in extra-genital skin areas. Genital area is susceptible to maceration and the combination of moisture and warmth together with the increased penetration of topical agents make the region vulnerable for mechanical and chemical irritation. Lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) is a secondary condition precipitated by chronic itching and scratching. Scratching may be caused by some dermatoses or candida infection. Chronic systemic dermatoses most commonly affecting vulval area are various eczemas, psoriasis, lichen sclerorus and lichen planus.

  13. Lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bennett, James P

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than twenty lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered. PMID:22453171

  14. Development in treatment of vulvar intraepithelial non-neoplastic lesions%外阴上皮内非瘤样变治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫星妹; 任红莲; 何淑莹

    2009-01-01

    外阴上皮内非瘤样病变是一组慢性疾病,根据1987年国际外阴疾病研究协会与国际妇科病理学家协会共同制定的新外阴皮肤疾病分类法,外阴上皮内非瘤样病变分为外阴鳞状上皮增生、外阴硬化性苔癣及其他皮肤病.因其病因不明确,临床上许多治疗方法虽能暂时控制其症状,但复发率较高.故临床医师正努力探索各种方法以提高患者的治愈率,降低复发率.该文就外阴上皮内非瘤样变治疗进展作以综述.%Vulvar intraepithelial non-neoplastic lesion is a chronic inflammatory disease of skin and mucosa in vulva. According to new classification of vular dermopathy formulated by International Vulvar Disease Research Association and International Gynecologist-pathologist Association in 1987, vulvar intraepithelial non-neoplastic lesions are classified into vulvar squamous cell hyperplasia and vulvar lichen sclerosus and other vulvar dermoses. Because etiology of the disease is unclear till now, there is no optimal therapy for it. Although many therapies can control symptoms of the disease temporarily, the recurrence rate is hight in clinic.In this paper, we summarized development in therapies of vular intraepithelial non-neoplastic lesions.

  15. Hematoma Vulvar

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    Andrea W. Choque Campero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de Sexo femenino de 29 anos de edad acudio a consulta externa del Hospital “German Urquidi” por dolor y molestia en region peri vulvar, diagnosticándose “hematoma vulvar” de causa obstétrica (Laceracion de trayecto, mala técnica de sutura de episiotomia.

  16. Neoplasia intra-epitelial grau III da vulva e da região perianal tratada com vulvectomia superficial: relato de caso High-grade vulvar and perianal intraepithelial neoplasia treated with skinning vulvectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walquíria Quida Salles Pereira Primo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A neoplasia intra-epitelial vulvar grau III (NIV III se manifesta de modo visível, portanto, acessível à biópsia e, por conseguinte, ao diagnóstico histológico. Há duas formas precursoras do câncer vulvar: a NIV associada ao papiloma vírus humano (HPV e a NIV associada ao líquen simples crônico, hiperplasia de células escamosas e líquen escleroso, não tratados. Porém, pode existir sobreposição das duas formas. O termo papulose bowenóide, apesar de ser desencorajado, define uma das formas clínicas da NIV, que se apresenta como lesões pigmentadas, verruciformes, papulares e múltiplas. A NIV III está associada com HPV em mais de 80% dos casos e em 40% das vezes, nota-se envolvimento perianal. O seu tratamento é muito difícil e pode ocorrer recorrência em qualquer tempo e por muitos anos. Embora não exista tratamento padrão definido, os trabalhos apontam para a cirurgia, respeitando margem de segurança, como o mais adequado.High-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN III is a visible lesion; therefore, it is accessible to biopsy and thus, to a histological diagnosis. There are two forms of vulvar cancer precursors: VIN caused by human papillomavirus (HPV and VIN associated with untreated lichen simplex chronicus, squamous cell hyperplasia, and lichen sclerosus. There may be overlap of the two forms. The term bowenoid papulosis, although discouraged, identifics a clinical form of VIN III. Such lesion appears as pigmented, wart-like growths or papules. VIN III is associated with HPV in more than 80% of the cases, and there is perianal involvement in 40% of the times. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is difficult to cure and relapses can occur at any time for many years. Although there is no defined standard treatment, studies point to surgery, respecting a free margin, as the most adequate one.

  17. Stages of Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get treatment. Having vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or HPV infection can affect the risk of vulvar cancer. ... procedure in which a colposcope (a lighted, magnifying instrument) is used to check the vagina and cervix ...

  18. General Information about Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Research Vulvar Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Vulvar Cancer Go to Health Professional ... area between the vulva and the anus ). Enlarge Anatomy of the vulva. The vulva includes the mons ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Vulvar Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get treatment. Having vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or HPV infection can affect the risk of vulvar cancer. ... procedure in which a colposcope (a lighted, magnifying instrument) is used to check the vagina and cervix ...

  20. Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is passed from one person to another during sex. There is a vaccine that protects against the types of HPV that most often cause cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers. It is recommended for preteens (both boys and girls) aged 11 to 12 ...

  1. Management of vulvar cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, J. A.; van der Avoort, I. A. M.; Oonk, M. H. M.; van der Zee, A. G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim The radical surgical approach in the treatment of vulvar cancer patients has led to a favorable prognosis for the majority of the patients with early stage squamous cell cancer. However, the morbidity is impressive, leading to more individualized treatment. The aim of this review is to give an o

  2. Management of vulvar cancers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullu, J.A. de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Oonk, M.H.; Zee, A.G. van der

    2006-01-01

    AIM: The radical surgical approach in the treatment of vulvar cancer patients has led to a favorable prognosis for the majority of the patients with early stage squamous cell cancer. However, the morbidity is impressive, leading to more individualized treatment. The aim of this review is to give an

  3. [2 infrequent vulvar tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, G; Benavides, A; Villanueva, M E

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of malignant vulvar tumors are presented: a malignant Melanoma and a case of Carcinoma of the Bartholin Gland. Both were diagnosticated during 1993 in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Dr. Félix Bulnes Cerda Hospital. Clinical and anatomophatological aspects are studied.

  4. High levels of p53 expression correlate with DNA aneuploidy in (pre)malignancies of the vulva.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Otte-Holler, I.; Nirmala, E.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Slootweg, P.J.; Hullu, J.A. de; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van

    2010-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of human papilloma virus-unrelated vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is not well known. Whether malignant progression of lichen sclerosus and differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma could be accompanied by altered DNA content has not

  5. Vulvovaginitis and other common vulvar disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, Ellen S

    2012-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis, labial adhesions, and other vulvar disorders occur commonly in children and can provoke high anxiety in both the parent and child. Performed correctly, the pediatric gynecologic examination can diagnose and treat, educate and reassure both parent and child. This examination requires patience, sensitivity, direct communication with the child as well as with the parent, and an open manner that inspires trust in both parties to manage a potentially anxiety-provoking situation. This chapter will review common vulvar disorders, including vulvovaginitis, lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, bubble bath vaginitis, labial adhesions, urethral prolapse, and other common problems. A discussion of childhood sexual abuse is beyond the scope of this chapter, with appropriate references available elsewhere. Practical pearls will be offered to make this exam easy for the primary care clinician and/or subspecialist.

  6. Lichen Nitidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Lichen nitidus By Mayo Clinic Staff Lichen nitidus (LIE-kun ni-TIE-dus) is a rare skin condition that usually ... glistening bumps on the surface of your skin. Lichen nitidus results from abnormal inflammatory activity in skin ...

  7. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signs of vulvar cancer. This is known as self-examination. Some women choose to examine themselves monthly using ... Stories Glossary For Health Care Professionals Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope ...

  9. Endometriosis Vulvar. Reporte de Caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duly Torres Cepeda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La endometriosis es una patología ginecológica común caracterizada por el crecimiento de glándulas y estroma endometrial fuera del endometrio. Los implantes se encuentran comúnmente en la pelvis, pero pueden aparecer en diferentes sitios. La afección vulvar de la endometriosis es rara. Se presenta el caso de paciente de 19 años de edad quien consultó por presentar dolor e inflamación en la zona vulvar por más de dos años, síntomas que se hacían más persistentes durante la menstruación. Vulvar Endometriosis. Case Report Abstract Endometriosis is a common gynecologic pathology characterized by growth of endometrial glands and stroma outside the endometrium. Implants are most commonly found in the pelvis but can occur in many other sites. Vulvar involvement of endometriosis is extremely rare. A case of vulvar endometriosis is presented. A case of a 19-years old patient who was assisted for presenting pain and inflammation in vulvar zone for more than two years, symptoms that was more severe during menses

  10. Surgical management of vulvovaginal agglutination due to lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Pamela S; Haefner, Hope K

    2016-02-01

    Lichen planus is a rare dermatological disorder that is often associated with painful and disfiguring vulvovaginal effects. At the University of Michigan Center for Vulvar Diseases, we see many women with vulvovaginal lichen planus each year, with marked scarring and vulvovaginal agglutination that precludes vaginal intercourse and causes difficulty with urination. Through our experience, we developed a protocol for the operative management and postoperative care for severe vulvovaginal agglutination. Our objective is to share this protocol with a wider audience so that providers who see patients with these devastating effects of lichen planus can benefit from our experience to better serve this patient population. The figure represents a case of erosive lichen planus with early vaginal agglutination. The video reviews the pathophysiology and presentation of lichen planus. We then present a case of scarring and agglutination in a young woman, including our surgical management and postoperative care recommendations.

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Vulvar Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get treatment. Having vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or HPV infection can affect the risk of vulvar cancer. ... procedure in which a colposcope (a lighted, magnifying instrument) is used to check the vagina and cervix ...

  12. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  13. Vulvar endometriosis and Nuck canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Carmelo; Gammeri, Emanuele; Foti, Agata; Rossitto, Maurizio; Cucinotta, Eugenio

    2014-12-29

    L’endometriosi è una patologia non ancora del tutto conosciuta che colpisce il 6-10% della popolazione femminile generare e il 35-50% della popolazione femminile affetta da dolore pelvico e infertilità. La sede più frequente di malattia è rappresentata dall’ovaio e ciò sostiene l’ipotesi patogenetica della mestruazione retrograda. Viene descritto un caso di non comune localizzazione vulvare di endometriosi riscontrata in una paziente precedentemente operata per una cisti di Nuck. La donna aveva notato da qualche mese l’insorgenza di una tumefazione nella regione vulvare che le causava dolore e dispareunia che si accentuavano nel periodo mestruale. Il sospetto clinico di endometriosi non aveva avuto conferma negli esami strumentali preoperatori che non avevano evidenziato alterazioni patognomoniche, nè differenze dei reperti in fase pre mestruale e mestruale. Solo l’esame istologico della neoformazione asportata ha confermato la diagnosi. Inoltre gli Autori con la presente nota desiderano sottolineare come nella patogenesi dell’endometriosi vulvare debba essere tenuta in considerazione la presenza della pervietà del dotto peritoneovaginale o dotto di Nuck. Nel caso clinico descritto, infatti, la paziente era stata sottoposta due anni prima ad asportazione di una cisti di Nuck con obliterazione del dotto peritoneovaginale. Tuttavia già in quella fase clinica poteva essersi determinato un impianto endometriosico, che si era poi evidenziato con la formazione del nodulo in sede vulvare asportato chirurgicamente.

  14. Vulvar fibromatosis: a clinical enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Erin M; Frimer, Marina; Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G; Gorlick, Richard; Goldberg, Gary L

    2015-01-01

    To present a case of recurrent vulvar fibromatosis in an adolescent, discuss the specific difficulties of treating adolescents, and review the literature on available treatment. We present a case of recurrent vulvar fibromatosis in a 14-year-old girl, requiring several treatment modalities, including multiple surgeries, radiation therapy, and multiagent chemotherapy. We then discuss management strategies for these tumor types, and specifically examine how tumor location may impact their treatment. Vulvar desmoids are extremely uncommon and they can be disfiguring and cause significant discomfort for women. Initial management of these tumors is surgical excision, yet failed surgery is often followed by other treatment modalities, including radiation, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hormonal therapy, and chemotherapy. This case clearly highlights the difficulties in managing these rare tumors, particularly in the adolescent population. Desmoid tumors are nonmalignant, locally aggressive neoplasms most common in the 15 to 60 years age group. They are associated with high estrogen states, prior surgical trauma, and Gardner syndrome. Most commonly, desmoid tumors present in the abdominal wall, shoulder, neck, and chest, but can occur anywhere in the body. Given their rarity and lack of definitive therapy, vulvar desmoid tumors can be exceedingly difficult to treat, and are best managed with an interdisciplinary approach.

  15. Vulvar and Perianal Condyloma Superimposed Inflammatory Linear Verrucous Epidermal Nevus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sümeyra Nergız Avcioğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus (ILVEN is a benign cutaneous hamartoma characterized by intensely erythematous, pruritic, and inflammatory papules that occur as linear bands along the lines of Blaschko. There is a considerable clinical and histological resemblance between ILVEN and linear psoriasis, lichen striatus, linear lichen planus, and invasion of epidermal nevus by psoriasis. The pathogenesis of ILVEN is unknown. It is regarded as a genetic dyskeratotic disease reflecting genetic mosaicism. Here, a case of vulvar and perianal condyloma superimposed ILVEN is presented.

  16. MRI of vulvar Crohn disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Deepa; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, F3503, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Adler, Jeremy [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Crohn disease is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the distal small bowel and colon. While certain extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn disease are relatively common and well-known, others, such as metastatic cutaneous involvement, are quite rare and may be difficult to recognize, particularly in the pediatric population. This case report illustrates the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of vulvar region cutaneous Crohn disease in an 11-year-old girl. (orig.)

  17. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  18. Esophageal lichen planus

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Janine Pichler de; Uribe, Natalia Caballero; Abulafia,Luna Azulay; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. Esophageal lichen planus is a rarely reported manifestation of lichen planus, presenting itself commonly in middle-aged women, with symptoms such as dysphagia. We report a case of esophageal lichen planus in a 54-year-old woman associated with oral, cutaneous and ungual lichen planus. Although lichen planus is a disorder well known by dermatologists, reports of esophageal lichen ...

  19. Oral Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  20. Esophageal lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Janine Pichler de; Uribe, Natalia Caballero; Abulafia, Luna Azulay; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. Esophageal lichen planus is a rarely reported manifestation of lichen planus, presenting itself commonly in middle-aged women, with symptoms such as dysphagia. We report a case of esophageal lichen planus in a 54-year-old woman associated with oral, cutaneous and ungual lichen planus. Although lichen planus is a disorder well known by dermatologists, reports of esophageal lichen planus are rare in dermatologic literature. The esophageal lichen planus is little known and underdiagnosed, with a significant delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis.

  1. Vulvar Angiomyofibroblastoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ulubay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMFB is a rare seen mesenchymal tumor that is categorized as a genital stromal tumor. It is commonly seen in the middle-aged women usually affecting the labia majora and rarely the vagina. A variant called AMFB-like tumors are also rarely seen in male patients. AMFB with its clinical presentation and location can be wrongly diagnosed as an aggressive angiomyxomas, bartholin cyst or lower genital tract lipomas. In the patients who are applying because of the vulvar mass, AMFB should not be forgotten for the pre-diagnosis. The treatment is generally simple surgical excision.In this case, AMFB was reported with a wrongly pre-diagnosis as a bartholin cyst to which a medical treatment had been given. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 822-825

  2. Vulvar and Vaginal Cancer, Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 and Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3: Experience of a Referral Institute

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siegler, Efraim; Segev, Yakir; Mackuli, Lena; Auslender, Ron; Shiner, Mayan; Lavie, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    ...: human papillomavirus (HPV) induced or non-HPV induced. To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with vulvar or vaginal cancer and vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (VIN3, VAIN3...

  3. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O

    2014-05-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature.

  4. [Superimposed lichen planus pigmentosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Benigno; Suarez-Amor, Óscar; Cabanillas, Miguel; de Las Heras, Cristina; Álvarez, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-16

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that is characterized by the insidious onset of dark brown macules in sun-exposed areas and flexural folds. Superimposed linear lichen planus is an exceedingly rare disorder, but it has been found in both lichen planopilaris and lichen planus types. A 39-year-old woman is presented showing a segmental and linear lichen planus associated with non-segmental lesions meeting all criteria for the diagnosis of superimposed linear planus pigmentosus. The segmental lesions were always more pronounced.

  5. Superimposed MRSA infection of vulvar eczematous dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Erin; Zedek, Daniel; Lewis, Jasmine; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulvar eczematous dermatitis predisposes patients to superimposed infections, which may result in late diagnosis and architectural destruction. Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is on the rise in genitalia and lower extremities. Case 44 year-old female presented with recurrent vulvar lesions and pain. A diagnosis of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus in the setting of eczema was achieved with concomitant use of photography and dermatopathologic review. Antibiotics were tailored to the resistant infection and preventative moisturization therapy was utilized. Conclusion Awareness of dermatologic conditions affecting the vulva is principal in routine gynecologic care. Barrier protection of eczematous vulvar skin may prevent superficial infections. The regular use of photographic documentation and dermatopathology may decrease time to diagnosis with infrequent conditions. PMID:23763013

  6. Lichen physiology and cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on topics relating to mineral element accumulation in bog lichens, nitrogen losses from diazotrophic lichens, influence of automobile exhaust and lead on the oxygen exchange of lichens, temporal variation in lichen element levels, and lead and uranium uptake by lichens. Other topics include the architecture of the concentric bodies in the mycobiont of Peltigera praetextata; multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations and thallus structure of strictaceae lichens; and aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in lichens. The distribution of uranium and companion elements in lichen heath associated with undisturbed uranium deposits in the Canadian Arctic is also discussed.

  7. Etiopatogenia do câncer vulvar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Álvaro P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos trabalhos na literatura a respeito dos mecanismos moleculares envolvidos na patogênese do carcinoma vulvar. Estudos que servem como base para a compreensão destes mecanismos são discutidos de forma compreensiva neste artigo de revisão. As alterações genéticas, a associação com o papilomavírus humano (HPV e outros possíveis fatores envolvidos na carcinogênese dos tumores vulvares são abordados.

  8. Post-steroid management of chronic vulvar itching with a topical formula containing natural anti-itching and anti-inflammatory actives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Eleonora Di Maio,2 Gaetana Di Paola,3 Raffaele Felice,4 Filippo Murina41Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy; 3ASL TO-3/TO-4, Turin, Italy; 4Outpatient Department of Vulvar Disease, V Buzzi Hospital-ICP, Milan, ItalyAim: To determine whether use of a topical, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itching formula was able to preserve the absence of symptoms, mainly itching and burning, induced by an earlier and relatively short treatment with topical steroids in women diagnosed with vulvar dermatitis or lichen simplex.Methods: Ninety-six subjects (36 with contact dermatitis, 29 with allergic dermatitis, 31 with lichen simplex were enrolled in the study. All participants were first treated with topical mometasone furoate (MF 0.1%. When the symptoms disappeared, they were treated either with Zantogin®, a multicomponent topical formula containing anti-inflammatory and anti-itching natural actives, or a control cream for 60 days.Results: The study demonstrated that, in about 85% of the participants treated with Zantogin®, symptoms disappeared completely, and only 15% had to resort to MF as needed, with an average use of about three applications per subject (in total. In the placebo group, approximately 90% of participants had to resort to MF as needed, with an average use per person of more than 16 applications in 60 days.Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that, following use of a topical steroid, symptoms such as burning and itching can be validly controlled with subsequent and longer therapy with a herbal topical formula, Zantogin®, which is able to properly counteract itching and inflammation, prevent symptom relapse, and avoid the typical side effects associated with prolonged use of topical steroids.Keywords: vulvar dermatitis, lichen simplex chronicus, vulvar itching, Zantogin®, zanthalene

  9. Lichen simplex chronicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000872.htm Lichen simplex chronicus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lichen simplex chronicus is a skin condition caused by ...

  10. LIQUEN SIMPLE CRÓNICO VULVAR UNILATERAL

    OpenAIRE

    Lema C,Rodrigo; Ricci A,Paolo; Solà D,Vicente; Contreras M,Luis

    2006-01-01

    Presentamos un caso de liquen simple crónico vulvar izquierdo, en una paciente con diagnóstico psiquiátrico de trastorno bipolar, tratado repetidamente como micosis. Se realizó biopsia que confirmó el diagnóstico y se trató exitosamente con antihistamínicos orales y corticoides tópicos

  11. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  12. Triapine With Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With IB2-IVA Cervical or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Vulvar Adenocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  13. Lichen endozoochory by snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Werth, Silke; Rüetschi, Jörg; Fischer, Markus

    2011-04-13

    Endozoochory plays a prominent role for the dispersal of seed plants. However, for most other plant taxa it is not known whether this mode of dispersal occurs at all. Among those other taxa, lichens as symbiotic associations of algae and fungi are peculiar as their successful dispersal requires movement of propagules that leaves the symbiosis functional. However, the potential for endozoochorous dispersal of lichen fragments has been completely overlooked. We fed sterile thalli of two foliose lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria and Physcia adscendens) differing in habitat and air-quality requirements to nine snail species common in temperate Europe. We demonstrated morphologically that L. pulmonaria regenerated from 29.0% of all 379 fecal pellets, whereas P. adscendens regenerated from 40.9% of all 433 fecal pellets, showing that lichen fragments survived gut passage of all snail species. Moreover, molecular analysis of regenerated lichens confirmed the species identity for a subset of samples. Regeneration rates were higher for the generalist lichen species P. adscendens than for the specialist lichen species L. pulmonaria. Furthermore, lichen regeneration rates varied among snail species with higher rates after gut passage of heavier snail species. We suggest that gastropods generally grazing on lichen communities are important, but so far completely overlooked, as vectors for lichen dispersal. This opens new ecological perspectives and questions the traditional view of an entirely antagonistic relationship between gastropods and lichens.

  14. Biopharmaceutical potential of lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambare, Vasudeo P; Christopher, Lew P

    2012-06-01

    Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus (the mycobiont) with a photosynthetic partner (the phytobiont), usually either a green alga or cyanobacterium. The morphology, physiology and biochemistry of lichens are very different from those of the isolated fungus and alga in culture. Lichens occur in some of the most extreme environments on the Earth and may be useful to scientists in many commercial applications. Over the past 2 decades, there has been a renewed and growing interest in lichens as a source of novel, pharmacologically active biomolecules. This review summarizes the past and current research and development trends in the characterization and use of lichens and their bioactive compounds in traditional medicine and other biopharmaceutical applications of commercial interest. The present review contains 10 illustrations and 188 references compiled from major databases including Science Direct, Chemical Abstracts, PubMed and Directory of Open Access Journals. Lichen morphology, symbiosis, diversity and bioactivities including enzyme inhibitory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, anti-insecticidal and antioxidant actions were reviewed and summarized. Recent progress in lichens and lichen-forming fungi was discussed with emphasis on their potential to accelerate commercialization of lichen-based products. Lichens are an untapped source of biological activities of industrial importance and their potential is yet to be fully explored and utilized. Lichen-derived bioactive compounds hold great promise for biopharmaceutical applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents and in the development of new formulations or technologies for the benefit of human life.

  15. Líquen plano oral Oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Menta Simonsen Nico

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O líquen plano da mucosa oral (LPO é afecção relativamente comum, que pode aparecer isolado ou associado ao líquen plano cutâneo, havendo, no entanto, significantes diferenças clínicoevolutivas: o LPO tende a ser crônico, recidivante e de difícil tratamento, levando a importante morbidade, principalmente em sua forma erosiva. Novas formas clínicas agressivas têm sido salientadas na literatura, como a forma gingivo-vulvar. Este artigo revisa a etiopatogenia, as formas clínicas, a diagnose diferencial e laboratorial, a prognose e o tratamento do LPO, além de mencionar, brevemente, a experiência dos autores com esta enfermidade, vivida no Ambulatório de Estomatologia da Divisão de Dermatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São PauloOral lichen planus (OLP is a relatively common mucosal disease that can present isolated or associated with cutaneous lichen planus. Contrarily to its cutaneous counterpart, though, OLP tends to be chronic, relapsing, and difficult to treat. Severe morbidity is related to erosive forms, and more aggressive presentations have been described, such as the "gingivo-vulvar syndrome". This article reviews the current knowledge about the pathogenesis, clinical picture, differential and laboratorial diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of OLP

  16. Penile lichen sclerosus: An urologist′s nightmare! - A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Pratap Singh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: LS varies from being a highly aggressive disease of the penis and anterior urethra to a burnt out condition affecting just the meatus and surrounding glans. Early diagnosis and treatment are required to prevent its complication and associated morbidity. Management depends on the anatomical location of lesion, extent of involvement, rapidity of progression and its severity. Use of BMG in LS induced urethral stricture has shown encouraging results.

  17. Human papillomavirus, lichen sclerosus and penile cancer: a study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwers, K.W.M. d'; Depuydt, C.E.; Bogers, J.J.; Noel, J.C.; Delvenne, P.; Marbaix, E.; Donders, A.R.T.; Tjalma, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The prevalence of penile cancer varies between 1.5 (industrialized countries) and 4.5 per 100,000 men (non-industrialized countries). Predominant histological subtype is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in 40-46% of cases: penile cancer is considered to beh

  18. Human papillomavirus, lichen sclerosus and penile cancer: a study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwers, K.W.M. d'; Depuydt, C.E.; Bogers, J.J.; Noel, J.C.; Delvenne, P.; Marbaix, E.; Donders, A.R.T.; Tjalma, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The prevalence of penile cancer varies between 1.5 (industrialized countries) and 4.5 per 100,000 men (non-industrialized countries). Predominant histological subtype is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in 40-46% of cases: penile cancer is considered to beh

  19. Therapies and nursing care of women with vulvar dermatologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, Deborah; Kwon, Yanghee

    2014-01-01

    Vulvar dermatologic disorders are common among women, and prevalence increases with age. Treatment can provide women with symptomatic relief and can halt further progression of disease. Numerous therapies are available, and nurses who work with women across the life span should have an understanding of vulvar dermatologic disorders and therapeutic modalities. We provide an overview of general vulvar care, four vulvar dermatologic disorders, and common treatment modalities including topical and systemic pharmacologic management. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  20. Vulvar pityriasis versicolor in an immunocompetent woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Tania; Scurry, James

    2014-07-01

    To report a case of isolated vulvar pityriasis versicolor in a 24-year-old healthy woman. A 24-year-old woman presented with variable color change on the vulva of 8 months in duration. Areas of tan and white skin were observed on the mons pubis. The pubic hair had been shaved. Initially, the paler areas were deemed abnormal suggesting vitiligo, but the biopsy showed normal skin including normal numbers of melanocytes. Subsequently, biopsy of the tan area showed pityriasis versicolor. She was successfully treated with topical 2% ketoconazole, with gradual fading of lesions. With increased body awareness and the current popularity of pubic hair removal, young women may consult clinicians about color changes on the vulva. Clinicians should be aware that vulvar pityriasis versicolor may occur in healthy women with no other skin involvement.

  1. Normal Vulvar Histology: Variation by Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Tania; Holland, Seán M; Scurry, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the histology of normal vulvar skin with attention to anatomic location and epithelium type. We performed a retrospective histologic review of 118 vulvar biopsies and excisions obtained between 2010 and 2014 with adjacent normal skin or mucosa. Exclusions included age younger than 18 years, vestibulectomy, labiaplasty, inflammatory dermatoses, and insufficient normal tissue for assessment. Stratum corneum morphology was assessed as basket weave, compact, or intermediate. Stratum granulosum cell layer number and epithelial thickness were recorded. Dermal lymphocytic infiltrate was described as nil, sparse, moderate, or dense. Fischer exact test, Pearson χ, and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. There were 7 cases from mons pubis, 11 from perineum, 83 from labia, and 17 from vestibule. In the skin, the stratum corneum morphology was basket weave in 31%, compact in 35%, and intermediate in 34%. Stratum corneum at the mons pubis was uniformly basket weave, whereas at perineum, it was either compact or intermediate (7/7 vs 0/11; p histological findings. Pathologists need to be aware of site-related differences of the vulvar epithelium to avoid overdiagnosis of pathological conditions.

  2. Localized blanching erythema in a patient with vulvar carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Jennifer; Diaz, Lucia; Paravar, Taraneh; Chon, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Mammary-like carcinoma arising in the vulva is a rare type of vulvar malignancy. Cutaneous metastasis of vulvar carcinoma is uncommon and the majority of cases have been reported in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. We describe a 69-year-old woman with mammary-like carcinoma of the vulva with cutaneous metastasis presenting as asymptomatic localized blanching erythema.

  3. Lichens as Bioindicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory L.; Baker, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    Lichens, small and unobtrusive organisms, are seldom noticed as they cling to rocks, trees, and soil in fragile veils or crusts of splendid color and ornate textures. Their beauty is captivating and fascinating, and their purpose and origins are thought-provoking. Lichens make particularly good "bioindicators". They are bioindicators of sulfur…

  4. Lichen planus pigmentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Verma, Prashant; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Sharma, Sonal; Rasool, Farhan

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus, a variant of lichen planus, is a disorder with conflicting taxonomy. Its worldwide recognition is still not fully understood because of insufficient contemporary evidence of the disease in the literature. The authors review the historical background, etiopathogenesis, clinical connotation, atypical variants, and histopathology to highlight its diversity.

  5. Lichens in the Churchyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldershaw, Cally; Hilton, Barbara; Rocca, Alis

    2010-01-01

    The late Tom Chester, in his role as the British Lichen Society churchyard coordinator, did a great deal to encourage the use of the churchyard as an educational tool. In his honour, the Society has created an award as part of its "Lichen Project". When the Society approached the Association for Science Education (ASE) for help in…

  6. Lichens as Bioindicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory L.; Baker, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    Lichens, small and unobtrusive organisms, are seldom noticed as they cling to rocks, trees, and soil in fragile veils or crusts of splendid color and ornate textures. Their beauty is captivating and fascinating, and their purpose and origins are thought-provoking. Lichens make particularly good "bioindicators". They are bioindicators of sulfur…

  7. Lichens in the Churchyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldershaw, Cally; Hilton, Barbara; Rocca, Alis

    2010-01-01

    The late Tom Chester, in his role as the British Lichen Society churchyard coordinator, did a great deal to encourage the use of the churchyard as an educational tool. In his honour, the Society has created an award as part of its "Lichen Project". When the Society approached the Association for Science Education (ASE) for help in…

  8. Exploiting the Lichen Liaison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raham, R. Gary

    1978-01-01

    For teachers in search of an easily obtainable, readily dissectable, and unique living specimen to arouse the interest of their students and illustrate important biological principles, lichens are the perfect selection. Background information and experiments on lichen anatomy, physiology, and chemistry are given. An appendix gives culture media.…

  9. Perceived stereotyping and seeking care for chronic vulvar pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ruby H N; Turner, Rachael M; Rydell, Sarah A; Maclehose, Richard F; Harlow, Bernard L

    2013-10-01

    We examined stereotyping of chronic pain sufferers among women aged 18-40 years and determined whether perceived stereotyping affects seeking care for women with chronic vulvar pain. Cross-sectional study using a community-based survey of vulvodynia asking if "Doctors think that people with chronic pain exaggerate their pain," and if "People believe that vulvar pain is used as an excuse to avoid having sex". Twelve thousand eight hundred thirty-four women aged 18-40 years in metropolitan Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota. Women were considered to have a history of chronic vulvar pain if they reported vulvar burning lasting more than 3 months or vulvar pain on contact. Four thousand nine hundred eighty-seven (38.9%) women reported a chronic pain condition; 1,651 had chronic vulvar pain. Women experiencing chronic pain were more likely than those without to perceive stereotyping from both doctors and others; a dose-response with the number of pain conditions existed. Women with chronic vulvar pain were more likely to believe that people think vulvar pain is an excuse to avoid intercourse. Half of the women with chronic vulvar pain did not seek medical care for it; of these, 40.4% perceived stereotyping from doctors. However, it was women who actually sought care (45.1%) who were more likely to feel stigmatized by doctors (adjusted relative risk = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.23). Perceived negative stereotyping among chronic pain sufferers is common, particularly negative perceptions about physicians. In fact, chronic vulvar pain sufferers who felt stigmatized were more likely to have sought care than those who did not feel stigmatized. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Miíase vulvar: relato de caso Vulvar myiasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A miíase de localização vulvar é doença rara. O objetivo do presente relato é descrever um caso de miíase vulvar por larvas de Cochliomyia hominivorax em mulher de 77 anos, com precários hábitos higiênicos, apresentando dor, prurido e secreção de odor fétido na região genital há 10 dias. O exame ginecológico demonstrou lesão ulcerada no grande lábio vulvar, com seis centímetros, que se estendia ao monte do pube, preenchida por larvas. A doente evoluiu favoravelmente após remoção das larvas, desbridamento cirúrgico e curativos diários, sendo realizada, quatorze dias após o desbridamento, rotação de retalho cutâneo. Apresentou evolução satisfatória, estando assintomática dois meses após a intervenção. A miíase vulvar deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial das doenças infecciosas vulvares de doentes com hábitos de higiene precários.Myiasis located in the vulva is a rarely described disease. The objective of the present report is to describe a case of vulvar myiasis due to larvae of Cochliomyia hominivorax. A 77-year-old woman with precarious hygienic habits presented pain, pruritus and secretions with a fetid smell in the genital region for 10 days. Gynecological examination demonstrated an ulcerated lesion in the labium majus of the vulva measuring six centimeters that extended to the mons pubis and was found to be filled with larvae. The patient progressed favorably after removal of the larvae, surgical debridement and daily dressings. Fourteen days after the debridement, she was submitted to skin flap rotation, with good local scar formation. Two months after the intervention, she remained asymptomatic. Vulvar myiasis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases of the vulva in patients with precarious hygienic habits.

  11. Vulvar myiasis due to Wohlfahrtia magnifica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delir, S; Handjani, F; Emad, M; Ardehali, S

    1999-07-01

    Myiasis is a condition resulting from the invasion of tissues or organs of man or animals by the larvae of dipterous flies. The distribution of myiasis is worldwide, with more cases being reported from tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate areas. The various forms of myiasis may be classified from an entomological or a clinical point of view. This report describes a rare case of vulvar myiasis due to Wohlfahrtia magnifica in an otherwise healthy 20-year-old Iranian female. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cutaneous myiasis of the vulva due to W. magnifica from Iran and the Middle East region.

  12. Vulvar Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoummane, Nadia; Guimeya, Cyriane; Lipombi, Dominique; Gielen, François

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytoses (LCH) are a rare group of disorders that comprise a large spectrum of diseases initially known as histiocytosis X. In this case report, we relate a case of LCH affecting the vulva of a 47-year-old female. The patient presented since 3 years with a vulvar lesion characterized by non-healing ulcers and a perineal granuloma on which she underwent surgery. Professionals should keep in mind not to treat straightforwardly lesions of the genital tract as simple sexually transmitted diseases. Chronic, atypical genital lesions seen in women need to be worked up and dealt with accordingly. PMID:25404979

  13. Vulvar varices: an uncommon entity in surgical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Diana; Kane, Philip B; Liang, Sharon; Conway, Christine; Tornos, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Varicose veins in the vulvar and perivulvar area are seen in 4% of women. Most of them are secondary to pregnancy and usually regress spontaneously. Vulvar varicose veins are rare in nonpregnant women. When present, they can be seen alone, associated with leg varices or associated with venous malformations of the labia, clitoral area, or vagina with or without arteriovenous malformations on the limbs or trunk (Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome and Parkes-Weber syndrome). In some cases, vulvar varices are seen as part of the so-called "pelvic congestion syndrome." Clinically, vulvar varices may present as small isolated protrusions, mainly in the labia majora, or as large masses, involving the vulva and even the perivulvar area. The treatment of choice of vulvar varices seen during pregnancy is conservative and symptomatic. Surgical pathologists need to be aware of the existence of vulvar varicose veins and its possible presence in biopsy specimens. Vulvar varicose veins can be misdiagnosed clinically as cysts or masses mainly in the Bartholin gland area. Correct diagnosis of the lesion is important to determine appropriate therapy and to recognize the possibility of associated anatomical or pathological problems.

  14. A RARE CASE OF LICHEN PLANUS PEMPHIGOIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok,, S.K; Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus pemphigoides describe a rare subset of patients who usually have typical lichen planus and then develop blistering on their lichen planus lesions and in normal skin. Less commonly the blistering antedates the lichen planus. They clinically appear to be a combination of lichen planus and bullous phemphigoid. Oral disease may occur and may resemble either lichen planus or bullous phemphigoid. Histopathologically, lichen planus lesions show features of lichen pl...

  15. Vulvar ulcer as a presentation of systemic langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina A Madnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 38-year-old housewife with systemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH presenting as a chronic vulvar and peri-anal ulcer. She had systemic involvement in the form of diabetes insipidus and bone "hot-spots". She responded favorably to etoposide, 6-mercaptopurine, and systemic steroids, and has been in remission since 10 years. Chronic vulvar ulcers not responding to routine therapy should not be neglected and need to be biopsied repeatedly to come to a specific diagnosis. The vulvar ulcer in our case provided a vital clue to a systemic LCH, with a successful outcome.

  16. Learning about Lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Danny

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and teaching suggestions for collecting and using lichens in the classroom and for conducting field investigations. Focuses on structure, reproduction, photosynthesis, and effects of air pollution. (DC)

  17. Learning about Lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Danny

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and teaching suggestions for collecting and using lichens in the classroom and for conducting field investigations. Focuses on structure, reproduction, photosynthesis, and effects of air pollution. (DC)

  18. Massive vulvar edema in pregnancy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, P; Friedman, M; Goldstein, I; Zaidise, I; Itskovitz-Eldor, J

    1995-06-01

    Massive vulvar edema in pregnancy is a rarely reported condition. We treated a case of severe labial edema complicating pregnancy. Massive edema of the vulva appears to usually be a sequela of an underlying, systemic disease in pregnant women.

  19. What Are the Risk Factors for Vulvar Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive vulvar cancer average about 20 years younger. Human papilloma virus Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a group of more than ... and Cervarix ® . For more about HPV, see HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) . Smoking Smoking exposes people to many cancer- ...

  20. Genitofemoral neuralgia: adding to the burden of chronic vulvar pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verstraelen H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hans Verstraelen,1 Eline De Zutter,1 Martine De Muynck2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium Abstract: The vulva is a particularly common locus of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics that occurs in women of any age, though most women with neuropathic type chronic vulvar pain will remain undiagnosed even following multiple physician visits. Here, we report on an exemplary case of a middle-aged woman who was referred to the Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic with debilitating vulvar burning and itching over the right labium majus that had been persisting for 2 years and was considered intractable. Careful history taking and clinical examination, followed by electrophysiological assessment through somatosensory evoked potentials was consistent with genitofemoral neuralgia, for which no obvious cause could be identified. Adequate pain relief was obtained with a serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and topical gabapentin cream. We briefly discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of genitofemoral neuralgia and provide a series of clues to guide clinicians in obtaining a presumptive diagnosis of specific neuropathic pain syndromes that may underlie chronic vulvar pain. We further aim to draw attention to the tremendous burden of chronic, unrecognized vulvar pain. Keywords: vulvar pain, genitofemoral nerve, neuropathic pain, vulvodynia, vulvar disease

  1. Vulvar symptoms in paediatric and adolescent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piippo, S; Lenko, H; Vuento, R

    2000-04-01

    Vulvovaginal symptoms in children and young adolescents are not yet very well understood, nor is the actual incidence known. This study evaluates the character and possible infectious aetiology of vulvar symptoms of females aged up to 16 y. The signs, symptoms and bacteriological findings of 68 consecutive cases were studied. The study was conducted in the University Hospital of Tampere at a special gynaecological consultation clinic for children and adolescents. Sixty-eight patients were included in the study: 48 girls (71%) were prepubertal, at Tanner stage M1P1, 26 patients were 2-4-y-old and 15 were 5-7-y-old. The duration of symptoms was known for 46 patients: 41% had had symptoms for >1 mo and 20% for >6 mo. Forty-eight patients had abnormal clinical findings on examination and 16 (33%) of them had an infectious aetiology. Streptococcus pyogenes infection was identified in 11 (16%) patients, all of whom had symptoms. Candida was identified in 6 (9%) patients. No infectious aetiology was found among 26 patients who had symptoms and abnormal clinical findings. Vulvovaginal symptoms during childhood are more common among younger children (<7 y). In 67% of patients no infectious aetiology could be found. Samples for microbiological culture should be taken from symptomatic patients and symptomatic areas. Cultures of Candida and bacteria are necessary but usually sufficient. If a microbiological aetiology is established, treatment can be assigned accordingly. Patients with vulvar symptoms and findings but with an unclear aetiology need support and advice on proper hygiene and can intermittently use mild corticosteroids locally.

  2. Biomonitoring with lichens on twigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsholm, René Larsen; Wolseley, Pat; Søchting, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    Two surveys of the lichen and bryophyte flora growing on oak twigs from a Welsh and a Danish locality were compared with additional data on bark pH and % nitrogen in thalli of Hypogymnia physodes. Despite differences in climate and lichen flora, both sites showed a shift in the lichen communities...

  3. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a multifactorial disease following two separate and independent pathways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Shirango, H.T.; Hoevenaars, B.M.; Grefte, J.M.M.; Hullu, J.A. de; Wilde, P.C.M. de; Bulten, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Two separate pathways leading to vulvar carcinoma have been suggested. First, a human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent pathway, in which premalignant stages of vulvar cancer are the classic vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) lesions. Second, an HPV-independent pathway, associated with

  4. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a multifactorial disease following two separate and independent pathways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Shirango, H.T.; Hoevenaars, B.M.; Grefte, J.M.M.; Hullu, J.A. de; Wilde, P.C.M. de; Bulten, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Two separate pathways leading to vulvar carcinoma have been suggested. First, a human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent pathway, in which premalignant stages of vulvar cancer are the classic vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) lesions. Second, an HPV-independent pathway, associated with differentiat

  5. Actinic lichen nitidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Davis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 29-year-old black female with an initial clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of actinic lichen nitidus. Three years later, she presented with scattered hyperpigmented macules with oval pink/viol­aceous plaques bilaterally on her forearms and on her neck, clinically consistent with actinic lichen planus. She was treated with topical steroids at each visit, with subsequent resolution of her lesions. In this report, we discuss the spectrum of actinic lichenoid dermatoses and of disease that presents even in the same patient.

  6. Giant Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst in an Adolescent Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbil Karaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vulvar cyst in adolescent girls is very uncommon. Epidermoid cyst can be seen in many sites including face, trunk, and extremities but its occurrence in vulva is uncommon. This is the first case of epidermoid cyst of vulva reported in an adolescent girl. Case. A 17-year-old, adolescent girl admitted to our gynecology outpatient clinic with a complaint of painful and palpable mass in her vulva. On examination, a giant mass located in left vulva and labia majora with 11 cm in diameter was seen. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a well-defined cystic mass without contrast enhancement. The surgery was advised to the patient and the pathologic examination of mass revealed vulvar epidermoid cyst. Discussion. Vulvar cysts generally grow slowly and the main etiologies are vulvar trauma and surgical interventions including episiotomy and female circumcision in some culture. The exact treatment is total surgical excision and pathologic examination. MRI is an important imaging modality for detection of extension to deep perineal tissue and localization of mass in vulva especially in giant ones. Conclusion. Although vulvar mass in adolescents is rare, the epidermoid cyst with benign origin should be kept in mind.

  7. Phytase activity in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems.

  8. Study of Some Lichens of Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The desert regions of North and central Qatar were surveyed for lichens. Twelve species were reported. The most common lichens are of the crustose type and all fungi of the lichens collected are Ascomycete.

  9. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe Junior, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face.

  10. ROCK1 as a novel prognostic marker in vulvar cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akagi, Erica M; Lavorato-Rocha, André M; Maia, Beatriz de Melo

    2014-01-01

    infection, but most cases develop in women aged over 50 years through poorly understood genetic mechanisms. Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) has been implicated in many cellular processes, but its function in vulvar cancer has never been examined. In this study, we aimed...... to determine the prognostic value of ROCK1 gene and protein analysis in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). METHODS: ROCK1 expression levels were measured in 16 vulvar tumour samples and adjacent normal tissue by qRT-PCR. Further, 96 VSCC samples were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to confirm...... the involvement of ROCK1 in the disease. The molecular and pathological results were correlated with the clinical data of the patients. Sixteen fresh VSCC samples were analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). RESULTS: In each pair of samples, ROCK1 levels were higher by qRT-PCR in normal...

  11. Lichen compounds restrain lichen feeding by bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybakken, Line; Helmersen, Anne-Marit; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Selås, Vidar

    2010-03-01

    Some lichen compounds are known to deter feeding by invertebrate herbivores. We attempted to quantify the deterring efficiency of lichen compounds against a generalist vertebrate, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In two separate experiments, caged bank voles had the choice to feed on lichens with natural or reduced concentrations of secondary compounds. We rinsed air-dry intact lichens in 100% acetone to remove extracellular compounds non-destructively. In the first experiment, pairs of control and rinsed lichen thalli were hydrated and offered to the bank voles. Because the lichens desiccated fast, we ran a second experiment with pairs of ground control and compound-deficient thalli, each mixed with water to porridge. Eight and six lichen species were tested in the first and second experiment, respectively. In the first, bank voles preferred compound-deficient thalli of Cladonia stellaris and Lobaria pulmonaria, but did not discriminate between the other thallus pairs. This was likely a result of deterring levels of usnic and stictic acid in the control thalli. When lichens were served as porridge, significant preference was found for acetone-rinsed pieces of Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, Platismatia glauca, and Evernia prunastri. The increased preference was caused mainly by lower consumption of control thalli. Grinding and mixing of thallus structures prevented bank voles from selecting thallus parts with lower concentration of secondary compounds and/or strengthened their deterring capacity. We conclude that some lichen secondary compounds deter feeding by bank voles.

  12. A Giant Vulvar Mass: A Case Study of Cellular Angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Aydın

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular angiofibroma is a mesenchymal tumor that affects both genders. Nucci et al. first described it in 1997. Cellular angiofibroma is generally a small and asymptomatic mass that primarily arises in the vulvar-vaginal region, although rare cases have been reported in the pelvic and extrapelvic regions. It affects women most often during the fifth decade of life. The treatment requires simple local excision due to low local recurrence and no chance of metastasization. The current study presents a case of angiofibroma in the vulvar region that measured approximately 20 cm.

  13. Vulvar malignant melanoma: a rare tumor with worse prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma, which has a highly malignant potential, is a tumor of the skin and mucosal membranes. Malignant melanomas of the female genital tract, including the vulva and vagina, are rare. Their overall prognosis is worse. A 75 year old woman presented with complaint of growth in vulvar region since 4 months. There was history of itching in vulvar region over growth. Surgery is still the best available treatment for the control and potential cure of malignant melanomas [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 494-496

  14. Lichenoid Sarcoidosis Resembling Lichen Scrofulosorum

    OpenAIRE

    Thami Gurvinder P; Kanwar Amrinder J

    1998-01-01

    An old man with lichenoid popular lesions, dyspnoea and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy resembling lichen scrofulosorum diagnosed as lichenoid sarcofulosorum and therapeutic response to corticosteroids is discussed.

  15. Neoplasia intraepitelial vulvar: um problema atual Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a current problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Fonseca-Moutinho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A neoplasia intraepitelial da vulva (VIN é uma denominação que foi introduzida incialmente pela International Society for Study of Vulvo-vaginal Diseases (ISSVD e reconhecida posteriormente pela International Society of Gynaecological Pathology (ISGYP e Organização Mundial da Saúde. É uma entidade patológica a que correspondem as VIN de tipo usual (verrucoso, basalióide e misto e as VIN de tipo diferenciado. A incidência das lesões de VIN tem aumentado progressivamente, principalmente em mulheres jovens. A infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV de alto risco, pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, o tabagismo e a neoplasia intraepitelial do colo do útero, da vagina e região anal são factores de risco estabelecidos para as VIN. Não existem sintomas e sinais característicos das VIN, mas a doença se traduz sempre por lesões clinicamente identificáveis. A biópsia com o auxílio do colposcópio permite o diagnóstico. O tratamento da doença está sempre justificado pelo elevado risco de progressão para cancro invasivo. A excisão alargada das lesões ou a sua destruição com laser CO2 têm sido os métodos mais populares de tratamento. Independentemente do método terapêutico utilizado, as taxas de recidiva são elevadas, pelo que está aconselhada a vigilância apertada das doentes após tratamento. A terapêutica tópica com imiquimod se afigura promissora no tratamento das VIN. As vacinas profiláticas contra os tipos de HPV de alto risco prometem se tornar armas poderosas na prevenção primária da doença.Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN is a pathological denomination coined by the International Society for Study of Vulvo-vaginal Diseases (ISSVD and adopted by the International Society of Gynaecological Pathology (ISGYP and by the World Health Organization. VIN is a heterogeneous pathological entity with a usual type (warty, basaloid and mixed and a differentiated type. The incidence of the disease is

  16. Postparacentesis vulvar edema in ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Bhairavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS is a serious, potentially life threatening complication of ovulation induction. The clinical picture of severe OHSS includes ovarian enlargement, ascites, pleural effusion, increased coagulability, and electrolyte disorders. Very few cases of massive vulvar edema in OHSS have been reported in the literature. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(11.000: 4064-4066

  17. Spectrum of vulvar lesions: a clinicopathologic study of 170 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Mohan

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Early recognition of vulvar lesions and a prompt biopsy diagnosis for all lesions with suspicious changes is of great significance. The term leukoplakia is imprecise and should be replaced by a precise histological description. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 175-180

  18. Vulvar carcinoma : The price of less radical surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, JA; Hollema, H; Lolkema, S; Boezen, M; Burger, MPM; Aalders, JG; Mourits, MJE; van der Zee, AGJ; Boonstra, J.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether modifications in the treatment of patients with vulvar carcinoma influence the rates of recurrence and survival. METHODS: Between 1982 and 1997, 253 patients with T1 and T2 invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva were treated by

  19. Zosteriform Lichen Planus: case report of a rare variant of Lichen Planus

    OpenAIRE

    Kanthilatha Pai; Sathish Pai

    2013-01-01

    Since its original description by Devergie in 1854, several cases of linear lichen planus have been described in the literature, but there have been notably few cases of the more rare zosteriform lichen planus. Zosteriform lichen planus needs to be differentiated from linear lichen planus and other linear dermatoses. We present a case of Zosteriform Lichen planus for its rarity and briefly review literature.

  20. [Determination of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and erythema chronicum migrans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinazo Canales, I; Betlloch Mas, I; Mestre Bauza, F; Salva Armengod, F; Parras Vázquez, F; Alomar Cardell, J

    1990-04-01

    Several cutaneous entities described in Europe as Chronic Migrans Erythema (CME), Mild Cutis Lymphadenosis (MCL) and Chronic Atrophyc Acrodermatitis (CAA) constitute clinical manifestations of a Borrellia Burgdorferi. The presence of clinical and hystologic lesions similar to those of liquen esclerosus and atrophyc (LEA) and localized esclerodermia (morphea) in patients with CAA has driven to several authors to demonstrate the aethiologic participation of B. Burgdorferi in patients carrying those cutaneous lesions with contradictory results. A serologic study with indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and FIAX test was performed in 16 patients (9 with morphea, 6 with LEA and 1 with CME) in order to evaluate the role of this microorganism in our environment. Five reactive sera were obtained of which only one presented IgG antibodies titrated at 1/256. The IgM antibodies by IIF and IgG by FIAX test turned out to be negative. A specific relationship between B. Burgdorferi and the studied entities could not be established.

  1. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalinae) and its host, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), as bioindicators of chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Claudia; Vidal-Martinez, Victor M; Aguirre-Macedo, Maria L; Rodriguez-Canul, Rossanna P; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Sures, Bernd

    2007-10-01

    Experimental results showed that the gill monogenean Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and its host, the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, exhibited significant numerical and physiological responses after exposure to sediments polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals in comparison with control fishes. After 15 days of exposure, C. sclerosus abundance significantly increased in treatments with low to fairly high sediment pollutant concentrations, but declined at high sediment pollutant concentrations. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia in secondary gill lamellae and the spleen melanomacrophage centers were significantly higher at extremely high sediment pollutant concentrations compared with the controls. Spleen lymphocyte and monocyte counts were significantly lower at extremely high sediment pollutant concentrations and were significantly correlated with high fluorescent aromatic compound concentrations measured as PAH exposure indicators. A multivariate redundancy analysis showed significant statistical association between sediment pollutant concentration, C. sclerosus abundance, and tilapia physiological variables. The polluted sediments negatively affected monogenean abundance and induced immunosuppression in hosts, consequently increasing histological damage in hosts and allowing persistent C. sclerosus infection. This study documents evidence suggesting that C. sclerosus and its host are indeed excellent models to test environmental quality in tropical freshwater ecosystems.

  2. Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkatout I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Alkatout,1 Melanie Schubert,1 Nele Garbrecht,2 Marion Tina Weigel,1 Walter Jonat,1 Christoph Mundhenke,1 Veronika Günther1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Institute for Pathology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Epidemiology: Vulvar cancer can be classified into two groups according to predisposing factors: the first type correlates with a HPV infection and occurs mostly in younger patients. The second group is not HPV associated and occurs often in elderly women without neoplastic epithelial disorders. Histology: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common malignant tumor of the vulva (95%. Clinical features: Pruritus is the most common and long-lasting reported symptom of vulvar cancer, followed by vulvar bleeding, discharge, dysuria, and pain. Therapy: The gold standard for even a small invasive carcinoma of the vulva was historically radical vulvectomy with removal of the tumor with a wide margin followed by an en bloc resection of the inguinal and often the pelvic lymph nodes. Currently, a more individualized and less radical treatment is suggested: a radical wide local excision is possible in the case of localized lesions (T1. A sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy may be performed to reduce wound complications and lymphedema. Prognosis: The survival of patients with vulvar cancer is good when convenient therapy is arranged quickly after initial diagnosis. Inguinal and/or femoral node involvement is the most significant prognostic factor for survival. Keywords: vulvar cancer, HPV infection, radical vulvectomy, groin dissection, sentinel lymph node biopsy, overall survival

  3. Contact hypersensitivity to oxazolone provokes vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Martinov

    Full Text Available The interplay among pain, allergy and dysregulated inflammation promises to yield significant conceptual advances in immunology and chronic pain. Hapten-mediated contact hypersensitivity reactions are used to model skin allergies in rodents but have not been utilized to study associated changes in pain perception in the affected skin. Here we characterized changes in mechanical hyperalgesia in oxazolone-sensitized female mice challenged with single and repeated labiar skin exposure to oxazolone. Female mice were sensitized with topical oxazolone on their flanks and challenged 1-3 times on the labia. We then measured mechanical sensitivity of the vulvar region with an electronic pressure meter and evaluated expression of inflammatory genes, leukocyte influx and levels of innervation in the labiar tissue. Oxazolone-sensitized mice developed vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia after a single labiar oxazolone challenge. Hyperalgesia lasted up to 24 hours along with local influx of neutrophils, upregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression, and increased density of cutaneous labiar nerve fibers. Three daily oxazolone challenges produced vulvar mechanical hyperalgesic responses and increases in nerve density that were detectable up to 5 days post-challenge even after overt inflammation resolved. This persistent vulvar hyperalgesia is resonant with vulvodynia, an understudied chronic pain condition that is remarkably prevalent in 18-60 year-old women. An elevated risk for vulvodynia has been associated with a history of environmental allergies. Our pre-clinical model can be readily adapted to regimens of chronic exposures and long-term assessment of vulvar pain with and without concurrent inflammation to improve our understanding of mechanisms underlying subsets of vulvodynia and to develop new therapeutics for this condition.

  4. LICHEN STRIATUS – CASE REPORTS

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    Caius Solovan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lichen striatus is an acquired linear inflammatory dermatosis, not frequently reported, with a peculiar clinical aspect, most often described in adults, with a poor response to treatment. We described 4 cases of lichen striatus diagnosed over an 8-month period of time.

  5. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  6. Erosive lichen planus: a therapeutic challenge*

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Williams; Giesen,Laura; Navajas-Galimany, Lucas; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Erosive lichen planus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus. Chronic erosions of the soles, accompanied by intense and disabling pain, are some of its most characteristic manifestations. We present the case of a woman who developed oral and plantar erosive lichen planus associated with lichen planus pigmentosus and ungueal lichen planus that were diagnosed after several years. The patient failed to respond to multiple therapies requiring longstanding medication but remained refract...

  7. The Significance of Lichens and Their Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneck, S.

    Lichens, symbiontic organisms of fungi and algae, synthesize numerous metabolites, the "lichen substances," which comprise aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, and terpenic compounds. Lichens and their metabolites have a manifold biological activity: antiviral, antibiotic, antitumor, allergenic, plant growth inhibitory, antiherbivore, and enzyme inhibitory. Usnic acid, a very active lichen substance is used in pharmaceutical preparations. Large amounts of Pseudevernia furfuracea and Evernia prunastri are processed in the perfume industry, and some lichens are sensitive reagents for the evaluation of air pollution.

  8. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant.

  9. Vulvar fibroadenoma: a common neoplasm in an uncommon site

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    Cetina Lucely

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vulvar fibroadenomas are sporadic lesions informed in the literature and a controversy about origin has been discussed widely. We report a case of a 19 years old woman with a large slow growing mass in the right labia majora with the final diagnosis of fibroadenoma with mammary tissue surrounding it and positive hormone receptors. In this case, we support the origin in ectopic mammary tissue.

  10. Vulvar fibroadenoma: a common neoplasm in an uncommon site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú de Leon, David; Perez Montiel, Delia; Vázquez, Hugo; Hernández, César; Cetina, Lucely; Lucio, Martha Hernandez

    2009-09-28

    Vulvar fibroadenomas are sporadic lesions informed in the literature and a controversy about origin has been discussed widely. We report a case of a 19 years old woman with a large slow growing mass in the right labia majora with the final diagnosis of fibroadenoma with mammary tissue surrounding it and positive hormone receptors. In this case, we support the origin in ectopic mammary tissue.

  11. Vulvar fibroadenoma: a common neoplasm in an uncommon site

    OpenAIRE

    Cetina Lucely; Hernández César; Vázquez Hugo; Perez Montiel Delia; Cantú de Leon David; Lucio Martha

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Vulvar fibroadenomas are sporadic lesions informed in the literature and a controversy about origin has been discussed widely. We report a case of a 19 years old woman with a large slow growing mass in the right labia majora with the final diagnosis of fibroadenoma with mammary tissue surrounding it and positive hormone receptors. In this case, we support the origin in ectopic mammary tissue.

  12. HPV status and favourable outcome in vulvar squamous cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeham, Katie; Kavanagh, Kim; Cuschieri, Kate; Millan, David; Pollock, Kevin G; Bell, Sarah; Burton, Kevin; Reed, Nicholas S; Graham, Sheila V

    2017-03-01

    It is universally accepted that high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the cause of cervical dysplasia and cancer. More recently, it has been shown that HPV is also a marker of clinical outcome in oropharyngeal cancer. However, contemporary information is lacking on both the prevalence of HPV infection in vulvar cancer (VSCC), its precursor lesion, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and the influence of HPV-status on the prognosis of this malignancy. We have conducted a detailed population-based study to examine rates of progression of VIN to VSCC, type-specific HPV prevalence in vulvar disease and the influence of HPV status on clinical outcome in VSCC. We observed that the age at which women are diagnosed with VSCC is falling and there is a significant time gap between first diagnosis of VIN and progression to invasive disease. HR-HPV infection was detected in 87% (97/112) cases of VIN and 52% cases (32/62) of VSCC. The presence of HR-HPV in squamous intraepithelial lesion was associated with lower rates of progression to invasive cancer (hazard ratio, 0.22, p = 0.001). In the adjusted analysis, HR-HPV was associated with improved progression-free survival of VSCC compared to those with HPV negative tumours (hazard ratio, 0.32, p = 0.02).

  13. DESVIOS DE SAÚDE EM PORTADORAS DE CONDILOMA VULVAR

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    Maria Albertina Rocha Diógenes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Condiloma vulvar se caracteriza por verrugas genitales causadas por papilomavirus humano (VHP, enfermedad sexualmente transmisible. Se planteó identificar comportamientos de auto-cuidado a partir de los requisitos por desvío de salud en mujeres portadoras de Condiloma vulvar. Estudio transversal en una muestra de atención médica de uno de los investigadores de una institución pública, referencia en Enfermedades Sexualmente Transmisibles, en Fortaleza - CE, con 30 mujeres, entre agosto y septiembre del 2007. Se empleó una entrevista con preguntas abiertas y cerradas. Los datos fueron analizados descriptivamente. Se observó que las entrevistadas poseen bajo nivel socio-económico y educacional. Los comportamientos de auto-cuidado identificados, en esta investigación, a partir de los requisitos por desvío de salud fueron: desconocimiento de la enfermedad, inestabilidad emocional, falta de colaboración de los compañeros, dificultad financiera para comparecer a citas marcadas. De esa manera, conocer los comportamientos de auto-cuidado por desvío de salud en mujeres portadoras de Condiloma vulvar permitió percibir que presentan déficit de auto-cuidado que independen de la voluntad de estas mujeres.

  14. Erosive lichen planus: a therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Williams; Giesen, Laura; Navajas-Galimany, Lucas; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Erosive lichen planus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus. Chronic erosions of the soles, accompanied by intense and disabling pain, are some of its most characteristic manifestations. We present the case of a woman who developed oral and plantar erosive lichen planus associated with lichen planus pigmentosus and ungueal lichen planus that were diagnosed after several years. The patient failed to respond to multiple therapies requiring longstanding medication but remained refractory. Knowledge of the treatment options for erosive lichen planus is insufficient. Further research is required to clarify their effectiveness, ideally adopting an evidence-based methodology.

  15. Clinical variants of lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gunnar; Rose, Christian; Sachse, Michael Max

    2013-04-01

    Lichen planus is characterized by lichenoid, polygonal papules with fine white lines, called Wickham striae. Lesions most commonly occur on the limbs and on the dorsal aspect of the trunk. At the same time often leukoplakia of mucous membranes as well as nail disorders are seen. There are numerous variants of lichen planus which can be distinguished from the classical form on the basis of morphology and distribution of the lesions. The typical primary lesion of lichen planus may be replaced by other forms, such as patches, hyperkeratoses, ulcerations, or bullous lesions. Moreover, distribution patterns of these lesions may vary and include erythrodermic, inverse or linear arrangements. In contrast to these numerous clinical features, histologic findings remain characteristic in the variants, so that the diagnosis can be made securely. Differential diagnoses of lichen planus include diverse dermatoses such as bullous pemphigoid or paronychia.

  16. Oral candidosis in lichen planus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Kieffer-Kristensen, L; Reibel, J;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, but other Candida species cause candidosis. Candida species display significant differences in their susceptibility to antimycotic drugs. Patients with symptomatic or erythematous oral lichen planus (OLP) commonly have...

  17. Oral lichen planus: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupaa, R Jayasri; Sankari, S Leena; Masthan, K M K; Rajesh, E

    2015-04-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment.

  18. Carcinoma in cutaneous Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma occurring in the cutaneous lesions of Lichen Planus though rarely mentioned in literature does occur and should be kept in mind while treating such lesions. We report a 16 year female who developed a squamous cell carcinoma in a long standing verrucous lichen planus in the lower leg. This case is being presented to indicate the possibility of malignant transformation of cutaneous lichen planus to carcinoma, especially in the hypertrophic forms and the need to have an early diagnosis so that it can be treated in the initial stages. A high degree of suspicion should be present whenever we come across a non healing lesion in a patient with lichen planus. A few markers, which may give us a clue for increased chances of malignant transformation in these cases is presented.

  19. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jayasri Krupaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment.

  20. Exploring symbiont management in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Martin; Spribille, Toby

    2012-07-01

    Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures. The myriad intersections of unique fungal species with photosynthetic partner organisms (green algae in 90% of lichens) produce a wide variety of diverse shapes and colours of the fully synthesized lichen thallus when growing in nature. This characteristic complex morphology is, however, not achieved in the fungal axenic state. Even under ideal environmental conditions, the lichen life cycle faces considerable odds: first, meiotic spores are only produced on well-established thalli and often only after achieving considerable age in a stable environment, and second, even then in vivo resynthesis requires the presence of compatible algal strains where fungal spores germinate. Many lichen species have evolved a way around the resynthesis bottleneck by producing asexual propagules for joint propagation of symbionts. These different dispersal strategies ostensibly shape the population genetic structure of lichen symbioses, but the relative contributions of vertical (joint) and horizontal (independent) symbiont transmission have long eluded lichen evolutionary biologists. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dal Grande et al. (2012) close in on this question with the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria, a flagship species in the conservation of old growth forests. By capitalizing on available microsatellite markers for both fungal and algal symbionts, they show that while vertical transmission is the predominant mode of reproduction, horizontal transmission is demonstrable and actively shapes population genetic structure. The resulting mixed propagation system is a highly successful balance of safe recruitment of symbiotic clones and endless possibilities for fungal recombination and symbiont shuffling.

  1. Post-steroid management of chronic vulvar itching with a topical formula containing natural anti-itching and anti-inflammatory actives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Di Maio, Eleonora; Di Paola, Gaetana; Felice, Raffaele; Murina, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine whether use of a topical, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itching formula was able to preserve the absence of symptoms, mainly itching and burning, induced by an earlier and relatively short treatment with topical steroids in women diagnosed with vulvar dermatitis or lichen simplex. Methods Ninety-six subjects (36 with contact dermatitis, 29 with allergic dermatitis, 31 with lichen simplex) were enrolled in the study. All participants were first treated with topical mometasone furoate (MF) 0.1%. When the symptoms disappeared, they were treated either with Zantogin®, a multicomponent topical formula containing anti-inflammatory and anti-itching natural actives, or a control cream for 60 days. Results The study demonstrated that, in about 85% of the participants treated with Zantogin®, symptoms disappeared completely, and only 15% had to resort to MF as needed, with an average use of about three applications per subject (in total). In the placebo group, approximately 90% of participants had to resort to MF as needed, with an average use per person of more than 16 applications in 60 days. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that, following use of a topical steroid, symptoms such as burning and itching can be validly controlled with subsequent and longer therapy with a herbal topical formula, Zantogin®, which is able to properly counteract itching and inflammation, prevent symptom relapse, and avoid the typical side effects associated with prolonged use of topical steroids. PMID:23637564

  2. Effects of previous surgery on the detection of sentinel nodes in women with vulvar cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ennik, T.A.; Allen, D.G; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Hyde, S.E.; Grant, P.T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest to apply the sentinel node (SN) procedure in the treatment of vulvar cancer. Previous vulvar surgery might disrupt lymphatic patterns and thereby decrease SN detection rates, lengthen scintigraphic appearance time (SAT), and increase SN false-negative rate. Th

  3. Identification of inguinofemoral lymph node metastases by methylation markers in vulvar cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, M. H. M.; Eijsink, J. J. H.; Volders, H. H.; Hollema, H.; Wisman, G. B. A.; Schuuring, E.; van der Zee, A. G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Lymph node status in early-stage vulvar cancer can be accurately assessed by the sentinel-node (SN) procedure. Molecular techniques, such as DNA-methylation assay, might improve SN assessment. In this study, we selected methylation markers for vulvar cancer and determined if these methyla

  4. Isolated large vulvar varicose veins in a non-pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Al Wahbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar varicosities are often asymptomatic, and they may be associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity. Also, they may be a part of pelvic congestion syndrome and usually occur during pregnancy. We present a case of a huge isolated and disfiguring vulvar varicosities in a non-pregnant women managed successfully by combination of surgery and sclerotherapy.

  5. Vulvar melanoma - Is there a role for sentinel lymph node biopsy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, JA; Hollema, H; Hoekstra, HJ; Piers, DA; Mourits, MJE; Aalders, JG; van der Zee, AGJ

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The objective of this study was to evaluate the author's recent, preliminary experience with the sentinel lymph node procedure in patient with vulvar melanoma and to compare this experience with treatment and follow-up of patients with vulvar melanomas who were treated previously at thei

  6. Isolated large vulvar varicose veins in a non-pregnant woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Wahbi, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Vulvar varicosities are often asymptomatic, and they may be associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity. Also, they may be a part of pelvic congestion syndrome and usually occur during pregnancy. We present a case of a huge isolated and disfiguring vulvar varicosities in a non-pregnant women managed successfully by combination of surgery and sclerotherapy.

  7. Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle: Lichen simplex chronicus is also known as neurodermatitis. A minor itch may encourage scratching which increases the irritation, leading to more scratching. This ...

  8. p16 Expression and Biological Behavior of Flat Vulvar Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (LSIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Natasha; Blanco, Luis Z; Maniar, Kruti P

    2017-09-01

    Flat low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) of the vulva [vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) 1, flat condyloma] is an uncommon entity with poorly understood biological behavior. We aimed to determine the risk of subsequent vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or carcinoma following a diagnosis of vulvar LSIL/VIN 1, as well as the frequency and predictive value of p16 immunohistochemical expression in this setting. Of the 51 included cases, p16 positivity (diffuse block staining) was identified in 2 (4%). Follow-up data were available in 34 cases, of which 2 (5.9%) developed subsequent vulvar HSIL, including 1/2 p16-positive cases and 1/32 p16-negative cases. The difference in HSIL frequency between p16-positive and p16-negative cases was not statistically significant (P=0.116 for VIN 2+, P=0.061 for VIN 3). For the 18 patients with treatment information available, 10 (56%) received medical or surgical treatment after biopsy. Our results indicate that flat vulvar LSIL is infrequently p16 positive, and that few patients with vulvar LSIL develop subsequent vulvar HSIL. Despite the use of destructive treatment in some cases, the data provide support for the nonpreneoplastic nature of the entity. Immunohistochemical expression of p16 may not be a predictor of HSIL risk in vulvar LSIL, although this result may also be related to the very low rates of both p16 positivity and subsequent vulvar HSIL in our sample. It is clear that vulvar LSIL is distinct from LSIL in other lower anogenital sites in terms of its behavior and p16 expression frequency.

  9. THE LICHENS OF NORTH CENTRAL OKLAHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARVIN WENDELL KECK

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 1,000 specimens of lichens were collected at 78 collecting stations in 11 counties of North Central Oklahoma during 1959 and 1960. The objectives were to identify lichens collected in the area; to establish a record of lichen distribution for each county in the area; and to analyze the ecological relationships.

  10. Bacterial communities associated with the lichen symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Scott T; Cropsey, Garrett W G; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-02-01

    Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and "algae" (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N(2) fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N(2) fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses.

  11. Assessment of vulvar discomfort with sexual activity among women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kathryn E; Carter, Jeanne; Lin, Li; Lindau, Stacy T; Jeffery, Diana D; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Schlosser, Bethanee J; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2017-04-01

    Multidimensional self-report measures of sexual function for women do not include the assessment of vulvar discomfort, limiting our understanding of its prevalence. In an effort to improve the measurement of patient-reported health, the National Institutes of Health funded the creation of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). This included the development of the PROMIS Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure, and version 2.0 of the Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure included 2 scales to measure vulvar discomfort with sexual activity. The objectives of the study were to describe the development of 2 self-reported measures of vulvar discomfort with sexual activity, describe the relationships between these scales and scales for lubrication and vaginal discomfort, and report the prevalence of vulvar discomfort with sexual activity in a large, nationally representative sample of US women. We followed PROMIS measure development standards, including qualitative development work with patients and clinicians and psychometric evaluation of candidate items based on item response theory, in a probability sample of 1686 English-speaking US adult women. We tested 16 candidate items on vulvar discomfort. We present descriptive statistics for these items, correlation coefficients among the vulvar and vaginal scales, and mean PROMIS scores with 95% confidence intervals separately by menopausal status for the 1046 women who reported sexual activity in the past 30 days. Based on the psychometric evaluation of the candidate items, we created 2 separate 4 item scales, one to measure labial discomfort and pain and one to measure clitoral discomfort and pain. Additional items not included in the scales assess pain quality, numbness, and bleeding. The correlations between the lubrication, vaginal discomfort, and the 2 vulvar discomfort measures ranged from 0.46 to 0.77, suggesting that these measures represent related yet distinct concepts. In

  12. Lichens as environmental risk detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Messina, M.; Marcianò, G.; Grioli, L.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.

    2017-04-01

    Several studies carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 showed that lichens are suitable biomonitors of the fall-out, given their long life expectancy. 137Cs activity concentrations were measured through HPGe gamma spectrometry in different epiphytic lichens ( Usnea SPP, Platismatia glauca, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Ramalina SPP), collected from three sampling sites in the Calabria region, south of Italy. Data on variations in the contents of airborne particulates heavy metals, As, Be, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn, measured in the thalli of the investigated lichens through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were reported in accordance with a lichen thalli naturalness/alteration scale. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis in a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX), with an electron beam of 20keV, that interacts with the sample leading to the emission of characteristic X-rays as secondary radiation, was also employed to investigate about the chemistry of the adherent particles to the surface of investigated lichens and about the possible interaction between them and the surrounding environment. Data obtained in this article provide useful information on the environmental risk of the studied area and can be further used for a radiological and chemical mapping.

  13. VULVODINIA: UN DIAGNÓSTICO OLVIDADO FRENTE AL DOLOR VULVAR

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    La vulvodinia es una patología compleja y de difícil tratamiento. Se define como un dolor crónico de la vulva, que puede ser generalizado o localizado. La primera vez que se escribe sobre esta fue en 1889, por Skene. Sin embargo, es sólo hasta 1976, que los miembros de la International Society for Study of Vulvovaginal Diseases, reconocieron el dolor vulvar como una entidad patológica. Se estima una prevalencia de un 15%, con unas 14 millones de mujeres que lo padecen en EEUU. Generalmente co...

  14. Vulvar procedures: biopsy, bartholin abscess treatment, and condyloma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeaux, Edward J; Cooper, Danielle

    2013-12-01

    Several benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions may arise on the vulva, and multiple types of procedures may be used to diagnose and treat these conditions. Punch and shave biopsies may be used to diagnose most vulvar conditions, but lesions suspected of being melanomas may best be diagnosed with narrow-margin excisional biopsies. Bartholin gland cysts and abscesses may be treated with several different treatment modalities, the most common of which are fistulization and marsupialization. Genital warts may be treated with several medical and surgical modalities to relieve symptoms.

  15. Twice malignant transformation of hypertrophic lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowska, Dorota; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Kowal, Małgorzata; Kurylcio, Andrzej; Budzyńska-Włodarczyk, Jolanta; Polkowski, Wojciech; Chodorowska, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous T-cell-mediated disease, the cause of which remains unknown. The first case of lichen planus that transformed into squamous cell carcinoma was reported in 1903. The presented study concerns the case of a 62-year-old woman in whom twice malignant transformation of hypertrophic lichen planus in the dorsal part of the left foot developed. Several studies have pointed out the malignant transformation potential of lichen planus. Epidemiological studies from the last 20 years have revealed a malignant transformation rate of 0.27% per year, emphasizing the importance of the clinical follow-up of lichen planus patients.

  16. Xanthones of Lichen Source: A 2016 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pogam, Pierre; Boustie, Joël

    2016-03-02

    An update of xanthones encountered in lichens is proposed as more than 20 new xanthones have been described since the publication of the compendium of lichen metabolites by Huneck and Yoshimura in 1996. The last decades witnessed major advances regarding the elucidation of biosynthetic schemes leading to these fascinating compounds, accounting for the unique substitution patterns of a very vast majority of lichen xanthones. Besides a comprehensive analysis of the structures of xanthones described in lichens, their bioactivities and the emerging analytical strategies used to pinpoint them within lichens are presented here together with physico-chemical properties (including NMR data) as reported since 1996.

  17. Xanthones of Lichen Source: A 2016 Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Le Pogam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An update of xanthones encountered in lichens is proposed as more than 20 new xanthones have been described since the publication of the compendium of lichen metabolites by Huneck and Yoshimura in 1996. The last decades witnessed major advances regarding the elucidation of biosynthetic schemes leading to these fascinating compounds, accounting for the unique substitution patterns of a very vast majority of lichen xanthones. Besides a comprehensive analysis of the structures of xanthones described in lichens, their bioactivities and the emerging analytical strategies used to pinpoint them within lichens are presented here together with physico-chemical properties (including NMR data as reported since 1996.

  18. Water isotopes in desiccating lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuntz, Matthias; Máguas, Cristina; Lakatos, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of water is routinely used as a tracer to study water exchange processes in vascular plants and ecosystems. To date, no study has focussed on isotope processes in non-vascular, poikilohydric organisms such as lichens and bryophytes. To understand basic isotope exchange processes of non-vascular plants, thallus water isotopic composition was studied in various green-algal lichens exposed to desiccation. The study indicates that lichens equilibrate with the isotopic composition of surrounding water vapour. A model was developed as a proof of concept that accounts for the specific water relations of these poikilohydric organisms. The approach incorporates first their variable thallus water potential and second a compartmentation of the thallus water into two isotopically distinct but connected water pools. Moreover, the results represent first steps towards the development of poikilohydric organisms as a recorder of ambient vapour isotopic composition. PMID:19888598

  19. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion arising adjacent to vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum: a tertiary institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Go Eun; Yoon, Gun; Song, Yong Jung; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-07-26

    Lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva occurs in patients who have undergone radical hysterectomy, lymph node dissection, or radiation therapy for management of advanced uterine cancer. Since vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum typically presents as multiple, grossly verrucous vesicles of various sizes, it may be impossible to clinically distinguish vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum from other vulvoperineal cutaneous diseases. In the present study, 16 (1.6%) out of the 1,024 vulvar biopsy or excision specimens were diagnosed as lymphangioma circumscriptum. In two (12.5%) out of the 16 cases, unusual histopathological findings were observed. Both patients had previously undergone radical hysterectomy with lymph node dissection and postoperative radiation therapy or concurrent chemoradiation therapy for advanced cervical cancer. Microscopic examination revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, which were located immediately adjacent to the normal squamous epithelium covering the dilated subepithelial lymphatic vessels. Further, human papillomavirus genotyping confirmed that both patients were infected with high-risk human papillomavirus. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cannot be grossly distinguished from vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum because the multiple, verrucous vesicles that constitute the characteristic gross appearance of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum hinder its distinction. In this regard, our cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, located adjacent to vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum, support the notion that active surgical excision is necessary for the treatment of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum.

  20. Ammonium and nitrate tolerance in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Since lichens lack roots and take up water, solutes and gases over the entire thallus surface, these organisms respond more sensitively to changes in atmospheric purity than vascular plants. After centuries where effects of sulphur dioxide and acidity were in the focus of research on atmospheric chemistry and lichens, recently the globally increased levels of ammonia and nitrate increasingly affect lichen vegetation and gave rise to intense research on the tolerance of lichens to nitrogen pollution. The present paper discusses the main findings on the uptake of ammonia and nitrate in the lichen symbiosis and to the tolerance of lichens to eutrophication. Ammonia and nitrate are both efficiently taken up under ambient conditions. The tolerance to high nitrogen levels depends, among others, on the capability of the photobiont to provide sufficient amounts of carbon skeletons for ammonia assimilation. Lowly productive lichens are apparently predisposed to be sensitive to excess nitrogen.

  1. High Life Expectancy of Bacteria on Lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernava, Tomislav; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Self-sustaining lichen symbioses potentially can become very old, sometimes even thousands of years in nature. In the joint structures, algal partners are sheltered between fungal structures that are externally colonized by bacterial communities. With this arrangement lichens survive long periods of drought, and lichen thalli can be revitalized even after decades of dry storage in a herbarium. To study the effects of long-term ex situ storage on viability of indigenous bacterial communities we comparatively studied herbarium-stored material of the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria. We discovered that a significant fraction of the lichen-associated bacterial community survives herbarium storage of nearly 80 years, and living bacteria can still be found in even older material. As the bacteria reside in the upper surface layers of the lichen material, we argue that the extracellular polysaccharides of lichens contribute to superior life expectancy of bacteria. Deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms could provide novel possibilities for biotechnological applications.

  2. Vulvar lactating adenoma associated to a fibroadenoma: common neoplasms in an uncommon site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaoui, Amen; Nfoussi, Haifa; Kchir, Nidhameddine; Haouet, Slim

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic breast tissue is defined as glands located outside of the breast. Ectopic breast tissue should be excised because it may develop benign (fibroadenoma) or malignant pathologic processes. Less than forty cases of fibroadenomas have been reported in the literature. Although lactation changes can occur, lactating adenoma in the vulva are extremely rare. Only four cases have been reported. We report a case of a young woman who presented with vulvar mass during her lactation. The mass was excised, and histology confirmed vulvar lactating adenoma associated with fibroadenoma. This is the first case of vulvar heterotopic breast lesion associating lactating adenoma and fibroadenoma.

  3. Successful treatment of recurrent vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia resistant to interferon and isotretinoin with cidofovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonsaeng, S; Verschraegen, C; Freedman, R; Bossens, M; Kudelka, A; Kavanagh, J; Sittisomwong, T; DeClercq, E; Snoeck, R

    2001-06-01

    Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasias are difficult to eradicate completely without extensive surgical intervention. Cidofovir, a deoxycytidine monophosphate analog, may have a therapeutic role in this disease. A 43-year-old woman with a 20-year history of genital warts presented with extensive vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia III, and refused surgical resection. Topical cidofovir 1% in Beeler base completely eradicated the lesion. Successive treatment applications, however, were necessary. Cidofovir is a promising topical antiviral compound for HPV induced vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Imiquimod in cervical, vaginal and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witte, C J; van de Sande, A J M; van Beekhuizen, H J; Koeneman, M M; Kruse, A J; Gerestein, C G

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is in the vast majority of patients accountable for the development of vulvar, cervical and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN, CIN, VAIN); precursors of vulvar, cervical and vaginal cancers. The currently preferred treatment modality for high grade VIN, CIN and VAIN is surgical excision. Nevertheless surgical treatment is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and recurrence is not uncommon. The aim of this review is to present evidence on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of imiquimod (an immune response modifier) in HPV-related VIN, CIN and VAIN. A search for papers on the use of imiquimod in VIN, CIN and VAIN was performed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Data was extracted and reviewed. Twenty-one articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed; 16 on VIN, 3 on CIN and 2 on VAIN. Complete response rates in VIN ranged from 5 to 88%. Although minor adverse effects were frequently reported, treatment with imiquimod was well tolerated in most patients. Studies on imiquimod treatment of CIN and VAIN are limited and lack uniformly defined endpoints. The available evidence however, shows encouraging effect. Complete response rates for CIN 2-3 and VAIN 1-3 ranged from 67 to 75% and 57 to 86% respectively. More randomized controlled trials on the use of imiquimod in CIN, VAIN and VIN with extended follow-up are necessary to determine the attributive therapeutic value in these patients.

  5. The 2015 International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) Terminology of Vulvar Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Jacob; Bogliatto, Fabrizio; Haefner, Hope K; Stockdale, Colleen K; Preti, Mario; Bohl, Tanja G; Reutter, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The impact of terminology for vulvar intraepithelial lesions has been significant over the years, because it has affected diagnosis, treatment, and research. The introduction of the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) in 2012 raised 2 concerns in relation to vulvar lesions: firstly, the absence of reference to "differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia" (differentiated VIN) could lead to its being overlooked by health care providers, despite its malignant potential. Secondly, including the term "low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion" (LSIL) in LAST recreated the potential for overdiagnosis and overtreatment for benign, self-limiting lesions. The International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) assigned the terminology committee the task of developing a terminology to take these issues into consideration. The committee reviewed the development of terminology for vulvar SILs with the previous 2 concerns in mind and reviewed several new terminology options. The final version accepted by the ISSVD contains the following:•Low-grade SIL of the vulva or vulvar LSIL, encompassing flat condyloma or human papillomavirus effect.•High-grade SIL or vulvar HSIL (which was termed "vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia usual type" in the 2004 ISSVD terminology).•Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, differentiated type. The advantage of the new terminology is that it includes all types of vulvar SILs, it provides a solution to the concerns in relation to the application of LAST to vulvar lesion, and it is in accordance with the World Health Organization classification as well as the LAST, creating unity among clinicians and pathologists.

  6. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  7. Dermatology case: segmental lichen aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, I.; S. Carvalho; Machado, S.; Alves,R.; Selores, M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The authors describe a clinical case of a six-year-old boy with history of a segmental brownish maculopapular skin eruption on his left thoracic and lumbar wall, since the last four months. Based on clinical and histological findings he was diagnosed with segmental lichen aureus.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usatine, Richard P; Tinitigan, Michelle

    2011-07-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease that affects the skin, oral mucosa, genital mucosa, scalp, and nails. Lichen planus lesions are described using the six P's (planar [flat-topped], purple, polygonal, pruritic, papules, plaques). Onset is usually acute, affecting the flexor surfaces of the wrists, forearms, and legs. The lesions are often covered by lacy, reticular, white lines known as Wickham striae. Classic cases of lichen planus may be diagnosed clinically, but a 4-mm punch biopsy is often helpful and is required for more atypical cases. High-potency topical corticosteroids are first-line therapy for all forms of lichen planus, including cutaneous, genital, and mucosal erosive lesions. In addition to clobetasol, topical tacrolimus appears to be an effective treatment for vulvovaginal lichen planus. Topical corticosteroids are also first-line therapy for mucosal erosive lichen planus. Systemic corticosteroids should be considered for severe, widespread lichen planus involving oral, cutaneous, or genital sites. Referral to a dermatologist for systemic therapy with acitretin (an expensive and toxic oral retinoid) or an oral immunosuppressant should be considered for patients with severe lichen planus that does not respond to topical treatment. Lichen planus may resolve spontaneously within one to two years, although recurrences are common. However, lichen planus on mucous membranes may be more persistent and resistant to treatment.

  9. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biosca, Elena G; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    ... and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia...

  10. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Biosca, Elena G.; Flores, Raquel; Ricardo D Santander; D?ez-Gil, Jos? Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen sy...

  11. Surgical management of squamous cell vulvar cancer without clitoris, urethra or anus involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Kaban

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar cancers, which constitute 5% of all gynecologic cancers, are the fourth most common female genital cancers, preceded by uterine, ovarian and cervical cancers. The treatment methods employed for vulvar cancers have changed over the years, with previously applied radical surgical approaches, such as en bloc resection, being gradually suspended in favor of treatment approaches that require dissection of less tissue. While the removal of less tissue, which today's approaches have focused on, prevents morbidity, this method seems to result in higher risks of recurrence. It is therefore important that the balance between preventing the recurrence of the disease and forefending against postoperative complications and vulvar deformity be properly understood. As a working assumption, if patients with vulvar cancer are diagnosed at an early stage, properly evaluated and administered appropriate treatment, the most positive results can be obtained. This paper aims to highlight this assumption and demonstrate, through the provision of actual data, how to plan the treatment approach for patients who are diagnosed early. Statements extracted from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2016 Sub-Committees on vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and articles by the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO regarding Vulvar Cancer Recommendations were used to obtain updated information.

  12. Surgical management of squamous cell vulvar cancer without clitoris, urethra or anus involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Alpaslan; Kaban, Işık; Afşar, Selim

    2017-05-01

    Vulvar cancers, which constitute 5% of all gynecologic cancers, are the fourth most common female genital cancers, preceded by uterine, ovarian and cervical cancers. The treatment methods employed for vulvar cancers have changed over the years, with previously applied radical surgical approaches, such as en bloc resection, being gradually suspended in favor of treatment approaches that require dissection of less tissue. While the removal of less tissue, which today's approaches have focused on, prevents morbidity, this method seems to result in higher risks of recurrence. It is therefore important that the balance between preventing the recurrence of the disease and forefending against postoperative complications and vulvar deformity be properly understood. As a working assumption, if patients with vulvar cancer are diagnosed at an early stage, properly evaluated and administered appropriate treatment, the most positive results can be obtained. This paper aims to highlight this assumption and demonstrate, through the provision of actual data, how to plan the treatment approach for patients who are diagnosed early. Statements extracted from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines Version 1.2016 Sub-Committees on vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and articles by the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) regarding Vulvar Cancer Recommendations were used to obtain updated information.

  13. Small-Area Analysis of Incidence and Localisation of Vulvar Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus H. Baumann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vulvar cancer is a rare disease mainly in older women. HPV and non-HPV induced vulvar cancer reflect two types of oncogenesis. Controversies exist on most recent developments in vulvar cancer incidence, patients, and disease characteristics. Changes in incidence, age of disease onset, and tumor site in women treated for primary vulvar cancer in a single German university hospital unit will be described. Methods. A retrospective analysis of patient records of women treated between 1994 and 2008 was performed. The fifteen-year-spanning period was divided into three five year-spanning cohorts. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed. Results. 104 patients were identified: cohort-1 from 1994 to 1998 (11 patients; cohort-2 from 1999 to 2003 (21 patients; cohort-3 from 2004 to 2008 (72 patients. Mean age (years was 73.18 (confidence interval (CI: 64.04; 82.33, 58.9 (CI: 52.24; 65.57, and 61.19 (CI: 57.27; 65.12, respectively. Vulvar cancer confined to the region between clitoris and urethra was seen more often in cohort-3 (=20 compared to cohort-1 (=0 or cohort-2 (=1. Conclusion. This analysis supports the notion of rising incidence of vulvar cancer and a changing pattern of anatomical local extension. Disease onset is not restricted to older women.

  14. Fluorine content in epiphtic lichens and mosses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olech, M.; Kajfosz, J.; Szymczyk, S.; Wodniecki, P.

    1981-01-01

    The fluorine content in epiphytic lichens (Physcia adscendens, Physconia grisea, Parmelia sulcata and Evernia prunastri) and the moss Orthotrichum obtusifolium growing near an aluminum plant is presented. Analyses of lichen samples show the correlation between the distribution of the emitted fluorine and the distance from the source of emission; the most visible effects are in the direction of the prevailing winds. The more resistant lichen species accumulate greater amounts of fluorine than the less resistant ones.

  15. Lichens: unexpected anti-prion agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bennett, James P; Johnson, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than twenty lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  16. Lichens: unexpected anti-prion agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bennett, James P.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than 20 lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  17. Dynamic model for radionuclide uptake in lichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.M.; Smith, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of atmospheric particulate material and terrestrial plants, including lichens, were collected in New Brunswick, Canada between 1980 and 1983 and analyzed for a wide range of artificial and naturally-occurring radionuclides, including fission products (/sup 141/Ce, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 103/Ru, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 95/Zr and /sup 137/Cs) derived from the 16 October 1980 Chinese nuclear test. Activity ratios of some of the short-lived fission products in air particulates and lichens are in reasonable agreement with those predicted from fission product yields for nuclear weapons tests, indicating that only minor fractionation occurred for these radionuclides during their transport through air particulate and lichen environmental phases. The /sup 7/Be inventories measured in a suite of lichen (Cladonia rangiferina) samples were used to calibrate each lichen plant for its collection efficiency for atmospheric particulates and fallout radioactivity. A lichen model has been developed to predict lichen inventories of radioactivity for different lichen growth functions and bio-elimination rates. Assuming that lichen growth results in a linear increase in surface area with time, the experimental results yield biological residence times of 1-2 years for /sup 210/Pb and Pu and 5-8 years for /sup 137/Cs.

  18. A Case of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus-Inversus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkız Uyar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus pigmentosus is a rare subtype of lichen planus. Because of its rarity, we present the case of a patient diagnosed as lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus based on clinical and histopatological findings, which clinical appearance did not resemble lichen planus at initial examination.

  19. A Case of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus-Inversus

    OpenAIRE

    Belkız Uyar; Oya Nermin Sivrikoz

    2012-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a rare subtype of lichen planus. Because of its rarity, we present the case of a patient diagnosed as lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus based on clinical and histopatological findings, which clinical appearance did not resemble lichen planus at initial examination.

  20. Morphological changes and damages of indicator lichens from Sakhalin Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. Ezhkin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lichen morphological changes, abnormalities and damages are very important parameters that define the general vitality of lichen communities. Correct detecting of lichen abnormalities helps to make an accurate assessment of the disturbance level of ecosystems. Main morphological changes and damages of indicator lichens of the Sakhalin Island are discussed.

  1. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  2. Development of lichen-rich communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketner-Oostra, R.; Sparrius, L.B.; Sýkora, K.V.; Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    The pioneer vegetation of inland dunes is known for its lichen diversity. The development of lichen-rich vegetation may take several decades after the first pioneer stage with Corynephorus canescens and Polytrichum piliferum. The neophytic moss Campylopus introflexus and atmospheric nitrogen deposit

  3. [How lichen was translated as Chii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Teruyuki

    2009-01-01

    Chii, the Japanese term for 'lichen', is widely used in contemporary East Asia. However, precisely when and by whom this term was first used to refer to lichen is not known. In addition, Japanese botanists from the 1880s to the 1950s had doubts regarding whether Chii was an accurate translation of lichen, given that Chii originally referred to moss that grows on the ground, whereas most species of lichens grow on barks of trees or on rocks. In this paper, the author shows that Li Shanlan and A. Williamson et al., in the late Qing dynasty of China, first used the term Chii to refer to lichen in Zhiwuxue, published in 1858. In Japan, Tanaka Yoshio, who was influenced by Zhiwuxue, first used the term Chii in 1872. However, further investigations led to the discovery that ITO Keisuke translated lichen as Risen in 1829. In 1836, UDAGAWA Yoan also translated lichen as Risen by using a different kanji (Chinese character) to represent sen. In 1888, in his article, MIYOSHI Manabu suggested a new equivalent term, Kisoukin, to refer to lichen (algae-parasitized fungi). In the article, he proposed the term Kyosei as the Japanese translation of symbiosis. Ever since the late 1880s, Kyosei has been used as the Japanese biological term for symbiosis.

  4. Behavioral approach with or without surgical intervention to the vulvar vestibulitis syndrome : A prospective randomized and non randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, WCMW; Gianotten, WL; vanderMeijden, WI; vandeWiel, HBM; Blindeman, L; Chadha, S; Drogendijk, AC

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the outcome of a behavioral approach with or without preceding surgical intervention in 48 women with the vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. In the first part of the study, 14 women with the vulvar vestibulitis syndrome were randomly assigned to one of two treatment programs: eithe

  5. A CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF LICHEN PLANUS

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. Madhu Babu; Padmaja, P.; M. Roopa Shree

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lichen planus is an idiopathic subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of the skin, mucous membranes, and nails. We studied the clinicopathological profile of 50 cases of Lichen planus in Osmania General Hospital from September 2010-April 2012. METHODS A total of 50 cases Lichen planus attending DVL OPD at OGH were studied. Clinical features like age, sex, type of Lichen planus, location were recorded in the case record form. Histological features of Lichen planus...

  6. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Stefanie; Wedin, Mats; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Weber, Bettina; Grube, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) seal the soil surface from erosive forces in many habitats where plants cannot compete. Lichens symbioses of fungi and algae often form significant fraction of these microbial assemblages. In addition to the fungal symbiont, many species of other fungi can inhabit the lichenic structures and interact with their hosts in different ways, ranging from commensalism to parasitism. More than 1800 species of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi are known to science. One example is Diploschistes muscorum, a common species in lichen-dominated BSC that infects lichens of the genus Cladonia. D. muscorum starts as a lichenicolous fungus, invading the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Furthermore, bacterial groups, such as Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, have been consistently recovered from lichen thalli and evidence is rapidly accumulating that these microbes may generally play integral roles in the lichen symbiosis. Here we describe lichen microbiome dynamics as the parasitic lichen D. muscorum takes over C. symphycarpa. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing to track bacterial and algal transitions during the infection process, and employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize bacteria in the Cladonia and Diploschistes lichen thalli. We sampled four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany: A) Cladonia with no visible infection, B) early infection stage defined by the first visible Diploschistes thallus, C) late-stage infection with parts of the Cladonia thallus still identifiable, and D) final stage with a fully developed Diploschistes thallus, A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of

  7. Comparison of molecular abnormalities in vulvar and vaginal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulmann, Sebastian; Sinn, Hans P; Penzel, Roland; Gilks, C Blake; Schott, Sarah; Hassel, Jessica C; Schmidt, Dietmar; Kommoss, Friedrich; Schirmacher, Peter; Kommoss, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Malignant melanoma of the vulva and vagina is relatively uncommon and accounts for melanomas in women. The aim of our study was to establish the biological properties and evaluate potential therapeutic targets in these tumors. We collected a series of 65 cases from three centers and re-evaluated the tumor tissue for predominant growth pattern (superficial spreading, nodular, and mucosal lentiginous) and tumor thickness. KIT (CD117) expression was detected immunohistochemically. In addition, tumors were screened for BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutations by PCR and DNA sequencing as well as for KIT amplifications by fluorescence in situ hybridization. None of the cases contained BRAF mutations. NRAS mutations and KIT amplifications were detected in similar frequency (∼12%) in tumors of the vulva and vagina. In contrast, KIT mutations were present in 18% of primary melanomas of the vulva, but in none of the tumors arising in the vagina. Moderate or strong KIT protein expression was detected in 30 cases, including all tumors with KIT mutations and 6 of the 7 with KIT amplifications. In conclusion, BRAF mutations are virtually absent in melanomas originating from the vulva or vagina, whereas NRAS mutations and KIT amplifications occur in both locations. KIT mutations appear to be specific for melanomas of the vulva, suggesting that in spite of the anatomic proximity, the development of vulvar and vaginal melanomas involves different molecular alterations which may be targeted by novel treatment approaches.

  8. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Birge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject.

  9. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  10. Mitochondrial genotype in vulvar carcinoma - cuckoo in the nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemba, Aleksandra; Kowalewska, Magdalena; Kukwa, Wojciech; Tonska, Katarzyna; Szybinska, Aleksandra; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Scinska, Anna; Golik, Paweł; Koper, Kamil; Radziszewski, Jakub; Kukwa, Andrzej; Czarnecka, Anna M; Bartnik, Ewa

    2010-09-08

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is a rare female genital neoplasm. Although numerous molecular changes have been reported in VSCC, biomarkers of clinical relevance are still lacking. On the other hand, there is emerging evidence on the use of mtDNA as a diagnostic tool in oncology. In order to investigate mtDNA status in VSCC patients, haplogroup distribution analysis and D-loop sequencing were performed. The results were compared with available data for the general Polish population, cancer free-centenarians as well as patients with endometrial and head and neck cancer. The obtained data were also compared with the current status of mitochondrial databases. Significant differences in haplogroup distribution between VSCC cohort, general Polish population and cancer-free centenarians cohort were found. Moreover, a correlation between the VSCC patients haplogroup and HPV status was observed. Finally, a specific pattern of mtDNA polymorphisms was found in VSCC. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial genetic background may influence the risk of VSCC occurrence as well as susceptibility to HPV infection.

  11. Mitochondrial genotype in vulvar carcinoma - cuckoo in the nest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemba Aleksandra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC is a rare female genital neoplasm. Although numerous molecular changes have been reported in VSCC, biomarkers of clinical relevance are still lacking. On the other hand, there is emerging evidence on the use of mtDNA as a diagnostic tool in oncology. In order to investigate mtDNA status in VSCC patients, haplogroup distribution analysis and D-loop sequencing were performed. The results were compared with available data for the general Polish population, cancer free-centenarians as well as patients with endometrial and head and neck cancer. The obtained data were also compared with the current status of mitochondrial databases. Significant differences in haplogroup distribution between VSCC cohort, general Polish population and cancer-free centenarians cohort were found. Moreover, a correlation between the VSCC patients haplogroup and HPV status was observed. Finally, a specific pattern of mtDNA polymorphisms was found in VSCC. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial genetic background may influence the risk of VSCC occurrence as well as susceptibility to HPV infection.

  12. Case for diagnosis. Lichen myxedematosus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebellato, Priscila Regina Orso; Carbonar, Mauren Beatriz Frazon; Tabuti, Nicole Iasmin Magario; Rastelli, Graziela Junges Crescente

    2016-01-01

    Scleromyxedema or lichen myxedematosus is a rare papular mucinosis of chronic and progressive course and unknown etiology. It is commonly associated with monoclonal gammopathy and may show extracutaneous manifestations, affecting the heart, lung, kidney, and nerves. The diagnosis is based on four criteria: generalized papular and sclerodermoid lesions; mucin deposition, fibroblast proliferation, and fibrosis in the histopathology; monoclonal gammopathy; and no thyroid disorders. This article reports the case of a scleromyxedema patient with a recent history of acute myocardial infarction and monoclonal gammopathy. PMID:28099617

  13. Patterns of care for radiotherapy in vulvar cancer: a Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe radiotherapeutic practice in the treatment of vulvar cancer in member study groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to representatives of the member study groups of the GCIG, targeting the use...... of radiotherapy (RT) in vulvar cancer. RESULTS: Thirty-two surveys were returned from 12 different cooperative groups. The most common indications for neoadjuvant RT include unresectable disease or International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage >/=III. For the neoadjuvant treatment of vulvar cancer...... of a broadly accepted standard. This underscores the importance of international cooperation as in GCIG to gather more reliable data for uncommon tumors in gynecologic oncology....

  14. Incidence and cost of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Jorgensen, T. R.; Kofoed, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Besides being a causative agent for genital warts and cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) contributes to 40-85% of cases of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer and precancerous lesions. HPV types 16 & 18 in particular contribute to 74-93% of these cases. Overall the number...... of new cases of these four cancers may be relatively high implying notable health care cost to society. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and the health care sector costs of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer. Methods: New anogenital cancer patients were identified from the Danish...... anogenital cancers were estimated using regression analysis. Results: The annual incidence of anal cancer in Denmark is 1.9 per 100,000 persons. The corresponding incidence rates for penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer are 1.7, 0.9 and 3.6 per 100,000 males/females, respectively. The total number of new cases...

  15. A Case of Familial Lichen Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeniz Ergin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Familial lichen amyloidosis which is also referred to familial primary cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare clinical variant of cutaneous amyloidosis. Lichen amyloidosis is characterized by persistent, pruritic, small brown papules often located on anterior surfaces of legs which show tendency to form plaques. Amyloid deposits would be identified in papillary dermis in histopathological examination. In our clinic, a 42 year old woman with a widespread involvement describing that similar skin findings were present in her both daughters, elder brother and her nephew was evaluated with suspicion of lichen amyloidosis. In histopathological examination of the involved skin, because of determining amyloid deposits in papillary dermis the case was cited as lichen amyloidosis. Our case was searched for the accompanying diseases such as atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria, lichen planus, multiple endocrine neoplasia and Kimura disease. The family history of our patient was consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. Familial lichen amyloidosis has been reported as cases with autosomal dominant inheritance from Russia, Germany, United Kingdom and South America. The genetic researches over familial lichen amylodiosis are limited to the cases with multiple endocrine neoplasia. In this rarely reported cases, further genetical researches are necessary in order to determine the responsible gen locus. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 137-9

  16. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosca, Elena G.; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D.; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these

  17. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosca, Elena G; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these

  18. Surgical management of stage I and II vulvar cancer:The role of the separated incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijono Andrijono

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar cancer is a gynecological cancer whose incidence rate is relatively low. Patients generally were admitted at advanced stage, and radiation therapy at advanced stage does not provide favorable prognosis. Two main modalities in the treatment of vulvar cancer are surgery and radiation therapy. However, radiation can be performed in early stage vulvar cancer but surgery is thought to have more benefits, such as in side effect on the ovary/ reproductive function disorder, patient's hygiene factor, and the ease in performing therapy if recurrence occurs. There are various techniques of vulvar cancer surgery, such as radical vulvectomy with butterfly incision (RVBI and radical vulvectomy with separated incision (RVSI. The objective of this study was to identify the benefits of radical vulvectomy with separated incision in comparison with radical vulvectomy with butterfly incision in terms of the length of surgery, wound recovery, infection incidence, length of hospital stay. This study was a clinical trial performed during the period of 1990-2000. Fifteen cases of vulvar cancer were found and underwent surgery. Fourteen cases were at stage II and 14 cases were histologically defined as squamous-cell carcinoma and 1 case was adenocarcinoma. The average length of surgery in RVSI was 168 minutes, this was shorter than that in VRBI which reached an average of 275 minutes. The incidence of infection in RVSI group was 3 of 11 cases (27.27%, while in RVBI group all cases had infection in surgical wound. Failure of surgical wound approximation was 1 of 12 cases (9.99%, while in RVBI all cases experienced the failure such that cosmetic surgery was required. Length of postoperative care in RVSI group was 12.3 days, while in RVBI 21.5 days. Thus, complications in VRBI were lower, and length of surgery and length of postoperative care were shorter. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 103-8 Keywords: vulvar cancer, separated incision

  19. Cicatrizing conjunctivitis associated with paraneoplastic lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, J M; Meisler, D M; Lowder, C Y; Tung, R C; Camisa, C

    2000-01-01

    To report two cases of cicatrizing conjunctivitis associated with paraneoplastic lichen planus. Case reports. Two patients were examined because of redness and discomfort in both eyes. A 63-year-old woman with follicular, small-cleaved cell lymphoma had cicatrizing conjunctivitis, stomatitis, vulvitis, and skin lesions. A 25-year-old man with malignant thymoma had cicatrizing conjunctivitis, erosive stomatitis, and penile papules. Histopathologic studies of conjunctiva and skin biopsy specimens in the first patient and labial biopsy specimens in the second revealed lichen planus. Paraneoplastic lichen planus is a possible cause of cicatrizing conjunctivitis associated with inflammatory skin and mucous membrane disease.

  20. Optimization of Protein Extraction for Lichen Thalli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Anna S; Savchuk, Oleksiy M; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2015-06-01

    Lichen-forming fungal proteins have been seldom searched due to many difficulties in their extraction. Phenols, quinones, proteases, and other components released during cell disruption have been known to be the greatest challenges related to protein extraction from lichens. To overcome these problems and maintain good electrophoretic resolution and high protein concentration, an extraction buffer containing polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, ascorbic acid, Triton X-100, polyethylene glycol, proteinase, and oxidase inhibitors in sodium phosphate buffer was developed. This extraction buffer showed high efficiency for all lichen species tested in the study.

  1. Organic cesium carrier(s) in lichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedic, Olgica; Stankovic, Ana; Stankovic, Slobodanka [INEP-Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy, Banatska 31b, 11080 Zemun (Yugoslavia)

    1999-03-09

    Most of the radiocesium was extracted from the lichen Cetraria islandica in aqueous medium (91.5%) without significant destruction of the lichen itself. Fractional precipitation with ethanol demonstrated that essential biomacromolecules were contaminated slightly with cesium. Using thin-layer and column chromatography at least three cesium-containing compounds were found in the residual solution. Two of them absorbed light at 270 nm. Further analysis of the main peak demonstrated instability resulting in newly formed compounds with smaller molecular masses. From this it was concluded that a significant amount of radiocesium in lichen is associated with organic molecules which tend to decompose upon isolation.

  2. Early invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinoma arising in a woman with vulvar pemphigus vulgaris and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Giuseppe; Mandato, Vincenzo D; Piccoli, Roberto; Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Mignogna, Chiara; Mignogna, Michele D; Costagliola, Luigi; Nappi, Carmine

    2010-06-23

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Genital involvement occurs when most other common sites are concurrently affected or are in remission. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that may affect many parts of the body and the skin with occasional bullous lesions. Pemphigus vulgaris and SLE may be associated, albeit rarely. Here, we report the first case of a woman affected with SLE presenting with early invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from Pemphigus Vulgaris of the vulva. A 27-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our Gynaecology Unit for bleeding vegetant lesions of the vulva. Her history was characterized by systemic lupus erythematosus and PV. Biopsy showed concomitant PV and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) grade 3. One month later a new biopsy revealed progression from VIN 3 to early SCC. Despite chemotherapy, no remission of disease was observed. She died six months after diagnosis Our case underlines PV as another chronic inflammatory disease of the lower genital tract predisposing to VIN-SCC. It suggests the need for careful follow-up of patients with chronic inflammatory disease, especially when concomitant autoimmune disorders are present. Moreover, a biopsy should be always performed if there are PV lesions because of the possibility of neoplastic disease.

  3. Fibroadenoma in an ectopic vulvar breast gland: a common neoplasm in an uncommon site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Khadhar, A; Mlika, M; Braham, E; Ismail, O; Zegal, D; El Mezni, F

    2014-03-01

    Ectopic breast tissue is defined as glands located outside of the breast. It can be found anywhere along the milk line extending from the axilla to the groin, and can occur in the vulva. Ectopic breast tissue should be excised because it may develop benign or malignant pathologic processes. Less than 40 cases of fibroadenoma in the vulva have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 37-year-old woman presenting a solitary vulvar mass. The mass was excised completely, and histology demonstrated an ectopic breast fibroadenoma. This is one of the few reports on the benign pathologies of vulvar mammary glands.

  4. Postoperative Urinary Retention With Gross Vulvar Edema After Use of 4% Icodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Beverly; Robinson, Randal

    2015-07-01

    4% icodextrin is a fluid that can be instilled laparoscopically to prevent adhesion formation. There are few complications reported in the literature associated with its use. A 38-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 0, abortus 2 underwent laparoscopic salpingectomy. 4% icodextrin was instilled in an effort to prevent adhesion formation. Postoperatively, the patient experienced urinary retention and gross vulvar edema that required foley catheter use until the 4% icodextrin solution had absorbed. Postoperative complications that may be associated with the use of 4% icodextrin include urinary retention and vulvar edema. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Systemic complications of esophageal lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, R; Garcovich, S; Giovinale, M; Marinaro, A; Manganelli, C; Zampetti, A; Feliciani, C

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus is an uncommon inflammatory mucocutaneous disorder affecting the skin and its appendages, as well as oral and genital mucosa. Involvement of the esophageal mucosa is rare and causes significant morbidity, with dysphagia and risk of long-term complications, such as esophageal strictures and stenosis. Esophageal lichen planus is an underreported condition in the spectrum of lichenoid tissue reactions, presenting the risk of systemic manifestations. We describe a patient with severe, long-standing esophageal lichen planus, which had led to marked weight-loss, malnutrition syndrome and chronic respiratory distress due to recurrent aspiration pneumonia. Diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of concomitant muco-cutaneous lesions and characteristic endoscopic and histological findings. Systemic therapy with cyclosporine A and micronutrient supplementation led to rapid clinical improvement. Early diagnosis of esophageal lichen planus as well as effective systemic immunosuppressive treatment is crucial in order to prevent short- and long-term complications.

  6. Lichen planus pigmetosus-like ashy dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tripodi Cutrì

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ashy dermatosis, also known as erythema dyschromicum perstans, is an idiopathic dermal melanosis of unknown etiology. We here describe an unusual case of 63-year-old Caucasian male with ashy dermatosis and skin lesion of lichen pigmentosus-like. No treatment was tried because the lesions were totally asymptomatic. After a control, three months later, all lesions had cleared up. This case is of interest because it proves the existence of ashy dermatosis with clinical aspect lichen planus pigmentosus-like. This is the first case in the literature of lichen planus pigmentosuslike ashy dermatosis confirming the view that ashy dermatosis is a variant of lichen planus without the typically band-like infiltrate and Max Joseph spaces.

  7. Lichen Planus-a Clinico-histopathological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Vijay

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinico-histopathological features of 75 patients of lichen planus were studied. The male to female ratio was 1:13. The largest number of patients (30.6% fell into the 31-40 year age group. Two patients had systemic hypertension. There was no history of lichen planus in the family. All patients presented with severe itching within 1-2 months of onset. Papular lesions were seen in 72% and papules with plaques were seen 16%. Lower limbs were involved in 38% of cases. Mucosal involvement was seen in 24% in addition to skin involvement ; nail involvement hypertrophicus (17.3%. Lichen planopilaris and oral lichen planus were uncommon. Clinico-histopathological discrepancies were observed in 7 patients. Civatte bodies were seen in only 37% of cases.

  8. Dermatosis associated with menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya A Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is defined as permanent irreversible cessation of menses brought by decline in ovarian follicular activity. Hormonal alteration results in various physical, psychological, and sexual changes in menopausal women. Associated dermatological problems can be classified as physiological changes, age-related changes, changes due to estrogen deficiency and due to hormone replacement therapy. Dermatosis seen due to estrogen deficiency includes Atrophic Vulvovaginitis, Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus, Dyaesthetic Vulvodynia, Hirsutism, Alopecia, Menopausal Flushing, Keratoderma Climactericum, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Dermatologists and gynecologists need to be familiar with the problems of menopausal women, as with increase in life expectancy, women passing through this phase is rising.

  9. Mushrooms and Lichens in Bulgarian Ethnomycology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagoy Angelov Uzunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents ethnomycological data on ritual, medicinal, tinder, and kindling usage of mushrooms and lichens in Bulgaria from prehistoric times till nowadays. It is based on the analysis of 17 ethnomycological sources recently available and on the authors inquiries and field trip data from the country made in the period 1986–2015. In total 18 mushrooms and 4 lichens with their usage are enlisted.

  10. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  11. A Case of Familial Lichen Amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Şeniz Ergin; Neşe Demirkan; Nida Kaçar; Berna Şanlı Erdoğan; Hatice Akman

    2008-01-01

    Familial lichen amyloidosis which is also referred to familial primary cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare clinical variant of cutaneous amyloidosis. Lichen amyloidosis is characterized by persistent, pruritic, small brown papules often located on anterior surfaces of legs which show tendency to form plaques. Amyloid deposits would be identified in papillary dermis in histopathological examination. In our clinic, a 42 year old woman with a widespread involvement describing that similar skin findi...

  12. Biodistribution of protoporphyrin IX in female genital erosive lichen planus after topical application of hexaminolevulinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Anne Lise Ording; Gjersvik, Petter; Peng, Qian; Vasovic, Vlada; Pripp, Are Hugo; Jebsen, Peter; Tanbo, Tom; Warloe, Trond

    2014-06-01

    Genital erosive lichen planus (GELP) is a chronic inflammatory disease, in women characterized by painful vulvar and vaginal erosions. To prepare for a clinical trial on photodynamic treatment (PDT), we applied hexyl 5-aminolevulinate hydrochloride (HAL) in clinically normal and affected mucosa in 12 women with GELP using two different doses (6.25 or 50mg/ml). Biopsies were taken after 30 min and 3h. The biodistribution of HAL, measured as photoactive protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), was studied using non-invasive superficial fluorescence measurements and microscopic fluorescence photometry. More PpIX was detected after application of 12.5mg HAL than after 100mg, with large inter-individual variations. PpIX levels after 3h were overall higher than after 30 min. PpIX fluorescence was not detected in skin distant to the genital area. In conclusion, 6.25mg/ml HAL applied for 3h seems adequate for HAL absorption and conversion to PpIX in submucosal inflammatory and epithelial cells and can be used in a PDT trial of GELP.

  13. 男性生殖器硬化性苔藓样病的诊治现状%Current diagnosis and treatment of male genital lichen sclerosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕军; 黄晓东

    2014-01-01

    男性生殖器硬化性苔藓样病(MGLSc)是一种慢性复发性疾病,病程较长,逐渐加重,并有恶变倾向.该病既往被称为闭塞性干燥性阴茎头炎(BXO),主要发生于包皮、阴茎头,疾病进行性进展可累及尿道,形成瘢痕组织而引起尿道狭窄,出现尿线变细、排尿困难及痛性勃起,严重影响患者生活质量.该病的病因及发病机制目前尚不明确,普遍认为与自身免疫、遗传、感染、局部创伤及尿液慢性刺激有关.通过临床表现并结合病理检查该病不难确诊,重点在于早期诊断及治疗.该病很难被治愈,但是通过积极的治疗可以减轻症状、阻止疾病进展,有效阻断远期后遗症的发生.局部皮质类固醇类药物是MGLSc治疗的首选药物,对于药物保守治疗无效者和尿道狭窄引起的排尿梗阻及痛性勃起者,可采用合理的手术方式进行手术治疗,并重视长期随访.本文对MGLSc及其所致的尿道狭窄的诊治现状作一综述,以期对该病的诊治有所提高.

  14. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident.

  15. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena K. Mittermeier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-targeted 1H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis.

  16. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermeier, Verena K; Schmitt, Nicola; Volk, Lukas P M; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Beck, Andreas; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Non-targeted ¹H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA) were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis.

  17. Oxidoreductases and cellulases in lichens: possible roles in lichen biology and soil organic matter turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Richard P; Zavarzina, Anna G; Liers, Christiane

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (usually an Ascomycete) with green algae and/or a cyanobacterium. They dominate on 8 % of the world's land surface, mainly in Arctic and Antarctic regions, tundra, high mountain elevations and as components of dryland crusts. In many ecosystems, lichens are the pioneers on the bare rock or soil following disturbance, presumably because of their tolerance to desiccation and high temperature. Lichens have long been recognized as agents of mineral weathering and fine-earth stabilization. Being dominant biomass producers in extreme environments they contribute to primary accumulation of soil organic matter. However, biochemical role of lichens in soil processes is unknown. Our recent research has demonstrated that Peltigeralean lichens contain redox enzymes which in free-living fungi participate in lignocellulose degradation and humification. Thus lichen enzymes may catalyse formation and degradation of soil organic matter, particularly in high-stress communities dominated by lower plants. In the present review we synthesize recently published data on lichen phenol oxidases, peroxidases, and cellulases and discuss their possible roles in lichen physiology and soil organic matter transformations.

  18. What doctors and patients think about false-negative sentinel lymph nodes in vulvar cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, J.A.; Ansink, A.C.; Tijmstra, T.; van der Zee, A. G. J.

    2001-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node procedure is a relatively new, minimally-invasive method for the assessment of nodal status in malignancies such as breast cancer, cutaneous melanoma and vulvar cancer. Although highly accurate, this new method is inevitably associated with a certain false-negative rate, poss

  19. Cryotherapy for massive vulvar lymphatic leakage complicated with lymphangiomas following gynecological cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanazume, Shintaro; Douzono, Haruhiko; Kubo, Hidemichi; Nagata, Tomomi; Douchi, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    Vulvar lymphatic leakage is a severe complication associated with gynecological cancer treatments. However, standard treatment strategies have not yet been determined. We encountered a rare case of a 76-year-old multiparous woman suffering from massive lymphatic fluid leakage from the entire vulva, and papules developed and were identified as lymphangiomas. A large amount of straw-colored discharge continued from all vulvar papules, which extended over the mons pubis. Nine years ago, the patient had undergone a radical hysterectomy with concurrent chemoradiation for uterine cervical cancer treatment. Her serum albumin level was 1.9 mg/dl, which was attributed to the loss of a large amount of lymph fluid due to leakage from the vulva. Her quality of life gradually decreased because of general fatigue and the need for frequent diaper exchanges every 2 h. The patient received a less-invasive treatment with cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen. She also received a multimodality treatment consisting of the intravenous administration of albumin, massage of the lower limbs and intensive rehabilitation. Cryotherapy was administered once a week for 3 months. Her discharge almost stopped and vulvar lymphangiomas decreased without any major complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of massive lymphatic leakage complicated with vulvar lymphangiomas. Additionally, this case may represent the first successful treatment of vulva lymph leakage by cryotherapy without recurrence. Cryotherapy may have the potential to improve the quality of life as a less-invasive treatment for gynecological cancer survivors without serious complications.

  20. Relevance of computerized tomography in the preoperative evaluation of patients with vulvar cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld; Zobbe, Vibeke; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to determine whether inclusion of computerized tomography (CT) in the prospective evaluation of vulvar cancer changed the surgical treatment strategy in terms of detection of lymph node metastases, tumor spread and comorbidity, and additionally to examine...

  1. Impedometric properties of the vulvar and vaginal tissues of ewes during the oestrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, L; Aizinbud, E; Tadmor, A; Schindler, H

    1981-01-01

    Tissue electrical conductance (G) and capacitance (C) were measured in vulvar and vaginal tissues of ewes by a spectroimpedographic method at frequencies from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. The calculated specific conductance (mumho/cm) at 100 kHz was 3082 +/- 20 (s.e.m.) in oestrus and 2153 +/- 16 in dioestrus (n = 8) (P standing heat.

  2. Profile of lichen planus in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khondker, L; Wahab, M A; Khan, S I

    2010-04-01

    Lichen planus is one of the common inflammatory disorders of skin, mucous membrane, nail and hair characterized by violaceous, polish, pruritic, polygonal, flat-topped papules usually distributed bilaterally symmetrically over the extremities. Our objectives in this study were to explore the prevalence of lichen planus in large area of Dhaka in Bangladesh and to establish the clinical characteristics of lichen planus. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was carried out from September 2006 to August 2008 in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Dhaka. Patients suffering from lichen planus were selected as study population. By face to face interview and clinical observations, data were collected from sample. A total 120 patients of lichen planus were selected, on the basis of age, 30(25%) were 10-30 years of age, 75(62.56%) were 30-50 years and 16(13.33%) were over 50 years of age. The mean age of the patient was 40+/-4 years. Out of 120 patients, 80(66.66%) were male and 60(33.33%) were female and eight patients (6.67%) had positive family history among highest age group (30 to 50 years). In case of duration of disease, highest percentage (68%) of cases was 15 days to 6 months and considering clinical sign, koebnerization was present 45(37.5%) cases and Wickhams striae 22(18.33%) cases. Regarding site of onset of lesion, lesions were highest 100(83.33%) in upper limbs, next lower limbs, trunk, oral mucosa etc. The distribution of clinical pattern of lichen planus showing classic pattern (68.33%) was the most common type, followed by hypertrophic, actinic, ashy dermatoses, lichen plano-pilaris, erosive or ulcerative etc. This clinico-epidemiological study of lichen planus attending in the different hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh has shown that lichen planus is usually associated with 30 to 50 years of age group, with

  3. Non-destructive estimation of lichen biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Moen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground lichens constitute a vital part of reindeer winter diet, and non-destructive estimation of lichen biomass is therefore crucial for providing objective data for the management of lichen resources. The aim of this study is to compare precisions of different methods of estimating lichen biomass from ground cover and thallus heights of the four most important lichen species: Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, C. stellaris, and Cetraria islandica. The methods were validated against actual lichen biomass within 50 cm x 50 cm plots. Different methods gave remarkably similar results, except when cover estimation was based on presence/absence data with a strict criterion of 100% lichen cover. Average thallus heights within the plot explained the variation in lichen biomass as well as lichen volume (estimated from cover and average heights. Relationships between biomass and volume or height were also very similar for all four lichen species, and separation into species thus do not seem necessary for practical purposes.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Icke-destruktiv skattning av lavbiomassa Marklavar utgör en kritisk del av renars vinterföda, och det blir därmed väsentligt att kunna skatta lavbiomassa på ett icke-destruktivt sätt för att kunna förvalta lavresursen. Syftet med denna studie är att jämföra precisionen hos olika metoder för att skatta lavbiomassa baserat på volym- och bålhöjdsmätningar för de fyra viktigaste arterna: Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, C. stellaris, and Cetraria islandica. Metoderna validerades mot lavbiomassa mätt i 50 cm x 50 cm provytor. Olika metoder gav anmärkningsvärt lika resultat, förutom när täckning skattades med förekomstdata med ett strikt kriterium av 100% lavförekomst. Medelhöjd på lavbålarna i provytan förklarade lika mycket av variationen i lavbiomassa som lavvolym (baserat på täckning och medelhöjd. Förhållandet mellan biomassa och volym eller bålhöjd var ocks

  4. [Breast metastasis from vulvar carcinoma: case report and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouchani, M; Benchakroun, N; Tahri, A; Tawfiq, N; Jouhadi, H; Acharki, A; Sahraoui, S; Belaabidia, B; Benider, A

    2008-03-01

    The breast metastases resulting of vulvar carcinoma are very rare, and represent exceptionally the first manifestation of the disease. We report the case of a 42 year-old patient who underwent a treatment because of vulvar epidermoid carcinoma, right away metastatic at the level of the inguinal ganglia. The treatment consisted in a total vulvectomy with bilateral ganglial curretage, followed by external radiotherapy about the perineum and the inguinal ganglia. Three months after the end of her treatment, the patient presented with a nodula on the left outer breast with features of malignancy noticed by clinic and mammographic examination. The histologic study of the mammary biopsy showed epidermoid carcinoma of likely metastatic origin. A left Patey has been realized and confirmed the metastatic localization of epidermoid carcinoma with axillary ganglial metastasis (2N+/-7). Besides, this patient presented a right cervical ganglial parcel that the biopsy showed a metastatic localization of a vulvar carcinoma. A palliative chemotherapy type cyclophosphamid, adriblastin, cisplatine (CAP) has been admistrated during three cycles spaced out three weeks. The patient died 11 months after the supervene of the cerebral metastasis. We present this case because its rarety and to show the possibility of metastasis at the level of breast due to vulvar cancer. The clinicians must remember this possible tropism of the vulvar cancer for the breast, not only during the supervision and the complete examination as regards the disease spreading but also when the affection revealed unknown primary tumor. The diagnostic orientation is based on the mammography and the mammary biopsy. In this stage, the treatment is unfortunately palliative, the survival until a year is not more than 20%.

  5. Lichens from Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Island, Southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Thomson, J.W.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Schofield, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    One hundred eighty-eight taxa of lichens are reported from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands of southwestern Alaska. Wide-ranging arctic-alpine and boreal species dominate the lichens; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. The lichen component of Empetrum nigrum dwarf shrub heath, the dominant vegetation type, was analyzed to identify the most frequently occurring lichens within this community.

  6. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the Albanian Alps (Kosovo, Montenegro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Eva A.; Hafellner, Josef; Stešević, Danijela; Geci, Fehmi; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    396 taxa (381 species) of lichenized and 45 species of lichenicolous fungi from the upper montane, subalpine and alpine belts of the Albanian Alps (= Prokletije Mountain Range, Bjeshkët e Nemuna) are presented. 92 lichenized and 26 lichenicolous fungi are new to Montenegro, 165 lichenized and 24 lichenicolous fungi are new to Kosovo, and 25 lichenized fungi (23 species) are new for the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26869727

  7. Effects of habitat conditions and disturbance on lichen diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Per

    2006-01-01

    This thesis includes five papers from four studies on lichen diversity in its broad sense. The overall objectives were to examine species richness, composition, distribution, and abundance of lichens at tree and stand-level, after forest fire, and after prescribed burning. Based on these studies I develop two themes in the thesis: 1) The epiphytic lichen metacommunity – how tree-level lichen diversity depends on local and regional processes, whose importance may vary over time. 2) How disturb...

  8. A case with Lichen planus in the lines of Blaschko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metehan Gençoğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus is an inflammatory disorder that may involveskin and mucous membranes. Linear lichen planusis a rare disorder occurring in approximately 0.2% of patientswith lichen planus. We report a case of linear lichenplanus on the upper extremity which lesions followed thelines of Blaschko. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 430-432

  9. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Branka; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2009-02-09

    The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 169 published sources. The lichen mycota as currently known from Montenegro includes 681 species (with eight subspecies, nine varieties and one form) of lichenized fungi, 12 species of lichenicolous fungi, and nine non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature.

  10. Contact sensitivity to lichens and compositae in Frullania dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalo, S

    1987-02-01

    48 patients with allergic contact dermatitis from Frullania were patch tested with a lichen mix, compositae and lichen acids. 27 were sensitive to Frullania and lichens. Parmelia caperata and Parmelia reticulata were positive in all, and in a descending order of positivity: Pseudovernia furfuracea, Evernia prunastri, Usnea spp, Ramalina lusitanica. d-Usnic and evernic acids and atranorin were the main responsible allergens.

  11. Lichens in the rural landscape of the Warmia Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Szymczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the rural landscape of the Warmia Plain were studied. Lichen species were observed on old wooden fences, roadside trees, fruit trees, pylons, farm machinery, buildings and bridges. The analysed biota consists of 104 taxa with several noteworthy and rare lichens.

  12. Vulvar reconstruction should be performed using gluteal-fold perforator flap because of less morbidities and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Fujioka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The autors present a case of bilateral vulvar defects after abrasion of malignant skin neoplasm, reconstructed with a gluteal-fold perforator flap, resulting in a successful outcome.

  13. Vulvovaginal-gingival Lichen Planus: Association with Lichen Planopilaris and Stratified Epithelium-specific Antinuclear Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Malgorzata; Banka-Wrona, Agnieszka; Skrok, Anna; Rakowska, Adriana; Górska, Renata; Solomon, Lynn W; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal-gingival lichen planus (VVG-LP) consists of a triad of symptoms: vulval, vaginal and gingival lichen planus lesions. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of lesions in various anatomical locations in patients with VVG-LP. The study included 126 consecutive patients with lichen planus. Sixteen (12.7%) patients fulfilled the criteria of VVG-LP. In 12/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP scalp lesions were also observed. Stratified epithelium-specific antinuclear antibodies (SES-ANA) and anti-ΔNp.3α antibodies were detected in 10/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP and in 15/110 (13.6%) patients with other forms of lichen planus (p lichen planopilaris. The new entity may be termed "vulvovaginal-gingival-pilar lichen planus" and our study indicates that SES-ANA is a marker of this type of lichen planus with extensive, severe and refractory-to-therapy involvement of the mucous membranes, skin and scalp.

  14. The lichens: general considerations. Role as pollution biological indicators; Les lichens: generalites. Role comme bioindicateurs de la pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivaux, E

    1998-03-25

    After having recalled the morphology and the different classification of lichens, the author presents the main lichenous substances, in particular the depsides and the depsidones. A detailed study on the role of lichens as pollution biological indicators is given. (O.M.)

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

  16. POTENSI LICHEN SEBAGAI SUMBER BAHAN OBAT: SUATU KAJIAN PUSTAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIS SEPTIANA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen is a plant with many benefits. Its abundant existence in an area may indicate that air pollution levels are still low. Besides as indicator of air quality, lichen is also used as traditional medicine. Until present time, application of lichens for arthritis, constipation, chemotherapy, external wound, microbial infection, worm and infestation are still done in some countries. It is due to active chemical compounds contain in lichen that has activities as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoa, analgesic and antipyretic, and anthelmintic. With its potential and efforts to provide sustainable materials, lichen has good prospect to be developed become modern medicine.

  17. The lichen flora of the Malbork Castle (N. Polami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Guzow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study 32 species of lichens were found. The most numerous were crustose lichens. which are typical of rocks. The follwing species which are known to occur rarely in Poland were identified: Acarospora cf. umbibilicata and Lecidella cf. carpathica. Two species of the genus Lepraria were also noted; among them Lepraria caesioalba had not been reported previously from Poland. The non-uniform distribution of lichens in the castle area, mainly the presence of "lichen deserts" was. probably associated with human activities. The most frequent occurring lichens were synanthropic, easily spreading species, e.g. Caloplaca citrina, Lecanora albescens and L. dispersa.

  18. Palmar lichen planus mimicking tinea nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Madke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by polygonal, violaceous papules commonly involving flexural areas of the wrists, legs, and oral and genital mucous membranes. This report describes a patient who presented with asymptomatic black colored patches on both palms simulating Tinea nigra, a superficial fungal infection. She was previously diagnosed as allergic contact dermatitis and was being treated with potent topical steroid i.e. clobetasol propionate 0.05% and white soft paraffin. Dermatoscopy of the lesion showed brownish pigmentation along ridges of the dermatoglyphics. A biopsy from the lesional skin showed findings of lichen planus. Our case highlights the potential diagnostic confusion that can occur with unusual variants of palmoplantar lichen planus and importance of histopathology in diagnosis of such unusual lesions.

  19. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  20. Lichen conservation in heavily managed boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Richard Troy; Thompson, Ian D; Newmaster, Steven G

    2013-10-01

    Lichens are an important component of the boreal forest, where they are long lived, tend to accumulate in older stands, and are a major food source for the threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). To be fully sustainable, silvicultural practices in the boreal forest must include the conservation of ecological integrity. Dominant forest management practices, however, have short-term negative effects on lichen diversity, particularly the application of herbicides. To better understand the long-term effects of forest management, we examined lichen regeneration in 35 mixed black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest stands across northern Ontario to determine recovery following logging and postharvest silvicultural practices. Our forest stands were 25-40 years old and had undergone 3 common sivilcultural treatments that included harvested and planted; harvested, planted, and treated with N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine (glyphosate); and harvested, planted, and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Forest stands with herbicide treatments had lower lichen biomass and higher beta and gamma diversity than planted stands that were not treated chemically or control stands. In northwestern Ontario, planted stands that were not treated chemically had significantly greater (p < 0.05) alpha diversity than stands treated with herbicides or control stands. Our results show that common silvicultural practices do not emulate natural disturbances caused by wildfires in the boreal forest for the lichen community. We suggest a reduction in the amount of chemical application be considered in areas where lichen biomass is likely to be high and where the recovery of woodland caribou is an objective. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Epiphytic lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollution in Slovenian forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeran, Z. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: zvonka.jeran@ijs.si; Mrak, T. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jacimovic, R. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Batic, F. [Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kastelec, D. [Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mavsar, R. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simoncic, P. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-03-15

    Two country-wide surveys using epiphytic lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollution carried out during 2000 and 2001 in Slovenia were compared with surveys in 1991 and 1992. In the first survey, epiphytic lichen cover was studied in more than 500 plots of the 4 x 4 km national grid carried out within the framework of forest decline inventories. In the second survey, the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., was collected on a 16 x 16 km bioindication grid and analysed for S, N, As, Br, Ce, Cd, Cr, K, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Th, U and Zn contents. Only 'forested area' sampling points were included in the present study. Lichen cover was low, with about 70% of plots with less than 10% foliose lichen cover. No relationship was found between Hypogymnia trace element, N and S concentrations and foliose epiphytic lichen cover. - No relationship between Hypogymnia element concentrations and foliose epiphytic lichen cover was found.

  2. [Enzyme immunoassay of usnic acid in lichens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P; Tolpysheva, T Iu

    2013-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay for usnic acid in lichens was developed, the sensitivity of which was 0.1 microg/g of air-dried material (0.00001%). Polyclonal rabbit antibodies against bovine serum albumin conjugated to (+)-usnic acid under the conditions of formaldehyde condensation made it possible to determine the analyzed substance in solutions at concentrations from 1 ng/mL when it interacts with an immobilized gelatin conjugate homologous in the binding mode. Usnic acid in 2-26600 microg/g (0.0002-2.6%) amounts was found in all 236 studied samples of lichens belonging to 53 species and 8 families.

  3. Palmoplantar lichen planus successfully treated with acitretin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Berna; Kara, Rabia Oztas; Kosem, Mustafa

    2015-09-07

    Palmoplantar lichen planus (PPL) is an uncommon type of lichen planus (LP) that exclusively affects the palms and soles. We report a case of a 50-year-old man who had palmoplantar hyperkeratotic papules and plaques. The patient was diagnosed as a case of PPL by skin biopsy, and treated with acitretin. He showed a good response to acitretin within 2 months. Clinical appearance and some features of PPL may differ from classic LP. Acitretin may be a favourable treatment option for PPL.

  4. Lichen scleroatrophicus in combination with generalized morphea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan CEYLAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Localized fibrosing disorders form a spectrum of rare conditions that frequently begin in childhood. These diseases are characterized by circumscribed fibrotic areas involving different levels of the dermis, subcutis and sometimes underlying soft tissue. Although some cases of morphea and lichen scleroatrophicus coexistence are reported in the literature, this is a rare condition. We present a case of a 20-year-old girl with a 8-year history of brown-white discoloration, thickening of skin on the extremities and trunk and thinning of right leg who was diagnosed as lichen scleroatrophicus which coexisted with generalized morphea.

  5. Lichen Planus Pemphigoides Associated with Bisoprolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turna İlknur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus pemphigoides (LPP is a disease characterized by tense bullae arising on lichen planus papules and on clinically uninvolved skin, lichenoid infiltration and subepidermal bulla in histopathology, and linear deposits of IgG and C3 along basal membrane zone on direct immunofluorescence. This rare bullous dermatosis is usually idiopathic. However, in a few cases in the literature, it has been reported to be induced by hepatitis B, malignancies, phototherapy and some medications such as ramipril, captopril, cinnarizine and simvastatin. We reported a 35-year-old woman with LPP possibly induced by bisoprolol.

  6. [Radiotherapy in vulvar cancer. Experience in the Hospital de Oncología, CMN, SXXI, IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Bahena, J; Padilla Arrieta, P; Ayala Hernández, J R

    1995-11-01

    Between 1986 and 1992, 42 patients with carcinoma of the vulva diagnosis, were treated at the Hospital de Oncologia, CMN, SXXI. Mean age was 63 years. There was 1 case stage I, 5 stage II, 25 stage III, 4 stage IV, 2 with recurrent disease and 5 patients could not be classified. Local control was reached in 60% of patients however, 12 patients developed local recurrence after surgery and/or radiation therapy, finally 43% of patients remained disease free after a mean of 19 months of followup. In the subset of advanced disease patients treated with radical or preoperative radiation therapy (27 patients), 41% of them remained without disease. Mean radiation doses for patients treated only with radiation therapy was 6500 cGy. Late vulvar fibrosis and acute desquamative dermatitis, were the morbidity more frequently observed. New directions in the management of vulvar cancer must be developed to improve treatment results, in patients with advanced disease.

  7. Sexual Functioning After Treatment of In Situ Vulvar Cancer: Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Turnquist, Dawn; LaPolla, James; Turner, Deborah

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two patients treated for in situ vulvar cancer at two institutions participated in structured assessment interviews and completed questionnaires to examine postoperative sexual, marital, and psychological adjustment. Patient responses were compared with a matched sample of gynecologically healthy women. The results indicated a specific pattern of sexual disruption for the women treated for preinvasive disease. Sexual behavior patterns appeared to be maintained, as was the desire phase o...

  8. [Prolapsed ureterocele: a diagnosis to be considered for a vulvar mass in an infant: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardón Fernández, Marita; Uberos Fernández, José; Moreno Madrid, Francisco

    2017-02-01

    Ureterocele is a relatively common malformation of the urinary system in children; however, the ureterocele prolapse through the urethra is an extremely rare presentation. Urological nuclear magnetic resonance is the test of choice for definitive diagnosis. Initial treatment of a prolapsed ureterocele involves decompression of the mass. We report the case of a 7-month-old infant with duplication of the collecting system and right ectopic ureterocele appearing as a vulvar mass.

  9. Preoperative radiotherapy followed by radical vulvectomy with inguinal lymphadenectomy for advanced vulvar carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotmensch, J.; Rubin, S.J.; Sutton, H.G.; Javaheri, G.; Halpern, H.J.; Schwartz, J.L.; Stewart, M.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Herbst, A.L. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-02-01

    A therapeutic alternative to exenteration for large locally advanced vulvar carcinoma involving the rectum, anus, or vagina is the use of preoperative radiation followed by radical surgery. Between 1980 and 1988, 13 patients with Stage III and 3 with Stage IV vulvar carcinoma involving the rectum/anus, urethra, or vagina were treated with 4000 rad to the vulva and 4500 rad to the inguinal and pelvic nodes followed by a radical vulvectomy and inguinal lymphadenectomy 4 weeks later. The overall 5 year cumulative survival was 45%. Twelve tumors regressed after radiation with 62.5% of the patients having visceral preservation while in 4 patients there was no major response to radiation and urinary or fecal diversion was required. Of the 6 recurrences 4 were central and 2 distant. Three patients with central recurrences had tumor within 1 cm of the vulvectomy margin. Complications included wet desquamation, inguinal wound separation, lymphedema, and urethral strictures. There were no operative deaths. It is concluded that the use of preoperative radiation followed by radical vulvectomy may be an alternative to pelvic exenteration in selected patients with advanced vulvar lesions.

  10. Treatment outcome in patients with vulvar cancer: comparison of concurrent radiotherapy to postoperative radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ja Young; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Ki Won; Park, Dong Choon; Yoon, Joo Hee; Yoon, Sei Chul [St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mina [St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate outcome and morbidity in patients with vulvar cancer treated with radiotherapy, concurrent chemoradiotherapy or postoperative radiotherapy. The records of 24 patients treated with radiotherapy for vulvar cancer between July 1993 and September 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received once daily 1.8-4 Gy fractions external beam radiotherapy to median 51.2 Gy (range, 19.8 to 81.6 Gy) on pelvis and inguinal nodes. Seven patients were treated with primary concurrent chemoradiotherapy, one patient was treated with primary radiotherapy alone, four patients received palliative radiotherapy, and twelve patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy. Twenty patients were eligible for response evaluation. Response rate was 55% (11/20). The 5-year disease free survival was 42.2% and 5-year overall survival was 46.2%, respectively. Fifty percent (12/24) experienced with acute skin complications of grade III or more during radiotherapy. Late complications were found in 8 patients. 50% (6/12) of patients treated with lymph node dissection experienced severe late complications. One patient died of sepsis from lymphedema. However, only 16.6% (2/12) of patients treated with primary radiotherapy developed late complications. Outcome of patients with vulvar cancer treated with radiotherapy showed relatively good local control and low recurrence. Severe late toxicities remained higher in patients treated with both node dissection and radiotherapy.

  11. A Rare Case of Vulvar Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH of the vulva is rare. A 32 year-old woman presented with a two year history of non-healing vulvar ulceration and a nine month history of ulcerative nodular lesion in the left inguinal region. Biopsy results of the vulva and inguinal lesions were consistent with LCH. Screening of the body systems revealed hepatosplenomegaly, iliac, inguinal, paraaortic lymph nodes and lung involvement. She was treated with systemic steroid, resulting in complete improvement of vulvar lesion. She also underwent a local excision of left inguinal lesion. Three months later, we found a lesion on her left inguinal region that was consistent with a recurrence and enlargement in the lymph nodes. Therefore, high dose systemic steroid therapy and then a 12-session radyotherapy were given. After the treatment, a complete improvement was obtained. A 1-year of systemic methotrexate therapy was recommended to prevent recurrence of the disease. In women with vulvar ulcer, LCH should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  12. Vulvar carcinomas: search for sequences homologous to human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, S; Rotola, A; D'Amato, L; Di Luca, D; Shah, K V; Cassai, E; Rilke, F

    1990-07-01

    Ten cases of intraepithelial carcinoma, five with Bowenoid features and five with early invasion, and ten cases of invasive vulvar carcinoma were examined by in situ hybridization and Southern blot analysis using DNA probes for human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, 18 and 31. HPV DNA was detected in 90% of the intraepithelial cases and in 10% of the invasive cases. All positive cases showed the presence of DNA of HPV type 16. The cases with intraepithelial lesions revealed a strong correlation between the presence of HPV type 16 DNA, cigarette smoking habit, other potential cofactors such as herpes simplex (HSV) DNA sequences and the use of contraceptive drugs, and clinicopathologic features of Bowen's type in situ squamous cell carcinoma. Similar associations were not observed among the cases with invasive disease. While HPV-16 is associated with differentiated Bowenoid type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, which appears to be the most common form of early carcinoma of the vulva, the same association was not seen with respect to advanced vulvar invasive squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. Tropical urban lichens: observations from Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipman, H.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The known lichen diversity of Singapore, 296 species, is comparable with temperate lowland areas, but the taxa involved are different, even at high taxonomic levels: the commonest orders are Arthoniales and Graphidales instead of Lecanorales. Epiphytic species dominate, while saxicolous and terrestr

  14. Longitudinal photosynthetic gradient in crust lichens' thalli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhang, Gaoke; Lan, Shubin; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate the self-shading protection for inner photobionts, the photosynthetic activities of three crust lichens were detected using Microscope-Imaging-PAM. The false color images showed that longitudinal photosynthetic gradient was found in both the green algal lichen Placidium sp. and the cyanolichen Peltula sp. In longitudinal direction, all the four chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, Yield, qP, and rETR gradually decreased with depth in the thalli of both of these two lichens. In Placidium sp., qN values decreased with depth, whereas an opposite trend was found in Peltula sp. However, no such photosynthetic heterogeneity was found in the thalli of Collema sp. in longitudinal direction. Microscope observation showed that photobiont cells are compactly arranged in Placidium sp. and Peltula sp. while loosely distributed in Collema sp. It was considered that the longitudinal photosynthetic heterogeneity was ascribed to the result of gradual decrease of incidence caused by the compact arrangement of photobiont cells in the thalli. The results indicate a good protection from the self-shading for the inner photobionts against high radiation in crust lichens.

  15. Vulval lichen planus leading to urethral stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old female child presented with difficulty in micturition preceded by some vulval lesions. She had itching around vulva associated with burning sensation and gradually developed a whitish patch. Histology was compatible with lichen planus.

  16. Het geslacht Stereocaulon (Lichenes) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, A.M.; Sipman, H.J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Eight Stereocaulon (Lichenes) species have been found in the Netherlands. Of these S. paschale (L.) Fr. and S. tomentosum Fr. have been observed only in the last century, in heather and woodland on sand. S. condensatum Hoffm. is found on old drifted sands in the interior, where it occurs now and is

  17. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M.G.; Kulikov, N.V. (AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh)

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  18. Antioxidant activity of lichen Cetraria aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Jovica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant properties of the lichen Cetraria aculeata. Antioxidant activity of the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of lichen was tested by different methods including determination of total phenolics content, determination of total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, ferrous ion chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The extracts of the lichen C. aculeata showed significant antioxidant activity. The methanol extract showed higher values for total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity compared to the ethyl acetate extract, while the ethyl acetate extract demonstrated better results for DPPH radical scavenging, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging than the methanol extract. This is the first report of the antioxidant properties of Cetraria aculeata growing in Serbia. The results of antioxidant activity indicate the application of this lichen as source of natural antioxidants that could be used as a possible food supplement, in the pharmaceutical industry and in the treatment of various diseases.

  19. Lichens and Air Quality in Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge: Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to survey the lichens in the refuge, produce a lichen flora, collect and analyze lichens for chemical contents and evaluate the...

  20. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Måns; Dahlberg, Anders; Ranius, Thomas; Thor, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent) organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years), managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1) total lichen species richness, (2) species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3) the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  1. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Måns Svensson

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years, managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1 total lichen species richness, (2 species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3 the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  2. Validation and application of the sentinel lymph node concept in malignant vulvar tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal-Sicart, Sergi [University of Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); CRC-MAR, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques Agusti Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); Puig-Tintore, Lluis M.; Lejarcegui, Jose A. [University of Barcelona, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Paredes, Pilar; Ortin, Jaime; Duch, Joan [University of Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Ortega, Maria L. [CRC-MAR, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Munoz, Antonio [Cetir Unitat Sagrat Cor. Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Ordi, Jaume [University of Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Fuste, Pere [Hospital del Mar. Barcelona, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Barcelona (Spain); Martin, Francisco [Hospital Virgen de la Luz, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cuenca (Spain); Pons, Francesca [University of Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques Agusti Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Inguinal lymphadenectomy, unilateral or bilateral, is widely used in cases of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma but has a high morbidity. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy may be used in the management of these patients. The aims of this study were firstly to determine the reliability of SLN biopsy in predicting regional lymph node status and secondly to apply this technique in the routine clinical setting. We prospectively studied 70 women with vulvar malignancies. The first 50 cases were of squamous vulvar cancer and were used to validate the SLN technique in this clinical setting (validation group). Once a satisfactory success rate had been achieved in the validation group, the SLN technique was applied to a further 20 patients with vulvar malignancies, i.e. squamous cell carcinoma (n=12) and melanomas (n=8) (application group). Dynamic and static images were acquired after the injection of 74-148 MBq of a colloidal albumin, and continued until SLN identification. Fifteen minutes before surgery, blue dye injection was administered in a similar manner to the radiocolloid. After incision, a hand-held gamma probe was used to find the SLN. In the validation group, dissection of the SLN was always followed by lymphadenectomy. In the application group, this procedure was only performed if the SLN was positive for metastases. For pathological staging, samples were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry. In the validation group, lymphoscintigraphy allowed SLN detection in 49/50 patients (98%). Blue dye detected the SLN in 40/50 patients (80%). In 16 patients (33%), the SLN showed metastases in the pathology study. All 33 patients with negative SLN had regional lymph nodes negative for metastases (negative predictive value 100%). In the application group, lymphoscintigraphy showed drainage to an SLN in 19 out of 20 patients (95%) and blue dye demonstrated a stained SLN in 17/20 patients (85%). Seven of the 19 SLN-identified nodes (37

  3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Developing in a Cutaneous Lichen Planus Lesion: A Rare Case

    OpenAIRE

    Saptarshi Ghosh; Sivasankar Kotne; Ananda Rao, P. B.; Turlapati, S. P. V.; Dillip Kumar Soren

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus is a benign disorder characterized by an itchy, noninfectious skin rash. Though lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely and should be borne in mind while treating nonhealing longstanding lesions of lichen planus. Studies suggest an estimated 0.3–3% risk of malignancy in patients with oral lichen planus, however, cutaneous lichen planus does not carry ...

  4. The symbiotic playground of lichen thalli--a highly flexible photobiont association in rock-inhabiting lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggia, Lucia; Vancurova, Lucie; Škaloud, Pavel; Peksa, Ondrej; Wedin, Mats; Grube, Martin

    2013-08-01

    The development of characteristic thallus structures in lichen-forming fungi requires the association with suitable photoautotrophic partners. Previous work suggests that fungi have a specific range of compatible photobionts and that selected algal strains are also correlated with the habitat conditions. We selected the rock-inhabiting crust lichen Protoparmeliopsis muralis, which exhibits high flexibility in algal associations. We present a geographically extended and detailed analysis of algal association patterns including thalli which host superficial algal colonies. We sampled 17 localities in Europe, and investigated the photobiont genotypic diversity within and between thalli and compared the diversity of intrathalline photobionts and externally associate algal communities between washed and unwashed thalli by single-strand conformation polymorphism analyses and ITS sequence data. The results show that (1) photobiont population within the lichen thalli is homogeneous; (2) multiple photobiont genotypes occur within single areoles and lobes of individual lichens; and (3) algal communities which superficially colonize the lichen thalli host taxa known as photobionts in unrelated lichens. Photobiont association patterns are extremely flexible in this ecologically versatile crust-forming lichen. We suggest that lichen surfaces represent a potential temporary niche for free-living stages of lichen photobionts, which could facilitate the establishment of further lichens in the proximal area.

  5. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research II. Secondary lichen compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meessen, J; Sánchez, F J; Sadowsky, A; de la Torre, R; Ott, S; de Vera, J-P

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  6. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata).......To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  7. Painful linear atrophic lichen planus along lines of Blaschko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Chembolli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear lichen planus along the lines of Blaschko is uncommon. Atrophic lichen planus is usually a sequel to resolving annular and ulcerative lesions. We herewith report a case of histopathologically proven lichen planus, presenting with atrophy at the outset, in a linear distribution along the lines of Blaschko. In addition to the cutaneous findings, she also had pain along the distribution of lesions.

  8. Concept actuel du lichen plan oral. Le diagnostic facile au début, peut devenir très difficile dans les lichens anciens

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Tommaso; Kuffer, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the skin, skin appendages and mucous membranes, which frequently affects the oral mucosa. Its aetiology still remains unknown, and currently accepted pathogenesis is that of an autoimmune cell-mediated disease. To the contrary of skin lichen planus, oral lichen planus is a long-term chronic disease with dynamic evolution...

  9. Linear lichen planus in children--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Marcia Raquel; Vidal, Marcela de Lima; Resende, Manuela Oliveira; Teixeira, Márcia Almeida Galvão; Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria de Morais; Alencar, Eliane Ruth Barbosa de

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus is an uncommon disease in children, and only 2 to 3% of affected patients are under twenty years of age. This dermatosis may appear in several clinical forms, which vary according to the morphology and distribution of lesions. In less than 0.2% of all lichen planus cases, the lesions are distributed along the lines of Blaschko, and is a variant called linear lichen planus. This is a case report of a patient aged two years and eight months, who presented keratotic violaceous papules, affecting the abdomen, buttocks and right thigh, distributed along the lines of Blaschko. Histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of linear lichen planus.

  10. Ice encapsulation protects rather than disturbs the freezing lichen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, J W

    2009-03-01

    Arctic and alpine terricolous lichens are adapted to harsh environments and are tolerant to extremely low temperatures when metabolically inactive. However, there are reports indicating that freezing can be lethal to metabolically active lichens. With a projected warmer and more unstable climate, winter precipitation at high latitudes will fall more frequently as rain, causing snowmelt and encapsulating terricolous lichens in ice or exposing them to large temperature fluctuations. Lichens are a major winter food source for reindeer in most parts of the circumpolar region. A laboratory experiment tested how three hydrated reindeer forage lichen species covered by snow, encapsulated in ice, or uncovered responded to storage at freezing temperatures and subsequent warming. Photosynthetic performance (maximal fluorescence of dark-adapted samples and net photosynthetic rates) was significantly lower in lichens not insulated by snow or ice, whereas there were few differences between the snow and ice treatments. It is suggested that snow and ice provide sufficiently moist environments to improve extracellular and reduce intracellular ice nucleation activity. Ice encapsulation, which is often lethal to vascular plants, did not have any negative effects on the studied lichens. The results indicate that complete snow and ice melt followed by refreezing can be detrimental to terricolous lichen ecosystems. Reduced lichen biomass will have a negative effect both on reindeer winter survival and the indigenous peoples who herd reindeer.

  11. Surface Hydrophobicity Causes SO2 Tolerance in Lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The superhydrophobicity of the thallus surface in one of the most SO2-tolerant lichen species, Lecanora conizaeoides, suggests that surface hydrophobicity could be a general feature of lichen symbioses controlling their tolerance to SO2. The study described here tests this hypothesis. Methods Water droplets of the size of a raindrop were placed on the surface of air-dry thalli in 50 lichen species of known SO2 tolerance and contact angles were measured to quantify hydrophobicity. Key Results The wettability of lichen thalli ranges from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic. SO2 tolerance of the studied lichen species increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the thallus surface. Extraction of extracellular lichen secondary metabolites with acetone reduced, but did not abolish the hydrophobicity of lichen thalli. Conclusions Surface hydrophobicity is the main factor controlling SO2 tolerance in lichens. It presumably originally evolved as an adaptation to wet habitats preventing the depression of net photosynthesis due to supersaturation of the thallus with water. Hydrophilicity of lichen thalli is an adaptation to dry or humid, but not directly rain-exposed habitats. The crucial role of surface hydrophobicity in SO2 also explains why many markedly SO2-tolerant species are additionally tolerant to other (chemically unrelated) toxic substances including heavy metals. PMID:18077467

  12. Lichen secondary metabolites affect growth of Physcomitrella patens by allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, Michal; Antreich, Sebastian J; Bačkor, Martin; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Lang, Ingeborg

    2017-05-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites.Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth.

  13. Targeting human papillomavirus to reduce the burden of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination...... with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order...... to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. METHODS: Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias...

  14. Lichen planus: an update and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Białynicki-Birula, Rafał; Schwartz, Robert A; Janniger, Camila K

    2012-07-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a papulosquamous eruption of the skin, scalp, nails, and mucous membranes. Although LP is more common in adults, it has become an established pediatric disorder. Its classic presentation is characterized by 4 p's: purple, polygonal, pruritic papules. Histopathologic examination reveals characteristic interface dermatitis. Although its pathogenesis is not fully understood, there is evidence that an imbalance of immunologic cellular reactivity is central. Lichen planus usually resolves within a few months. Treatment that primarily consists of topical and/or oral steroids will expedite recovery and alleviate symptoms. Resolution of this cutaneous disease often is accompanied by postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Long-term sequelae of LP in the pediatric population are rare, but cutaneous atrophy and pterygium unguis may occur.

  15. A STUDY ON LICHEN PLANUS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lichen planus is considered to be rare in children. However, it does not appear to be uncommon in Indian subcontinent. Aims: The study was undertaken to analyse the clinical profile of childhood lichen planus. Material and Methods: We selected 30 children with LP for the study. The children selected were below the age of 14 years of age. Results and Discussion: In our study, it was seen that that the maximum onset of disease was between 5-9 years of age and mean age of children with LP was 6.8 years. The commonest type of LP in children was classical LP seen in 60% children, followed by actinic LP in 20% children. LP hypertrophicus and linear LP were seen in 10% patients each. Nail changes were seen in 10% patients.

  16. Aloe vera as cure for lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bharati A; Bhaskar, Hebbar Pragati; Pol, Jyoti S; Sodhi, Amandeep; Madhu, Asha V

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a difficult condition to treat because of its chronic nature. Various treatment modalities have resulted in partial regression of symptoms but not a complete cure. Aloe vera, a product with minimal adverse effects, can be tried to treat this disorder. A 38-year-old male patient diagnosed with lichen planus of the skin and the oral mucosa was suffering from severe pain and a burning sensation intraorally and pruritus of the skin lesions. Considering the extensive involvement, an herbal alternative was considered. The patient was prescribed aloe vera juice and gel application for two months. At the nine-month follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and totally cured of the intraoral and skin lesions.

  17. Coexistence of papulonecrotic tuberculide with lichen scrofulosorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculides, the supposedly immunologic reactions to the products of dead Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli deposited in the skin from distant foci of tubercular infection, are presently considered to be of two types-papulonecrotic tuberculide and lichen scrofulosorum. Simultaneous occurrence of both the types in the same patient is very rare. We report the case of an adult male without any known internal tubercular focus who showed two types of skin lesions, clinically typical and histopathologically consistent with the diagnoses of papulonecrotic tuberculide and lichen scrofulosorum, occurring simultaneously. Polymerase chain reaction showed the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in papulonecrotic tuberculide type of lesion, and both types of lesions responded promptly to anti-tubercular drugs.

  18. Dapsone versus corticosteroids in lichen planus

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    Chopra Adarsh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five patients with Lichen Planus (LP were enrolled from out-patient department for screening the therapeutic effect of dapsone. Patients were divided into two groups of 50 and 25. In regimen - 1 (RI 25 patients were given local corticosteroids and oral chlorpheniramine maleate. In regimen - 2 (R2 50 patients were given oral dapsone and chlorpheniramine maleate and topical coconut oil. It was found that total efficacy of R2 was 18% higher than R1.

  19. Economic burden of vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: retrospective cost study at a German dysplasia centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus is responsible for a variety of diseases including grade 2 and 3 vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. The aim of this study was to assess parts of the burden of the last diseases including treatment costs. The direct medical resource use and cost of surgery associated with neoplasia and related diagnostic procedures (statutory health insurance perspective were estimated, as were the indirect costs (productivity losses associated with surgical treatment and related gynaecology visits for diagnostic purposes. Methods Data from 1991-2008 were retrospectively collected from patient records of the outpatient unit of the Gynaecological Dysplasia Clinic, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany. Two subgroups of patients were analysed descriptively: women undergoing one surgical procedure related to a diagnosis of vulvar and/or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, and women undergoing two or more surgical procedures. Target measures were per-capita medical resource consumption, direct medical cost and indirect cost. Results Of the 94 women analysed, 52 underwent one surgical intervention and 42 two or more interventions (mean of 3.0 interventions during the total period of analysis. Patients undergoing one surgical intervention accrued €881 in direct costs and €682 in indirect costs; patients undergoing more than one intervention accrued €2,605 in direct costs and €2,432 in indirect costs. Conclusions The economic burden on German statutory health insurance funds and society induced by surgical interventions and related diagnostic procedures for grade 2/3 vulvar and vaginal neoplasia should not be underrated. The cost burden is one part of the overall burden attributable to human papillomavirus infections.

  20. Validation of Clinical Tools for Vaginal and Vulvar Symptom Assessment in Cancer Patients and Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Anne A; Baser, Raymond E; Seidel, Barbara; Stabile, Cara; Canty, Jocelyn P; Goldfrank, Deborah J; Carter, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Health care professionals can play a pivotal role in promoting vulvovaginal health through assessment and appropriate intervention. To develop and validate brief clinical measurements to facilitate the identification of vulvovaginal symptoms in patients with and survivors of cancer. One hundred seventy-five women survivors of cancer attending a Female Sexual Medicine and Women's Health Program from September 26, 2012 through October 31, 2014 completed the Vaginal Assessment Scale (VAS) and the Vulvar Assessment Scale (VuAS)-a modified version of the VAS that targets vulvar symptoms. Pelvic examination results were recorded using a clinical examination checklist. Internal consistency of the two scales was assessed using Cronbach α, and the correlation between scales and other outcomes was reported. The internal consistency measurements of the VAS and VuAS at the first visit were 0.70 and 0.68, which decreased to 0.53 and 0.66 at the last visit. The VAS composite and VuAS composite scores were moderately correlated with each other (0.42 and 0.45 at first and last visits, respectively). A strong correlation was observed between VAS pain with intercourse and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) pain with intercourse (-0.63 and -0.71 at the first and last visits, respectively). Worse pain with examination, worse functioning on the FSFI pain, lubrication, and total scores, and worse vulvar irritation were correlated with more severe symptoms on the VAS and VuAS. The VAS and VuAS are simple tools that can be used by clinicians to assess health concerns in women diagnosed with and treated for cancer. Validation is needed across diverse settings and groups of women. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of thrombocytosis on clinicopathological prognostic factors and survival in patients with vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ahmet; Gültekin, Emre; Taner, Cüneyt Eftal; Mun, Semih; Yidirim, Yusuf

    2013-06-01

    Reactive thrombocytosis in many solid tumors has widely been studied. In the present study we aimed to investigate whether thrombocytosis is a common and prognostic factor in women with vulvar cancer The preoperative platelet counts of 41 women, treated for vulvar cancer in our onco-gynecology center between March 1994 and January 2007, were retrospectively reviewed and correlated to clinical and pathological prognostic factors and 5-year survival. The chi-square or Fisher exact tests were used to compare categorical variables. P value Thrombocytosis was detected in 8 (19.5%) patients. No correlation was found between thrombocytosis and grade (p = 0.65), LVSI (p = 0.82), tumor size (p = 0.73), depth of invasion (p = 0.18), lymph node metastasis (0.93), and FIGO stage (p = 0.78). The mean follow up time was 118.0 +/-43.1 months (range 60-213 months). At the end of the study period 14 patients (34.2%) had died, 8 (19.5%) had recurrence, 19 (46.3%) were disease-free. General 5-year survival was 68.3% (28/41). The 5-year survival rate for patients with thrombocytosis was 75.0% (6/8), which was not significantly different from the 5-year survival of patients with normal platelet counts (22/33; 66.7%) (p = 0.75). Our study showed that, overall, thrombocytosis was found in about 20% of patients with vulvar cancer and proved to be not linked to the best known prognostic factors and survival. Thus, disease stage and inguinofemoral lymph node status continue to be the best prognostic factors for this disease.

  2. Geochemical Study of Lichens in Tatun Volcano Group, North Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Ssu-Yu

    2015-04-01

    Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in the northwest of Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Although the last activity was 200000 years ago, it is critical to monitor TVG because it is nearby metropolitan area. This study is part of the monitoring program and attempts to observe the geochemical relationship between lichen and volcanic gas. Lichens have been extensively used for monitoring atmospheric quality. Lichen can live in critical environments and can accumulate metals from atmosphere due to lack of excretion mechanism. Moreover, lichen can live long and growth in a low rate; therefore, lichen geochemistry can represent an average in a long term manner. In TVG, fruticose lichen can be seldom found due to the high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. However, foliose lichen and crustose lichen are not rare in the study area. In this study, lichens were collected from TVG and Nan-ao Trail which is in non-volcanic area. The cations were measured by ICP-MS. The geochemical results were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). It shows that there is no significant difference among non-volcanic lichens and the non-volcanic lichens are located at an end-member of two distinct trends. It is believed that the non-volcanic lichens indicate a geochemical baseline in north Taiwan and two trends may represent the mixing between two different types of volcanic gases in TVG and geochemical baseline. In this study, rare earth elements (REEs) were also measured. The results of non-volcanic and TVG lichens were normalized by North America Shale and TVG andesite, respectively. Both obtain a flat REE pattern, which confirm that TVG lichens receive metals from volcanic origin and non-volcanic lichens give information of background geochemistry in north Taiwan. In addition, a middle REE enrichment and distinct Ce negative anomaly can be observed. According to the previous studies, middle REE enrichment may be achieved by the selected adsorption of middle REEs by organic

  3. Aspects of the ecology of mat-forming lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Crittenden

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Lichen species in the genera Cladonia (subgenus Cladina, Cetraria, Stereocaulon and Alectoria are important vegetation components on well-drained terrain and on elevated micro-sites in peatlands in boreal-Arctic regions. These lichens often form closed mats, the component thalli in which grow vertically upwards at the apices and die off in the older basal regions; they are therefore only loosely attached to the underlying soil. This growth habit is relatively unusual in lichens being found in <0.5% of known species. It might facilitate internal nutrienr recycling and higher growth rates and, together with the production of allelochemicals, it might underlie the considerable ecological success of mat-forming lichens; experiments to critically assess the importance of these processes are required. Mat-forming lichens can constitute in excess of 60% of the winter food intake of caribou and reindeer. Accordingly there is a pressing need for data on lichen growth rates, measured as mass increment, in order to help determine the carrying capacity of winter ranges for rhese herbivores and to better predict recovery rates following grazing. Trampling during the snow-free season fragments lichen thalli; mat-forming lichens regenerate very successfully from thallus fragments provided trampling does nor re-occur. Frequent recurrence of trampling creates disturbed habitats from which lichens will rapidly become eliminated consistent with J.P. Grime's CSR strategy theory. Such damage to lichen ground cover has occurred where reindeer or caribou are unable to migrate away from their winter range such as on small islands or where political boundaries have been fenced; it can also occur on summer range that contains a significant lichen component and on winter range where numbers of migrarory animals become excessive. Species of Stereocaulon, and other genera that contain cyanobacteria (most notably Peltigera and Nephroma, are among the principal agents of

  4. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    The Soil Crust INternational (SCIN) project aims to achieve improved appreciation of the importance and functioning of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) in Europe. Four sites throughout Europe were identified for having important, yet diverse BSC communities: Gössenheim in Germany, Almeria in Spain, Öland in Sweden and Hochtor in Austria. These sites vary greatly in geographic and environmental conditions; and constitute, along with cyanobacteria, algae, bryophytes and fungi a host of green algal and cyanobacterial lichen species. Many of the lichen species occur in two-four locations, despite the climatic differences, and it has been observed that species are morphologically distinctive between sites. Lichens may be adapted to different environmental conditions by symbiosis with photobionts that are suited to the local conditions. Therefore, we may expect to find that a lichen species that can survive in diverse habitats to be less photobiont specific than species with a narrow range. In recent years it has been discovered that lichens can switch their photobiont throughout the course of their lives. Whether lichens can associate with an available photobiont and switch when a preferred photobiont becomes available is not conclusively known, or whether as habitats are affected by climate change, lichens will be able to switch to a new photobiont to survive changing conditions. A transplantation experiment of lichens between biomes was installed in each of the SCIN sites to investigate the potential of different lichen species to assimilate to a new environment. Where the same lichen species occurred in 2 or more locations samples were transplanted from their natural location to the foreign for a period of 2 years. Controls were also applied; this consisted of samples being transplanted within their own site to assess the effect of the transplantation itself. The photobionts of key species are sequenced to analyse diversity of photobiont interactions within/between the

  5. Estimating atmospheric mercury concentrations with lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Nicolardi, Valentina; Bargagli, Roberto; Loppi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The uptake kinetics of elemental gaseous Hg (Hg(0)) in three species of epiphytic lichens (Pseudevernia furfuracea, Evernia prunastri, and Xanthoria parietina) were investigated under four different Hg concentrations (10, 15, 30, and 45 μg/m(3)) and three different temperatures (10, 20, and 30 °C) with the aim of evaluating the lichen efficiency for Hg(0) accumulation and their potential use in the estimate of atmospheric concentrations of this metal in the field. The results showed that under our experimental conditions the lichens accumulated Hg according to exposure time and that the metal is not released back to the atmosphere after Hg(0) was removed from the air (clearance). Pseudevernia furfuracea showed the highest Hg accumulation capacity and Evernia prunastri showed the lowest, but in these species the metal uptake kinetics was affected by temperature. Xanthoria parietina showed an intermediate metal accumulation capacity and a Hg accumulation rate independent of temperature (in the range 10-30 °C). The use of first-order kinetics equations for Hg uptake in X. parietina and available field data on Hg bioaccumulation in this species allowed reliable estimates of atmospheric Hg concentrations in the environment.

  6. Narrowband UVB-induced lichen planus pemphigoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Man Mandy Chan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus pemphigoides (LPP is an autoimmune disease characterised by evolution of subepidermal blisters on normal and lichen planus affected skin. We describe a case of LPP in a 54-year-old Chinese woman. The patient presented with psoriasiform plaques and was diagnosed with guttate psoriasis. Narrowband ultraviolet B (NBUVB therapy was commenced, and she experienced a generalised eruption of violaceous papules, bullae over the lower limbs, and Wickham’s striae over the buccal mucosa. Histology from a plaque revealed interface dermatitis, while a specimen from a blister showed subepidermal bulla. Direct immunofluorescence showed linear deposition of IgG and C3 along the basement membrane. A diagnosis of LPP was made on clinicopathological grounds. This is the first case report of NBUVB alone in unmasking LPP. In this case report, we describe the pathological mechanism of NBUVB in the development of LPP and key features distinguishing LPP from bullous lupus erythematosus, bullous lichen planus, bullous pemphigoid, and psoriasis.

  7. Mechanisms of lichen resistance to metallic pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarret, C.; Manceau, A.; Eybert-Berard, L. [Univ. of Grenoble and CNRS (France). Environmental Geochemistry Group; Cuny, D.; Haluwyn, C. van [Lab. de Botanique et de Cryptogamie, Lille (France); Deruelle, S. [Institut d`Ecologie, Paris (France); Hazemann, J.L.; Menthonnex, J.J. [Univ. of Grenoble and CNRS (France). Environmental Geochemistry Group]|[CNRS, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Cristallographie; Soldo, Y. [CNRS, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Cristallographie

    1998-11-01

    Some lichens have a unique ability to grow in heavily contaminated areas due to the development of adaptative mechanisms allowing a high tolerance to metals. Here the authors report on the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in the metal hyperaccumulator Diploschistes muscorum and of Pb in the metal tolerant lichen Xanthoria parietina. The speciation of Zn and Pb has been investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy using the advanced third-generation synchrotron radiation source of the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF in Grenoble). This study reveals that in both lichens cells are protected from toxicity by complexation of heavy metals, but the strategies differ: in D. muscorum, Pb and Zn are accumulated through an enhanced synthesis of oxalate, which precipitates toxic elements as insoluble salts, whereas in X. parietina, Pb is complexed to carboxylic groups of the fungal cell walls. The authors conclude that hyperaccumulation of metals results from a reactive mechanism of organic acid production, whereas metallo-tolerance is achieved by a passive complexation to existing functional groups.

  8. Genetic diversity within lichen photobionts of the Lecanora varia group (Lichenes, Ascomycota)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Ortega, S.; Søchting, Ulrik; Printzen, C.

    of the nuclear ribosomal DNA to assess the degree of genetic variability within the phobobionts present. A high degree of variability was found among the photobionts of sampled specimens. Not only different lineages but also different photobiont species were detected. No correlation between lichen species......Lichens are symbiotic organisms, where a fungus–generally a member of the Ascomycota – and a photobiont – generally a green algae – interact closely in a widespread life form strategy. Recently, numerous studies have focused on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the fungal...

  9. Problems and pitfalls in vulvar and cervical cancer sentinel node scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Sinzinger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available After the introduction for penile cancer, the sentinel lymph node imaging is increasingly applied in various types of cancer. After the initial learning phase, 105 patients with vulvar and 24 with cervical cancer have been investigated. In vulvar cancer all the imaged sentinel nodes were discovered by the portable probe intraoperatively. No false negative sentinel node was observed. The most critical issue is the tracer application. Performed strictly intradermally, the sentinel node shows up immediately. Concomitant use of isosulfan blue dye did not improve the results and was stopped therefore. Similarly, more superficial (intra/subendothelial application brings up better results as compared to deeper injection in cervical cancer patients. No false negative results were seen. Apparently, an almost 100% detection is possible. Our findings clearly show that tracer application is the key for successful imaging. If not done properly, sentinel node may appear later or may even more likely be missed.Após a introdução para câncer do pênis, a imagem do linfonodo sentinela é cada vez mais aplicada nos diversos tipos de câncer. Após a fase inicial de aprendizagem, 105 pacientes com câncer vulvar e 24 com câncer cervical foram investigados. No câncer vulvar todas as imagens de nodos sentinela foram descobertas por sonda portátil durante o exame. Nenhum nodo sentinela falso negativo foi observado. A questão mais crítica é a aplicação do traçador. Realizada pela via intradérmica, o nodo sentinela surge imediatamente. O corante isosulfan blue não melhora os resultados e seu uso concomitante foi abandonado. Do mesmo modo, a aplicação mais superficial (intra/subendotelial apresenta melhores resultados quando comparada com a administração mais profunda em pacientes com câncer cervical. Não foram observados resultados falsos negativos. Aparentemente, uma detecção de aproximadamente 100% é possível. Nossos achados mostram claramente

  10. Actualización del diagnóstico y tratamiento de la neoplasia intraepitelial vulvar.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael E. Pérez Castro

    2011-01-01

    La Neoplasia Intraepitelial Vulvar (NIV) constituye lesiones potencialmente premalignas del epitelio escamoso de la vulva con diversos grados de diferenciación celular y maduración. En el aspecto histológico son hiperplasia de las células basales y parabasales, además tienen características genéticas morfológicas y metabólicas similares a las células cancerosas. Son etapas previas a la enfermedad. Generalmente las NIV se diagnostican como lesiones de alto grado (NIV I, II y III) o carcinoma i...

  11. LICHEN PLANUS WITH ASSOSIATED SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN THE ORAL MUCOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valluvan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen means dry scurfy forms of lower plant life and the same name indicate dry skin disorder like lichen planus. The basic histological feature of lichen planus is basal layer damage and inflammatory reaction in the sub epithelial zone. There are several sub types 0.5% of mucosal lichen planus can become or harbor invasive squamous cell carcinoma

  12. Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

  13. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to esti

  14. Palmoplantar hyperkeratotic lesions: a rare presentation of lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almodovar-Real, Ana; Aneiros-Fernández, Jose; Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Fernandez-Pugnaire, Ma Antonia

    2015-03-15

    Palmoplantar lichen planus is a localized and rare subtype of lichen planus (LP) often underdiagnosed. Several morphological types of palmoplantar lesions have been defined in LP. We present an unusual case of the palmoplantar kyperkeratotic variant of LP. Histopathology examination confirmed our diagnosis. We emphasize the importance of this rare entity in the differential diagnosis of palmoplantar dermatoses.

  15. A hypothesis to explain lichen-Rangifer dynamic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar Gaare

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A small group of fruticous lichen species, viz. Cetraria nivalis, Cladonia mitis, C. stellaris, and Stereocaulon paschale forms extensive mats in the most winter habitats of Rangifer tarandus populations in Norway. The plant communities accessible for grazing are often found on easily drained, moraine ridges. These lichen species are perennial, lying on the ground while growing slowly at the top. As they decompose they add humus to the top of the soil profile. The lichen mats catch all water from small showers, thus preventing vascular plants from obtaining a more regular water supply. Grazing removs whole plants and gradually makes larger and larger holes in the lichen mats. Wind and water erode the humus, with only coarse gravel remaining. This diminishes the soil water storage capacity. Without grazing, lichens will gradually build a humus layer, which would improve the soil water storage capacity. In time vascular plants then would take the place of the lichens. I propose the hypothesis that by (over-grazing Rangifer improve their winter pastures by making conditions more favourable for lichens than for vascular plants.The fact that lichens are more scarce on habitats with more and regular precipitation, 1 in more oceanic climates, 2 on soils with more silt, and 3 on bird perches with thick peat due to regular fertilising, support this hypothesis.

  16. On the growth rate of the foliicolous lichen Strigula elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde-Duyfjes, de B.E.E.

    1967-01-01

    The diametral growth rate of the foliicolous lichen Strigula elegans (Fée) Müll. Arg., measured under natural conditions in the African tropical rainforest, has been established to amount to (0.7-)3-3-6(-8) mm annually. As compared to the diametral growth rate of lichens from temperate regions, whic

  17. Chemical variation in the lichen genus Letrouitia (Ascomycota, Letrouitiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, S.; Søchting, Ulrik; Elix, J.A.;

    2005-01-01

    -chlorofallacinal and 7-chloroparietinic acid were present. Eight previously unknown lichen substances were identified. A chemotype containing seven new dibenzofurans (8-chlorodioxocondidymic acid, 8-chlorodioxodidymic acid, 8-chloroxodidymic acid, dioxocondidymic acid, dioxodidymic acid, letrouitic acid....... The similarity in secondary chemistry between Letrouitiaceae and Teloschistaceae is not particularly strong, as the shared compounds are also known to occur in several other lichen families....

  18. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to esti

  19. Etiology and pathogenesis of oral lichen planus: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurago, Zoya B

    2016-07-01

    Oral lichen planus is a noninfectious, chronic inflammatory condition that involves the oral mucosal stratified squamous epithelium and the underlying lamina propria and may be accompanied by skin lesions. This overview describes the current understanding of the immunopathologic mechanisms implicated in oral lichen planus.

  20. Effects of microwave and radio frequency electromagnetic fields on lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, M; Eicher, B; Siegenthaler, J

    1996-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic fields on lichens were investigated. Field experiments of long duration (1-3 years) were combined with laboratory experiments and theoretical considerations. Samples of the lichen species Parmelia tiliacea and Hypogymnia physodes were exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz; 0.2, 5, and 50 mW/cm2; and control). Both species showed a substantially reduced growth rate at 50 mW/cm2. A differentiation between thermal and nonthermal effects was not possible. Temperature measurements on lichens exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz, 50 mW/cm2) showed a substantial increase in the surface temperature and an accelerated drying process. The thermal effect of microwave on lichens was verified. The exposure of lichens of both species was repeated near a short-wave broadcast transmitter (9.5 MHz, amplitude modulated; maximum field strength 235 V/m, 332 mA/m). No visible effects on the exposed lichens were detected. At this frequency, no thermal effects were expected, and the experimental results support this hypothesis. Theoretical estimates based on climatic data and literature showed that the growth reductions in the initial experiments could very likely have been caused by drying of the lichens from the heating with microwaves. The results of the other experiments support the hypothesis that the response of the lichens exposed to microwaves was mainly due to thermal effects and that there is a low probability of nonthermal effects.

  1. Bryophytes and lichens: small but indispensable forest dwellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutten, Martin; Woodward, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    * What is a Bryophyte? * Bryophytes are the small green plants commonly known as mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Compared to plants, they have primitive tissues for conducting food and water, and they lack a protective outer surface to maintain water balance. Most bryophytes, because they lack tissues such as roots, obtain their water through direct surface contact with their environment. During dry weather they have the capacity to withstand complete dehydration. Bryophytes that are dry may appear dead but will regain normal function when moisture is available. Instead of producing seeds, bryophytes can either reproduce sexually by means of spores, or asexually when small pieces break off and grow into new individuals. * What is a Lichen? * Lichens are dual organisms consisting of a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium. The fungus provides the alga with structure, protection, nutrients, and water absorbed from the atmosphere and the substrate (e.g., soil, rotten logs, tree branches). In return, the alga provides carbohydrates from photosynthesis to the fungus. Algae from some lichens grow independently of the fungus, but in lichen form, the algae can inhabit more challenging environments than when growing alone. Most lichens can reproduce asexually. They either produce specialized propagules containing both partners, or parts of the lichen simply break, allowing both the fungus and the alga to disperse together. In some lichens, the fungal partner reproduces sexually by releasing spores, but the partner alga must be present in order for a lichen to reform.

  2. Lichen scrofulosorum: An important marker of occult tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Naina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen scrofulosorum is a tuberculid that is usually seen in children or young adults. Although a rare occurrence, this tuberculid is an important marker of occult tuberculosis, which may not be detected otherwise. We report here a case of lichen scrofulosorum in a ten year-old boy with typical grouped lichenoid papules on the trunk associated with axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis.

  3. Cutaneous lichen planus: A systematic review of treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim

    2015-06-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for cutaneous lichen planus. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched for all the systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials related to cutaneous lichen planus. Two systematic reviews and nine relevant randomized controlled trials were identified. Acitretin, griseofulvin, hydroxychloroquine and narrow band ultraviolet B are demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus. Sulfasalazine is effective, but has an unfavorable safety profile. KH1060, a vitamin D analogue, is not beneficial in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. Evidence from large scale randomized trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy for many other treatment modalities used to treat cutaneous lichen planus is simply not available.

  4. Becker nevus with vitiligo and lichen planus: Cocktail of dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Gupta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Becker nevus has been reported to be associated with lichen planus (LP in isolated case reports in past. The association of LP and vitiligo has been noted in few cases and has been attributed to a common autoimmune etiology. The coexistence of lichen planus, vitiligo and Becker nevus has not been reported so far. Case Report: A thirty five years old male presented with lesions of Becker nevus along with vitiligo and Lichen planus coexisting at one place on right side of the chest. Vitiligo and Becker nevus could not be treated. Lichen planus was confirmed histopathologically. We were able to treat lichen planus with topical potent steroids, tacrolimus and systemic antihistamines. The vitiligo lesion in our case was resistant to treatment. Conclusion: This case is being reported for the rare occurrence of three different well defined skin conditions in our patient and reviews the possible known etiological factors for their coexistence.

  5. A Case of Lichen Amyloidosis Treated with Low Dose Acitretin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Pelin Cengiz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis (PCA is a rare disorder characterized by amyloid deposition in dermis without systemic involvement. There are three different types of primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis: Lichen amyloidosis, macular amyloidosis and nodular amyloidosis. The lesions of lichen amyloidosis are characterized by pruritic papules. Although, topical or intralesional treatment with corticosteroids, topical dimethyl sulfoxide, ultraviolet B, oral psoralen plus ultraviolet A, retinoic acid derivatives are the recommended treatment for lichen amyloidosis, the results are often unsatisfactory. In the literature, there have been only a few reports evaluating the efficacy of low dose acitretin in the treatment of lichen amiloidosis. In this article, we report a case of lichen amyloidosis with pruritic hyperkeratotic papules on the back and chest of 5 years’ duration, successfully treated with low dose acitretin.

  6. The role of fungal parasites in tri-trophic interactions involving lichens and lichen-feeding snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Johan; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Merinero, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    Lichens are hosts for a variety of lichenicolous fungi. By investigating two lichens with specialized parasites, we will test the hypothesis that these parasites reduce lichen fitness by increasing the palatability of their respective hosts. The palatability of Lobarina scrobiculata and Lobaria pulmonaria with or without galls of the lichenicolous fungi, Plectocarpon scrobiculatae and P. lichenum, respectively, were quantified in a feeding-preference experiment with grazing snails (Cepaea hortensis). We repeated the experiment for pairs with or without gall in which the carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs) had been reduced nondestructively by acetone rinsing. Lichens with galls had lower concentration of CBSCs than those without, but this contrast disappeared after acetone rinsing. In the lichen high in nitrogen (N) (the cyanolichen L. scrobiculata), the grazing was low, and the snails did not discriminate between specimens with and without Plectocarpon-galls. In L. pulmonaria low in N (green algae as main photobiont), the parasite reduced the lichen C : N ratio and the snails strongly preferred specimens with Plectocarpon-galls, regardless of whether CBSC concentration had been reduced or not. In conclusion, some lichen parasites can indirectly reduce lichen fitness by increasing its palatability and thus the grazing pressure from snails, whereas other parasites do not affect grazing preferences.

  7. [Granular cell tumor: report of a complicated vulvar localization of pulmonary metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfiq, N; Sabri, S; Saiss, K; Bouchbika, Z; Benchekroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2013-11-01

    Granular cell tumour, or Abrikossoff's tumour, is a rare, ubiquitous tumour, with mostly benign evolution. The malignant forms represent 1-3% of the cases. The vulvar localization is exceptional. We report the case of a 28-year-old patient who presented a vulvar Abrikossoff's tumour. Initially considered benign, the tumour was treated by exclusive local surgery. Five months later, the tumour showed a malignant transformation. The tumour size was 14cm in its major axis with the presence of not systematized scattered mitoses, PS 100 was positive at 100% and Ki 67 to 20%. Because of malignant and economic excision of the neoplasm, the patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. After 20 months, the patient had a local recurrence and lung metastasis, supporting the diagnosis of malignancy. She received two chemotherapy regimens of 5-fluoro-uracil/cisplatin and pacliatxel/carboplatin without any response. Following the failure of chemotherapy, the patient received symptomatic medical treatment. This observation leads to advocate an aggressive surgical treatment and strict supervision of all granular cell tumours.

  8. Personality traits associated with perception of noxious stimuli in women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Michal

    2005-03-01

    Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) is associated with enhanced pain sensitivity. The present study explores the role of personality on the perception of noxious stimuli among women with VVS. More specifically, the aim of the study was to explore whether the personality traits assessed by Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) (harm avoidance [HA], novelty seeking [NS], and reward dependence [RD]) are associated with the augmented pain perception in women with VVS. Quantitative sensory tests were applied to the forearm of 98 women with VVS and 135 control subjects, all of whom completed the TPQ. The women with VVS scored higher than the control subjects on HA and RD with no significant differences in NS. Linear regression analyses revealed that in the VVS group, lower pain thresholds and higher magnitude estimations of suprathreshold pain stimuli were associated with higher HA and RD scores. The enhanced pain perception among women with VVS might reflect their tendency to respond intensely to signals of reward and to elevate the perceived risk. This might lead them to avoid hazards by overestimating the level of potential harm, as represented by greater pain sensitivity. The association between personality traits assessed by Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, ie, harm avoidance, novelty seeking, and reward dependence, and the enhanced perception of noxious stimuli in vulvar vestibulitis syndrome might suggest neurochemical mechanisms of pain experience affected by personality, with possible application for future treatment approaches toward pain disorders.

  9. Vulvar postoperative care, gestalt or evidence based medicine? A comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Alon D; Robinson, Christine

    2017-05-01

    This paper reviews all current literature for vulvar postoperative care, and forms a summary of evidence based practice. Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINHAL, Web of Science Core Collection, PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, clinicaltrials.gov and Medline databases were searched. Various combinations of key-terms were used to identify relevant articles. All identified primary research articles and review articles were then examined with their references in order to identify further relevant studies. The literature was examined within gynecology, gynecologic oncology, surgical oncology, urology, plastic surgery and dermatology. A total of 199 studies were reviewed and 80 were included in this paper. All relevant studies pertaining to the subject were included. Studies were excluded if there was no relevance to the review as deemed by both authors. There remains much room for improvement to minimize postoperative stay, decrease the chances of morbidity and improve patient outcome and satisfaction, while establishing standardized care pathways. Further research and clinical trials are needed in this area to help us to provide evidence-based care to our postoperative vulvar patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unique use of botulinum toxin to decrease adductor tone and allow surgical excision of vulvar carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y; Shin, K

    2004-01-01

    Here, we present the case of an 86-year-old woman with vulvar carcinoma requiring surgical resection and with Parkinson's disease with severe spasticity and contractures of the lower extremities. Because of the patient's severe contractures and spasticity (her knees could only be separated by 2 cm with sustained abducting force), surgical positioning and access to the vulva were impossible. The patient was admitted, intending to undergo surgery after injection with botulinum toxin (BTX) to hip adductors and intensive physical therapy. After confirmed healed hip arthroplasty, the patient underwent BTX injection (400 U) to her bilateral adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, and semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles on day 2 of her hospital stay. On day 3, a physical therapist began a twice-a-day stretching program. An adjustable abduction brace was custom-made to provide sustained stretching. On day 9, the patient underwent wide local excision of vulvar carcinoma with the abductor brace in place. The patient tolerated the surgery well and was discharged home on day 11 with continuous physical therapy. Upon discharge, the distance between the patient's knees was 14 cm. This unique case demonstrated a new indication for BTX treatment in the preoperative setting to allow surgical positioning and access.

  11. Prognosis of vulvar dysplasia and carcinoma in situ with special reference to histology and types of human papillomavirus (HPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Poulsen, H; Horn, T;

    1997-01-01

    Sixty-one women with vulvar dysplasia or carcinoma in situ were treated with local laser excision of the initial lesion and of the recurrences, and followed at intervals of from 3 increasing to 12 months. Recurrences were observed in 16 (26%) patients. No case of invasive carcinoma was seen...

  12. Prognosis of vulvar dysplasia and carcinoma in situ with special reference to histology and types of human papillomavirus (HPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Poulsen, H; Horn, T

    1997-01-01

    Sixty-one women with vulvar dysplasia or carcinoma in situ were treated with local laser excision of the initial lesion and of the recurrences, and followed at intervals of from 3 increasing to 12 months. Recurrences were observed in 16 (26%) patients. No case of invasive carcinoma was seen. Pati...

  13. Dissociation and metal-binding characteristics of yellow lichen substances suggest a relationship with site preferences of lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Willenbruch, Karen; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Many species of lichen-forming fungi contain yellow or orange extracellular pigments belonging to the dibenzofurans (usnic acid), anthraquinones (e.g. parietin) or pulvinic acid group. These pigments are all equally efficient light screens, leading us to question the potential ecological and evolutionary significance of diversity in yellow and orange lichen substances. Here the hypothesis is tested that the different pigments differ in metal-binding characteristics, which suggest that they may contribute to adaptation to sites differing in pH and metal availability. Methods UV spectroscopy was used to study the dissociation and the pH dependence of the metal-binding behaviour of seven isolated lichen substances in methanol. Metals applied were selected macro- and micro-nutrients (Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+). Key Results All the pigments studied are strong to moderate acids with pKa1 values between 2·8 and 4·5. Metal complexation is common in the lichen substances studied. Complexation takes place under acidic conditions with usnic acid, but under alkaline conditions with parietin and most compounds of the pulvinic acid group. The pulvinic acid derivative rhizocarpic acid forms metal complexes both in the acidic and the alkaline range. Conclusions Metal complexation by lichen substances could be a prerequisite for lichen substance-mediated control of metal uptake. Assuming such an effect at pH values where the affinity of the metal for the lichen substance is intermediate would explain the strong preference of lichens with usnic or rhizocarpic acids to acidic substrata. Moreover, it would explain the preference of lichens with parietin and some lichens with compounds of the pulvinic acid group either for nutrient-rich substrata at low pH or for calcareous substrata. PMID:18977765

  14. Lichen planus pigmentosus: two atypical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falguni Nag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP is a chronic pigmentary disorder with variable pattern of presentation. We here by present two cases of LPP one with parallel band like pigmentation over abdomen sparing the abdominal skin creases and other with parallel band like pattern following the Blaschko’s lines over left side of the abdomen. Our cases are unique not only for its presentation but also for the pattern of distribution and LPP should be the differential diagnosis in any pigmentary disorders.

  15. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, Marion; Dieu, Amandine; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-06-02

    Covering: up to 2016.When looking for dibenzofuran in the biochemical databases, most papers and reviews deal with pollutants and polychlorinated dibenzofurans like dioxins. But dibenzofurans are also biosynthetized by a wide diversity of organisms in nature. Even if dibenzofurans from natural sources represent a small class of secondary metabolites, compared to flavonoids, xanthones or terpenoids, they are often endowed with interesting biological properties which have been recently described. This review provides an update on papers describing dibenzofurans from lichens, ascomycetes and cultured mycobionts. Other sources, such as basidiomycetes, myxomycetes or plants produce sporadically interesting dibenzofurans in terms of structures and activities.

  16. Metabolism of 4-chlorobiphenyl by lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, W S; Hutzinger, O

    Eighteen lichens from a variety of habitats were treated with 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CB). All, as determined by means of radioactive tracers, were shown to partially convert 4-CB to 4-chloro-4'-hydroxybiphenyl. Only one species (Pseudocyphellaria crocata) produced a further major metabolite not previously reported, namely 4-chloro-4'-methoxybiphenyl. The formation of the hydroxyderivative by Cladonia rangiferina and Lasallia papulosa was proven by isolation and chemical identification. Difficulties in the recovery of both the starting material and the metabolites from Pseudocyphellaria were encountered.

  17. Lichen nitidus of palms and soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Vijay

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen nitidus occurs uncommonly on the palms and soles and has an unusual morphology at these sites. Two patients who presented with lesions on the palms and soles are reported. The first patient had rough papules with prominent keratotic plugs. In the second patient, the lesion was an irregular plaque with peripheral papules showing keratotic plugs. Both patients had typical lesions elsewhere on the body. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. Awareness of this variant will help in prompt recognition of the condition.

  18. Oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine

    2014-04-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is commonly found in middle-aged women. Although the cause is unknown, research points to several complex immunologic events and cells that are responsible for the inflammatory destruction and chronicity of these lesions. Biopsy for histologic diagnosis is recommended. The mainstay of treatment remains topical corticosteroids; however, newer therapies such as immunomodulating agents are available for recalcitrant lesions. In cases of lichenoid mucositis or reactions, treatment should be directed at identifying and removing the presumed cause. Given the apparent risk of squamous cell carcinoma in these patients, frequent follow-up and repeat biopsy are vital.

  19. Lichen planus and lupus erythematosus overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Adarsh

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old woman with livid plaques showing central atrophy and erythematous vesicular borders over both dorsa of feet and buttocks, and follicular and papular lesions over buttocks and lumbar area, was difficult to diagnose as either lichen planus (LP or lupus erythematosus (LE. The histological studies from two places showed features of both LE and LP. Laboratory findings were within normal limits first, but follow up studies for two years showed persistent albuminurea, leucopenia, arthritis and erythema over the exposed areas with same histology suggesting that eruption may be an unusual variant of LE.

  20. High acidity tolerance in lichens with fumarprotocetraric, perlatolic or thamnolic acids is correlated with low pKa1 values of these lichen substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-10-01

    The depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid as well as the depsides perlatolic and thamnolic acids are lichen secondary metabolites. Their first dissociation constants (pK(a1)) in methanol were determined to be 2.7 for perlatolic acid and 2.8 for fumarprotocetraric and thamnolic acids by UV spectroscopy. Lower pK(a1) values are, so far, not known from lichen substances. Several lichens producing at least one of these compounds are known for their outstanding tolerance to acidic air pollution. This is demonstrated by evaluating published pH preferences for central European lichens. The low pK(a1) values suggest that strong dissociation of the studied lichen substances is a prerequisite for the occurrence of lichens with these compounds on very acidic substrata, as protonated lichen substances of different chemical groups, but not their conjugated bases, are known to shuttle protons into the cytoplasm and thereby apparently damage lichens.

  1. The influence of polluted air on corticolus lichens in Pretoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessles, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of macroscopic corticolous lichen species against northern and southern fronts of the trunks of Jacaranda mimosifolia was determined by means of transects. The vertical distribution of lichens against phorophytes in the study area was graphically shown. Differences in terms of species composition and other factors between the northern and southern front were highlighted. Mapping of the horizontal distribution of lichens in the study area showed the inverse relationship which existed between polluted air and lichen growth. Diversity indexes for releves representing lichen growth along the northern and southern fronts of phorophytes were calculated according to the formulae of Simpson and Shannon-Wiener. Index of Atmospheric Purity values were also calculated for the different releves. Correspondence between results obtained from calculations of the different indexing techniques was investigated. Zones of similar species diversity were mapped in order to determine the distribution of isotoxic zones. A Braun-Blanquet survey was made of lichen growth which occurred at a height of 20mm and 1,3m against the northern, southern, eastern and western fronts of phorophytes. The sociological tables, representing lichen growth in each of the different micro-habitats were complied.

  2. The immunostimulating role of lichen polysaccharides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gajendra; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has capacity to suppress the development or progression of various malignancies including cancer. Research on the immunomodulating properties of polysaccharides obtained from plants, microorganisms, marine organisms, and fungi is growing rapidly. Among the various potential sources, lichens, symbiotic systems involving a fungus and an alga and/or a cyanobacterium, show promise as a potential source of immunomodulating compounds. It is well known that lichens produce an abundance of structurally diverse polysaccharides. However, only a limited number of studies have explored the immunostimulating properties of lichen polysaccharides. Published studies have shown that some lichen polysaccharides enhance production of nitrous oxide (NO) by macrophages and also alter the production levels of various proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-α/β) by macrophages and dendritic cells. Although there are only a limited number of studies examining the role of lichen polysaccharides, all results suggest that lichen polysaccharides can induce immunomodulatory responses in macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, a detailed evaluation of immunomodulatory capacity of lichen polysaccharides could provide a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents.

  3. Understanding phenotypical character evolution in parmelioid lichenized fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep K Divakar

    Full Text Available Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation.

  4. Radioprotectant and Cytotoxic Effects of Spirulina in Relapsed Verrucous Vulvar Cancer: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltan, Huriye Senay; Gunes Bayir, Ayse; Taspinar, Ozgur; Yucesan, Gul; Tastekin, Didem; Sonmez, Fatma Cavide; Coban, Ganime; Kilic, Gokhan; Eris, Ali Hikmet; Aydin, Teoman; Akcakaya, Adem; Mayadagli, Alpaslan

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of relapsed verrucous vulvar cancer (VVC) is difficult. When vulvar cancer relapses, the treatment response is low for second-line treatments. Conversely, toxicity is high. Therefore, scientists need to identify different treatment methods. The case study was intended to examine the benefits of combining treatment with microalgae and metronidazole with radiotherapy to increase the response to treatment. The study took place in the Department of Radiation Oncology at Bezmialem Vakif University, in Istanbul, Turkey. The case study involved an 81-y-old female patient whose vulvar tumor was excised and who came to the research team's radiation oncology service for postoperative radiation. She had 2 comorbid disorders: Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease. A relapse had occurred in the 15-d postoperative period. Because of the patient's age and comorbid disorders, the research team decided to treat the new tumor only with concurrent radiochemotherapy and a weekly dose of cisplatin that contained chemoradiotherapy, for a total of 25 mg. At the 52.2 Gy dose level, grade 3 radiation skin toxicity occurred in the radiated area, although the research team had obtained an 80% response to the radiochemotherapy. The treatment was interrupted because of toxicity but also due to a deterioration in the patient's general health. Progression of the tumor continued, and the tumor's diameter increased to 7 cm after a 4-mo period. The research team then initiated radiotherapy again, combining it with spirulina in a 750 mg/dose at 2 doses/d and metronidazole in a 500 mg/dose at 3 doses/d, to decrease radiation toxicity and increase radiosensitivity. Radiotherapy was applied at 200 cGy per fraction with a total dose of 2400 cGy, with only 1 anterior local-tumor field. The patient showed a complete response to radiotherapy, and the tumor disappeared at the 2400 cGy radiation dose. No toxicity occurred related to the skin or the woman's general health. Her Karnofsky

  5. Oldest Known Lichen Fossils Found in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Lichens are believed to play a pioneering role in transforming the earth surface when they appeared on land hundreds of million years ago, paving the way for the evolution of terrestrial plants and animals. But most habitats where lichens dominate,such as tundra, mountains, and deserts, have a very low chance of preserving fossils. Until recently the earliest known lichen fossils were discovered in 1995 by Thomas N.Taylor, a University of Kansas researcher, from 400 million-year old deposits in Scotland.

  6. A potential peptide pathway from viruses to oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchese, Alberta

    2015-06-01

    Oral lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of oral mucous membranes, characterized by an autoimmune epidermis attack by T cells. It remains unknown, however, how such aggressive T cells are activated in vivo to cause epidermal damage. This study analyzes the relationship at the peptide level between viruses and oral lichen planus disease. Four potentially immunogenic peptides (SSSSSSS, QEQLEKA, LLLLLLA, and MLSGNAG) are found to be shared between HCV, EBV, HHV-7, HSV-1, and CMV and three human proteins (namely pinin, desmoglein-3, and plectin). The described peptide sharing might be of help in deciphering the still unexplained immunopathogenic pathway that leads to oral lichen planus.

  7. Lichen mycota in South Korea: the genus usnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin; Crişan, Florin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2013-09-01

    Usnea Adans. is a somewhat rare lichen in South Korea, and, in nearly two decades, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study has been conducted. This study was based on the specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute, and the samples were identified using information obtained from recent literature. In this study, a total of eight species of Usnea, including one new record, Usnea hakonensis Asahina, are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics are provided. A key to all known Usnea species in South Korea is also presented.

  8. Two Distinct Pathways to Development of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Ueda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC accounts for approximately 95% of the malignant tumors of the vaginal vulva and is mostly found in elderly women. The future numbers of patients with vulvar SCC is expected to rise, mainly because of the proportional increase in the average age of the general population. Two different pathways for vulvar SCC have been put forth. The first pathway is triggered by infection with a high-risk-type Human Papillomavirus (HPV. Integration of the HPV DNA into the host genome leads to the development of a typical vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN, accompanied with overexpression of p14ARF and p16INK4A. This lesion subsequently forms a warty- or basaloid-type SCC. The HPV vaccine is a promising new tool for prevention of this HPV related SCC of the vulva. The second pathway is HPV-independent. Keratinizing SCC develops within a background of lichen sclerosus (LS through a differentiated VIN. It has a different set of genetic alterations than those in the first pathway, including p53 mutations, allelic imbalances (AI, and microsatellite instability (MSI. Further clinical and basic research is still required to understand and prevent vulvar SCC. Capsule. Two pathway for pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the value are reviewed.

  9. [Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Tommaso; Küffer, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the skin, skin appendages and mucous membranes, which frequently affects the oral mucosa. Its aetiology still remains unknown, and currently accepted pathogenesis is that of an autoimmune cell-mediated disease. To the contrary of skin lichen planus, oral lichen planus is a long-term chronic disease with dynamic evolution, in which progressive and profound changes of the clinical and histopathological aspects occur over time and under the influence of various exogenous factors. By convention, in the history of the oral lichen planus four successive stages can be distinguished without well-defined boundaries between them. These stages can be defined as an initial phase; a long intermediate phase with alternating periods of activity and quiescence, which has a gradually increasing risk of malignant transformation; a late stage which activity is traditionally diminished; and a post-lichen cicatricial stage with an absent or negligible and undetectable activity, often undiagnosed because clinically unrecognized; in this stage, the lesion does not respond to usual treatments, but retains the same risk of malignant transformation.

  10. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  11. Volatile constituents of selected Parmeliaceae lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA S. STOJANOVIĆ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The acetone soluble fraction of the methanol extracts of Parmeliaceae lichens: Hypogymnia physodes, Evernia prunastri and Parmelia sulcata, growing on the same host tree (Prunus domestica and at the same locality was analyzed for the first time by GC and GC–MS. The major identified components were olivetol (33.5 % of the H. physodes extract, atraric acid (30.1 and 30.3 % of the E. prunastri and P. sulcata extracts, respectively, orcinol (25.0 % of the E. prunastri extract, vitamin E (24.7 % of the P. sulcata extract and olivetonide (15.7 % of the H. physodes extract. Even though all the identified compounds are known, a number of them were found for the first time in the examined lichens, i.e., orcinol monomethyl ether (H. physodes, orcinol, atranol, lichesterol, ergosterol (H. physodes and P. sulcata, methyl haematommate, atraric acid, olivetol, vitamin E (H. physodes and P. sulcata and b-sitosterol (P. sulcata.

  12. Antigenotoxicity of Depsidones Isolated from Brazilian Lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira da Rosa Guterres

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although phenolic compounds produced by lichens have been widely investigated in antitumor assays, only a small number have been evaluated for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. This study evaluated protocetraric, hypostictic, psoromic, and salazinic acids for their potential genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity against somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. These compounds were isolated from the lichens Parmotrema dilatatum, Pseudoparmelia sphaerosphora, Usnea jamaicensis, and Parmotrema cetratum, respectively, collected from the Brazilian Cerrado biome. The compounds were evaluated at 0.75, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 mmol L–1 using the SMART test, employing standard and high-bioactivation crosses of Drosophila melanogaster. Doxorubicin (DXR was the positive control. Psoromic and salazinic acids proved toxic at 6.0 mM. None of the compounds evaluated exhibited mutagenicity, but each of them significantly reduced genetic damage caused by DXR, proving antigenotoxic when tested on somatic cells of D. melanogaster. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i1.897

  13. Lichen planus secondary to hepatitis B vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Akhilesh

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The association of lichen planus (LP with liver diseases is now well established. Recent reports suggest that the hepatitis viruses may play a central role in this association. Lichen planus following hepatitis B vaccination is much more unusual. A 19-year-old previously healthy male developed itchy violaceous papules and plaques over the upper extremities eight to ten days after the first injection of hepatitis B vaccine. He developed similar lesions over the upper trunk, neck and lower leg after the second and third injections. A skin biopsy showed a lichenoid tissue reaction. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF showed multiple colloid bodies and a strong continuous ragged basement membrane zone (BMZ band with fibrinogen. HbsAg by ELISA and anti-HCV antibodies were negative. The patient was treated with oral steroids and the lesions improved. LP is a pruritic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown origin. An increased prevalence of liver disease in patient with LP has been reported. Since the first case reported by Rebora in 1990, about 15 cases of LP occurring after hepatitis B vaccination have been reported in the literature irrespective of the type of vaccine used.

  14. Lichen planus remission is associated with a decrease of human herpes virus type 7 protein expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, H J C; Teunissen, M.B.M.; Zorgdrager, F.; Picavet, D.; Cornelissen, M

    2007-01-01

    The cause of lichen planus is still unknown. Previously we showed human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7) DNA and proteins in lesional lichen planus skin, and significantly less in non-lesional lichen planus, psoriasis or healthy skin. Remarkably, lesional lichen planus skin was infiltrated with plasmacytoid dendritic cells. If HHV-7 is associated with lichen planus, then HHV-7 replication would reduce upon lichen planus remission. HHV-7 DNA detection was performed by nested PCR and HHV-7 protein by imm...

  15. Perceptions of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy: findings from the REVIVE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Murray A

    2014-07-01

    Symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), including dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, have a distinct negative impact on a woman's quality of life. The REVIVE survey highlighted the lack of awareness of VVA symptoms among postmenopausal women with vaginal symptoms, with many women reluctant to initiate discussions with their healthcare professionals despite the presence of vaginal symptoms. The REVIVE survey also provided insights into women's views of VVA treatments. Women reported displeasure with the vaginal administration route, lack of symptom relief with over-the-counter products, and concerns about the safety of estrogen therapies. With the high prevalence of VVA, obstetricians/gynecologists should become vigilant in identifying women with VVA by implementing screening and discussion of symptoms during routine office visits - providing patients with information about appropriate therapies based on the severity and impact of symptoms, keeping in mind individual preferences and perceptions.

  16. [Vulvar amebiasis. Report of a case and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo Juárez, Patricia; Avilés-Salas, A

    2003-02-01

    Genital amebiasis by Entamoeba histolytica is rare, even in Mexico where the disease is endemic. We report a case of genital amebiasis in a female patient with a recto-perineal fistula and two-week history of a profuse vaginal discharge, a painful and friable vulvar ulcer and induration in gluteal and inner side of thighs. The PAP smear and the biopsy showed trophozoites, no malignant cells were observed. The findings were compatible with genital amebiasis. The serology test for E. histolytica was positive (> 1: 512). The patient was treated with metronidazol 750 mg tid for 3 weeks. Complete resolution was achieved. The long term fistula, the low socioeconomic status, the poor hygiene and diabetes mellitus of a recent onset were probably the risk factors associated to this infection. We reviewed the literature.

  17. Malignant Melanoma of the Urethra: A Rare Histologic Subdivision of Vulvar Cancer with a Poor Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Günther

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma of the urethra is a rare tumour that is difficult to diagnose and treat, resulting in a poor prognosis. In this paper, we present the case of a 65-year-old woman who was referred to a gynaecologist because of a urethral mass that mimicked a caruncle. The tumour was removed by local excision, and a pathological analysis revealed a malignant melanoma. Distal urethrectomy was performed after three months with no evidence of residual tumour. There was no evidence of disease at a six-year followup. In this paper, we compare the epidemiology, treatment, staging, and prognosis of vulvar cancer in general to malignant melanoma of the vulva in particular.

  18. Cervical and Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia after Treatment with Oral Isotretinoin for Severe Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Al Hallak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral isotretinoin is the drug of choice for severe acne vulgaris, but its use is still controversial in preventing, treating or stopping the progression of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [6–8]. It induces cell differentiation, inhibits cell proliferation, stimulates host immune reaction, inhibits the oncogene expression, augments cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and induces apoptosis [5]. The isotretinoin has many side effects including teratogenicity. There is no previous report of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN after introducing oral isotretinoin to a patient. We are reporting a 37-year-old female with no risk factors for cervical cancer who had developed CIN-I and VIN-I during a 6-month treatment period of oral isotretinoin for her severe acne vulgaris. Interestingly, the patient had complete spontaneous pathologic-proven remission after stopping the isotretinoin. Further case reports are warranted to support this incidence.

  19. Classical lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus inversus overlap with dermoscopic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Güngör

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a 3 months history of itchy cutaneous eruption on the trunk and asymptomatic cutaneous eruption on both groins. Physical examination revealed several, purplish-brown, scaly papules on the trunk and well-circumscribed, brown patchs in a linear distribution, on the bilateral inguinal regions. Dermoscopic examination of papules on the trunk revealed white crossing lines surrounded by brown dots; dermoscopic examination of patchs on groins revealed gray-brown dots and globules. According to histological, dermoscopical and clinical changes, the diagnoses of classical lichen planus (LP for the lesions on the trunk; and lichen planus pigmentosus inversus (LPPI for the lesions on the inguinal regions were made. Inhere we have described a rare case of LPPI and classical LP with dermoscopic features; and we suggest that LPPI is a variant of classical LP.

  20. Treatment of a vulvar Paget's disease by photodynamic therapy with a new light emitting fabric based device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Claire; Carpentier, Olivier; Lecomte, Fabienne; Thecua, Elise; Mortier, Laurent; Mordon, Serge R

    2017-02-01

    The non-invasive vulvar Paget's disease is an intra-epidermal carcinoma with glandular characteristics. It appears like an erythematous plaque. The main symptoms are pruritus and pain. The standard treatment is surgical excision in depth. This treatment is complicated with a severe morbidity and photodynamic therapy can be an alternative choice. However, the pain experienced during the photodynamic treatment of vulvar lesion is intense and leads to a premature interruption of the treatment. The light emitting fabric is a part of a device under clinical evaluation for the treatment of actinic keratosis with photodynamic therapy. We report the observation of a vulvar Paget's disease treated by this device with a satisfactory result and an excellent tolerance. The patient has been diagnosed with non-invasive vulvar Paget's disease for 25 years. The disease recurred constantly despite several imiquimod applications, LASER treatments and conventional photodynamic therapy. These procedures were complicated with intense pain. To improve the tolerance, we performed three PDT sessions a month apart using a 16% methyl-aminolevulinate cream (Metvixia® Galderma, Lausanne, Switzerland) with the light emitting fabric at low irradiance (irradiance = 6 mW/cm(2) -fluence = 37 J/cm(2) ) with a satisfactory result and an excellent tolerance. There are no controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of vulvar Paget's disease. The treatment and follow-up protocols in the literature are heterogeneous. Pain is the most common side effect with greater intensity for perineal locations where photodynamic therapy is impractical outside of anesthesia or hypnosis. We report the case of a multirecidivant non-invasive vulvar Paget's disease treated with a satisfactory result and an excellent tolerance by the new light emitting fabric device. A specific study is required but the light emitting fabric could be indicated for the treatment of Paget

  1. The lichens, tritium and carbon 14 integrators; Les lichens, integrateurs de tritium et de carbone 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daillant, O

    2007-07-01

    The present report concerns a research for the tritium and for the carbon 14 in lichens in a spirit of bio-indication: the first results appear in Daillant and al (2004 ) and additional results were presented to the congress B.I.O.M.A.P. in Slovenia, organized collectively by the institute Josef Stefan from Ljubljana and the international atomic energy agency from Vienna (Daillant and al 2003). (N.C.)

  2. [Verrucous squamous cell carcinoma complicating hypertrophic lichen planus. Three case reports and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, T K; Flaig, M J; Ruzicka, T; Rupec, R A

    2011-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous T-cell-mediated disease, whose cause is still unknown. The first case of lichen planus that transformed into squamous cell carcinoma was reported in 1903. We present three patients in whom squamous cell carcinomas were identified in chronic lichen planus. The world literature includes at least 91 cases, including our three cases. In an epidemiological study, no significant risk of transformation of cutaneous lichen planus into squamous cell carcinomas was found. In contrast, there is a significantly higher risk of malignant transformation in mucosal lichen planus, so that the WHO had graded mucosal lichen planus as a premalignant condition.

  3. [Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in lichens of different taxonomic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P

    2014-01-01

    Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in 22 lichen species of the families Parmeliaceae, Nephromataceae, Umbilicariaceae, Ramalinaceae, Cladoniaceae, Peltigeraceae, and Teloschistaceae were identified determined by enzyme immunoassay enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The following mycotoxins were identified found in these lichens in a broad concentration range with a frequency of 70-100%: sterigmatocystin (7-2090 ng/g), alternariol (20-6460 ng/g), and emodin (45-94500 ng/g). Mycophenolic acid frequently occurred in 19 lichen species; citrinin, in 17 species; diacetoxyscirpenol, in 11 species; cyclopiazonic acid, in 10 species; and zearalenone, in 9 species. PR toxin was regularly detected in three lichen species; deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A, in two species; and T-2 toxin and ergot alkaloids, in one species. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in only six species with a frequency of 2-42%, whereas roridin A was identified present in 10% of Hypogymnia physodes samples.

  4. First supplement to the lichen checklist of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuvo Ahti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of errors and additions to the recently published checklist of lichens reported from South Africa (Fryday 2015. The overall number of taxa reported from South Africa is increased by one, to 1751.

  5. Experimental strain analysis of Clarens Sandstone colonised by endolithic lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wessels

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Endolithic lichens occur commonly on Clarens Sandstone in South Africa, where they significantly contribute to the weathering of sandstone by means of mechanical and chemical weathering processes. This preliminary investigation reports on the success- ful use of strain gauges in detecting strain differences between sandstone without epilithic lichens and sandstone colonised by the euendolithic lichen Lecidea aff. sarcogynoides Korb. Mechanical weathering, expressed as strain changes, in Clarens Sandstone was studied during the transition from relatively dry winter to wet summer conditions. Daily weathering of sandstone due to thermal expansion and contraction of colonised and uncolonised sandstone could be shown. Our results show that liquid water in sandstone enhances the mechanical weathering of uncolonised Clarens Sandstone while water in the gaseous phase enhances mechanical weathering of sandstone by euendolithic lichens.

  6. Candida fermenticarens—a. new yeast from arboricole lichen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. van der Walt

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of an undescribed  Candida species were recovered from arboricole lichen collected in the eastern Cape. A description of the new species, Candida fermenticarens, is given.

  7. Photosynthesis in a sub-Antarctic shore-zone lichen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, V.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses to moisture, light, temperature, salinity and inorganic nitrogen fertilization are reported for a shore-zone lichen Turgidiusculum complicatulum (formerly Mastodia tesselata), a possible recent introduction to sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Optimum moisture contents for net ph

  8. Photosynthesis in a sub-Antarctic shore-zone lichen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, V.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses to moisture, light, temperature, salinity and inorganic nitrogen fertilization are reported for a shore-zone lichen Turgidiusculum complicatulum (formerly Mastodia tesselata), a possible recent introduction to sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Optimum moisture contents for net

  9. First supplement to the lichen checklist of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuvo Ahti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of errors and additions to the recently published checklist of lichens reported from South Africa (Fryday 2015. The overall number of taxa reported from South Africa is increased by one, to 1751.

  10. Antarctic Epilithic Lichens as Niches for Black Meristematic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zucconi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen epilithic lichen samples (13 species, collected from seven locations in Northern and Southern Victoria Land in Antarctica, were investigated for the presence of black fungi. Thirteen fungal strains isolated were studied by both morphological and molecular methods. Nuclear ribosomal 18S gene sequences were used together with the most similar published and unpublished sequences of fungi from other sources, to reconstruct an ML tree. Most of the studied fungi could be grouped together with described or still unnamed rock-inhabiting species in lichen dominated Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. At the edge of life, epilithic lichens withdraw inside the airspaces of rocks to find conditions still compatible with life; this study provides evidence, for the first time, that the same microbes associated to epilithic thalli also have the same fate and chose endolithic life. These results support the concept of lichens being complex symbiotic systems, which offer attractive and sheltered habitats for other microbes.

  11. Antarctic epilithic lichens as niches for black meristematic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbmann, Laura; Grube, Martin; Onofri, Silvano; Isola, Daniela; Zucconi, Laura

    2013-05-17

    Sixteen epilithic lichen samples (13 species), collected from seven locations in Northern and Southern Victoria Land in Antarctica, were investigated for the presence of black fungi. Thirteen fungal strains isolated were studied by both morphological and molecular methods. Nuclear ribosomal 18S gene sequences were used together with the most similar published and unpublished sequences of fungi from other sources, to reconstruct an ML tree. Most of the studied fungi could be grouped together with described or still unnamed rock-inhabiting species in lichen dominated Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. At the edge of life, epilithic lichens withdraw inside the airspaces of rocks to find conditions still compatible with life; this study provides evidence, for the first time, that the same microbes associated to epilithic thalli also have the same fate and chose endolithic life. These results support the concept of lichens being complex symbiotic systems, which offer attractive and sheltered habitats for other microbes.

  12. utilisation des lichens comme bioindicateurs de la pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydro

    Use of lichens as bioindicators of air pollution by lead, cadmium and zinc in the ... mainly road traffic and pottery emissions that, affect air quality. ...... Hetauda industrial area Narayani Zone Makwanpur district, Nepal”, Environmental Monitoring.

  13. Bullous oral lichen planus: report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berrin (U)NSAL; S. Elif G(U)LTEKIN; Erol BAL; Benay TOKMAN

    2003-01-01

    @@ Lichen planus is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease of unknown cause. Several types of lichen planus (reticular, atrophic, erosive and bullous) within the oral cavity have been described, among which the reticular and erosive types are the most common types,1,2 while the bullous type is rarely observed.1,3 Bullous lichen planus (BLP) lesions are commonly seen on the buccal mucosa, most frequently at the posterior areas adjacent to the second and third molar teeth. Less common localizations are gingiva and inner aspect of the lips.4 Bullae are generally short lived and leave ulcerated lesions on rupturing.1 The clinical diagnosis of bullous lichen planus is extremely difficult, and pathological examinations may be necessary to establish a definitive diagnosis.5

  14. [Antibacterial activity of some lichens from southern Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, J G; Saenz, M T; Garcia, M D

    1989-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of some lichens from south Spain has been studied. High activity against Gram+ bacteria has been observed, although Parmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri and Usnea sp. are also active against Gram- bacteria.

  15. Geochemistry of terricolous lichens in the White Sea catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Starodymova, D. P.; Vasyukova, E. V.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Drovnina, S. I.; Zamber, N. S.; Makhnovich, N. M.; Savvichev, A. S.; Sonke, J.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents new data on the multielemental composition of terricolous lichens in the White Sea catchment area. The content of 51 chemical elements was determined in 31 samples using modern analytical methods. It was shown that the chemical composition of terricolous lichens varies widely and depends on many factors. The lithogenic dust plays the main role in accumulation of Ti, Cr, Co, Ga, Fe, Zr, Nb, Ga, Th, U, and REE. Long-range transport from remote pollution sources is important for Pb, Zn, Cd, Bi, Hg, and Se. The Kostomuksha ore dressing mill provides the local enrichment of the lichens in Fe, whereas the Monchegorsk copper-nickel enterprise affects large distances and additionally enriches the lichens in Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, and Cd in comparison with the background regions. The marine impact is reflected in elevated contents and enrichment factors in Na, Mg, and the Na/K ratio.

  16. Lichens as bio indicators; Lav er veleigna som bioindikator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication discusses the use of lichens as biological indicators. Perennial growth, long life, efficient take-up of mineral nutrients from air and rain and small loss of nutrition are properties that make lichens suitable as biological indicators. In surveys and monitoring, species diversity and coverage by organisms that live as epiphytes on tree trunks have been the most commonly used parameters. A decline in the occurrence of this type of lichen is often related to the content of sulphur compounds in the air and it has been demonstrated that many species are sensitive to sulphur dioxide. It is also known that the growth of many types of lichens increases with a moderate increase in available nitrogen. In South Norway, pollution sensitive species such as Bryoria spp. have advanced strongly, which is probably due to less sulphur in the rain and a higher content of nutrition in the form of nitrate and ammonium.

  17. Community assembly in epiphytic lichens in early stages of colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Ivar; Blom, Hans H; Lindblom, Louise; Saetersdal, Magne; Schei, Fride Høstad

    2012-04-01

    Colonization studies may function as natural experiments and have the potential of addressing important questions about community assembly. We studied colonization for a guild of epiphytic lichens in a former treeless heathland area of 170 km2 in southwest Norway. We investigated if epiphytic lichen species richness and composition on aspen (Populus tremula) trees corresponded to a random draw of lichen individuals from the regional species pool. We compared lichen communities of isolated young (55-120 yr) and old (140-200 yr) forest patches in the heathland area to those of aspen forest in an adjacent reference area that has been forested for a long time. All thalli (lichen bodies) of 32 selected lichen species on trunks of aspen were recorded in 35 aspen sites. When data for each site category (young, old, and reference) were pooled, we found the species richness by rarefaction to be similar for reference sites and old sites, but significantly lower for young sites. The depauperated species richness of young sites was accompanied by a skew in species composition and absence of several species that were common in the reference sites. In contrast, genetic variation screened with neutral microsatellite markers in the lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria showed no significant differences between site categories. Our null hypothesis of a neutral species assembly in young sites corresponding to a random draw from the regional species pool was rejected, whereas an alternative hypothesis based on differences in colonization capacity among species was supported. The results indicate that for the habitat configuration in the heathland area (isolated patches constituting lichen communities may need a colonization time of 100-150 yr for species richness to level off, but given enough time, isolation will not affect species richness. We suggest that this contradiction to expectations from classical island equilibrium theory results from low extinction rates.

  18. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to different volcanic disturbances were attributable to varying degrees of mortality and subsequent availability of substrate, quantity of light and removal of competitors. While sensitive to disturbance, lichens are apparently resilient to and can quickly recolonize after a variety of large, violent volcanic

  19. Cryptic diversity and symbiont interactions in rock-posy lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Vondrak, Jan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Perez-Ortega, Sergio; St Clair, Larry L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors that influence species interactions is central to research in symbiotic systems. While lichens represent iconic models of symbiosis and play important roles in understanding the biology of symbiotic interactions, patterns of interactions in lichen symbionts and mechanisms governing these relationships are not well characterized. This is due, in part to the fact that current taxonomic approaches for recognizing diversity in lichen symbionts commonly fail to accurately reflect actual species diversity. In this study, we employed DNA-based approaches to circumscribed candidate species-level lineages in rock-posy lichen symbionts (mycobiont=Rhizoplaca s. lat. species; photobiont=Trebouxia species). Our results revealed a high degree of cryptic diversity in both the myco- and photobionts in these lichens. Using the candidate species circumscribed here, we investigated the specificity of the symbionts toward their partners and inferred the relative importance of various factors influencing symbiont interactions. Distinct mycobiont species complexes, ecozones, and biomes are significantly correlated with the occurrence of photobiont OTUs, indicating that complex interactions among mycobiont lineages, ecogeography, and microhabitat determine interactions between photobionts and their mycobionts in lichen symbiosis. One-to-one specificity between mycobiont and photobiont species was not found, with the exception of R. maheui that associated with a single Trebouxia OTU that was not found with other Rhizoplaca s. lat. species. We estimated the most recent common ancestor of the core Rhizoplaca group at c. 62.5Ma, similar in age to the diverse parmelioid core group in the well-studied family Parmeliaceae. However, in contrast to Parmeliaceae, species in Rhizoplaca were found to associate with a narrow range of photobionts. Our study provides important perspectives into species diversity and interactions in iconic lichen symbiotic systems and establishes a

  20. The Evaluation of Psychosocial Factors Associated with Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Mollashahi Leila

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous disease that often affects the oral mucosa.However, the exact etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear, there are reports about the association between Oral Lichen Plans (OLP and immunological disorders and psychological factors. The role of psychosocial factors especially depression and anxiety in oral lichen planus is debated. This study was done to determine the association of these factors in oral lichen planus.Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was done in department of oral medicine of Zahedan University of Dentistry from May 2007 to May 2008. One hundred and sixty patients were evaluated in three groups of OLP, negative control and positive control using Beck Anxiety (BAI, Beck Depression (BDI and Stress Life Event Questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. P value0.05.Conclusions: It seems that psychosocial factors may have role in the causation of oral lichen planus. These factors may form a starting point for initiation of various autoimmune reactions, which have been shown to be contributory to the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus

  1. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  2. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T

    2015-10-30

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

  3. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René

    2008-11-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK(a1) value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO(2) reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH

  4. Anticancer activities of selected species of North American lichen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gajendra; El-Naggar, Atif M; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of human deaths in the USA. Despite continuous efforts to treat cancer over the past 50 years, human mortality rates have not decreased significantly. Natural products, such as lichens, have been good sources of anticancer drugs. This study reports the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts of 17 lichen species against Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells. Out of the 17 lichen species, extracts from 14 species showed cytotoxicity against Raji cells. On the basis of IC50 values, we selected Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa and Tuckermannopsis ciliaris to study the mechanism of cell death. Viability of normal lymphocytes was not affected by the extracts of X. chlorochroa and T. ciliaris. We found that extracts from both lichens decreased proliferation, accumulated cells at the G0 /G1 stage, and caused apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Both lichen extracts also caused upregulation of p53. The T. ciliaris extract upregulated the expression of TK1 but X. chlorochroa did not. We also found that usnic, salazinic, constictic, and norstictic acids were present in the extract of X. chlorochroa, whereas protolichesterinic acid in T. ciliaris extracts. Our data demonstrate that lichen extracts merit further research as a potential source of anticancer drugs.

  5. UV-protectant metabolites from lichens and their symbiotic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh-Hung; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Gouault, Nicolas; Tomasi, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Lichens are structurally complex symbiotic organisms that are exposed to a wide variety of external conditions (extreme temperatures, desiccation, UV radiation, etc.). These poikilohydric organisms have developed various mechanisms of photoprotection, such as light scattering, radiation screening, thermal dissipation, activation of antioxidant defense and macromolecules and membrane repair. These unique organisms produce a vast array of compounds, with more than 1000 secondary metabolites known. An important protective mechanism of lichens is the production of UV screening compounds, such as phenolic compounds (depsidones, depsides, diphenyl ethers), anthraquinones, xanthones or shikimic acid derivatives (calycin, mycosporines, scytonemin). Due to the harmful effects of the UVA wavelengths of sunlight, the search for new sunscreens remains important. We herein propose a review that focuses on the UV protectants from lichens and their symbiotic partners (lichenized fungi, green alga, cyanobacteria). In fact, lichens produce unique and/or efficient UV filters such as depsidones (lobaric acid, pannarin, etc.), depsides (atranorin, gyrophoric acid, etc.), diphenyl ethers (epiphorellic acids, buellin), bisxanthones (secalonic acids, etc.), mycosporines and MAAs, scytonemin along with classical pigments (melanin, carotenoids). We propose to classify these compounds with regard to their chemical structures and review the physicochemical properties that act as UV filters. While the most abundant lichen polyfunctionalized aromatic compounds, belonging to orsellinic derivatives, are UVB screens, these organisms produce strong UVA filters, e.g., calycin (pulvinic acid derivatives), bisxanthones (secalonic acids), scytonemin or mycosporines and MAAs with the latter ones exhibiting attractive properties as photoprotectants.

  6. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Marković

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+ bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.

  7. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of five lichen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Comić, Ljiljana; Dačić, Dragana; Curčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.

  8. Carcinoma vulvar

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    Yamit Peñas Zayas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma de la vulva tiene una incidencia de aproximadamente un 3-5% dentro de todas las enfermedades ginecológicas malignas. El 90% de los tumores malignos de la vulva está constituido por carcinoma epidermoide, el resto son adenocarcinomas, carcinomas de células basales y melanomas. Se realiza la presentación de un caso de una paciente femenina de 25 años de edad con antecedentes  de Diabetes Mellitus tipo II y trombopatia, que ingresa en el servicio de ginecología con un cuadro cutáneo polimorfo, localizado en labios mayores y menores, dado por lesiones eritematoerosivas y vegetante, sospechándose clínicamente el diagnóstico  de un carcinoma epidermoide, corroborándose el mismo histológicamente al realizarse biopsia de piel. Se indicó tratamiento con quimioterapia. Por la edad de la paciente y ser menos frecuente en mucosa que en la piel,  motivo la presentación del caso.

  9. [Vulvar melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokoeva, A; Tchernev, G; Wollina, U

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the vulva is a rare disease with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. It consist melanoma in females, as the ratio of its manifestation, compared with the cutaneous melanoma is 1:71. Higher risk of developing melanoma of the vulva is established in white women, as the peak of the incidence is between 60 and 70 years of age. Clinically, MM of the vulva manifests as asymptomatic pigmented, rarely a pigmented lesion, as the usual clinical form is superficial spreading MM and much less common nodular MM, which is associated with a poorer prognosis in. general. The diagnosis is confirmed by histological examination. Conduction of PCR and DNA analysis for detection of BRAF mutations, NRAS mutations and KIT amplification is also appropriate. Advanced age, black race, tumor size, tumor thickness, ulceration, presence of satellite lesions, involvement of adjacent organs (vagina, urethra), and the presence of regional or distant metastases are identified as the most important prognostic markers. Radical wide excision followed by bilateral lymphadenectomy id considered as the optimal therapeutic approach.

  10. Vulvar Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spe- cific problem and recommended treatment. Bathing and Hygiene • Use your hands only to wash. Do not use washcloths, loofahs, puffs, and such. Pat dry after bathing. • Use an unscented bar soap (examples: Dove, ... feminine hygiene products. These can cause pain or itching. • Do ...

  11. Oral lichen planus and stress: An appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simarpreet V Sandhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by bilateral white striations or plaques on the buccal mucosa, tongue or gingiva that has a multifactorial etiology, where the psychogenic factors seem to play an important role. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the existing relation between the OLP and psychological alterations of the patient, such as stress, anxiety, and depression. Materials and Methods: Hospital anxiety and depression scale was applied for psychometric analysis. Results: The study indicates a definitive relationship between a stressful life event and onset and progression of OLP. Conclusion: Stress management and bereavement counseling should be a part of management protocol of OLP.

  12. Isolated ocular lichen planus in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igras, Estera; Kennedy, Susan; MacDermott, Emma Jane; Murphy, Conor C

    2015-08-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an autoimmune inflammatory condition of the skin and mucous membranes, of unknown aetiology, that infrequently involves the eye. Ocular LP has not been described in children. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl with severe, filamentous dry eyes and persistent conjunctival hyperemia with bilateral progressive conjunctival symblepharon. Her conjunctival biopsy showed heavy linear fibrinogen deposits along the basement membrane without IgG, IgA, IgM, or C3 deposition, consistent with LP. No skin or other mucosal lesions were present, suggesting a diagnosis of isolated conjunctival LP. Oral and topical cyclosporine combined with methotrexate and low-dose oral steroids led to sustained disease remission. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated ocular LP in a child.

  13. Wolf's isotopic response, presenting as lichen planus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Mariana Thomaz da Silva; de Almeida, José Roberto Paes; Sementilli, Ângelo; Dinato, Sandra Lopes Mattos e; Romiti, Ney

    2015-01-01

    The term "Wolf's isotopic response" describes the occurrence of a new skin disorder at the site of another unrelated and already healed skin disease. In most cases, herpes zoster is the inicial disease. Different disorders may develop on the same site, most commonly granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, infiltration of hematologic diseases, skin tumors and infections. There are few related cases of lichen planus presenting as isotopic response. We report a case of a 74 year-old woman, with multiple itchy, rose-colored and shiny papules that developed at site of previously healed herpes zoster, on the right arm and shoulder. The pathogenesis of this phenomenon is still unknown and further studies are needed. PMID:26312684

  14. Hyperkeratotic palmoplantar lichen planus in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Madke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a common idiopathic inflammatory disorder that affects the flexor aspect of the wrists, the legs, and the oral and genital mucosa. Depending upon the site of involvement, LP can be divided into mucosal, nail, scalp, or palmoplantar types. Palmoplantar LP can pose a diagnostic problem to the clinician as it resembles common dermatoses like psoriasis, verruca, corn, calluses, lichenoid drug eruption, and papular syphilide of secondary syphilis. In this case report, we describe a 4-year-old male child who presented with highly pruritic erythematous to violaceous hyperkeratotic papules and plaques on his palms and soles. Typical LP papules were noted on the upper back. Histopathology of the papular lesion showed features of LP. Dermatoscopy of a papule from the back showed the characteristic Wickham striae. We report this rare involvement of palm and soles in a case of childhood LP.

  15. Treatment of esophageal stricture due to lichen planus with intralesional corticosteroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Aydin S; Yildiz, Hakan; Odemiş, Bülent; Sengül, Ayşegül

    2014-02-01

    Herein we presented a male patient with esophageal stricture due to lichen planus successfully treated with repeated injections of intralesional triamcinolone and review the current literature on esophageal lichen planus with special emphasis on its treatment.

  16. Estimation of arboreal lichen biomass available to woodland caribou in Hudson Bay lowland black spruce sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Proceviat

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An arboreal lichen index to be utilized in assessing woodland caribou habitat throughout northeastern Ontario was developed. The "index" was comprised of 5 classes, which differentiated arboreal lichen biomass on black spruce trees, ranging from maximal quantities of arboreal lichen (class 5 to minimal amounts of arboreal lichen (class 1. This arboreal lichen index was subsequently used to estimate the biomass of arboreal lichen available to woodland caribou on lowland black spruce sites ranging in age from 1 year to 150 years post-harvest. A total of 39 sites were assessed and significant differences in arboreal lichen biomass were found, with a positive linear relationship between arboreal lichen biomass and forest age. It is proposed that the index be utilized by government and industry as a means of assessing the suitability of lowland black spruce habitat for woodland caribou in this region.

  17. Bilateral Linear Lichen Planus Pigmentosus Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanop Vachiramon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus pigmentosus is a rare subtype of lichen planus. We report a first case of lichen planus pigmentosus with bilateral linear distribution associated with hepatitis C virus infection. The lesion was improved after sun avoidance and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with a combination of interferon and ribavirin. This case stresses the importance of screening for hepatitis C virus infection as lichen planus pigmentosus can be an associated condition.

  18. Studies about the adsorption on lichen Evernia prunastri by enthalpimetric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M L; Ercole, P; Campanella, L

    1998-04-01

    Lichens are bioaccumulators of divalent metal ions and the interaction between the lichens and five heavy metals was studied. In order to have a better understanding of the metal-uptake process by the lichens, data from atomic absorption spectroscopy were used to calculate the apparent coordination constants of the lichen-metal ion interactions by means of the Langmuir elaboration and microcalorimetric measurements to obtain enthalpimetric information. The results showed a correlation between the Langmuir constants and enthalpimetric measurements.

  19. The lichen genus Caloplaca (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes) on Svalbard. Notes and additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik; Lorentsen, Line Balschmidt; Arup, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    23 species of the lichen genus Caloplaca from Svalbard are described and/or discussed. The descriptions are natural language descriptions based on characters for each species coded into LIAS (Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes). A total of 37 Caloplaca species...

  20. Lichen Monitoring Delineates Biodiversity on a Great Barrier Reef Coral Cay

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    Paul C. Rogers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Coral islands around the world are threatened by changing climates. Rising seas, drought, and increased tropical storms are already impacting island ecosystems. We aim to better understand lichen community ecology of coral island forests. We used an epiphytic lichen community survey to gauge Pisonia (Pisonia grandis R.BR., which dominates forest conditions on Heron Island, Australia. Nine survey plots were sampled for lichen species presence and abundance, all tree diameters and species, GPS location, distance to forest-beach edge, and dominant forest type. Results found only six unique lichens and two lichen associates. A Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP test found statistically distinct lichen communities among forest types. The greatest group differences were between interior Pisonia and perimeter forest types. Ordinations were performed to further understand causes for distinctions in lichen communities. Significant explanatory gradients were distance to forest edge, tree density (shading, and Pisonia basal area. Each of these variables was negatively correlated with lichen diversity and abundance, suggesting that interior, successionally advanced, Pisonia forests support fewer lichens. Island edge and presumably younger forests—often those with greater tree diversity and sunlight penetration—supported the highest lichen diversity. Heron Island’s Pisonia-dominated forests support low lichen diversity which mirrors overall biodiversity patterns. Lichen biomonitoring may provide a valuable indicator for assessing island ecosystems for conservation purposes regionally.

  1. Terricolous lichens in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    Two sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier to investigate lichen communities on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner. The survey yielded 34 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus. In addition, 19 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus were found by collecting at random, outside the two sampling sites.

  2. Analyzing lichen indicator data in the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf

    2010-01-01

    Lichens are one of several forest health indicators sampled every year for a subset of plots on the permanent grid established by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. This report reviews analysis procedures for standard FIA lichen indicator data. Analyses of lichen data contribute to state, regional, and...

  3. Self-Reported Neuropathic Pain Characteristics of Women With Provoked Vulvar Pain: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargie, Emma; Gilron, Ian; Pukall, Caroline F

    2017-04-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common chronic genital pain condition affecting approximately 12% of premenopausal women. Although parallels have been drawn between PVD and neuropathic pain (NP), no studies have examined self-reported NP characteristics in PVD. To explore pain symptoms that resemble NP reported by those with PVD and compare responses with those with an established NP condition. Women with provoked vulvar pain (PVP; n = 65) completed online questionnaires designed to assess characteristics of NP. Responses were compared with those of women with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN; n = 30). In addition to a range of descriptive questions, participants completed the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Self-Complete Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Signs and Symptoms (S-LANSS), the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI), and the Pain Quality Assessment Scale (PQAS). PVP exhibits some neuropathic characteristics, typically evoked pain (as opposed to the more constant pain of PHN) indicative of allodynia and hyperalgesia. Specifically, women with PVP scored, on average, higher than the NP cutoff on the S-LANSS, and there were no significant differences between women with PVP and those with PHN on some NPSI subscales. However, women with PHN reported more NP symptoms on the PQAS, S-LANSS, and other NPSI subscales. Validated NP questionnaires could be of particular use for health care professionals who need a more efficient way to assess symptoms of patients with PVP and should be included in future studies investigating the mechanisms and treatment of this pain. This study takes a unique approach to the examination of PVP by using multiple validated NP measures to compare pain characteristics with those of a group of participants with PHN, an established NP condition. However, it is limited by self-reported data not confirmed with clinical examination, small size of the PHN group, and the severity of the pain experienced in the PVP group. Women with PVP report

  4. Treatment of human papillomavirus-associated vulvar disease with the CO2-laser. Physical and histological aspects with use of a new scanning device, the SwiftLase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörri, S; Frenz, M; Altermatt, H J; Hannigan, E V; Dreher, E

    1996-01-01

    The CO2-laser has a successful record in treatment of extensive, refractory vulvar condylomas and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. A prerequisite for optimal use of the laser is careful preoperative diagnosis and optimized surgical technique based upon the exact knowledge of the interaction process between laser radiation and tissue. Using a new CO2-laser scanning device, the Sharplan Swift-Lase, this in-vivo study analyses the effects of CO2-laser parameters [average power density (PD), beam size and exposure time] on vulvar skin to determine optimum laser settings. Our histomorphometric analyses reveal a minimal skin destruction (ablation depth 40 microns, extent of irreversible thermal damage 80 microns to 120 microns) after application of the CO2-laser energy with the SwiftLase using a PD of 1000 W/cm2 with a beam size of 1 mm diameter. Previous CO2-laser application techniques required low PD (200 W/cm2 to 750 W/cm2) and a larger beam size (1.5 mm to 2 mm) moving over the epithelial surface as fast as possible to obtain a precise skin destruction. The SwiftLase allows the laser beam to be moved slowly with a beam size of 1 mm and significantly higher PD (up to 5000 W/cm2). These advantageous application conditions guarantee precise, homogeneous vulvar skin treatments with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding normal skin. The SwiftLase enables a less experienced colposcopists to perform vulvar CO2-laser surgery.

  5. Lichen planus remission is associated with a decrease of human herpes virus type 7 protein expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.J.C.; Teunissen, M.B.M.; Zorgdrager, F.; Picavet, D.; Cornelissen, M

    2007-01-01

    The cause of lichen planus is still unknown. Previously we showed human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7) DNA and proteins in lesional lichen planus skin, and significantly less in non-lesional lichen planus, psoriasis or healthy skin. Remarkably, lesional lichen planus skin was infiltrated with plasmacytoid d

  6. A new checklist of lichenized fungi occurring in Thailand

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    Kawinnat Buaruang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new revised checklist of lichenized fungi in Thailand is presented, including 1,292 species. Recent work on the taxonomy of these organisms in Thailand resulted in an enormous increase in our knowledge of the lichen biota of the country – the current checklist includes more than twice as many species as the previous catalogue published 15 years ago – and phylogenetic studies resulted in numerous changes in the generic classification of lichenized fungi. Hence, a new checklist is here presented summarizing the current knowledge of lichens in Thailand. Six new records are reported, viz. Acanthothecis salazinica, Bactrospora metabola, Buellia parastata, Diploschistes cinereocaesius, Rolfidium coccocarpioides, and Trapelia placodioides. Five previously recorded species, namely Lecanora carpinea, Platismatia glauca, P. lacunosa, P. tuckermanii and Roccella phycopsis are shown to be based on misidentifications and are excluded from the checklist. Three new combinations of species previously placed in Pertusaria to Lepra are proposed: L. bulolensis (A.W.Archer, Elix & Streimann Schmitt & Lumbsch, L. patellifera (A.W.Archer Schmitt & Lumbsch, and L. subventosa (Malme Schmitt & Lumbsch. Asia, biodiversity, lichens, new records, taxonomy

  7. LICHENS AS BIOINDICATORS IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS - CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES

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    J. Nascimbene

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper  summarizes information on freshwater lichens in relation with their potential for bioindication, mainly pointing to ecological concepts and issues of practical relevance for promoting their  inclusion in routine biomonitoring practices, thus contributing to a full implementation of the EU Water Framework directive. Results highlight the sensitiveness of freshwater lichens to some factors which cannot be technically measured by singular visits, and have relevance for human planning purposes and environmental impact and risk assessment. However, a full inclusion of freshwater lichens in monitoring practices would benefit from further ecological research testing the influence of potentially meaningful ecological drivers and developing statistically robust sampling methods. This would allow the development of standard guidelines applicable across Europe according to the policies of the EU Water Framework directive. On the taxonomical side, further DNA-based revisions and the creation of a European checklist of freshwater lichens, should provide the basis for developing modern identification tools. Finally, it is suggested that the use of freshwater lichens in biomonitoring may be improved by model studies based on comparative trials of full, quantitative, species inventories at different spatial scales and by parallel simplified approaches with selected indicator species and morphological groups.

  8. Nitrogen fixation in lichens is important for improved rock weathering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gamini Seneviratne; I K Indrasena

    2006-12-01

    It is known that cyanobacteria in cyanolichens fix nitrogen for their nutrition. However, specific uses of the fixed nitrogen have not been examined. The present study shows experimentally that a mutualistic interaction between a heterotrophic N2 fixer and lichen fungi in the presence of a carbon source can contribute to enhanced release of organic acids, leading to improved solubilization of the mineral substrate. Three lichen fungi were isolated from Xanthoparmelia mexicana, a foliose lichen, and they were cultured separately or with a heterotrophic N2 fixer in nutrient broth media in the presence of a mineral substrate. Cells of the N2-fixing bacteria attached to the mycelial mats of all fungi, forming biofilms. All biofilms showed higher solubilizations of the substrate than cultures of their fungi alone. This finding has bearing on the significance of the origin and existence of N2-fixing activity in the evolution of lichen symbiosis. Further, our results may explain why there are N2-fixing photobionts even in the presence of non-fixing photobionts (green algae) in some remarkable lichens such as Placopsis gelida. Our study sheds doubt on the idea that the establishment of terrestrial eukaryotes was possible only through the association between a fungus and a phototroph.

  9. Update on lichen planus and its clinical variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Weston, MSIII

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is an inflammatory skin condition with characteristic clinical and histopathological findings. Classic LP typically presents as pruritic, polygonal, violaceous flat-topped papules and plaques; many variants in morphology and location also exist, including oral, nail, linear, annular, atrophic, hypertrophic, inverse, eruptive, bullous, ulcerative, lichen planus pigmentosus, lichen planopilaris, vulvovaginal, actinic, lichen planus-lupus erythematosus overlap syndrome, and lichen planus pemphigoides. Clinical presentation of the rarer variant lesions may be largely dissimilar to classic LP and therefore difficult to diagnose based solely on clinical examination. However, histopathological examination of LP and LP-variant lesions reveal similar features, aiding in the proper diagnosis of the disease. Management of LP and LP variants aims to control symptoms and to decrease time from onset to resolution; it often involves topical corticosteroids, but varies depending on the severity and location of the lesion. The literature contains an array of reports on the variations in presentation and successful management of LP and its variants. A familiarity with LP and its variants is important in achieving timely recognition and management of the disease.

  10. VCAM1 and ICAM1 expression in oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Shafaee, Shahryar; Bijani, Ali; Bagheri, Soodabeh

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are vascular adhesion molecules that their receptors are located on endothelial cells and leukocytes. The aim of this study is the immunohistochemical evaluation of VCAM1 and ICAM1 in oral lichen planus and to compare these two markers with normal mucosa for evaluation of angiogenesis. This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 70 paraffined blocks of oral lichen planus and 30 normal mucosa samples taken from around the lesions. Samples were stained with H & E and then with Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal mouse anti human VCAM1 (CD106), & monoclonal mouse anti human ICAM1(CD54) for confirmation of diagnosis. Slides were evaluated under light microscope and VCAM1 and ICAM1 positive cells (endothelial cells and leukocytes) were counted. Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon and Chi-Square and plichen planus according to the percentage of stained cells (p=0.000& p=0.000, Mann-Whitney test). Thirty cases of oral normal mucosa associated with lichen planus showed that the VCAM1 has increased significantly in comparison to normal mucosa (plichen planus and normal mucosa, showed a significantly difference (plichen planus was not observed (p>0.05). Regarding the results, it seems that high expression of VCAM1 and ICAM1 is related to oral lichen planus.

  11. The relationship between oral lichen planus and gastrointestinal symptoms

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    Mandana Khatibi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrointestinal complications, followed by involvement of gastrointestinal tract with oral lichen planus, are one of the problems of the patients with oral lichen planus. Gastrointestinal symptoms should be evaluated to reject malignancy probability (1-5%. Given lack of information and different reported frequencies in Iran and other countries, this study was conducted in order to evaluate the relationship between oral lichen planus and gastrointestinal symptoms in Razi hospital in Tehran. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 50 patients with oral lichen planus and 50 controls by observation, clinical examination and biopsy, if necessary. Both groups were similar in sex, age, smoking, alcohol abuse and lack of systemic diseases. Gastrointestinal (GI symptoms such as dysphagia, odynophagia, hunger pain, heartburn, flatus, etc. Were evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS statistical software using chi–square, Exact Fisher and T-student tests. Results: Of 50 cases (OLP, 32(64% patients and among 50 controls, 16 (32% patients were found to have GI symptoms. Hunger pain (18% and heartburn (18% were the most common symptoms. Also, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms between the two groups (P<0.005, Conclusion: Gastrointestinal complications can be a part of mifestations of lichen planus and OLP. Knowledge of gastrointestinal symptoms in OLP patients can be helpful in preventing the G.I tract obstruction and malignancy by on time treatment.

  12. Lichen planus and Hepatitis C: a case-control study

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    Ghodsi S Zahra

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of lichen planus with hepatitis C (HCV has been widely reported in the literature. However, there are wide geographical variations in the reported prevalence of HCV infection in patients with lichen planus. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of hepatitis C in Iranian patients with lichen planus at Razi hospital, Tehran. Methods During the years 1997 and 1998, 146 cases of lichen planus, 78 (53.1% women and 69 (46.9% men were diagnosed. They were diagnosed on the basis of the usual clinical features and, if necessary, typical histological findings. The patients were screened for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies by third generation ELISA and liver function tests. We used the results from screening of blood donors for anti HCV (carried out by Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization for comparison as the control group. Results Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in seven cases (4.8%. This was significantly higher than that of the blood donors' antibodies (p Conclusion HCV apears to have an etiologic role for lichen planus in Iranian patients. On the other hand, liver function tests are not good screening means for HCV infection.

  13. Expression of Apoptosis Related Protein in Skin Lesions of Lichen Planus and Its Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu'e CHEN; Yan WU; Jiawen LI; Zhixiang LIU; Qing YUE; Houjun LIU

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of Caspase-3 and Bax in the pathogenesis of lichen planus, immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Caspase-3 and Bax in skin lesions of the patients with lichen planus and skin tissues of normal subjects. The results showed that positive rate of Caspase-3 and Bax expression in lichen planus were significantly higher than that in normal skins (both P<0.05). Meanwhile, there was a obvious correlation between the increase of Caspase-3 and that of Bax in lichen planus. The expression of Caspase-3 and Bax might play an important role in the development of lichen planus.

  14. Fibroma de Vulva (Molluscum Pendulum: Relato de Caso Vulvar Fibroma: Case Report

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    Alfredo Roberto Netto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de fibroma de vulva, modalidade molluscum pendulum, em uma jovem de 20 anos. O tumor desenvolveu-se após a menarca com evolução lenta e progressiva. Ao exame físico, observou-se volumosa massa pediculada, indolor, com inserção no terço superior do grande lábio esquerdo, de consistência elástica, com diâmetro maior em sua parte distal de 12 cm por 23 cm de comprimento. Como tratamento, optou-se pela exérese pela base do pedículo, sob anestesia local. O tumor apresentou o peso de 950 g. Complementa-se com revisão de literatura.A vulvar fibroma, of the molluscum pendulum type, was present in a 20-year-old patient. The tumor began to develop slowly after her menarche, when she was 14 years of age. The physical examination revealed a mass with considerable volume, painless, located at the upper third of the greator left lip, elastic consistency, greater diameter at its distal portion measuring 12 cm by 23 cm in length. The treatment was exeresis from the base of the pedicle, under local anesthesia. The tumor weighed 950 g. A literature review is included.

  15. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and FDG positron emission tomography in the management of vulvar malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Gigin [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Chen, Chao-Yu [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taoyuan (China); Liu, Feng-Yuan [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Yang, Lan-Yan [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Biostatistics and Informatics Unit, Clinical Trial Center, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Huang, Huei-Jean; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Lai, Chyong-Huey [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Huang, Yi-Ting [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Jung, Shih-Ming [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Taoyuan (China); Ng, Koon-Kwan [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Taoyuan (China); Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keelung (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Taoyuan (China)

    2015-05-01

    To prospectively evaluate the value of CT or MRI (CT/MRI) and PET in the management of vulvar malignancies. Abdominal and pelvic CT/MRI and whole-body {sup 18} F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) PET or PET/CT (collectively designated PET hereafter) were performed. Lesion status was determined by the pathological findings or clinical follow-up. The diagnostic efficacy was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The clinical impact of PET was determined on a per scan basis. Twenty-three patients were enrolled, and 38 PET examinations were performed. CT/MRI and PET studies were used for primary staging (n = 17), monitoring the response (n = 7) and restaging after recurrence (n = 14). In primary staging, there was no significant difference between CT/MRI and PET in detecting metastatic inguinal lymph nodes (ILN). CT/MRI was significantly more efficacious than PET in detecting pelvic lymph node (PLN) or distant metastasis (p = 0.007 by ROC per patient basis). PET findings resulted in two positive impacts and one negative impact for both primary staging and restaging. False-positive PLN or distant metastasis PET findings are not uncommon, and hence should be interpreted with caution. PET can be supportive when metastatic ILN/PLN or distant metastasis is suspected on CT/MRI. (orig.)

  16. Treatment of vulvar/vaginal condyloma by HPV: developed instrumentation and clinical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, N. M.; Kurachi, C.; Ferreira, J.; Ribeiro, E. S.; Guimarães, O. C. C.; Quintana, S. M.; Lombardi, W.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2009-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPVs) are a family of sexually viruses with over 100 different genotypes identified till date. They are associated in 99% of cervical cancers, with HPV16 found in about 50% of cases. They are a cause of the second most common female cancer worldwide. PDT may constitute an alternative treatment for condyloma by HPV. In this work we present the development of a PDT device specifically designed for the treatment of vulvar and vaginal lesions induced by HPV. This equipment has been used in a clinical protocol and it is optically based on 640 nm LED (light emitting diodes) arrays. There are three illumination probes available that were anatomically designed for specific site applications: a 30 mm x 115 mm diffuser cylinder for intravaginal illumination and uniform irradiance of 42 mW/cm2; a 36 mm circular probe with 118 mW/cm2 and a 74 mm circular probe with 57 mW/cm2, both for external illumination. The 10% aminolevulinic acid cream is topically placed over the lesions and 4-6 hours after the application the illumination is performed. The illumination time is set depending on the chosen probe and treatment area to achieve a fluence of 200 J/cm2. In this presentation, the preliminary results of this clinical trial will be presented.

  17. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  18. Association of Helicobacter pylori with lichen planus

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    Moravvej Hamideh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lichen planus (LP is a common idiopathic, inflammatory disorder that affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails and hair. Clinical observations and anecdotal reports have suggested a relationship between the exposure to a number of exogenous agents and the development of LP. One of the most important suggested bacterial etiologies is Helicobacter pylori (HP, that is one of the most common bacterial infections in the world, which is also reported to be common in Iran. Objective : This study was performed to evaluate the relation between HP and LP. Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted with 80 patients with LP to find out a previous history of HP and 80 patients with other skin diseases were examined with urea breath test (UBT as controls. Results: Sixty-six patients with LP and 49 patients from the controls had positive UBT. There was a significant difference about UBT positive result between these two groups. Conclusion: According to study, these results support a definitive etiological role for HP in LP.

  19. Predominant palmoplantar lichen planus: A diagnostic challenge

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    Rameshwar Gutte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Palmoplantar lesions in lichen planus (LP are uncommon. In such cases, diagnosis is usually missed. This study was conducted to document various clinical and histopathological features of palmoplantar LP. Materials And Methods: A total of 18 patients from our outpatient department with lesions of LP, either predominantly or exclusively on palms and/or soles were studied. Patients with history of drug intake in recent past and patients with classical acute widespread LP with a few lesions on palms or soles were excluded. In each patient, diagnosis was made on clinicopathological correlation. Various clinical and histopathological features were analyzed. Results: Average age of onset was 38 years. Male: female ratio was 1:0.6 and average disease duration was 11 months. Exclusive palm or sole involvement was seen in 4/18 patients. Itching was the most common symptom. Clinically the most common variant was hypertrophic. Histologically presence of parakeratosis, spongiosis, lack of melanophages, and lack of hypergranulosis in some cases was seen in addition to classical features of LP. In 3 out of 4 patients with exclusive palmoplantar involvement diagnosis of LP was missed clinically. Conclusion: Involvement of palms and soles in LP poses a diagnostic challenge due to variable presentations. Histopathology is of vital importance for correct diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Levamisole Monotherapy for Oral Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Tai Hyok; Park, Se Young; Kim, Bo Suk; Seo, Phil Seung

    2009-01-01

    Background Several different kinds of drugs have been used to treat chronic oral lichen planus (OLP). During the last decade, there have been several reports demonstrating success with levamisole and low dose prednisolone therapy for treating OLP. However, some OLP patients who have underlying diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and malignancy are unable to take steroids. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate levamisole monotherapy for treating OLP. Methods Eleven patients who had OLP were treated with levamisole between 2005 and 2007. The levamisole was administered at a dose 50 mg thrice daily for three consecutive days, but then it was not administered on the following four days. Results After 2 weeks of treatment, 8 patients reported a partial response, 3 patients reported no response and no patients reported clearance of lesion. After 4 weeks of treatment, 6 patients reported a partial response, 3 patients reported no response and 2 patients reported clearance of lesion. Furthermore, after 3 months of treatment, 3 patients reported a partial response, 3 patients reported no response and 5 patients reported complete clearance of lesion. Clinical improvement was shown in 2 weeks, whilst the mean duration to achieve clearance of lesion was 6.2 weeks. Although 1 patient had mild itching, there were no significant adverse effects. Conclusion Levamisole monotherapy could be a successful and safe treatment option for patients with chronic OLP and who cannot take steroids. PMID:20523798

  1. Active inflammatory biomarkers in oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Andrea; Mascitti, Marco; Rubini, Corrado; Bambini, Fabrizio; Zizzi, Antonio; Offidani, Annamaria; Ganzetti, Giulia; Laino, Luigi; Cicciù, Marco; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2015-12-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic disease, with a central role to cell-mediated autoimmunity. Osteopontin promotes migration and recruitment of immune cells, CD44 is its receptor, and Survivin seems to be important in skin/mucosa homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate their expression in biopsy specimens of patients with different OLP clinical types and healthy controls.Biopsy specimens from 30 patients with OLP (15 atrophic and 15 hyperplastic) and 15 healthy controls were subjected to immune-histochemical analysis, to detect the expression of osteopontin, CD44, and Survivin in oral epithelia. The distributions of positively stained cells were evaluated with a quantitative method, while the inflammation degree was evaluated with a semi-quantitative one.Expression of osteopontin and CD44 was higher in OLP than controls, while Survivin expression was lower in OLP patients. There was a greater reduction of Survivin expression in atrophic OLP than hyperplastic OLP. A correlation between osteopontin expression and a high degree of inflammation was found. Furthermore, Survivin expression was higher in cases with low intensity of inflammation.Osteopontin, CD44, and Survivin seem to be involved in OLP pathogenesis, and further investigations are needed for clarifying their role in this oral disease.

  2. Alterated integrin expression in lichen planopilaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Roberto; Sgarra, Concetta; Conserva, Anna; Angelotti, Umberto Filippo; Erriquez, Roberta; Foti, Caterina

    2007-02-08

    Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is an inflammatory disease characterized by a lymphomononuclear infiltrate surrounding the isthmus and infundibulum of the hair follicle of the scalp, that evolves into atrophic/scarring alopecia. In the active phase of the disease hairs are easily plucked with anagen-like hair-roots. In this study we focused on the expression of integrins and basement membrane components of the hair follicle in active LPP lesions. Scalp biopsies were taken in 10 patients with LPP and in 5 normal controls. Using monoclonal antibodies against alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4 integrins we showed the expression of these integrins and of the basement membrane components of the hair follicle in active LPP lesions and in healthy scalp skin. In the LPP involved areas, alpha3beta1 was distributed in a pericellular pattern, the alpha6 subunit was present with a basolateral distribution while the beta4 subunit showed discontinuous expression at the basal pole and occasionally, basolateral staining of the hair follicle. An altered distribution of the integrins in active LPP lesions can explain the phenomenon of easy pulling-out of the hair with a "gelatinous" root-sheath.

  3. Oral lichen planus: focus on etiopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payeras, Márcia Rodrigues; Cherubini, Karen; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2013-09-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease, which frequently affects the oral mucosa of white females over 40 years old. Its aetiology remains uncertain and the pathogenesis is still the object of much speculation. The present paper presents the most well known antigens, and describes the action of different cells and proteins associated with the development of that disease, as well as the possible agents involved with its malignant transformation. Different external agents, especially virus, and internal agents, like stress, and the heat shock protein antigen expression, associated or not, can alter the basal keratinocytes of the oral mucosa making them susceptible to apoptosis by CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell as well as activate matrix metalloproteinase and mast cell degranulation, which produce a great range of inflammatory mediators and cytokines determining the clinical onset of the disease. Regarding carcinogenesis, since it is a complex process and presents multifactorial origin, it is believed that there may be a synergism between intrinsic, such as inflammation mediators, and extrinsic agents (tobacco, alcohol, viral infections) for the OLP malignant transformation to occur. However, further studies are needed to better understand the origin, pathogenesis and process of malignant transformation of OLP.

  4. Lichens as natural sources of biotechnologically relevant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Marcelino T; Parrot, Delphine; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The search for microorganisms from novel sources and in particular microbial symbioses represents a promising approach in biotechnology. In this context, lichens have increasingly become a subject of research in microbial biotechnology, particularly after the recognition that a diverse community of bacteria other than cyanobacteria is an additional partner to the traditionally recognized algae-fungus mutualism. Here, we review recent studies using culture-dependent as well as culture-independent approaches showing that lichens can harbor diverse bacterial families known for the production of compounds of biotechnological interest and that several microorganisms isolated from lichens, in particular Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria, can produce a number of bioactive compounds, many of them with biotechnological potential.

  5. Líquen aureus "algesiogênico" "Algesiogenic" lichen aureus

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    Roberto Rheingantz da Cunha Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se caso de líquen aureus em paciente do sexo feminino, com 23 anos de idade que apresentava há dois anos lesão dolorosa, purpúrica, acastanhada tendendo por semelhante a cor de ferrugem e de aspecto liquenóide no antebraço. O exame anatomopatológico revelou denso infiltrado linfo-histiocitário na derme superior papilar, com extravasamento de hemácias. O líquen aureus é relativamente raro, sendo ainda mais raro o sintoma de dor.A case is described of lichen aureus in a 23 year old female with a 2-year history of painful, purpuric, rust-coloured to tan, lichenous lesion on forearm. A biopsy specimen demonstrated a dense lymphohistiocytic infiltrate in the upper dermis, with extravasation of red cells. The "algesiogenic" lichen aureus is a very rare dermatosis.

  6. Contact allergy to atranorin in lichens and perfumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, I; Fregert, S

    1980-01-01

    Atranorin, one of the most common lichen substances, gave positive patch test reactions in eight subjects (1%) in a routine series. These subjects also reacted to fumarprotocetraric acid and some of them to evernic acid. Stictic acid and usnic acid gave negative reactions. The lichen oak moss Evernia prunastri and an oak moss perfume gave positive reactions. Thin-layer chromatography and a spot test indicated that atranorin is present in oak moss perfumes which are made from oak moss and tree moss. Contact with oak moss perfumes and lichens in nature may cause atranorin allergy. None of the eight subjects had a history of light sensitivity or atopy and none had chronic facial eczema.

  7. MICROMORPHOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF SOME LICHENIZED FUNGI SPECIES

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    PÎNDARU DIANA-MIHAELA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, lichenized fungi are used in biomonitoring studies of air quality, being good receptors in the climate change. This paper aims to investigate surface micromorphology of Xanthoria parietina and Phaeophyscia orbicularis species (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota. The study also includes the investigation of selected chemical parameters as pH and conductivity of the lichenized fungi samples collected from various locations in the Iaşi County (Romania. Measurements of the pH provide information on the degree of pollution in the location of interest. Bark trees pH was also investigated in order to see if our matrix substrate influences the pH of the interest lichenized fungi samples.

  8. Intrinsic factors of Peltigera lichens influence the structure of the associated soil bacterial microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Diego; Clavero-León, Claudia; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2016-11-01

    Definition of lichens has evolved from bi(tri)partite associations to multi-species symbioses, where bacteria would play essential roles. Besides, although soil bacterial communities are known to be affected by edaphic factors, when lichens grow upon them these could become less preponderant. We hypothesized that the structure of both the lichen microbiota and the microbiota in the soil underneath lichens is shaped by lichen intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this work, intrinsic factors corresponded to mycobiont and cyanobiont identities of Peltigera lichens, metabolite diversity and phenoloxidase activity and extrinsic factors involved the site of the forest where lichens grow. Likewise, the genetic and metabolic structure of the lichen and soil bacterial communities were analyzed by fingerprinting. Among the results, metabolite diversity was inversely related to the genetic structure of bacterial communities of lichens and soils, highlighting the far-reaching effect of these substances; while phenoloxidase activity was inversely related to the metabolic structure only of the lichen bacterial microbiota, presuming a more limited effect of the products of these enzymes. Soil bacterial microbiota was different depending on the site and, strikingly, according to the cyanobiont present in the lichen over them, which could indicate an influence of the photobiont metabolism on the availability of soil nutrients. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Lichen nitidus presenting with nail changes--case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Evelyn Yuxin; Ho, Madeline Sheun Ling; Chandran, Nisha Suyien; Lee, Joyce Siong-See; Heng, Yee Kiat

    2015-01-01

    Lichen nitidus of the nail is rare and can precede the onset of skin lesions. Delayed diagnosis is common. We present an unusual case of lichen nitidus-associated nail changes that preceded the onset of skin lesions in a 4-year-old Indian girl. We also conduct a review of six other cases of lichen nitidus with nail involvement from the English-language literature. Clues to the diagnosis of lichen nitidus include violaceous or pigmentary changes of the nail fold and subtle lichenoid papules on the affected digits. Lichen nitidus of the nails appears to be less severe than nail changes of lichen planus and is generally self-limiting. Understanding the natural history of lichen nitidus of the nails will help physicians better counsel patients and their families.

  10. Association of spiders and lichen on Robben Island, South Africa: a case report

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    A. Mukherjee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a firstrecord of spider occurrence on Robben Island, South Africa. Some habitats were rich in lichens. As we know, lichens enhance wildlife habitat in less direct ways. The objective of the study was to examine the potential importance of lichens in enriching spider diversity and abundance. A total of 260 spiders (170 from lichens and 90 from bush were collected following the visual search method over one year. Seasonal trends in overall species richness and abundance indicated that the relative density of spiders was greater in lichens than in bushes. The result suggests that habitat structure, such as branch size and epiphytic lichen abundance, can be an explanation for the greater number of spiders in lichen-rich patches of the island.

  11. An Easy, Rapid, and Cost-Effective Method for DNA Extraction from Various Lichen Taxa and Specimens Suitable for Analysis of Fungal and Algal Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sook-Young; Jang, Seol-Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Jung A; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2014-01-01

    Lichen studies, including biodiversity, phylogenetic relationships, and conservation concerns require definitive species identification, however many lichens can be challenging to identify at the species level. Molecular techniques have shown efficacy in discriminating among lichen taxa, however, obtaining genomic DNA from herbarium and fresh lichen thalli by conventional methods has been difficult, because lichens contain high proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their c...

  12. Nail lichen planus in a patient with alopecia totalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Brian A; Yost, John Montgomery; Lewin, Jesse; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Carucci, John A; Ramachandran, Sarika

    2014-12-16

    A 67-year-old man with a three-year history of non-scarring alopecia that progressed to alopecia totalis despite intralesional glucocorticoid injections is presented. He developed 20-nail dystrophy that was recalcitrant to antifungal and anti-inflammatory treatments. Biopsy of the nail matrix showed histopathologic features of lichen planus. Alopecia totalis and isolated lichen planus of the nails are uncommon subtypes of common dermatologic disorders. Rarely reported concurrently, we provide a review of the literature of their association, which is most likely attributed to their autoimmune pathogeneses.

  13. Lichen planus pemphigoides induced by a weight reduction drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmaninho, Aristoteles; Sanches, Madalena; Oliveira, Ana; Alves, Rosario; Selores, Manuela

    2011-12-01

    Lichen planus pemphigoides is a rare autoimmune dermatosis characterized by bullous lesions arising on lichen planus (LP) papules and on clinically uninvolved skin, coexistence of histological features of LP and bullous pemphigoid and linear deposits of IgG and/or C3 along the basal membrane zone on direct immunofluorescence of peribullous skin. LPP has been reported to be associated with several medications such as ramipril, cinnarizine, simvastatin, captopril, psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and antituberculous medications. We report a case of a 41-year-old woman with LPP associated with a weight reduction drug.

  14. Lichen Striatus in a UVB Treated Adult Psoriasis Patient

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    Pınar Özuğuz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen striatus is a self-limited lichenoid eruption that follows Blaschko’s lines. It is particularly common in children and rarely seen in adults. Cases related to atopic diathesis are common, besides it is reported among family members. Viral infections, vaccines and trauma related cases are also present. Various environmental stimuli in the setting of genetic predisposition may play a role. We herein, reported a forty eight year-old woman who developed lichen striatus eruptions in her arm and trunk while she was receiving UVB treatment with maintenance dose for psoriasis. Phototherapy might act as a stimulant with its immunosuppressive and traumatic effects.

  15. Influence of heavy metal pollution on lichens and bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, D.N.; Robitaille, G.; LeBlanc, F.

    1977-05-01

    A close correlation was observed between metal accumulation levels and phytosociological and physiological changes produced in lichens and bryophytes in a sulfur dioxide and heavy metal polluted area around a copper smelter in Murdochville, Canada. This observation has prompted a discussion of some of the past and present research on ecology, phytosociology, and physiology of lichens and bryophytes with respect to heavy metal pollution. Hopefully this will lead to a better understanding of the use of these plants in the diagnosis of heavy metal pollution. Data are received on the accumulation of Ba, Cu, Pb, Sr and Zn in certain mosses and their corresponding substrates.

  16. Lichens of the Mahabaleshwar Panchgani Ecosensitive zone (MPESZ, Maharashtra, India

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    G.S. Pandit

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mahabaleshwar Panchgani Ecosensitive Zone located in the Northern Western Ghats of India is well known for its rich biodiversity. Rocky plateaus of laterite are a prominent feature of this region along with a mosaic landscape of forest and shrub-savannah vegetation. A checklist of 129 lichen species reported from this region has been compiled based upon primary and secondary data. They are categorized as per forms and substrates. The need for further studies and protection of this rich lichen diversity is emphasized.

  17. FIELD CANCERIZATION IN LICHEN PLANUS – AN UNUSUAL CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamgadge Avinash

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichen Planus is a muco-cutaneous disorder affecting females. The oral lesions precede the skin lesions, with malignant potential rate, ranging from 0.3 to 3%. Malignant changes are usually associated with stress and cocarcinogens. Usually, malignant transformation is presented as solitary lesion in the oral cavity, Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC, developing at multiple sites, as a very rare finding in patients of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP. A case of OLP without risk factors and strong history of stress, the Grinspan syndrome with field cancerization is presented in this article

  18. Update on oral lichen planus: etiopathogenesis and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scully, C; Beyli, M; Ferreiro, M C

    1998-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common disorder of the stratified squamous epithelia, which is, in many ways, an enigma. This paper is the consensus outcome of a workshop held in Switzerland in 1995, involving a selection of clinicians and scientists with an interest in the condition and its......-up may be particularly important in patients with atrophic/ulcerative/erosive affections of the tongue, the gingiva, or the buccal mucosa. Much more research is required into the genetic and environmental aspects of lichen planus, into the premalignant potential, and into the possible associations...

  19. 外阴上皮内肿瘤形成20例临床病理学观察%Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a clinicopathologic study of twenty cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁效蕙; 回允中; 卢立军; 杨哲存; 姚婵娟; 孙丽娟; 陈志华; 石峥

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical,pathological and immunohistochemical features of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN).Methods According to the 2004 modified terminology of International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Diseases (ISSVD),the cases were diagnosed as VIN from patients who had performed vulvar biopsy in Beijing Wuzhou Women's Hospital from February 2009 to December 2011,which were reclassified as usual VIN and differentiated VIN.The clinical and pathological studies were conducted respectively.MaxVision immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of Ki-67,pl6 and p53 proteins.Results There were 20 cases of VIN in 237 patients,and the incidence of VIN was 8.4% in all of contemporary vulvar biopsy.In 17 cases of usual VIN,mean age was 29.6 years,the lesion typically presented with atypical cells involving almost all layers of the epithelium,which was equivalent to the higl-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia of cervix.Immtmohistochemistry for Ki-67 and p16 was strongly positive in usual VIN.High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection was also positive.The incidence of differentiated VIN was less than usual VIN,and there were only 3 cases in this study.In differentiated VIN,patients aged over 50 years,with mean of 53.7 years,and the lesion most commonly presented with lichen sclerosis background.There were epithelial thickening and extending,and parakeratosis,and atypia was strictly confined to the basal and parabasal layers of the epithelium where the cells enlarged with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm,presented with prominent nucleoli,increased cellularity and abnormal keratinization.In differentiated VIN,p53 was strongly positive,Ki-67 and p16 immunohistochemical expression was confined to the basal layer only.Conclusions VIN is a precursor of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.The modified terminology of ISSVD classifies VIN as highgrade lesions.Definitive pathological diagnosis of VIN plays an

  20. Preoperative Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Vulvar Carcinoma: Analysis of Pattern of Relapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Shukla, Gaurav; Shinde, Ashwin; Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Richards, Scott; Olawaiye, Alexander B.; Krivak, Thomas C. [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To examine clinical outcomes and relapse patterns in locally advanced vulvar carcinoma treated using preoperative chemotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with stage I-IV{sub A} (stage I, n=3; stage II, n=13; stage III, n=23; stage IV{sub A}, n=3) vulvar cancer were treated with chemotherapy and IMRT via a modified Gynecological Oncology Group schema using 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin with twice-daily IMRT during the first and last weeks of treatment or weekly cisplatin with daily radiation therapy. Median dose of radiation was 46.4 Gy. Results: Thirty-three patients (78.6%) had surgery for resection of vulva; 13 of these patients also had inguinal lymph node dissection. Complete pathologic response was seen in 48.5% (n=16) of these patients. Of these, 15 had no recurrence at a median time of 26.5 months. Of the 17 patients with partial pathological response, 8 (47.1%) developed recurrence in the vulvar surgical site within a median of 8 (range, 5-34) months. No patient had grade ≥3 chronic gastrointestinal/genitourinary toxicity. Of those having surgery, 8 (24.2%) developed wound infections requiring debridement. Conclusions: Preoperative chemotherapy/IMRT was well tolerated, with good pathologic response and clinical outcome. The most common pattern of recurrence was local in patients with partial response, and strategies to increase pathologic response rate with increasing dose or adding different chemotherapy need to be explored to help further improve outcomes.

  1. Perianal and Vulvar Extramammary Paget Disease: A Report of Six Cases and Mapping Biopsy of the Anal Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Sinsuke; Yamada, Daisuke; Miyagawa, Takuya; Murono, Koji; Yasuda, Koji; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Masui, Yuri; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishihara, Soichiro; Kadono, Takafumi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of perianal and vulvar extramammary Paget disease (EMPD), rare intraepithelial malignancies, is often challenging because of its potential to spread into the anal canal. However, there is still no consensus regarding the optimal resection margin within the anal canal. Between 2004 and 2014, six patients (three with perianal EMPD and three with vulvar EMPD) in which the spread of Paget cells into the anal canal was highly suspected were referred to our department. To evaluate the disease extent within the anal canal, preoperative mapping biopsy of the anal canal was performed in five out of six patients. Two patients were positive for Paget cells within the anal canal (one at the dentate line and the other at 0.5 cm above the dentate line), whereas in three patients, Paget cell were present only in the skin of the anal verge. Using 1 cm margin within the anal canal from the positive biopsy sites, we performed anal-preserving wide local excision (WLE), and negative resection margins within the anal canal were confirmed in all five patients. The remaining one patient with perianal EMPD did not undergo mapping biopsy of the anal canal because preoperative colonoscopy revealed that the Paget cells had spread into the lower rectum. Therefore, WLE with abdominoperineal resection was performed. During the median follow-up period of 37.3 months, no local recurrence was observed in all patients. Our small case series suggest the usefulness of mapping biopsy of the anal canal for the treatment of perianal and vulvar EMPD. PMID:27746643

  2. Lichen diversity and lichen transplants as monitors of air pollution in a rural area of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loppi, Stefano; Frati, Luisa

    2006-03-01

    The results of a biomonitoring study carried out in the Municipality of Colle di Val d'Elsa (central Italy), using the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected elements in thalli of the lichen Evernia prunastri transplanted in two urban sites are reported. The results indicate that the survey area suffers from different types of pollution. The main air pollutants are NO( X ) and Pb. Vehicular traffic and domestic heating are the main sources of the former, and traffic and a crystal factory of the latter. Furthermore, most study area is eutrophicated due to diffuse agricultural activities and the presence of pig and sheep stockfarms.

  3. Lichen planus pigmentosus: The controversial consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons.

  4. Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., isolated from lichen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Inahashi, Yuki; Kudo, Takuji; Mori, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Takahashi, Yoko; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-01-01

    A novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, strain LDG1-22T, for which we propose the name Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., was isolated from a lichen sample collected from tree bark in Thailand. The taxonomic position of the species has been described based on a polyphasic approach. Strain LDG1-22T produced irregular sporangia on agar media. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4); the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylglycerol. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained ribose, glucose, mannose and small amounts of arabinose and xylose. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (31.2 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (14.2 %). Mycolic acids were absent. The G+C content was 73.6 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LDG1-22T showed highest similarity (98.8 %) to Actinoplanes friuliensis DSM 45797T and it clustered with Actinoplanes nipponensis JCM 3264T and Actinoplanes missouriensis JCM 3121T in phylogenetic tree analysis. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain LDG1-22T could be distinguished from related species of the genus Actinoplanes and so represents a novel species of this genus. The type strain of Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov. is LDG1-22T ( = JCM 30485T = TISTR 2343T = PCU 344T).

  5. Actualización del diagnóstico y tratamiento de la neoplasia intraepitelial vulvar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Pérez Castro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La Neoplasia Intraepitelial Vulvar (NIV constituye lesiones potencialmente premalignas del epitelio escamoso de la vulva con diversos grados de diferenciación celular y maduración. En el aspecto histológico son hiperplasia de las células basales y parabasales, además tienen características genéticas morfológicas y metabólicas similares a las células cancerosas. Son etapas previas a la enfermedad. Generalmente las NIV se diagnostican como lesiones de alto grado (NIV I, II y III o carcinoma in situ. Alrededor del 5% progresan a la malignidad. Técnicamente puede ser un diagnóstico fácil, pero en la práctica no resulta así, siendo la vulvoscopia la principal arma para su diagnóstico. Estudios realizados en los últimos años señalan que aumenta cada vez más en mujeres más jóvenes, en pacientes con infección por HPV, en pacientes con neoplasia cervical intraepitelial o en cáncer en otras localizaciones del extracto genital inferior. Para tomar una decisión terapéutica hay que tener en cuenta: la edad de la paciente, la localización de las lesiones (áreas pilosas y no pilosas o descartar siempre un cáncer invasor y no invasor. Los tratamientos de lección pueden ser, extirpación local, vulvahectomía cutania parcial o total, destrucción con crioterapia o láser y técnicas combinadas de escisión o ablación. La conducta expectante valorando algunas características es la tendencia actual.

  6. Vulvar and vaginal graft versus host disease: A healthcare clinic initiative

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    Naomi Van Dam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In patients receiving bone marrow transplantation (BMT, their mucosa becomes altered and sclerotic changes in the female external genital organs occur. Although a few studies have specifically addressed vulvar and vaginal graft versus host disease (VVGvHD and its repercussions on the sexual health and quality of life of patients, VVGvHD can be overlooked by health practitioners. The objective of the study is to describe the initiation of a health care clinic specializing in VVGvHD in a general tertiary hospital. Methods: A VVGvHD clinic was founded as a part of BMT daycare in a joint initiative of the nursing staff and the medical director of the department and a gynecologist specializing in vulva and vaginal disease. Patients were assessed for vulvovaginal symptoms, such as dryness, burning, itching, pain to touch, pain during intercourse, and dysuria. These patients might be subsequently referred to the VVGvHD clinic according to their needs assessed by daycare nurses. Treatment guidelines were developed by the specialist gynecologist. Results: A total of 81 women aged 2–66 years (median age = 38 years visited the clinic from 2009 to 2015. Of these women, 70 received an allogeneic transplant and 11 underwent autologous transplantation before consultation in our clinic. VVGvHD was detected in 54% of the patients. Conclusions: The VVGvHD clinic was developed to fulfill the specific needs of female patients who underwent BMT. The pioneer clinic was founded as a joint effort of the multidisciplinary team. Evidence supporting the optimum treatment for this condition is insufficient. This was the main reason for performing this study to explore the clinic that was newly based in Israel. VVGvHD may be a fluctuating condition with frequent deterioration and improvement. Therefore, regular clinical examinations are necessary.

  7. [The deposition of tritium in form of HTO from atmosphere moisture to Hypogymnia physodes lichens during chamber experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, V N; Golubev, A V; Kosheleva, T A; Kuznetsova, V F; Mavrin, S V

    2008-01-01

    The results of the deposition of tritium oxide (HTO) from atmosphere to Hypogymnia physodes lichens during chamber experiments are presented. For lichens the content of tissue water tritium (TWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) were measuremed. Were shown that lichens mainly absorb HTO from atmosphere during first 24 hours. The ratio TWT/HTO of chamber and the velocity of TWT to OBT conversion in lichens were determined. Was noted that the TWT to OBT conversion velocity for lichens is ten times greater than that for deposition of HTO by vascular plant leafs. There was supposed that TWT to OCT conversion in lichens is occurred through alga as well as fungus component of lichens. The intensive deposition HTO from chamber atmosphere by lichens and high velocity of HTO to OBT conversion show the availability to use lichens for determination of atmosphere pollution by HTO.

  8. Do lichens have "memory" of their native nitrogen environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzi, Silvana; Loppi, Stefano; Cruz, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to deepen the knowledge about intraspecific mechanisms regulating nitrogen tolerance in lichens to wet nitrogen deposition. Thalli of the nitrophilous lichen Xanthoria parietina were collected from environments with different nitrogen availabilities and immersed in 80 mL of ammonium sulphate (NH₄)₂SO₄ solutions with distinct concentrations (0, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.25 M) for 5 h per day during 3 days in a week. After each soaking event, lichens were air dried. After each treatment, maximal PSII efficiency, localization of ammonium ions, concentrations of K+ and Mg²+ and thalli buffer capacity were determined. Our results show that lichens are marked by their native nitrogen environment, since there were important differences between the physiological responses of X. parietina thalli previously grown in an area with high nitrogen deposition (nitrogen emissions of ca. 13,000 t/year) and those previously grown in an unpolluted area (nitrogen emissions of ca. 500 t/year). Greater N availability seems to enable X. parietina to cope better with the effects of nitrogen pollution.

  9. Revision of the lichens of the Netherlands. I. Parmeliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas Geesteranus, R.A.

    1947-01-01

    It was shown that the oldest Dutch lichen herbarium known was that of H. Boerhaave dating as far back as the end of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. After that there was a long spell of inactivity, until from about 1835 onward the florists again started making herbaria. From the end of

  10. Methotrexate for treatment of lichen planus: old drug, new indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, A J; De, D

    2013-03-01

    Treatment of generalized lichen planus is often disappointing and is associated with relapses. Though reports have suggested a beneficial role of various immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory agents, most of these reports are retrospective series or anecdotes. Oral methotrexate has been found to be useful in recent studies. In this study, we prospectively evaluated the role of low-dose oral methotrexate (15 mg/week in adults or 0.25 mg/kg/week for children) in generalized lichen planus. Mean improvement in 24 evaluated patients (two of them were of paediatric age group) at the end of 14 weeks of treatment was 79%. By the end of 24 weeks treatment, 14 of 24 (58%) patients had complete remission of their disease. Side effects were observed in 12 of 24 (50%) patients. Most of these adverse effects were mild; only one requiring treatment discontinuation due to significantly deranged liver function test. During post-treatment follow-up of 3 months, none had relapse of lichen planus. Overall, low- dose methotrexate is effective and reasonably safe option in treatment of eruptive lichen planus, provided haematological and biochemical parameters are regularly monitored.

  11. Comparison of topical tretinoin and betamethasone in oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one patients of oral lichen planus were enrolled in this study and two groups were made. Group 1 consisting of 16 patients who applied topical tretinoin 0.05% and Group 2 comprising of 15 patients who were given topical betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%. The patients applying tretinoin showed statistically significant improvement as compared to patients applying betamethasone.

  12. Np-237 in peat and lichen in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salminen, S.; Paatero, J.; Roos, Per;

    2009-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat and lichen samples in Finland were determined and contributions from nuclear weapons testing in 1950–1960s and the Chernobyl accident were estimated. 237Np was determined with ICP-MS using 235Np as a tracer. Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat samples...

  13. Lichen striatus med negledystrofi er en selvlimiterende tilstand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandreva, Tatjana; Bygum, Anette

    2012-01-01

    A six year-old boy was referred with an asymptomatic linear rash on his left arm and a nail involvement of a fingernail on his left hand. Multiple small erythematous papules coalescing into a linear band extending to the thumb with nail abnormality were noted on the left arm. A diagnosis of lichen...

  14. Linear Lichen Planopilaris of the Face: Case Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asz-Sigall, Daniel; González-de-Cossio-Hernández, Ana Cecilia; Rodríguez-Lobato, Erika; Ortega-Springall, María Fernanda; Vega-Memije, María Elisa; Arenas Guzmán, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    We describe the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 5-month history of unilateral pruritic linear erythematous papules and atrophy on the chin and mandibular area. Dermoscopy showed areas of cicatricial alopecia with absence of follicular openings, perifollicular erythema and pigment. Lichen planopilaris of the face is a rare variant with only 13 cases reported in the literature.

  15. Revision of the lichens of the Netherlands. I. Parmeliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas Geesteranus, R.A.

    1947-01-01

    It was shown that the oldest Dutch lichen herbarium known was that of H. Boerhaave dating as far back as the end of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. After that there was a long spell of inactivity, until from about 1835 onward the florists again started making herbaria. From the end of

  16. A first note on foliicolous lichens of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A first note on foliicolous lichens of Assam enumerating 26 species belonging to 15 genera and eight families are provided.  Four species viz., Bacidina apiahica, Byssoloma chlorinum, Calopadia fusca and Strigula nitidula are reported for the first time from Assam.  A number of rare species are present, including Aulaxina uniseptata, Calenia aspidota and Psorotheciopsis patellarioides. 

  17. The lichen and bryophyte vegetation of Cuverville Island, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, C; Aptroot, A; van Zanten, B

    1998-01-01

    In the Antarctic summer of 1993 the vegetation of Cuverville Island, a small island near the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, was mapped and described. Eleven different plant communities of algae, lichens, bryophytes and spermatophytes have been distinguished. The 51 species Vary from endemic

  18. Lichen microalgae are sensitive to environmental concentrations of atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traba, Helena Moreno; Domínguez-Morueco, Noelia; Barreno, Eva; Catalá, Myriam

    2017-04-03

    The identification of new organisms for environmental toxicology bioassays is currently a priority, since these tools are strongly limited by the ecological relevance of taxa used to study global change. Lichens are sensitive bioindicators of air quality and their microalgae are an untapped source for new low-cost miniaturized bioassays with ecological importance. In order to increase the availability of a wider range of taxa for bioassays, the sensitivity of two symbiotic lichen microalgae, Asterochloris erici and Trebouxia sp. TR9, to atrazine was evaluated. To achieve this goal, axenic cultures of these phycobionts in suspension were exposed to a range of environmental concentrations of the herbicide atrazine, a common water pollutant. Optical density and chlorophyll autofluorescence were used as endpoints of ecotoxicity and ecophysiology on cell suspensions. Results show that lichen microalgae show high sensitivity to very low doses of atrazine, being higher in Asterochloris erici than in Trebouxia sp. TR9. We conclude that environmental concentrations of atrazine could modify population dynamics probably through a shift in reproduction strategies of these organisms. This seminal work is a breakthrough in the use of lichen microalgae in the assessment of micropollution effects on biodiversity.

  19. Effects of ammonia from livestock farming on lichen photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoli, Luca [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Pirintsos, Stergios Arg.; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos [Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Pisani, Tommaso [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Navakoudis, Eleni [Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Loppi, Stefano, E-mail: loppi@unisi.i [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    This study investigated if atmospheric ammonia (NH{sub 3}) pollution around a sheep farm influences the photosynthetic performance of the lichens Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea. Thalli of both species were transplanted for up to 30 days in a semi-arid region (Crete, Greece), at sites with concentrations of atmospheric ammonia of ca. 60 mug/m{sup 3} (at a sheep farm), ca. 15 mug/m{sup 3} (60 m from the sheep farm) and ca. 2 mug/m{sup 3} (a remote area 5 km away). Lichen photosynthesis was analysed by the chlorophyll a fluorescence emission to identify targets of ammonia pollution. The results indicated that the photosystem II of the two lichens exposed to NH{sub 3} is susceptible to this pollutant in the gas-phase. The parameter PI{sub ABS}, a global index of photosynthetic performance that combines in a single expression the three functional steps of the photosynthetic activity (light absorption, excitation energy trapping, and conversion of excitation energy to electron transport) was much more sensitive to NH{sub 3} than the F{sub V}/F{sub M} ratio, one of the most commonly used stress indicators. - Ammonia from livestock farming affects lichen photosynthesis.

  20. CO2 laser evaporation of oral lichen planus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hem, P. S.; Egges, M.; van der Wal, J. E.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.

    2008-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a relatively common disease of the oral mucosa. The buccal mucosa and lateral border of the tongue are mostly involved, although the condition can occur anywhere in the oral cavity. The erosive type in particular can cause spontaneous pain during eating. In the period from 1975

  1. Disease scoring systems for oral lichen planus; a critical appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; van der Waal, I.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study has been to critically review 22 disease scoring systems (DSSs) on oral lichen planus (OLP) that have been reported in the literature during the past decades. Although the presently available DSSs may all have some merit, particularly for research purposes, the diversity

  2. Disease scoring systems for oral lichen planus; a critical appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; van der Waal, I.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study has been to critically review 22 disease scoring systems (DSSs) on oral lichen planus (OLP) that have been reported in the literature during the past decades. Although the presently available DSSs may all have some merit, particularly for research purposes, the diversity

  3. An improved method to isolate lichen algae by gel filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M J; Vicente, C; Legaz, M E

    1985-08-01

    Photobiont cells of the lichen Evernia prunastri have completely been separated from their fungal partner by filtration through a bed of Sepharose 2B. Both mannitol and ribitol have been quantified by gas-liquid chromatography in the different steps of the isolation procedure. Absence of mannitol, which is exclusively produced by the mycobiont, has been used as the best probe to monitor isolation.

  4. Barcoding lichen-forming fungi using 454 pyrosequencing is challenged by artifactual and biological sequence variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Kristiina; Cornejo, Carolina; Keller, Christine; Flück, Daniela; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Although lichens (lichen-forming fungi) play an important role in the ecological integrity of many vulnerable landscapes, only a minority of lichen-forming fungi have been barcoded out of the currently accepted ∼18 000 species. Regular Sanger sequencing can be problematic when analyzing lichens since saprophytic, endophytic, and parasitic fungi live intimately admixed, resulting in low-quality sequencing reads. Here, high-throughput, long-read 454 pyrosequencing in a GS FLX+ System was tested to barcode the fungal partner of 100 epiphytic lichen species from Switzerland using fungal-specific primers when amplifying the full internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). The present study shows the potential of DNA barcoding using pyrosequencing, in that the expected lichen fungus was successfully sequenced for all samples except one. Alignment solutions such as BLAST were found to be largely adequate for the generated long reads. In addition, the NCBI nucleotide database-currently the most complete database for lichen-forming fungi-can be used as a reference database when identifying common species, since the majority of analyzed lichens were identified correctly to the species or at least to the genus level. However, several issues were encountered, including a high sequencing error rate, multiple ITS versions in a genome (incomplete concerted evolution), and in some samples the presence of mixed lichen-forming fungi (possible lichen chimeras).

  5. Investigation of antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicity activities of lichens from high altitude regions of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Baidya Nath; Shrestha, Mitesh; Pandey, Durga Prasad; Bhattarai, Tribikram; Bhattarai, Hari Datta; Paudel, Babita

    2017-05-25

    Several lichen species are reported to be used tradiationally in many theraupatic practices. Many lichen species are reported as sources of several bioactive natural compounds. Several lichen species of Nepal are so far chemically unexplored. The morphological, anatomical and phytochemical characteristics of lichens were compared for the taxonomic identification of the species. Methanol- water extract of lichens were sub fractionated into hexane, dichloromethane and methanol fractions for bioactivity assays. Antimicrobial activities of extracts were evaluated agaisnt pathogenic bacteria and fungal species. DPPH test was used for antioxidant potential evaluation. Brineshrimp test was perfermed to evaluate toxicity of the extracts. A total of 84 lichen specimens were collected and identified from Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) Nepal. The specimens were identified as belonging to 19 genera and 47 species. Methanol fractions of 16 specimens and dichloromethane (DCM) fractions of 21 lichens specimens showed antioxidant activities comparable with commercial standards (BHA, Butylated hydroxyanisole, IC50=4.9±0.9 μg/mL) even at crude extract level. Similarly, the DCM fraction of 17 lichens showed potential antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus KCTC3881) and DCM fractions of 45 lichens showed antimicrobial activity against a Gram-negative bacterium (Klebsiella pneumoniae KCTC2242). DCM fractions of three lichens showed antifungal activity against the yeast, Candida albicans KCTC 7965. Likewise, methanol fractions of 39 lichens and DCM fractions of 74 lichens showed strong toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with more than 80% mortality. Such biological activity-rich lichen specimens warrant further research on exploration of natural products with antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti cancer (toxic) potential.

  6. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  7. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

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    Aikaterini Papazi

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939 and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  8. Lichen Symbiosis: Nature's High Yielding Machines for Induced Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont’s and photobiont’s consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont’s hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  9. A retrospective study of oral lichen planus in paediatric population

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    Kabita Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Well documented cases of oral lichen planus, a cell mediated immune condition is infrequently reported in paediatric population. This study was undertaken to obtain epidemiological data retrospectively and also to explore the possibility of any association that might exist among the clinical and histopathological features in paediatric patients suffering from oral lichen planus. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 22 patients, younger than 18 years with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus over a period of 14 years. The clinical characteristics and histopathological features were observed. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS, Version 9.1. Results: Analysis of data of 22 patients revealed that the average age of patient is 15.18 years with equal male and female predilection. The most common site is buccal mucosa (50% and most frequent clinical form is erosive (63.64%. Focusing on the histopathological findings, parakeratosis was found in 86.36% of the cases, acanthosis in 63.64% of cases, moderate basal cell degeneration was identified in 63.64% of cases and dense lymphocytic infiltration at juxtaepithelial connective tissue region was found in 59.09% of cases. Conclusions: Oral lichen planus in paediatric population is rare and appeared between 8 to 18 years of age. There is no significant gender predominance. The most common clinical form is erosive, manifesting mainly in buccal mucosa. Histopathological findings characteristic of oral lichen planus in paediatric patients include parakeratosis, acanthosis, liquefaction degeneration of basal cells and lymphocytic infiltration in the subepithelial layer.

  10. Changes In Men’s Salivary Testosterone And Cortisol Levels, And In Sexual Desire After Smelling Female Axillary And Vulvar Scents

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    Ricardo eMondragón-Ceballos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that a woman’s vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60 and 75 min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant.

  11. Secondary metabolites from cetrarioid lichens: Chemotaxonomy, biological activities and pharmaceutical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Maonian; Heidmarsson, Starri; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia; Buonfiglio, Rosa; Kogej, Thierry; Omarsdottir, Sesselja

    2016-05-15

    Lichens, as a symbiotic association of photobionts and mycobionts, display an unmatched environmental adaptability and a great chemical diversity. As an important morphological group, cetrarioid lichens are one of the most studied lichen taxa for their phylogeny, secondary chemistry, bioactivities and uses in folk medicines, especially the lichen Cetraria islandica. However, insufficient structure elucidation and discrepancy in bioactivity results could be found in a few studies. This review aimed to present a more detailed and updated overview of the knowledge of secondary metabolites from cetrarioid lichens in a critical manner, highlighting their potentials for pharmaceuticals as well as other applications. Here we also highlight the uses of molecular phylogenetics, metabolomics and ChemGPS-NP model for future bioprospecting, taxonomy and drug screening to accelerate applications of those lichen substances. The paper starts with a short introduction in to the studies of lichen secondary metabolites, the biological classification of cetrarioid lichens and the aim. In light of ethnic uses of cetrarioid lichens for therapeutic purposes, molecular phylogeny is proposed as a tool for future bioprospecting of cetrarioid lichens, followed by a brief discussion of the taxonomic value of lichen substances. Then a delicate description of the bioactivities, patents, updated chemical structures and lichen sources is presented, where lichen substances are grouped by their chemical structures and discussed about their bioactivity in comparison with reference compounds. To accelerate the discovery of bioactivities and potential drug targets of lichen substances, the application of the ChemGPS NP model is highlighted. Finally the safety concerns of lichen substances (i.e. toxicity and immunogenicity) and future-prospects in the field are exhibited. While the ethnic uses of cetrarioid lichens and the pharmaceutical potential of their secondary metabolites have been recognized

  12. Targeting human papillomavirus to reduce the burden of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia: establishing the baseline for surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim; Munk, Christian; Oddsson, Kristján; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Hortlund, Maria; Liaw, Kai-Li; Dasbach, Erik J; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2014-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias was obtained from high-quality national population-based registries. A literature review was conducted to define the fraction of these lesions attributable to HPV16/18, i.e., those that could be prevented by HPV vaccination. Among the four countries, the age-standardised IR/10⁵ of cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer ranged from 8.4-13.8, 1.3-3.1 and 0.2-0.6, respectively. The risk for cervical cancer was highest in women aged 30-39, while vulvar and vaginal cancers were most common in women aged 70+. Age-standardised IR/10⁵ of cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasia ranged between 138.8-183.2, 2.5-8.8 and 0.5-1.3, respectively. Women aged 20-29 had the highest risk for cervical pre-invasive neoplasia, while vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasia peaked in women aged 40-49 and 60-69, respectively. Over 50% of the observed 47,820 incident invasive and pre-invasive cancer cases in 2004-2006 can be attributed to HPV16/18. In the four countries, vaccination against HPV 16/18 could prevent approximately 8500 cases of gynecological cancer and pre-cancer annually. Population-based cancer

  13. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill (C Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Grassi, Alice; Vannini, Andrea; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Bil'ová, Ivana; Bačkor, Martin; Corsini, Adelmo; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill in C Italy. An integrated approach, using the diversity of epiphytic lichens, as well as element bioaccumulation and physiological parameters in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was applied along a transect from the facility. The results highlighted the biological effects of air pollution around the landfill. The Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) increased and the content of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) decreased with distance from the landfill. Clear stress signals were observed in lichens growing in front of the facility, i.e. discoloration, necrosis, membrane lipid peroxidation, lower ergosterol content, higher dehydrogenase activity. Decreased photosynthetic efficiency, altered chlorophyll integrity and production of secondary metabolites were also found. The results suggested that lichens can be profitably used as bioindicators of environmental quality around landfills.

  14. Meteorological influences on the incidence of lichen planus in a north Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash S Mohan, Ravi; Ghanta, Soumi; Verma, Sankalp; Agarwal, Neha; Gupta, Nupur; Singh, Udita

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic, autoimmune, mucocutaneous disease that shows differences in clinical presentation at different times of the year. The present retrospective study was conducted to clarify the meteorological factors that influence the incidence of lichen planus, as well as the general features and clinical presentation of this condition during three consecutive years, 2008, 2009, and 2010, in Moradabad district (Western Uttar Pradesh, India). The study group comprised 1,355 patients extracted from the records of the outpatient department of Kothiwal Dental College Research Centre and Hospital, who were clinically diagnosed as having lichen planus during this three-year period. The highest number of patients (735) were recorded in summer, and the lowest (56) in winter. Females were affected more often, and psychosocial influences were also evident. There were significant differences in the incidence of lichen planus in different seasons, and the summer peak was attributable to the intensity of sun exposure (actinic lichen planus and summertime lichen planus).

  15. Lichen planus and other lichenoid dermatoses: Kids are not just little people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Michael J; Weston, Gillian; Humphrey, Stephen; Yu, JiaDe; Holland, Kristen E

    2015-01-01

    Lichenoid dermatoses, a group of inflammatory skin conditions with characteristic clinical and histopathologic findings, range from common to rare. Classic lichen planus typically presents as pruritic, polygonal, violaceous flat-topped papules and plaques; many variants in morphology and location also exist. Other lichenoid dermatoses share similar clinical presentations and histopathologic findings. These include lichenoid drug eruption, lichen planus-like keratosis, lichen striatus, lichen nitidus, and keratosis lichenoides chronica. Epidemiologic characteristics vary among each lichenoid disorder. While classic lichen planus is considered a disease of adults, other lichenoid dermatoses may be more common in younger populations. The literature contains an array of reports on the variations in presentation and successful management of lichen planus and lichenoid dermatoses among diverse populations. Familiarity with the characteristics of each lichenoid dermatosis, rare or common within each patient population, is key to accomplishing timely recognition and effective management.

  16. Vertical evolution and intragenic spread of lichen-fungal group I introns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Friedl, Thomas; Helms, Gert

    2002-07-01

    One family within the Euascomycetes (Ascomycota), the lichen-forming Physciaceae, is particularly rich in nuclear ribosomal [r]DNA group I introns. We used phylogenetic analyses of group I introns and lichen-fungal host cells to address four questions about group I intron evolution in lichens, and generally in all eukaryotes: 1) Is intron spread in the lichens associated with the intimate association of the fungal and photosynthetic cells that make up the lichen thallus? 2) Are the multiple group I introns in the lichen-fungi of independent origins, or have existing introns spread into novel sites in the rDNA? 3) If introns have moved to novel sites, then does the exon context of these sites provide insights into the mechanism of intron spread? and 4) What is the pattern of intron loss in the small subunit rDNA gene of lichen-fungi? Our analyses show that group I introns in the lichen-fungi and in the lichen-algae (and lichenized cyanobacteria) do not share a close evolutionary relationship, suggesting that these introns do not move between the symbionts. Many group I introns appear to have originated in the common ancestor of the Lecanorales, whereas others have spread within this lineage (particularly in the Physciaceae) putatively through reverse-splicing into novel rRNA sites. We suggest that the evolutionary history of most lichen-fungal group I introns is characterized by rare gains followed by extensive losses in descendants, resulting in a sporadic intron distribution. Detailed phylogenetic analyses of the introns and host cells are required, therefore, to distinguish this scenario from the alternative hypothesis of widespread and independent intron gains in the different lichen-fungal lineages.

  17. Mapping lichen color-groups in western Arctic Alaska using seasonal Landsat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Macander, M. J.; Swingley, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Mapping lichens at a landscape scale has received increased recent interest due to fears that terricolous lichen mats, primary winter caribou forage, may be decreasing across the arctic and boreal zones. However, previous efforts have produced taxonomically coarse, total lichen cover maps or have covered relatively small spatial extents. Here we attempt to map lichens of differing colors as species proxies across northwestern Alaska to produce the finest taxonomic and spatial- grained lichen maps covering the largest spatial extent to date. Lichen community sampling in five western Alaskan National Parks and Preserves from 2007-2012 generated 328 FIA-style 34.7 m radius plots on which species-level macrolichen community structure and abundance was estimated. Species were coded by color and plot lichen cover was aggregated by plot as the sum of the cover of each species in a color group. Ten different lichen color groupings were used for modeling to deduce which colors were most detectable. Reflectance signatures of each plot were extracted from a series of Landsat composites (circa 2000-2010) partitioned into two-week intervals from June 1 to Sept. 15. Median reflectance values for each band in each pixel were selected based on filtering criteria to reduce likelihood of snow cover. Lichen color group cover was regressed against plot reflectance plus additional abiotic predictors in two different data mining algorithms. Brown and grey lichens had the best models explaining approximately 40% of lichen cover in those color groups. Both data mining techniques produced similarly good fitting models. Spatial patterns of lichen color-group cover show distinctly different ecological patterns of these color-group species proxies.

  18. Evaluation of clinical parameters related to methotrexate therapy in lichen planus

    OpenAIRE

    Samaresh Chandra Hazra; Agha Masood Choudhury; Lubna Khondker; Md. Shirajul Islam Khan; Muhammad Munir Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Background: For better management of lichen planus a clinical trial of oral methotrexate is necessary in ow· country. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate efficacy and safety ofmethotrexate therapy in the treatment of lichen planus.Methods: It was a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial conducted in the department of Dermatology and Venereology, BSMMU, Dhaka, from January 2009 to December 2010. Forty four patients of lichen planus were included in the study. Cases ...

  19. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  20. Investigating Immunohistochemical Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in oral lichen planus

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    Maryam Seyedmajidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and goal: (cox2 Cyclooxygenase -2 as an enzyme is not present in normal tissues and in fact is a type of inductive enzyme during pathological phenomena such as inflammation and cancer are significantly increased. Increased expression of cox-2 in gastric carcinoma, pancreatic, lung and oral squamous cell carcinoma has been shown and seems to be one of the performance mechanisms of the inhibition of apoptosis in tumor cells. Regarding the role of cox-2 in apoptosis mechanisms and the creation of dysplastic changes and malignant, the study aimed to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of cox-2 in oral lichen planus and were compared with normal mucosa and gingivitis. Methods: The study was performed on 30 paraffin blocks related to patients referred to oral and maxillofacial pathology department in Dental School of Babol with confirmed diagnosis of oral lichen planus was done. The same number of samples of normal mucosa and samples of gingivitis were studied. Slices prepared from the above blocks bycoloring immunostaining cox-2 were stained and after reviewing the slides obtained, data using statistical software spss20 and x2 tests, Mann-Whitney and parametric tests such as T test was analyzed and P ˂0.05 was considered significant Results: In this study, significantly percentage of stained cells and staining intensity of cells in the basal layer of lichen planus was higher than normal mucosa (p <0.001. In parabasal layer the results were similar (p <0.001. This results in comparison to lichen planus and gingivitis in basal layer (p <0.001 and parabasal was seen (p <10.0. On the other hand, significantly the percentage of stained cells and staining intensity of cells in the basal layer of gingivitis was more than normal mucosa (p <0.001. In above comparison, similar result in the parabasal layer was seen (p <0.001. The percentage of stained cells and staining intensity of cells in lymphocytic infiltration was significantly higher