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Sample records for vulnerable groups south-west

  1. Effect of training on the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets on the burden of malaria among vulnerable groups, south-west Ethiopia: baseline results of a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Tariku

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, the utilization of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN is hampered by behavioural factors such as low awareness and negative attitude of the community. The aim of this study was to present the design and baseline results of a cluster randomized trial on the effect of training of household heads on the use of LLITN. Methods This baseline survey was undertaken from February to March, 2009 as part of a randomized cluster trial. A total of 11 intervention and 11 control Gots (villages were included in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Centre, south-west Ethiopia. House to house visit was done in 4135 households to collect information about the use of LLITN and socio-demographic variables. For the diagnosis of malaria and anaemia, blood samples were collected from 2410 under-five children and 242 pregnant women. Results One fourth of the households in the intervention and control Gots had functional LLITN. Only 30% of the observed LLITN in the intervention and 28% in the control Gots were hanged properly. Adults were more likely to utilize LLITN than under-five children in the control and intervention Gots. The prevalence of malaria in under-five children in the intervention and control Gots was 10.5% and 8.3% respectively. The intervention and control Gots had no significant difference concerning the prevalence of malaria in under-five children, [OR = 1.28, (95%CI: 0.97, 1.69]. Eight (6.1% pregnant women in the intervention and eight (7.2% in the control Gots were positive for malaria (P = 0.9. Children in the intervention Gots were less likely to have anaemia than children in the control Gots, [OR = 0.75, (95%CI: 0.62, 0.85]. Conclusion The availability and utilization of LLITN was low in the study area. The prevalence of malaria and anaemia was high. Intervention strategies of malaria should focus on high risk population and vulnerable groups.

  2. Mapping of coastal aquifer vulnerable zone in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India, using GIS-based DRASTIC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliraj, S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon; Selvakumar, S; Magesh, N S

    2015-01-01

    The south west coast of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu, India, is significantly affected by seawater intrusion and diffusion of pollutants into the aquifers due to unregulated beach placer mining and other anthropogenic activities. The present study investigates the vulnerability of the coastal aquifers using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based DRASTIC model. The seven DRASTIC parameters have been analyzed using the statistical equation of this model to demarcate the vulnerable zones for aquifer contamination. The vulnerability index map is prepared from the weighted spatial parameters, and an accounting of total index value ranged from 85 to 213. Based on the categorization of vulnerability classes, the high vulnerable zones are found near the beach placer mining areas between Manavalakurichi and Kodimanal coastal stretches. The aquifers associated with settlements and agricultural lands in the middle-eastern part have experienced high vulnerability due to contaminated water bodies. Similarly, the coastal areas of Thengapattinam and Manakudi estuary and around the South Tamaraikulam have also been falling under high vulnerability condition due to backwater and saltpan. In general, the nearshore region except the placer mining zone and the backwater has a moderately vulnerable condition, and the vulnerability index values range from 149 to180. Significantly, the northern and northeastern uplands and some parts of deposition zones in the middle-south coast have been identified as low to no vulnerable conditions. They are structurally controlled by various geological features such as charnockite, garnet biotite gneiss and granites, and sand dunes, respectively. The aquifer vulnerability assessment has been cross-verified by geochemical indicators such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl(-), HCO₃(-), and Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) ratio. The high ranges of TDS (1,842--3,736 mg/l) and Cl(-) (1,412--2,112 mg/l) values are well correlated with the observed high

  3. Seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary architecture of the Chalk Group in south-west Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Connie; Ineson, Jon; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on a study undertaken by the Chalk Group on the western onshore region of the Danish Basin in Eastern Denmark related on the seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary architecture of the region. The study is undertaken through subdividing the northern North German Basin and the sou......-western Danish Basin on digital reflection using 2-dimensional digital and scanned seismic profiling. The results of the study sh regional trends related to the active indicate active inversion....

  4. Hydrological risks in anthropized watersheds: modeling of hazard, vulnerability and impacts on population from south-west of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamy Rakotoarisoa, Mahefa; Fleurant, Cyril; Taibi, Nuscia; Razakamanana, Théodore

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological risks, especially for floods, are recurrent on the Fiherenana watershed - southwest of Madagascar. The city of Toliara, which is located at the outlet of the river basin, is subjected each year to hurricane hazards and floods. The stakes are of major importance in this part of the island. This study begins with the analysis of hazard by collecting all existing hydro-climatic data on the catchment. It then seeks to determine trends, despite the significant lack of data, using simple statistical models (decomposition of time series). Then, two approaches are conducted to assess the vulnerability of the city of Toliara and the surrounding villages. First, a static approach, from surveys of land and the use of GIS are used. Then, the second method is the use of a multi-agent-based simulation model. The first step is the mapping of a vulnerability index which is the arrangement of several static criteria. This is a microscale indicator (the scale used is the housing). For each House, there are several criteria of vulnerability, which are the potential water depth, the flow rate, or the architectural typology of the buildings. For the second part, simulations involving scenes of agents are used in order to evaluate the degree of vulnerability of homes from flooding. Agents are individual entities to which we can assign behaviours on purpose to simulate a given phenomenon. The aim is not to give a criterion to the house as physical building, such as its architectural typology or its strength. The model wants to know the chances of the occupants of the house to escape from a catastrophic flood. For this purpose, we compare various settings and scenarios. Some scenarios are conducted to take into account the effect of certain decision made by the responsible entities (Information and awareness of the villagers for example). The simulation consists of two essential parts taking place simultaneously in time: simulation of the rise of water and the flow using

  5. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  6. South-West Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro- geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  7. Leishmaniasis in South West Africa: preliminary notes on host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were undertaken to determine the sandfly fauna of South West Africa with the view to finding possible vectors of leishmaniasis, and to locate a host reservoir. A possible vector species belonging to the Synphlebotomus group of sandflies, which have been incriminated as leishmania vectors in Kenya, has been found ...

  8. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  9. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarowsky, C.; Haddad, S.; Nguyen, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of

  10. Coping with drought risk: empirical analysis of farmers' drought adaption in the south-west Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Rianne; Filatova, Tatiana; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Veen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change projections show that periods of droughts are likely to increase, causing decreasing water availability, salinization, and consequently farm income loss in the south-west Netherlands. Adaptation is the key to decrease a farmer's drought vulnerability and to secure the agricultural

  11. Dominant petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the Archipelago Sea in South-West Finland (Baltic Sea) belong to different taxonomic groups than hydrocarbon degraders in the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunamo, Anna; Riemann, Lasse; Leskinen, Piia; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

    2013-07-15

    The natural petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capacity of the Archipelago Sea water in S-W Finland was studied in a microcosm experiment. Pristine and previously oil exposed sites were examined. Bacterial community fingerprinting was performed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and samples from selected microcosms were sequenced. The abundance of PAH degradation genes was measured by quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities in diesel exposed microcosms diverged from control microcosms during the experiment. Gram positive PAH degradation genes dominated at both sites in situ, whereas gram negative PAH degrading genes became enriched in diesel microcosms. The dominant bacterial groups after a 14 days of diesel exposure were different depending on the sampling site, belonging to the class Actinobacteria (32%) at a pristine site and Betaproteobacteria (52%) at a previously oil exposed site. The hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the Baltic Sea differ from those in the oceans, where most hydrocarbon degraders belong to Gammaproteobacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On the Library and Information Literacy Education of Vulnerable Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tian-hui

    2009-01-01

    This paper defines and classifies vulnerable groups, elaborates the necessity of information literacy education of vulnerable groups, analyzes the feasibility for the library to carry out the education, and then discusses specific measures taken by the library to fulfill it.

  13. LEISHMANIASIS IN SOUTH WEST AFRICA: PRELIMINARY NOTES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-03-13

    Mar 13, 1971 ... Leishmaniasis was first reported from South West. Africa in 1970.' All 4 cases had contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis, and all 4 occurred in White women. These cases appeared over a period of 3 years. Before this the nearest recorded case of leishmaniasis was from south- western Angola.' Cahill' has ...

  14. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  15. Probability mapping of iron pan presence in sandy podzols in South-West France, using digital soil mapping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richer-de-Forges, Anne C.; Saby, Nicolas P.A.; Mulder, V.L.; Larochea, B.; Arrouaysa, B.; Arrouaysa, D.

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated two different digital soil mapping methods for mapping the presence of iron pans in South-West France. The presence of iron pans limit rooting depth, thereby affecting available water content for plants and increasing vulnerability of trees to storms. In some cases, it may also

  16. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Ogbomoso, South West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibola Idowu, MBBS, FWACP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information on factors associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR is central in designing cost effective programs for reducing maternal deaths among women. This study assessed factors influencing BP/CR among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Ogbomoso, South West Nigeria. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between January and April, 2015. Systematic sampling technique was employed to recruit 400 women attending antenatal clinic at Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at p <0.05. Results: More than half (51.3% of our respondents were in the 30-39 age category. Only 40.3% of these respondents were reported well prepared for births and were complication ready. The proportion of women who had BP/CR was significantly higher among those in the middle socio-economic group (51.6%, p<0.05, those who practiced Christianity (76.4%, p<0.05 and those from Yoruba ethnic group (80.1%, p<0.05. Respondents in lower socio-economic group were 42% less likely to have prepared for birth compared to women in the high socio-economic class (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34-0.99. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: The proportion of Nigerian women in our sample who were well-prepared for birth and its complication was below average. There is need for more awareness programs on BP/CR; such programs should target all women especially the vulnerable group

  17. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  18. Social Factors of Health Vulnerability of Marginalized Social Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marginalized social groups are part of a certain apotheosis of otherness in present-day anthropological studies, being groups – such as refugees or immigrants – that come from other socio-cultural environments, and are marginalized in the anthropologists’ own environments, or environments socio-culturally similar to these. Groups that are to be considered as marginalized are those that have been put in this position contextually, through displacement from everything that represents life according to human standards, which becomes a continuous/permanent state, i.e. the way of life of the people in question, leading to the destabilization of both their physical and their mental health. The causes of this displacement are social in nature, thus constituting the primary social factors of health vulnerability of displaced populations, and they include wars and armed conflicts, persecution for various reasons, and poverty, i.e. the impossibility of subsisting on resources available in one’s own socio-economic environment. The secondary social factors of health vulnerability of marginalized social groups occur in the environments in which the groups find themselves after having been displaced from their previous socio-cultural environments; they result from the legal status of unwilling newcomers to these environments, and refer to the difficulty or impossibility of accessing the social and health care systems in their new environments.

  19. Exclusion as a Criterion for Selecting Socially Vulnerable Population Groups

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    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of a scientific research “The Mechanisms for Overcoming Mental Barriers of Inclusion of Socially Vulnerable Categories of the Population for the Purpose of Intensifying Modernization in the Regional Community” (RSF grant No. 16-18-00078. The authors analyze the essence of the category of “socially vulnerable groups” from the legal, economic and sociological perspectives. The paper shows that the economic approach that uses the criterion “the level of income and accumulated assets” when defining vulnerable population groups prevails in public administration practice. The legal field of the category based on the economic approach is defined by the concept of “the poor and socially unprotected categories of citizens”. With the help of the analysis of theoretical and methodological aspects of this issue, the authors show that these criteria are a necessary but not sufficient condition for classifying the population as being socially vulnerable. Foreign literature associates the phenomenon of vulnerability with the concept of risks, with the possibility of households responding to them and with the likelihood of losing the well-being (poverty theory; research areas related to the means of subsistence, etc.. The asset-based approaches relate vulnerability to the poverty that arises due to lack of access to tangible and intangible assets. Sociological theories presented by the concept of social exclusion pay much attention to the breakdown of social ties as a source of vulnerability. The essence of social exclusion consists in the inability of people to participate in important aspects of social life (in politics, labor markets, education and healthcare, cultural life, etc. though they have all the rights to do so. The difference between the concepts of exclusion and poverty is manifested in the displacement of emphasis from income inequality to limited access to rights. Social exclusion is

  20. Noise and health in vulnerable groups: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene van Kamp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerable or susceptible groups are mentioned in most reviews and documents regarding noise and health. But only a few studies address this issue in a concrete and focused way. Groups at risk most often mentioned in the literature are children, the elderly, the chronically ill and people with a hearing impairment. The other categories encountered are those of sensitive persons, shiftworkers, people with mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia or autism, people suffering from tinnitus, and fetuses and neonates. The mechanism for this vulnerability has not been clearly described and relevant research has seldom focused on the health effects of noise in these groups in an integrated manner. This paper summarizes the outcomes and major conclusions of a systematic, qualitative review of studies over the past 5 years. This review was prepared for the 10 th Conference on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN, 2011. Evidence is reviewed describing effects, groups assumed to be at risk, and mechanisms pertaining to noise sensitivity and learned helplessness.

  1. Budgeting Systems in Universities in South-West Nigeria | Alabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stratified random sampling was used to select seven universities from five states within the hinterland of Nigeria's South-West geopolitical zone. ... Also, out of the total sum of N80,115,006,285 as expenditure on six selected priority areas in the three academic years by the sampled universities, salaries and allowances had ...

  2. promoting integrated water resources management in south west

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The management of these schemes is 100% controlled by government, hence the frequency of low capacity utilization and lack of sustainable investment in the sector. One of the problems of the water sector in south west. Nigeria is that of low quality personnel especially in the technical aspects. The dearth of key personnel.

  3. The Suppression of Internal Unrest in South West Africa (Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tactical deployment of ground forces in conjunction with aircraft was an innovation that transformed future operations in SWA between the suppression of the Bondelswarts and the actions against Chief Ipumbu. This article discusses the utilisation of the Union Defence Force (UDF) and South West Africa Forces against ...

  4. Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris off south-west Mauritius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris longirostris off the south-west coast of Mauritius are subject to ongoing anthropogenic disturbance in the form of daily dolphin tourism, which has intensified since 1998. Abundance of this species was estimated using photo-identification data and mark-recapture analysis. Between April ...

  5. Medical services in German South West Africa | Bouch | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1974) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Medical services in German South West Africa.

  6. Statolith comparison of two south-west Atlantic Loliginid squid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The statoliths of two South-West Atlantic loliginid squid, Loligo gahi and Loligo sanpaulensis, were studied to determine if they could be a useful tool for species differentiation. Allometric equations were employed to examine differences in statolith shape and growth. Statolith dimensions were standardized by total length ...

  7. Climatology and Landfall of Tropical Cyclones in the South- West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The climatology of cyclone formation and behaviour in the South-West Indian Ocean, including landfall in Mozambique and Madagascar, has been investigated. The records used were obtained by merging track data from the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre with data from La Reunion – Regional Specialised ...

  8. Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taback, I.

    1979-01-01

    The discussion of vulnerability begins with a description of some of the electrical characteristics of fibers before definiting how vulnerability calculations are done. The vulnerability results secured to date are presented. The discussion touches on post exposure vulnerability. After a description of some shock hazard work now underway, the discussion leads into a description of the planned effort and some preliminary conclusions are presented.

  9. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

  10. Ethical considerations in research. Focus on vulnerable groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaké Ketefian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to describe the need to protect the rights of human subjects participating in nursing research, and procedures for doing so. The path taken to the task at hand was to approach the topic by discussing the philosophical underpinnings of human subject protection and describing the approach for doing this in all cases where humans are used as research subjects. These underpinnings include specific ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, and the procedures used in the U.S. for protecting the rights of human subjects. Once the process was clarified, the considerations necessary to protect the special groups referred to as ''vulnerable'' are discussed. Given the author’s access to U.S. documents and the fact that U.S. government agencies took early steps to formalize rules and regulations for the protection of human subjects, vulnerable or otherwise, the experience of the United States was selected for presentation. It is recognized that there are now relevant international documents that are exceedingly helpful, and also, that various countries may have their own guidelines for investigators to follow. In such cases researchers can engage in comparative analysis between their own guidance and the processes described here, and decide their path accordingly.

  11. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site.

  12. Perceptions about prenatal care: views of urban vulnerable groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatcher Barbara

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, infant mortality rates remain more than twice as high for African Americans as compared to other racial groups. Lack of adherence to prenatal care schedules in vulnerable, hard to reach, urban, poor women is associated with high infant mortality, particularly for women who abuse substances, are homeless, or live in communities having high poverty and high infant mortality. This issue is of concern to the women, their partners, and members of their communities. Because they are not part of the system, these womens' views are often not included in other studies. Methods This qualitative study used focus groups with four distinct categories of people, to collect observations about prenatal care from various perspectives. The 169 subjects included homeless women; women with current or history of substance abuse; significant others of homeless women; and residents of a community with high infant mortality and poverty indices, and low incidence of adequate prenatal care. A process of coding and recoding using Ethnograph and counting ensured reliability and validity of the process of theme identification. Results Barriers and motivators to prenatal care were identified in focus groups. Pervasive issues identified were drug lifestyle, negative attitudes of health care providers and staff, and non-inclusion of male partners in the prenatal experience. Conclusions Designing prenatal care relevant to vulnerable women in urban communities takes creativity, thoughtfulness, and sensitivity. System changes recommended include increased attention to substance abuse treatment/prenatal care interaction, focus on provider/staff attitudes, and commitment to inclusion of male partners.

  13. Fluid inclusions in quartz crystals from South-West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.; Roedder, E.

    1971-01-01

    Quartz crystals from calcite veins of unknown age in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks at Geiaus No. 6 and Aukam farms in South-West Africa contain both primary and secondary inclusions filled with one substance or a combination of substances. These substances include organic liquid, moderately saline aqueous liquid, dark-colored solid, and a vapor. Analysis of these materials by microscopy and by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry shows the presence of constituents of both low and high molecular weights.

  14. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Sin [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L{sup -1}) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L{sup -1} were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration ({approx}1400 ng L{sup -1}) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: > Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. > Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. > Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  15. Management of open lower limb injuries in South West England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, J; Rahman, S; Marsden, N; Pallister, I; Hemington-Gorse, S

    2015-01-01

    The joint British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons/British Orthopaedic Association standards define best practice management in open diaphyseal fractures of the lower limb. The aim of our study was to review the regional approach and experience in South West England and Wales. A further objective was to evaluate service provision with regard to the standards' key recommendations. A prospective audit was undertaken of open diaphyseal fracture patients. Compliance with published standards within all orthoplastic services in South West England and Wales was assessed, and facilities were evaluated. A total of 86 patients were managed between October 2012 and March 2013. This was a 56% increase from 2008. Over half (56%) presented directly to the orthoplastic services with all patients undergoing debridement within 24 hours. Two-thirds (66%) of procedures were in daylight hours excluding those requiring immediate surgical intervention. Adherence to correct antibiotic therapy was 88% at admission, 50% at primary surgery and 62% at definitive surgery. Almost two-thirds (60%) of primary procedures were performed with combined senior orthoplastic teams, with 81% achieving definitive soft tissue coverage and fixation within seven days. Compliance improved in units with larger patient caseloads and where there was an early combined approach during daylight hours. Increased open lower limb fracture workload was demonstrated across South West England and Wales, probably owing to centralisation of trauma services. An improvement in early transfer of this patient group to orthoplastic facilities has allowed all patients to be assessed and debrided within the recommended timeframe. Standards were most likely to be met in those centres seeing higher numbers of injuries and when there was a daylight hours procedure by combined orthoplastic teams.

  16. A primary care lifestyle programme suitable for socioeconomically vulnerable groups - an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Maria; Blomstrand, Ann; Högberg, Tine; Ariai, Nashmil; Thorn, Jörgen; Hange, Dominique; Björkelund, Cecilia

    2016-12-01

    To explore whether a primary health care (PHC) health promotion programme reaches and engages socioeconomically vulnerable groups in a community to the same extent as higher socioeconomic groups. Comparison of level of engagement and lifestyle improvements stratified by socioeconomic vulnerability level. Hisingen PHC catchment area (130,000 inhabitants) Gothenburg, Sweden. Men and women aged 18-79, visiting any of the eight public PHC centres during an eight-month period 2007-2008, were presented with a short intervention health questionnaire and offered a health dialogue with a nurse, including a health profile, p-glucose and blood pressure check. Participants were classified according to four socioeconomic vulnerability factors: education, employment, ethnicity and living situation. Out of 3691 participants, 27% had low education (Hisingen community level 23%), 18% were unemployed (community level 22%), and 16% were born outside Scandinavia (community level 22%). At the one-year follow-up, 2121 (57%) attended. At baseline, 3% of the individuals in the sample had three out of four socioeconomic vulnerability factors, 17% had two vulnerability factors, 43% had one vulnerability factor, and 37% had no vulnerability factors. Improved biological markers were seen in all vulnerability groups (1-3) and odds ratios for improvement were significantly higher in the most socioeconomically vulnerable group for smoking and stress compared to the group with no vulnerability factors. Socioeconomically vulnerable groups were reached and lifestyle changes were accomplished to the same extent as in the higher socioeconomic groups in a PHC lifestyle intervention programme. KEY POINTS Primary care plays a major part in prevention of chronic diseases. However, non-pharmacological primary and secondary prevention is often less successful, especially concerning socioeconomically vulnerable groups. The health promoting intervention programme "Pro-Health" reached and engaged

  17. National legal system in relation to vulnerable population groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjeničić Marta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerable social groups can be recognized in everyday life, and local legal regulations identify them as well. Strategies and laws clearly identify the increased needs of vulnerable groups. Local legislation, for example, observes comparative law trends and attempts to prevent discrimination of persons with disabilities, emphasizes their human rights and creates the legal framework for taking these persons out of the institutional form of protection and including them into the community. In Serbia however, strategies and laws, as well as by-laws, are written in sectors, and not in cross-sectors manner. Proper caring for persons with disabilities, including persons with mental disabilities, requires an integral approach, namely a mutual approach of the social, health, educational and other sectors. True enough, local regulations stress the need for an intersectional approach, but such an approach is scantily applied in practice, so the comprehensive care that would satisfy the multiple needs of persons with mental disabilities often turns out to be less than expected in the community. Pursuant to national laws and basic ethic principals, all citizens of the Republic of Serbia have the right to health protection without discrimination. Therefore, methods for using health protection, easier than the existing ones, should be found for certain vulnerable groups, depending on their characteristics, and so for the Roma as well, and bearing in mind that systemic health regulations in Serbia open the door to special treatment of these groups. The inaccessible approach to health care of the Roma population persists primarily due to insufficient basic health documentation and basic personal documentation. Personal documents are linked with the registered place of residence, which the Roma, largely do not have. The problem is thus on a wider scale and is not only focused on the health sector. As such, it requires a wider, intersectional approach and a

  18. Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, Irna; Stel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on vulnerability. Together with Chapter 3, that offers a literature review specifically focused on resilience, it lays the conceptual foundations for the empirical chapters in this edited volume. Vulnerability symbolizes the susceptibility of a certain system to

  19. Assessing intrinsic and specific vulnerability models ability to indicate groundwater vulnerability to groups of similar pesticides: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Steven; Dixon, Barnali; Griffin, Dale W.

    2018-01-01

    With continued population growth and increasing use of fresh groundwater resources, protection of this valuable resource is critical. A cost effective means to assess risk of groundwater contamination potential will provide a useful tool to protect these resources. Integrating geospatial methods offers a means to quantify the risk of contaminant potential in cost effective and spatially explicit ways. This research was designed to compare the ability of intrinsic (DRASTIC) and specific (Attenuation Factor; AF) vulnerability models to indicate groundwater vulnerability areas by comparing model results to the presence of pesticides from groundwater sample datasets. A logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the environmental variables and the presence or absence of pesticides within regions of varying vulnerability. According to the DRASTIC model, more than 20% of the study area is very highly vulnerable. Approximately 30% is very highly vulnerable according to the AF model. When groundwater concentrations of individual pesticides were compared to model predictions, the results were mixed. Model predictability improved when concentrations of the group of similar pesticides were compared to model results. Compared to the DRASTIC model, the AF model more accurately predicts the distribution of the number of contaminated wells within each vulnerability class.

  20. Oxytocin motivates non-cooperation in intergroup conflict to protect vulnerable in-group members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten K W De Dreu

    Full Text Available Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i immediate self-interest, (ii vulnerable in-group members, or (iii both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that non-cooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability, and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake.

  1. Applying marketing concepts to promote health in vulnerable groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, S A

    1991-06-01

    Public health nurses must have a valid marketing orientation. Two marketing concepts, exchange relationships and channels of distribution and their application for public health nursing practice, have relevance in this context. In spite of the complexities inherent in applying them, they can be used to promote health in at-risk populations. By incorporating these concepts in planning and delivering public health nursing services, it is hoped that the health goals of a larger number of vulnerable individuals can be achieved.

  2. Patient safety through RFID: vulnerabilities in recently proposed grouping protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickboldt, Anne-Katrin; Piramuthu, Selwyn

    2012-04-01

    As RFID-tagged systems become ubiquitous, acceptance of this technology by the general public necessitates addressing related security/privacy issues. The past eight years have seen an increasing number of publications in this direction, specifically using cryptographic approaches. Recently, the Journal of Medical Systems published two papers addressing security/privacy issues through cryptographic protocols. We consider the proposed protocols and identify some existing vulnerabilities.

  3. Technical Efficiency of Small-Scale Rabbit Production in South-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines technical efficiency of rabbit rearing in South-west Nigeria. Data were collected from 150 rabbit farmsteads across states in the South-West Nigeria. The Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Production Frontier Functions were used to analyse the study data. Stochastic Production Frontier Function estimates ...

  4. The Influence of Ownership and Type of University on Work Environment in South West Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arogundade, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of ownership and type of university on work environment in South West Nigerian universities. The study population consists of all academic staff of the ten public and nine private universities in South West Nigeria. In all, 500 respondents selected from eight universities constituted the sample of the study. The…

  5. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L(-1)) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L(-1) were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (~1400 ng L(-1)) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethnobotanical studies of folklore phytocosmetics of South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred-Jaiyesimi, Adediwura; Ajibesin, K K; Tolulope, Odeyemi; Gbemisola, Ogundokun

    2015-03-01

    Phytocosmetic is an important aspect of folklore medicine of many cultures whose records and information are scanty. This study inventoried the various plants used as folklore cosmetics in some parts of Oyo, Ogun, Ekiti, and Lagos States of Nigeria by administering semi-structured questionnaires. The survey was carried out between February 2010 and August 2013 through a semi-structured interview; questionnaires were given to obtain information on the local names, morphological parts used, and part(s) of the body where cosmetic preparations are applied. In this study, 80 species belonging to 39 families were identified with members of the Fabaceae, Asteraceae, and Euphorbiaceae most often mentioned. This study is able to record the remaining available information on phytocosmetics in traditional medicine orally passed down through generations in South West Nigeria.

  7. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13-14, 15-16 and 17-18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15-16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in adolescents

  8. vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jian-Bo

    2015-01-01

    quantitatively evaluate individual vulnerability. However it cannot be applied to evaluate software risk directly and some metrics of CVSS are hard to assess. To overcome these shortcomings, this paper presents a novel method, which combines the CVSS base score with market share and software patches, to quantitatively evaluate the software risk. It is based on CVSS and includes three indicators: Absolute Severity Value (ASV, Relative Severity Value (RSV and Severity Value Variation Rate (SVVR. Experimental results indicate that by using these indicators, the method can quantitatively describe the risk level of software systems, and thus strengthen software security.

  9. Compensatory Policies Attending Equality and Inequality in Mexico Educational Practice among Vulnerable Groups in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, René Pedroza; Monroy, Guadalupe Villalobos; Fabela, Ana María Reyes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an estimate of the prevalence of social inequality in accessing higher education among vulnerable groups in Mexico. Estimates were determined from statistical data provided by governmental agencies on the level of poverty among the Mexican population. In Mexico, the conditions of poverty and vulnerability while trying to access…

  10. Patient-orientated longitudinal study of multiple sclerosis in south west England (The South West Impact of Multiple Sclerosis Project, SWIMS 1: protocol and baseline characteristics of cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Dave E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for greater understanding of the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS from the perspective of individuals with the condition. The South West Impact of MS Project (SWIMS has been designed to improve understanding of disease impact using a patient-centred approach. The purpose is to (1 develop improved measurement instruments for clinical trials, (2 evaluate longitudinal performance of a variety of patient-reported outcome measures, (3 develop prognostic predictors for use in individualising drug treatment for patients, particularly early on in the disease course. Methods This is a patient-centred, prospective, longitudinal study of multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS in south west England. The study area comprises two counties with a population of approximately 1.7 million and an estimated 1,800 cases of MS. Self-completion questionnaires are administered to participants every six months (for people with MS or 12 months (CIS. Here we present descriptive statistics of the baseline data provided by 967 participants with MS. Results Seventy-five percent of those approached consented to participate. The male:female ratio was 1.00:3.01 (n = 967. Average (standard deviation age at time of entry to SWIMS was 51.6 (11.5 years (n = 961 and median (interquartile range time since first symptom was 13.3 (6.8 to 24.5 years (n = 934. Fatigue was the most commonly reported symptom, with 80% of participants experiencing fatigue at baseline. Although medication use for symptom control was common, there was little evidence of effectiveness, particularly for fatigue. Nineteen percent of participants were unable to classify their subtype of MS. When patient-reported subtype was compared to neurologist assessment for a sample of participants (n = 396, agreement in disease sub-type was achieved in 63% of cases. There were 836 relapses, reported by 931 participants, in the twelve months prior to baseline. Twenty

  11. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Virginia based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Virginia census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  12. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Alabama based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Alabama census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  13. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for New York based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of New York census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  14. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Georgia based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Georgia census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  15. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Indiana based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Indiana census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  16. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Massachusetts based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Massachusetts census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  17. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Maine based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Maine census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  18. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Maryland based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Maryland census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  19. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for California based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of California census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  20. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Delaware based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Delaware census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  1. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Michigan based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Michigan census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  2. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Connecticut based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Connecticut census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  3. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Illinois based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Illinois census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  4. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Texas based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Texas census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  5. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Wisconsin based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Wisconsin census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  6. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Pennsylvania based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Pennsylvania census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  7. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for South Carolina based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of South Carolina census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  8. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Rhode Island based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Rhode Island census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  9. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Alaska based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Alaska census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  10. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for North Carolina based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of North Carolina census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  11. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for New Jersey based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of New Jersey census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  12. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Oregon based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Oregon census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  13. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Coastal States based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of coastal states census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  14. The use of whey or skimmed milk powder in fortified blended foods for vulnerable groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Andersen, Gregers S; Jacobsen, Stine; Mølgaard, Christian; Friis, Henrik; Sangild, Per T; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2008-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBF), especially corn soy blend, are used as food aid for millions of people worldwide, especially malnourished individuals and vulnerable groups. There are only a few studies evaluating the effect of FBF on health outcomes, and the potential negative effect of antinutrients has not been examined. Different lines of evidence suggest that dairy proteins have beneficial effects on vulnerable groups. Here we review the evidence on the effects of adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF used for malnourished infants and young children or people living with HIV or AIDS. Adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF improves the protein quality, allowing a reduction in total amount of protein, which could have potential metabolic advantages. It also allows for a reduced content of soy and cereal and thereby a reduction of potential antinutrients. It is possible that adding milk could improve weight gain, linear growth, and recovery from malnutrition, but this needs to be confirmed. Bioactive factors in whey might have beneficial effects on the immune system and muscle synthesis, but evidence from vulnerable groups is lacking. Milk proteins will improve flavor, which is important for acceptability in vulnerable groups. The most important disadvantage is a considerable increase in price. Adding 10-15% milk powder would double the price, which means that such a product should be used only in well-defined vulnerable groups with special needs. The potential beneficial effects of adding milk protein and lack of evidence in vulnerable groups call for randomized intervention studies.

  15. Water quality assessment of Ogun river, South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaji, M O; Bamgbose, O; Odukoya, O O; Arowolo, T A

    2007-10-01

    The quality of Ogun river in South-West, Nigeria was studied by a field survey for a period of 1 year (covering dry season and rainy season). Water samples were collected from thirteen sites and analysed for physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters as well as heavy metals using standard methods. Generally, the values obtained for turbidity, phosphate, oil and grease, iron and faecal coliform from all the sites in both seasons were above the maximum acceptable limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Also, the manganese content from all the sites in the dry season, lead concentrations from three sites in the dry season and cadmium concentrations from some sites in both seasons were above the WHO limit. The values obtained for total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen and chloride at site M in the dry season and nitrate at site J in the rainy season were also above the WHO limit. Pollution of Ogun river water along its course is evidenced by the high concentrations of pollution indicators, nutrients and trace metals above the acceptable limit. This poses a health risk to several rural communities who rely on the river primarily as their source of domestic water. The study showed a need for continuous pollution monitoring programme of surface waters in Nigeria.

  16. [The impact of women's groups on gender vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Barbiani, Rosangela; Steffen, Helenita; Wunder, Ana Paula; Roza, Marisa Dalla; Rotermund, Juliana; Brito, Sarita; Korndorfer, Carla

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of workshops on health and gender conducted through extension programs under Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS) in the city of S o Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The method was based on participatory research and action-based research. Women's groups were organized in two locations in the city. The first group was attended by 14 women, with a total of 6 meetings. The second received 18 women and held a total of 11 meetings. The themes discussed and experienced were: relations between parents and children, gender stereotypes and roles, conjugality, limits to abusive behaviors, body and sexuality, and empowerment to deal with violence. Thirteen women who attended the second group changed their behavior patterns, looking for jobs, going back to school, improving their body image, and reassessing situations involving violence. The group of researchers approached the S o Leopoldo Women's Forum and helped strengthen a support network, as well as increasing the visibility of specific policies and the planning and implementation of public policies for women.

  17. Terrestrial ecology in South Africa and South West Africa – project abstracts for 1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ecosystems Programmes, Cooperative Scientific Programmes

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Brief descriptions of over 200 research projects undertaken during 1979 in South African and South West African terrestrial ecosystems are presented. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically according to author name and a keyword index is provided...

  18. Cladocera in the estuarine and coastal waters of south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.

    Occurrence and abundance of marine Cladocera in several estuaries along the south-west coast of India is presented and compared with their distribution in the coastal waters. One peculiar feature observed was their absence in the estuaries during...

  19. A lightning climatology of the South-West Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bovalo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN data have been used to perform a lightning climatology in the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO region from 2005 to 2011. Maxima of lightning activity were found in the Maritime Continent and southwest of Sri Lanka (>50 fl km−2 yr−1 but also over Madagascar and above the Great Lakes of East Africa (>10–20 fl km−2 yr−1. Lightning flashes within tropical storms and tropical cyclones represent 50 % to 100 % of the total lightning activity in some oceanic areas of the SWIO (between 10° S and 20° S.

    The SWIO is characterized by a wet season (November to April and a dry season (May to October. As one could expect, lightning activity is more intense during the wet season as the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ is present over all the basin. Flash density is higher over land in November–December–January with values reaching 3–4 fl km−2 yr−1 over Madagascar. During the dry season, lightning activity is quite rare between 10° S and 25° S. The Mascarene anticyclone has more influence on the SWIO resulting in shallower convection. Lightning activity is concentrated over ocean, east of South Africa and Madagascar.

    A statistical analysis has shown that El Niño–Southern Oscillation mainly modulates the lightning activity up to 56.8% in the SWIO. The Indian Ocean Dipole has a significant contribution since ~49% of the variability is explained by this forcing in some regions. The Madden–Julian Oscillation did not show significative impact on the lightning activity in our study.

  20. Psychosocial Needs Assessment among Earthquake Survivors in Lorestan Province with an Emphasis on the Vulnerable Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzan, A.; Eftekhari, M. Baradaran; Falahat, K.; Dejman, M.; Heidari, N.; Habibi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Iran is one of the ten most earthquake prone countries in the world. Earthquakes not only cause new psychological needs among the population but particularly so when one considers vulnerable groups. This in - depth study was conducted with the aim of assessing psychosocial needs six months after an earthquake happened in the west of the county in Lorestan province. Methods: This is a qualitative study using focus group discussion that focuses mainly on the vulnerable groups (women, children, elderly and disabled people) after an earthquake in Boz-azna; a village in Lorestan province in western part of Iran. Findings: Results of the psychosocial assessment indicated feelings of anxiety and worries in four vulnerable groups. Horror, hyper-excitement, avoidance and disturbing thoughts were observed in all groups with the exception of the elderly. Educational failures, loneliness and isolation were highlighted in children. All groups encountered socio-economic needs that included loss of assets and sense of insecurity and also reproductive problems were reported in women's group. Discussion and Conclusion: Modification of a protocol on psychosocial support considering the context of the rural and urban areas with emphasis on the specific needs of the vulnerable groups is an appropriate strategy in crisis management. It seems that appropriate public awareness regarding assistance programs can be effective in reducing stress and needs of disaster survivors. PMID:23777724

  1. Medical Students' Empathy for Vulnerable Groups: Results From a Survey and Reflective Writing Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellbery, Caroline; Saunders, Pamela A; Kureshi, Sarah; Visconti, Adam

    2017-12-01

    As medical education curricula increasingly acknowledge the contributions of the social determinants of health to individual health, new methods of engaging students in the care of vulnerable groups are needed. Empathy is one way to connect students with patients, but little is known about how to nurture students' empathy on behalf of populations. This study examined the relationship between individual and social empathy as groundwork for cultivating students' empathy for vulnerable groups. In 2014-2015, first-year medical students completed the Social Empathy Index at the start and end of a two-semester population health course, and they completed a reflective writing assignment exploring the challenges of caring for vulnerable patients. Pre- and posttest mean survey scores were compared, and reflective writing assignments were analyzed for themes concerning social empathy. Data from 130 students were analyzed. Scores for the contextual understanding of systemic barriers domain increased significantly. There was a trend toward increased cumulative social empathy scores that did not reach statistical significance. Students' essays revealed three themes relating to individual empathy as the foundation for social empathy; civic and moral obligations; and the role of institutional practices in caring for vulnerable groups. This study extends understanding of empathy beyond care for the individual to include care for vulnerable groups. Thus, social empathy may function as a valuable concept in developing curricula to support students' commitment to care for the underserved. Educators first need to address the many barriers students cited that impede both individual and social empathy.

  2. Reptile-associated salmonellosis in children aged under 5 years in South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dan; Oshin, Femi

    2015-04-01

    To determine the proportion of Salmonella cases in children aged reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) and to compare the severity of illness. To analyse all cases of salmonellosis reported to public health authorities in children aged under 5 years in the South West of the UK from January 2010 to December 2013 for reptile exposure, age, serotype, hospitalisation and invasive disease. 48 of 175 (27%) Salmonella cases had exposure to reptiles. The median age of RAS cases was significantly lower than non-RAS cases (0.5 vs 1.0 year). RAS cases were 2.5 times more likely to be hospitalised (23/48) compared with non-RAS cases (25/127; p=0.0002). This trend continued in cases aged under 12 months, with significantly more RAS cases hospitalised (19/38) than non-RAS cases (8/42; p=0.003). Significantly more RAS cases had invasive disease (8/48: 5 bacteraemia, 2 meningitis, 1 colitis) than non-RAS cases (4/127: 3 bacteraemia, 1 meningitis). Reptile exposure was found in over a quarter of all reported Salmonella cases in children under 5 years of age. RAS is associated with young age, hospitalisation and invasive disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Learning Environments and Didactic Strategies for Vulnerable Groups in the Bolívar Province, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msc. M. Aroca-Pazmiño

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of vulnerable groups in different educational institutions from the Bolivar Province. The research is based on the social pedagogical approach. Some risks may influence negatively in some groups, and in the teaching-learning process. That´s why, we diagnosed the most vulnerable educational institutions in the main communities and analyzed the causes influencing in this problematic, so we applied a survey and an observational guide to gather information. As a result we detected some students with educational vulnerability caused by dysfunctional families, the great distances from their schools, migration, poverty, physical and learning disabilities, and the fact that the teachers do not know how to deal with these problems. From the analysis and interpretations of the results of the empirical and theoretical methods we are elaborating a Didactic Guide containing learning and teaching strategies aimed at integrating vulnerable groups into different learning environments. Keywords:  educational vulnerability, strategies, learning environment, Social Pedagogy.

  4. Health inequality among vulnerable groups in Mexico: older adults, indigenous people, and migrants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Salgado de Snyder, Nelly; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Ruelas-González, María Guadalupe; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    2014-01-01

    .... This article attempts to describe the health situation of three vulnerable groups in Mexico-older adults, indigenous people, and migrants-and, after defining the needs of each, explore measures that could contribute to the design and implementation of public health policies better tailored to their respective needs.

  5. Health adaptation policy for climate vulnerable groups: a 'critical computational linguistics' analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bastian M; Bell, Erica

    2014-11-28

    Many countries are developing or reviewing national adaptation policy for climate change but the extent to which these meet the health needs of vulnerable groups has not been assessed. This study examines the adequacy of such policies for nine known climate-vulnerable groups: people with mental health conditions, Aboriginal people, culturally and linguistically diverse groups, aged people, people with disabilities, rural communities, children, women, and socioeconomically disadvantaged people. The study analyses an exhaustive sample of national adaptation policy documents from Annex 1 ('developed') countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: 20 documents from 12 countries. A 'critical computational linguistics' method was used involving novel software-driven quantitative mapping and traditional critical discourse analysis. The study finds that references to vulnerable groups are relatively little present or non-existent, as well as poorly connected to language about practical strategies and socio-economic contexts, both also little present. The conclusions offer strategies for developing policy that is better informed by a 'social determinants of health' definition of climate vulnerability, consistent with best practice in the literature and global policy prescriptions.

  6. Lack of Knowledge Sharing Amongst Institutions in Denmark Responsible for Vulnerable Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Ann Kristina Mikkelsen

    they share their knowledge about risk and policy management. In order to protect vulnerable groups such as children, disabled, sick and elderly people, we need to learn more about the general risk understanding and sharing of such according to region, responsibility, common events and hazards...

  7. THE REALIZATION PROBLEMS OF SOME SOCIALLY VULNERABLE GROUPS' OF POPULATION POTENTIAL IN THE OUTLYING DISTRICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patimat Alieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the consideration and analysis of the main problems, concerning the realization of socially vulnerable groups' of the population potential. The problem of women and youth employment development takes on a special acuteness and actualite in the outlying district with a labour redundant labour market.

  8. Meta-Synthesis of Literacy for the Empowerment of Vulnerable Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilli-Trujillo, Celia; Römer-Pieretti, Max

    2017-01-01

    The vulnerability translates in concrete human groups that, although they know what occurs around them in a digital matter, by his own social and cultural condition they are alienated and, in this sense, away of the exercise of the information right. The aim has been to analyze the critical, media and digital literacy for the empowerment of…

  9. The validity of DSM-IV dissociative disorders categories in south-west Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duijl, Marjolein; Cardeña, Etzel; De Jong, Joop T V M

    2005-06-01

    There is little systematic research on the cross-cultural validity of the dissociative disorders, especially in non-western countries. This study evaluates the fit of the DSM-IV classification and concepts of these disorders with local concepts, experiences and local presentations in south-west Uganda. We conducted focus group discussions with medical students, traditional healers, religious leaders, counselors, community members and other health workers (n=48). They were supplemented by key informant interviews with religious people, traditional healers and leaders (n=11). The responses were subjected to thematic analysis. Dissociative amnesia and depersonalization were generally recognized and seen as the result of traumatic experiences and were useful categories in Uganda. However, dissociative fugue did not match local concepts and was confused with spirit possession and other conditions such as alcoholic fugues and dementia. The description of dissociative identity disorder was always interpreted as a possession trance disorder by the local healers. We found only partial support for the validity of the DSM-IV classification of dissociative disorders in Uganda.

  10. Assessing vulnerability to climate change and socioeconomic stressors in the Reef Islands group, Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the vulnerability to climatic and socioeconomic stresses in the Reef Islands, Solomon Islands, an atoll island group in the Southwest Pacific. Climate change and the associated sea-level rise are often seen as the most pressing challenges to atoll communities, yet this study...... infrastructure, economic marginalization and weak governance of Solomon Islands. Findings suggest that some of these non-climatic stresses are currently – and in the short term – more important determinants of local vulnerability than climate change and sea-level rise. Certainly, these stresses are likely...

  11. Using internet-based approaches to collect qualitative data from vulnerable groups: reflections from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery; Cook, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Undertaking qualitative research with vulnerable populations is a complex and challenging process for researchers. Traditional and common modes of collecting qualitative data with these groups have been via face-to-face recorded interviews. This article reports on three internet-based data collection methods; email and synchronous online interviews, as well as online qualitative survey. The key characteristics of using email, sychronous online interviews and an online qualitative survey including the strengths and limitations of each are presented. Reflections and insights on the use of these internet-based data collection methods are provided to encourage researchers to embrace technology and move away from using traditional face-to-face interviews when researching with vulnerable populations. Using the internet to collect qualitative data offers additional ways to gather qualitative data over traditional data collection methods. The use of alternative interview methods may encourage participation of vulnerable participants.

  12. onchocerciasis in communities1n forest zone, south west nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such informationon purities, excoriation, sex,- age, occupation, history of infection were obtained by the ... different result is also party due to the difference in geographic area of study. Many different criteria have been ... discriminatory infectionbased on sex as both sexes are equally vulnerable by reason of exposure to the.

  13. Group decision-making approach for flood vulnerability identification using the fuzzy VIKOR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Jun, K. S.; Chung, E.-S.

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes an improved group decision making (GDM) framework that combines the VIKOR method with data fuzzification to quantify the spatial flood vulnerability including multiple criteria. In general, GDM method is an effective tool for formulating a compromise solution that involves various decision makers since various stakeholders may have different perspectives on their flood risk/vulnerability management responses. The GDM approach is designed to achieve consensus building that reflects the viewpoints of each participant. The fuzzy VIKOR method was developed to solve multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problems with conflicting and noncommensurable criteria. This comprising method can be used to obtain a nearly ideal solution according to all established criteria. This approach effectively can propose some compromising decisions by combining the GDM method and fuzzy VIKOR method. The spatial flood vulnerability of the southern Han River using the GDM approach combined with the fuzzy VIKOR method was compared with the spatial flood vulnerability using general MCDM methods, such as the fuzzy TOPSIS and classical GDM methods (i.e., Borda, Condorcet, and Copeland). As a result, the proposed fuzzy GDM approach can reduce the uncertainty in the data confidence and weight derivation techniques. Thus, the combination of the GDM approach with the fuzzy VIKOR method can provide robust prioritization because it actively reflects the opinions of various groups and considers uncertainty in the input data.

  14. The use of whey or skimmed milk powder in fortified blended foods for vulnerable groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Andersen, Gregers S; Jacobsen, Stine

    2008-01-01

    . Adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF improves the protein quality, allowing a reduction in total amount of protein, which could have potential metabolic advantages. It also allows for a reduced content of soy and cereal and thereby a reduction of potential antinutrients. It is possible that adding......Fortified blended foods (FBF), especially corn soy blend, are used as food aid for millions of people worldwide, especially malnourished individuals and vulnerable groups. There are only a few studies evaluating the effect of FBF on health outcomes, and the potential negative effect...... of antinutrients has not been examined. Different lines of evidence suggest that dairy proteins have beneficial effects on vulnerable groups. Here we review the evidence on the effects of adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF used for malnourished infants and young children or people living with HIV or AIDS...

  15. The punctuation in the evolution of orbitoides in the campanian of South-West France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drooger, C.W.; Klerk, J.C. de

    1985-01-01

    For the Orbitoides assemblages analyzed from a number of closely sampled sections of Campanian calcarenites in south-west France there is a sudden change in the means of several parameters of the internal embryonicnepionic stage. The direction of the change is in accordance with the

  16. Motivations of farm tourism hosts and guests in the South West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a phenomenological investigation of the experience of farm tourism in the South West Tapestry Region of Western Australia from the perspective of both hosts and guests. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of what motivates people to operate a farm tourism business, and what ...

  17. Enhancement and identification of dust events in the south-west ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    South-west Asia including the Middle East is one of the most prone regions to dust storm events. In recent years, there was an increase in the occurrence of these environmental and meteorological phenomena. Remote sensing could serve as an applicable method to detect and also characterise these events. In this study ...

  18. Marriage, Intimacy and Risk of HIV Infection in South West Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Long-term, monogamous, relationships are often portrayed as protective in HIV prevention campaigns. Focusing on marriage in a community in south west Uganda, we examine why and how people enter long term relationships, what their expectations are and what .... including accepting that he may take other wives.

  19. Surveys of virus diseases on pepper ( Capsicum spp.) in South-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys to determine the incidence, diversity and distribution of viruses infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) were conducted in six states (Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti and Lagos) of South-west Nigeria in 2010 and 2011. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected at random from farmers' fields ...

  20. Dental Caries Trend among Adolescents in Lagos, South-West Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries among adolescents in Lagos, South-west of Nigeria. METHODS: The World Health Organization (WHO) methodology for basic oral health surveys was employed. The study population was 11 to 16 year-old adolescents from primary and secondary.

  1. Job Performance and Gender Factors of Administrative Staff in South West Nigeria Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunsola, E. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the level of administrative staff job performance in South West Nigerian universities and also investigates whether the administrative staff job performance is related to their sexual characteristics. An instrument titled Job Performance Questionnaire (JPQ) was used to collect the data and was administered 400 subjects in…

  2. Stakeholders' Perception on the Investment in Higher Education in South-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, J. B.; Olaiya, Foluke M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the perceptions of stakeholders on investment in higher education and economic development in south-west Nigeria. The study was based on the argument that despite the fact that Nigeria celebrates her wealth of human capital and boasts of her educated labour force, there is still widespread ignorance and poverty with no…

  3. LABOUR MARKET IN DEVELOPMENT REGION SOUTH WEST OLTENIA – REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabontu Cecilia Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years the South West Oltenia Region have developed important activities in different areas. The most important activities are related to agriculture and natural potential and deposits, the South West Oltenia being one of the most important energy providers in the country. In this area that we brought into talk we find all sectors of the national economy. Agriculture is considered to be an important branch with a significant share in regional GDP with industry (food, non-ferrous metallurgy aluminum, chemical, electrical, machinery, light industry but we must also talk about the tertiary sector gets consistent in the economy of the region as well as nationally. We have proposed in this paper to provide an overview of the labor market in the Development South-West Oltenia Region,integrating it into national labor market realities. We will follow this to see if the labor market in the South-West Oltenia Region, reflect, generally, national trends. To analyze what we are proposed we used the latest official labor market statistics but to have a clearer picture on this field we used data provided by the National Commission of Forecasting, indicating the source.

  4. Bovine cysticercosis and human taeniosis in South-west Shoa zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine cysticercosis and human taeniosis in South-west Shoa zone of. Oromia Region, Ethiopia. 1. Adugna ... Tulu Bolo and Weliso abattoirs in southwest shoa zone of Oromia region, Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of ..... (2008) who reported 44.2% live and 65.8% dead cysts in. Hawassa abattoir (South Ethiopia).

  5. Buruli Ulcer: A Case Report from South-West, Nigeria Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case report of a 15 year-old girl with Buruli ulcer which was confirmed during assessment/advocacy visit to a secondary Health facility in south-west, Nigeria by Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative, a WHO initiative. This case underscores the need for more education of health care providers working in the endemic ...

  6. The issue of forced labour in the 'Onjembo' : German South West Africa 1904-1908

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    In January 1904 the 'Onjembo', the Herero-German war, broke out. During the course of seven months the Herero were driven back from their ancestral homes and lands and forced to retreat into the northeastern reaches of the then German colony of South West Africa, the present-day Republic of Namibia.

  7. No Pet or Their Person Left Behind: Increasing the Disaster Resilience of Vulnerable Groups through Animal Attachment, Activities and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Every, Danielle; Rainbird, Sophia; Cornell, Victoria; Smith, Bradley; Trigg, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The potential for reconfiguring pet ownership from a risk factor to a protective factor for natural disaster survival has been recently proposed. But how might this resilience-building proposition apply to members of the community who are already considered vulnerable? This article addresses this important question by synthesizing information about what makes seven particular groups vulnerable, the challenges to increasing their resilience and how animals figure in their lives. It concludes that animal attachment could provide a novel conduit for accessing, communicating with and motivating vulnerable people to engage in resilience building behaviors that promote survival and facilitate recovery. Abstract Increased vulnerability to natural disasters has been associated with particular groups in the community. This includes those who are considered de facto vulnerable (children, older people, those with disabilities etc.) and those who own pets (not to mention pets themselves). The potential for reconfiguring pet ownership from a risk factor to a protective factor for natural disaster survival has been recently proposed. But how might this resilience-building proposition apply to vulnerable members of the community who own pets or other animals? This article addresses this important question by synthesizing information about what makes particular groups vulnerable, the challenges to increasing their resilience and how animals figure in their lives. Despite different vulnerabilities, animals were found to be important to the disaster resilience of seven vulnerable groups in Australia. Animal attachment and animal-related activities and networks are identified as underexplored devices for disseminating or ‘piggybacking’ disaster-related information and engaging vulnerable people in resilience building behaviors (in addition to including animals in disaster planning initiatives in general). Animals may provide the kind of innovative approach required

  8. No Pet or Their Person Left Behind: Increasing the Disaster Resilience of Vulnerable Groups through Animal Attachment, Activities and Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Every, Danielle; Rainbird, Sophia; Cornell, Victoria; Smith, Bradley; Trigg, Joshua

    2014-05-07

    Increased vulnerability to natural disasters has been associated with particular groups in the community. This includes those who are considered de facto vulnerable (children, older people, those with disabilities etc.) and those who own pets (not to mention pets themselves). The potential for reconfiguring pet ownership from a risk factor to a protective factor for natural disaster survival has been recently proposed. But how might this resilience-building proposition apply to vulnerable members of the community who own pets or other animals? This article addresses this important question by synthesizing information about what makes particular groups vulnerable, the challenges to increasing their resilience and how animals figure in their lives. Despite different vulnerabilities, animals were found to be important to the disaster resilience of seven vulnerable groups in Australia. Animal attachment and animal-related activities and networks are identified as underexplored devices for disseminating or 'piggybacking' disaster-related information and engaging vulnerable people in resilience building behaviors (in addition to including animals in disaster planning initiatives in general). Animals may provide the kind of innovative approach required to overcome the challenges in accessing and engaging vulnerable groups. As the survival of humans and animals are so often intertwined, the benefits of increasing the resilience of vulnerable communities through animal attachment is twofold: human and animal lives can be saved together.

  9. No Pet or Their Person Left Behind: Increasing the Disaster Resilience of Vulnerable Groups through Animal Attachment, Activities and Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly Thompson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased vulnerability to natural disasters has been associated with particular groups in the community. This includes those who are considered de facto vulnerable (children, older people, those with disabilities etc. and those who own pets (not to mention pets themselves. The potential for reconfiguring pet ownership from a risk factor to a protective factor for natural disaster survival has been recently proposed. But how might this resilience-building proposition apply to vulnerable members of the community who own pets or other animals? This article addresses this important question by synthesizing information about what makes particular groups vulnerable, the challenges to increasing their resilience and how animals figure in their lives. Despite different vulnerabilities, animals were found to be important to the disaster resilience of seven vulnerable groups in Australia. Animal attachment and animal-related activities and networks are identified as underexplored devices for disseminating or ‘piggybacking’ disaster-related information and engaging vulnerable people in resilience building behaviors (in addition to including animals in disaster planning initiatives in general. Animals may provide the kind of innovative approach required to overcome the challenges in accessing and engaging vulnerable groups. As the survival of humans and animals are so often intertwined, the benefits of increasing the resilience of vulnerable communities through animal attachment is twofold: human and animal lives can be saved together.

  10. A Survey on Ectoparasite Infestations in Companion Dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Alborzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in referred companion dogs to veterinary hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, from 2009 to 2010.Methods: A total of 126 dogs were sampled for ectoparasites and examined by parasitological methods. The studied animals were grouped based on the age (3 years, sex, breed and regionResults: Thirty six out of 126 referred dogs (28.57% were positive for external ectoparasites. The most common ectoparasites were Heterodoxus spinigera, which were recorded on 11 dogs (8.73%. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Sarcoptes scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Xenopsylla cheopis, Cetenocephalides canis, Cetenocephalides felis, Hip­pobosca sp. and myiasis (L3 of Lucilia sp. were identified on 9 (7.14%, 7 (5.56%, 6 (4.76%, 3 (2.38%, 3 (2.38%, 2 (1.59%, 2 (1.59% and one (0.79% of the studied dogs respectively. Mixed infestation with two species of ectoparasites was recorded on 8 (6.35%. Prevalence was higher in male dogs (35.82%; 24 out of 67 than females (20.34%; 12 out of 59, age above 3 years (31.81%; 7 out of 22 and in the season of winter (30.95%; 13 out of 42, but the difference was not significant regarding to host gender, age and season (P>0.05.Conclusion: Apparently this is the first study conducted in companion dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran. Our results indicated that lice and ticks were the most common ectoparasites in dogs of this area. The zoonotic nature of some ectoparasites can be regard as a public health alert

  11. Bullying and Cyberbullying in Minorities: Are They More Vulnerable than the Majority Group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorent, Vicente J.; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario; Zych, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion in education of all the children is necessary for the success, equality and peace among individuals and societies. In this context, special attention needs to be paid to the minorities. These groups might encounter additional difficulties which make them more vulnerable to be involved in bullying and cyberbullying. The current study was conducted with the objective of describing the involvement in bullying and cyberbullying of students from the majority group and also from sexual and ethnic-cultural minorities. The second objective was to explore if the implication is predicted by the interaction with gender, grade and the size of the population where the schools are located. It is an ex post facto transversal descriptive study with a survey on a representative sample of adolescents enrolled in the Compulsory Secondary Education in the south of Spain (Andalusia). The survey was answered by 2139 adolescents (50.9% girls) in 22 schools. These participants were selected through the random multistage cluster sampling with the confidence level of 95% and a sampling error of 2.1%. The results show that the minority groups, especially sexual minorities, are more involved in bullying and cyberbullying. Regression analyses show that being in the majority or a minority group predicts a small but significant percentage of variance of being involved in bullying and cyberbullying. Results are discussed taking into account the social vulnerability of being a part of a minority group and the need of designing educational programs which would prevent this vulnerability thorough the inclusion in education. There is a need for an educational policy that focuses on convivencia and ciberconvivencia which would promote the social and educational development of all the students. PMID:27803677

  12. Bullying and Cyberbullying in Minorities: Are they more Vulnerable than the Majority Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Llorent

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion in education of all the children is necessary for the success, equality and peace among individuals and societies. In this context, special attention needs to be paid to the minorities. These groups might encounter additional difficulties which make them more vulnerable to be involved in bullying and cyberbullying. The current study was conducted with the objective of describing the involvement in bullying and cyberbullying of students from the majority group and also from sexual and ethnic-cultural minorities. The second objective was to explore if the implication is predicted by the interaction with gender, grade and the size of the population where the schools are located. It is an ex post facto transversal descriptive study with a survey on a representative sample of adolescents enrolled in the Compulsory Secondary Education in the south of Spain (Andalusia. The survey was answered by 2139 adolescents (50.9 % girls in 22 schools. These participants were selected through the random multistage cluster sampling with the confidence level of 95% and a sampling error of 2.1%. The results show that the minority groups, especially sexual minorities, are more involved in bullying and cyberbullying. Regression analyses show that being in the majority or a minority group predicts a small but significant percentage of variance of being involved in bullying and cyberbullying. Results are discussed taking into account the social vulnerability of being a part of a minority group and the need of designing educational programs which would prevent this vulnerability thorough the inclusion in education. There is a need for an educational policy that focuses on convivencia and ciberconvivencia which would promote the social and educational development of all the students.

  13. Bullying and Cyberbullying in Minorities: Are They More Vulnerable than the Majority Group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorent, Vicente J; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario; Zych, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion in education of all the children is necessary for the success, equality and peace among individuals and societies. In this context, special attention needs to be paid to the minorities. These groups might encounter additional difficulties which make them more vulnerable to be involved in bullying and cyberbullying. The current study was conducted with the objective of describing the involvement in bullying and cyberbullying of students from the majority group and also from sexual and ethnic-cultural minorities. The second objective was to explore if the implication is predicted by the interaction with gender, grade and the size of the population where the schools are located. It is an ex post facto transversal descriptive study with a survey on a representative sample of adolescents enrolled in the Compulsory Secondary Education in the south of Spain (Andalusia). The survey was answered by 2139 adolescents (50.9% girls) in 22 schools. These participants were selected through the random multistage cluster sampling with the confidence level of 95% and a sampling error of 2.1%. The results show that the minority groups, especially sexual minorities, are more involved in bullying and cyberbullying. Regression analyses show that being in the majority or a minority group predicts a small but significant percentage of variance of being involved in bullying and cyberbullying. Results are discussed taking into account the social vulnerability of being a part of a minority group and the need of designing educational programs which would prevent this vulnerability thorough the inclusion in education. There is a need for an educational policy that focuses on convivencia and ciberconvivencia which would promote the social and educational development of all the students.

  14. Educational Films as Part of Study Materials for Vulnerable Target Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Javrh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical approaches to special, didactically augmented visual and audio study materials for adults. We also define the narrow sense of the concept of an educational film as a well-rounded visual material that is structured didactically and contains inherent educational goals both in its design and application. The use of the word “film” instead of “video” is legitimized by fulfilling the condition of being a semantically complete and well-rounded product. In the conclusion, we present the findings obtained in Slovenia through experience and practice in the education of vulnerable groups of adults by employing such didactic materials.

  15. Student nurses' attitudes to vulnerable groups: a study examining the impact of a social inclusion module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Jane; Walker, Liz; Fell, Benedict; Benedict

    2008-05-01

    Front line health care professionals have a responsibility to ensure that excluded groups and vulnerable people have equitable access to health care services. This obligation is stated explicitly in the Nursing and Midwifery Council Code of Professional Conduct (2004). Consequently, educationalists involved in the delivery of nurse education have sought to promote the principles of socially inclusive and anti-oppressive practice throughout the curriculum. This quantitative study, conducted with a group of nursing and midwifery university students, aimed to examine student attitudes prior to and on completion of a module on social inclusion/exclusion. The data demonstrated that the majority of students surveyed held views that were generally positive and inclusive. Yet, a small group of respondents held stereotypical views potentially compromising their ability to provide health care. This study identified important gaps within the current curriculum and the need for educators in the field of Health and Social Care to concentrate efforts throughout the curriculum on challenging stereotypical views and attitudes rather than assuming that students can understand the complex concepts of social inclusion in a stand alone module. The students who took part in the study generally held positive views and values and the module was to some extent able to shape their perspective on vulnerable people.

  16. Perceived barriers to smoking cessation in selected vulnerable groups: a systematic review of the qualitative and quantitative literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Bryant, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify barriers that are common and unique to six selected vulnerable groups: low socioeconomic status; Indigenous; mental illness and substance abuse; homeless; prisoners; and at-risk youth. Design A systematic review was carried out to identify the perceived barriers to smoking cessation within six vulnerable groups. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched using keywords and MeSH terms from each database's inception published prior to March 2014. Study selection Studies that provided either qualitative or quantitative (ie, longitudinal, cross-sectional or cohort surveys) descriptions of self-reported perceived barriers to quitting smoking in one of the six aforementioned vulnerable groups were included. Data extraction Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Results 65 eligible papers were identified: 24 with low socioeconomic groups, 16 with Indigenous groups, 18 involving people with a mental illness, 3 with homeless groups, 2 involving prisoners and 1 involving at-risk youth. One study identified was carried out with participants who were homeless and addicted to alcohol and/or other drugs. Barriers common to all vulnerable groups included: smoking for stress management, lack of support from health and other service providers, and the high prevalence and acceptability of smoking in vulnerable communities. Unique barriers were identified for people with a mental illness (eg, maintenance of mental health), Indigenous groups (eg, cultural and historical norms), prisoners (eg, living conditions), people who are homeless (eg, competing priorities) and at-risk youth (eg, high accessibility of tobacco). Conclusions Vulnerable groups experience common barriers to smoking cessation, in addition to barriers that are unique to specific vulnerable groups. Individual-level, community-level and social network-level interventions are priority areas for future smoking cessation interventions within

  17. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - A VIABLE INSTRUMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN SOUTH WEST OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA OANA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the need for the tourism sector to adopt a policy of social responsibility for building sustainable development, necessary for the socio-economic recovery of Romania. The study includes a sample of 68 hotels in the five counties of South West Oltenia Region. Data for the research was collected by accessing the official websites for each hotel in order to analyze the degree of implementation of social responsibility on the basis of ten variables, required to achieve a sustainable tourism. The findings reveal a lack of transparency and involvement in social responsibility of the hotel industry in South West Oltenia. Research has shown that accomodation and tourism sector in the region analyzed is far from reaching the international standards, so the adoption of recommendations on best practices would be an important step forward for enhancing sustainable tourism in Romania.

  18. OPPORTUNITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT RELATIVE TO THE SPECIFIC OF SOUTH WEST OLTENIA REGION OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu Dumitru

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For a healthy economic development is needed to use in a most efficient way the existing natural resources.In this sense, we present some opportunities for economic development of the South-West Oltenia region suggested bythe particularities of this area. We put emphasis on agriculture and tourism because here we identified the greatestpotential for development. Opportunities in agriculture are justified by the existence of large agricultural areas thatare not cultivated and those that are made in an inefficient way. In these cases, an increase in productivity can beachieved by the creation of holdings of large and very large dimensions. Also, the creation of technological chains totransform agricultural products into finished products can rise the number of employees and increase profits. In termsof a usability for about 30% of accommodation in the South West Oltenia development region and a wide range oftourist attractions in the area, the potential for growth in tourism is considerable.

  19. The punctuation in the evolution of orbitoides in the campanian of South-West France

    OpenAIRE

    Drooger, C.W.; Klerk, J.C. de

    1985-01-01

    For the Orbitoides assemblages analyzed from a number of closely sampled sections of Campanian calcarenites in south-west France there is a sudden change in the means of several parameters of the internal embryonicnepionic stage. The direction of the change is in accordance with the nepionic acceleration principle, known to be valid for all lineages of orbitoidallarger foraminifera. Below and above the level of the morphological break we seem to be dealing with two longer periods without any ...

  20. Anthropogenic aerosol emissions and rainfall decline in South-West Australia: coincidence or causality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzeller, Dominikus; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    It is commonly understood that the observed decline in precipitation in South-West Australia during the 20th century is caused by anthropogenic factors. Candidates therefore are changes to large-scale atmospheric circulations due to global warming, extensive deforestation and anthropogenic aerosol emissions - all of which are effective on different spatial and temporal scales. This presentation focusses on the role of rapidly rising aerosol emissions from anthropogenic sources in South-West Australia around 1970. An analysis of historical longterm rainfall data of the Bureau of Meteorology shows that South-West Australia as a whole experienced a gradual decline in precipitation over the 20th century. However, on smaller scales and for the particular example of the Perth catchment area, a sudden drop in precipitation around 1970 is apparent. Modelling experiments at a convection-resolving resolution of 3.3km using the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.6.1 with the aerosol-aware Thompson-Eidhammer microphysics scheme are conducted for the period 1970-1974. A comparison of four runs with different prescribed aerosol emissions and without aerosol effects demonstrates that tripling the pre-1960s atmospheric CCN and IN concentrations can suppress precipitation by 2-9%, depending on the area and the season. This suggests that a combination of all three processes is required to account for the gradual decline in rainfall seen for greater South-West Australia and for the sudden drop observed in areas along the West Coast in the 1970s: changing atmospheric circulations, deforestation and anthropogenic aerosol emissions.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of Anemia Screening in Vulnerable Groups: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratnejad, Shirin; Barfar, Eshagh; Hosseini, Hamed; Barooti, Esmat; Rashidian, Arash

    2014-07-01

    Anemia is the most common blood disorder observed in vulnerable groups and affects their efficiency in their everyday activities. Possible complications of the disease may be reduced or prevented by screening of patients. Screening programs impose certain costs upon the health system, which may offset their positive effects. Whether the positive impacts of screening outweigh its costs is a subject of debate among policy-makers. In this research, we have conducted a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of anemia screening. The Pubmed, Science Direct, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant results dating between 1962-2010 using key words. The references of the related articles were gone over manually. In the end, Persian databases were also examined for results. Using data from the four mentioned databases, a total of 722 articles were elected, which, after evaluation, were narrowed down to 4. Of these, 3 focused on newborns and infants. Disparity existed among obtained results, such that no two articles were similar, and this made making comparisons between them cumbersome and sometimes even impossible. Only one study evaluated cost-effectiveness of anemia screening in vulnerable target groups. Research findings show that there is not enough evidence of cost-effectiveness of screening for decision-making. Bearing in mind the importance of the matter to health policy-makers, due to high prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries, conduction of research in this field seems necessary.

  2. Applying cognitive learning theories to understanding of learning in vulnerable groups of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Kuran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-twentieth century cognitive learning theories appeared as a criticism of behaviourism, and were later replaced by constructivist and connectivist learning theories. In the last two decades psychological research into cognition experienced a revival thanks to new methodological possibilities. This article brings a selection of research studies related to adult edu- cation in various ways: post-formal cognitive development stage, cognitive ageing, the meaning of crystallized intelligence in adulthood, and research into learning styles. The article proceeds with an account of research of literacy in vulnerable social groups and ends with a final chapter, which brings useful findings for researchers and adult education practitioners. In this article, the author has drawn from two separate sources. The first source are the professional premises underlying conceptualization of multi-media contents, prepared by the Slovenian Institute for Adult Education within the framework of the project titled Literacy development, and Assessment and Acknowledgement of Non-formal Learning between 2009 – 2011. The theoretical part of the underlying professional premises dealt, among other, with cognitive aspects of adult learning, which represent the basis of this article. The second source is the authorØs personal involvement in the field of cognitive psychology, or rather, in the field of cognitive sciences, in which even today learning and education of vulnerable groups of adults is given only marginal consideration in research.

  3. Activity of convective tropical gravity-waves above the south west indian ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, S.; Chane-Ming, F.; Keckhut, P.

    Tropical gravity waves play an important role in the dynamics of the middle atmosphere Such small-scale waves can transport energy and momentum vertically as well as horizontally from the troposphere to the middle and upper atmosphere affecting the global circulation Recent studies have focused on the characterization of gravity-waves from local and global observation to improve numerical modelling in terms of parameterisation and comparison for more realistic outputs Many studies have used high-resolution radiosoundings but first climatologies concern continental regions such as Australia and the US Allen and Vincent 1995 Wang and Geller 2003 In the tropics and over ocean and especially in the South-West Indian Ocean measurements are scarce and little is known about the activity of the gravity-waves except using satellite data for large-scale gravity waves above the lower stratosphere In this study a climatology and spatial distribution of the gravity-wave activity for the South West Indian Ocean is produced The dataset includes measurements of daily soundings in the South-West Indian Ocean located between 4oS-30oS and 30oE-56oE Waves parameters energy spatial and temporal scales of waves direction of horizontal wave propagation are analyzed from January 1998 to November 2005 in the troposphere and lower stratosphere A daily activity and wave sources tropical cyclones QBO convection are also investigated

  4. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    W. Dawes; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; I. Emelyanova; Hodgson, G; Mcfarlane, D

    2012-01-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rai...

  5. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    W. Dawes; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; I. Emelyanova; Hodgson, G; Mcfarlane, D

    2012-01-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia, provides approximately 60 percent of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rai...

  6. School Functioning of a Particularly Vulnerable Group: Children and Young People in Residential Child Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla González-García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the children and young people in residential child care in Spain are there as a consequence of abuse and neglect in their birth families. Research has shown that these types of adverse circumstances in childhood are risk factors for emotional and behavioral problems, as well as difficulties in adapting to different contexts. School achievement is related to this and represents one of the most affected areas. Children in residential child care exhibit extremely poor performance and difficulties in school functioning which affects their transition to adulthood and into the labor market. The main aim of this study is to describe the school functioning of a sample of 1,216 children aged between 8 and 18 living in residential child care in Spain. The specific needs of children with intellectual disability and unaccompanied migrant children were also analyzed. Relationships with other variables such as gender, age, mental health needs, and other risk factors were also explored. In order to analyze school functioning in this vulnerable group, the sample was divided into different groups depending on school level and educational needs. In the vast majority of cases, children were in primary or compulsory secondary education (up to age 16, this group included a significant proportion of cases in special education centers. The rest of the sample were in vocational training or post-compulsory secondary school. Results have important implications for the design of socio-educative intervention strategies in both education and child care systems in order to promote better school achievement and better educational qualifications in this vulnerable group.

  7. School Functioning of a Particularly Vulnerable Group: Children and Young People in Residential Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Carla; Lázaro-Visa, Susana; Santos, Iriana; Del Valle, Jorge F; Bravo, Amaia

    2017-01-01

    A large proportion of the children and young people in residential child care in Spain are there as a consequence of abuse and neglect in their birth families. Research has shown that these types of adverse circumstances in childhood are risk factors for emotional and behavioral problems, as well as difficulties in adapting to different contexts. School achievement is related to this and represents one of the most affected areas. Children in residential child care exhibit extremely poor performance and difficulties in school functioning which affects their transition to adulthood and into the labor market. The main aim of this study is to describe the school functioning of a sample of 1,216 children aged between 8 and 18 living in residential child care in Spain. The specific needs of children with intellectual disability and unaccompanied migrant children were also analyzed. Relationships with other variables such as gender, age, mental health needs, and other risk factors were also explored. In order to analyze school functioning in this vulnerable group, the sample was divided into different groups depending on school level and educational needs. In the vast majority of cases, children were in primary or compulsory secondary education (up to age 16), this group included a significant proportion of cases in special education centers. The rest of the sample were in vocational training or post-compulsory secondary school. Results have important implications for the design of socio-educative intervention strategies in both education and child care systems in order to promote better school achievement and better educational qualifications in this vulnerable group.

  8. Replacing Concrete with Natural and Social Engineering: Learning the Lessons of Stakeholder Engagement from South West Water's Upland Catchment Management Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Grand-Clement, Emile; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Replacing Concrete with Natural and Social Engineering: Learning the Lessons of Stakeholder Engagement from South West Water's Upland Catchment Management Programme Smith, D., Grand-Clement, E., Anderson, K., Luscombe, D., G, N., Bratis, Brazier, R.E Peatlands in the South West of the British Isles have been extensively drained for agricultural reclamation and peat cutting. The improvement in food production resulting from this management practice has never clearly been observed. Instead, we are now faced with several detrimental consequences on a whole suite of ecosystem services, such as the delivery of water, water quality, biodiversity and carbon storage. Alongside the direct environmental implications, poor water quality is increasing water treatment costs and will drive significant future investment. As a result, water companies now need to find appropriate solutions to varying water levels and decreasing water quality through catchment management. The Mires Project, the catchment management programme used by South West Water (SWW) is working with a wide range of stakeholders to restore the hydrological functioning of peatlands, and the ecosystem services they provide. This programme is driven by overarching legal requirements (i.e. the water framework directive, Natura 2000), future climate change predictions, corporate responsibility and commercial needs. Post-restoration scientific monitoring is at the heart of the project improving of our understanding of the eco-hydrological and chemical process driving changes in management practice. The challenges faced from the involvement of a wide range of stakeholders will be explored, focusing on the benefits from stakeholder involvement in catchment management and hydrological research, but also considering the difficulties to be overcome. SWW is working with private land-owners, government agencies, local and national park Authorities, community and single interest groups and research institutions to achieve its

  9. The new face of rheumatic heart disease in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Johnson Olarewaju Peter,2 Adebayo Tolulope Oyedeji,2 Abiona Oluwadamilola Odeyemi21Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaPurpose: To determine the current prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD, clinical features, types of valvular lesions, complications and mortality, at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South West Nigeria.Methods: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of all the cases of RHD seen in the medical outpatient clinics and wards of LAUTECH for 9 years, from January 2003 to December 2011. Statistical analysis of data obtained was done using SPSS 16. Results: The total number of attendees of all the medical outpatient clinics during the 9-year period was 67,378, with a subset of 9423 attending the cardiology clinic. There were 11 cases of RHD, which translates to a prevalence of 0.16/1000 and 1.2/1000 for medical outpatient clinics and the cardiology clinic respectively. The mean age of the patients was 25.64 ± 9.65 years, age range 14–40 years and male to female ratio of 1:1.2. The most common valve affected was mitral (90.9%, followed by the aortic (36.4%, and the tricuspid (18.2%. Mitral and aortic lesions coexisted in 18.2% of the patients, and late presentation was common in all RHD cases. Heart failure was the most common complication (90.9%. Other complications were secondary pulmonary hypertension (36.4%, infective endocarditis (27.3%, atrial fibrillation (27.3%, cardioembolic cerebrovascular disease (18.2%, and atrial flutter (9.1%. Mortality was 9.1%, while only one patient (9.1% had definitive surgery. Financial constraints precluded others from having definitive surgery.Conclusion: The prevalence of RHD has declined considerably as a result of improvements in the primary health care delivery system, with widespread use

  10. Equity Promotion Policies in Health for vulnerable groups: the role of the Ministry of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Sandra Aparecida Venâncio de; Hollanda, Eliane; Motta, José Inácio Jardim

    2017-05-01

    This article aims to analyze Equity Promotion Policies in Health implemented by the Ministry of Health for vulnerable groups, through the Department of Strategy and Participative Management based on race, ethnicity, gender and lifestyle markers. The three structural elements of these policies are identified as: participatory management, transversality and awareness / professional qualifications. In carrying out research for this article, different documental sources were used including: policies, videos, conferences and minutes from council meetings as well as information from health committees. The results showed positive aspects and shortcomings in the implementation process of these policies. Also, they revealed that there are permanent tensions between equality policies and equity policies which pose challenges to guaranteeing the right to health of these populations. Finally, it can be reaffirmed that only in democratic societies can these rights be recognized and guaranteed.

  11. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification......INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels...... in Eastern and Western Denmark and to identify potentially vulnerable groups. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of pregnant Danish women (n = 240). Questionnaires and urine samples were collected at the Ultrasound Clinic, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) (µg...

  12. Time distribution of heavy rainfall events in south west of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabi, Zahra; kamali, G. Ali; Meshkatee, Amir-Hussain; Hajam, Sohrab; Javaheri, Nasrolah

    2016-07-01

    Accurate knowledge of rainfall time distribution is a fundamental issue in many Meteorological-Hydrological studies such as using the information of the surface runoff in the design of the hydraulic structures, flood control and risk management, and river engineering studies. Since the main largest dams of Iran are in the south-west of the country (i.e. South Zagros), this research investigates the temporal rainfall distribution based on an analytical numerical method to increase the accuracy of hydrological studies in Iran. The United States Soil Conservation Service (SCS) estimated the temporal rainfall distribution in various forms. Hydrology studies usually utilize the same distribution functions in other areas of the world including Iran due to the lack of sufficient observation data. However, we first used Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to achieve the simulated rainfall results of the selected storms on south west of Iran in this research. Then, a three-parametric Logistic function was fitted to the rainfall data in order to compute the temporal rainfall distribution. The domain of the WRF model is 30.5N-34N and 47.5E-52.5E with a resolution of 0.08 degree in latitude and longitude. We selected 35 heavy storms based on the observed rainfall data set to simulate with the WRF Model. Storm events were scrutinized independently from each other and the best analytical three-parametric logistic function was fitted for each grid point. The results show that the value of the coefficient a of the logistic function, which indicates rainfall intensity, varies from the minimum of 0.14 to the maximum of 0.7. Furthermore, the values of the coefficient B of the logistic function, which indicates rain delay of grid points from start time of rainfall, vary from 1.6 in south-west and east to more than 8 in north and central parts of the studied area. In addition, values of rainfall intensities are lower in south west of IRAN than those of observed or proposed by the

  13. An Exploratory Study of the Women Entrepreneurial Motivation in the South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D.Chinonye Okafor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurial motivation is a function of variables that are subject to authors and researchers’ opinions and views. These variables can be classified based on their impact on women entrepreneurial performance, behavior and challenges. This paper is therefore focused on examining the factors that affect women entrepreneurial motivation in the South-West Nigeria. The data used for the study was obtained through primary source. The data gathered was analyzed using the model of correlation analysis. Recommendations were made based on the result obtained from the testing of the hypothesis.

  14. ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON THE LABOR MARKET IN THE REGION SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buşan Gabriela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The international financial crisis has inevitably felt in the the Romanian economy influences transmitted through the various paths. The connection with the international economic flows has generated negative implications both in the economy and in various regions, as evidenced by analysis of key indicators: labor resources, civil active population, the activity rate of unemployment labor resources, etc.. The impact of economic crisis on the labor market in Romania has resulted in the job losses or temporary unemployment as a result technical or permanently, the termination of the contract of employment. The research aims to identify the adverse effects in the labor market at the level of the South West Oltenia.

  15. The pollen stratigraphy of late Quaternary lake sediments of South-West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Michael; Funder, Svend Visby

    1974-01-01

    Pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating of lake sediment cores from four localities in the Frederikshab district, South-West Greenland, provide a chronology of vegetation changes in the area since c. 10000 B.P. An initial pioneer phase with the early development of some heath communities is followed...... composition of the vegetation however is influenced by immigration phenomena, with the appearance of many species lagging behind the attainment of their climatic thresholds. Detailed consideration is given to the possibility of Alnus crispa being present as a scrub component during the climatic optimum....

  16. Surveillance of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus in chicken eggs in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börstler, Jessica; Engel, Dimitri; Petersen, Mathis; Poggensee, Claudia; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Lühken, Renke

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in several European countries increases the risk of its introduction to Germany. This study evaluated a new method for WNV surveillance by testing for maternal antibodies in chicken eggs. A total of 1,990 eggs were collected in 35 sampling sites in the south-west of Germany and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. The results did not indicate evidence for WNV circulation in the study area. This work serves as a proof-of-concept that such a method is useful and a potential alternative to use of sentinel chicken for regular WNV surveillance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Vulnerability as a Function of Individual and Group Resources in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter L. Defur; Gary W. Evans; Elaine A. Cohen Hubal; Amy D. Kyle; Rachel A. Morello-Frosch; David R. Williams

    2007-01-01

    ... assessment literature. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to examine the issue of vulnerability in cumulative risk assessment and present a conceptual framework rather than a comprehensive review of the literature. In this article we consider similarities between ecologic and human communities and the factors that make communities vulnerable to environmenta...

  18. Exploring participant appreciation of group-based principles for action in community-based physical activity programs for socially vulnerable groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, Marion; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is a core risk factor for non-communicable diseases. In the Netherlands, socially vulnerable groups are relatively less active than groups with higher socio-economic status. Community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs aim to empower

  19. HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV AND SYPHILIS CO-INFECTIONS AMONG THE PEOPLE OF EKITI, SOUTH-WEST, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbolaji Thompson J, Odeyemi Festus A, Adegeye Festus O, Ojo Olalekan I, Akinseye Funmilayo J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to know the prevalence of hepatitis B, syphilis and co-infection of both among the people of Ekiti, South-West, Nigeria. Individuals and patients who visited the Haematology and Blood Transfusion Unit of Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti to screen themselves for HBV and Syphilis infections between January to November, 2014 were recruited for this study having obtained their consent. 4ml of blood sample was collected from each subject into a plain bottle and was allowed to stand for 1hour for clotting and clot retraction to take place. Sera were separated into khan tubes labeled appropriately and were screened for the presence of antibodies to HVB and syphilis using One-Stage Rapid Test Kits (DiaSpot Diagnostics and were later confirmed using enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA (Stat Fax Awareness, England. One Thousand Six Hundred and Thirty-Nine subjects were recruited for this study, out of which Seven Hundred and Seventy-Four were males while Eight Hundred and Sixty-Five were females. 101(6.16% were positive to HBV, 51(0.92% positive to syphilis and 5(0.31% were co-infected with both infections. The results of this study showed higher prevalence of hepatitis B infection than syphilis infection with the highest prevalence found within the age group 31-40 years and 21-30 years indicating that most of the infected people got the infection through sexual intercourse.

  20. Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in the south-west of Ireland 1983-1992: a comparison with M. tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    Epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of human Mycobacterium bovis disease were investigated in south-west Ireland (counties Cork & Kerry, population 536,000) over the years 1983-92 inclusive and compared to M. tuberculosis. Results showed a small, stable incidence of culture positive M. bovis human disease, mean annual incidence 0.56 per 100,000 population compared to a higher but declining incidence of culture positive M. tuberculosis (15.3 per 100,000 in 1983, 9.0 per 100,000 in 1992). Male patients were the majority, 63.4 per cent of M. bovis; 62.4% of M. tuberculosis (p = 0.03). Fifty three per cent of M. bovis cases (n = 30) were pulmonary, compared to 85% of M. tuberculosis (n = 626; p = 0.0001). M. bovis patients were older (p = 0.02), mean age 58.4 years (SD 18.9) compared to 48.5 (SD 22.2). The mycobacterial smear positive rate was similar in both groups taken as a whole. No rural-urban difference in incidence was found in either disease, suggesting in the case of M. bovis initial infection in childhood via contaminated milk in the pre-pasteurisation era.

  1. Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam Saliu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9% were in the age group 20–24 years with mean age of 30.99±11.41. About half (50.3% had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%, health care workers (25%, prison staff (20%, and mass media (25% were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%. About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this.

  2. Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Akintunde, Babatunde

    2014-01-01

    Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9%) were in the age group 20-24 years with mean age of 30.99 ± 11.41. About half (50.3%) had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%), health care workers (25%), prison staff (20%), and mass media (25%) were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%). About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this.

  3. Drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mengistu Kebede, Dereje Kebebe Borga, Eshetu Mulisa Bobasa Department of Pharmacy, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Sustaining the availability and rational use of safe and effective drugs is a major problem in developing countries. Irrational drug use affects quality of health care more than accessibility of drugs. Objective: To assess drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone from January 21–28, 2012 by using structured questionnaires. Results: Of 50 prescribers and 30 dispensers, 58% and 83.3% were males, respectively. The result showed that majority of prescribers agreed on availability of essential drugs (72% and had access to up-to-date drug information (76%. However, 43.3% of dispensers didn't get access to up-to-date drug information. 86% and 88% of prescribers note cost of drugs and stick to standard treatment guidelines of Ethiopia during prescription, respectively. All drug dispensers check the name of the drug (100%, age of the patient (90%, the dosage form of drug (96.7%, the route of administration (90%, the duration of therapy (86.7%, and frequency of administration (86.7% for prescription papers. Conclusion: In general, drug utilization at the study sites was found to be good, although there are major deviations from the concept of rational drug use. Keywords: drug utilizations, rational drug use, health facilities

  4. Water Qualitative Parameters of Fluviatile Limans Located in the South - West of Dobrogea (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ROMANESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fluviatile limans in the south-west of Dobrogea are the most characteristic forms of this type, with an exclusive development on the territory of Romania. In time, they were interpreted as fluvio-maritime limans or even as fluvio-lacustrine limans. As a result of the fact that they are situated close to the Danube, bordering one of the driest regions of Romania, they have had diverse usage since ancient times. Because the fluviatile limans in Dobrogea are mostly used in pisciculture, the water qualitative parameters have to be monitored permanently. They also have a role in attenuating floods, acting as a tampon against flash floods. Consequently, they have a special local importance even today, feeding as much of the population as possible (directly or indirectly. From a geomorphological point of view the fluviatile limans in Dobogea were formed as a result of the withdrawal of the Romanian (Levantine. The decrease in depth may cause the flood waves to pass over the dams. In this case, the periodical drainage of lake cuvettes is required. The physical parameters of water (depth, transparency and temperature as well as the chemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates and the Ca/Mg ratio have been analyzed. From an ecological viewpoint, the fluviatile limans in the south-west of Dobrogea are suitable for fish breeding and for developing an adequate lacustrine life.

  5. Analysis of Restrictive Environments in the South-West Oltenia Development Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Matei Cocheci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Restrictive environments can be defined as an area within a territorial system where development is constrained either by natural factors or anthropogenic factors. This paper aims to identify restrictive environments through multi-criteria analysis of Romania’s South West Oltenia development region, known for its issues regarding open-pit mining, desertification or flood risk. In order to achieve this, I proposed a typology of restrictive environments, based on an extensive literature review of natural and anthropogenic factors that can limit development. For each of the ten environmental restrictiveness types identified, several criteria were proposed, which were then weighted as a result of a questionnaire addressed to experts in the field of territorial planning. Based on the questionnaire results, an index of environmental restrictiveness is computed at LAU 2 level for the entire South-West Oltenia development region. The territorialized index highlights the environmental restrictiveness of areas susceptible to flood risk (e.g. along the Jiu valley, but also the problems faced by mining areas (Motru-Rovinari or isolated mountain areas. The computed index represents a first step towards the definition of potential inter-communal cooperation structures, that could become the object of territorial planning instruments aimed at mitigating restrictive environments.

  6. Conducting a critical interpretive synthesis of the literature on access to healthcare by vulnerable groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lucy

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional systematic review techniques have limitations when the aim of a review is to construct a critical analysis of a complex body of literature. This article offers a reflexive account of an attempt to conduct an interpretive review of the literature on access to healthcare by vulnerable groups in the UK Methods This project involved the development and use of the method of Critical Interpretive Synthesis (CIS. This approach is sensitised to the processes of conventional systematic review methodology and draws on recent advances in methods for interpretive synthesis. Results Many analyses of equity of access have rested on measures of utilisation of health services, but these are problematic both methodologically and conceptually. A more useful means of understanding access is offered by the synthetic construct of candidacy. Candidacy describes how people's eligibility for healthcare is determined between themselves and health services. It is a continually negotiated property of individuals, subject to multiple influences arising both from people and their social contexts and from macro-level influences on allocation of resources and configuration of services. Health services are continually constituting and seeking to define the appropriate objects of medical attention and intervention, while at the same time people are engaged in constituting and defining what they understand to be the appropriate objects of medical attention and intervention. Access represents a dynamic interplay between these simultaneous, iterative and mutually reinforcing processes. By attending to how vulnerabilities arise in relation to candidacy, the phenomenon of access can be better understood, and more appropriate recommendations made for policy, practice and future research. Discussion By innovating with existing methods for interpretive synthesis, it was possible to produce not only new methods for conducting what we have termed critical

  7. Unaccompanied refugee minors in Germany: attitudes of the general population towards a vulnerable group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plener, Paul L; Groschwitz, Rebecca C; Brähler, Elmar; Sukale, Thorsten; Fegert, Jörg M

    2017-06-01

    Germany saw an increase in numbers of refugees in 2015, with nearly a third being below the age of 18. Unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) present an especially vulnerable group. In addition to pre-flight and flight stress, the acculturation process can work as potential stressor, and we wanted to explore attitudes towards URM. We conducted a study in a representative sample (n = 2524) of the German population (ages 14 years or older) between January and March 2016. Only 22.8% of participants thought that Germany could accompany more URM. While few participants argued in support of immediate deportation of URM in general (38.6%) or of URM from the Middle East (35.3%), a majority advocated for immediate deportations of URM from the Balkan region (62%) or from Africa (51.1%). Difference in the variance regarding attitudes towards deportation was explained mostly by right-wing political attitudes as well as by islamophobic attitudes and general rejection of asylum seekers. High rates of approval were found for guaranteeing the same chances to schooling or apprenticeship for URM as to German children and for bestowing URM a right to permanent residence if they were able to complete school or apprenticeship. Education and qualification are key to integration. Studies about needs and wishes of URM consistently report a high motivation to learn the language of their new host country and attend school. At this point, hopes of URM and expectations of society meet, which underlines the importance of participation in education as key factor in integration.

  8. The Impact of Physical Facilities on Students' Level of Motivation and Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools in South West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomolafe, Comfort Olufunke; Adesua, Veronica Olubunmi

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the relevance of physical facilities in enhancing the level of motivation and the academic performance of senior secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The population consists of all senior secondary students in South West Nigeria. The sample for the study include one thousand…

  9. Molecular epidemiology of mumps virus strains circulating in south-west China from 2007 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haijing; Liu, Longding; Ma, Shaohui; Chen, Junying; Che, Yanchun; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Qihan

    2011-10-01

    The genetic characteristics of mumps virus (MuV) strains isolated from sporadic mumps cases between 2007 and 2009 in three provinces of south-west China were investigated. MuV detection was carried out by nested RT-PCR on 117 cases. The small hydrophobic gene of 33 isolated strains was identified, and sequence analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to the lineage genotype F with slight nucleotide variation. Furthermore, the virus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase and nucleoprotein antigens exhibited a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid similarity (>99 %) within all isolates, whilst the fusion protein appeared to have certain geographical differences. This study on molecular surveillance will help to monitor the circulation of MuV in China.

  10. INDIVIDUALISATION OF DEPRIVED AREAS IN ROMANIA’S SOUTH WEST REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Matei COCHECI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring territorial disparities is the first step in studies aiming to improve territorial cohesion. As intraregional disparities are often higher than inter-regional ones, an analysis of development at local level is needed in order to define areas of intervention for specific targeted policies. The aim of this study is to individualise deprived areas in Romania’s South West region through the use of the Principal Component Analysis run on 15 social, economic, demographic and physical indicators defined at local level (LAU 2 units. By computing a global index of deprived areas, 13 areas were individualised at regional level, with the results being compared with other studies on deprived areas (Romania’s poverty map, Social Development Index and Less-favoured areas. The final output showcased the differences in defining deprived areas according to the used methodology, with a need to standardise such methods for policy targeting in the future while also considering environmental quality factors.

  11. Macro and trace elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from South West Atlantic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camacho, Carolina; Rocha, A. Cristina; Barbosa, Vera L.

    2018-01-01

    Sea urchin represents one of the most valuable seafood product being harvested and explored for their edible part, the gonads or roe. This species is generally considered a sentinel organism for ecotoxicological studies being widely used in monitoring programs to assess coastal aquatic environments...... three South West Atlantic production areas subjected to distinct environmental and anthropogenic pressures. In all studied areas, the elements profile in sea urchin gonads was Cl > K > P > Ca > S > Zn > Br > Fe > Sr > I > Rb > Cu > Se > Cr > Ni, suggesting an element guide profile with special interest...... for sea urchin farming development. Concerning toxic elements, the profile was the following: As > Cd > Pb > Hg > iAs. The results evidenced higher levels of Pb and Hg in open areas. Distinct area characteristics and anthropogenic pressures of production areas evidence the importance of biomonitoring...

  12. Bioaccumulation of metals by Fucus ceranoides in estuaries of South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Ranjit; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T

    2011-11-01

    Fucus ceranoides tolerates abiotic conditions encountered across the full range of estuarine salinities. We examined the bioaccumulation of metals in individuals and metal concentrations in accompanying sediment samples collected at different locations along estuaries of South West England. Intra- and inter-estuarine variations in metal accumulation by F. ceranoides, after correction for particulate contamination using Fe as a proxy, were attributed to variations in the availabilities and concentrations of aqueous metals. Greatest accumulation was observed in estuaries that remain most heavily impacted by historical mining activities and for metals that were mobilised to the greatest extent during these operations (As, Cu, Sn, Zn). Arsenic concentrations displayed a seaward increase in estuaries in which multiple samples were taken, whereas Cd concentrations were always greatest in samples collected from the most landward locations. Ongoing research aims to better understand the mechanisms and kinetics of metal interactions with F. ceranoides and their dependence on salinity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Marriage, intimacy and risk of HIV infection in south west Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agol, Dorice; Bukenya, Dominic; Seeley, Janet; Kabunga, Elazabeth; Katahoire, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Long-term, monogamous, relationships are often portrayed as protective in HIV prevention campaigns. Focusing on marriage in a community in south west Uganda, we examine why and how people enter long term relationships, what their expectations are and what factors sustain those relationships. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth interviews with 50 men and women randomly selected from a General Population Cohort. The results showed that managing expectations to sustain marriage is challenging; however the socio-economic and cultural benefits of marriage: having children, property acquisition as well as securing societal status tend to overshadow the costs associated with risks from infidelity such as sexually transmitted infections (including HIV). Recognising the compromises that couples may make to sustain their marriage is an important step towards acknowledging that 'being faithful' may be about staying together and showing commitment, not sexual exclusivity.

  14. Using reflection seismics to identify and monitor the basal conditions of Russell Glacier South West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstede, Coen; Kleiner, Thomas; Bondzio, Johannes; Eisen, Olaf; Wilhelms, Frank; Bohleber, Pascal; Fritzsche, Diedrich; Hubbard, Alun

    2015-04-01

    Russell Glacier is a land terminating glacier in South West Greenland. Survey site SHR lies at several kilometers from the terminus and is closely monitored. In recent years in Summer months, site SHR has seen unusual high ice velocities of up to 400m/a which have been linked to increased Summer melt. To capture the probably changing basal conditions of Russell Glacier at SHR we carried out two seismic surveys at site SHR, one in September 2013 at the end of the melt season and one in May 2014 at the start of the melt season. The seismic data were recorded using a 300m snow streamer and explosives. The data reveal an ice thickness of about 550m and 30 to 40m thick accreted subglacial sediments with varying degrees of water saturation in both ice and sediment. We speculate the increased ice velocity is caused by sediments that become temporarily liquefied in the Summer months.

  15. An LCA of WA's south west interconnected electricity grid year ending 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The LCA has been carried out to quantify the environmental impacts of power generation, transmission and distribution in Western Australia. This report is part of a series of life cycle analysis (LCA) studies of the Australian State electricity grids which are being undertaken to provide benchmarks for future studies. The present study covers only the South West Interconnected System (SWIS), which accounts for approximately 55% of the total power generated in Western Australia, the remainder being generated by captive power plants. The study aims to provide a more detailed study than in previous reports, which tend to focus only on greenhouse gas emissions, and includes several other key performance indicators - resource energy and fresh water consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, NOx, SOx, particulates and solid waste emissions. Also included is the range of substances reported for the SWIS from the National Pollutant Inventory (NPI) database.

  16. External occupational exposures in some NORM industries located at the South-West of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, J. P.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    Detailed mappings of the external exposures which can be received by the workers in two NORM industrial factories located at the South-West of Spain have been performed: one devoted to the production of phosphoric acid, and the other devoted to the production of titanium dioxide pigments. In most places of the analyzed factories, the external exposures are moderated, although in some specific points, and associated to the presence of scales, their values are clearly higher. Nevertheless, under normal running conditions, the contribution of the external exposures to the effective doses received by the workers is lower than 1 mSv/y because the worker occupancy factors values are very low in the places with the highest external exposures.

  17. Performance and productivity changes in microfinance banks in South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa A. Olasupo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Microfinance sub-sector is yet to attain the desired level of global best practice. This paper thus investigated the performance and productivity changes of MFBs in South-West Nigeria, from 2006 to 2010, having had the Microfinance Policy launched in 200. From the use of relevant accounting ratios, the study revealed that only 16% of the sampled MFBs met the recommended maximum PAR value of 5% in 200. It was also revealed that 31% of the sampled MFBs reported a debt/equity ratio above the recommended value of 2 in 2006, while 32% had gearing of over 2 in 2010. The Malmquist productivity index revealed that the MFBs experienced fluctuating performances in their productivity changes, with pure technical efficiency improvements in 2007 and 2009. Overall, the performance and productivity changes experienced by the MFBs depicted a sub-sector with huge potentials and hence require nurturing to achieve its goals.

  18. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawes, W; Ali, R; Varma, S; Emelyanova, I; Hodgson, G; McFarlane, D

    2012-01-01

    .... There is expected to be a reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia...

  19. Youthful Lust and Violation of Mobile Phone Rule in a Private Christian Mission University, South West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Omonijo Dare; Ugochukwu, Nnedum Obiajulu Anthony; Obinna, Ezeokana Jude

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at discovering the difference in the perceived lack of privacy in communication and violation of mobile phone rule among students in a Private Christian Mission University, South-West Nigeria. It equally tries to discover if there is a difference in the perceived students' desire to express love to the opposite sex and violation of…

  20. Conceptions of the Nature of Science Held by Undergraduate Pre-Service Biology Teachers in South-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoyin, A. O.; Bello, G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the conceptions of the nature of science held by pre-service undergraduate biology teachers in South-West, Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined the influence of their gender on their conceptions of the nature of science. The study was a descriptive research of the survey method. The population for the study comprised…

  1. Malignancy in scleroderma patients from south west England: a population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siau, Keith

    2010-01-08

    The pathophysiological relationship between scleroderma and malignancy remains poorly understood. Although some previous studies have demonstrated an increased malignancy risk in patients with scleroderma, others have been inconclusive. We aimed to determine if patients with scleroderma had an increased risk of malignancy compared to an age- and sex-matched local South West England population, and if there were any important differences between scleroderma patients with and without malignancy. Methods of this study are as follows. Notes were obtained on all local scleroderma patients (n = 68) locally, and those diagnosed with malignancy verified by contacting each patient\\'s general practitioner. Expected malignancy figures were obtained from age- and sex-stratified regional prevalence data provided by the South West Cancer Intelligence Service registry. Among the patients, 22.1% with scleroderma were identified with concurrent malignancy. Affected sites were of the breast (n = 5), haematological system (n = 5), skin (n = 4), and unknown primary (n = 1). Overall, malignancy risk was found to be increased in scleroderma (RR = 3.15, 95% CI 1.77-5.20, p = 0.01). In particular, this risk was the highest for haematological malignancies (RR = 18.5, 95% CI 6-43, p = 0.03), especially for non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (RR = 25.8, 95% CI 5-75, p = 0.10). The majority of patients (86.7%) developed malignancy after the onset of scleroderma (mean = 6.9 years). Age of >70 and patients with limited scleroderma were significant risk factors for a patient with scleroderma to have a concurrent malignancy; however, no increased risk was found in patients with any particular pattern of organ involvement, cytotoxic usage or serology. To conclude, in this small patient cohort, we have found that scleroderma is associated with an increased risk of malignancy. This risk is statistically significant in patients with limited scleroderma. Patients who are elderly and those with limited disease

  2. Psychological services in five South-west Queensland communities--supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikstra, Elizabeth; Fallon, Anthony B; Eley, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This research gathered information in 2004 about psychological services provided to five rural communities located in South-west Queensland, Australia. Specifically, the aims of the project were to: (i) undertake an audit of existing psychological services; and (ii) determine the need for psychological services as perceived by providers of current services. Potential providers of psychological services were contacted to confirm the nature and extent of their provision of psychological support to target communities. Thirty organisations met the definition of service providers offering assessment or intervention by qualified and/or experienced persons. Data were collected by semi-structured telephone interviews with 44 employees of the service providers. The one main publicly-funded provider of services to the region offered limited services to the communities. Although some counselling was provided by social workers attached to the allied health program, for patients to be supported by the mental health sector of this service, they must have had moderate to severe mental illness. Regular, reliable and accessible psychological support for other conditions was limited largely to services provided by non-government organisations (NGOs) which are often constrained by continuity of funds. Counselling for alcohol and drug misuse, women's issues, sexual abuse, and crisis support were the most commonly identified unmet needs across the target communities. Difficulties in attracting experienced personnel to work in rural communities were reported. This was exacerbated by lack of job security brought about by short term funding to the NGOs. In general, unqualified counsellors were recognised as providing valuable services. There are limited psychological support services provided to these South-west Queensland communities. For available services, there are strict criteria for entry, limited accessibility and availability or lack of continuity owing to short-term funding

  3. Prevalence and impacts of low back pain among peasant farmers in South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosede Abidemi Tella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A relationship between low back pain (LBP and poor postures has been previously established with a high prevalence observed in many occupations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of LBP, associated risk factors and impacts on farmers in South-West Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and four farmers completed a 36-item closed-ended questionnaire which was translated to Yoruba language with content validity and back translation done afterwards. The questionnaire sought information on demographic data, 12-month prevalence, severity, history, causes and management of LBP, and its impacts on farm activities and the activities of daily living. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17. Data was summarized using descriptive statistics of mean, range, frequency, standard deviation, percentage. Chi2 and Mann-Whitney-U test were used to find association between variables. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Results: The 12-month prevalence of LBP among the respondents was 74.4%. Low back pain was described as moderate in 53.4%. Prolonged bending (51.3% was the most related risk factor. A considerable proportion (65.9% of the respondents were unable to continue some of the previously enjoyed activities. Males had significantly higher (p < 0.05 prevalence, recurrence and duration of LBP than the females. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of LBP among farmers in South-West Nigeria. Age, sex and years of involvement in farming have a significant influence on the prevalence of LBP.

  4. Reservoir-Driven Heterogeneous Distribution of Recorded Human Puumala virus Cases in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, S; Turni, H; Rosenfeld, U M; Obiegala, A; Straková, P; Imholt, C; Glatthaar, E; Dressel, K; Pfeffer, M; Jacob, J; Wagner-Wiening, C; Ulrich, R G

    2017-08-01

    Endemic regions for Puumala virus (PUUV) are located in the most affected federal state Baden-Wuerttemberg, South-West Germany, where high numbers of notified human hantavirus disease cases have been occurring for a long time. The distribution of human cases in Baden-Wuerttemberg is, however, heterogeneous, with a high number of cases recorded during 2012 in four districts (H districts) but a low number or even no cases recorded in four other districts (L districts). Bank vole monitoring during 2012, following a beech (Fagus sylvatica) mast year, resulted in the trapping of 499 bank voles, the host of PUUV. Analyses indicated PUUV prevalences of 7-50% (serological) and 1.8-27.5% (molecular) in seven of eight districts, but an absence of PUUV in one L district. The PUUV prevalence differed significantly between bank voles in H and L districts. In the following year 2013, 161 bank voles were trapped, with reduced bank vole abundance in almost all investigated districts except one. In 2013, no PUUV infections were detected in voles from seven of eight districts. In conclusion, the linear modelling approach indicated that the heterogeneous distribution of human PUUV cases in South-West Germany was caused by different factors including the abundance of PUUV RNA-positive bank voles, as well as by the interaction of beech mast and the proportional coverage of beech and oak (Quercus spec.) forest per district. These results can aid developing local public health risk management measures and early warning models. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. The temporal lagged association between meteorological factors and malaria in 30 counties in south-west China: a multilevel distributed lag non-linear analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xing; Chen, Fei; Feng, Zijian; Li, Xiaosong; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2014-02-15

    The association between malaria and meteorological factors is complex due to the lagged and non-linear pattern. Without fully considering these characteristics, existing studies usually concluded inconsistent findings. Investigating the lagged correlation pattern between malaria and climatic variables may improve the understanding of the association and generate possible better prediction models. This is especially beneficial to the south-west China, which is a high-incidence area in China. Thirty counties in south-west China were selected, and corresponding weekly malaria cases and four weekly meteorological variables were collected from 2004 to 2009. The Multilevel Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (MDLNM) was used to study the temporal lagged correlation between weekly malaria and weekly meteorological factors. The counties were divided into two groups, hot and cold weathers, in order to compare the difference under different climatic conditions and improve reliability and generalizability within similar climatic conditions. Rainfall was associated with malaria cases in both hot and cold weather counties with a lagged correlation, and the lag range was relatively longer than those of other meteorological factors. Besides, the lag range was longer in hot weather counties compared to cold weather counties. Relative humidity was correlated with malaria cases at early and late lags in hot weather counties.Minimum temperature had a longer lag range and larger correlation coefficients for hot weather counties compared to cold weather counties. Maximum temperature was only associated with malaria cases at early lags. Using weekly malaria cases and meteorological information, this work studied the temporal lagged association pattern between malaria cases and meteorological information in south-west China. The results suggest that different meteorological factors show distinct patterns and magnitudes for the lagged correlation, and the patterns will depend on the climatic

  6. Tackling fuel poverty through facilitating energy tariff switching: a participatory action research study in vulnerable groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, A; Pedro, L; Badesha, B; Dize, C; Fernow, I; Dias, L

    2013-10-01

    A fifth of UK households live in fuel poverty, with significant health risks. Recent government strategy integrates public health with local government. This study examined barriers to switching energy tariffs and the impact of an energy tariff switching 'intervention' on vulnerable peoples' likelihood to, success in, switching tariffs. Participatory Action Research (PAR), conducted in West London. Community researchers from three voluntary/community organisations (VCOs) collaborated in recruitment, study design, data collection and analysis. VCOs recruited 151 participants from existing service users in three groups: Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities, older people (>75 yrs) and families with young children. Researchers conducted two semi-structured interviews with each participant, a week apart. The first interview asked about demographics, current energy supplier, financial situation, previous experience of tariff-switching and barriers to switching. Researchers then provided the 'intervention' - advice on tariff-switching, printed materials, access to websites. The second interview explored usefulness of the 'intervention', other information used, remaining barriers and information needs. Researchers kept case notes and a reflective log. Data was analysed thematically and collaboratively between the research coordinator and researchers. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS, with descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests. A total of 151 people were interviewed: 47 older people over 75 years, 51 families with young children, 51 BME (two were missing demographics). The majority were not White British or UK-born. Average household weekly income was £230. Around half described 'difficult' financial situations, 94% were receiving state benefits and 62% were in debt. Less than a third had tried to find a better energy deal; knowledge was the main barrier. After the intervention 19 people tried to switch, 13 did. Young families were most likely to

  7. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-08-12

    Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine). It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policy-makers. Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group's involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include representatives of vulnerable communities which could

  8. Dark ice dynamics of the south-west Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Tedstone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS has increased in recent years due largely to changes in atmospheric circulation and atmospheric warming. Albedo reductions resulting from these changes have amplified surface melting. Some of the largest declines in GrIS albedo have occurred in the ablation zone of the south-west sector and are associated with the development of dark ice surfaces. Field observations at local scales reveal that a variety of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs can be present on the surface, ranging from inorganic particulates to cryoconite materials and ice algae. Meanwhile, satellite observations show that the areal extent of dark ice has varied significantly between recent successive melt seasons. However, the processes that drive such large interannual variability in dark ice extent remain essentially unconstrained. At present we are therefore unable to project how the albedo of bare ice sectors of the GrIS will evolve in the future, causing uncertainty in the projected sea level contribution from the GrIS over the coming decades. Here we use MODIS satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics on the south-west GrIS each year from 2000 to 2016. We quantify dark ice in terms of its annual extent, duration, intensity and timing of first appearance. Not only does dark ice extent vary significantly between years but so too does its duration (from 0 to > 80 % of June–July–August, JJA, intensity and the timing of its first appearance. Comparison of dark ice dynamics with potential meteorological drivers from the regional climate model MAR reveals that the JJA sensible heat flux, the number of positive minimum-air-temperature days and the timing of bare ice appearance are significant interannual synoptic controls. We use these findings to identify the surface processes which are most likely to explain recent dark ice dynamics. We suggest that whilst the spatial distribution of dark ice is best explained by

  9. Rain- vapour isotopic interaction over the south-west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyil Ravisankar, Lekshmy; Madhavan, Midhun; Rengaswamy, Ramesh

    2015-04-01

    Boundary layer water vapor isotopic composition (δv) is an important factor that controls the isotopic composition of evaporation flux and modulating the δ18O of tree ring cellulose through plant physiological cycle. But due to the difficult sampling procedure for water vapor, δv has rarely been quantified. Since many simple isotopic models require δvas an input, mostly we assume that the water vapor is in isotopic equilibrium with δof monthly rain (δr). Here we present simultaneous observations of water vapour (~ 300 samples) and rainfall (~200 samples) isotopic ratios from two stations in the south-west coast of India (both the stations are located in the west of Western Ghats), sampled during April- October, 2012. Daily rain water and water vapour (cryogenic trapping method) were collected according to the IAEA protocol and the isotopic analyses (D and 18O) were done using a Thermo Fisher Delta V+ Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. We observe that, water vapour and rain are close to the equilibrium values during pre monsoon (April-May, ɛ = δr - δv= 8.9 ± 1.4 ), summer monsoon (June-September, ɛ = 9.0 ± 1.8 ) and North- East (NE) monsoon (October, ɛ = 7.9 ± 2.9 ) seasons. However, some individual rain events show more deviations from the equilibrium values. NE monsoon rainfall and water vapour are isotopically more depleted in 18O compared to the pre monsoon and summer monsoon seasons, in which the depletion is more in rain (~4 ) compared to water vapour (~2 ). This is because of the 18O enrichment of ground level vapour due to local evapo- transpiration (stations are at the leeward side of the Ghats), while rainfall is directly formed from the NE monsoon clouds which is more depleted in 18O. These results will be useful for the interpretation of δ18O of tree rings from south west.

  10. Dark ice dynamics of the south-west Greenland Ice Sheet

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    Tedstone, Andrew J.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Cook, Joseph M.; Williamson, Christopher J.; Fettweis, Xavier; Hodson, Andrew J.; Tranter, Martyn

    2017-11-01

    Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has increased in recent years due largely to changes in atmospheric circulation and atmospheric warming. Albedo reductions resulting from these changes have amplified surface melting. Some of the largest declines in GrIS albedo have occurred in the ablation zone of the south-west sector and are associated with the development of dark ice surfaces. Field observations at local scales reveal that a variety of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) can be present on the surface, ranging from inorganic particulates to cryoconite materials and ice algae. Meanwhile, satellite observations show that the areal extent of dark ice has varied significantly between recent successive melt seasons. However, the processes that drive such large interannual variability in dark ice extent remain essentially unconstrained. At present we are therefore unable to project how the albedo of bare ice sectors of the GrIS will evolve in the future, causing uncertainty in the projected sea level contribution from the GrIS over the coming decades. Here we use MODIS satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics on the south-west GrIS each year from 2000 to 2016. We quantify dark ice in terms of its annual extent, duration, intensity and timing of first appearance. Not only does dark ice extent vary significantly between years but so too does its duration (from 0 to > 80 % of June-July-August, JJA), intensity and the timing of its first appearance. Comparison of dark ice dynamics with potential meteorological drivers from the regional climate model MAR reveals that the JJA sensible heat flux, the number of positive minimum-air-temperature days and the timing of bare ice appearance are significant interannual synoptic controls. We use these findings to identify the surface processes which are most likely to explain recent dark ice dynamics. We suggest that whilst the spatial distribution of dark ice is best explained by outcropping of particulates from

  11. Pattern of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South West Nigeria

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    Akinwusi PO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Akinwumi Oluwole Komolafe,3 Olanrewaju Olayinka Olayemi,2 Adeleye Abiodun Adeomi41Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, 3Department of Morbid Anatomy, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching, Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 4Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the etiology and epidemiologic characteristics of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, South West Nigeria.Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of all cases of natural unexpected death, either occurring out of hospital or less than 24 hours after admission to LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, over a nine-year period from January 2003 to December 2011. Data were generated from information in the case notes and autopsy reports for these cases.Results: Sudden death accounted for 29 (4.0% of 718 adult medical deaths and 1.0% of all adult medical admissions. Out-of-hospital deaths occurred in 72.4% of cases. The mean age of the patients was 46.8 ± 11.5 (range 25–74 years. The male to female ratio was 6.25:1. Cardiovascular disease were the most common cause of death (51.7%, followed by respiratory disease (20.7%, pulmonary thromboembolism (10.4%, central nervous system disease (13.8%, gastrointestinal disorders (13.8%, severe chemical/drug poisoning (13.8%, and combined cardiovascular and central nervous system disease (13.8%. Hypertension-related causes were responsible for 14/29 (48.3% of the sudden deaths. Hypertensive heart disease accounted for 86.7% of the cardiovascular deaths, hypertensive heart failure accounted for 73.3%, whilst all heart failure cases accounted for 80.0%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 69.2% of the patients with hypertensive heart disease. Moderate to severe

  12. Vulnerability and resilience to droughts in South-West USA: carbon allocation and impact on wood and evaporative anatomy

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    Guerin, M. F.; von Arx, G.; McDowell, N. G.; Pockman, W.; Andreu-Hayles, L.; Gentine, P.

    2015-12-01

    Survival and distribution of conifers across the globe will depend on their adaptive potential to the new climatic conditions (warmer, more droughts, heat waves). Recent studies predicting forest evolution have mainly focused on understanding tree mortality processes (hydraulic failure, carbon starvation, biotic stresses). These explicit causes of mortality are also the result of unsuccessful adaptation on a longer period. Using a 7 years drought-irrigation experiment in New Mexico, USA, we investigated the response to water availability on structure-function interactions at the tree level. Bridging dendrology and physiology on multiple individuals of local Pinion pine, we observe a structural dynamics in i) wood anatomy ii) evaporative anatomy and a resulting functional dynamics in i) leaf water potential and ii) water use efficiency on multiple time scales (daily to interannual). These results emphasize the tight coupling between carbon allocation and the surface hydrologic cycle on longer time scales and its impact on resilience and mortality, which is not included in current generation land-surface models. figure: Wood anatomy obtained from a 5.2mm core of a Pinion Edulis from the experimental site - illustrating the variability of the water transport capacities accross years

  13. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development

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    Olena Ivanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine. It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policymakers. Methods Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. Results The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group’s involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Conclusion Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include

  14. Developing effective communication materials on the health effects of climate change for vulnerable groups: a mixed methods study

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    Jennifer M. Kreslake

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with chronic health conditions or low socioeconomic status (SES are more vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. Health communication can provide information on the management of these impacts. This study tested, among vulnerable audiences, whether viewing targeted materials increases knowledge about the health impacts of climate change and strength of climate change beliefs, and whether each are associated with stronger intentions to practice recommended behaviors. Methods Low-SES respondents with chronic conditions were recruited for an online survey in six cities. Respondents were shown targeted materials illustrating the relationship between climate change and chronic conditions. Changes in knowledge and climate change beliefs (pre- and post-test and behavioral intentions (post-test only were tested using McNemar tests of marginal frequencies of two binary outcomes or paired t-tests, and multivariable linear regression. Qualitative interviews were conducted among target audiences to triangulate survey findings and make recommendations on the design of messages. Results Respondents (N = 122 reflected the target population regarding income, educational level and prevalence of household health conditions. (1 Knowledge. Significant increases in knowledge were found regarding: groups that are most vulnerable to heat (children [p < 0.001], individuals with heart disease [p < 0.001], or lung disease [p = 0.019]; and environmental conditions that increase allergy-producing pollen (increased heat [p = 0.003], increased carbon dioxide [p < 0.001]. (2 Strength of certainty that climate change is happening increased significantly between pre- and post-test (p < 0.001, as did belief that climate change affected respondents’ health (p < 0.001. (3 Behavioral intention. At post-test, higher knowledge of heat vulnerabilities and environmental conditions that trigger pollen

  15. The impact of existential vulnerability for nursing home doctors in end-of-life care: A focus group study.

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    Jansen, Kristian; Ruths, Sabine; Malterud, Kirsti; Schaufel, Margrethe Aase

    2016-12-01

    Explore the impact of existential vulnerability for nursing home doctors' experiences with dying patients and their families. We conducted a qualitative study based on three focus group interviews with purposive samples of 17 nursing home doctors. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with systematic text condensation. Nursing home doctors experienced having to balance treatment compromises in order to assist patients' and families' preparation for death, with their sense of professional conduct. This was an arduous process demanding patience and consideration. Existential vulnerability also manifested as powerlessness mastering issues of life and death and families' expectations. Standard phrases could help convey complex messages of uncertainty and graveness. Personal commitment was balanced with protective disengagement on the patient's deathbed, triggering both feelings of wonder and guilt. Existential vulnerability is experienced as a burden of powerlessness and guilt in difficult treatment compromises and in the need for protective disengagement, but also as a resource in communication and professional coping. End-of-life care training for nursing home doctors should include self-reflective practice, in particular addressing treatment compromises and professional conduct in the dialogue with patient and next-of-kin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SUPPORT MAJORITY VOTING IN SPATIAL GROUP MCDM USING DENSITY INDUCED OWA OPERATOR FOR SEISMIC VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

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    M. Moradi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the most frightening disasters, earthquakes frequently cause huge damages to buildings, facilities and human beings. Although the prediction of characteristics of an earthquake seems to be impossible, its loss and damage is predictable in advance. Seismic loss estimation models tend to evaluate the extent to which the urban areas are vulnerable to earthquakes. Many factors contribute to the vulnerability of urban areas against earthquakes including age and height of buildings, the quality of the materials, the density of population and the location of flammable facilities. Therefore, seismic vulnerability assessment is a multi-criteria problem. A number of multi criteria decision making models have been proposed based on a single expert. The main objective of this paper is to propose a model which facilitates group multi criteria decision making based on the concept of majority voting. The main idea of majority voting is providing a computational tool to measure the degree to which different experts support each other’s opinions and make a decision regarding this measure. The applicability of this model is examined in Tehran metropolitan area which is located in a seismically active region. The results indicate that neglecting the experts which get lower degrees of support from others enables the decision makers to avoid the extreme strategies. Moreover, a computational method is proposed to calculate the degree of optimism in the experts’ opinions.

  17. a Novel Approach to Support Majority Voting in Spatial Group Mcdm Using Density Induced Owa Operator for Seismic Vulnerability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, M.; Delavar, M. R.; Moshiri, B.; Khamespanah, F.

    2014-10-01

    Being one of the most frightening disasters, earthquakes frequently cause huge damages to buildings, facilities and human beings. Although the prediction of characteristics of an earthquake seems to be impossible, its loss and damage is predictable in advance. Seismic loss estimation models tend to evaluate the extent to which the urban areas are vulnerable to earthquakes. Many factors contribute to the vulnerability of urban areas against earthquakes including age and height of buildings, the quality of the materials, the density of population and the location of flammable facilities. Therefore, seismic vulnerability assessment is a multi-criteria problem. A number of multi criteria decision making models have been proposed based on a single expert. The main objective of this paper is to propose a model which facilitates group multi criteria decision making based on the concept of majority voting. The main idea of majority voting is providing a computational tool to measure the degree to which different experts support each other's opinions and make a decision regarding this measure. The applicability of this model is examined in Tehran metropolitan area which is located in a seismically active region. The results indicate that neglecting the experts which get lower degrees of support from others enables the decision makers to avoid the extreme strategies. Moreover, a computational method is proposed to calculate the degree of optimism in the experts' opinions.

  18. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

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    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran.

  19. Terrace Agriculture of the Hani People – Cultural Heritage of the South-West China

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    Kladovshchikova Mariya Evgenyevna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the features of terrace agriculture of Hani and Yi indigenous minorities, living in the Yunnan province in the South-West China, just a step away from the Laos and Vietnam boundaries. The cultural landscape of the Hani rice terraces, included into the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2013 (Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces, expresses the conservation of the minorities’ course of life during the last 1 300 years. The geological framework, climate patterns and conform type of vegetation predefine the specific character of natural conditions necessary for terrace agriculture and red rice growth – the most important crop within the region. At that, the landscape picture which fully reflects the season fluctuations of regional subtropical climate, also facilitates to aesthetic and romantic perception forming, symbolizing man-made environment integral and interlaced into natural landscape. The special focus is made on the description of terraced slopes unique morphology and ancient land cultivation technologies for the essential regional culture – red rice. Preservation of centuries-old traditions of efficient agriculture makes it possible to achieve integration of cultural and natural landscapes, that seamlessly comprises the ethnic minorities’ life, as well as to prevent development of erosion and landslide slope processes. The elements of the traditional Hani people way of life, including ritual customs associated with terrace agriculture, are particularly described.

  20. Variability in thyroid function test requests across general practices in south-west England.

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    Vaidya, Bijay; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Shuttleworth, Joanna; Bromley, Alan; Lewis, Aled; Hyde, Chris; Patterson, Anthea; Fleming, Simon; Tomlinson, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The number of thyroid function tests (TFTs) performed in the UK and other countries has increased considerably in recent years. Inconsistent clinical practice associated with inappropriate requests for tests is thought to be an important cause for this increase. To study the extent of variability in requests for TFTs from general practices. We analysed routine data on all TFTs on patients aged 16 years and over carried out by two hospitals in south-west England (Royal Cornwall Hospital and Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital) during 2010 at the request of 107 general practices. A total of 195 309 TFT requests were made for 148 412 patients (63% female). The total requests included 192 108 tests for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), 43 069 for free thyroxine (FT4) and 1972 for free tri-iodothyronine (FT3). The number of TSH tests per 1000 list size varied widely across the practices, ranging from 84 to 482. Most of the variation was due to heterogeneity across practices and only 24% of this was accounted for by prevalence of hypothyroidism and socio-economic deprivation. There is wide variation in TFT requests from general practice and scope to reduce both unnecessary TFTs and the variability in the clinical practice. Further studies are required to understand the causes for the variability in testing thyroid function.

  1. Compliance and side effects of prophylactic oseltamivir treatment in a school in South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallensten, A; Oliver, I; Lewis, D; Harrison, S

    2009-07-30

    School closure along with mass prophylactic oseltamivir treatment of pupils have been used in England and elsewhere to contain school outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)v. We evaluated the protective effect, compliance with and side effects of oseltamivir chemoprophylactic treatment with a ten-day course of 1x 75mg given to 11-12-year-old pupils in one school year in a secondary school in South West England closed for ten days in response to a symptomatic laboratory-confirmed pupil. We distributed a questionnaire to pupils in the affected school year in class after the school had re-opened. Questions included symptoms of flu-like illness, compliance with chemoprophylaxis and side effects. All present on the day, 248 (93.2%) participated. Compliance with chemoprophylaxis was high, 77% took the full course, 91% took at least seven days. Fifty-one percent experienced symptoms such as feeling sick (31.2%), headaches (24.3%) and stomach ache (21.1%). Although some children were ill with flu-like symptoms, those tested did not have A(H1N1)v infection. Compliance with oseltamivir chemoprophylaxis was high, although likely side effects were common. The burden of side effects needs to be considered when deciding on mass oseltamivir chemoprophylaxis in children especially given that the symptoms of A(H1N1)v influenza are generally mild.

  2. Reproductive biology of the spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui in the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

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    Colonello, J C; García, M L; Lasta, C A; Menni, R C

    2012-06-01

    This study provides information on the reproduction of spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui. A total of 232 individuals (119 females and 113 males) were obtained from surveys carried out between 2003 and 2006, from the south-west Atlantic Ocean, between 34 and 42° S and <50 m deep; another 514 specimens (241 females and 273 males) were obtained between 2005 and 2007 from commercial fishery operations carried out in the same area and landings in the port of Mar del Plata, Argentina. Males ranged from 185 to 1250 mm total length (L(T) ) and females from 243 to 1368 mm L(T) . Length at maturity was estimated to be 980 mm for males and 1089 mm L(T) for females. Lack of variation of testis mass together with the continuous production of mature spermatocyst and spermatozoa in deferent ducts suggested that males can reproduce throughout the year. Females reproduced year-round with peaks of reproductive activity an integral part of a continuous cycle. This conclusion is corroborated by the seasonal variation of ovaries, oviducal gland and the occurrence of females with eggs in the uterus throughout the year. Results from this study indicate that A. castelnaui is very susceptible to fishery pressure. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Land use influences on acidification and recovery of freshwaters in Galloway, south-west Scotland

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    R. C. Helliwell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term response of surface waters to changes in sulphur deposition and afforestation is investigated for three upland river systems in the Galloway region of south-west Scotland. From 1984-1999, these rivers exhibited a statistically significant decline in non-marine sulphate concentrations in response to reduced acid deposition. This reduction in non-marine sulphate was, however, insufficient to induce a pH recovery over the period. A statistically significant increase in river pH was observed between 1956-1970 (0.05 yr-1 when subsidised agricultural lime payments were at a maximum. In 1976, this subsidy ceased and surface waters have progressively acidified. In addition, climatic change is found to influence long-term trends in pH. Mean annual pH was greatest during a dry period between 1969-1973 when total annual discharge was low. Thereafter, pH declined gradually in response to higher rainfall and increased total annual discharge. Overall, surface waters draining the afforested catchments of the Rivers Cree and Bladnoch are more acid than those draining the moorland catchment of the Luce. These results indicate that in afforested catchments, current reductions in sulphur emissions have not led to an observed improvement in the acid status of surface waters. Forestry, therefore, represents a confounding factor with regard to chemical recovery from acidification in this region. Keywords: acidification, afforestation, deposition, rivers, lochs, non-marine sulphate, pH

  4. Trends in the diagnosis and management of hypertension: repeated primary care survey in South West England.

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    Mejzner, Natasha; Clark, Christopher E; Smith, Lindsay Fp; Campbell, John L

    2017-05-01

    Previous surveys identified a shift to nurse-led care in hypertension in 2010. In 2011 the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommended ambulatory (ABPM) or home (HBPM) blood pressure (BP) monitoring for diagnosis of hypertension. To survey the organisation of hypertension care in 2016 to identify changes, and to assess uptake of NICE diagnostic guidelines. Questionnaires were distributed to all 305 general practices in South West England. Responses were compared with previous rounds (2007 and 2010). Data from the 2015 Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) were used to compare responders with non-responders, and to explore associations of care organisation with QOF achievement. One-hundred-and-seventeen practices (38%) responded. Responders had larger list sizes and greater achievement of the QOF target BP ≤150/90 mmHg. Healthcare assistants (HCAs) now monitor BP in 70% of practices, compared with 37% in 2010 and 19% in 2007 ( P primary care BP monitoring has devolved from GPs and nurses to HCAs. One in 10 practices are not implementing NICE guidelines on ABPM and HBPM for diagnosis of hypertension. Most practices express confidence interpreting HBPM results but less so with ABPM. The need for education and quality assurance for allied health professionals is highlighted, and for training in ABPM interpretation for GPs. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  5. Profiles of innovators in a semi-arid smallholder agricultural environment in south west Zimbabwe

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    Mutsvangwa-Sammie, Eness P.; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Siziba, Shephard

    2017-08-01

    Innovations are regarded as critical to improving the efficiency, productivity and effectiveness of African agriculture. However, few efforts have been directed at understanding 'agricultural innovators', especially among smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa who face low agricultural productivity and widespread food insecurity. This paper investigates the profile of innovators from a local perspective in a semi-arid smallholder farming area in south-west Zimbabwe. The paper is based on data collected from key informant interviews and a household questionnaire survey administered to 239 households from Gwanda and Insiza districts between 2013 and 2014. Qualities or attributes of an innovator (which constitute the profile of an innovator) identified by key informants included: resource endowment; social networks; education; and enthusiasm (passionate and hardworking). The attributes were used in a logit regression model to estimate the probability of the 239 households exhibiting the attributes of an innovator. Social networks and resource endowment, as depicted by amount of land cultivated, were found to significantly influence the probability of an individual being an innovator. Interestingly, the common attributes of education or belonging to an innovation platform used by extension and development agents, were found not to influence the probability of one being an innovator. The paper concludes that understanding local perceptions of innovators, which is based on appreciation of the socio-economic and biophysical circumstances, should be used to identify a 'basket' of context specific innovations that have potential to address the diverse needs of rural households farming households.

  6. Health status of bulls used for natural breeding on farms in south west Scotland.

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    McGowan, A C; Murray, R D

    1999-06-01

    One hundred and nine breeding bulls were examined during the period November 1992 to June 1993 on farms in south west Scotland for evidence of infectious diseases associated with breeding. Preputial washings were collected to screen for Campylobacter fetus venerialis, together with serial blood samples to assess their seroprevalence to Bovine Virus Diarrhoea virus (BVDv), Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1), Leptospira hardjo and Bovine Herpes Virus-4 (BHV-4). The possible impact of natural mating on the epidemiology of these diseases is described. Evidence of infections with Campylobacter fetus and BVH-4 were not found in this sample. The overall seroprevalence to BVDv was 78%, for BHV-1 49%, and L. hardjo 27% at titres of > or = 1/400. This study shows that bulls may be responsible for the introduction and dissemination of these diseases when moved from farm to farm as part of normal cattle breeding in this area. Young unproven bulls may be particularly susceptible to endemic diseases associated with lowered reproductive performance.

  7. Key pluvial parameters in assessing rainfall erosivity in the south-west development region, Romania

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    Dumitraşcu, Monica; Dragotă, Carmen-Sofia; Grigorescu, Ines; Dumitraşcu, Costin; Vlăduţ, Alina

    2017-06-01

    Located in the south-western part of Romania, the south-west development region overlaps the main relief forms: the Carpathians mountains, the Getic Subcarpathians, the Getic piedmont, the Romanian plain and the Danube valley. The study aims at providing an overview on the main pluvial parameters and their role in assessing rainfall erosivity in the study area. The authors assessed the occurrence, frequency and magnitude of some of the most significant pluvial parameters and their impact on the climatic aggressiveness in the study area. Thus, the monthly and annual mean and extreme climatic values for different rainfall related parameters (e.g., maximum amounts of precipitation/24 hr, heavy rainfall), as well as relevant indices and indicators for pluvial aggressiveness (Fournier, Fournier Modified, Angot) were calculated. The rainfall erosivity was assessed in order to provide both the spatial distribution of the triggering extreme weather phenomena and the resulted intensity classes for the analysed indices and indicators. The authors used long-term precipitation records (1961-2010) for the selected relevant meteorological stations distributed throughout all analysed relief units.

  8. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

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    Geater Alan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  9. DYNAMICS OF MAIN INDICATORS FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

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    Mariana Claudia Mungiu- Pupăzan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All resources available to a certain point in time (both physical and economic sense and financial sense are highlighted by the nation's wealth, in the very limited sense, is a stock. Given that the stock of physical resources (infrastructure, natural resources, capital invested in enterprises, technical knowledge and training of the population is very difficult to measure, are always references but not a stock at a flow: the flow of goods and services produced in a given year by a country, just what we call gross domestic product GDP (gross domestic product. Economic growth and thus real convergence, both at national and regional level are assessed based on the development processes of gross domestic product.Socio-economic development of South-West Oltenia Region and parts of five counties must take into account national development priorities established by the National Development Plan and the strategic guidelines and EU Integrated Guidelines for Growth and jobs. In an attempt to define the basic problems is very important to take into account and consider the existence of situations of discrimination and promoting equal opportunities for men and women, young and old, the majority and ethnic minorities, while paying attention needs of disabled persons for their economic and social integration.

  10. Hydrothermal extremes at the South-West Pribaikalie during the current climate changes

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    Voropay, Nadezhda

    2017-04-01

    Climatic extremes of air temperature and precipitation were analyzed for the Tunka Intermountain Depression (South-West Pribaikalie, Buryatia, Russian Federation). Intermountain depressions occupy a quarter of the territory of the Baikal region. The specific climatic conditions in the depressions are formed due to the geographic location and the influence of latitudinal zonation and altitudinal gradients. Air temperature and precipitation data records from at weather stations for the period 1940-2015 were analyzed. Long-term average annual temperature is negative and varies from -0.8 °C to -2.4 °C. Air temperature absolute minimum is -48 °C, absolute maximum is +36 °C. The long-term average annual precipitation is 370-480 mm, but in some years annual precipitation reach 760 mm. The summer months have about 70% of the total annual precipitation, in July and August the sum may reach 340 mm. Maximum daily sum of rainfalls is 80 mm. The contribution of the global and regional circulation characteristics into the variability of regional climatic characteristics was estimated.

  11. Small is beautiful: Marine small-scale fisheries catches from the South-West Maluku Regency

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    Hutubessy, BG; Mosse, JW; Hayward, P.

    2017-10-01

    The fisheries data supplied by fisheries agency have served as the primary tool for regional fisheries statistics. However, it is recognized these data are incomplete and often underestimate actual catches, particularly for small-scale fisheries. There is no widely accepted definition of small-scale fisheries or global data on number of small-scale fishers and their catches. This study reconstructed total marine catches from 1980 to 2015 for South-west Maluku (MBD) regency, by applying an established catch construction approach utilizing all available quantitative and qualitative data, combined with assumption-based estimations and interpolations. As newly established regency since 2009, there is lack of fisheries data available which is needed for fisheries management. Fishers’ knowledge is important information taken from to construct long-term fisheries data. Estimated total fish withdrawal from MBD waters was 86,849.66 tonnes during 1980 – 2015, dominated by pelagic fishes. Consistency of estimated total removal and total landings at MBD regency play important role in small-scale fisheries management and this method of visualizing the history of fishery from poor-data condition might be an optimistic effort.

  12. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN PUBLIC HEALTH IN THE SOUTH MUNTENIA REGION AND SOUTH WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Melania COSTAICHE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight sustainable development in terms of health in two development regions of Romania, the South Muntenia region and South West Oltenia region. “Sustainable development is development which aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Sustainable development objectives can not be achieved in conditions of ill health, and health is maintained in a functional and a healthy environment. To highlight the evolution of public health in the two regions for regional development and related counties, we used indicators of sustainable development in Romania, based on data provided by the Romanian Statistical Yearbooks for 2011, 2012 and 2013. Indicators used to assess health development in the two regions are: The mortality rate, the infant mortality rate, natural growth rate, hospital beds (per 1,000 inhabitants, population/doctor (per 1000 inhabitants. Research methods applied are clues fixed base and chain base. Factors that increase the mortality rate are represented by a larger proportion of the elderly population, origin, given that rural health services are weak comparing to urban areas.

  13. Epidemiology of elderly patients' burns in the South West of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, M; Sesay, M; Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Castede, J C; Sanchez, R

    1998-03-01

    A retrospective study of 716 patients aged 60 years and above (324 men, 392 women) was undertaken in order to determine quality control in burns management in the South West of France. The following epidemiological data was obtained: high hospitalization rate (7 per cent of the general admissions); monthly and seasonal periodicity; predominance of indoor accidents (86 per cent) with domestic accidents being more frequent in women (63 vs. 37 per cent). Outdoor accidents were mainly recreational and were five times more frequent in men than in women. The overall mortality was 39 per cent and was influenced by the burns extent, depth, predisposing factors and early management. More burns occurred in urban areas (53 per cent) but mortality was higher in patients from rural areas (62 vs. 38 per cent). It was observed that delay in management, especially fluid resuscitation of patients from the rural areas, was partly responsible for this outcome. Propositions were made to diffuse more information on the importance of early management of burns in rural areas.

  14. Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematodes on 13 south-west Victorian properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, D K

    2010-12-01

    To report the level of anthelmintic resistance on 13 commercial cattle properties in south-west Victoria, Australia. Between 2006 and 2009 worm egg count reduction tests were conducted on calves on the 13 properties. Samples were collected 10-14 days post anthelmintic treatment and worm egg counts and larval differentiation tests were conducted. Resistance was defined if there was less than 95% reduction (lower confidence limit Cooperia spp. to IVM (6/11). No resistance to LEV was detected in Trichostrongylus or Cooperia spp. Suspected IVM-resistant Trichostrongylus spp. and BZ-resistant Cooperia spp. were only detected on one property each. This is the first Australian report of macrocyclic lactone-resistant O. ostertagi in the refereed literature. The frequency of resistance in O. ostertagi to BZ, LEV and IVM and in Trichostrongylus spp. to BZ in the present study appears higher than levels detected in the 2004-05 New Zealand survey, whereas the resistance frequency in Cooperia spp. to IVM and BZ was less. © 2010 The Author. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2010 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Identification of Novel Cetacean Poxviruses in Cetaceans Stranded in South West England.

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    James Barnett

    Full Text Available Poxvirus infections in marine mammals have been mainly reported through their clinical lesions and electron microscopy (EM. Poxvirus particles in association with such lesions have been demonstrated by EM and were previously classified as two new viruses, cetacean poxvirus 1 (CePV-1 and cetacean poxvirus 2 (CePV-2. In this study, epidermal pox lesions in cetaceans stranded in South West England (Cornwall between 2008 and 2012 were investigated by electron microscopy and molecular analysis. PCR and sequencing of a highly conserved region within the viral DNA polymerase gene ruled out both parapox- and orthopoxviruses. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product clustered the sequences with those previously described as cetacean poxviruses. However, taking the close genetic distance of this gene fragment across the family of poxviridae into account, it is reasonable to postulate further, novel cetacean poxvirus species. The nucleotide similarity within each cluster (tentative species detected ranged from 98.6% to 100%, whilst the similarity between the clusters was no more than 95%. The detection of several species of poxvirus in different cetacean species confirms the likelihood of a heterogeneous cetacean poxvirus genus, comparable to the heterogeneity observed in other poxvirus genera.

  16. Prevalence of Malaria in Pregnant Women in Lagos, South-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agomo, Chimere O.; Anorlu, Rose I.; Agomo, Philip U.

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence rates reported for malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria vary considerably. The accuracy of results of malaria diagnosis is dependent on training, experience, and motivation of the microscopist as well as the laboratory facility available. Results of training programmes on malaria microscopy have shown low levels of sensitivity and specificity of those involved in malaria diagnosis routinely and for research. This study was done to ascertain the true prevalence of malaria in pregnancy in Lagos, South-West Nigeria. A total of 1,084 pregnant women were recruited into this study. Blood smears stained with Giemsa were used for malaria diagnosis by light microscopy. Malaria infection during pregnancy presents mostly as asymptomatic infection. The prevalence of malaria in this population was 7.7% (95% confidence interval; 6.2-9.4%). Factors identified to increase the risk of malaria infection include young maternal age (< 20 years), and gravidity (primigravida). In conclusion, this study exposes the over-diagnosis of malaria in pregnancy and the need for training and retraining of laboratory staffs as well as establishing the malaria diagnosis quality assurance programme to ensure the accuracy of malaria microscopy results at all levels. PMID:19488427

  17. Association between ovine protein polymorphisms and geographical variables in Europe and south-west Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordas, J G; Carriedo, J A

    1997-01-12

    The spatial distribution of six blood-protein polymorphisms in European and south-west Asian ovine breeds was analysed. Latitudinal clines were found for haemoglobin and transferrin loci. The respective F(ST) values are not significantly greater than those for protein-X, esterase, carbonic anhydrase, and albumin, where gene frequencies are not associated with latitude. The results suggest that historical processes of gene flow, rather than adaptation to different environments, have played a major role in determining the observed lives of gene frequencies. RESUMEN: Asociación entre polimorfismos proteicos ovinos y variables geográficas en Europa y sudoeste de Asia Se ha analizado la distribución espacial de seis polimorfismos proteicos sanguíneos en razas ovinas de Europa y del sudoeste de Asia. La hemoglobina y la transferrina muestran clinas latitudinales. Los valores de F(ST) para estos dos loci no son significativamente más grandes que los de la proteína-X, esterasa, anhidrasa carbónica y albúmina, cuyas frecuencias génicas no están asociadas con la latitud. Los resultados sugieren que la distribución de las frecuencias génicas de la hemoglobina y la transferrina se debe a procesos históricos de flujo génico y deriva genética. 1997 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Impact of climate change on the groundwater run-off in south-west Poland

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    Olichwer Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the variability of total runoff and groundwater run-off affected by global and local climate changes using the example of 17 selected river basins located in south-west Poland. Based on the data collected from 1966 to 2005, the average annual values of the total and groundwater run-off, aswell as the seven-day annual minimum flows, were estimated, which provided useful information about droughts. The calculated parameters were compared with precipitation, air temperature, aridity index (the ratio of the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, and the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation and AMO (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation indices. There were no significant changes in the total run-off in the research area; however, there was a reduction in the groundwater run-off, which indicates change in groundwater recharge. The strongest relationship of total run-off, groundwater run-off and seven-day annual flow minimum was obtained from the NAO index,which confirms that the run-off from the study area is dependent on global factors. This is important for the estimation of changes in the runoff from the study area in response to the climate scenarios for the years 2011-2030, which indicate a fairly significant increase in air temperature and slight differences in precipitation. Based on extensive investigations, a reduction in the groundwater run-off in favour of increased surface run-off should be expected in the research area.

  19. Macro and trace elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from South West Atlantic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Carolina; Rocha, A Cristina; Barbosa, Vera L; Anacleto, Patrícia; Carvalho, M Luísa; Rasmussen, Rie R; Sloth, Jens J; Almeida, C Marisa; Marques, António; Nunes, M Leonor

    2018-04-01

    Sea urchin represents one of the most valuable seafood product being harvested and explored for their edible part, the gonads or roe. This species is generally considered a sentinel organism for ecotoxicological studies being widely used in monitoring programs to assess coastal aquatic environments quality, because is directly exposed to anthropogenic contaminants in their habitat. In this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of macro (Cl, K, P, Ca, S) and trace (Zn, Br, Fe, Sr, I, Se, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, As, iAs, Cd, Pb, Hg) elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from three South West Atlantic production areas subjected to distinct environmental and anthropogenic pressures. In all studied areas, the elements profile in sea urchin gonads was Cl > K > P > Ca > S > Zn > Br > Fe > Sr > I > Rb > Cu > Se > Cr > Ni, suggesting an element guide profile with special interest for sea urchin farming development. Concerning toxic elements, the profile was the following: As > Cd > Pb > Hg > iAs. The results evidenced higher levels of Pb and Hg in open areas. Distinct area characteristics and anthropogenic pressures of production areas evidence the importance of biomonitoring contaminants, particularly toxic elements. In general, the levels of these elements were below maximum levels in foodstuffs (MLs) which pose a minimal health risk to consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Liquefaction analysis of alluvial soil deposits in Bedsa south west of Cairo

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    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bedsa is one of the districts in Dahshour that lays south west of Cairo and suffered from liquefaction during October 1992 earthquake, Egypt. The soil profile consists of alluvial river Nile deposits mainly sandy mud with low plasticity; the ground water is shallow. The earthquake hypocenter was 18 km far away with local magnitude 5.8; the fault length was 13.8 km, as recorded by the Egyptian national seismological network (ENSN at Helwan. The analysis used the empirical method introduced by the national center for earthquake engineering research (NCEER based on field standard penetration of soil. It is found that the studied area can liquefy since there are saturated loose sandy silt layers at depth ranges from 7 to 14 m. The settlement is about 26 cm. The probability of liquefaction ranges between 40% and 100%. The presence of impermeable surface from medium cohesive silty clay acts as a plug resisting and trapping the upward flow of water during liquefaction, so fountain and spouts at weak points occurs. It is wise to use point bearing piles with foundation level deeper than 14 m beyond the liquefiable depth away from ground slopes, otherwise liquefaction improving techniques have to be applied in the area.

  1. High spatiotemporal resolution monitoring of hydrological function across degraded peatlands in the south west UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Josie; Luscombe, David; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Gatis, Naomi; Anderson, Karen; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The Exmoor/Dartmoor Mires Project is a peatland restoration programme focused on the geoclimatically marginal blanket bogs of South West England. In order to better understand the hydrological functioning of degraded/restored peatlands and support land management decisions across these uplands, this study is providing robust spatially distributed, hydrological monitoring at a high temporal resolution and in near real time. This paper presents the conceptual framework and experimental design for three hydrological monitoring arrays situated in headwater catchments dominated by eroding and drained blanket peatland. Over 250 individual measurements are collected at a high temporal resolution (15 minute time-step) via sensors integrated within a remote telemetry system. These are sent directly to a dedicated server over VHF and GPRS mobile networks. Sensors arrays are distributed at varying spatial scales throughout the studied catchments and record multiple parameters including: water table depth, channel flow, temperature, conductivity and pH measurements. A full suite of meteorological sensors and ten spatially distributed automatic flow based water samplers are also connected to the telemetry system and controlled remotely. This paper will highlight the challenges and solutions to obtaining these data in exceptionally remote and harsh field conditions over long (multi annual) temporal scales.

  2. Developing effective communication materials on the health effects of climate change for vulnerable groups: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslake, Jennifer M; Price, Katherine M; Sarfaty, Mona

    2016-09-07

    Individuals with chronic health conditions or low socioeconomic status (SES) are more vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. Health communication can provide information on the management of these impacts. This study tested, among vulnerable audiences, whether viewing targeted materials increases knowledge about the health impacts of climate change and strength of climate change beliefs, and whether each are associated with stronger intentions to practice recommended behaviors. Low-SES respondents with chronic conditions were recruited for an online survey in six cities. Respondents were shown targeted materials illustrating the relationship between climate change and chronic conditions. Changes in knowledge and climate change beliefs (pre- and post-test) and behavioral intentions (post-test only) were tested using McNemar tests of marginal frequencies of two binary outcomes or paired t-tests, and multivariable linear regression. Qualitative interviews were conducted among target audiences to triangulate survey findings and make recommendations on the design of messages. Respondents (N = 122) reflected the target population regarding income, educational level and prevalence of household health conditions. (1) Knowledge. Significant increases in knowledge were found regarding: groups that are most vulnerable to heat (children [p climate change is happening increased significantly between pre- and post-test (p climate change affected respondents' health (p stop climate change. Respondents identified both appealing and less favorable design elements in the materials. Individuals who are vulnerable to the health effects of climate change benefit from communication materials that explain, using graphics and concise language, how climate change affects health conditions and how to engage in protective adaptation behaviors.

  3. NOAA TIFF Image - 3 m Backscatter Mosaic of the south west shore (La Parguera) of Puerto Rico, Project NF-06-03, 2006, UTM 19 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 3 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the south west shore (La Parguera) of Puerto Rico. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Team, in...

  4. Presence of the telescope fish Mendosoma lineatum in Patagonian waters, a new species in the ichthyological fauna from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovcon, N D; Cochia, P D; Ruibal Núñez, J; Vucica, M; Figueroa, D E

    2017-10-01

    The presence of the telescope fish Mendosoma lineatum in Patagonian waters of Argentina is reported. Mendosoma lineatum is the second species of the Latridae recorded in the south-west Atlantic Ocean and its presence in Patagonia is an addition to both the ichthyological fauna of the Argentinean Sea and the south-west Atlantic Ocean. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Oxytocin motivates non-cooperation in intergroup conflict to protect vulnerable in-group members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Shalvi, S.; Greer, L.L.; van Kleef, G.A.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a

  6. Oxytocin Motivates Non-Cooperation in Intergroup Conflict to Protect Vulnerable In-Group Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu (Carsten); S. Shalvi (Shaul); L.L. Greer (Lindred); G.A. van Kleef (Gerben); M.J.J. Handgraaf (Michael)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to

  7. Oxytocin Motivates Non-Cooperation in Intergroup Conflict to Protect Vulnerable In-Group Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreu, de C.K.W.; Shalvi, S.; Greer, L.L.; Kleef, van G.A.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual’s motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a

  8. Factors associated with utilization of emergency contraception among female students in Mizan-Tepi University, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Bisrat Zeleke; Gashaw, Bosena Tebeje; Tesso, Fekadu Yadassa

    2015-12-24

    Unintended pregnancy poses a major health problem on female students in higher educations. One of the key interventions to reduce unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion as outlined in the national youth strategy is making emergency contraception (EC) available for these risky population. However, despite its availability in many countries, EC has failed to have the desired impact on unintended pregnancy rates and its utilization is limited in colleges and universities. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with utilization of emergency contraception among female students in Mizan-Tepi University (MTU), south west Ethiopia. A cross-sectional, institution based study was conducted from March 10-30, 2014. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the participants for the quantitative method whereas; purposive and volunteer sampling techniques were used for the qualitative study. Quantitative data were cleaned, coded and entered into Epi-data 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20:00. Binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done to determine the association between the use of EC and the predicator variables. Data from focus group discussion were transcribed and translated to English then coded, and categorized into similar themes. A total of 489 female students were participated in the quantitative study making a response rate of 90.6%. The finding shows that 46.3% of them have used EC following unprotected sex. Female students' knowledge about EC [AOR: 3.24; 95% CI 1.32, 7.98], age at first sexual intercourse (i.e. ≥20 years) [AOR: 4.04; 95% CI 1.72, 9.52], history of pregnancy [AOR: 3.12; 95% CI 1.34, 7.24] and previous use of regular contraceptives [AOR: 5.01; 95% CI 2.23, 11.27] were found to be significant predictors of EC utilization. In the focused group discussion, a total of 32 female students were participated and the result shows that lack of knowledge about EC and fear of being seen by others (information

  9. [Women of Guatemala City: facilitating AIDS prevention in a vulnerable group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, A; Arathoon, E; Lundgren, R; Bezmalinovic, B

    1992-01-01

    Despite the mistaken belief in Central America that AIDS is primarily a disease of male homosexuals, some 21% of reported cases in Guatemala have been women 15-44 years old. Many Guatemalan women are at risk of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) because of their lack of sexual bargaining power and negotiating skills, the widespread acceptance of male infidelity in marriage, tolerance of bisexual relations and frequenting of prostitutes, and ignorance of women about sexuality. Condom use is infrequent in Guatemala. Most men and women lack knowledge of AIDS and other STDs and have no perception of their own vulnerability. Male alcohol use and violence against women diminishes the ability of women to protect themselves. Sex education and information about STDs should be provided for both men and women to slow the spread of AIDS. AIDS educators should direct their messages to women toward promoting condom use, increasing knowledge of AIDS and STDs, providing basic sex education, questioning stereotypes of AIDS patients as persons with disordered lifestyles, encouraging realistic assessment of risks, and assisting women to increase their negotiating ability in sexual relations. Three crucial ways of helping women protect themselves are by making them aware of the influence of gender roles in their reproductive lives, teaching them communication and negotiating skills, and providing strategies for them to confront alcohol abuse and gender violence. Survey results indicate that Guatemalan women were extremely motivated to protect their children and secondarily to maintain their homes and be good wives. Motivational messages for AIDS prevention should be related to children and the family. Men were found to be concerned about their families as well and to fear the stigma of HIV infection. Educational techniques for AIDS prevention should be accessible to the illiterate and should focus on life stories or similar methods that make AIDS seem less abstract to

  10. 'Check it out!' Decision-making of vulnerable groups about participation in a two-stage cardiometabolic health check: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, I.; Crone, M.R.; Dijk, S. van; Gebhardt, W.A.; Meftah, J. Ben; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Assendelft, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Exploring determinants influencing vulnerable groups regarding (non-) participation in the Dutch two-stage cardiometabolic health check, comprising a health risk assessment (HRA) and prevention consultations (PCs) for high-risk individuals. METHODS: Qualitative study comprising 21 focus

  11. Assessing where vulnerable groups fare worst: a global multilevel analysis on the impact of welfare regimes on disability across different socioeconomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Margot I; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2012-09-01

    Investigations on health differences within welfare states between low- and high-socioeconomic groups are mainly conducted in Europe. With the aim of gaining global insight on the extent welfare regimes influence personal disability for the most vulnerable, we explore how these health differences vary between low- and high-socioeconomic groups. The World Health Survey data were analysed on 199595 adults from 46 countries using the welfare regime classification developed by Wood and Gough. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate welfare regime differences in self-reported disability according to individual educational attainment and employment status. As compared with the low educated in the European-conservative regime, the odds of having a higher prevalence of disability was found among low-educated people residing in the informal-security regime of South Asia, with OR being 3.16 (95% CI 2.23 to 4.47). While state-organised regimes seemed to offer more protection against disability to the low educated, the productivist regime of East Asia trailed closely behind, with OR being 1.10 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.60) for the low educated. Similar findings were also observed in the unemployed. State-organised regimes of Europe and the productivist regime of East Asia seem to contain protecting features against disability for all citizens and especially for the most vulnerable. Apart from the productivist regime of East Asia, the low educated and the unemployed seem to carry the greatest health burden within more insecure regimes, highlighting a deficiency in social provisions within these regimes aimed at protecting the most vulnerable.

  12. Smear Posetive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) Prevalence Amongst Patients at Agaro Teaching Health Center, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hussen; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Mekonnen, Abiyu; Abera, Solomon; Ali, Solomon

    2012-03-01

    World Health organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis as a global emergency because it poses a serious public health threat in different countries especially, in Africa. According to WHO report of 2007, Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) coverage in Ethiopia reached 95 percent of the population; despite this fact the trend of tuberculosis in most of the districts of Ethiopia is not known. Hence, this study has revealed the trend and determined the overall prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in five years (2005/6-2009/10) in Agaro teaching health center, south west Ethiopia. A retrospective study based on record review was conducted at Agaro Teaching Health center on sputum examination record of patient's from 2005/6-2009/10(five years). Socio demographic data and sputum laboratory results were collected using pre-designed questionnaire and the data was entered into a computer using SPSS version 16 for windows. Finally, cross tab analysis and Chi-square was calculated at P-value less than 0.05 to check possible association between socio-demographic variables and smear positivity. The overall five years prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis was found out to be 10.9%. On the other hand, the percentage of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases showed gradual decrease from 19.5% in 2005/6 to 5.8% cases in 2009/10. Tuberculosis is still the major problem of Agaro health center catchment area even though there is a decrease in trend from year to year. Hence, the respective health bureau and other stake holders should still need to strengthen their effort to control it.

  13. Fungal Contamination of Indoor Public Swimming Pools, Ahwaz, South-west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, A; Amirrajab, N

    2010-01-01

    Using public swimming pools during different seasons and poor health behavior could be responsible in transmission of fungal disease through pool water and its environment. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate fungal agents of indoor public swimming pools of Ahwaz, capital city of Khouzestan Province, south-west of Iran. Ten indoor swimming pools of Ahwaz were investigated during two seasons for 6 months. Water specimens were collected by pump and environment samples including shower-bath area, margin of pool walls, dressing rooms, and slippers, by sterile carpet pieces. All specimens were cultured in SC and SCC culture media and fungal agents identification were based on macroscopic, microscopic characteristic and complement tests when it was necessary. Data analyzing was performed using SPSS version 13 for descriptive analyzing. A total of 593 samples were collected from different parts of pools. Interestingly in 13 samples from environmental places, dermatophytes were isolated as follows: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum and Epidermophyton floccosum 5, 4, 3 and 1 cases respectively. Ten cases of dermatophytes were isolated from floor of dressing area. Three hundred seventy two saprophytic fungi species and 32 yeasts were recovered from water and environment surfaces samples. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Mucor were the most common isolated saprophytic fungi. Existence of saprophytic fungi and yeast in pools water seems to be an indicator of their resistance to detergent agents. In addition, yeast water contamination could be from swimmers. Dermatophytes isolation from pools environment areas and foot washing sink, reveals the importance of public swimming pools in disease transmission. Because dressing places are being used by all of the swimmers, take care of hygienic discipline in these places should be noted by health policy markers.

  14. Investigating the regime of the South-West Indian Ocean Currents through a numerical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehmi, Dilmahamod; Reason, Chris; Hermes, Juliet; Penven, Pierrick

    2017-04-01

    The very complex South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO) consists of the Agulhas Current and its three main source regions, whose variability is known to influence the timing of ring formation at the Agulhas Retroflection, and ultimately the strength and stability of the Atlantic overturning circulation due to the leakage of water from the Indian Ocean into the Atlantic Ocean. The East Madagascar Current, being the focus of this study, endures transport changes, mostly influenced by large scale climate phenomena, and the high eddy kinetic energy (EKE) band observed at 25°S, travelling from Australia to Madagascar. Also occurring in the vicinity is the shallow eastward South Indian Ocean Countercurrent (SICC) flow and one of the largest dendroid phytoplankton blooms in the world, the South-east Madagascar Bloom. This unique system, where variability of the termination regime of the EMC, associated with complex mechanisms of the SICC and mesoscale eddies, is being investigated using a high resolution regional physical model. The mesoscale eddies' characteristics in the high EKE band will be discussed, with a section on its seasonality and longitudinal changes as they approach and interact with the western boundary. The eddy-current interaction influences the EMC variability, which in turn induces changes into its termination regime, south of Madagascar. Cross-correlation confirms a 1-month and 2.5 months lag between the EMC transport, and anti-cyclonic circulation and cyclonic circulation respectively, when the current rounds the southern tip of Madagascar. Furthermore, a small section will be dedicated to the possibility of nutrients being advected in the bloom area by the mesoscale eddies, and the complex mechanisms which cause the phytoplankton cells to use these nutrients, hence triggering the bloom at various spots simultaneously.

  15. High maternal mortality in rural south-west Ethiopia: estimate by using the sisterhood method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Yaliso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of maternal mortality is difficult in developing countries without complete vital registration. The indirect sisterhood method represents an alternative in places where there is high fertility and mortality rates. The objective of the current study was to estimate maternal mortality indices using the sisterhood method in a rural district in south-west Ethiopia. Method We interviewed 8,870 adults, 15–49 years age, in 15 randomly selected rural villages of Bonke in Gamo Gofa. By constructing a retrospective cohort of women of reproductive age, we obtained sister units of risk exposure to maternal mortality, and calculated the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. Based on the total fertility for the rural Ethiopian population, the maternal mortality ratio was approximated. Results We analyzed 8503 of 8870 (96% respondents (5262 [62%] men and 3241 ([38%] women. The 8503 respondents reported 22,473 sisters (average = 2.6 sisters for each respondent who survived to reproductive age. Of the 2552 (11.4% sisters who had died, 819 (32% occurred during pregnancy and childbirth. This provided a lifetime risk of 10.2% from pregnancy and childbirth with a corresponding maternal mortality ratio of 1667 (95% CI: 1564–1769 per 100,000 live births. The time period for this estimate was in 1998. Separate analysis for male and female respondents provided similar estimates. Conclusion The impoverished rural area of Gamo Gofa had very high maternal mortality in 1998. This highlights the need for strengthening emergency obstetric care for the Bonke population and similar rural populations in Ethiopia.

  16. Breast-feeding pattern and onset of menstruation among Yoruba mothers of South-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuti, Oluwafemi; Adeyemi, Adebayo B; Owolabi, Alexander T

    2007-12-01

    To determine the breast-feeding practices and duration of lactational amenorrhoea among women within the first year of delivery in a Nigerian population. Cross-sectional study carried out between January 2005 and April 2006, among mothers within one year of delivery, who were attending the Infant Welfare Clinic at Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, mothers were interviewed to obtain information regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, parity, breast-feeding habits, use of contraception and onset of menstruation after delivery. Information obtained was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 11. All 268 (100%) mothers interviewed breast-fed their babies, 261 (97.4%) of which for at least 6 months. Most (71.6%) suckled exclusively for 6 months and more; only 10 (3.7%) never carried out exclusive breast-feeding. Age, parity and educational level did not affect the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Lactational amenorrhoea lasted 3 months or more in 229 (85.5%) of the mothers. Of the 174 who exclusively breast-fed for 6 months, 109 (62.6%) remained amenorrhoeic during that time and, hence, met the criteria for use of LAM contraception. Exclusive breast-feeding among nursing mothers is highly prevalent among Yoruba mothers of South-west Nigeria. Since lactational amenorrhoea lasts 6 months in about two-thirds of the women nursing for that period of time, there is a great potential for the application of LAM for contraception.

  17. Knowledge Regarding Organ Donation and Willingness to Donate among Health Workers in South-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluyombo, R; Fawale, M B; Ojewola, R W; Busari, O A; Ogunmola, O J; Olanrewaju, T O; Akinleye, C A; Oladosu, Y O; Olamoyegun, M A; Gbadegesin, B A; Obajolowo, O O; Soje, M O; Adelaja, A; Ayodele, L M; Ayodele, O E

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation program in developing countries is still significantly dwarfed. Health workers are undeniably important in the success of transplantation. To assess the knowledge and attitude of health workers toward organ donation in South-West Nigeria with a view to explaining reasons for these shortcomings. In a cross-sectional study conducted on 850 health care workers, self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from participants. Of 850 participants, 766 (90.1%) returned their completed questionnaires. The mean±SD age of participants was 36.7±9.2 years. Majority (93.3%) of participants had heard of organ donation; 82.5% had desirable knowledge. Only 29.5% and 39.4% would be willing to donate and counsel potential organ donors, respectively; 36.5% would consider signing organ donation cards. Only 19.4% believed that organ transplantation is often effective and 63.4% believed they were permitted by their religion to donate. Permission by religion (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.3), good knowledge (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 5.7), readiness to sign donation cards (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.8), discuss organ donation (OR 2.7; 95%CI 8.0 to 63.8), and knowing somebody who had donated (OR 2.9) independently influenced willingness to donate organ. There is disparity in knowledge of organ donation and willingness to donate among health care workers. Efforts should be intensified to give comprehensive and appropriate education to health care workers about organ donation to bridge this gap.

  18. Isolation of Brachyspira Pilocicoli from Gastrointestinal Tract of Commercial Chickens in Khuzestan, South West Iran

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    Leila Alavi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brachyspira pilosicoli is an intestinal spirochete which colonizes in cecum, colon and rectum of the birds. This infection in broiler and laying chicken may cause disorders such as: diarrhea, reduced egg production, pasty vents, fecal staining of egg shells, poor shell quality, pale egg yolks, increased feed consumption, slower growth and poor feed digestion. Objectives: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify B. pilosicoli from broiler and laying chicken. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted by using bacteriological examination and PCR in Khuzestan located in the South West of Iran. Totally 150 samples of broiler chicken feces and 100 samples of laying chicken feces were collected. The samples were cultured on blood agar containing three antibiotics (vancomycin 12.5μg/mL, spiramaycin 25μg/mL and spectinomycin 400 μg/mL.The colonies of intestinal spirochetes were studied by PCR. Results: Intestinal spirochetes were isolated in 21 out of 150 fecal samples of broiler chicken and in 9 out of 100 fecal samples of laying chicken. Species identification of isolates was done by PCR using 16SrRNA gene specific for B. pilosicoli. B. pilosicoli was isolated in 13 out of 21 positive broilers and in 4 out of 9 positive laying chickens. Conclusions: This study showed that B. pilosicoli exists in the broiler and laying chicken in the region. This intestinal pathogen may be considered as a major cause of production threats and economic losses in chicken farms in the region of study.

  19. Routine antenatal syphilis screening in South west Nigeria- a questionable practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olubukola, Adesina; Adesina, Oladokun

    2010-06-01

    Untreated maternal syphilis is strongly associated with adverse birth outcomes, especially in women with high titre syphilis. The WHO recommends routine serological screening in pregnancy. Some workers have advised a reappraisal of this practice, having demonstrated low sero-prevalence in their antenatal population. In view of this, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis in the antenatal population presenting at a major hospital in south-west Nigeria. This was a cross sectional study of healthy pregnant Nigerian women attending Adeoyo Maternity Hospital in the capital of Oyo State. The case record of every pregnant woman presenting for their first antenatal clinic visit over a 4-month period (September 1st to December 31st 2006) was reviewed. During the study period, two thousand six hundred and seventy-eight women sought antenatal care. Three hundred and sixty-nine women (369; 13.4%) had incomplete records and were excluded from analysis. The records of the 2,318(86.6%) women with adequate records were subsequently reviewed. The mean age of the women was 27.4 years (± 5.34) and the mean gestational age 26.4 weeks (±6.36). The modal parity was 0. Only three patients were found to be reactive for syphilis giving a prevalence of 0.13%. The sero- prevalence value in this study is quite low and may justify the call to discontinue routine antenatal syphilis screening. However, a more rigorous screening program using diagnostic tests with higher sensitivity maybe necessary before jettisoning this traditional aspect of antenatal care.

  20. Grupos vulnerables y su caracterización como criterio de discriminación de la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional en Brasil Vulnerable groups and their characterization like a discrimination criterion of food and nutritional security in Brazil

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    Dixis Figueroa Pedraza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Los grupos más expuestos a la Inseguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional son los que figuran en cualquier lista de "desposeídos". Las familias más afectadas son aquellas más vulnerables a la degradación del medio ambiente, que viven en malas condiciones sanitarias, de contaminación y superpoblación; cuando esto se asocia al grupo materno infantil la vulnerabilidad queda reforzada. Si importante es la cantidad de personas con subnutrición y desnutrición, también lo es definir: quiénes son, dónde están, los alimentos que suelen consumir y las causas del problema - soluciones. Nuestra caracterización de los posibles grupos vulnerables en Brasil sigue dos perspectivas: datos relacionados con la pobreza y los criterios para la clasificación de grupos vulnerables de la FAO (perspectiva que refiere criterios personales, pues no existen abordajes de este tipo en la literatura científica. La alta concentración de renta de Brasil hace que los pobres tengan escasos recursos para comprar una cesta básica de alimentos, implicando mayor vulnerabilidad. Se pueden observar diferencias entre: áreas urbanas y rurales, áreas no-metropolitanas y metropolitanas, y entre las regiones nordeste y norte en relación con las demás. Cabe destacar las importantes influencias étnicas, culturales y migratorias que sobre estos grupos de personas pesan y que los hacen vulnerables.The more exposed people to Food and Nutritional Insecurity comprise the list of the "dispossessed". The most affected families are the ones more vulnerable to environment degradation, living in bad sanitary conditions, contamination and high demographic rates; when this is associated to the maternal and children group vulnerability becomes more accentuated. The quantification of malnourished and undernourished people is as important as determining who they are, where they are, their food habits and the causes and solutions for the problem. Our definition of possible vulnerable groups

  1. hiv and vulnerability: a comparison of three groups in Cali, Colombia

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    Jaime Galindo Q

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: to identify socio-demographical characteristics and risk behaviors for hiv /Aids and hiv status in three groups of participants from different socio-economic background in Cali. Methodology: between 2005 and 2007, an active sur-veillance campaigns was done and included 4055 voluntary participants who gave informed consent, answered a structured questionnaire, and received pre- and post-test counseling and hiv testing. The participants were grouped in three categories: a total of 1217 from low socio-economic status (lse, with low education and high unemployment (N1, 899 employed workers with technical-professional schooling and upper-middle socio-economic status (N2, and 1939 students of private universities and upper-middle socio-economic status (N3. Socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors and hiv knowledge self-perception were assessed. Statistical analyses: Chi Square, and independent T tests with significance <0.05, 95% confidence intervals. Results: overall prevalence of hiv was 0.62%; in the N1 group prevalence was 1.97%, significantly higher than in the other two groups, (p<0.0001. Conclusions: a higher prevalence of hiv in the N1 (lse group was evident, along with a more frequent history of previous Sexual Transmision Disease (std, and poorer self-perception of hiv knowledge, highlighting the need to strengthen std and hiv prevention and testing strategies targeting this group.

  2. Are there high-risk groups among physicians that are more vulnerable to on-call work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Pekkarinen, Laura; Siuvatti, Eeva; Elovainio, Marko

    2015-05-01

    Work done in the emergency departments is one stressful aspect of physicians' work. Numerous previous studies have highlighted the stressfulness of on-call work and especially of night on call. In addition, previous studies suggest that there may be individual differences in adjusting to changes in circadian rhythms and on-call work. The objective of this study was to examine whether physicians' on-call work is associated with perceived work-related stress factors and job resources and whether there are groups that are more vulnerable to on-call work according to sex, age, and specialization status. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 3230 Finnish physicians (61.5% women). The analyses were conducted using analyses of covariance adjusted for sex, age, specialization status, and employment sector. Physicians with on-call duties had more time pressure and stress related to team work and patient information systems compared with those who did not have on-call duties. In addition, they had less job control opportunities and experienced organization as less fair and team climate as worse. Older physicians and specialists seemed to be especially vulnerable to on-call work regarding stress factors, whereas younger and specialist trainees seemed vulnerable to on-call work regarding job resources. Focusing on team issues and resources is important for younger physicians and trainees having on-call duties, whereas for older and specialists, attention should be focused on actual work load and time pressure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vulnerability and acclimation to increased UVB radiation in three intertidal macroalgae of different morpho-functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Félix L; Domínguez-González, Belén; Korbee, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    The vulnerability and acclimation to increased UVB radiation in three macroalgae of different morpho-functional groups collected in the Mediterranean coastal waters were evaluated. The algae were submitted for 7 days to increased (PAB+) and decreased (PAB-) UVB radiation. The thickness and morphology influenced the response to increased UVB radiation, being Cystoseira tamariscifolia the less vulnerable algae followed by Ellisolandia elongata. The highest resistance to increased UVB radiation in C. tamariscifolia was related to the accumulation of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity, whereas E. elongata was due to its high reflectance. Finally, Ulva rigida suffered the highest photoinhibition under PAB+ culture. The latest species presented 10 times lower polyphenol content and antioxidant activity than C. tamariscifolia. The three species showed different acclimation patterns to the changes of UVB radiation related to the morphology, photosynthetic activity, accumulation of photoprotectors and antioxidant activities. The ecological implications of the UVB variations on macroalgae are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [People with Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities as a Vulnerable Population Group in Health Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasseler, M

    2015-12-01

    This study intends to research experiences of employees of ambulatory and stationary residential facilities for people with mental and multiple disabilities and family members concerning the health care of the target group. A qualitative research design was applied. As a data collection tool expert interviews were used. Proxy-interviews of employees of ambulatory and stationary residential facilities for people with mental and multiple disabilities and of family members were carried out. In total, 21 interviews could be evaluated with the software program MAXQDA. In particular, the results show that interviewees experienced or perceived a lack of individual time, prescribed measurements, conducted interventions and measurements, etc in the health care field of independent physicians. Systematic, structural, qualification-related and financial limitations impede a high-quality care for the target group. Further studies are necessary to receive differentiated knowledge about the health situation of the target group and to optimize the health care provision. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Characterisation of Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particles during South-West Monsoon from a High Altitude Site in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsan, A. E.; R, R.; V, B. C.; Huffman, J. A.; Poeschl, U.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Biological aerosols (Bioaerosols) constitute a wide range of dead and alive biological materials that are suspended in the atmosphere. Though ubiquitous in earth's atmosphere, bioaerosols are poorly characterized in terms of their atmospheric abundance, sources and physical properties. Here we discuss the number concentration and size distribution of coarse mode (>1µm) biological aerosols measured at a relatively clean high altitude continental site, Munnar (10.09 N, 77.06 E; 1605 m asl) located in the Western Ghats mountain ranges of Southern Tropical India. The fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) were continuously measured using Ultra Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) from 01 June to 21 August 2014 (South-West Monsoon Period) which showed some interesting patterns. The mean number and mass concentration of coarse FBAP during the campaign was observed to be 1.7 x 10-2cm-3 and 0.24µg m-3 respectively, which corresponds to 2% and 9% of coarse total aerosol particles (TAP) number and mass concentration. FBAP concentration decreased significantly during periods of heavy and continuous rain with constant South-West winds. This may be due to the clean marine influx coming from the ocean and continuous washout. The Relative Humidity (RH) and temperature remained consistent during this period without any strong diurnal pattern. When the wind fluctuated in North-West directions, the FBAP concentration increased to even an order of magnitude higher than the periods of South-West winds which can be attributed to the transported bioaerosols from the nearby vegetated area. In spite of variability in the number concentrations, the size distribution of FBAP exhibited a prominent peak at ~3 μm throughout the campaign, which should be fungal spores. They also exhibited a strong diurnal pattern with high concentrations occuring during the night time which peaks in the early morning hours.Biological aerosols (Bioaerosols) constitute a wide range of dead and

  6. Unhealthful Food-and-Beverage Advertising in Subway Stations: Targeted Marketing, Vulnerable Groups, Dietary Intake, and Poor Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar C; Schechter, Clyde B

    2017-04-01

    Unhealthful food-and-beverage advertising often targets vulnerable groups. The extent of such advertising in subway stations has not been reported and it is not clear how ad placement may relate to subway ridership or community demographics, or what the implications might be for diets and diet-related health in surrounding communities. Riding all subway lines (n = 7) in the Bronx, NY, USA, investigators systematically assessed all print ads (n = 1586) in all stations (n = 68) in 2012. Data about subway ridership came from the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Demographic data on surrounding residential areas came from the U.S. Census Bureau. Data on dietary intake and diet-related conditions came from a city health-department survey. There were no ads promoting "more-healthful" food-or-beverage items (i.e., fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, water or milk). There were many ads for "less-healthful" items (e.g., candies, chips, sugary cereals, frozen pizzas, "energy" drinks, coffee confections, hard alcohol, and beer). Ad placement did not relate to the number of riders entering at stations. Instead, exposure to food-or-beverage ads generally, and to "less-healthful" ads particularly (specifically ads in Spanish, directed at youth, and/or featuring minorities), was directly correlated with poverty, lower high-school graduation rates, higher percentages of Hispanics, and/or higher percentages of children in surrounding residential areas. Correlations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Additional analyses suggested correlations between ad exposures and sugary-drink consumption, fruit-and-vegetable intake, and diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol rates. Subway-station ads for "less-healthful" items were located disproportionately in areas home to vulnerable populations facing diet and diet-related-health challenges. The fact that uneven ad placement did not relate to total rider counts suggests ads were not directed at the largest

  7. Pelagic communities of the South West Indian Ocean seamounts: R/V Dr Fridtjof Nansen Cruise 2009-410

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. D.; Alvheim, O.; Bemanaja, E.; Benivary, D.; Boersch-Supan, P.; Bornman, T. G.; Cedras, R.; Du Plessis, N.; Gotheil, S.; Høines, A.; Kemp, K.; Kristiansen, J.; Letessier, T.; Mangar, V.; Mazungula, N.; Mørk, T.; Pinet, P.; Pollard, R.; Read, J.; Sonnekus, T.

    2017-02-01

    The seamounts of the southern Indian Ocean remain some of the most poorly studied globally and yet have been subject to deep-sea fishing for decades and may face new exploitation through mining of seabed massive sulphides in the future. As an attempt to redress the knowledge deficit on deep-sea benthic and pelagic communities associated mainly with the seamounts of the South West Indian Ridge two cruises were undertaken to explore the pelagic and benthic ecology in 2009 and 2011 respectively. In this volume are presented studies on pelagic ecosystems around six seamounts, five on the South West Indian Ridge, including Atlantis Bank, Sapmer Seamount, Middle of What Seamount, Melville Bank and Coral Seamount and one un-named seamount on the Madagascar Ridge. In this paper, existing knowledge on the seamounts of the southwestern Indian Ocean is presented to provide context for the studies presented in this volume. An account of the overall aims, approaches and methods used primarily on the 2009 cruise are presented including metadata associated with sampling and some of the limitations of the study. Sampling during this cruise included physical oceanographic measurements, multibeam bathymetry, biological acoustics, and net sampling of phytoplankton, macrozooplankton and micronekton/nekton. The studies that follow reveal new data on the physical oceanography of this dynamic region of the oceans, and the important influence of water masses on the pelagic ecology associated with the seamounts of the South West Indian Ridge. New information on the pelagic fauna of the region fills an important biogeographic gap for the mid- to high-latitudes of the oceans of the southern hemisphere.

  8. One-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission: a time-series analysis in the rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China

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    Goggins William B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health burden in the tropics with the potential to significantly increase in response to climate change. Analyses of data from the recent past can elucidate how short-term variations in weather factors affect malaria transmission. This study explored the impact of climate variability on the transmission of malaria in the tropical rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China. Methods Ecological time-series analysis was performed on data collected between 1971 and 1999. Auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models were used to evaluate the relationship between weather factors and malaria incidence. Results At the time scale of months, the predictors for malaria incidence included: minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and fog day frequency. The effect of minimum temperature on malaria incidence was greater in the cool months than in the hot months. The fog day frequency in October had a positive effect on malaria incidence in May of the following year. At the time scale of years, the annual fog day frequency was the only weather predictor of the annual incidence of malaria. Conclusion Fog day frequency was for the first time found to be a predictor of malaria incidence in a rain forest area. The one-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission may involve providing water input and maintaining aquatic breeding sites for mosquitoes in vulnerable times when there is little rainfall in the 6-month dry seasons. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of malaria for similar tropical rain forest areas worldwide.

  9. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  10. Prevalence of low back pain among peasant farmers in a rural community in South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabunmi, A A; Aba, S O; Odunaiya, N A

    2005-09-01

    This study is a survey conducted in Iju-Odo rural community of Ondo State in South West Nigeria to determine the prevalence and risk factors for low back pain amongst peasant farmers. Five hundred peasant farmers were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. A questionnaire was administered which sought information on demographic characteristics, presence of low back pain in the last 12 months prior to the time of the study and the duration, severity of low back pain and its effect on farming activity. The five hundred peasant farmers that participated in this study were 276 men (55.2%) and 224 women (44.8%). Three hundred and sixty two peasant farmers (72.4% of the population) had low back pain in the last 12 months prior to the time of this study, of which two hundred and three (73.5%) were males and one hundred and fifty nine (71.0%) were females peasant farmers having low back pain. The nature of onset of low back pain was that of gradual onset in 57.5%. One hundred and eighty-eight (51.9%) respondents indicated that low back pain reduced their farming workload, while one hundred and twenty four (34.3%) respondents were prevented from going to farm because they could not walk, resulting in 675 work days being lost by one hundred and twenty one (24.2%) peasant farmers in the last one-year with a mean of 5.6 days lost. This study concluded that low back pain prevalence is high among peasant farmers, with higher prevalence in males compared with females (P<0.05). The prevalence also increased with age (P<0.05). Years of farming was found to have a significant influence on the prevalence of low back pain (P<0.05) with prevalence of low back pain increasing as years of farming increases. Low back pain was found to be a cause of work absenteeism in this working population.

  11. High resolution modeling of tropical cyclones-ocean interactions in the South-West Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanut, J.; Samson, G.; Giordani, H.; Barbary, D.; Drillet, Y.

    2016-02-01

    The ocean surface can cool by several degrees during the passage of a tropical cyclone (TC) due to the extreme winds associated with. This cooling decreases the ocean-to-atmosphere heat and moisture supply which can modulate the TC intensity. Hence, atmospheric models need an accurate description of the sea surface temperature (SST) under TCs to correctly predict their intensities. This SST evolution and its feedback on the TC evolution can only be captured by ocean-atmosphere coupled models. In order to evaluate this potential benefit on TC forecasts in the South West Indian Ocean, Mercator-Ocean has developed a new coupled regional model based on the Meteo-France operational atmospheric model AROME and the NEMO ocean model. Exchanges between the two models are handled by the OASIS3 coupler. AROME is initialized and forced at its lateral boundaries with ALADIN 10km-resolution 6-hourly analysis and is integrated during 96 hours at 2.5km convective-resolving resolution. NEMO is initialized and forced with global 1/4° oceanic analyses performed weekly at Mercator-Ocean and is integrated at 1/12° eddy-resolving resolution. An ensemble of 25 coupled simulations and 25 atmospheric-only (forced) simulations based on 5 different TCs over the 2008-2013 seasons are then computed to explore the sensitivity of the TC hindcast to the SST. The ensemble is generated by varying the initial simulation time with a 6-hours step. A clear improvement of the SST evolution under the TCs is observed in the coupled simulations when compared to satellite data. This SST difference directly impacts turbulent latent and sensible heat fluxes spatial distribution and intensities, which lead to different intensification rates in the coupled and the forced simulations. The intensity hindcast mean error is significantly reduced in the coupled ensemble for hindcast ranges extending from 36h up to 96h. A statistical analysis confirms the robustness of this intensity hindcast improvement achieved

  12. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Serbo town, Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketema, Tsige; Bacha, Ketema; Birhanu, Tarekegn; Petros, Beyene

    2009-07-30

    Ethiopia has the highest proportion of vivax malaria, approximately 40% of all malaria infections, in contrast to African countries. Chloroquine (CQ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection in the country, although CQ resistant P. vivax (CRPv) has started to challenge the efficacy of the drug. The present study was conducted to assess the current status of CRPv at Serbo, Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia. A 28-day in vivo therapeutic efficacy test was conducted from October 2007 to January 2008. Recurrence of parasitaemia and the clinical condition of patients were assessed on each visit during the follow-up. The levels of haemoglobin (Hb) in the study participants were determined. The patients' blood drug levels were measured using HPLC. Data was analysed using SPSS for windows version 10.0. HPLC data was computed using Chem Station for LC 3D systems software. Of the total 84 patients included in the study, 78 completed their 28-day follow-up, six of whom being excluded for different reasons. In three children (aged 7, 12 and 13 years), parasitaemia reappeared within the 28-days follow-up in spite of adequate absorption of the drug and absence of malaria symptom. In addition, on the day of recurrence of parasitaemia the levels of chloroquine-desethylchloroquine (CQ-DCQ) were above the minimum effective concentration (>or=100 etag/ml) in all the three cases, showing that treatment failure could not be attributed to low level of drug in the patients blood. Reappearance of the parasite within the 28 days of follow-up is due to parasite resistance to CQ. The 3.6% (95% CI = -0.038 - 0.0758) prevalence of CRPv malaria in the study area signals the need for launching monitory activities for CQ resistant P. vivax. Moreover, as former report from the same country, Debrezeit, also showed the occurrence of CRPv, survey on CRPv malaria should be made in P. vivax endemic areas in order to estimate the level of burden across the country.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall over the South-West Coast of Bangladesh

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    Md. Sarwar Hossain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the spatial and temporal rainfall variability from the 1940s to 2007 in the south west coastal region of Bangladesh. Time series statistical tests were applied to examine the spatial and temporal trends in three time segments (1948–1970, 1971–1990 and 1991–2007 and four seasons (Pre-monsoon; Monsoon; Post-Monsoon and Winter, during the period 1948–2007. Eight weather stations were divided into two zones: exposed (exposed to sea and interior (distant to sea. Overall, rainfall increased during the period 1948–2007, while the trends intensified during post-1990s. Post-monsoon and winter rainfall was observed to follow significant positive trends at most weather stations during the time period 1948–2007. The rate of change was found in exposed zone and interior zone are +12.51 and +4.86 mm/year, respectively, over post monsoon and +0.9 and +1.86 mm/year, respectively, over winter. These trends intensified both in the exposed zone (+45.81 mm/year and the interior zone (+27.09 mm/year 1990 onwards. Winter rainfall does not exhibit significant change (p > 0.1 over the exterior or interior zone, though individual stations like Jessore, Satkhira and Bhola show significant negative trends after 1990s. Although the trends were observed to weaken in the monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons, they are not significant. Moreover, an 11-year cyclicity was found within these two seasons, whilst no cyclicity was observed in the post-monsoon and winter seasons. Sequential Mann Kendal test reveals that the changes in two zones rainfall trends are started around mid-80s, where step change found only for fours season in Khulna stations and also for winter seasons in all weather stations. These changes may have a detrimental effect on rain-fed agriculture in Bangladesh. The application of palaeo-environmental techniques, threshold determination and rainfall analysis across the whole country could be useful to support adaptation planning of

  14. A Survey of Star Clusters in the M31 South-West Field. UBVRI Photometry and Multi-Band Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Narbutis, D.; Vansevicius, V.; Kodaira, K.; Bridzius, A.; Stonkute, R.

    2008-01-01

    A new survey of star clusters in the South-West field of the M31 disk based on the high resolution Subaru Suprime-Cam observations is presented. The UBVRI aperture CCD photometry catalog of 285 objects (V < 20.5; 169 of them identified for the first time) is provided. Each object is supplemented with multi-band color maps presented in the electronic edition of the Astrophysical Journal Supplement. Seventy seven star cluster candidates from the catalog are located in the Hubble Space Telescope...

  15. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ENVIRONMENT AT REGIONAL LEVEL IN ROMANIA. CASE STUDY: THE REGION OF SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂCESCU ANIELA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a descriptive statistic of the regional entrepreneurial environment in Romania, focusing on South-West Oltenia, with the aim that surprised the level of entrepreneurship in this area. In this study we considered the demographic analysis of active enterprises at the 8 development regions of Romania, the survival rate of enterprises, the competitiveness, and profile of the entrepreneur. The period under review is 2008-2014, and the main sources of information were the databases of the National Institute of Statistics and the National Trade Register Office

  16. The implications of wood exploitation for fish smoking on mangrove ecosystem conservation in the South West Province, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Mario, G.M.; Njisuh, Z. F.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated how the use of mangrove wood for fish smoking by local people in some localities of the South West (SW) Province of Cameroon may be in conflict with the conservation and sustainability of mangrove ecosystems. With the use of socio-economic surveys, from February to July 2006, we established that the amount of the annual fuel-wood harvest for five study sites was about 102,650 m3 (i.e., an amount equivalent to clearing about 205.3 ha of mangrove forests annually)....

  17. Earthquake Vulnerability Assessment for Hospital Buildings Using a Gis-Based Group Multi Criteria Decision Making Approach: a Case Study of Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavar, M. R.; Moradi, M.; Moshiri, B.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, urban areas are threatened by a number of natural hazards such as flood, landslide and earthquake. They can cause huge damages to buildings and human beings which necessitates disaster mitigation and preparation. One of the most important steps in disaster management is to understand all impacts and effects of disaster on urban facilities. Given that hospitals take care of vulnerable people reaction of hospital buildings against earthquake is vital. In this research, the vulnerability of hospital buildings against earthquake is analysed. The vulnerability of buildings is related to a number of criteria including age of building, number of floors, the quality of materials and intensity of the earthquake. Therefore, the problem of seismic vulnerability assessment is a multi-criteria assessment problem and multi criteria decision making methods can be used to address the problem. In this paper a group multi criteria decision making model is applied because using only one expert's judgments can cause biased vulnerability maps. Sugeno integral which is able to take into account the interaction among criteria is employed to assess the vulnerability degree of buildings. Fuzzy capacities which are similar to layer weights in weighted linear averaging operator are calculated using particle swarm optimization. Then, calculated fuzzy capacities are included into the model to compute a vulnerability degree for each hospital.

  18. Clinical profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Faifa-Gizan, South west province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (A study of 140 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Raghu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to know the age, sex distribution and clinical pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in a remote hilly area, Faifa, Gizan situated in the South West region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. C L accounted for nearly 5% of the new outpatient attendance in the study period (1988-90 of 20 months. Out of the 140 new patients who formed the study group, 82 were males (58.57% and 58 females (41.43% in the age range of 9 months to 60 years. Ninety two patients were children (65.71% below 15 years. including 58 boys and 34 girls and CL is a major public health problem in children of this area. The fact that out of 140 affected individuals, 134 were local Saudis and 6 non-Saudis reveals the autochthonous nature of the disease in this region. The clinical spectrum included dry crusted ulcers, erythematous indurated plaques, nodules, papules, and oozing shallow ulcers. The lesions were distributed mostly on face and extremities. Response to pentostam (Sodium stibogluconate was highly satisfactory.

  19. Distribution of cloudiness and categorization of rainfall types based on INSAT IR brightness temperatures over Indian subcontinent and adjoining oceanic region during south west monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, P.; Abhilash, S.; Santhosh, K. R.; Mapes, B. E.; Suvarchal Kumar, C.; Hu, I.-Kuan

    2017-08-01

    To understand the relationship between rain intensity and brightness temperature, Cloud Top Brightness Temperature (CTBT) derived from INSAT three hourly IR radiances having a resolution of 0.25 × 0.25 deg. is compared with corresponding TRMM PR Rain Rate (TPRR) for the Indian Summer Monsoon periods of 2007 and 2008. BT value ranges corresponding to events of various intensities of rain in the four major raining sub regions identified in Indian subcontinent and surrounding ocean are compared. The sub regions identified are (1) Head Bay of Bengal, (2) Central Indian land region, (3) Eastern Arabians Sea and West coast of India and (4) South West Indian Ocean. BT values are grouped into classes of 10°K bin width between 270 and 180°K. Number of occurrence of three classes of rain (light - >4.5 mm, moderate - 4.5-9 mm and heavy 9.0 mm and above cumulative for 3 h) belonging in each BT classes is calculated. It is observed that the three classes of rainfall have distinct characteristic BT ranges. This rain category - BT range relation has geographical (spatial) variability. This could be due to the variation in types of clouds prevalent in the sub regions considered. The present study improves the understanding of the structure and spatial variability of cloudiness and rainfall in and around Indian region during monsoon season.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus 'Down Under': contemporary epidemiology of S. aureus in Australia, New Zealand, and the South West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D A; Coombs, G W; Nimmo, G R

    2014-07-01

    The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  1. Anaphylaxis vulnerable groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    transit between parental control and autonomous decision-making. They fail to avoid their ... bullying. Involvement of close friends and lay organizations may support appropriate management.33. Anaphylaxis in the elderly. In patients with anaphylaxis who are more than 50 years old, typical triggers are stinging insect.

  2. Vulnerable Genders, Vulnerable Loves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses religious reflections on vulnerable genders and vulnerable loves from the Hebrew Bible to early Rabbinic literature. It is based on theories by inter alia Donna Haraway on complex identities, Turner and Maryanski on love as a prerequisite for survival, Michel Foucault...... on gathering knowledge and its often unpremeditated effect of recognition and inclusion, and Judith Butler on cultural intelligibility and subversion from within. With these theories as a departing point for the analysis, the chapter links the vulnerability of complex identities with the vulnerability...... of cultures which leads to the overall understanding that culture can accommodate complex identities associated with individual and cultural vulnerability as long as the overall survival of the culture is not threatened. This understanding questions the feasibility of the ethical position of thinkers...

  3. Detecting crop yield reduction due to irrigation-induced soil salinization in South-West Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaman, E.; Beets, W.; Croes, J.; Keesstra, S.; Verzandvoort, S.; Zeiliguer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The South-European part of the Russian Federation has experienced serious land degradation in the form of soil salinization since the 1960s. This land degradation was caused by intensive, large-scale irrigation on reclaimed land in combination with the salt-rich nature of the substrate. Alkaline soil salinity is believed to be an important factor decreasing crop yield in this area. A large research effort has been directed to the effects of soil salinity on crops, there is a need for simple, easily determinable indicators of crop health and soil salinity in irrigated systems, that can help to detect crop water stress in an early stage. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of soil salinity and vegetation water stress on the performance of alfalfa crop yield and physiological crop properties, and to study the possibility to measure soil salinity and alkalinity and the crop water stress index at plot level using a thermal gun and a regular digital camera. The study area was located in Saratov District, in the South-West part of Russia. Variables on the surface energy balance, crop properties, soil properties and visible reflectance were measured on plots with alfalfa cultures in two fields with and without signs of alkaline soil salinity, and with and without irrigation in July 2009. The research showed no clear adverse effects of soil salinity and soil alkalinity on crop yield and physiological crop properties. Soil salinity, as reflected by the electric conductivity, positively affected the root biomass of alfalfa in the range of 0.15 to 1.52 dS/m . This was a result of EC levels being below the documented threshold to negatively affect Alfalfa, as would be the case in truly saline soils. The soil pH also showed a positive correlation with root biomass within the range of pH 6.2 and 8.5 . From the literature these pH values are generally believed to be too high to exhibit a positive relationship with root biomass. No relationship was found

  4. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms: the vulnerable groups identified from the National FINRISK 2007 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näyhä, Simo; Rintamäki, Hannu; Donaldson, Gavin; Hassi, Juhani; Jousilahti, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Ikäheimo, Tiina M.

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among vulnerable groups is not well known. We therefore estimated the prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among the Finnish population and their associations with social and individual vulnerability factors. The data came from the National FINRISK 2007 Study, in which 4007 men and women aged 25-74 answered questions on heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms in the Oulu Cold and Heat Questionnaire 2007. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), and model-predicted prevalence figures. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms was 12 %. It increased with age, from 3 % at the age of 25 years to 28 % at the age of 75 years. The symptoms were associated with pre-existing lung (OR 3.93; CI 3.01-5.13) and cardiovascular diseases (OR 2.27; 1.78-2.89); being a pensioner (OR 2.91; 1.65-5.28), unemployed (OR 2.82; 1.47-5.48), or working in agriculture (OR 2.27; 1.14-4.46) compared with working in industry; having only basic vs academic education (OR 1.98; 1.31-3.05); being female (OR 1.94; 1.51-2.50); being heavy vs light alcohol consumer (OR 1.89; 1.02-3.32); undertaking hard vs light physical work (OR 1.48;1.06-2.07); and being inactive vs active in leisure time (OR 1.97; 1.39-2.81). The adjusted prevalence of symptoms showed a wide range of variation, from 3 to 61 % depending on sex, age, professional field, education, and pre-existing lung and cardiovascular diseases. In conclusion, heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms are commonly perceived among people with pre-existing lung or cardiovascular disease, agricultural workers, unemployed, pensioners, and people having only basic education. This information is needed for any planning and targeting measures to reduce the burden of summer heat.

  5. Community physician education in geriatrics: applying the assessing care of vulnerable elders model with a multisite primary care group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Gregg A; Modawal, Arvind; Kues, John; Moore, Irene; Margolin, Gordon; Sehgal, Mandi; Mueller, Stephen; Cluxton, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Providing practicing physicians with effective education that leads to better patient outcomes remains challenging. In 2003, the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine developed a comprehensive program to enhance practicing physician geriatric medicine education based on the Assessing the Care of Vulnerable Elders model. The program was implemented with a large, multisite primary care group based in the greater Cincinnati area and was designed to increase physicians' clinical skills and assist them in implementing new office and system strategies that could improve the quality of care for their older patients. Four topic areas were chosen: medication management, falls and mobility, urinary incontinence, and dementia. A multifaceted physician education program was developed for each topic area, with lunch-time, in-office, geriatrician-led presentations as the primary intervention. Over a 4-year period (2004-2007), more than 60 physicians in 16 primary care practices attended 107 teaching sessions. The value of the presentation content, quality of the presentations, and perception of meeting the primary care physicians' (PCPs') educational needs were each rated at 3.8 or above (4=excellent). Between 80% and 92% of the PCPs planned to make a change in their practice behavior as a result of the training, but only two offices initiated formal quality improvement projects. During the teaching sessions, the PCPs were provided with screening tools to identify "at risk" patients, assessment chart templates, and community resource and patient education materials. The application of a modified version of the ACOVE model to reach a large group of primary care physicians is possible and may be one strategy to improve the assessment and management of geriatric syndromes. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dawes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia, provides approximately 60 percent of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15 percent. There is expected to be a reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia.

    Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A vertical flux manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on climate, land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland, soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth.

    In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In areas with land-use change, recharge rates have increased. Where rainfall has declined sufficiently, recharge rates are decreasing, and where compensating factors combine, there is little change to recharge. In the southwestern part of the study area, the patterns of groundwater recharge are dictated primarily by soil, geology and land cover. In the sand-dominated areas, there is little response to future climate change, because groundwater levels are shallow and much rainfall is rejected recharge. Where the combination of native vegetation and

  7. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, W.; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; Emelyanova, I.; Hodgson, G.; McFarlane, D.

    2012-08-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia, provides approximately 60 percent of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15 percent. There is expected to be a reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia. Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A vertical flux manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on climate, land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland), soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth. In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In areas with land-use change, recharge rates have increased. Where rainfall has declined sufficiently, recharge rates are decreasing, and where compensating factors combine, there is little change to recharge. In the southwestern part of the study area, the patterns of groundwater recharge are dictated primarily by soil, geology and land cover. In the sand-dominated areas, there is little response to future climate change, because groundwater levels are shallow and much rainfall is rejected recharge. Where the combination of native vegetation and clayey surface soils restricts possible

  8. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 2, Working Group Assessment Team reports; Vulnerability development forms; Working group documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Secretary of Energy`s memorandum of August 19, 1993, established an initiative for a Department-wide assessment of the vulnerabilities of stored spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials. A Project Plan to accomplish this study was issued on September 20, 1993 by US Department of Energy, Office of Environment, Health and Safety (EH) which established responsibilities for personnel essential to the study. The DOE Spent Fuel Working Group, which was formed for this purpose and produced the Project Plan, will manage the assessment and produce a report for the Secretary by November 20, 1993. This report was prepared by the Working Group Assessment Team assigned to the Hanford Site facilities. Results contained in this report will be reviewed, along with similar reports from all other selected DOE storage sites, by a working group review panel which will assemble the final summary report to the Secretary on spent nuclear fuel storage inventory and vulnerability.

  9. Clinical audit of knowledge and practice of epidural labour analgesia amongst obstetricians in south-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinaike, B B; Ogunbode, O O; Aderinto, D A

    2010-06-01

    Epidural analgesia (EA) is the most ideal method for pain relief during labour. We sought to highlight the current knowledge and practice of the obstetricians regarding epidural labour analgesia (ELA). An audit was conducted amongst obstetricians in two teaching hospitals in the south west of Nigeria. Most of our respondents received lectures about ELA but about half of them rated the lectures as inadequate. Though 37.8% and 53.3% of respondents are of the opinion that there is interference with labour and increased incidence of instrumentation following epidural analgesia in labour respectively, however 84.4% agreed that the technique is not associated with adverse neonatal or maternal outcome and 97.8% will prefer their patients having epidural labour analgesia. We are of the opinion that education regarding ELA, both during and after obstetric speciality training, be improved, and well-established interpersonal relationship between obstetricians and anaesthetists will be needed to achieve this.

  10. The consequences of land use change on nutrient exports: a regional scale assessment in south-west Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie; Leblanc, Marc; Stagnitti, Frank; Duff, Gordon; Salzman, Scott; Versace, Vincent

    2005-03-01

    Estimation of nutrient load production based on multi-temporal remotely sensed land use data for the Glenelg-Hopkins region in south-west Victoria, Australia, is discussed. Changes in land use were mapped using archived Landsat data and computerised classification techniques. Land use change has been rapid in recent history with 16% of the region transformed in the last 22 years. Total nitrogen and phosphorus loads were estimated using an export coefficient model. The analysis demonstrates an increase in modelled nitrogen and phosphorus loadings from 1980 to 2002. Whilst such increases were suspected from past anecdotal and ad-hoc evidence, our modelling estimated the magnitude of such increases and thus demonstrated the enormous potential of using remote sensing and GIS for monitoring regional scale environmental processes.

  11. Three-dimensional architecture and development of Danianbryozoan mounds at Limhamn, south-west Sweden, usingground-penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Schack von Brockdorff, A.; Bjerager, Morten Gustav Erik

    2009-01-01

    in the Limhamn limestone quarry, south-west Sweden, obtained from combined reflected ground-penetrating radar signals and outcrop analysis provide new information about the architecture and growth development of such mounds. The mounds are composed of bryozoan limestone and dark-grey to black flint bands which...... outline mound geometries. Ground-penetrating radar data sections are collected over a 120 m by 60 m grid of data lines with trace spacing of 0·25 m, providing a depth penetration of 7 to 12 m and a vertical resolution of ca 0·30 m. The ground-penetrating radar images outline the geometry of the internal...

  12. Evaluation of a comprehensive tobacco control project targeting Arabic-speakers residing in south west Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusco, Andrew; Poder, Natasha; Mohsin, Mohammed; Rikard-Bell, Glenys; Rissel, Chris; Williams, Mandy; Hua, Myna; Millen, Elizabeth; Sabry, Marial; Guirguis, Sanaa

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco control is a health promotion priority, but there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of campaigns targeting culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) populations. Being the largest population of non-English-speaking smokers residing in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, Arabic-speakers are a priority population for tobacco control. We report findings from baseline and post-intervention cross-sectional telephone surveys evaluating a comprehensive social marketing campaign (SMC) specifically targeting Arabic-speakers residing in south west Sydney, NSW. The project was associated with a decline in self-reported smoking prevalence from 26% at baseline to 20.7% at post (p < 0.05) and an increase in self-reported smoke-free households from 67.1% at baseline to 74.9% at post (p < 0.05). This paper contributes evidence that comprehensive SMCs targeting CALD populations can reduce smoking prevalence and influence smoking norms in CALD populations.

  13. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet among employees in South West England: Formative research to inform a web-based, work-place nutrition intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Papadaki

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Improvement in the consumption of several Mediterranean diet components is needed to increase adherence in this sample of adults. The findings have the potential to inform the development of a web-based intervention that will focus on these foods to promote the Mediterranean diet in work-place settings in South West England.

  14. A preliminary report on the biomass of chaetognaths in the Indian Ocean comparing the south-west and north-east monsoon periods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    sorted and the total number of chaetognaths in the samples were then computed The average number of chaetognaths for all samples from each 5 degrees Marsden Square is separately estimated for the south-west and north-east monsoon periods The period mid...

  15. The Effectiveness of Student Involvement in Decision-Making and University Leadership: A Comparative Analysis of 12 Universities in South-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Adesoji A.; Adetoro, Jeremiah A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines student involvement in university leadership and decision-making and its impacts on leadership effectiveness in universities in Nigeria. The study uses a descriptive survey conducted among students and staff in all 12 of the public and private universities in South-West Nigeria. The research findings indicate that there is a…

  16. Safe Delivery Posts: an intervention to provide equitable childbirth care services to vulnerable groups in Zahedan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudi, Zahra; Ghazi Tabatabaie, Mahmood; Mahdi Tabatabaei, Seyed; Vedadhir, AbouAli

    2014-10-01

    Recently, there has been a shift towards alternative childbirth services to increase access to skilled care during childbirth. This study aims to assess the past 10 years of experience of the first Safe Delivery Posts (SDPs) established in Zahedan, Iran to determine the number of deliveries and the intrapartum transfer rates, and to examine the reasons why women choose to give birth at a Safe Delivery Post and not in one of the four large hospitals in Zahedan. A mixed-methods research strategy was used for this study. In the quantitative phase, an analysis was performed on the existing data that are routinely collected in the health-care sector. In the qualitative phase, a grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyse narrative data from in-depth interviews with women who had given birth to their children at the Safe Delivery Posts. Women were selected from two Safe Delivery Posts in Zahedan city in southeast Iran. Nineteen mothers who had given birth in the Safe Delivery Posts were interviewed. During the 10-year period, 22,753 low-risk women gave birth in the Safe Delivery Posts, according to the records. Of all the women who were admitted to the Safe Delivery Posts, on average 2.1% were transferred to the hospital during labour or the postpartum period. Three key categories emerged from the analysis: barriers to hospital use, opposition to home birth and finally, reasons for choosing the childbirth care provided by the SDPs. Implementing a model of midwifery care that offers the benefits of modern medical care and meets the needs of the local population is feasible and sustainable. This model of care reduces the cost of giving birth and ensures equitable access to care among vulnerable groups in Zahedan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of PM10 Chemical Source Profiles for Geological Dust from the South-West Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayong Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six particulate matter (PM10 chemical source profiles for geological sources in typical cities of southwest China were acquired from Source Profile Shared Service in China. Twenty-six elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Be, Tl and Pb, nine ions (F−, Cl−, SO42−, NO3−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, and carbon-containing species (organic carbon and elemental carbon were determined to construct these profiles. Individual source profiles were averaged and compared to quantify similarities and differences in chemical abundances using the profile-compositing method. Overall, the major components of PM10 in geological sources were crustal minerals and undefined fraction. Different chemical species could be used as tracers for various types of geological dust in the region that resulted from different anthropogenic influence. For example, elemental carbon, V and Zn could be used as tracers for urban paved road dust; Al, Si, K+ and NH4+ for agricultural soil; Al and Si for natural soil; and SO42− for urban resuspended dust. The enrichment factor analysis showed that Cu, Se, Sr and Ba were highly enriched by human activities in geological dust samples from south-west China. Elemental ratios were taken to highlight the features of geological dust from south-west China by comparing with northern urban fugitive dust, loess and desert samples. Low Si/Al and Fe/Al ratios can be used as markers to trace geological sources from southwestern China. High Pb/Al and Zn/Al ratios observed in urban areas demonstrated that urban geological dust was influenced seriously by non-crustal sources.

  18. Do we have a moral responsibility to compensate for vulnerable groups? A discussion on the right to health for LGBT people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2017-09-01

    Vulnerability is a broad concept widely addressed in recent scholarly literature. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are among the vulnerable populations with significant disadvantages related to health and the social determinants of health. Medical ethics discourse tackles vulnerability from philosophical and political perspectives. LGBT people experience several disadvantages from both perspectives. This article aims to justify the right to health for LGBT people and their particular claims regarding healthcare because they belong to a vulnerable group. Rawls' theory of justice and Norman Daniels' normal functioning approach will be discussed in this context. Despite the fact that the right to health can be justified by Daniels' normal functioning approach, there is still a theoretical gap in justifying the right to health for particular vulnerable populations such as LGBT peopleand discussing society's duty to compensate for these disadvantages. In search of solid theoretical grounds for the justification of the right to health for LGBT people, the present author takes the opportunity to utilize Daniels' flexible definition of normal functioning to show that normal functioning not only varies by age but also by different states of human existence, including sexual orientation and gender identity, and to propose replacing the life span approach with normal states of human existence.

  19. Mapping of coastal landforms and volumetric change analysis in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaliraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal landforms along the south west coast of Kanyakumari have undergone remarkable change in terms of shape and disposition due to both natural and anthropogenic interference. An attempt is made here to map the coastal landforms along the coast using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Spatial data sources, such as, topographical map published by Survey of India, Landsat ETM+ (30 m image, IKONOS image (0.82 m, SRTM and ASTER DEM datasets have been comprehensively analyzed for extracting coastal landforms. Change detection methods, such as, (i topographical change detection, (ii cross-shore profile analysis, (iii Geomorphic Change Detection (GCD using DEM of Difference (DoD were adopted for assessment of volumetric changes of coastal landforms for the period between 2000 and 2011. The GCD analysis uses ASTER and SRTM DEM datasets by resampling them into common scale (pixel size using pixel-by-pixel based Wavelet Transform and Pan-Sharpening techniques in ERDAS Imagine software. Volumetric changes of coastal landforms were validated with data derived from GPS-based field survey. Coastal landform units were mapped based on process of their evolution such as beach landforms including sandy beach, cusp, berm, scarp, beach terrace, upland, rockyshore, cliffs, wave-cut notches and wave-cut platforms; and the fluvial landforms. Comprising of alluvial plain, flood plains, and other shallow marshes in estuaries. The topographical change analysis reveals that the beach landforms have reduced their elevation ranging from 1 to 3 m probably due to sediment removal or flattening. Analysis of cross-shore profiles for twelve locations indicate varying degrees of loss or gain of coastal landforms. For example, the K3-K3′ profile across the Kovalam coast has shown significant erosion (−0.26 to −0.76 m of the sandy beaches resulting in the formation of beach cusps and beach scarps within a distance of 300 m from the shoreline. The volumetric change

  20. The relevance of work-related learning for vulnerable groups. Dutch case study of a Health Impact Assessment with equity focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Ilse; Uiters, Ellen; Busch, Mirjam C M; den Broeder, Lea; Schuit, Albertine J

    2015-07-01

    Learning is essential for sustainable employability. However, various factors make work-related learning more difficult for certain groups of workers, who are consequently at a disadvantage in the labour market. In the long term, that in turn can have adverse health implications and can make those groups vulnerable. With a view to encouraging workers to continue learning, the Netherlands has a policy on work-related learning, which forms part of the 'Vitality Package'. A Health Impact Assessment with equity focus (HIAef) was undertaken to determine whether the policy on work-related learning affected certain groups of workers and their health in different ways, and whether the differences were avoidable. The HIAef method involved the standard phases: screening, scoping, appraisal and recommendations. Equity was the core principle in this method. Data were collected by means of both literature searches (e.g., Scopus, Medline) and interviews with experts and stakeholders (e.g., expertise regarding work, training and/or health). The HIAef identified the following groups as potentially vulnerable in the field of work-related learning: the chronically sick, older people, less educated people, flexi-workers/the self-employed and lay carers (e.g., thresholds to learning). Published literature indicates that work-related learning may have a positive influence on health through (work-related) factors such as pay, employability, longer employment rate and training-participation. According to experts and stakeholders, work-related learning policy could be adapted to take more account of vulnerable groups through alignment with their particular needs, such as early support, informal learning and e-learning. With a view to reducing avoidable inequalities in work-related learning, it is recommended that early, low-threshold, accessible opportunities are made available to identified vulnerable groups. Making such opportunities available may have a positive effect on (continued

  1. Vulnerable Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Vulnerable Plaque Menu Topics Topics FAQs Vulnerable Plaque Article Info En español Swelling (inflammation) is your ... aging, including coronary artery disease . What is vulnerable plaque? For many years, doctors have thought that the ...

  2. Economic vulnerability among low educated Europeans : the impact of resources, the group's position, labour market conditions and welfare state arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.; Scheepers, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we pose the question: To what extent does a lack of individual resources and of access to high quality resources in one’s core social network explain why low-educated people are likely to experience economic vulnerability? Additionally, we explain cross-national differences in the

  3. Impact of nutritional education on nutritional status of under-five children in two rural communities of south-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, S S; Onayade, A A; Abiona, T C; Fatusi, A O; Ojofeitimi, E O; Esimai, O A; Ijadunola, K T

    2009-06-01

    This study evaluated the impact of nutritional education on knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of mothers concerning infants and young children feeding and their children's nutritional status in two semi-urban communities of south-west Nigeria. This is a community intervention study. We recruited 150 mothers of children aged 0-18 months independently from the intervention and control communities through a multi-stage sampling technique. We collected data with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire at baseline and at six months after intervention from both communities to obtain information on feeding of infants and young children. In addition, we measured weights and heights of recruited children. Intervention involved group counselling of mothers and food demonstrations at designated health facilities. Data analysis for quantitative data was done using Epi-Info software, and for qualitative data, content analysis of major themes was used. Before intervention, recruited mothers and their children from the two communities were comparable in terms of all the parameters assessed (P>0.05 in all cases). After six months of intervention, mothers who had nutritional education demonstrated better knowledge and attitudes to key infant and young children feeding recommendations. There was also limited improvement in feeding practices. Mothers from the intervention community exclusively breastfed their infants longer with mean age at introduction of complementary foods at 5.3 months compared to 4.5 months in the control community (Pnutritional education of mothers only had positive impact on their level of KAP on infant and young children feeding.

  4. Understanding the role of peer group membership in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability among female sex workers in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Prakash, Ravi; Pillai, Priya; Isac, Shajy; Haranahalli, Mohan; Blanchard, Andrea; Shahmanesh, Maryam; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In Karnataka state, South India, we analyzed the role of membership in peer groups in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability among female sex workers (FSWs). Data from three surveys conducted in Karnataka, a behavioral tracking survey and two rounds of integrated biological and behavioral assessments (IBBAs), were analyzed. Using propensity score matching, we examined the impact of group membership on selected outcomes, including condom use, experience of violence, access to entitlements, and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. Focus group discussions were conducted with the FSWs to better understand their perceptions regarding membership in peer groups. Peer group members participating in the IBBAs had a lower prevalence of gonorrhea and/or chlamydia (5.2 vs 9.6%, ppeer group reported significantly less experience of violence in the past six months, were less likely to have bribed police to avoid trouble in the past six months, and were more likely to have obtained at least one formal identification document in the past five years, compared to non-members. In focus group discussions, group members indicated that they had more confidence in dealing with situations of forced sex and violence. Including community mobilization and peer group formation in the context of HIV prevention programing can reduce HIV-related risk and vulnerability among FSWs.

  5. The Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of Vulnerable Groups as Jus Cogens Norms at the Inter-American Court of Human Rights Case Law

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Débora Regina Mendes

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses if Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of vulnerable groups could be incorporated at the hard core of universal and cogent norms described by the International System of Human Rights Protection as Jus Cogens, particularly at the jurisdiction of the Inter- American Court of Human Rights. We've reached the conclusion through the review of three cases from said court: the first case concerns gender violence (Case of the Miguel Castro- Castro Prison versus Peru); the second...

  6. Conflict between transitional consequences and proclaimed European values and main reason of continual destabilization of south-west Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuvaković Uroš V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we tried to analyze the consequences of the transitional process in the societies of the South-West Balkan, primarily on the example of Serbia. The indicators that we have found by the research clearly speak in favor of the fact that the transition is the cause of peripheralization of these societies. Citizens who entered the transitional processes with hope - imagining them as the accomplishment of the best European values - soon were convinced that the transition is only another manner to place these countries in the position to be exploited by multinational capital and developed, 'old' member of the EU, as well as to serve for squaring accounts in geopolitical games of the creators of the 'new world order'. In the case of the countries of the Western Balkan, the transition had the characteristic that, among other things, it was performed in conditions of political violence: destruction of the joint state of Yugoslavia, civil and religious war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, aggression of NATO to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, destabilization of Serbia through the attempt of Kosovo secession, etc., therefore, in the conditions that were extremely antihistorical. While the Europe was uniting, the Balkan was disintegrating. At least two out of the three 'ideas that conquered the world' (Mandelbaum have been violated: the peace and the democracy. Free market in the conditions when there was no peace and regarding democratically insufficiently consolidated societies could not bring their progress, but on the contrary, as we established, only regression. That is the reason why the destroyed and collided South-Balkan societies, contrary to the European vow of their political elites, are today de facto much further from the European aspirations than they were quarter of the century ago. With their policy, the countries of the West have contributed to De- Europeanization of the South-West Balkan and strengthening of the

  7. Violence and the crisis of conciliation : Suri, Dizi and the State in south-west Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the social and political background of escalating violence between ethnic groups in southwestern Ethiopia who until recently had customary and ritually sanctioned ways of resolving conflict. It focuses on the Maji area, a frontier region inhabited by two indigenous groups - the

  8. Petrophysical Evaluation of the Sarvak Formation Based on Well Logs in Dezful Embayment, Zagros Fold Zone, South West of Iran

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    A. Jooybari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dezful embayment in the south west of Iran is part of Zagros fold zone which despite the small area includes almost all of Iran oil production. Sarvak Formation with middle cretaceous (Albin-Turunin is the second biggest reservoir of Zagros basin, after the Asmari formation. In this study, with well logging data of two wells, by Geolog software, the petrophysical parameters of Sarvak Formation in the Dezful embayment was studied using the contingent Probabilistic method. Petrophysical parameters such as determination of porosity, water saturation, shale volume and lithology were calculated using this data and common cross plots. Based on this evaluation and utilizing cross plots result, the lithology of Sarvak formation in this zone was determined to be Limestone with traces of dolomite and shale. According to the calculated petrophysical properties of the reservoir, and for more accurate assessment, Sarvak Formation was divided to 6 sections. Findings of this research show that Sarvak Formation includes good reservoir parameters only in half its sections (sections 4, 2 and 6.

  9. Characterisation and Comparison of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Extracted from Different Mangrove Species in Cochin estuary (South West Coast of India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolakkal Antony, R.

    2016-02-01

    The samples are collected from Malippuram (10.020 N, 76.210 E), Cochin estuary (South West Coast of India). The area contains various mangrove species, in which we have collected 4 common species (Acanthus Ilicifolis, Avicennia Marina, Avcennia Officianalis and Acrosticum Aurum) among the dominant species in the area. The leaves of these collected samples were freeze dried, grinded and extracted with solvents using standard protocols. The organic layer separated is used for analysing hydrocarbon (n-alkanes and n-alkenes) using Column Chromatography. Recent study (Gireeshkumar et al., 2015) revealed that, long-chain n-alkanes derived from higher plants predominated the inner part of the estuary, while short-chain n-alkanes derived from planktonic sources predominated the bar mouth region. Mangroves are one among the world's most productive ecosystem and form an important part of the coastal and estuarine environment. Living at the interface between land and sea, the mangrove plants have morphological and physiological adaptations to survive in harsh saline environment. Mangroves produce organic carbon well in excess of the ecosystem requirement and contribute significantly to global carbon cycle. They have enormous ecological value. This is the first report of n-alkanes and n-alkenes from these major species in the study area. The qualitative aspects of this study completed and the quantitative aspect is in progress. The stem and root of the collected samples are preserved for future extraction studies.

  10. Seamount influences on mid-water shrimps (Decapoda) and gnathophausiids (Lophogastridea) of the South-West Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letessier, Tom B.; De Grave, Sammy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Kemp, Kirsty M.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Rogers, Alex D.

    2017-02-01

    Maintenance of often-observed elevated levels of pelagic diversity and biomass on seamounts, of relevance to conservation and fishery management, involves complex interactions between physical and biological variables that remain poorly understood. To untangle these biophysical processes we explore factors influencing the distribution of epi- and meso-pelagic (0-1000 m) micronektonic crustaceans (>15 mm; order Lophogastridea, family Gnathophausiidea; and order Decapoda) on and off seamounts along the South West Indian Ridge (SWIR, 27° to 42°S) and on a seamount off the Madagascar Ridge (31.6°S, 42.8°E). Thirty-one species of micronektic crustaceans were caught using mid-water trawls within the study area but there was no apparent latitude-related patterns in species richness or abundance. Species richness predicted by rarefraction curves and numerical abundance was highest in the vicinity (800 m). The dominant species assemblage comprised the shrimps Systellaspis debilis (37%) and Sergia prehensilis (34%), and was restricted to seamounts on the subtropical SWIR. Our observations suggest that the 'oasis effect' of seamounts conventionally associated with higher trophic levels is also applicable to pelagic micronektic crustaceans at lower trophic levels. We suggest that the enhanced biomass and species richness attributed is due to 'habitat enrichment', whereby seamounts provide favourable habitats for both pelagic and bentho-pelagic mid-water crustaceans.

  11. Postmortem evidence of interactions of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with other dolphin species in south-west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J; Davison, N; Deaville, R; Monies, R; Loveridge, J; Tregenza, N; Jepson, P D

    2009-10-10

    Reports of violent interactions between bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the coastal waters of the UK are well documented. Examination of stranded cetaceans by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust Marine Strandings Network and the UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme has indicated that seven animals, of four other species, found stranded in south-west England, had pathology consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction, including two juvenile and two adult common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), one juvenile pilot whale (Globicephala melas), one juvenile Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and one adult striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Although recorded traumatic lesions were often not as severe as those found in harbour porpoises, it is probable that the interactions did contribute to stranding and/or death in all four of the juvenile animals examined. Furthermore, analysis of photographs taken before establishment of the Marine Strandings Network revealed rake (teeth) marks consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction on one stranded common dolphin in 1992. A number of causes have been suggested for these interactions in harbour porpoises stranded in the UK and it is possible that any combination of these factors may also be implicated in the cases described in this report.

  12. Thermus tengchongensis sp. nov., isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Zhou, En-Min; Liu, Min-Jiao; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-stain negative aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 77924(T), was isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Growth was found to occur from 55 to 75 °C (optimum 65 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0-1 % NaCl (w/v). Cells were observed to be rod-shaped and the colonies convex, circular, smooth, yellow and non-transparent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain YIM 77924(T) belongs to the genus Thermus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain YIM 77924(T) and other species of the genus Thermus were all below 97 %. The polar lipids of strain YIM 77924(T) were determined to be aminophospholipid, phospholipid and glycolipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-8 and the G+C content was 66.64 mol%. The major fatty acids identified were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:0) and C(16:0). On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77924(T) is proposed to represent a novel species, Thermus tengchongensis sp. nov., in the genus Thermus. The type strain is YIM 77924(T) (=KCTC 32025(T) = CCTCC AB2012063(T)).

  13. An exploration of issues of management and intention to stay: allied health professionals in South West Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Karen; Schoo, Adrian; Dunbar, James; Reid, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Management of allied health staff and services often has implications for staff stability and retention. A survey of allied health staff in South West Victoria was conducted in 2003 to explore issues relating to recruitment and retention. Findings relating to management and retention of staff in their current job are addressed in this report. A total of 138 staff returned their questionnaires. Results were related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, level of belonging, with professional needs identified as feeling supported, orientation to the position, clear job description, and able to recommend the position to others. Qualitative data showed that recommending the position was associated with job satisfaction, autonomy, flexibility, and variety of work. The immediate management structure was significantly related to retention. Reasons given for intending to leave were related to management categories. These were management structure, lack of career structure, and lack of professional support. Reasons given by respondents for not recommending their current position were as follows: not for long-term career, risk of deskilling if staying too long, and financially unrewarding. These reasons were also related to management. Positive reasons for staying, which were related to management, included flexible work conditions, variety of clinical and management experience, good working environment, good support, and autonomy. Recommendations are given for organizational development and training for managers.

  14. Prevalence of severe mental distress and its correlates in a population-based study in rural south-west Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baisley Kathy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of severe mental distress (SMD in sub-Saharan Africa is difficult to investigate given that a substantial proportion of patients with SMD never access formal health care. This study set out to investigate SMD and it's associated factors in a rural population-based cohort in south-west Uganda. Methods 6,663 respondents aged 13 years and above in a general population cohort in southwestern Uganda were screened for probable SMD and possible associated factors. Results 0.9% screened positive for probable SMD. The factors significantly associated with SMD included older age, male sex, low socio-economic status, being a current smoker, having multiple or no sexual partners in the past year, reported epilepsy and consulting a traditional healer. Conclusion SMD in this study was associated with both socio-demographic and behavioural factors. The association between SMD and high risk sexual behaviour calls for the integration of HIV prevention in mental health care programmes in high HIV prevalence settings.

  15. Impacts of terrain attributes and human activities on soil texture class variations in hilly areas, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Di; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of soil texture variations is critical for agricultural and engineering applications because texture influences many other soil properties. This study used random forest method to evaluate the effects of human activities and topographic parameters on the spatial variability of soil texture in hilly areas where soil parent material was uniform. The study site covers 252 km 2 and is located in the Upper Yangtze River Basin of south-west China. A total of 3636 samples were collected from the cultivated soils at a depth of 20 cm of dryland (sloping field and terraced land) landscape. The soil texture class for each sample was estimated by experienced soil scientists in the field. Two soil texture classes (loam and clay) were observed in the watershed. Eleven terrain parameters were derived from a digital elevation model with a resolution of 30 m. Compared with loamy soils, clayey soils were mostly observed in the areas with lower elevation and gentle slopes. The outcome of random forest indicated that human activities and elevation had strong effects on soil texture class variations across the study site. Further results showed that the relative importance of terrain parameters to soil texture class variations varied with dryland landscape. Topographic wetness index and elevation were the most important variables for sloping field and terraced land landscapes, respectively.

  16. The incidence of feco-oral parasites in street-food vendors in Buea, south-west region Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assob, J C N; Nde, P F; Nsagha, D S; Njimoh, D L; Nfor, O; Njunda, A L; Kamga, H L F

    2012-09-01

    The street-food industry lacks legal recognition, it operates in unstable and precarious conditions, involving women and men with minimal or no knowledge of hygienic food handling practices. Infective eggs, bacteria, toxins and cysts of faecal orally transmissible parasites are common agents responsible for food contamination in developing countries. To determine the incidence of digestive faecal-oral parasites among street-food vendors in Buea, South-west region of Cameroon, From March to May 2009, physical and laboratory analysis of stool samples of 150 randomly selected street-food vendors, residing in four different zones in the municipality were carried out. Information on environmental and personal hygiene was also collected. Results revealed that 56.7% of the sampled population was infected with faecal-oral parasites. The major faecal-oral parasites detected in stool samples were: Entamoeba coli (14.0%), Entamoeba histolytica (12.67%), Ascaris lumbricoides (11.33%), Ankylostoma duodenalis (10.67%). Childcare activities, lack of deworming, poor personal hygiene, poor sanitary and toilet facilities, were factors promoting the spread of faecal-oral infections. Food vendors should be educated on personal hygiene and safe food handling measures. Regulatory procedures on environmental hygiene and regular medical and paramedical follow up of food vendors should be enforced.

  17. Stream water chemistry and quality along an upland lowland rural land-use continuum, south west England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, H. P.; Haygarth, P. M.; Neal, C.; Butler, P.; Smith, B.; Naden, P. S.; Joynes, A.; Neal, M.; Wickham, H.; Armstrong, L.; Harman, S.; Palmer-Felgate, E. J.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThis study examined stream water quality across a range of catchments which are representative of the key environments and land uses of rural south-west England. These catchments included: (a) an acidic upland headwater catchment, rising on the moorlands of Dartmoor, with low-intensity sheep rearing; (b) a headwater catchment rising on the weathered granite lower slopes of Dartmoor, with cattle farming; (c) a lowland headwater clay catchment with sub-surface drainage and high intensity livestock farming, fodder crop cultivation, and hard-standing/slurry storage; and (d) the main River Taw, a lowland river system receiving drainage from a range of tributaries, exemplified by the above catchment types. Variations in water chemistry and quality were observed along an upland-lowland transition, from headwater streams to the main river channel. Within the livestock-dominated headwater streams, total phosphorus (TP) was dominated by particulate phosphorus (PP). These PP concentrations appeared to be mainly linked to two sets of processes: (1) in-stream sediment precipitation with sorption/co-precipitation of phosphate and/or localised in-channel mobilisation of sediment (by cattle or channel-clearing operations) under low flow conditions, and (2) sediment erosion and transportation associated with near-surface runoff during storm events. Under baseflow conditions, in-stream and/or riparian processes played a significant role in controlling general nutrient chemistry, particularly in the headwater streams which were heavily impacted by livestock.

  18. Prevalence, risk factors of human papillomavirus infection and papanicolaou smear pattern among women attending a tertiary health facility in south-west Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunji Mathew Kolawole; Kazeem Toyosi Olatunji; Kabir Adekunle Durowade; Augustine Adebayo Adeniyi; Luqman Omotayo Omokanye

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Cervical cancer amongst Nigerian women has been on the increase in the past decade, and is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors of HPV infection, and Papanicolaou smear pattern amongst a cohort of women attending the Gynaecology clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, South west Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women between the ag...

  19. Gender Differences related to HIV/AIDS in South West Nigeria | Uti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine some underlying gender differences in the pattern of infection in a group of HIV positive patients in Nigeria. It involved 328 consecutive HIV positive patients attending dedicated clinics at four teaching hospitals in the South western part of Nigeria. Information on patients' ...

  20. Motivations of farm tourism hosts and guests in the South West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    motivated to meeting new people, especially those with whom they shared a common interest. The motivations for the two groups were found to be highly ... Fennell, 1997) with some studies in New. Zealand, notably by Oppermann (1998) and ...... Geography, 81(1), 92-95. Ilbery, B., Bowler, I., Clark, G., Crockett, A. & Shaw, ...

  1. Barriers to oral health care utilization in Ibadan, South West Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the dentist is operating and disturbing noise from dental drill were the major barriers. There was a statistically significant association between age groups and feeling of insecurity (p=006). Conclusion: The major barriers to oral health care utilization among our patients were fear related. Key words: Barriers, dental anxiety, ...

  2. The effects of environmental parameters on zooplankton assemblages in tropical coastal estuary, South-west, Nigeria

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    Waidi O. Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the distribution and assemblage structure of zooplankton in relation to environmental parameters of tropical coastal estuarine ecosystem impounding Bight of Benin, Nigeria. The estuarine water samples were collected between January and December, 2014 from three sampling zones (Brushpark, Open water and Wetland then were fixed in 4% formalin. A total of twenty-eight (28 species belonging to four (4 groups were recorded in this study. These groups were rotifera, copepoda, cladocerans and ostracodas, and were all widely distributed in the three investigated zones. Higher richness, dominance and abundance indices were recorded in Zone I when compared to both Zones II and III. Cluster analysis showed five distinct species communities. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed a distinct smattering positive and negative correlation on the distribution of zooplankton indicating that the relative abundance of any species was dependent on specific environmental variables.

  3. MACROZOOBENTHOS COMMUNITIES STRUCTURE IN THE UPPER TRIBUTARIES OF THE TIMIŞ RIVER (SOUTH-WEST OF ROMANIA

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    DENISA CIOBANU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, it was studied the structure of macrozoobenthic communities from the tributaries of the upper sector of Timis River, which partially drain three mountain ranges: Semenic, Tarcu and Poiana Rusca, these investigations being the first of this kind conducted in the South-Western part of Romania. Parallel with the investigation of the benthic communities, water samples were also taken and it was performed the determination of the following parameters: ph, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total hardness, Ca, Mg, cyanide, nitrogen and total phosphorus, this waters being included in the first class category of the surface waters. The community of invertebrates of these tributaries is a complex community, made of 16-18 groups of benthic invertebrates, characteristics of clean watercourses, from the upper sector of a lotic system. The abundance of groups that indicate an excellent water quality (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, differ depending the massifs mountain where these tributaries come from. Thereby, in tributaries that are from Tarcu, over 50% of benthic community is represented by these three groups (53%. This percentage drops to 42% for the tributaries that come from Poiana Rusca and reaches 22% for those that drain Semenic Mountain. All these results attest to tributaries of Timis River, situated in its upper sector, a river which can be included in a first class of surface water, taking into consideration both chemical parameters of water and the structure of the macronevertebrate benthic communities.

  4. Wildlife use and the role of taboos in the conservation of wildlife around the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve; South-west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Aghomo, Fodjou Florence Mariam; Ntumwel, Bonito Chia

    2015-01-07

    Cameroon is known as Africa in miniature because of its multitude of ecosystems and associated biodiversity, cultures and traditions. The country also harbors very ancient human populations whose relationship with nature is very intimate and where animals play important roles for their livelihood. Located in the South-west region of Cameroon, the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve (NHFR) represents an important wildlife conservation site because of its strategic position at the periphery of Korup National Park (KNP). The periphery of NHFR is inhabited by several ethnic groups amongst which are the Obang and Ngunnchang clans who share particular relationships with wildlife. The present paper studies these relationships and contributes to the growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies across Africa. From August to December 2011, a questionnaire survey was addressed to 126 randomly chosen household respondents (HRs) in seven villages at the Northwest periphery of NHFR. In households, preference was given to parents, and to the eldest child in case the parents were absent. Questions related to the uses and local taboos on wildlife species were asked to HRs. Both communities have accumulated knowledge on the use of 51 wildlife species of which 50.9% represent mammals, 21.6% birds, 15.7% reptiles, 7.8% fish and 3.9% invertebrates. Four main use categories of wildlife by both communities were identified, namely (1) Food, medicine and sales values (41.2%), (2) Ethnomusical animals and parts used as trophy (29.2%), (3) Decoration and jewelry making values (21.9%) and (4) Magico-religious and multipurpose values (7.8%). Regarding local taboos, species specific taboos (generation totems and acquired totems), habitat taboos (sacred forests), method and segment taboos still persist but are rarely respected among the youth mainly because of the scarcity of wildlife (65.3% of HRs). Like other communities living around forest areas, the studied communities use wildlife in their

  5. Large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of native honey bee Apis mellifera populations reveals a new African subgroup private to the South West Indian Ocean islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, Maéva Angélique; Clémencet, Johanna; Simiand, Christophe; Preeaduth, Sookar; Azali, Hamza Abdou; Reynaud, Bernard; Hélène, Delatte

    2017-06-02

    The South West Indian Ocean (SWIO) archipelagos and Madagascar constitute a hotspot of biodiversity with a high rate of endemism. In this area, the endemic subspecies A. m. unicolor has been described in Madagascar. It belongs to the African lineage, one of the four described evolutionary lineages in honey bees. Despite a long beekeeping tradition and several recorded European introductions, few studies have been carried out on the diversity and proportion of honey bee subspecies. In order to identify and define which evolutionary lineages and potential sub-lineages are present in the SWIO, the COI-COII intergenic region and the ND2 gene of the mtDNA were sequenced in honey bee colonies from three archipelagos. An extensive sampling (n = 1184 colonies) was done in the Mascarene (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues), Seychelles (Mahé, Praslin, La Digue) and Comoros (Grande Comore, Mohéli, Anjouan, Mayotte) archipelagos. Islands genetic diversity was compared to newly sampled populations from Madagascar, continental African and European populations. African lineage haplotypes were found in all islands (except for Rodrigues). Madagascar, Comoros and Seychelles had 100% of A lineage, 95.5% in La Réunion and 56.1% in Mauritius. Among all African colonies detected in the SWIO, 98.1% (n = 633) of COI-COII haplotypes described the presence of the subspecies A. M. unicolor. Both genetic markers revealed i) a new private A I mitochondrial group shared by the SWIO archipelagos and Madagascar distant from continental populations; ii) the private African haplotypes for each island suggested diversity radiation in the archipelagos; iii) the detection of the Comoros archipelago as a possible contact area between insular and continental African populations. The exotic European C and M lineages were only detected in the Mascarene archipelago, but striking differences of proportion were observed among islands. Merely 4.6% of European colonies were found in La Réunion whereas

  6. Assessment of quality of care delivered for infectious pulmonary tuberculosis patients in jimma zone, South west ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Taddese; Jira, Challi; Girma, Fitsum

    2011-08-01

    Providing quality of care for infectious pulmonary tuberculosis patients is crucial in prevention and control of the disease. However, little is known about the existing quality of care in such services. The objective of the study was to assess the quality of care delivered for infectious pulmonary tuberculosis patient in Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia. Facility based cross- sectional study was conducted from January- February 2008 in 10 public health facilities in Jimma Zone. Facility audit was carried out to assess structural quality. Twenty providers were interviewed and records of 299 smear positive patients registered for 1 year was reviewed. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 11.0 for windows statistical software and findings at 95% CI and p value of 0.05 were reported as statistically significant. The results of the study showed that all the three quality dimensions were graded as poor in all the study health facilities and overall 66.0% of TB patients receive poor quality care. Four variables were identified that significantly predicted treatment success, i.e. conformity to the recommended schedule of sputum smear microscopy, conformity to DOTS drug regimen during both intensive and continuation phase of therapy and quality of registration of patients' medical records. This study revealed that most of the problems could be managed at local level, while a few needs further discussion with other management bodies. Success of anti tuberculosis therapy could be ensured through strict adherence to all the elements of DOTS strategy, with special emphasis on the 4 variables that significantly predicted treatment success in the present study.

  7. Circulation and suspended sediment transport in a coral reef lagoon: the south-west lagoon of New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouillon, S; Douillet, P; Lefebvre, J P; Le Gendre, R; Jouon, A; Bonneton, P; Fernandez, J M; Chevillon, C; Magand, O; Lefèvre, J; Le Hir, P; Laganier, R; Dumas, F; Marchesiello, P; Bel Madani, A; Andréfouët, S; Panché, J Y; Fichez, R

    2010-01-01

    The south-west lagoon of New Caledonia is a wide semi-open coral reef lagoon bounded by an intertidal barrier reef and bisected by numerous deep inlets. This paper synthesizes findings from the 2000-2008 French National Program EC2CO-PNEC relative to the circulation and the transport of suspended particles in this lagoon. Numerical model development (hydrodynamic, fine suspended sediment transport, wind-wave, small-scale atmospheric circulation) allowed the determination of circulation patterns in the lagoon and the charting of residence time, the later of which has been recently used in a series of ecological studies. Topical studies based on field measurements permitted the parameterisation of wave set-up induced by the swell breaking on the reef barrier and the validation of a wind-wave model in a fetch-limited environment. The analysis of spatial and temporal variability of suspended matter concentration over short and long time-scales, the measurement of grain size distribution and the density of suspended matter (1.27 kg l(-1)), and the estimation of erodibility of heterogeneous (sand/mud, terrigenous/biogenic) soft bottoms was also conducted. Aggregates were shown to be more abundant near or around reefs and a possible biological influence on this aggregation is discussed. Optical measurements enabled the quantification of suspended matter either in situ (monochromatic measurements) or remotely (surface spectral measurements and satellite observations) and provided indirect calibration and validation of a suspended sediment transport model. The processes that warrant further investigation in order to improve our knowledge of circulation and suspended sediment transport in the New Caledonia lagoon as well as in other coral reef areas are discussed, as are the relevance and reliability of the numerical models for this endeavour. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Documentation of the partograph in assessing the progress of labour by health care providers in Malawi's South-West zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiwa, Chrispin; Zamawe, Collins

    2017-10-23

    There is some evidence that appropriate use of partograph in monitoring the progress of labour could decrease delivery related complications. The documentation of parameters of partographs is however, poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which health care workers are making use of the partograph in monitoring the progress of labour through checking the documentation of the parameters of the partographs. A hospital-based descriptive study involving retrospective review of partographs for births that occurred in 2016 was conducted in Malawi's South-West zone. A total of 1070 partographs that were used to monitor labour in two public hospitals were reviewed to determine the documentation of the parameters of partographs and descriptive statistics were computed using statistical package for the social science software version 22.0. Of the total 1070 partographs reviewed, 58.6% (n = 627) of the partographs had no recording of maternal blood pressure and 65.3% (n = 699) of the partographs had no temperature documentation. Moulding was not recorded in 25.4% (n = 272) of the partographs, foetal heart rate was not recorded in 14.9% (n = 159) of the partographs and descent of the foetal head was not recorded in 12.0% (n = 128) of the partographs. There is poor documentation of vital parameters of the partographs. This suggests insufficient monitoring of the progress of labour, which may lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. To improve the accurate documentation of parameters of the partograph, there is a need to understand the problem and provide tailor-made solutions to address them and ultimately improve pregnancy outcomes. In the meantime, in-service refresher courses on partograph use to health care workers need to be conducted regularly. Supportive supervision to obstetric care providers and regular partograph audit could also improve documentation.

  9. Begomovirus 'melting pot' in the south-west Indian Ocean islands: molecular diversity and evolution through recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeuvre, P; Martin, D P; Hoareau, M; Naze, F; Delatte, H; Thierry, M; Varsani, A; Becker, N; Reynaud, B; Lett, J-M

    2007-12-01

    During the last few decades, many virus species have emerged, often forming dynamic complexes within which viruses share common hosts and rampantly exchange genetic material through recombination. Begomovirus species complexes are common and represent serious agricultural threats. Characterization of species complex diversity has substantially contributed to our understanding of both begomovirus evolution, and the ecological and epidemiological processes involved in the emergence of new viral pathogens. To date, the only extensively studied emergent African begomovirus species complex is that responsible for cassava mosaic disease. Here we present a study of another emerging begomovirus species complex which is associated with serious disease outbreaks in bean, tobacco and tomato on the south-west Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands off the coast of Africa. On the basis of 14 new complete DNA-A sequences, we describe seven new island monopartite begomovirus species, suggesting the presence of an extraordinary diversity of begomovirus in the SWIO islands. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences reveal a close relationship between monopartite and bipartite African begomoviruses, supporting the hypothesis that either bipartite African begomoviruses have captured B components from other bipartite viruses, or there have been multiple B-component losses amongst SWIO virus progenitors. Moreover, we present evidence that detectable recombination events amongst African, Mediterranean and SWIO begomoviruses, while substantially contributing to their diversity, have not occurred randomly throughout their genomes. We provide the first statistical support for three recombination hot-spots (V1/C3 interface, C1 centre and the entire IR) and two recombination cold-spots (the V2 and the third quarter of V1) in the genomes of begomoviruses.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of epilepsy among secondary school teachers in Osogbo South-West Nigeria: a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, A F; Odu, O O; Akande, O

    2013-01-01

    The attitudes toward people with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of knowledge of the condition. The social problems encountered by school children with epilepsy as a result of negative attitude and beliefs are quite enormous. The study therefore looked at the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of teachers, who see a lot of epileptics, relate to them on a daily basis and have influence on them. A cross-sectional survey, using a self-administered questionnaire obtained from the author of a similar study in the United States, was carried out among 269 school teachers randomly selected from various secondary schools in Osogbo, the Osun State capital in South-West Nigeria. The questionnaire included the scale of attitudes toward persons with epilepsy and knowledge about epilepsy as well as demographic and teaching experience survey among others. Despite the high level of education of the teachers ranging from Masters Degree to National Certificate in Education, there were significant deficits in terms of general knowledge about epilepsy (70% of the respondents reported their general knowledge about epilepsy in the lower half of the scale). There was also poor knowledge of the first aids measures in the classrooms. Below one-third (29.2%) felt it was contagious and 40% of respondents reported that sufferers should not be kept in regular classes. However, their attitudes toward epilepsy were generally positive. We concluded that teachers need to have health education courses on common disease conditions such as epilepsy that are prevalent in school age; this might help to reduce the prejudice and increase the acceptance of epileptic individuals in the classrooms. Also, generally public health campaigns should be encouraged in this field.

  11. The hydrological response of heavy clay grassland soils to rainfall in south-west England using delta2H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Steven J; Bol, Roland; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Leng, Melanie J; Kemp, Helen F; Heaton, Tim H E; White, Sue M

    2010-03-15

    Stable isotopes of water have been previously used in catchment studies to separate rain-event water from pre-event groundwater. However, there are a lack of studies at the smaller scale looking at the separation of event water from pre-event water. This is particularly relevant for heavy clay soil systems through which the movement of water is uncertain but is thought to be rainwater-dominated. The data presented here were collected at a rural site in the south-west of England. The historic rainfall at the site was isotopically varied but similar to the global meteoric water line, with annual weighted means of -37 per thousand for delta(2)H and -5.7 per thousand for delta(18)O and with no seasonal variation. Drainage was sampled from the inter-flow (surface runoff + lateral through-flow) and drain-flow (55 cm deep mole drains) pathways of two 1 ha lysimeters during two rainfall events, which had delta(2)H values of -68 per thousand and -92 per thousand, respectively. The delta(2)H values of the lysimeter drainage water suggest that there was no contribution of event water during the first, small discharge (Q) event; however, the second larger event did show isotopic variation in delta(2)H values negatively related to Q indicating that rainwater was contributing to Q. A hydrograph separation indicated that only 49-58% of the inter-flow and 18-25% of the drain-flow consisted of event water. This was surprising given that these soil types are considered retentive of soil water. More work is needed on heavy clay soils to understand better the nature of water movement from these systems. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Attitudes towards Prosthodontic Clinical Decision-Making for Edentulous Patients among South West Deanery Dental Foundation Year One Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe Dental Foundation year one dentists’ attitudes towards prosthodontic decision making for edentulous patients, and identify whether there are gender differences in these attitudes. All South West Deanery trainees were invited to take part in the study between May and June 2011 and a previously piloted questionnaire was administered to the trainees by their training programme directors. The questionnaire posed questions based upon a clinical scenario of discussing treatment options with patients. Seventy-two questionnaires were used in the analysis (91% overall response rate. Trainees perceived their own values to be less important than the patient’s values (p < 0.001 in decision making, but similar to the patient’s friend’s/relative’s values (p = 0.1. In addition, the trainees perceived the patient’s values to be less important than their friend’s/relatives (p < 0.001. Sixty-six per cent of trainees acknowledged an influence from their own personal values on their presentation of material to patients who are in the process of choosing among different treatment options, and 87% thought their edentulous patients were satisfied with the decision making process when choosing among different treatment options. Fifty-eight per cent of trainees supported a strategy of negotiation between patients and clinicians (shared decision making. There was no strong evidence to suggest gender had an influence on the attitudes towards decision making. The finding of a consensus towards shared decision making in the attitudes of trainees, and no gender differences is encouraging and is supportive of UK dental schools’ ability to foster ethical and professional values among dentists.

  13. Chikungunya fever: a clinical and virological investigation of outpatients on Reunion Island, South-West Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiberville, Simon-Djamel; Boisson, Veronique; Gaudart, Jean; Simon, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for acute febrile polyarthralgia and, in a proportion of cases, severe complications including chronic arthritis. CHIKV has spread recently in East Africa, South-West Indian Ocean, South-Asia and autochthonous cases have been reported in Europe. Although almost all patients are outpatients, medical investigations mainly focused on hospitalised patients. Here, we detail clinico-biological characteristics of Chikungunya (CHIK) outpatients in Reunion Island (2006). 76 outpatients with febrile arthralgia diagnosed within less than 48 hours were included by general practitioners during the CuraChik clinical trial. CHIK was confirmed in 54 patients and excluded in 22. A detailed clinical and biological follow-up was organised, that included analysis of viral intrahost diversity and telephone survey until day 300. The evolution of acute CHIK included 2 stages: the 'viral stage' (day 1-day 4) was associated with rapid decrease of viraemia and improvement of clinical presentation; the 'convalescent stage' (day 5-day 14) was associated with no detectable viraemia but a slower clinical improvement. Women and elderly had a significantly higher number of arthralgia at inclusion and at day 300. Based on the study clinico-biological dataset, scores for CHIK diagnosis in patients with recent febrile acute polyarthralgia were elaborated using arthralgia on hands and wrists, a minor or absent myalgia and the presence of lymphopenia (<1G/L) as major orientation criteria. Finally, we observed that CHIKV intra-host genetic diversity increased over time and that a higher viral amino-acid complexity at the acute stage was associated with increased number of arthralgia and intensity of sequelae at day 300. This study provided a detailed picture of clinico-biological CHIK evolution at the acute phase of the disease, allowed the elaboration of scores to assist CHIK diagnosis and investigated for the first time the impact of viral intra-host genetic

  14. Short-term effects of restoration on the hydrology of shallow blanket peatlands in the South West UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe, David; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Anderson, Karen; Gatis, Naomi; Ashe, Josie; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The Exmoor/Dartmoor Mires Project is a peatland restoration project on the blanket bogs of the south-west UK. The restoration undertaken aims to enhance multiple ecosystem services including; water storage/quality, biodiversity and carbon storage in these degraded/drained and geo-climatically marginal peatlands. A fully spatially distributed hydrological monitoring array has been implemented across three headwater catchments incorporating water table depth, temperature, conductivity and pH measurements. Additional data collected include channel flow, DOC, POC, colour and a full suite of meteorological variables. Over 250 individual measurements are collected at a high temporal resolution (15 minute time step) via sensors integrated within a GPRS/VHF telemetry system, and sent directly to a dedicated server. All three catchments were scheduled for restoration prior to the implementation of hydrological monitoring in 2010/2011, and two of the three catchments monitored have already undergone restoration after ca.3 years of pre-restoration monitoring. This paper presents preliminary results from before and (initially) following restoration of one of the monitored headwater catchments. Data captured during restoration demonstrate an instantaneous increase in water table across catchment scales. However, over longer (monthly) time scales, water table changes indicate a more spatially variable response to restoration interventions designed to initiate rewetting of the peat mass. Interpretation of these data using modelled surface flow pathways derived from high resolution digital elevation models, suggests that changes in the hydrological connectivity of the catchments, following restoration, may be affecting the rewetting potential of some areas of the peat. Whilst no significant restoration effect was observed in terms of DOC concentrations/loads, the significant reductions in storm-flow generated for equivalent rainfall events, post-restoration, result in lower DOC

  15. A non-participant observational study of health and social care waste disposal behaviour in the South West of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Sean; Nichols, Andrew; Richardson, Janet

    2014-10-01

    The National Health Service in England has a large carbon footprint. Waste production and disposal contributes to this carbon footprint and costs the National Health Service England over £82 million per annum. This study builds on existing work regarding health care waste management in the United Kingdom where the potential for recycling has begun to be studied. The study focuses on a private hospital and social care organizations, and provides a more detailed study of the behaviour of individuals across a variety of waste management systems. The study was an overt observational study at four health and social care sites in the South West of England. Systematic observations were made of the waste disposed of by employees in which the observer recorded: a description of the waste item; the bin into which the waste was placed; the type of employee who disposed of the waste; the material the waste comprised and the appropriateness of the disposal behaviour. The domestic waste bin was found to be most commonly used by employees to dispose of waste (51%), and the materials observed being disposed of most often were paper (26%), organic wastes (19%) and plastic (19%). There were significant differences between the four sites indicating that the activities performed at each site may have been influencing the waste being disposed of. It was concluded that the transfer of waste from the domestic waste stream to the recycling waste stream should be a central focus for the design of new health and social care waste management systems. Employees will require guidance and training in identifying and classifying waste materials for recycling. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Resolution pattern of jaundice among children presenting with severe malaria in rural South-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osonuga, O A; Osonuga, A; Osonuga, A A; Osonuga, I O

    2012-07-01

    To compare the pattern of jaundice resolution among children with severe malaria treated with quinine and artemether. Thirty two children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study from two hospitals with intensive care facilities. They were divided into two groups; 'Q' and 'A', receiving quinine and artemether, respectively. Jaundice was assessed by clinical examination. Sixteen out of 32 children recruited (representing 50%) presented with jaundice on the day of recruitment. The mean age was (7.00°C2.56) years. On day 3, four patients in 'A' and six patients in 'Q' had jaundice. By day 7, no child had jaundice. The study has shown that both drugs resolve jaundice although artemether relatively resolves it faster by the third day.

  17. Medical management in south-west Sweden of children and adolescents with serious traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelson, I; v Wendt, L

    1998-04-01

    The acute care, rehabilitation and follow-up of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was studied retrospectively in children in south-western Sweden who were injured in the period 1987-1991. There were 210 children of whom 165 were alive at discharge after acute stage care (mean 15.7 days). In this group, only 32/165 (19 per cent) received rehabilitation, 29 of whom were road traffic accident victims. Of the 133 children who did not receive rehabilitation, 52 were severely injured according to the GCS (GCS 3-7), 31 were moderately injured (GCS 8-12) and 50 mildly injured (GCS 13-15). As many as 73/165 (44 per cent) were admitted to a neurosurgical unit and 53/73 (73 per cent) of these underwent neurosurgical operations. Systematic follow-up on an out-patient basis took place in 128/165 subjects (78%). It is noteworthy that 27/92 (29%) of the patients admitted to a general surgical unit and 8/16 (50%) of the patients admitted to a neurosurgical unit were not followed up after acute care. Multiple regression analysis identified the length of unconsciousness and length of care in the acute stage as the only factors of significance for receiving rehabilitation and follow-up. We conclude that road traffic accident victims, despite the fact that their TBI was not significantly more severe than the other groups received rehabilitation more frequently. The unsystematic management of paediatric TBI revealed in this study calls for a formalized programme of firstline service, rehabilitation and follow-up.

  18. Male knowledge of danger signs of obstetric complications in an urban city in South west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekoni, O O; Owoaje, E T

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of danger signs in pregnancy can be regarded as one of the ways to eliminate the first level of delay as a factor influencing maternal mortality. The role of men as decision makers cannot be overlooked in this regard. The aim of this study was to determine men's knowledge of danger signs in pregnancy and their role in pregnancy related decision making. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 259 men aged 15-65 years in selected communities in Ibadan, Oyo State by multistage sampling. A semi-structured pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, attitude and practices concerning antenatal care, knowledge of danger signs in pregnancy and decision to seek hospital care. Knowledge of danger signs was the main outcome measure categorized into poor and good based on a score of ≤ 6 and > 6. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis with level of significance set at 5%. Mean age of respondents was 40.4 ± 11.4 years. Almost half had at least secondary education (47.5%) and were mainly artisans by occupation (59.8%), while 18.1% could not mention any danger sign. Majority had poor knowledge about danger signs in pregnancy (60.6%). There was no significant difference in knowledge of respondents within different age groups, by occupation, number of children and from different educational levels. Poor knowledge of obstetric danger signs was evident among these men. Programmes targeted at providing education about danger signs in pregnancy for men are recommended.

  19. The Cross River gorillas (Gorilla gorilla diehli) at Mawambi Hills, South-West Cameroon: habitat suitability and vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiendem, Denis N; Funwi-Gabga, Neba; Tagg, Nikki; Hens, Luc; Indah, Eni K

    2013-01-01

    Only about 300 individuals of the Cross River gorilla (CRG; Gorilla gorilla diehli) survive today. The subspecies is endemic to approximately 12-14 sites at the Cameroon-Nigeria border, and is critically endangered. To understand survival prospects of the CRG at Mawambi Hills, Cameroon, a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) distribution model was used to predict the distribution of gorillas. Overall, 24% of the study area was predicted to be suitable for gorillas. The most important predictors of gorilla distribution were elevation as a surrogate for accessibility (52.4%), distance to nearby villages which represents proximity to anthropogenic disturbance (22.7%), and slope steepness as a proxy for security (19.4%). Gorillas mainly occupied slopes of steep hills and avoided areas of human disturbance. To evaluate the spatial relationship between gorilla distribution and human activities, the predicted habitat suitability map was overlaid with a kernel density map of human activities. A positive correlation was found between locations of human activity and suitable habitat for gorillas (r = 0.5). This suggests that anthropogenic pressures in previously unused forest areas are increasing as a result of resource depletion at lower altitudes, consequently putting the gorillas at greater risk. Conservation management plans that seek to reduce human encroachment into habitats preferred by gorillas such as steep hills will probably contribute to gorilla survival. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Prevalence of psychological distress and mental disorders, and use of mental health services in the epidemiological catchment area of Montreal South-West

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caron, Jean; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Perreault, Michel; Crocker, Anne; Tremblay, Jacques; Tousignant, Michel; Kestens, Yan; Cargo, Margaret; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    ... specifically, the influence of age and gender on the prevalences will be discussed, as well as the comorbidity of mental disorders by gender. Finally, vulnerable groups and socio-demographic risk factors for psychological distress and mental disorders will be presented. This program can be classified among the ?third generation of Psychiatric Epidemiology stu...

  1. Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans in the south-west region of Ireland: is there a relationship with infection prevalence in cattle?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans to the prevalence of M. bovis infection in cattle in south-west Ireland and discuss possible links between them. SETTING: In the south-west region of Ireland, a mixed urban and rural community (pop. 536,000), there is a residuum of human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the incidence of culture-positive M. bovis disease in humans in south-west Ireland from 1983 to 1994 and of the results of tuberculin testing in cattle from 1978 to 1994 for the same region. RESULTS: One to five cases of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis were recorded per year while the overall prevalence of bovine infection fell gradually during the period of study from 467 tuberculin-positive animals per 100,000 cattle tested in 1983 to 158 per 100,000 in 1994. CONCLUSION: The low incidence plateau of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis together with the decline in prevalence of animal infection in the overall period studied suggest a cut-off in the animal to human chain of infection at two points; the animal source and the ingestion of (now pasteurized) milk. This would suggest that disease in humans is now due to reactivation of previous foci of infection which were acquired when milk pasteurization was not compulsory. Based on this, we would anticipate a further reduction and possible elimination of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis in this region in the next 10-15 years.

  2. The prevalence and subjective handicap of epilepsy in Ilie--a rural riverine community in South West Nigeria: a door-to-door survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, A F; Preux, P M; Sanya, E O; Akinleye, C A

    2014-08-01

    The prevalence of epilepsy is high in tropical countries, particularly in Africa with an estimated mean prevalence of 15 per 1000. There is lack of recent data on epilepsy prevalence in Nigeria. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in Ilie in South West (SW) Nigeria, and the secondary objectives were to determine the clinical characteristics, the seizure types with electroencephalography (EEG) recording, the pattern of treatment, and to evaluate the subjective handicap of people with epilepsy (PWE). The study, which was descriptive cross-sectional, was carried out in Ilie, a rural community in South West Nigeria, using a simple random sampling technique. The survey was done in 2 phases from January 2013 to April 2013. Phase 1: Door-to-door screening using the WHO Neuroscience Research Protocol to detect neurological disorders by health workers. Phase 2: Individuals with positive screening had complete neurologic examination by neurologists as well as an EEG recording. The questionnaires for survey of epilepsy in tropical countries and subjective handicap of epilepsy were administered to all PWE. Two thousand two hundred twelve individuals from 231 households were screened during the first phase, and 33 cases of neurologic diseases were detected. During the second phase, 10 cases were confirmed to be epilepsy by neurologists, thus giving a crude lifetime prevalence of 10/2212=4.5/1000 population (95% CI=2.30-8.04). The prevalence of epilepsy in Ilie in South West Nigeria is rather low compared with previous figures from studies in rural Africa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. RISKS, VULNERABILITY AND DETERMINANTS OF WOMEN FARMERS’ PARTICIPATION IN SELF-HELP-GROUP (SHG-LED MICROFINANCING IN ISUIKWUATO, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ogbonna EMEROLE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study on risks, vulnerability and determinants of women farmers’ participation in Self-Help-Group led micro financing was carried out in Isuikwuato local Government Area (LGA of Abia State in Nigeria. Two-stage random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were adopted in selecting communities and respondents. Socio- economic and some farm operation variables were analyzed descriptively and others regressed on discrete decision of women participating or not participating in Self-Help- group (SHG financing. Fire outbreak, ill health, theft, soil erosion and attack of farm products by pests and diseases were perceived (in this descending order as risks/natural disasters confronting the farmers. Previously owed debts, Ease of membership to groups, Age of the woman, Household size, and use of cultural/formal insurance over perceived risks were factors that influenced participation of women farmers in self-help-group micro financing. To ease the burden of inaccessibility to formal farm credit among women farmers, we recommended that relatively younger women should be encouraged to join older women in such mutual self-help groups to reap benefits accruable from the groups especially being able to manage their farms and households with less stress.

  4. South West Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advantage of a depressed immune system, a state of hormonal imbalance, increased sugar level, stress and consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics to become .... Rotavirus associated diarrhoea in rural. Bangladsh: two-year study of incidence and serotype distribution. Journal of. 10. 11. Clinical Microbiology. 1991 ...

  5. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  6. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Nurses in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adewale L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders represent a significant occupational problem among nurses; however, data on musculoskeletal health of nurses in Sub-Sahara Africa are sparse. This study sought to determine the lifetime, 12-months period and point prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs; the associated job risk factors and the coping strategies toward reducing the risk among nurses from selected hospitals in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria Methods A previously validated self administered questionnaire which sought information on demographics, prevalence and pattern of WMSDs, associated job risk factors and coping strategies was employed as the survey instrument. A total of 160 questionnaires were distributed to nurses in the different hospitals but 128 questionnaires were returned yielding an 80% response rate. 10 of the returned questionnaires were excluded because of incomplete data. Results Eighty-four point four percent of the nurses have had WMSDs once or more in their occupational lives. The 12-months period and point prevalence rate of WMSDs at any body region was 78% and 66.1% respectively. WMSDs occurred mostly in low back (44.1%, neck (28.0%, and knees (22.4%. 30.3% treated themselves or had visited other health practitioners for care. Nurses with > 20 years of clinical experience are about 4 times more likely to develop WMSDs (OR 3.81; CI 1.08-13.4 than those with 11-20 years experience. Working in the same positions for long periods (55.1%, lifting or transferring dependent patients (50.8% and treating an excessive number of patients in one day (44.9% were the most perceived job risk factors for WMSDs. Getting help in handling heavy patients (50.4%, modification of nursing procedures in order to avoid re-injury (45.4%, and modifying patient's/nurse position (40.3% were the top three coping strategies. Conclusions A high proportion of Nigerian nurses reported WMSDs at some body site in their occupational

  7. Development, terroir and welfare: a case study of farm-produced foie gras, in south west France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Techoueyres

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Le foie gras et les produits de palmipèdes gavés font partie du patrimoine culinaire et culturel régional de la France et tout particulièrement du Sud Ouest. A ce titre ils sont ce que l’on appelle des produits de terroir. Ce travail, en retraçant le développement récent et l’internationalisation de ces produits avec les problèmes qui les accompagnent, tente de déchiffrer ce que de tels phénomènes signifient pour les producteurs au plan local, dans l’aire délimitée par l’IGP Palmipèdes à Foie Gras du Sud Ouest. A travers l’exemple d’une famille de producteurs à la ferme, on observera concrètement des points d’articulation entre global et local : comment cohabitent développement économique et protection de savoir-faire traditionnels ; comment des producteurs s’approprient de nouvelles technologies pour améliorer la productivité et les conditions de travail ; comment son réactualisés certains aspects traditionnels et ancestraux; et comment se développent de nouvelles sociabilités.Foie gras and fat duck products are part of the French culinary and cultural heritage, particularly of South West France. As such they belong to the produits de terroir category. Starting by tracing the recent developments and globalisation of such products with subsequent challenges, this paper assumes a local perspective, in the geographical area delimited by the PGI Palmipèdes à Foie Gras du Sud Ouest. Through the observation of a family of farmers, meeting points between local and global are analyzed, particularly tensions between economic development and the protection of traditional knowledge but also the way contemporary changes promote new sociabilities.

  8. ENSO and interdecadal climate variability over the last century documented by geochemical records of two coral cores from the South West Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ourbak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The south west Pacific is affected by climatic phenomena such as ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation or the PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Near-monthly resolution calibrations of Sr/Ca, U/Ca and δ18Oc were made on corals taken from New Caledonia and Wallis Island. These geochemical variations could be linked to SST (sea surface temperature and SSS (sea surface salinity variations over the last two decades, itselves dependent on ENSO occurrences. On the other hand, near-half-yearly resolution over the last century smoothes seasonal and interannual climate signals, but emphasizes low frequency climate variability.

  9. Stratigraphic evidence of a Late Maeotian (Late Miocene) punctuated transgression in the Tanais Palaeobay (northern part of the Eastern Paratethys, South-West Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2010-10-01

    The Tanais Palaeobay was located in the northern periphery of the eastern Paratethys Sea during the Late Miocene. New data from the Safianovo section (Rostov Dome, South-West of Russia) confirm that skeletal limestones (coquinites) of the Merzhanovskaja Formation belong to the Congeria (Andrusoviconcha) amygdaloides navicula Zone of the upper Upper Maeotian (the Maeotian is a regional chronostratigraphic unit of the Upper Miocene). Correlation of reference sections of these Upper Maeotian deposits within the Rostov Dome results in pattern of the palaeobay transgression, which was punctuated. The relative importance of local and global controls on this trangsression is not yet clear.

  10. Minimal impact of response shift for SF-12 mental and physical health status in homeless and vulnerably housed individuals: an item-level multi-group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermann, Anne M; Sawatzky, Richard; Palepu, Anita; Hubley, Anita M; Zumbo, Bruno D; Aubry, Tim; Farrell, Susan; Hwang, Stephen W

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether homeless or vulnerably housed individuals experienced response shift over a 12-month time period in their self-reported physical and mental health status. Data were obtained from the Health and Housing in Transition study, a longitudinal multi-site cohort study in Canada (N = 1190 at baseline). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) and methods for response shift detection at the item level, based on the approach by Oort, were used to test for reconceptualization, reprioritization, and recalibration response shift on the SF-12 in four groups of individuals who were homeless (n = 170), housed (n = 437), or who reported a change in their housing status [from homeless to housed (n = 285) or housed to homeless (n = 73)] over a 12-month time period. Mean and variance adjusted weighted-least squares estimation was used to accommodate the ordinal and binary distributions of the SF-12 items. Using MG-CFA, a strict invariance model showed that the measurement model was equivalent for the four groups at baseline. Although we found small but statistically significant response shift for several measurement model parameters, the impact on the predicted average mental and physical health scores within each of the groups was small. Response shift does not appear to be a significant concern when using the SF-12 to obtain change scores over a 12-month period in this population.

  11. Relations between species rarity, vulnerability, and range contraction for a beetle group in a densely populated region in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Simone

    2014-02-01

    Rarity is often considered an indication of species extinction risk, and it is frequently used to obtain measures of species vulnerability. However, there is no strong evidence of a correlation between species vulnerability and threat. Moreover, there is no consensus about how rarity should be measured. I used a multidimensional characterization of species rarity to calculate a vulnerability index for tenebrionid beetles inhabiting an Italian region in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. I used different metrics to examine 3 dimensions of rarity: species range, ecology, and population. Species with rarity values below the median were scored as rare for each dimension. I combined rarity scores into a vulnerability index. I then correlated species vulnerability with range trends (expanded vs. contracted). Different measures of the same rarity dimension were strongly correlated and produced similar vulnerability scores. This result indicates rarity-based vulnerability estimates are slightly affected by the way a certain rarity dimension is measured. Vulnerability was correlated with range trends; species with the highest vulnerability had the strongest range contraction. However, a large number of common species also underwent range contraction in the last 50 years, and there was no clear relation between range contraction and their ecology. This indicates that in general human-induced environmental changes affected species irrespective of their assumed vulnerability and that focusing only on rare species may severely bias perceptions of the extent of species decline. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. High hepatitis E virus antibody positive rates in dogs and humans exposed to dogs in the south-west of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, M Y; Gao, H; Yan, X X; Qu, W J; Sun, Y K; Fu, G W; Yan, Y L

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis E (HE) is a zoonotic viral disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HEV infection among dogs and humans exposed to dogs in the south-west region of China. A total of 4,490 dog serum samples and 2,206 relative practitioner serum samples were collected from 18 pet hospitals and dog farms in Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou province, and the anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA. The results showed that the total positive rate of anti-HEV antibodies was 36.55% with the highest rate in city stray dogs, and the differences in distinct species and growth phases were significant. The positive rate of anti-HEV antibody in veterinarian and farm staff-related practitioners was significantly higher than the general population. The finding of the present survey suggested that high HEV seroprevalence in dogs and humans exposed to dogs in the south-west area of China poses a significant public health concern. It is urgent to improve integrated strategies to detect, prevent and control HEV infection in dogs and humans exposed to dogs in this area. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet among employees in South West England: Formative research to inform a web-based, work-place nutrition intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Wood, Lesley; Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess internet usage patterns and adherence to the Mediterranean diet among employees in South West England, UK and their differences by personal characteristics. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 among 590 adults (428 women, 162 men, mean age 43.8 years), employees of four work-place settings. Mediterranean diet adherence was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Adherence differences were assessed by gender, marital status, education, number of children and food shopping and preparation responsibility. On average, participants reported moderate adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Higher adherence was reported for alcohol, vegetables, cereals and fruit. Few participants achieved high adherence to the Mediterranean diet recommendations for legumes (5.3%), fish (3.2%), dairy products (4.8%), red meat (11.9%), poultry (11.1%) and olive oil (18.2%). A higher Mediterranean diet score was reported among participants who were married/cohabiting, those with higher education attainment and shared responsibility for food preparation. Improvement in the consumption of several Mediterranean diet components is needed to increase adherence in this sample of adults. The findings have the potential to inform the development of a web-based intervention that will focus on these foods to promote the Mediterranean diet in work-place settings in South West England.

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE WORKFORCE IN THE SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION IN COMPLEMENTARY ACTIVITIES SUCH AS E-WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Enăchescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available South West region covers an area of 29,212 km2, approximately 12.25% of the country (238391 km ² and includes five counties: Dolj, Olt, Valcea, Mehedinti and Gorj. It is bordered by Bulgaria, Serbia and South Muntenia, Central and West. From the total workforce of 828,900 people, 332,300 people are employed in farming, forestry and fishing (40% and only 4500 in the areas of information and communications, respectively in 6600 other activities. The regional unemployment rate was 7.7% in 2011 compared to 7.6% nationally, 7.1% for women respectively 8.3% for men, a level very close to the national average[5][7]. We presented these statistics to highlight the region's potential in the development of e-work activities that would increase employment levels both in urban population and especially in rural areas, low unemployment and thus the local population migration and support sustainable development of the region. This paper aims to analyze the opportunity to develop complementary activities of e-work employment for the South West region.

  15. Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

    1978-01-06

    Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete. (DLC)

  16. Evaluating an ecosystem management approach for improving water quality in two contrasting study catchments in south-west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendell, Miriam; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000 established a new emphasis for the management of freshwaters by establishing ecologically-based water quality targets that are to be achieved through holistic, catchment-scale, ecosystem management approaches. However, significant knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of the cumulative effectiveness of multiple mitigation measures on a number of pollutants at a catchment scale. This research furthers the understanding of the effectiveness of an ecosystem management approach to deliver catchment-scale water quality improvements in two contrasting study catchments in south-west England: the lowland agricultural Aller and the upland semi-natural Horner Water. Characterisation of the spatial variability of soil properties (bulk density, total carbon, nitrogen, C:N ratio, stable isotope δ15N, total, organic and inorganic phosphorus) in the two study catchments demonstrated extensive alteration of soil properties in the agricultural catchment, with likely long-term implications for the restoration of ecosystem functioning and water quality management (Glendell et al., 2014b). Further, the agricultural catchment supported a proportionally greater total fluvial carbon (dissolved and particulate) export than the semi-natural catchment. During an eight month period for which a comparable continuous turbidity record was available, the estimated SS yields from the agricultural catchment (25.5-116.2 t km-2) were higher than from the semi-natural catchment (21.7-57.8 t km-2). In addition, the agricultural catchment exported proportionally more TPC (0.51-2.59 kg mm-1) than the semi-natural catchment (0.36-0.97 kg mm-1) and a similar amount of DOC (0.26-0.52 kg mm-1 in the Aller and 0.24-0.32 kg mm-1 in Horner Water), when normalised by catchment area and total discharge, despite the lower total soil carbon pool, thus indicating an enhanced fluvial loss of sediment and carbon (Glendell and Brazier, in review). Whilst

  17. The effects of `non-infrastructural' measures to improve the safety of vulnerable road users : a review of international findings, prepared for the OECD Scientific Expert Group "Safety of vulnerable road users".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews the evaluated effects of what can be called `non-infrastructural measures' to improve the safety of vulnerable road users. Three selected areas are discussed: education and training, measures to enhance visibility and conspecuity, and protective devices for bicyclists. Other

  18. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the social distribution of vulnerability in a given society may turn hazardous events into disasters. This distributional approach draws attention to continuities that explain catastrophes by virtue of the workings of society prior to the event. In this paper, we draw...... attention to the social processes whereby vulnerability is modified and renegotiated during the post-disaster period where resources for disaster alleviation and reconstruction enter local communities. Specifically, we explore the social dynamics of house damage classification in the wake of the 2006...... Central Java earthquake, and we explore relations between citizens and the state during post-disaster house reconstruction. We argue that disastrous outcomes of catastrophic events do not follow pre-existing fault lines of vulnerability in a simple or predictable manner, and that the social process...

  19. [Utilization of the Famacha method in individual clinic diagnostic of haemonchosis in sheep of south-west of Minas Gerais State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrão, Diana Cuglovici; Abrão, Silvana; Viana, Carlos Henrique Cabral; do Valle, Claudia Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Famacha method in individual clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis in sheep from the south-west of Minas Gerais. Fifty crossbred Santa Inês ewes were evaluated during 5 months as for conjunctival mucous colour (Famacha method), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Faecal Egg Counts (FEC), body score and clinic alterations. The score Famacha observed was from 1 to 3, the body score from 2 to 5, the PCV from 20 to 47%, and FEC from 0 to 7,750. The correlations between the parameters evaluated, except Famacha with body score, were highly significant (P Famacha method, associated with other diagnostic methods, is a useful tool to detect hemonchosis in sheep.

  20. The effectiveness of student involvement in decisionmaking and university leadership: A comparative analysis of 12 universities in South-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesoji A. Oni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines student involvement in university leadership and decision-makingand its impacts on leadership effectiveness in universities in Nigeria. The study uses adescriptive survey conducted among students and staff in all 12 of the public and privateuniversities in South-West Nigeria.1 The research findings indicate that there is a significantrelationship between student involvement in decision-making and leadership effectiveness.It also reveals that there are significant differences between decision-making with studentinvolvement and decision-making without student involvement. Conversely, no significantdifference was found in leadership effectiveness between decision-making in public andprivate universities. The study finally reveals that there is a significant relationship betweenthe management-student relationship and teaching effectiveness. The results therefore showthat, for leadership and teaching effectiveness to be improved in Nigerian universities,provision should be made for the adequate involvement of students in decision-making onimportant matters relating to university administration.

  1. Comparison of modelled and measured ozone concentrations and meteorology for a site in south-west Sweden: implications for ozone uptake calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Jenny; Danielsson, Helena; Simpson, David; Pleijel, Håkan

    2008-09-01

    Measurements of ground-level ozone concentrations and meteorology (temperature, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), solar radiation) at the monitoring site Ostad (south-west Sweden) were compared to data from the corresponding grid in the EMEP photo-oxidant model for 1997, 1999 and 2000. The influence of synoptic weather on the agreement between model and measurements was studied. Implications of differences between modelled and observed inputs for ozone flux calculations for wheat and potato were investigated. The EMEP model output of ozone, temperature and VPD correlated well with measurements during daytime. Deviations were larger during the night, especially in calm conditions, attributed to local climatological conditions at the monitoring site deviating from average conditions of the grid. These differences did not lead to significant differences in calculated ozone uptake, which was reproduced remarkably well. The uptake calculations were sensitive to errors in the ozone and temperature input data, especially when including a flux threshold.

  2. Diagnosis and identification of Leishmania spp. from Giemsa-stained slides, by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis in south-west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatan, S; Neisi, N; Maraghi, S; Saki, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of present study was describing a real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis and direct identification of Leishmania species on Giemsa-stained slides in south-west of Iran. Altogether, 102 Giemsa-stained slides were collected from different part of south-west of Iran between 2008 and 2011. All the Giemsa-stained slides were examined under light microscope. After DNA extraction, real-time PCR amplification and detection were conducted with fluorescent SYBR Green I. For identification, PCR products were analysed with melting curve analysis. One hundred and two archived slides from suspected lesion examined by microscopy and real-time PCR. The sensitivity of the real-time PCR on Giemsa-stained slid was 98% (96/102). The melting curve analysis (T(m)) were 88·3±0·2°C for L. tropica (MHOM/IR/02/Mash10), 86·5±0·2°C for L. major (MHOM/IR/75/ER) and 89·4±0·3°C for L. infantum (MCAN/IR/97/LON 49), respectively. This study is first report in use of real-time PCR for diagnosis and identification of Leishmania spp. in Iran. Up to now, in Iran, the majority of identification of Leishmania species is restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of ITS1 and kinetoplast DNA. Our data showed that Giemsa-stained slides that were stored more than 3 years, can be use for Leishmania DNA extraction and amplification by real-time PCR. Compared to conventional PCR-based methods, the real-time PCR is extremely rapid with results and more samples can be processed at one time.

  3. Tobacco control priorities for Arabic speakers: key findings from a baseline telephone survey of Arabic speakers residing in Sydney's south-west.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusco, Andrew; Rikard-Bell, Glenys; Mohsin, Mohammed; Millen, Elizabeth; Sabry, Marial; Poder, Natasha; Williams, Mandy; Farag, Lydia; Hua, Myna; Guirguis, Sanaa

    2007-08-01

    The Arabic-speaking population is a priority for tobacco control in Sydney's south-west. Current smoking prevalence and smokers' preferences for evidence-based cessation therapies are reported for this population. A telephone survey of Arabic speakers conducted in Sydney's south-west between August and November 2004 included: utilisation of tobacco products, tobacco and health knowledge, quit attempts and likelihood to use evidence-based cessation strategies. A 70% response rate was achieved (n=1,102). Twenty-six per cent of respondents (95% CI 23.5-28.7) self-reported being current smokers. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that poor knowledge of the harms of smoking (AOR=7.50, 95% CI 3.20-17.59), being male (AOR=2.63, 95% CI 1.89-3.65), being aged between 40 and 59 (AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.06-1.96) and non-tertiary educated (AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.06-1.97) were independent predictors of self-reported smoking. Smokers' preferences for evidence-based cessation strategies included: vouchers for discounted nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (58.8%, 95% CI 52.9-64.6), standard self-help booklet (56.6%, 95% CI 50.7-62.4) and tailored self-help written materials (mailed) (54.0%, 95% CI 48.1- 59.9). More than one-third of all current cigarette smokers (39.4%, n=108, 95% CI 33.6-45.2) indicated they had made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Well-designed trials of efficacy for preferred evidence-based strategies, particularly among middle-aged male Arabic-speaking smokers, appear warranted prior to policy development and implementation.

  4. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the

  5. Creating psychological connections between intervention recipients: development and focus group evaluation of a group singing session for people with aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. Setting The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of En...

  6. Grupos vulnerables y su caracterización como criterio de discriminación de la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional en Brasil Vulnerable groups and their characterization like a discrimination criterion of food and nutritional security in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dixis Figueroa Pedraza

    2005-01-01

    Los grupos más expuestos a la Inseguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional son los que figuran en cualquier lista de "desposeídos". Las familias más afectadas son aquellas más vulnerables a la degradación del medio ambiente, que viven en malas condiciones sanitarias, de contaminación y superpoblación; cuando esto se asocia al grupo materno infantil la vulnerabilidad queda reforzada. Si importante es la cantidad de personas con subnutrición y desnutrición, también lo es definir: quiénes son, dónde es...

  7. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH); (NIID-Japan)

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  8. Cross-sectional study to evaluate Trichomonas vaginalis positivity in women tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, attending genitourinary medicine and primary care clinics in Bristol, South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Jane E; Turner, Katy M E; North, Paul; Ferguson, Ralph; May, Margaret T; Gough, Karen; Macleod, John; Muir, Peter; Horner, Patrick J

    2017-08-10

    Highly sensitive, commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for Trichomonas vaginalis have only recently been recommended for use in the UK. While testing for T. vaginalis is routine in symptomatic women attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, it is rare in asymptomatic women or those attending primary care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the positivity of T. vaginalis using a commercial NAAT, in symptomatic and asymptomatic women undergoing testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in GUM and primary care settings. Samples from 9186 women undergoing chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing in South West England between May 2013 and Jan 2015 were also tested for T. vaginalis by NAAT alongside existing tests. T. vaginalis positivity using NAAT was as follows: in GUM 4.5% (24/530, symptomatic) and 1.7% (27/1584, asymptomatic); in primary care 2.7% (94/3499, symptomatic) and 1.2% (41/3573, asymptomatic). Multivariable regression found that in GUM older age, black ethnicity and deprivation were independent risk factors for T. vaginalis infection. Older age and deprivation were also risk factors in primary care. Testing women presenting with symptoms in GUM and primary care using TV NAATs is estimated to cost £260 per positive case diagnosed compared with £716 using current microbiological tests. Aptima TV outperforms existing testing methods used to identify T. vaginalis infection in this population. An NAAT should be used when testing for T. vaginalis in women who present for testing with symptoms in primary care and GUM, based on test performance and cost. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Vulnerable road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A group of road users can be defined as ‘vulnerable’ in a number of ways, such as by the amount of protection in traffic (e.g. pedestrians and cyclists) or by the amount of task capability (e.g. the young and the elderly). Vulnerable road users do not usually have a protective 'shell', and also the

  10. Effects of ABO/Rh blood groups, G-6-P-D enzyme activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective was to investigate the effects of ABO/Rh blood groups, haemoglobin genotype and G-6-P-D enzyme activity on malaria. The study was carried out in Buea, South West Province, Cameroon. Subjects consulting at health care facilities in Buea were randomly recruited into the study. A total of 121 febrile ...

  11. Evidence for Culicoides obsoletus group as vector for Schmallenberg virus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Kristensen, Birgit; Kirkeby, Carsten

    , in the south-west of Denmark (close to the German border), were sorted into pools and tested for the presence of Schmallenberg virus RNA by RT-qPCR. From 18 pools of 5 midges from the C. obsoletus group, 2 pools were both found positive in two separate assays, targeting the L- and S- segments of the SBV RNA...

  12. Frailty and Social Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Melissa K

    2015-01-01

    Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to health. Intrinsic factors are familiar topics in health research and include medical conditions, medications, genetics and frailty, while extrinsic factors stem from social and physical environments. This chapter builds on others in this volume, in which a deficit accumulation approach to frailty has been described. The concept of social vulnerability is presented. Social vulnerability stems from the accumulation of multiple and varied social problems and has bidirectional importance as a risk factor for poor health outcomes and as a pragmatic consideration for health care provision and planning. Importantly, the social factors that contribute to overall social vulnerability come into play at different levels of influence (individual, family and friends, peer groups, institutions and society at large). A social ecology perspective is discussed as a useful framework for considering social vulnerability, as it allows for attention to each of these levels of influence. Tying together what we currently understand about frailty (in medical and basic science models) and social vulnerability, the scaling potential of deficit accumulation is discussed, given that deficit accumulation can be understood to occur at many levels, from the (sub-)cellular level to tissues, organisms/complex systems and societies. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Modelling social vulnerability in sub-Saharan West Africa using a geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, disasters and risk management have gained significant attention, especially with increasing awareness of the risks and increasing impact of natural and other hazards especially in the developing world. Vulnerability, the potential for loss of life or property from disaster, has biophysical or social dimensions. Social vulnerability relates to societal attributes which has negative impacts on disaster outcomes. This study sought to develop a spatially explicit index of social vulnerability, thus addressing the dearth of research in this area in sub-Saharan Africa. Nineteen variables were identified covering various aspects. Descriptive analysis of these variables revealed high heterogeneity across the South West region of Nigeria for both the state and the local government areas (LGAs. Feature identification using correlation analysis identified six important variables. Factor analysis identified two dimensions, namely accessibility and socioeconomic conditions, from this subset. A social vulnerability index (SoVI showed that Ondo and Ekiti have more vulnerable LGAs than other states in the region. About 50% of the LGAs in Osun and Ogun have a relatively low social vulnerability. Distribution of the SoVI shows that there are great differences within states as well as across regions. Scores of population density, disability and poverty have a high margin of error in relation to mean state scores. The study showed that with a geographical information system there are opportunities to model social vulnerability and monitor its evolution and dynamics across the continent.

  14. Assessing vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P

    2003-01-01

    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the people most at risk from the effects of climate variability and climate change? It is not an easy question to answer. How can we compare the hazards facing the inhabitants of a small island as the sea...

  15. Influence of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) on recent phyto- and zooplankton in "the Anthropogenic Lake District" in south-west Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Elwira; Gasiorowski, Michal

    2015-04-01

    In south-west Poland (central Europe) many the post-mining lakes formed so-called "the Anthropogenic Lake District". Areas, where water comes in contact with lignite beds characterized by high concentration of sulfide minerals are called Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Pyrite oxidation and other sulfide compounds caused release sulfuric acids and heavy metal ions. These processes caused decline of water pH, sometimes to extremely low pH lakes located in south-west Poland have water pH ranged between 2.7 and 8.9. Differences of water reaction in the mine lakes depend on many factors, such as bedrock buffer capacity, geological structure of carboniferous area, exploitation technique of lignite, methods of filling and water supply of reservoirs and their age. During the evolution of lakes' ecosystems, sulfate-iron-calcium type of waters occurring in acid lakes will transform in alkaline hydrogen-carbonate-calcium type of waters. Due to the different time of the completion of lignite exploitation, lakes' age varied between forty and over one hundred years. Studies showed that younger lakes are more acidic in compare to older. To estimate impact of AMD we analyzed recent diversity of diatoms and Cladocera remains and water chemistry from extremely acidic, relatively young lakes and from alkaline, older water bodies. As we expected, flora and fauna from acidic lakes have shown very low diversity and species richness. Among diatoms, Eunotia exigua (Bréb. ex Kütz.) Rabenhorst and/or E. paludosa Grunow were dominated taxa, while fauna Cladocera did not occurred in lakes with water pH area, exploitation of lignite continued up to 1973. Older lakes were formed in the region where the mine started work in 1880 and lignite mining stopped in 1926. Measurements of pH value in situ point to neutral or alkaline water, but because of the possibility of hysteresis phenomenon, the studies of phyto- and zooplankton have shown if there has already been a widespread neutralization of lake

  16. Quitting patient care and career break intentions among general practitioners in South West England: findings of a census survey of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Emily; Abel, Gary A; Anderson, Rob; Richards, Suzanne H; Salisbury, Chris; Dean, Sarah Gerard; Sansom, Anna; Warren, Fiona C; Campbell, John L

    2017-04-11

    Given recent concerns regarding general practitioner (GP) workforce capacity, we aimed to describe GPs' career intentions, especially those which might impact on GP workforce availability over the next 5 years. Census survey, conducted between April and June 2016 using postal and online responses , of all GPs on the National Health Service performers list and eligible to practise in primary care. Two reminders were used as necessary. South West England (population 3.5  million), a region with low overall socioeconomic deprivation. Eligible GPs were 2248 out of 3370 (67 % response rate). Reported likelihood of permanently leaving or reducing hours spent in direct patient care or of taking a career break within the next 5 years and present morale weighted for non-response. Responders included 217 7 GPs engaged in patient care. Of these, 863 (37% weighted, 95%  CI 35 % to 39 %) reported a high likelihood of quitting direct patient care within the next 5 years. Overall, 1535 (70% weighted, 95%  CI 68 % to 72 %) respondents reported a career intention that would negatively impact GP workforce capacity over the next 5 years, through permanently leaving or reducing hours spent in direct patient care, or through taking a career break. GP age was an important predictor of career intentions; sharp increases in the proportion of GPs intending to quit patient care were evident from 52 years. Only 305 (14% weighted, 95%  CI 13 % to 16 %) reported high morale, while 1195 ( 54 % weighted, 95%  CI 52 % to 56 %) reported low morale. Low morale was particularly common among GP partners. Current morale strongly predicted GPs' career intentions; those with very low morale were particularly likely to report intentions to quit patient care or to take a career break. A substantial majority of GPs in South West England report low morale. Many are considering career intentions which, if implemented, would adversely impact GP workforce capacity within a short time period. NIHR HS

  17. Network Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alward, Randy G; Carley, Kathleen M; Madsen, Fredrik; Taylor, Vincent K; Vandenberghe, Grant

    2006-01-01

    To help understand a network and its ability to continue operating when under attack, the break out group discussed issues that need to be considered when presenting network vulnerability information...

  18. Changing pattern of premature mortality burden over 6 years of rapid growth of the economy in suburban south-west China: 1998-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan

    2008-05-01

    This study was conducted in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan, a poor province in south-west China experiencing rapid economic growth. The study examined the short-term trend in premature mortality burden from common causes of death in a suburban region between 1998 and 2003. Years of life lost (YLL) per 1000 population and mortality rate per 100,000 population were calculated from medical death certificates, and broken down by cause of death, sex and year without age weighting but with a discounting rate of 3%. Non-communicable diseases contributed over 80% of all causes of YLL, with a slightly increasing trend. The combined rate for communicable, maternal, prenatal and nutritional deficiencies declined from 4.7 to 2.4 per 1000 population. Remarkably, declining trends in YLL were also seen for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, drug use and road traffic accidents, whereas increasing trends were seen for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and liver cancer (males). The YLL rate for stroke, self-inflicted injuries, lung cancer and stomach cancer fluctuated over time. The region should focus on further control of IHD and liver cancer.

  19. Characterization and Perceived Impact on Graduates of a Specialization in Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy at a Public University in the South West of Colombia. Period 2009 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cecilia Wilches Luna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the graduates of a specialization in cardiopulmonary physiotherapy in a public university located in the south west of Colombia in the period 2009-2013 and iden­tify the impact perceived by graduates at work level. Materials and methods: Descriptive study based on the application of a survey sent via email. The survey consisted of 33 questions assessing sociodemographic characteristics, performance areas, frequent wage income, perceived impact at workplace, and the organizational structure of the specialization. Results: The rate of graduates with work-related activity training area was 98 %. The distribution of the employing institu­tions by level of complexity was level iii (25 % and iv (75 %. The predominant work activity was patient care (59 %, and the greatest performance area was the adult intensive care service (65 %. The teaching resource was identified as the main strength of the specialization program (77 %. The greatest positive impact perceived by the graduates was the improvement in patient care (91 % and the least impact on salary improvement. Conclusions: The specialization degree in cardiopulmonary physiotherapy is a program that improves graduates’ performance and con­tributes to apply newly learned competencies at workplace. The results will be used to develop an action plan based on the negative impacts perceived by the graduates.

  20. Arsenic in residential soil and household dust in Cornwall, south west England: potential human exposure and the influence of historical mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Daniel R S; Watts, Michael J; Beriro, Darren J; Hamilton, Elliott M; Leonardi, Giovanni S; Fletcher, Tony; Close, Rebecca M; Polya, David A

    2017-04-19

    Exposure to arsenic (As) via residential soil and dust is a global concern, in regions affected by mining or with elevated concentrations present in underlying geology. Cornwall in south west England is one such area. Residential soil (n = 127) and household dust (n = 99) samples were collected from across Cornwall as part of a wider study assessing exposure to environmental As. Samples were analysed for total As (soil and dust samples) and human ingestion bioaccessible As (soil samples from properties with home-grown produce). Arsenic concentrations ranged from 12 to 992 mg kg(-1) in soil and 3 to 1079 mg kg(-1) in dust and were significantly higher in areas affected by metalliferous mineralisation. Sixty-nine percent of soils exceeded the 37 mg kg(-1) Category 4 Screening Level (C4SL), a generic assessment criteria for As in residential soils in England, which assumes 100% bioavailability following ingestion. The proportion of exceedance was reduced to 13% when the bioavailability parameter in the CLEA model was changed to generate household specific bioaccessibility adjusted assessment criteria (ACBIO). These criteria were derived using bioaccessibility data for a sub-set of individual household vegetable patch soils (n = 68). Proximity to former As mining locations was found to be a significant predictor of soil As concentration. This study highlights the value of bioaccessibility measurements and their potential for adjusting generic assessment criteria.

  1. Ingestion and defecation of marine debris by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from by-catches in the South-West Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau, Ludovic; Ainley, Lara; Jean, Claire; Ciccione, Stéphane

    2014-07-15

    Marine debris, caused by anthropogenic pollution, is a major problem impacting marine wildlife worldwide. This study documents and quantifies the ingestion and defecation of debris by 74 loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in the South-West Indian Ocean. Debris was found in 51.4% of gut or fecal samples of loggerheads by-catch from Reunion Island long liners. Anthropogenic debris was ubiquitous in our samples with plastics accounting for 96.2% of the total debris collected. No significant relationship was detected between the characteristics of ingested debris and the biometric characteristics of loggerheads. The number, weight, volume and mean length of debris were higher in gut content of deceased loggerheads than in fecal samples of live turtles, but not significantly, except for the mean length. This is the first record of debris ingestion by sea turtles in the Indian Ocean and our results highlight the magnitude of this pollution of the marine environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Benchmarking attenuation correction procedures for six years of single-polarized C-band weather radar observations in South-West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Jacobi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-induced attenuation is a major source of underestimation for radar-based precipitation estimation at C-band. Unconstrained gate-by-gate correction procedures are known to be inherently unstable and thus not suited for unsupervised attenuation correction. In this study, we evaluate three different procedures to constrain gate-by-gate attenuation correction using reflectivity as the only input. These procedures are benchmarked against rainfall estimates from uncorrected radar data, using six years of radar observations from the single-polarized C-band radar in South-West Germany. The precipitation estimation error is obtained by comparing the radar-based estimates to rain gauge observations. All attenuation correction procedures benchmarked in this study lead to an effective improvement of precipitation estimation. The first method caps the corrections if the rain intensity increase exceeds a factor of two. The second method decreases the parameters of the attenuation correction iteratively for every radar beam calculation until attaining a stability criterion. The second method outperforms the first method and leads to a consistent distribution of path-integrated attenuation along the radar beam. As a third method, we propose a slight modification of Kraemer's approach which allows users to exert better control over attenuation correction by introducing an additional constraint that prevents unplausible corrections in cases of dramatic signal losses.

  3. Knowledge of hazards of antibiotics self-medication by mothers for under-fives in rural community of South-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlade, K A; Akinyemi, J O; Fawole, O I

    2015-12-01

    In Nigeria, self-medication of young children is common. Children under the age of five are often self-medicated with antibiotics because of their increased susceptibility to infections. To assess mothers' knowledge on the hazards of antibiotics self-medication in a rural community of South-west Nigeria. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 mothers selected through a purposive sampling technique from Koko community in Olodo, Ibadan between October and December, 2014. Data were collected using a semistructured interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression were done at 5% level of significance. A very high proportion (96.5%) of mothers in this study practiced antibiotic self-medication for their children. Only 28.1% were knowledgeable about the risks and side effects of antibiotic self-medication. Chi-square test revealed that there was a significant association between respondents' educational status (P self-medication. Mothers, particularly those with lower educational levels and young age need to be educated on the risks and side effects of this practice.

  4. Analysis of land degradation processes on a tiger bush plateau in South West Niger using MODIS and LANDSAT TM/ETM+ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Edoardo; Maselli, Fabio; Tarchiani, Vieri; Vignaroli, Patrizio

    2017-10-01

    Remote sensing digital image analysis has been applied to monitor land clearing and degradation processes on a plateau covered by tiger bush near Niamey in South West Niger, where signs of severe landscape degradation due to fuelwood supply have been observed in the last decades. A MODIS NDVI dataset (2000-2015) and five LANDSAT images (1986-2012) were used to identify spatial and temporal dynamics and to emphasize areas of greater degradation. The study indicates that the land clearing found by previous investigations in the second part of the 20th century is still ongoing, with a decreasing trend of MODIS NDVI values recorded in the period 2000-2015. This trend appeared to be linked to an increase in bare soil areas that was demonstrated by analysis of LANDSAT SAVI images. The investigation also indicated that rates of degradation are stronger in more deteriorated areas like those located nearer Niamey; degradation patterns also tend to increase from the inner areas to the edges of the plateau. These results attest to the urgency to develop effective environmental preservation policies and find alternative solutions for domestic energy supply.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in south-west Germany, 2004 to 2015: increasing minimal inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline but no resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnath, Thomas; Mertes, Thomas; Ignatius, Ralf

    2016-09-08

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, particularly to third-generation cephalosporins, has been reported in many countries. We examined the susceptibility (determined by Etest and evaluated using the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) of 434 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 107 female and 327 male patients in Stuttgart, south-west Germany, between 2004 and 2015. During the study period, high proportions of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (70.3%), tetracycline (48.4%; increasing from 27.5% in 2004/2005 to 57.7% in 2014/2015; p = 0.0002) and penicillin (25.6%). The proportion of isolates resistant to azithromycin was low (5.5%) but tended to increase (p = 0.08). No resistance and stable minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for cefixime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin. High-level resistance was found for ciprofloxacin (39.6%) and tetracycline (20.0%) but not for azithromycin; 16.3% of the isolates produced betalactamase. Thus, cephalosporins can still be used for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the study area. To avoid further increasing resistance to azithromycin, its usage should be limited to patients allergic to cephalosporins, or (in combination with cephalosporins) to patients for whom no susceptibility testing could be performed or those co-infected with chlamydiae. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  6. Stones of memory. The permanence of the megalithic phenomenon in the Iberian South-West during the Second and First Millennia BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Sanjuán, Leonardo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the temporal permanence of megalithic monuments in the Iberian south-west during the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Firstly, a number of well-documented cases are described, discussing the specific circumstances of each of them (chronology, funerary ritual, spatial location, etc.. Secondly, an interpretation of the different ideological and social meanings that the utilisation of old megalithic monuments might have had for the communities of the second and first millennia BC is proposed.

    En este trabajo se examina el fenómeno de la permanencia temporal de los monumentos megalíticos en el Suroeste de la Península Ibérica durante la Edad del Bronce y la Edad del Hierro. En primer lugar se describen distintos casos documentados, detallándose las circunstancias específicas de cada uno de ellos (cronología, ritual funerario, localización espacial, etc.. En segundo lugar se propone una interpretación del diferente significado ideológico y social que para las formaciones sociales del II y I milenio ANE pudo tener la utilización de viejos monumentos megalíticos.

  7. Applying the change vector analysis technique to assess the desertification risk in the south-west of Romania in the period 1984-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorovencii, Iosif

    2017-09-26

    The desertification risk affects around 40% of the agricultural land in various regions of Romania. The purpose of this study is to analyse the risk of desertification in the south-west of Romania in the period 1984-2011 using the change vector analysis (CVA) technique and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) satellite images. CVA was applied to combinations of normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI)-albedo, NDVI-bare soil index (BI) and tasselled cap greenness (TCG)-tasselled cap brightness (TCB). The combination NDVI-albedo proved to be the best in assessing the desertification risk, with an overall accuracy of 87.67%, identifying a desertification risk on 25.16% of the studied period. The classification of the maps was performed for the following classes: desertification risk, re-growing and persistence. Four degrees of desertification risk and re-growing were used: low, medium, high and extreme. Using the combination NDVI-albedo, 0.53% of the analysed surface was assessed as having an extreme degree of desertification risk, 3.93% a high degree, 8.72% a medium degree and 11.98% a low degree. The driving forces behind the risk of desertification are both anthropogenic and climatic causes. The anthropogenic causes include the destruction of the irrigation system, deforestation, the destruction of the forest shelterbelts, the fragmentation of agricultural land and its inefficient management. Climatic causes refer to increase of temperatures, frequent and prolonged droughts and decline of the amount of precipitation.

  8. Early sexual debut: prevalence and risk factors among secondary school students in Ido-ekiti, Ekiti state, South-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durowade, Kabir Adekunle; Babatunde, Oluwole Adeyemi; Omokanye, Lukman Omotayo; Elegbede, Olusegun Elijah; Ayodele, Lawrence Majekodunmi; Adewoye, Kayode Razaq; Adetokunbo, Stella; Olomofe, Charles O; Fawole, Adegboyega A; Adebola, Oyebola Eyitayo; Olaniyan, Temitope O

    2017-09-01

    Early adolescent sexual activity remains a recurring problem with negative psychosocial and health outcomes. The age at sexual debut varies from place to place and among different individuals and is associated with varying factors. The aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of early sexual debut among secondary school students in Ido-Ekiti, South-West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. The respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. Pre-tested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. More than two-thirds, 40(67.8%), had early sexual debut. The prevalence of early sexual debut was about 11%. The mean age of sexual debut was 13.10±2.82; the mean age for early sexual debutants was 11.68±1.98. The mean number of sexual partners was 2.44±1.99. Male gender, having friends who engaged in sexual activities had association with early sexual exposure (p<0.05). Alcohol intake had the strongest strength of association for early sexual debut among the students. The high prevalence of early sexual exposure among the students calls for urgent interventions to stem the trend. This will help to reduce the devastating negative psycho-social and health sequels.

  9. Contribution of the working group 2 to the fourth evaluation report of the inter government expert group on the climatic change. Evaluation 2007 of the climatic changes: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; Contribution du Groupe de travail 2 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'expert intergouvernemental sur l'evolution du climat. Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: impacts, adaptation et vulnerabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document exposes the results of the fourth evaluation report of the working group II of the inter government experts group on the climatic change. This evaluation presents the today scientific understanding of the climatic change impacts on the humans and their adaptation ability and vulnerability. It is based on the GIEC evaluations and new knowledge added since the third evaluation report. (A.L.B.)

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among senior secondary school students in Fako Division, South West Region, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubed, Colins Kingoum; Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla

    2016-08-22

    Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) regarding HIV/AIDS is one of the corner stones in the fight against the disease. Youths are most vulnerable to infection because they engage in risky practices due to a lack of adequate information. Thus, evaluating their KAPs will help in designing appropriate prevention strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the KAPs of senior secondary school students in Fako Division, Cameroon, on HIV/AIDS. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 464 students aged 13-25 years, selected by systematic quota random sampling from some secondary schools in Fako, from April to June 2014, to evaluate their KAPs regarding HIV/AIDS. Participants were drawn from one secondary school in each of the four health districts in Fako. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the students to obtain information about their KAPs on HIV/AIDS. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. All respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS. Sources of information varied, the most common being sex education in school. The majority of participants demonstrated an adequate understanding of HIV transmission and prevention. However, misconceptions about routes of transmission were observed in 3.4 to 23.3 % of respondents. Risky behaviors were found among participants as about 60 % practice safe sex and 40 % reported not to. Up to 196 (42.2 %) respondents had a history of sexual intercourse of which 108 (56.25 %) had used a condom during their last three sexual encounters. About half of the respondents had negative views about HIV infected people. Students with medium (34.3 %) and high (62.1 %) levels of knowledge were more likely to display positive attitudes Although statistically not significant, we found that as knowledge increased the ability of respondents to report safer sex decreased (95 % CI, P = 0.922). Students had a satisfactory level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS prevention. Those with adequate knowledge were more likely to display

  11. In Search of the Third Eye, When the Two Others Are Shamefacedly Shut?; Comment on “Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Keygnaert

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ivanova et al explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH policies in 4 countries. They adapted the EquiFrame of Amin and colleagues of 2011, to SRH vulnerable groups which we believe could now be used for analysis of national SRH polices beyond those 4 countries. Although we fully agree with the authors’ two main findings that vulnerable groups and human rights’ principles are not sufficiently integrated in SRH policies nor granted the possibility to participate in the process of development in those four countries, we do believe that these shortcomings are not limited to those countries only nor to the identified vulnerable groups either. We are convinced that the issue of SRH as such is still framed within a very limited logic for all with vulnerable groups being perceived as an extra threat or an extra burden.

  12. The drought risk of maize in the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China based on physical vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Jingyi; Ma, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is affecting every aspect of human activities, especially the agriculture. In China, extreme drought events caused by climate change have posed a great threat to food safety. In this work we aimed to study the drought risk of maize in the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China based on physical vulnerability assessment. The physical vulnerability curve was constructed from the relationship between drought hazard intensity index and yield loss rate. The risk assessment of agricultural drought was conducted from the drought hazard intensity index and physical vulnerability curve. The probability distribution of drought hazard intensity index decreased from south-west to north-east and increased from south-east to north-west along the rainfall isoline. The physical vulnerability curve had a reduction effect in three parts of the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China, which helped to reduce drought hazard vulnerability on spring maize. The risk of yield loss ratio calculated based on physical vulnerability curve was lower compared with the drought hazard intensity index, which suggested that the capacity of spring maize to resist and adapt to drought is increasing. In conclusion, the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China is greatly sensitive to climate change and has a high probability of severe drought hazard. Risk assessment of physical vulnerability can help better understand the physical vulnerability to agricultural drought and can also promote measurements to adapt to climate change.

  13. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E. (Geological Survey of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given.

  14. Loading effects beneath the Gotvand-e Olya Reservoir (south-west of Iran) deduced from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, M.; Tatar, M.; Aoudia, A.; Guidarelli, M.

    2018-01-01

    In order to define the precise shallow velocity structure beneath the second largest dam reservoir in Iran and to understand the loading effects on the underlying crust, the shear wave velocity of the shallow structure beneath the Gotvand-e Olya (hereinafter referred to as Gotvand) reservoir is determined through the inversion of group velocities obtained from seismic ambient noise tomography, using continuous data from 10 stations of a local network, installed to monitor the induced seismicity in the region surrounding the Gotvand and Masjed Soleyman dams for potential hazard. We obtained Rayleigh waves from cross-correlation of waveforms recorded 10 months before and the same duration after impoundment of the Gotvand reservoir and calculated the group velocity from dispersion analysis in the period range 2-8 s. The group velocity dispersion curves are used to produce 2-D group velocity tomographic maps. The resulting tomographic maps at short periods are well correlated with subsurface geological features and delineate distinct low- and high-velocity zones separated mainly by geological boundaries. The 3-D shear wave velocity structure provides detailed information about the crustal features underneath the reservoir. The results are consistent with the lithology of the region, and attest that ambient noise tomography (ANT) can be used for detailed studies of the velocity structure and lithology at shallow depths using continuous data from a dense local seismic network. An increase of shear wave velocity is observed at the deep parts (4-6 km) underneath the reservoir after impoundment of the dam, which could be caused by the changes in rocks properties after impoundment. However, at shallow depths (2-4 km), a decrease of Vs velocity is observed that can be associated to the penetration of water after the impoundment.

  15. Kidney disease in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive children: experience from a centre in south-west Nigeria and a review of the Nigerian literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asinobi, Adanze O; Ademola, Adebowale D; Okolo, Clement A; Adepoju, Adedayo A; Samuel, Susan M; Hoy, Wendy E

    2018-02-01

    Kidney disease is an important extra-hepatic manifestation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, there is paucity of recent literature on kidney disease in children and adolescents with HBV infection from several parts of sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. To review the pattern of kidney disease in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive children and adolescents seen at a tertiary hospital in south-west Nigeria. A retrospective study was undertaken of HBsAg-seropositive children with kidney disease managed at University College Hospital, Ibadan, from January 2004 to December 2015. Patients were identified from the paediatric nephrology unit admissions and the renal histology registers. 24 children and adolescents were studied, 17 of whom were male (70.8%), and the median age was 10.0 years (range 3-15). Ten (41.7%) had nephrotic syndrome, five (20.8%) had non-nephrotic glomerulonephritis, five (20.8%) were in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), including a patient with posterior urethral valves, and four had acute kidney injury secondary to acute tubular necrosis. Renal histology was available for 10 patients: nine had nephrotic syndrome associated with minimal change disease in six, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in two and one had membanoproliferative glomerulonephritis. The patient with non-nephrotic glomerulonephritis had diffuse global sclerosis. The pattern of kidney disease in HBV-positive children demonstrated a predominance of nephrotic syndrome, followed by non-nephrotic glomerulonephritis, ESRD and acute kidney injury. Better diagnostic facilities and treatment are required. Prevention of HBV infection by universal childhood immunisation is the ultimate goal.

  16. Body fat levels in children in younger school age from rural areas living in Copper Mining Region in south-west Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity as a civilization disease has been called the "epidemic" in the late twentieth century. It is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, which is the last time a major cause of death. In Europe and the United States, the number of overweight people exceeds now 50% of the population. The incidence of overweight and obesity continue to rise and this phenomenon is also observed in our country even in case of an early childhood. In Poland, percentage of very young school children (boys and girls who are overweight or obese amounts to about 15%. Obesity is particularly common among children from industrial environments living in highly developed countries. The aim of his study was to assess the level of fat in boys and girls from rural areas aged 7 to 10 from industrial environment. Material and methods. The study was carried out at six rural schools located in the copper mining region in south-west Poland in 2001. For the needs of the study use was made of existing results covering altogether 488 children of early school age – 261 girls and 227 boys. Measurements were taken of height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Body fat, body water and lean body mass were measured with Futrex. Respectively the BMI and WHR were calculated from measurements taken earlier. Results and conclusions. The BMI level is within the values of acceptable standard in majority of children. The percentage of children above the standard fluctuates within the limits of typical peers from other regions of the country and is about 15%. In boys obesity increases with age, in girls the values increase also, but they are of lower importance. Most of the examined children present an average level of total body fatness. A very small percentage of them exceeds the level considered as obese.

  17. Prevalence, risk factors of human papillomavirus infection and papanicolaou smear pattern among women attending a tertiary health facility in south-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Mathew Kolawole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cervical cancer amongst Nigerian women has been on the increase in the past decade, and is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors of HPV infection, and Papanicolaou smear pattern amongst a cohort of women attending the Gynaecology clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, South west Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women between the ages of 15-64 years for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using Papanicolaou smear staining technique and serological diagnosis using IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling of subjects, while interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data, and data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 200 blood samples examined for Human papillomavirus infection, 135 (67.5% were sero-positive while 65 (32.5% were sero-negative. For cervical cytology using Papanicolaou smear, 14 (7% were positive (had presence of cervical abnormality while 186 (93% were negative (had no cervical abnormality. Result showed a direct relationship between seropositivity, development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and Human papillomavirus infection. The risk factors for the development of HPV infection included age, type of marriage, parity, history of genital infection and tobacco usage. Non circumcision of male partner was also found to be a risk factor. Conclusion: The presence of abnormal cervical cytology and high level of serological positivity clearly showed why there is need for a holistic approach to the screening, vaccination methodologies and early detection of HPV infection in the country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 453-459

  18. Maternal smoking, weight status and dietary behaviours during pregnancy: findings from first-time mothers in south-west Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li M; Rissel, Chris; Simpson, Judy M; Lee, Eric; Baur, Louise A

    2011-02-01

    Few studies have been conducted examining the relationship between maternal smoking, weight status and dietary behaviours during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between maternal smoking, weight status and dietary behaviours during pregnancy. An analysis of cross-sectional baseline survey data was conducted with 406 first-time mothers participating in the Healthy Beginnings Trial (HBT) conducted in south-west Sydney, Australia. Mothers' reports of their smoking status, dietary behaviours and pre-pregnancy weight and height were collected through face-to-face interviews. The relationships were examined using log-binomial regression modelling. Maternal smoking status was not associated with weight status. However, smoking was positively associated with soft drink consumption and negatively associated with daily fruit intake. After adjusting for age, marital status and education level, mothers who reported consuming >1 cup of soft drink per day were more likely to smoke than those consuming less soft drink (adjusted risk ratio, ARR 1.48, 95% CI 1.02-2.22, P = 0.05). Mothers who reported having ≥2 serves of fruit daily were significantly less likely to smoke than those having less fruit (ARR 0.54, 95% CI 0.29-0.95, P = 0.04). The study found no evidence linking maternal smoking and weight status and did not support the notion that smoking could lead to a lower weight status. However, maternal smoking was associated with fruit and soft drink consumption and needs to be considered while examining dietary behaviours and weight status. © 2011 The Authors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Potential drug-drug interactions among elderly patients on anti-hypertensive medications in two tertiary healthcare facilities in Ekiti State, South-West Nigeria

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    Joseph Olusesan Fadare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drug-drug interactions remain a major cause of adverse drug reactions with great consequences such as increased morbidity and increased healthcare cost. In elderly patients with systemic hypertension, there is a tendency for them to be prescribed multiple medications and this may expose them to some drug-drug interactions (DDIs especially in the context of physiological changes of ageing. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential drug-drug interaction among some Nigerian elderly hypertension. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving elderly hypertensive patients attending the general outpatient clinic of two tertiary healthcare facilities located in Ekiti State, South-West Nigeria. The information collected from the patients′ medical records included their ages, gender, diagnosis and list of prescribed anti-hypertensive medications. Potential drug-drug interactions were checked for using the Multi-Drug Interaction Checker (Medscape Reference and Epocrates Drug Interaction Checker (San Mateo CA, USA. Results: A total of 350 elderly patients attended the clinics during the study period of which 208 (59.4% hypertensive patients were identified and their records used for analysis. The fixed-dose combination drug Moduretic® (Amiloride /Hydrochlorothiazide-25.7% was the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive followed by Lisinopril (16.6%, Amlodipine (13.2% and Nifedipine (12.6%. The anti-platelet Acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA was prescribed for 100 (48.1% patients and represented 19.8% of all prescribed medications. A total of 231 potential DDIs were found among the patients giving a mean of 1.3 interactions per patient. The most common identified drug pairs with potential interactions were ACE inhibitors - Amiloride, followed by ACE inhibitors - Hydrochlorothiazide, ACE inhibitors - ASA and ARB - Amiloride. Conclusion: Potential drug-drug interactions, though common in this study comprised mainly of minor and moderate

  20. Determinants of delay in malaria treatment-seeking behaviour for under-five children in south-west Ethiopia: a case control study

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    Deribew Amare

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt diagnosis and timely treatment of malaria within 24 hours after onset of first symptoms can reduce illness progression to severe stages and therefore, decrease mortality. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria diagnosis and treatment for under-five children is not well studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess determinants of malaria treatment delay in under-five children in three districts of south-west Ethiopia. Methods A case control study was conducted from March 15 to April 20, 2010. Cases were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment after 24 hours of developing sign and symptom, and controls were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment within 24 hours of developing sign and symptom of malaria. Data were collected by trained enumerators using structured questionnaire. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 6.04 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. To identify determinants, multiple logistic regression was done. Results A total of 155 mothers of cases and 155 mothers of controls were interviewed. Mothers of children who were in a monogamous marriage (OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.39, 8.34, who complained about the side effects of anti-malarial drugs (OR = 4.96, 95% CI: 1.21, 20.36, who had no history of child death (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.82, 6.42 and who complained about the higher cost of transportation to reach the health institutions (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.45 were more likely to be late for the treatment of malaria in under-five children. Conclusion Effective malaria control programmes should address reducing delayed presentation of children for treatment. Efforts to reduce delay should address transport cost, decentralization of services and increasing awareness of the community on early diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Combined effect of high-normal blood pressure and low HDL cholesterol on mortality in an elderly Korean population: the South-West Seoul (SWS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nan Hee; Cho, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yoon Jung; Cho, Myung Jin; Choi, Hae Yoon; Eun, Chai Ryoung; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Yang, Sae Jeong; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Hee Young; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Sin Gon; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2011-08-01

    It is unclear whether prehypertension by the seventh Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-7) criteria (systolic blood pressure (SBP) 120-139 or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 80-89 mm Hg) or high-normal blood pressure (HNBP) by the European Society of Hypertension and European Society of Cardiology (ESH/ESC) criteria (SBP 130-139 or DBP 85-89 mm Hg) predicts mortality in elderly Koreans. We compared the mortality risk between those with prehypertension and HNBP and evaluated whether the presence of components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) can improve the prediction of mortality in subjects with HNBP. We analyzed all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality according to the JNC-7 and ESH/ESC categories using follow-up data of the South-West Seoul (SWS) Study, a prospective cohort study of 2,376 elderly Koreans, aged >60 years. During the median follow-up of 7.6 years, 353 deaths occurred from all causes, and 113 of these were attributed to CVD. Prehypertension was nonsignificantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio (HR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-1.64). Subjects with HNBP exhibited a nonsignificantly higher risk of mortality compared with those with optimal blood pressure by the ESH/ESC guideline (HR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.84-2.18). However, the combination of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and HNBP showed a twofold higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.11-3.64) independent of other risk factors. Although prehypertension was not associated with increased risk of mortality, individuals in the elderly Korean population with HNBP, especially when combined with low HDL cholesterol, showed a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality.

  2. Mutation analysis of hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase region among untreated chronically infected patients in Ahvaz city (South-West of Iran

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    M Hamidi-Fard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been revealed that mutations can occur spontaneously and naturally in HBV reverse transcriptase (RT region among untreated patients. These HBV mutants pre-exist as minor viral population in naive patients and can emerge as major viral population, conferring drug resistance and treatment failure. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate and identify prevalent mutations of RT region of hepatitis B virus genome in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB untreated with antiviral drugs in South-West of Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 cases with CHB who did not receive the treatment of lamivudine and any other antivirus drugs within the last one year were randomly chosen. After sample collection and HBV DNA extraction, RT region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Then PCR products were sequenced and HBV RT region mutations and amino acid changes were analyzed either manually or using web-based programs, on the basis of comparison of the obtained sequences with a set of HBV reference sequences. Results: A total of 23 (51.1% mutations and amino acid changes were detected in studied 45 untreated patients. Of these, 3 (6.6% patients had primary resistance mutation (rtM204I, rtA181T and rtA181S and 20 (44.4% patients had secondary resistance mutations. Conclusion: High prevalence of mutations was found in HBV RT region of untreated patients. Most of these mutations were associated with resistance to adefovir and one patient had primary resistance mutation to lamivudine. Awareness of these resistance patterns might help in the antiviral therapy and for predicting clinical outcomes.

  3. Size partitioning of microbial and meiobenthic biomass and respiration on Brown's Bank, south-west Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jonathan; Schwinghamer, Peter

    1987-12-01

    Biomass and respiration (oxygen consumption) of bacteria, microfauna, and meiofauna were measured in coarse sand sediment from Brown's Bank (172 m) off Nova Scotia, Canada. Community biomass, excluding macrofauna, had a median value of 35 mg C m -2, dominated by bacteria (51%), microfauna (25%), and a minor meiofauna component (2·5%). Protozoan microfauna were mostly microflagellates (colourless cryptomonads). The experimental design allowed partitioning of benthic metabolism without using subtraction from whole community rates. Addition-removal experiments with fauna separated into size categories were used to construct a respiration-biomass regression for all taxa. Respiration rates for faunal groups were then calculated from their biomass in the natural sediment. Total microbial and meiofaunal community respiration had a median rate of 0·55 ml O 2 m -2 h -1 which was partitioned into median proportions of bacteria (50%) microflagellates (27%), and metazoan meiofauna (4%). Correlations among faunal biomass values from incubated vials of sediment suggested that bacteria were important prey for protozoans. With added biomass of meiofauna, protozoans also became a potentially important source of prey. The results demonstrated the significance of microflagellate protozoans in these sediments and their metabolic and trophic importance relative to meiofauna and even bacteria.

  4. Effect of First Aid Education on First Aid Knowledge and Skills of Commercial Drivers in South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumide, Adesola O; Asuzu, Michael C; Kale, Oladele O

    2015-12-01

    Prompt prehospital care is essential for improving outcomes of road crash victims; however, this service is sub-optimal in developing countries because Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are not readily available. Training of lay responders in first aid has been suggested as a means of filling this gap in settings with inadequate EMS. This study was conducted to determine the effect of first aid training on the first aid knowledge and skills of commercial drivers. A before-and-after study was conducted among 128 commercial drivers (62 intervention and 66 controls) selected by multi-stage sampling. Drivers' first aid knowledge and skills were assessed at baseline, immediate, and three months post-intervention. The intervention involved a 2-day training session in first aid. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in respondents' pre- and post-intervention scores over the three assessment points. Mean first aid knowledge scores for intervention drivers were 48.9% (SD=12.0), 57.8% (SD=11.2), and 59.2% (SD=9.0) at baseline, immediate, and three months post-intervention. Corresponding scores for the controls were 48.3% (SD=12.8), 39.2% (SD=15.3), and 46.8% (SD=15.3). Mean first aid skill scores for intervention drivers were 17.5% (SD=3.8), 80.7% (SD=8.3), and 72.3% (SD=16.8). Scores for control drivers were 16.5% (SD=4.5), 16.3% (SD=4.7), and 20.4% (SD=9.1), respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences in first aid knowledge and skills scores over the three phases. Independent t-test revealed significant differences in scores between the intervention and control groups post-intervention. The training led to significant improvement in first aid knowledge and skills of intervention drivers. This confirms that lay responders can be trained in provision of first aid. The slight drop in skills scores, which occurred three months post-intervention, highlights the need for periodic refresher trainings to be conducted for the drivers in

  5. Radiographic pattern of skeletal trauma in children seen in a tertiary hospital in Sagamu, South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, A A; Thanni, L O A

    2013-03-01

    The study was aimed at identifying the pattern of skeletal trauma in the paediatric age group as it relates to the causes. A retrospective analysis of the records on the request cards, case notes, radiographs and reports (where available) of all children aged one day to 15 years who were referred to the radiology department of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu was carried out. Fractures were analysed with respect to sex, age, causes, type and location of fracture. The analysis spanned a period of twenty-eight months during which a total of three hundred and twenty eight radiographs were analysed. The mean ages of male and female patients were 5.4±4.6 and 5.1±4.6 years, respectively, with a range of 0.2-15 years. Normal radiographs were found in 124 (37.80%) patients,53.1 (16.1%) had 55 fractures, and 39 (11.9%) had soft tissue swelling. Fractures were found most commonly in male children and in the age range 4-6 years. Fractures occur three times more in the upper limbs, and the bones most frequently affected are the humerus, radius, and the ulna in descending order. Most of the fractures were due to Road Traffic Injury (RTI) seen in 18.9%, falls seen in 18.9%, and birth trauma, which was responsible for 7.5%. The most frequently involved bone in fractures is the humerus followed by the femur bone. Skull fractures occur mostly in the parietal bone. Fractures are still mostly investigated with plain radiographs. Fractures are more frequent in male children and in the 4-6 year age range; it is seen more in the upper limb bones especially in the humerus. Skull fractures are relatively rare. Half of the fractures occur in the distal and mid portions of long bones. This study has also high lighted the importance of road traffic injury and falls as aetiological factors in fracture occurring in children. Effort should be made to ease deliveries in order to reduce the incidence of birth trauma.

  6. [Aging and becoming vulnerable].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monod, Stéfanie; Sautebin, Annelore

    2009-11-18

    "The vulnerable are those whose autonomy, dignity and integrity are capable of being threatened". Based on this ethical definition of vulnerability, four risk factors of vulnerability might be identified among elderly persons, and are described in this article: the functional limitation, the loss of autonomy, the social precariousness and the restriction of access to medical care. A clinical case of elderly abuse is presented to illustrate vulnerability. Finally, some recommendations to lower the risk of vulnerability in elderly persons are proposed.

  7. Gambella Hospital, South West Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    completed week of gestational age as attributed for nearly 40% of all maternal calculated from the last menstrual period deaths (6). ..... HIV-1 infection, gonorrhea and syphilis at Five Hospital in the city of Addis Ababa: was not found to be significantly different WHO, Multi-center Survey by abortionists, in patients with ...

  8. the South-West Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemia (<40mg glucose/d1) was recorded in 12.9% of cerebral malaria patients, but in none of the patients with uncomplicated malaria. [Afr. J.Health Sci. 2002: 61-67]. Prevalence and Case-Control Study of Cerebral Malaria in Limbe of. Introduction. In African children severe complicated malaria presents most ...

  9. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant strains, isolated from bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of South-West Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Benon B; Baldan, Rossella; Trovato, Alberto; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2017-06-13

    Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people. Little is known about milk carriage of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) and their virulence factors in Uganda. Here, we present the prevalence of MRSA in bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of south-west Uganda. We also present PFGE profiles, spa-types, as well as frequency of enterotoxins genes. S. aureus was identified by the coagulase test, susceptibility testing by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test methods and MRSA by detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec types. The presence of Panton - Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) genes and staphylococcal enterotoxins was determined by PCR, while genotyping was by PFGE and spa typing. S. aureus were isolated from 30/148 (20.3%) milk and 11/91(12%) sour milk samples. mecA gene carriage, hence MRSA, was detected in 23/41 (56.1%) of the isolates, with 21 of the 23 (91.3%) being SCCmec type V; while up to 30/41 (73.2%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Only five isolates carried the PVL virulence gene, while PFGE typing revealed ten clusters (ranging from two seven isolates each) that comprised 83% of the sample, and only eight isolates with unique pulsotypes. The largest PFGE profile (E) consisted of seven isolates while t7753, t1398, and t2112 were the most common spa-types. Thirty seven of the 41 strains (90.2%) showed at least one of the eight enterotoxin genes tested, with sem 29 (70.7%), sei 25 (61%) and seg 21 (51.2%) being the most frequently observed genes. This

  10. Have abrupt climate variations of the last glacial possibly been muted in the south-west African tropics by counteracting mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, I.; Dupont, L.; Handiani, D.; Steinke, S.; Groeneveld, J.; Merkel, U.; Paul, A.

    2012-04-01

    Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC) provide one plausible explanation for the absence of HSs in our vegetation record. Although both precipitation and evaporation are higher during HSs, their contrasting nature leads to a net-freshwater flux of about zero. Consequently, the resulting climatic response to HS might have been simply to weak in south-west Africa to affect the vegetation composition in a distinct way. The reliability of the EMIC simulations is supported by experiments conducted with the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3) which is including a comprehensive atmospheric and land model component.

  11. Air–sea fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory on the south-west coast of the UK

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    M. Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present air–sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, momentum, and sensible heat measured by the eddy covariance method from the recently established Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO on the south-west coast of the United Kingdom. Measurements from the south-westerly direction (open water sector were made at three different sampling heights (approximately 15, 18, and 27 m above mean sea level, a.m.s.l., each from a different period during 2014–2015. At sampling heights  ≥  18 m a.m.s.l., measured fluxes of momentum and sensible heat demonstrate reasonable ( ≤  ±20 % in the mean agreement with transfer rates over the open ocean. This confirms the suitability of PPAO for air–sea exchange measurements in shelf regions. Covariance air–sea CO2 fluxes demonstrate high temporal variability. Air-to-sea transport of CO2 declined from spring to summer in both years, coinciding with the breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful eddy covariance measurements of CH4 emissions from a marine environment. Higher sea-to-air CH4 fluxes were observed during rising tides (20 ± 3; 38 ± 3; 29 ± 6 µmole m−2 d−1 at 15, 18, 27 m a.m.s.l. than during falling tides (14 ± 2; 22 ± 2; 21 ± 5 µmole m−2 d−1, consistent with an elevated CH4 source from an estuarine outflow driven by local tidal circulation. These fluxes are a few times higher than the predicted CH4 emissions over the open ocean and are significantly lower than estimates from other aquatic CH4 hotspots (e.g. polar regions, freshwater. Finally, we found the detection limit of the air–sea CH4 flux by eddy covariance to be 20 µmole m−2 d−1 over hourly timescales (4 µmole m−2 d−1 over 24 h.

  12. Management of root diseases of annual pasture legumes in Mediterranean ecosystems - a case study of subterranean clover root diseases in the south-west of Western Australia

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    M. Barbetti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum is an important component of Mediterranean dryland pasture ecosystems, such as in the south-west of Western Australia, where it is utilised as a winter annual pasture that provides nitrogen as well as disease breaks for rotational crops. Necrotrophic soil-borne fungal pathogens dominate Mediterranean ecosystems because of the ease of survival of these pathogens on infested residues over the dry summer period, and because of low levels of microbial competition in the impoverished and nutrient-defi cient soils characteristic of these regions that predisposes plants to root diseases. In addition to herbage and seed yield losses from soil-borne fungal and nematode pathogens, changes in botanical composition, in the number of regenerating plants, their persistence, and factors affecting feed quality are signifi cantly affected. Further, where the causal organisms of the diseases on subterranean clover are also common on other rotational crops, the impact of these soilborne pathogens appears far wider in Mediterranean ecosystems than previously considered. Under these conditions, soil-borne pathogens pose a serious threat to the productivity of this self-seeding pasture legume, to the extent that reseeding may become necessary. Pathogens such as Phytophthora clandestina, various Pythium species particularly Pythium irregulare, Aphanomyces sp., Rhizoctonia solani, one or more Fusarium species, Phoma medicaginis and Cylindrocarpon didymium are of concern, as are the nematode parasites from the genera Meloidogyne, Heterodera, Pratylenchus, Trichodorus and Radopholus. In this ecosystem, root pathogens operate together as disease complexes and the challenge therefore has been to source host genotypes with resistance to multiple pathogens. In addition to plant nutrition, environmental factors, in particular rainfall (soil moisture and soil temperature, have a marked effect on both the disease severity caused by

  13. Ecological similarities between two Mediterranean wetlands: Sidi Boughaba (North-West Morocco and the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain

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    Najat Elkhiati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the underlying common processes within aquatic systems located in the same geographical region has long been used as a tool for the advancement of limnology. A limnological study of the Merja Sidi Boughaba in 2009 has shown that there are many common features between the physico-chemical and biological conditions of this site and previous data reported from some of the wetlands of the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain. Both are Ramsar sites located on extensive dune systems of the Atlantic coast with a Mediterranean climate. They have a common palaeoenvironmental history that is largely responsible for their similar hydrology and water composition. Oceanic influence has probably produced a slight disproportion of Mg2+ over Ca2+ through airborne sea salt deposition and the surface evaporation of groundwater feeding these wetlands during annual flood and drought cycles. The wide spectrum of environmental conditions encountered in the Doñana wetlands is epitomised by the Merja Sidi Boughaba, where water and sediment gradually change in the same water body from north to south: from humic-coloured waters and a sandy substrate to a calcium-rich substrate with turbid and silted waters which eventually dry out. As a consequence, the community of submersed macrophytes is very rich and dominated by dense charophyte beds. The high primary production coupled with high biodiversity found in the Merja Sidi Boughaba is also shared by the Doñana wetlands. The high conservation status of both sites enables a useful comparison to be made of the water quality of shallow aquatic systems at a regional scale which, contrary to the trophic classifications developed for deep stratified lakes in temperate regions, is not based on regressions between the concentrations of chlorophyll and total phosphorus (Tot-P but on the proportions of dissolved and particulate P pools. In these Mediterranean sites, nutrients are more efficiently recycled through the

  14. Comparison of sexual risky factors of men who have sex with men and sex-buying men as groups vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Lee, Joongyub; Kwon, Dong Seok; Park, Byung-Joo

    2012-05-01

    It is necessary to examine groups carrying out sexually risky behavior because the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is high among them. In this study, the prevalence of STDs among homosexuals and sex-buying men in South Korea was investigated, along with their sexual risk factors. Men who have sex with men (MSMs, n=108) were recruited in Seoul and Busan by applying the time location sampling method, while sex-buying men (n=118) were recruited from a john school in Gyeonggi province, the suburbs of Seoul. Dependent variables included past or present infection with syphilis, Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human immunodeficiency virus. Independent variables included health behavior, social support, sexual behavior, and safe sex. It was found that when the MSMs were non-drunk while having sexual intercourse (odds ratio [OR], 0.132), they showed a higher STD infection rate when they had a higher number of anal sex partners (OR, 5.872), rarely used condoms (OR, 1.980), had lower self-efficacy (OR, 0.229), and were more anxious about becoming infected with an STD (OR, 3.723). However, the men who paid for sex showed high STD infections when they had more sex partners (OR, 2.286) and lower education levels (OR, 3.028). STD infections among the two groups were high when they were engaged with many sex partners and not having protected sex. In other words, there was a gap in risky sex behavior within such groups, which was significantly related to the possibility of developing an STD. Therefore, the preventive intervention against STDs for these groups needs to be expanded to include management of sex behaviors.

  15. Equilibrium Line Altitude Fluctuation on the South West Slope of Nevado Coropuna Since The Last Glacial Maximum (Cordillera Ampato, Perú

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    Campos, Néstor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to reconstruct the LLGM (local last glacial maximum, 1955 and 2007 glacial phases on the South West slope of Nevado Coropuna to obtain valuable information on the changes that have occurred and analyze the glacier evolution. For this purpose the ELA (Equilibrium Line Altitude indicator has been used as a reference, with the AABR (Area x Altitude Balance Ratio method, based on the principle of weighting the mass balance according to the distance above or below the ELA of that area. An ELA of 4762 m was obtained for the LLGM, 5779 m for 1955 and 5850 m for 2007, implying a vertical shift of 1088 m from the LLGM to 2007 and of 71 m from 1955 to 2007. The total glaciated surface was reduced by 21.5% between 1955 and 2007 and the temperature shift from LLGM to 2007 was 9.13 ºC (0.0091ºC/m. The ice of glaciers makes them valuable for climate research, this method offers quantitative information and the analysis of this data may contribute to research into climate change and climatic trends for future predictions.El principal objetivo de esta investigación es reconstruir las fases glaciares del Último Máximo Glaciar Local (LLGM, 1955 y 2007 en la vertiente Suroeste del Nevado Coropuna para obtener información sobre los cambios ocurridos y analizar la evolución glaciar. Para este propósito el indicador de la altitud de la línea de equilibrio glaciar (ELA ha sido utilizado como referencia, calculado con el método AABR (Area x Altitude Balance Ratio, basado en el principio de ponderación del balance de masa en función de la distancia por encima o debajo de la ELA de esa área. Se obtuvo una ELA de 4762 m para el LLGM, 5779 m para 1955 y 5850 m para 2007, lo que implica una variación de 1088 m desde el LLGM hasta el 2007 y 71 m desde 1955 hasta 2007. La superficie total glaciada se redujo un 21,5% entre 1955 y 2007 y la variación de temperatura desde el LLGM hasta 2007 fue de 9,13 ºC (0,0091ºC/m. El hielo

  16. Ámbitos de conflicto y repertorios de violencia en el Suroccidente Colombiano Conflict Scopes and Violence Repertories in the South West of Colombia

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    Carlos Enrique Moreno León

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tiene como objetivo comparar la interacción estratégica de los actores armados a partir del uso de repertorios de violencia en el suroccidente colombiano entre 1997 y 2009. Los repertorios de violencia son demostraciones coercitivas de los mecanismos políticos de los actores armados con el ánimo de hacerse al control territorial. No obstante, los actores armados emplean la violencia de una manera estratégica en la que, por un lado, evalúan el grado de frecuencia y diversidad que deben aplicar en cada territorio para subvertir la resistencia del enemigo y, por otro, tienen en cuenta si el territorio en el que se encuentran es una zona de alta confluencia de agentes militares (centro o si es una zona en la que el encuentro de dos o más actores es relativamente baja (periferia. Se puede concluir que a finales del siglo XX, las fuerzas en confrontación convergen en ciertos territorios que los hacen centrales en la dinámica de la guerra misma. No obstante, ese encuentro no dura por mucho tiempo debido a que la insurgencia es derrotada en los centros y tiene que replegarse a la periferia. El análisis está soportado bajo las perspectivas de la contención política y la teoría del lugar central. Se realiza una comparación de N pequeño por medio de matrices geográficas que permiten observar las variaciones temporales y espaciales de los actores armados.This paper attempts to compare the use of the violence repertories and the strategic interaction between the armed actors in the South west of Colombia between 1997 and 2009. The violence repertoires are coercive demonstrations of the armed actors; those actions have the purpose to gain sovereignty. Nevertheless, the armed actors employ the violence strategically because, on the one hand, they evaluate the frequency and the diversity that they have to use in each territory in order to defeat the enemy's resistance. On the other, the armed actors take into account the place where

  17. Health risk analysis of a Mexico South-west oil installation; Analisis de riesgo a la salud de una instalacion petrolera del Suroeste de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbide-Arguelles, R; Flores-Serrano, R. Ma; Torres-Bustillos, L.G [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: ria@pumas.iingen.unam.mx

    2006-01-15

    During an Environmental audit. In an oil storage and distribution station (TAD) located al South-west Mexico, hydrocarbon contamination was detected. Because of it, a complete study of the site's contamination was required. From this work's results, it can be stated that TAD subsoil is contaminated by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), in concentrations from ND to 59,000 mg/kg. Neither benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene or xylenes (BTEX), nor methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), nor methyl tert-amyl ether (MTE) were detected. From the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) analyzed, only naphthalene was found in one sample point at a concentration below 1 mg/kg. The presence of Fe, Pb, and Zn was identified in the subsoil, but the calculated geo-accumulations and not a contamination's product. TPH were found in groundwater, but only in one of the six sampled wells over the recommended level of 10 mg/l. It was also found that Fe concentrations exceed the suggested value of 0.3 mg/l in five of the six sampled wells. It was determined that groundwater's pH value is not linked to the metal concentration level, but with the TPH concentration. Health risk assessment indicated that naphthalene, and zinc concentrations, present in water and subsoil, do not represent a health risk neither for the neighborhood inhabitants, not for the TAD workers. Nevertheless, given the high TPH concentrations in the TAD's north side, the remediation of 8,000 m{sup 3} of subsoil by means of a biopiles system was recommended. [Spanish] En la Terminal de Almacenamiento y Distribucion de combustibles, (TAD), tales como el diesel y la gasolina, localizada al Suroeste de Mexico, se detecto contaminacion por hidrocarburos a raiz de una auditoria ambiental, por lo que se solicito un estudio completo de la contaminacion en la TAD. A partir de los resultados de este trabajo, se puede decir que el suelo de la TAD se encuentra contaminado por hidrocarburos totales de petroleo (HTP

  18. Process-based modeling of coupled energy and water cycle under dry tropical conditions: an experiment at local scale in the cultivated Sahel (South-West Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Boulain, N.; Charvet, G.; Chazarin, J.-P.; Mainassara, I.; Boucher, M.; Issoufou, H. B.-A.; Ibrahim, M.; Oi, M.; Ramier, D.; Benarrosh, N.; Yahou, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the dry tropics in general and, particularly in the African Sahel, agro-ecosystems and hydrosystems are very sensitive to climate variability and land management. In turn, it has been shown that soil moisture, vegetation and surface fluxes produce substantial feedback effects on rainfall-producing atmospheric convection. Therefore, it is of prime importance to understand and to model the dynamics of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in response to contrasted meteorological and terrestrial conditions for this area. The objective of this study is to produce a process-based model of water and energy transfers in the soil and land-atmosphere interface over an entire 5-year period, at local scale, for the two main land cover types of South-West Niger: millet-crop and fallow savannah. A comprehensive dataset is available over that whole period in two such fields of the Wankama catchment, making it a rather unique asset for West Africa. This area is typical of the central Sahel conditions, with ~400-600 mm annual rainfall concentrated in the 4-5 months wet season, followed by the 7-8 months dry season. Soils are essentially sandy and prone to surface crusting, which induces a strong vertical contrast in hydrodynamic properties. The dataset used here includes 5 years of atmospheric forcing (rainfall, wind speed, sun and atmosphere radiation, air temperature and moisture) and validation variables (net radiation, turbulent fluxes and soil temperature and moisture profiles), recorded every 30 min. The seasonal course of vegetation phenology (LAI, height, biomass) and soil characteristics (particle size and density profiles) are also available. The SiSPAT (Simple Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Transfer, Braud et al., 1995) physically-based model is used for this study. It solves the mass and heat transfer system of equations in the soil, with vapour phase, coupled with a two-component (bare soil and one vegetation layer) water and energy budget at the surface-atmosphere interface

  19. Indoor radon measurements in south west England explained by topsoil and stream sediment geochemistry, airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy and geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Antonio; Daraktchieva, Zornitza; Beamish, David; Kirkwood, Charles; Lister, T Robert; Cave, Mark; Wragg, Joanna; Lee, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    Predictive mapping of indoor radon potential often requires the use of additional datasets. A range of geological, geochemical and geophysical data may be considered, either individually or in combination. The present work is an evaluation of how much of the indoor radon variation in south west England can be explained by four different datasets: a) the geology (G), b) the airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy (AGR), c) the geochemistry of topsoil (TSG) and d) the geochemistry of stream sediments (SSG). The study area was chosen since it provides a large (197,464) indoor radon dataset in association with the above information. Geology provides information on the distribution of the materials that may contribute to radon release while the latter three items provide more direct observations on the distributions of the radionuclide elements uranium (U), thorium (Th) and potassium (K). In addition, (c) and (d) provide multi-element assessments of geochemistry which are also included in this study. The effectiveness of datasets for predicting the existing indoor radon data is assessed through the level (the higher the better) of explained variation (% of variance or ANOVA) obtained from the tested models. A multiple linear regression using a compositional data (CODA) approach is carried out to obtain the required measure of determination for each analysis. Results show that, amongst the four tested datasets, the soil geochemistry (TSG, i.e. including all the available 41 elements, 10 major - Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, Ti - plus 31 trace) provides the highest explained variation of indoor radon (about 40%); more than double the value provided by U alone (ca. 15%), or the sub composition U, Th, K (ca. 16%) from the same TSG data. The remaining three datasets provide values ranging from about 27% to 32.5%. The enhanced prediction of the AGR model relative to the U, Th, K in soils suggests that the AGR signal captures more than just the U, Th and K content in the soil. The

  20. Surface oceanography of BROKE-West, along the Antarctic margin of the south-west Indian Ocean ( 30-80∘E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. D.; Nicol, S.; Aoki, S.; Meijers, A. J. S.; Bindoff, N. L.; Iijima, Y.; Marsland, S. J.; Klocker, A.

    2010-05-01

    Hydrographic CTD and ADCP data were collected during the BROKE-West research voyage (January-March 2006) in the south-west Indian Ocean sector of the Antarctic margin. These data describe the large-scale circulation, water masses, fronts and summertime stratification in the surface layer over the continental shelf, slope and rise region between 30 and 80∘E that forms CCAMLR Statistical Area 58.4.2. The surface circulation matched the full-depth circulation and consisted of the eastward flowing southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current front to the north, and the westward flowing Antarctic Slope Current associated with the Antarctic Slope Front along the continental slope to the south. Two sub-polar gyres were detected south of the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current: the eastern Weddell Gyre in the Cosmonaut Sea ( 30-50∘E) and the greater Prydz Bay Gyre in the Cooperation Sea ( 60-80∘E). In the eastern Weddell Gyre, the seasonal mixed layer depths were shallower, warmer and fresher relative to the regions to the east which were deeper, cooler and more saline. This spatial variability is found to be strongly correlated to the large-scale pattern of sea ice melt/retreat in the months preceding the voyage and the accumulated wind stress thereafter. Areas of upwelling warm deep waters into the surface layer are presented from positive anomalies of potential temperature and nutrient concentrations (nitrate and silicate). These anomalies were strongest in the eastern Weddell Gyre in the vicinity of the Cosmonaut Polynya/Embayment, north of Cape Anne and near the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the eastern sector of the survey. The summertime stratification (seasonal mixed layer, seasonal pycnocline and Tmin layer) are discussed relative to the distributions of chl a and acoustically determined Antarctic Krill ( Euphausia superba) densities. Elevated chl a concentrations were found in the surface layer of the marginal ice

  1. What Does Vulnerability Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parley, Fiona F

    2011-01-01

    Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

  2. Impacto de grupos de mulheres em situação de vulnerabilidade de gênero The impact of women's groups on gender vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se oficinas de promoção à saúde e gênero, desenvolvidas em programas de extensão da Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS na cidade de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O método baseia-se na pesquisa participante e na pesquisa ação. Foram nucleados grupos de mulheres em dois locais da cidade. O primeiro grupo foi freqüentado por 14 mulheres, com um total de seis encontros. O segundo recebeu 18 mulheres e realizou um total de 11 encontros. Os temas discutidos e vivenciados foram: relação pais e filhos, estereótipos e papéis de gênero, conjugalidade, limites a comportamentos abusivos, corpo e sexualidade e estratégias de enfrentamento à violência. Treze mulheres que freqüentaram o segundo grupo mudaram padrões de comportamento, buscando emprego, retornando à escola, melhorando a imagem corporal e reavaliando situações de violência. O grupo de pesquisadores aproximou-se do Fórum de Mulheres de São Leopoldo, fomentando o fortalecimento da rede de apoio/atendimento, bem como a visibilidade das políticas setoriais e de suas instâncias no planejamento e na execução de políticas públicas para a mulher.This study evaluated the impact of workshops on health and gender conducted through extension programs under Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The method was based on participatory research and action-based research. Women's groups were organized in two locations in the city. The first group was attended by 14 women, with a total of 6 meetings. The second received 18 women and held a total of 11 meetings. The themes discussed and experienced were: relations between parents and children, gender stereotypes and roles, conjugality, limits to abusive behaviors, body and sexuality, and empowerment to deal with violence. Thirteen women who attended the second group changed their behavior patterns, looking for jobs

  3. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 allosteric potentiators prevent sodium lactate-induced panic-like response in panic-vulnerable rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip L; Fitz, Stephanie D; Engleman, Eric A; Svensson, Kjell A; Schkeryantz, Jeffrey M; Shekhar, Anantha

    2013-02-01

    Rats with chronic inhibition of GABA synthesis by infusion of l-allyglycine, a glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibitor, into their dorsomedial/perifornical hypothalamus are anxious and exhibit panic-like cardio-respiratory responses to treatment with intravenous (i.v.) sodium lactate (NaLac) infusions, in a manner similar to what occurs in patients with panic disorder. We previously showed that either NMDA receptor antagonists or metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2/3 receptor agonists can block such a NaLac response, suggesting that a glutamate mechanism is contributing to this panic-like state. Using this animal model of panic, we tested the efficacy of CBiPES and THIIC, which are selective group II metabotropic glutamate type 2 receptor allosteric potentiators (at 10-30 mg/kg i.p.), in preventing NaLac-induced panic-like behavioral and cardiovascular responses. The positive control was alprazolam (3mg/kg i.p.), a clinically effective anti-panic benzodiazepine. As predicted, panic-prone rats given a NaLac challenge displayed NaLac-induced panic-like cardiovascular (i.e. tachycardia and hypertensive) responses and "anxiety" (i.e. decreased social interaction time) and "flight" (i.e. increased locomotion) -associated behaviors; however, systemic injection of the panic-prone rats with CBiPES, THIIC or alprazolam prior to the NaLac dose blocked all NaLac-induced panic-like behaviors and cardiovascular responses. These data suggested that in a rat animal model, selective group II metabotropic glutamate type 2 receptor allosteric potentiators show an anti-panic efficacy similar to alprazolam.

  4. Computer vulnerability risk analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The discussions presented in this dissertation have been undertaken in answer to the need for securing the intellectual assets stored on computer systems. Computer vulnerabilities and their influence on computer systems and the intellectual assets they possess are the main focus of this research. In an effort to portray the influence of vulnerabilities on a computer system, a method for assigning a measure of risk to individual vulnerabilities is proposed. This measure of risk, in turn, gives...

  5. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are

  6. Diabetes-related major lower limb amputation incidence is strongly related to diabetic foot service provision and improves with enhancement of services: peer review of the South-West of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisey, R B; Abbott, A; Levenson, R; Harrington, A; Browne, D; Moore, J; Bamford, M; Roe, M

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between high diabetes-related lower limb amputation incidence and foot care services in the South-West region of England. The introduction of 10 key elements of foot care service provision in one area of the South-West resulted in stabilization of foot ulcer incidence and sustained reduction in amputation incidence from 2007. Services introduced included administrative support, standardized general practice foot screening, improved community podiatry staffing, hospital multidisciplinary foot clinics, effective care pathways, availability of an orthotist and audit. Peer reviews of the region's diabetes foot care services were undertaken to assess delivery of these service provisions and compare this with major amputation incidence in other regions with data provided by Yorkshire and Humber Public Health Observatory Hospital Episode Statistics. Recommendations were made to improve service provision. In 2015 changes in service provision and amputation incidence were reviewed. Initial reviews in 2013 showed that the 3-year diabetes-related major amputation incidence correlated inversely with adequate delivery of diabetes foot care services (P=0.0024, adjusted R 2 =0.51). Repeat reviews in 2015 found that two or more foot care service improvements were reported by six diabetes foot care providers, with improvement in outcomes. The negative relationship between major amputation incidence and service provision remained strong both in the period 2012-2015 and in the year 2015 only (P ≤0.0012, adjusted R 2 =0.56, and P= 0.0005, R 2 =0.62, respectively). Major diabetes-related lower limb amputation incidence is significantly inversely correlated with foot care services provision. Introduction of more effective service provision resulted in significant reductions in major amputation incidence within 2 years. Failure to improve unsatisfactory service provision resulted in continued high amputation incidence. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetic

  7. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 3, Site team reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    A self assessment was conducted of those Hanford facilities that are utilized to store Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Material, (RINM). The objective of the assessment is to identify the Hanford inventories of RINM and the ES & H concerns associated with such storage. The assessment was performed as proscribed by the Project Plan issued by the DOE Spent Fuel Working Group. The Project Plan is the plan of execution intended to complete the Secretary`s request for information relevant to the inventories and vulnerabilities of DOE storage of spent nuclear fuel. The Hanford RINM inventory, the facilities involved and the nature of the fuel stored are summarized. This table succinctly reveals the variety of the Hanford facilities involved, the variety of the types of RINM involved, and the wide range of the quantities of material involved in Hanford`s RINM storage circumstances. ES & H concerns are defined as those circumstances that have the potential, now or in the future, to lead to a criticality event, to a worker radiation exposure event, to an environmental release event, or to public announcements of such circumstances and the sensationalized reporting of the inherent risks.

  8. County Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  9. Smoking among vulnerable populations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kilibarda

    2017-05-01

    Smoking rates are exceptionally high among vulnerable populations in all age groups, among males and females. There is a concern that smoking prevention and cessation are not prioritized for these populations and ignoring tobacco use in these populations will worsen their already vulnerable health and social position due to the long-term health effects of smoking. Development and implementation of tailored individual and social network-level interventions are needed.

  10. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  11. Vulnerability in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Znaor, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The impact from climate change on agriculture is expected to be significant because of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate conditions in general. Precipitation, temperature, weather extremes and evaporation rates all impact production. Agriculture is important to the economy of Croatia due to its overall value and its impact on food security, vulnerable populations, and the employment it generates. In 2001, 92% of Croatia was classified as rural and 48% of the Croatian population live...

  12. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S

    2016-02-19

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters.

  13. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S.

    2016-01-01

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters. PMID:26907313

  14. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jejal Reddy Bathi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters.

  15. Energy vulnerability relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  16. The prevalence and prognostic role of vitamin D deficiency in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a single centre study in South-West of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Kamran; Amirajam, Zahra; Yazdankhah, Saeed; Majidi, Shahla; Adel, Mohammad Hassan; Omidvar, Bita; Alasti, Mohammad

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were estimating the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with acute coronary syndrome comparing with normal people and evaluating the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and short-term mortality in these patients. We considered 106 patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and high-risk unstable angina and 110 patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction as group A. The control group (group B) consisted of 120 individuals without any known cardiovascular diseases or systemic disease. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in all cases and classified them according to their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Sufficient vitamin D level was considered ≥30 ng/ml. We followed the patients for 30 days after index admission. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in group A was much higher than group B. In group A, 72% of patients had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 ng/ml or less. This percentage was only 27.4% in control group. We did not find any significant relationship between vitamin D deficiency and short-term mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Our data suggest that vitamin D deficiency was present in most of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome in Ahvaz. Copyright © 2012 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Life-history patterns of the salt-marsh killifish Fundulus heteroclitus (L.) introduced in the estuary of the guadalquivir river (South West Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado, C.

    1989-12-01

    Two thousand four hundred and eighty-four specimens from a population of Fundulus heteroclitus introduced into the southwestern Iberian Peninsula were used to carry out a study on age, growth and reproduction. In this new habitat the species displayed the same life-history tactics as in its original areas. The life-span was shorter, with a winter age-structure of 67·4% in 0 + group, 29·1% in 1 + group, 2·5% in 2 + group and 1·1% in 3 + group. Females showed a higher growth rate and a longer growth period than males and because of this they were always longer than males in all the age-groups. In both sexes growth stopped and the somatic condition was at a minimum from April to June, when the gonadosomatic index reached its highest values. The maximum average gonadosomatic index in females was four times higher than that of males. Specimens achieved maturity during the spawning season the year following birth at a minimum average total length of 45 mm for males and 60 mm for females. Fecundity was related to fish weight, total length and gonad weight. The overall sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1.

  18. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...

  19. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  20. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department`s plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 9: Oak Ridge site site team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report provides the input to and results of the Department of Energy (DOE) - Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) DOE Plutonium Environment, Safety and Health (ES & H) Vulnerability Assessment (VA) self-assessment performed by the Site Assessment Team (SAT) for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL or X-10) and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12) sites that are managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). As initiated (March 15, 1994) by the Secretary of Energy, the objective of the VA is to identify and rank-order DOE-ES&H vulnerabilities associated for the purpose of decision making on the interim safe management and ultimate disposition of fissile materials. This assessment is directed at plutonium and other co-located transuranics in various forms.

  1. Mangrove vulnerability index using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Nuremira

    2018-02-01

    Climate change, particularly its associated sea level rise, is major threat to mangrove coastal areas, and it is essential to develop ways to reduce vulnerability through strategic management planning. Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. Mangrove vulnerability ranking using up to 14 parameters found in study area, which is in Pulau Kukup and Sg Pulai, where 1 is low vulnerability and 5 is very high vulnerability. Mangrove Vulnerability Index (MVI) is divided into 3 main categories Physical Mangrove Index (PMI), Biological Mangrove Index (BMI) and Hazard Mangrove Index (HMI).

  2. Characterization of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus spp. Germplasm in South West Nigeria Using Morphological, Nutritional, and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela E. Akin-Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient utilization of plant genetic resources for nutrition and crop improvement requires systematic understanding of the important traits. Amaranthus species are distributed worldwide with an interesting diversity of landraces and cultivars whose leaves and seeds are consumed. Despite their potential to enhance food security and economic livelihoods, grain amaranth breeding to improve nutritional quality and adoption by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa is scanty. This study assessed the variation among 29 grain amaranth accessions using 27 phenotypic (10 morphological and 17 nutritional characters and 16 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers. Multivariate analysis of phenotypic characters showed the first four principal components contributing 57.53% of observed variability, while cluster analysis yielded five groups at 87.5% similarity coefficient. RAPD primers generated a total of 193 amplicons with an average of 12.06 amplicons per primer, 81% of which were polymorphic. Genetic similarities based on Jaccard’s coefficient ranged from 0.61 to 0.88. The RAPD-based unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram grouped the accessions into nine clusters, with the same species clustering together. RAPD primers distinguished the accessions more effectively than phenotypic markers. Accessions in the different clusters as obtained can be exploited for heterotic gain in desired nutritional traits.

  3. VT - Vermont Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when responding to or recovering from threats to public health. The Vermont Social Vulnerability Index...

  4. Assessing human vulnerability: Daytime residential distribution as a vulnerability indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazard risk management is based on detailed information on potential impacts of natural hazards. Especially concerning fast onset hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes but also debris flows and landslides, knowing potential hotspots of impact to both, assets and human lives is essential. This information is important for emergency management and decision making in the response phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency managers are in need of information regarding not only the number of humans being potentially affected but also the respective vulnerability of the group affected based on characteristics such as age, income, health condition, mobility, etc. regarding a certain hazard. The analysis presented focuses on the distribution of the population, assuming a certain pattern of people in a certain radius of action. The method applied is based on a regular pattern of movement of different groups of people and a pattern of presence in certain units, e.g. schools, businesses or residential buildings. The distribution is calculated on a minimum of available data including the average household size, as well as information on building types. The study area is located in the Southwest of Lower Austria, Austria. The city of Waidhofen/Ybbs can be regarded as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools. The high concentration of buildings combining shops and residential units leads to a high damage potential throughout the whole study area. The presented results indicate the population distribution within the study area on an average working day. It is clear that explicitly high numbers of people are located in specific buildings (e.g. schools and hospitals) which also include highly vulnerable groups especially to fast onset hazards. The results provide emergency services with the information that they need in order to intervene directly where large numbers of victims or people that need to be evacuated are located. In this

  5. A preliminary investigation of the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing contributions from eroding channel banks to the siltation of salmonid spawning gravels across the south west UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Adrian L; Walling, Desmond E; McMellin, Grant K; Zhang, Yusheng; Gray, Janina; McGonigle, Daniel; Cherrington, Ross

    2010-06-01

    The low productivity of salmonids in many river systems across the UK is testament to their intolerance of water quality perturbations including those associated with excessive sedimentation. Catchment and fishery managers concerned with combating such issues require reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem to target management and on the efficacy of the mitigation options being implemented. In recognition of the latter requirement, a pre- and post-remediation sediment sourcing survey was used to examine the potential for using sediment tracing to assemble preliminary information on the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing sediment contributions from eroding channel banks to salmonid spawning gravels in the Rivers Camel, Fal, Lynher, Plym, Tamar and Tavy in the south west of the UK. Respective estimates of the overall mean proportion (+/-95% confidence limits) of the interstitial sediment input to salmonid spawning gravels originating from eroding channel banks during the pre- (1999-2000) and post-remediation (2008-2009) study periods were computed at 97+/-1% vs. 69+/-1%, 94+/-1% vs. 91+/-1%, 12+/-1% vs. 10+/-1%, 92+/-1% vs. 34+/-1%, 31+/-1% vs. 16+/-1% and 90+/-1% vs. 66+/-1%. Whilst the study demonstrates the potential utility of the fingerprinting approach for helping to assemble important information on the efficacy of bank fencing as a sediment source control measure at catchment scale, a number of limitations of the work and some suggestions for improving experimental design are discussed. Equivalent data are urgently required for many sediment mitigation options to help inform the development of water quality policy packages designed to protect aquatic ecosystems. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution patterns of Chilean shallow-water sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia; with a discussion of the taxonomic and zoogeographic relationships between the actinofauna of the South East Pacific, the South West Atlantic and the Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Häussermann

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first complete zoogeographical analysis of Chilean shallow water sea anemones (Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia and their taxonomic relations with neighbouring faunas is provided, based on extensive recent sampling in combination with a literature review. Between 1994 and 2004, we collected more than 1000 specimens of 32 distinct species of Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia at more than 100 sites along the Chilean coast between Arica (18°30’S; 70°19’W and the Straits of Magellan (53°36’S 70°56’W. Sampling was done in the intertidal during low tides and in the subtidal by means of SCUBA diving down to depths of 40 m. The northern part of the Chilean fjord region showed the highest number of species (23. Our results contradict an abrupt general change in the marine faunal composition at 42°S, instead showing the continuation of species of the exposed coast and the joining of fjord species due to the availability of additional habitats in the richly structured fjord region south of 42°S, and also to eurybathy. The southern distribution limits of the species we found in northern and central Chile show only one significant concentration around the Peninsula Taitao (approx. 48°S. This either indicates a zoogeographic barrier for shallow water species at the Peninsula Taitao, or is a sampling artifact caused by poor data from the region between the Peninsula Taitao and the Straits of Magellan. According to the literature, 18 of the 63 described Chilean sea anemones (Pacific Ocean can also be found in Argentina (Atlantic Ocean and 13 in the Antarctic. However, many records and statuses of the common species of the South East Pacific and the South West Atlantic/Antarctic are uncertain or doubtful and need revision or confirmation.

  7. Child malaria treatment decisions by mothers of children less than five years of age attending an outpatient clinic in south-west Nigeria: an application of the PEN-3 cultural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airhihenbuwa Collins O

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using the PEN-3 cultural model, this study sought to understand mothers treatment decisions about their child febrile illness by examining positive health beliefs and practices held by mothers, examine existential (unique practices that are indigenous to mothers and have no harmful health consequences, and explore negative beliefs and practices that limit recommended responses to febrile illness in children. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in the paediatric section of an outpatient clinic in south-west Nigeria. A total of 123 mothers with children less than five years of age with febrile illness diagnosed as malaria by physicians were individually interviewed on their treatment-seeking practices prior to visiting the clinic and their reasons for attendance at the clinic. Results For some mothers interviewed, effective treatment from the clinic for their child's febrile illness, coupled with physician's approach with malaria diagnosis and treatment practices was important in generating positive maternal treatment-seeking responses to child febrile illness. In addition, beliefs related to a child teething highlighted existential decisions with treatment-seeking for child febrile illness in this setting. Finally, the belief that febrile illness is not all that severe despite noticeable signs and symptoms was a concerning negative perception shared by some mothers in this study. Conclusion The findings highlight the need to consider not only the responses that may serve as barriers to effective treatment, but also an acknowledgment of the positive and existential responses that are equally critical in influencing mothers' management of malaria in their children.

  8. The effect of screening doors and windows on indoor density of Anopheles arabiensis in south-west Ethiopia: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massebo, Fekadu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-09-12

    Screening of houses might have impact on density of indoor host-seeking Anopheles mosquitoes. A randomized trial of screening windows and doors with metal mesh, and closing openings on eves and walls by mud was conducted to assess if reduce indoor densities of biting mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were collected in forty houses using Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps biweekly in March and April 2011. A randomization of houses into control and intervention groups was done based on the baseline data. Windows and doors of 20 houses were screened by metal mesh, and openings on the walls and eves closed by mud and the rest 20 houses were used as control group. Mosquitoes were collected biweekly in October and November 2011 from both control and intervention houses. A Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) with a negative binomial error distribution was used to account for over dispersion of Anopheles arabiensis and culicine counts and repeated catches made in the same house. Screening doors and windows, and closing openings on eves and wall by mud reduced the overall indoor densities of An. arabiensis by 40%. The effect of screenings pronounced on unfed An. arabiensis by resulting 42% reduction in houses with interventions. The total costs for screening windows and doors, and to close openings on the eves and walls by mud was 7.34 USD per house. Screening houses reduced indoor density of An. arabiensis, and it was cheap and can easily incorporated into malaria vector strategies by local communities, but improving doors and windows fitness for screening should be considered during house construction to increase the efficacy of screenings.

  9. A qualitative study exploring parental perspectives and involvement in health visiting services during the Health Visitor Implementation Plan in the South West of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judy; Salmon, Debra

    2017-03-01

    Internationally, there is a strong interest in engaging the public more widely in both the development and governance of public services. This study aimed to explore family perspectives on the introduction of a new policy initiative called the 'Health Visitor Implementation Plan' (Department of Health [2011] Health Visitor Implementation Plan 2011-15: A Call to Action) and their experiences of the new health visitor service provision. The policy aimed to increase the health visitor workforce by 4200 additional practitioners between 2011 and 2015, in parallel with introducing a new service model to provide comprehensive and accessible support for parents with children 0-5 years. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected via semi-structured interviews and focus groups with 22 parents between March 2013 and March 2014. Questions focused around the extent to which the new service met parental expectation and need. Participants were recruited through Children's Centres and interviewed during established group sessions. Analysis was conducted using thematic analysis and constant comparative methods. The participants were asked to share their experiences of the health visiting service and their views on this national policy initiative. Although asked to comment on the policy at nation and local level, their responses were predominantly around personal experience. Parents welcomed the increase in workforce capacity and positive experiences centred on health visitors who were caring, knowledgeable, skilled and facilitated positive outcomes. Many of the negative experiences were seen to be due to poor relationships between the parent and the health visitor. Parents were influenced by the communication skills and personal attributes of the individual health visitors, including time to listen. The strength of parental opinion indicated that parents are willing to contribute to service development, consequently policy makers and health visitors themselves need to have

  10. Vulnerability survival analysis: a novel approach to vulnerability management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Katheryn A.; Sullivan, John; Cybenko, George

    2017-05-01

    Computer security vulnerabilities span across large, enterprise networks and have to be mitigated by security engineers on a routine basis. Presently, security engineers will assess their "risk posture" through quantifying the number of vulnerabilities with a high Common Vulnerability Severity Score (CVSS). Yet, little to no attention is given to the length of time by which vulnerabilities persist and survive on the network. In this paper, we review a novel approach to quantifying the length of time a vulnerability persists on the network, its time-to-death, and predictors of lower vulnerability survival rates. Our contribution is unique in that we apply the cox proportional hazards regression model to real data from an operational IT environment. This paper provides a mathematical overview of the theory behind survival analysis methods, a description of our vulnerability data, and an interpretation of the results.

  11. ’Les Baoulé ne sont pas des oiseaux pour manger du riz’. Food, migrations and ecology in South-West Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Ruf

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La Côte d’Ivoire est le plus grand théâtre des migrations cacaoyères en Afrique sub-saharienne, depuis le Sahel et les régions de savane vers les forêts humides du golfe de Guinée. Dans tout le sud-ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire, se côtoient trois grands groupes de populations, les autochtones, les migrants d’originaires du centre du pays, et les migrants venus du Burkina Faso, ayant construit des modèles alimentaires spécifiques avant de se rencontrer. L’objectif est d’identifier les évolutions depuis leur rencontre dans les forêts du sud-ouest, puis d’en expliquer les déterminants. Les données collectées auprès de 110 planteurs, par questionnaires et interviews, sont limitées à la composante alimentaire des céréales, tubercules, banane plantain. Le résultat le plus important est une conversion partielle des régimes alimentaires des migrants vers le riz, longtemps l’alimentation de base des autochtones. Au cours de la même période de 30 ans, les autochtones suivent un chemin opposé, réduisant leur consommation de riz, abandonnant presque la production. Pour expliquer cette énigme sociologique, les thèses néo-malthusiennes appliquées à la Côte d’Ivoire, un temps contestées, sont remises à l’ordre du jour, teintées d’innovations boserupiennes. À la croisée des changements écologiques, économiques et sociaux, la raréfaction des terres, la disparition des forêts au cours du déroulement du cycle du cacao, l’accès différencié au travail, jouent un rôle décisif dans ces changements alimentaires, via des bouleversements dans les systèmes de production et les rapports sociaux.The Ivory Coast is the largest space for cocoa migrations in sub-Saharan Africa, extending from the Sahel and savannah regions to the rainforests of the Gulf of Guinea. In the southwest of Ivory Coast, three major population groups live side by side: natives, migrants coming from the central region of the country

  12. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  13. Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy L. Esterhuizen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B, many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-as or betasatellites (DNA-βs. Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world.

  14. The South West Area Mesothelioma and Pemetrexed trial: a multicentre prospective observational study evaluating novel markers of chemotherapy response and prognostication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, C E; Lyburn, I D; Searle, J; Darby, M; Hall, T; Hall, D; Morley, A; White, P; Rahman, N M; De Winton, E; Clive, A; Masani, V; Arnold, D T; Dangoor, A; Guglani, S; Jankowska, P; Lowndes, S A; Harvey, J E; Braybrooke, J P; Maskell, N A

    2015-03-31

    Robust markers that predict prognosis and detect early treatment response in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) would enhance patient care. Consecutive patients with MPM who were considered fit for first-line chemotherapy were prospectively recruited. Patients of similar performance status opting for best supportive care were included as a comparator group. Baseline and interval CT, PET-CT and serum markers (mesothelin, fibulin-3 and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)) were obtained, and patients followed up for a minimum 12 months. Seventy-three patients were recruited (58 chemotherapy/15 comparator arm). Baseline TGV (total glycolytic volume on PET-CT) was an independent predictor of worse overall survival (OS) (P=0.001). Change in interval TGV(baseline/after two cycles of chemotherapy) did not predict OS or chemotherapy response on CT. Baseline NLRTGV predict prognosis in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), but PET-CT is unhelpful in monitoring chemotherapy response. Serum mesothelin is a useful early treatment response marker when measured serially during chemotherapy and may have a role in evaluating patients' treatment response.

  15. Human Rights and Vulnerability. Examples of Sexism and Ageism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª DEL CARMEN BARRANCO AVILÉS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A human rights based approach applied to the idea of ‘vulnerable group’ connects vulnerability and structural discrimination. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability provides some elements that allow to state that we are facing a new paradigm in the International Human Rights Law. One of the keys for the understanding of this new framework is the assumption of the disadvantage related to vulnerability as, at least in a part, socially built and ideologically justified. Sexism and ageism are examples of how ideologies reinforce vulnerability of women, children and aged persons transforming them in groups which members are in risk of discrimination.

  16. Gender vulnerabilities, spousal abuse and the incidence of HIV in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender vulnerabilities, spousal abuse and the incidence of HIV in Lesotho: a case for an integrative rights-based approach. ... pertaining to the severe difficulties posed by spousal abuse and HIV. Keywords: Africa, declarations, gender issues, human rights, legislation, married women, policy issues, vulnerable groups ...

  17. Social Protection and Vulnerable Communities in East Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Social protection mechanisms can reduce poverty and vulnerability, increase work and educational achievement, and promote economic growth. Formal social protection initiatives cover only a small proportion of the population in East Africa - those working in the formal sector. Vulnerable groups - such as the poor and ...

  18. Analysis of child poverty and vulnerability in Zambia | Moonga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnerability is increasingly becoming synonymous with poverty in the social policy literature. There are three age-groups that are more likely to be vulnerable and in poverty at any given time although with variations. These are children, adults with children and the elderly. This study focused on the children due to their ...

  19. Mental vulnerability and survival after cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Eplov, Lene F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that personality traits affect survival after cancer, but studies have produced inconsistent results. This study examined the association between mental vulnerability and survival after cancer in Denmark in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1976...... and 2001, 12733 residents of Copenhagen completed a questionnaire eliciting information on a 12-item mental vulnerability scale, as well as various personal data. Follow-up in the Danish Cancer Registry until 2003 identified 884 incident cases of primary cancer, and follow-up for death from the date...... of cancer diagnosis until 2003 identified 382 deaths. Mental vulnerability scores were divided into 4 approximately equal-sized groups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Multivariate HR for all-cause mortality for persons...

  20. The vulnerability of the elderly in disasters: the need for an effective resilience policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Airton Bodstein; Valéria Vanda Azevedo de; Angela Maria Abreu de

    2014-01-01

      This article presents an analysis on the elderly vulnerability in un/natural disasters, since the elderly may have a higher degree of fragility in emergency situations among the vulnerable group...

  1. [Homicides and social vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ricardo; Catalan, Valeria Dutra Batista; Romano, Pedro Machado de Melo; Melo, Elza Machado

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of homicide rates (H) according to the social vulnerability index (SVI) and the quality of urban life index (QUL) in Betim, State of Minas Gerais, from 2006 to 2011. Descriptive analysis was performed using Moran's spatial correlation analysis, and the H, SVI and QUL spatial analyses. During this period there were 1,383 deaths, mostly of males (91.9%), aged 15-24 years (46.9%), brown/black (76.9%), with secondary education (51.1%), and single (83.9%). No spatial autocorrelation was revealed, indicating that the distribution of homicide rates is random; the same occurred with the SVI and the QUL index. Taken together, however, the H, SVI and QUL index overlapped, which was analyzed using different theories of crime, such as those addressing socioeconomic issues, arms of drugs dealing and Durkheim's and Habermas' theories, namely anomie and colonization of the lifeworld. social vulnerability and homicide are associated from both empirical and theoretical perspectives.

  2. Policies and Processes for Social Inclusion: Using EquiFrame and EquIPP for Policy Dialogue Comment on "Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development".

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Mannan, Hasheem; Huss, Tessy; Munthali, Alister; Amin, Mutamad

    2015-11-16

    The application of EquiFrame in the analysis of sexual and reproductive health policies by Ivanova et al to a new thematic area, their selection of only some of the Core Concepts of human rights in health service provision and the addition of new vulnerable groups relevant to the purpose of their analysis, are all very welcome developments. We also applaud their application of EquiFrame to policies in countries where it has not previously been used, along with their use of interviews with policy-makers to produce a deeper understanding of policy processes. We argue that clear justification for the inclusion of additional, or replacement of some exiting vulnerable groups within EquiFrame should be accompanied by clear definitions of such groups, along with the evidence-base that justifies their classification as a vulnerable or marginalised group. To illustrate the versatility of EquiFrame, we summarise a range of ways in which it has been used across a number of regions; including a brief Case Study of its use to develop the National Health Policy of Malawi. While EquiFrame focuses on policy content, we preview a new policy analysis tool - Equity and Inclusion in Policy Processes (EquIPP) - which assesses the extent of equity and inclusion in broader policy processes. Together, EquiFrame and EquIPP can be used to help governments and civil society ensure that policies are addressing the much stronger emphasis on social inclusion, now apparent in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  3. Policies and Processes for Social Inclusion: Using EquiFrame and EquIPP for Policy Dialogue; Comment on “Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm MacLachlan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of EquiFrame in the analysis of sexual and reproductive health policies by Ivanova et al to a new thematic area, their selection of only some of the Core Concepts of human rights in health service provision and the addition of new vulnerable groups relevant to the purpose of their analysis, are all very welcome developments. We also applaud their application of EquiFrame to policies in countries where it has not previously been used, along with their use of interviews with policy-makers to produce a deeper understanding of policy processes. We argue that clear justification for the inclusion of additional, or replacement of some exiting vulnerable groups within EquiFrame should be accompanied by clear definitions of such groups, along with the evidence-base that justifies their classification as a vulnerable or marginalised group. To illustrate the versatility of EquiFrame, we summarise a range of ways in which it has been used across a number of regions; including a brief Case Study of its use to develop the National Health Policy of Malawi. While EquiFrame focuses on policy content, we preview a new policy analysis tool – Equity and Inclusion in Policy Processes (EquIPP – which assesses the extent of equity and inclusion in broader policy processes. Together, EquiFrame and EquIPP can be used to help governments and civil society ensure that policies are addressing the much stronger emphasis on social inclusion, now apparent in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs.

  4. Assessing flash flood vulnerability using a multi-vulnerability approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagiorgos Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of flood risk assessment, while the understanding of hazard and exposure has significantly improved over the last years, knowledge on vulnerability remains one of the challenges. Current approaches in vulnerability research are characterised by a division between social scientists and natural scientists. In order to close this gap, we present an approach that combines information on physical and social vulnerability in order to merge information on the susceptibility of elements at risk and society. With respect to physical vulnerability, the study is based on local-scale vulnerability models using nonlinear regression approaches. Modified Weibull distributions were fit to the data in order to represent the relationship between process magnitude and degree of loss. With respect to social vulnerability we conducted a door-to-door survey which resulted in particular insights on flood risk awareness and resilience strategies of exposed communities. In general, both physical and social vulnerability were low in comparison with other European studies, which may result from (a specific building regulations in the four Mediterranean test sites as well as general design principles leading to low structural susceptibility of elements at risk, and (b relatively low social vulnerability of citizens exposed. As a result it is shown that a combination of different perspectives of vulnerability will lead to a better understanding of exposure and capacities in flood risk management.

  5. Namibia : South-West Africa 1923 onwards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    An earlier version of this African Postal Heritage Paper was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 118 / 2015: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies; III Deutsch Südwestafrika", written by Ton Dietz.

  6. Mammographic parasitic calcifications in South West Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Introduction: Lymphatic filariasis caused by nematode parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia Malayi is endemic in the tropics. In Nigeria, 25% of the population is infected. Lymph edema and elephantiasis are the predominant manifestations. Its infrequent manifestation is in the breast. This paper discusses the ...

  7. Jimma town, Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found between under-five mortality and maternal age, family size, number of children, latrine and water supply. There was also no association with duration of labour, instrumental delivery and birth order. No significant difference in under five deaths was found between males and females. The relative importance and.

  8. ROUTINE ANTENATAL SYPHILIS SCREENING IN SOUTH WEST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    years (± 5.34) and the mean gestational age 26.4 weeks. (±6.36). The modal parity was 0. Only three patients were found to be reactive for syphilis giving a prevalence of 0.13%. Conclusion: The sero- prevalence value in this study is quite low and may justify the call to discontinue routine antena- tal syphilis screening.

  9. Socio-economic opportunities of the biobased economy in the south-west of the Netherlands. Estimated employment impact in 2020; Sociaaleconomische kansen van de biobased economy in Zuidwest-Nederland. Inschatting werkgelegenheidseffecten in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lieshout, M.; Warringa, G.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H.

    2013-06-15

    This study, commissioned by the Socio-Economic Councils (SER) of the Dutch provinces of Zeeland and Brabant, was carried out in collaboration with a supervisory committee comprising numerous stakeholders in the biobased economy in the south-west of the Netherlands. The motto was 'agro meets chemistry'. Given that it was clear from the outset that the volume of locally available biomass is insufficient for large-scale power generation without inducing serious competition with food production, it was opted to restrict the scope of the 'biobased economy' to production of biobased chemicals and innovative materials. Because of the study's limited scope and duration, gross employment effects were also calculated for Zeeland and West Brabant only. To this end, three factors critical for the growth of the biobased economy and thus for potential employment effects were analysed: the price of fossil feedstocks, the availability of biomass for chemical industry applications, and the availability of capital for investing in innovative biobased processes. To cover the full range of possible developments in the biobased economy, two scenarios were developed: high and low, with in each case employment effects being estimated on the basis of a biomass flow analysis and employment indices [Dutch] Deze studie is uitgevoerd in opdracht van de SER Zeeland en de SER Brabant, in samenwerking met een begeleidingscommissie met brede vertegenwoordiging van stakeholders van de biobased economy in Zuidwest Nederland. De insteek was 'agro meets chemistry'. Aangezien bij aanvang vast stond dat de lokaal beschikbare biomassa onvoldoende is voor grootschalige energieopwekking, zonder ernstige concurrentie met voedselproductie te veroorzaken, is er voor gekozen om de biobased economy te beperken tot de productie van biobased chemie en innovatieve materialen. Verder is gezien de beperkte omvang en doorlooptijd van de studie besloten om

  10. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  11. Open Source Vulnerability Database Project

    OpenAIRE

    Jake Kouns

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB) project which manages a global collection of computer security vulnerabilities, available for free use by the information security community. This collection contains information on known security weaknesses in operating systems, software products, protocols, hardware devices, and other infrastructure elements of information technology. The OSVDB project is intended to be the centralized global open source vulnerability co...

  12. Open Source Vulnerability Database Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Kouns

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB project which manages a global collection of computer security vulnerabilities, available for free use by the information security community. This collection contains information on known security weaknesses in operating systems, software products, protocols, hardware devices, and other infrastructure elements of information technology. The OSVDB project is intended to be the centralized global open source vulnerability collection on the Internet.

  13. Common Control System Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an

  14. Mobilising "vulnerability" in the public health response to pandemic influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Niamh; Davis, Mark; Flowers, Paul; MacGregor, Casimir; Waller, Emily

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of public health's growing interest in "vulnerability" has largely focused on health policy, with little interrogation of how vulnerability is being actively appropriated, countered, ignored or reworked by the publics whose health such policy is designed to protect. Once the assemblage of public health is understood as comprised of different forms of expertise and actors, including publics, addressing this gap matters. We examine the use of vulnerability in the specific context of pandemic influenza preparedness. Pandemic preparedness raises some familiar dilemmas for public health governance: how to engage with publics without fuelling social divisions and disruption; and whether to invoke publics as passive recipients of public health advice or to recognise publics as collective agents responding to the threat of pandemic influenza. Thus, we ask how the mobilisation of vulnerability connects with these dilemmas. To examine vulnerability in pandemic preparedness, two forms of qualitative data are analysed: 1) interviews and focus groups with "vulnerable" and "healthy" people (conducted 2011-12) discussing seasonal and pandemic influenza and; 2) international, Australian national and state level pandemic plans (1999-2013). Vulnerability is variously used in plans as a way to identify groups at particular risk of infection because of pre-existing clinical conditions, and as a free-floating social category that could apply to a broad range of people potentially involved in the social disruption a pandemic might entail. Our interview and focus group data indicate that healthy people rework the free-floating extension of vulnerability, and that people designated vulnerable encounter an absence of any collective responsibility for the threat of pandemic influenza. Our analysis suggests that vulnerability's mobilisation in pandemic preparedness limits the connection between public health governance and its publics: here, the openness and unpredictability of

  15. Tsunami survivors' perspectives on vulnerability and vulnerability reduction: evidence from Koh Phi Phi Don and Khao Lak, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckley, Marylynn; Doberstein, Brent

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of primary research with 40 survivors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in two communities: Khao Lak (n=20) and Koh Phi Phi Don (n=20), Thailand. It traces tsunami survivors' perceptions of vulnerability, determines whether residents felt that the tsunami affected different communities differently, identifies the populations and sub-community groups that survivors distinguished as being more vulnerable than others, highlights community-generated ideas about vulnerability reduction, and pinpoints a range of additional vulnerability reduction actions. Tsunami survivors most consistently identified the 'most vulnerable' community sub-populations as women, children, the elderly, foreigners, and the poor. In Khao Lak, however, respondents added 'Burmese migrants' to this list, whereas in Koh Phi Phi Don, they added 'Thai Muslims'. Results suggest that the two case study communities, both small, coastal, tourism-dominated communities no more than 100 kilometres apart, have differing vulnerable sub-groups and environmental vulnerabilities, requiring different post-disaster vulnerability reduction efforts. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  16. Flood vulnerability evaluation in complex urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosa, L.; Pascale, S.; Sdao, F.; Sole, A.; Cantisani, A.

    2009-04-01

    This paper deals the conception, the development and the subsequent validation of an integrated numerical model for the assessment of systemic vulnerability in complex and urbanized areas, subject to flood risk. The proposed methodology is based on the application of the concept of "systemic vulnerability", the model is a mathematician-decisional model action to estimate the vulnerability of complex a territorial system during a flood event. The model uses a group of "pressure pointers" in order to define, qualitatively and quantitatively, the influence exercised on the territorial system from factors like as those physicists, social, economic, etc.. The model evaluates the exposure to the flood risk of the elements that belong to a system. The proposed model, which is based on the studies of Tamura et al., 2000; Minciardi et al., 2004; Pascale et al., 2008; considers the vulnerability not as a characteristic of a particular element at risk, but as a peculiarity of a complex territorial system, in which the different elements are reciprocally linked in a functional way. The proposed model points out the elements with the major functional lost and that make the whole system critical. This characteristic makes the proposed model able to support a correct territorial planning and a suitable management of the emergency following natural disasters such as floods. The proposed approach was tested on the study area in the city of Potenza, southern Italy.

  17. Vulnerability assessment of vegetation types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonas, Z

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available on the potential loss of natural habitat due to habitat transformation and degradation processes, which will threaten the biodiversity of the area. In this assessment, two classes of vulnerability are referred to as land use vulnerability and degradation...

  18. Heat Vulnerability Index Mapping for Milwaukee and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Megan; Geiger, Sarah Dee; Phillips, Jeffrey; Anderson, Ben; Losurdo, Giovanna; Anderson, Henry A

    Extreme heat waves elevate the population's risk for heat-related morbidity and mortality, specifically for vulnerable groups such as older adults and young children. In this context, we developed 2 Heat Vulnerability Indices (HVIs), one for the state of Wisconsin and one for the Milwaukee metropolitan area. Through the creation of an HVI, state and local agencies will be able to use the indices as a planning tool for extreme heat events. Data used for the HVIs were grouped into 4 categories: (1) population density; (2) health factors; (3) demographic and socioeconomic factors; and (4) natural and built environment factors. These categories were mapped at the Census block group level. Unweighted z-score data were used to determine index scores, which were then mapped by quantiles ranging from "high" to "low" vulnerability. Statewide, Menominee County exhibited the highest vulnerability to extreme heat. Milwaukee HVI findings indicated high vulnerability in the city's inner core versus low vulnerability along the lakeshore. Visualization of vulnerability could help local public health agencies prepare for future extreme heat events.

  19. Aren't we all vulnerable: why do vulnerability analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moench, Marcus

    2011-11-15

    The idea of 'vulnerability' is widely-used shorthand for the disproportionate impacts that climate change will have on high-risk groups and fragile ecosystems. Decision makers increasingly want to target adaptation funding to those people and environments most affected by climate change. They must also be able to monitor the effectiveness of their investments. Vulnerability analysis is sometimes presented as the solution to these wants and needs — but existing approaches are often of little use: at best, they reiterate what we already know; at worst, they are used to justify entrenched agendas. To be truly useful as a basis for dialogue, action and accountability, the meaning of 'vulnerability' must be clarified and the methods for analysing it greatly strengthened. This means establishing standard, replicable approaches that differentiate between the roles and exposure of stakeholders, systems and institutions.

  20. Operationalisation of physical vulnerability to natural hazards: Vulnerability curves versus vulnerability indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathoma-Koehle, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Physical vulnerability to natural hazards is often presented as a function of the intensity of the process and the degree of loss (vulnerability or fragility curves). However, a considerable amount of studies argue that physical vulnerability assessment should focus on the identification of these variables that influence the vulnerability of an element at risk (vulnerability indicators). In this study, the focus is on the comparison between the two methods and the provision of recommendations for improved operationalisation and assessment of physical vulnerability. The comparison is illustrated through a case study in South Tyrol. The two methods have been applied at the same study area that suffered significant damages due to a debris flow event in 1987. A vulnerability curve has been developed for the buildings that suffered damages, as well as a database including physical vulnerability indicators for the same set of buildings. The comparison of the results highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods showing that they should complement rather than oppose each other.

  1. The influence of landscape design on soil erosion in the Chernozem region of the South-West Foreland of the West Carpathians in the Medevial to Modern Times and po-collectivization periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanová, Anna; Verstraeten, Gert; Nyens, Gerda; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Szwarczewski, Piotr; Čurlík, Ján; Burian, Libor; Kazeminejad, Seyed Ali; Létal, Aleš; Dotterweich, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Since the onset of agriculture the erosion processes - water, tillage and wind erosion - have dominated the soil degradation and the loss of soil resources in the agricultural landscapes worldwide. Their influence has varied within time and spatial scales according to changing environmental and societal factors, including human-induced landscape design. The Holocene landforms transformation in a zero-order catchment of a dry valley (0.28 km2) in the Chernozem region of the South-West Foreland of the West Carpathians was studied. The analyses of geoarchives and spatial patterns of soil profile truncation and colluviation were performed and the historical field border structure reconstructed. The results showed strong relationship between the long-term soil erosion pattern and landscape sructure in areas with stable historical landscape structure. It favored the prevalence of tillage erosion and tillage induced soil translocation and minimized the fluxes and sediment delivery of wind and water erosion. The erosion of the entire 0,6 m thick humus horizon by tillage was documented during historical times. The intensification of agriculture since the mid -18th Century led to the change in field borders and thus shifted the long-term fluxes of soil translocation. The most profound changes were connected to the collectivization of agriculture since 1950's, when the entire catchment became part of one field and heavy machinery started to be applied. The general contour direction of the tillage decreased locally the down-slope tillage translocation, but became parallel to flow direction in the valley bottom and to the two main dominant wind directions. The areas with a significant proportion of parent material (loess) in the tillage horizon increased almost four-fold in 50 years. They are similarly to the older ones localized in the upper-slope position, but they spread to concavities and less steep slope gradients. It implied that the change of tillage direction in

  2. ICMPv6 RA Flooding Vulnerability Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linas Jočys

    2016-01-01

    .... It is know that ICMPv6 is technologically vulnerable. One of those vulnerabilities is the ICMPv6 RA flooding vulnerability, which can lead to systems in Local Area Network slow down or full stop...

  3. Vulnerability Identification Errors in Security Risk Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Taubenberger, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    At present, companies rely on information technology systems to achieve their business objectives, making them vulnerable to cybersecurity threats. Information security risk assessments help organisations to identify their risks and vulnerabilities. An accurate identification of risks and vulnerabilities is a challenge, because the input data is uncertain. So-called ’vulnerability identification errors‘ can occur if false positive vulnerabilities are identified, or if vulnerabilities remain u...

  4. Poverty and Vulnerability - An Interdisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Makoka, Donald; Kaplan, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the concepts of poverty and vulnerability as well as the interconnections and differences between them using an interdisciplinary approach. While poverty is a static concept, vulnerability has a forward-looking dimension. We, therefore, review the methodologies that different disciplines use to measure poverty and vulnerability. In particular, the differences between vulnerability to natural disasters, vulnerability to climate change, as well as vulnerability to poverty a...

  5. VT - Vermont Heat Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This map shows: The overall vulnerability of each town to heat related illness. This index is a composite of the following themes: Population Theme, Socioeconomic...

  6. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when confronted by external stresses on human health, stresses such as natural or human-caused...

  7. The vulnerability of family caregivers in relation to vulnerability as understood by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvimäki, Anneli; Stenbock-Hult, Bettina; Sundell, Eija; Oesch-Börman, Christine

    2017-03-01

    In Finland, the care of older persons is shifting from institutional care to family care. Research shows that family caregivers experience their situation much in the same way as professional nurses. The nurses' experiences have been studied in terms of vulnerability, and the same perspective could deepen our understanding of family caregivers' experiences. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of the vulnerability of older caregivers taking care of an ageing family member. The research questions were as follows: How do family caregivers experience vulnerability? How do their experiences relate to vulnerability as understood by nurses? The study was done as a secondary analysis of focus group interviews on the experiences and daily life of older family caregivers. Four caregivers had taken part in monthly interviews during a period of 10 months. The interviews were analysed by deductive and inductive content analysis. The results showed that the caregivers saw caregiving as part of being human. They experienced a variety of feelings and moral agony and were harmed physically, mentally and socially. They showed courage, protected themselves and recognised that being a caregiver also was a source of maturing and developing. These results corresponded with the nurses' understanding of vulnerability. Shame, the experience of duty as a burden, worry and loneliness were themes that were found only among the family caregivers. The use of a matrix may have restricted the analysis, but using it in an unconstrained way allowed for new themes to be created. The results indicate a common humanness and vulnerability in professional and family caregiving. They also show that family caregivers need more support both from society and professionals. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. An exploration of the connection between two meaning perspectives: an evidence-based approach to health information delivery to vulnerable groups of Arabic- and Somali-speaking asylum seekers in a Swedish context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Linander, Andrea; Asplund, Maria

    2012-09-01

    The right to health care is significant for asylum seekers, particularly as many of them have experienced traumatic life events in their home country, during flight or in their host country. Post-migration living conditions have more impact than pre-migration conditions on ill health among asylum seekers, which underscores the importance of health care-related refugee reception policies. The purpose of this article is to explore the perceived meaning of comprehensive health information provided by a nurse to Arabic- and Somali-speaking adult asylum seekers, in a Swedish context, during its introduction at the Migration Board. In our study, the endpoint was whether asylum seekers found such health information relevant, understandable and respectful. Following an oral presentation, participants filled in a questionnaire consisting of three close-ended questions. A total of 39 groups of presentation attendees included 626 asylum seekers (415 Arabic- and 211 Somali-speaking). Data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Comments underwent content analysis. We also present some socio-demographic data on these asylum seekers. Independently of gender and language, the participants expressed their gratitude for and the meaningfulness of receiving professional, fact-based information, as well as being treated with concern and respect. They indicated a great need for this and felt relieved by being listened to. They liked the pedagogic group method, the opportunity for dialogue and to practice exercising their rights. These promising results indicate that exercising the asylum-seekers' right to receive such health information would improve future reception policies not only in Sweden, but throughout the EU. A renewed focus on communication and pedagogic skills, instead of just cultural training, should be considered for health care professionals assisting asylum seekers.

  9. An integrated framework for software vulnerability detection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Kumar

    2017-07-15

    Jul 15, 2017 ... framework for security vulnerability minimization using design of object-oriented software. The proposed frame- work minimizes vulnerability by restricting the flow of vulnerable information. Agrawal and Khan [40] proposed a framework to identify, analyse and mitigate vulnerabilities during the development ...

  10. Groundwater vulnerability on small islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.

  11. Land tenure, disasters and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Andreana; Handmer, John

    2011-01-01

    Although often overlooked, land tenure is an important variable impacting on vulnerability to disaster. Vulnerability can occur either where land tenure is perceived to be insecure, or where insecure tenure results in the loss of land, especially when alternative livelihood and housing options are limited. Disasters often provide the catalyst for such loss. This paper avoids making generalisations about the security of particular types of tenure, but instead explores factors that mediate tenure security, particularly in the wake of a disaster. The paper identifies five mediating factors: (1) the local legal system; (2) government administrative authority; (3) the economy; (4) evidence of tenure, and; (5) custom and dominant social attitudes. It is shown that some mediating factors are more salient for particular types of tenure than others. The paper will highlight the importance of land tenure in any assessment of vulnerability, and conclude with suggestions for further research. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  12. Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman

    2011-09-01

    Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

  13. Compounding vulnerability: pregnancy and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, Denise M

    2006-01-01

    The predominant ethical framework for addressing reproductive decisions in the maternal-fetal relationship is respect for the woman's autonomy. However, when a pregnant schizophrenic woman lacks such autonomy, healthcare providers try to both protect her and respect her preferences. By delineating etic (objective) and emic (subjective) perspectives on vulnerability, I argue that options which balance both perspectives are preferable and that acting on etic perspectives to the exclusion of emic considerations is rarely justified. In negotiating perspectives, we balance the etic commitment to protect the vulnerable patient and her fetus from harm with the emic concern to empower a decisionally incapacitated woman. Equilibrium is best achieved by nurturing interdependent relationships that empower and protect the vulnerable woman. The analysis points to the need for better social support for mentally ill patients.

  14. Security-related vulnerability life cycle analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vache Marconato, Géraldine; Nicomette, Vincent; Kaâniche, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the characterization of security-related vulnerabilities based on public data reported in the Open Source Vulnerability Database. We focus on the analysis of vulnerability life cycle events corresponding to the vulnerability discovery, the vulnerability disclosure, the patch release, and the exploit availability. We study the distribution of the time between these events considering different operating systems (Windows, Unix, Mobile OS), and diffe...

  15. GIS Based Measurement and Regulatory Zoning of Urban Ecological Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecological vulnerability is measured on the basis of ecological sensitivity and resilience based on the concept analysis of vulnerability. GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA methods are used, supported by the spatial analysis tools of GIS, to define different levels of vulnerability for areas of the urban ecology. These areas are further classified into different types of regulatory zones. Taking the city of Hefei in China as the empirical research site, this study uses GIS-MCDA, including the index system, index weights and overlay rules, to measure the degree of its ecological vulnerability on the GIS platform. There are eight indices in the system. Raking and analytical hierarchy process (AHP methods are used to calculate index weights according to the characteristics of the index system. The integrated overlay rule, including selection of the maximum value, and weighted linear combination (WLC are applied as the overlay rules. In this way, five types of vulnerability areas have been classified as follows: very low vulnerability, low vulnerability, medium vulnerability, high vulnerability and very high vulnerability. They can be further grouped into three types of regulatory zone of ecological green line, ecological grey line and ecological red line. The study demonstrates that ecological green line areas are the largest (53.61% of the total study area and can be intensively developed; ecological grey line areas (19.59% of the total area can serve as the ecological buffer zone, and ecological red line areas (26.80% cannot be developed and must be protected. The results indicate that ecological green line areas may provide sufficient room for future urban development in Hefei city. Finally, the respective regulatory countermeasures are put forward. This research provides a scientific basis for decision-making around urban ecological protection, construction and sustainable development. It also provides theoretical method

  16. Social vulnerability, age and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Pereira Patrocinio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present a conceptual exposition on social vulnerability and its implications for the aging process. We conducted a survey of theme in Latin American literature, considering the social reality of Latin America closer to the Brazilian social reality, with a higher probability of relationships and approaches to the issue at hand. The second part of the article discusses the situation of old age amid the existence of social vulnerability to, third party, presenting the importance of community resilience to overcome adversity in this way. With this, we hope that our reflections will contribute to the field of research and practice in the field of social gerontology.

  17. Managing a network vulnerability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R; Blackley, John A

    2003-01-01

    Managing a Network Vulnerability Assessment provides a formal framework for finding and eliminating network security threats, ensuring that no vulnerabilities are overlooked. This thorough overview focuses on the steps necessary to successfully manage an assessment, including the development of a scope statement, the understanding and proper use of assessment methodology, the creation of an expert assessment team, and the production of a valuable response report. The book also details what commercial, freeware, and shareware tools are available, how they work, and how to use them.

  18. Perceived vulnerability in adolescents to the health consequences of cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urberg, K; Robbins, R

    1984-07-01

    Adolescent feelings of vulnerability, an aspect of the Health Belief Model and Elkind's concept of adolescent egocentrism, were examined in two groups of white, middle-class 6th to 12th graders. Feelings of vulnerability were examined with respect to developmental course, antecedents, and relationship to the specific risk-taking behavior of cigarette smoking. Feelings of vulnerability to the negative consequences of smoking were found to decrease rapidly from sixth to eighth grade and to increase slowly thereafter. Experience with illness and accidents was correlated with the general vulnerability measure. However, experience with illness due to smoking was not related to smoking vulnerability. This may have been because few adolescents were found to have had personal experiences with the health consequences of smoking. Feelings of vulnerability with respect to the negative consequences of cigarette smoking were correlated with adolescent smoking behavior. General feelings of vulnerability were unrelated to cigarette smoking.

  19. Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: A step toward vulnerability mitigation policies appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, P.; Abrami, G.; Blanc, C.; Grelot, F.

    2009-04-01

    are needed to implement the model and to collect them, specifically using the focus group method; Based on the conceptual model, to program a mathematical model which will be used to simulate damage (direct and indirect) on farm due to flood. This last objective should enable us to appraise policy to mitigate vulnerability which is planned to be implemented on Rhône River at the individual and regional scale. Finally, we discuss the possibility to use the UML modelling to develop a multi-agent system approach which could be interesting to take into account ties between farmers (solidarity, loan of equipment) or systemic effects due to the damage incurred by economic partners (loss of market share). Keywords vulnerability, UML modelling, farming systems, flood, mitigation policy, economic valuation

  20. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  1. Trust, Endangerment and Divine Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mikkel Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Faith is trusting God in the midst of endangerment. Yet, human experience of excessive suffering has challenged any spontaneous trust in God. In this article, I reconsider the idea of faith as trust in God, adding an emphasis on the divine vulnerability in the incarnation, and I develop a more...

  2. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer A John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations.

  3. Vulnerability assessments as a political creation: tsunami management in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Maartje; Maat, Harro; Crane, Todd A

    2017-10-01

    Vulnerability assessments are a cornerstone of contemporary disaster research. This paper shows how research procedures and the presentation of results of vulnerability assessments are politically filtered. Using data from a study of tsunami risk assessment in Portugal, the paper demonstrates that approaches, measurement instruments, and research procedures for evaluating vulnerability are influenced by institutional preferences, lines of communication, or lack thereof, between stakeholder groups, and available technical expertise. The institutional setting and the pattern of stakeholder interactions form a filter, resulting in a particular conceptualisation of vulnerability, affecting its operationalisation via existing methods and technologies and its institutional embedding. The Portuguese case reveals a conceptualisation that is aligned with perceptions prevalent in national government bureaucracies and the exclusion of local stakeholders owing to selected methodologies and assessment procedures. The decisions taken by actors involved in these areas affect how vulnerability is assessed, and ultimately which vulnerability reduction policies will be recommended in the appraisal. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  4. Review Article: A comparison of flood and earthquake vulnerability assessment indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. de Ruiter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-disciplinary study, we carried out an extensive literature review to increase understanding of vulnerability indicators used in the disciplines of earthquake- and flood vulnerability assessments. We provide insights into potential improvements in both fields by identifying and comparing quantitative vulnerability indicators grouped into physical and social categories. Next, a selection of index- and curve-based vulnerability models that use these indicators are described, comparing several characteristics such as temporal and spatial aspects. Earthquake vulnerability methods traditionally have a strong focus on object-based physical attributes used in vulnerability curve-based models, while flood vulnerability studies focus more on indicators applied to aggregated land-use classes in curve-based models. In assessing the differences and similarities between indicators used in earthquake and flood vulnerability models, we only include models that separately assess either of the two hazard types. Flood vulnerability studies could be improved using approaches from earthquake studies, such as developing object-based physical vulnerability curve assessments and incorporating time-of-the-day-based building occupation patterns. Likewise, earthquake assessments could learn from flood studies by refining their selection of social vulnerability indicators. Based on the lessons obtained in this study, we recommend future studies for exploring risk assessment methodologies across different hazard types.

  5. Review Article: A comparison of flood and earthquake vulnerability assessment indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marleen C.; Ward, Philip J.; Daniell, James E.; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.

    2017-07-01

    In a cross-disciplinary study, we carried out an extensive literature review to increase understanding of vulnerability indicators used in the disciplines of earthquake- and flood vulnerability assessments. We provide insights into potential improvements in both fields by identifying and comparing quantitative vulnerability indicators grouped into physical and social categories. Next, a selection of index- and curve-based vulnerability models that use these indicators are described, comparing several characteristics such as temporal and spatial aspects. Earthquake vulnerability methods traditionally have a strong focus on object-based physical attributes used in vulnerability curve-based models, while flood vulnerability studies focus more on indicators applied to aggregated land-use classes in curve-based models. In assessing the differences and similarities between indicators used in earthquake and flood vulnerability models, we only include models that separately assess either of the two hazard types. Flood vulnerability studies could be improved using approaches from earthquake studies, such as developing object-based physical vulnerability curve assessments and incorporating time-of-the-day-based building occupation patterns. Likewise, earthquake assessments could learn from flood studies by refining their selection of social vulnerability indicators. Based on the lessons obtained in this study, we recommend future studies for exploring risk assessment methodologies across different hazard types.

  6. Measuring Sexual Violence on Campus: Climate Surveys and Vulnerable Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke; Jones, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Since the 2014 "Not Alone" report on campus sexual assault, the use of climate surveys to measure sexual violence on campuses across the United States has increased considerably. The current study utilizes a quasi meta-analysis approach to examine the utility of general campus climate surveys, which include a measure of sexual violence,…

  7. Special and Vulnerable Groups on Access, Success and Equity on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open and Distance Learning (ODL) assisted by the use of ICT, has proven to create significant opportunities for potential learners especially people with special needs including those living with disabilities and inmates to access higher education. ODL as a mode of instruction with the use of ICT can promote access to ...

  8. Review Article: Anaphylaxis vulnerable groups | El-Gamal | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Assessing vulnerability to drought: identifying underlying factors across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquijo, Julia; Gonzalez Tánago, Itziar; Ballesteros, Mario; De Stefano, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    Drought is considered one of the most severe and damaging natural hazards in terms of people and sectors affected and associated losses. Drought is a normal and recurrent climatic phenomenon that occurs worldwide, although its spatial and temporal characteristics vary significantly among climates. In the case of Europe, in the last thirty years, the region has suffered several drought events that have caused estimated economic damages over a €100 billion and have affected almost 20% of its territory and population. In recent years, there has been a growing awareness among experts and authorities of the need to shift from a reactive crisis approach to a drought risk management approach, as well as of the importance of designing and implementing policies, strategies and plans at country and river basin levels to deal with drought. The identification of whom and what is vulnerable to drought is a central aspect of drought risk mitigation and planning and several authors agree that societal vulnerability often determines drought risk more than the actual precipitation shortfalls. The final aim of a drought vulnerability assessment is to identify the underlying sources of drought impact, in order to develop policy options that help to enhance coping capacity and therefore to prevent drought impact. This study identifies and maps factors underlying vulnerability to drought across Europe. The identification of factors influencing vulnerability starts from the analysis of past drought impacts in four European socioeconomic sectors. This analysis, along with an extensive literature review, led to the selection of vulnerability factors that are both relevant and adequate for the European context. Adopting the IPCC model, vulnerability factors were grouped to describe exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. The aggregation of these components has resulted in the mapping of vulnerability to drought across Europe at NUTS02 level. Final results have been compared with

  10. African American adolescent perceptions of vulnerability and resilience to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Betty L; Wilson, Kathleen P

    2008-07-01

    HIV/AIDS is growing at a disproportional rate among African American adolescents. This trend has occurred despite the fact that 89% of schools have educational programs on HIV/AIDS. Barriers to effective HIV prevention may be related to a failure to develop educational programs based on the cultural competencies of vulnerable populations such as adolescents who are at risk for HIV. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore African American adolescent perceptions of vulnerability and resilience to HIV/AIDS within a cultural competency paradigm. A group of 8 adolescents at an African American church participated in a focus group to discuss vulnerability and resilience to HIV. To facilitate discussion, the adolescents developed collages from pictures in African American magazines. Content analysis was used to identify themes. The themes revealed were confidence, safe social activities, innocence, image, music/drug culture, and peer pressure.

  11. Shared Decision Making With Vulnerable Populations in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Glassberg, Jeffrey; Grudzen, Corita R; Ngai, Ka Ming; Samuels-Kalow, Margaret E; Shelton, Erica; Wall, Stephen P; Richardson, Lynne D

    2016-12-01

    The emergency department (ED) occupies a unique position within the healthcare system, serving as a safety net for vulnerable patients, regardless of their race, ethnicity, religion, country of origin, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, or medical diagnosis. Shared decision making (SDM) presents special challenges when used with vulnerable population groups. The differing circumstances, needs, and perspectives of vulnerable groups invoke issues of provider bias, disrespect, judgmental attitudes, and lack of cultural competence, as well as patient mistrust and the consequences of their social and economic disenfranchisement. A research agenda that includes community-engaged approaches, mixed-methods studies, and cost-effectiveness analyses is proposed to address the following questions: 1) What are the best processes/formats for SDM among racial, ethnic, cultural, religious, linguistic, social, or otherwise vulnerable groups who experience disadvantage in the healthcare system? 2) What organizational or systemic changes are needed to support SDM in the ED whenever appropriate? 3) What competencies are needed to enable emergency providers to consider patients' situation/context in an unbiased way? 4) How do we teach these competencies to students and residents? 5) How do we cultivate these competencies in practicing emergency physicians, nurses, and other clinical providers who lack them? The authors also identify the importance of using accurate, group-specific data to inform risk estimates for SDM decision aids for vulnerable populations and the need for increased ED-based care coordination and transitional care management capabilities to create additional care options that align with the needs and preferences of vulnerable populations. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. Participatory flood vulnerability assessment: a multi-criteria approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. de Brito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a participatory multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM approach for flood vulnerability assessment while considering the relationships between vulnerability criteria. The applicability of the proposed framework is demonstrated in the municipalities of Lajeado and Estrela, Brazil. The model was co-constructed by 101 experts from governmental organizations, universities, research institutes, NGOs, and private companies. Participatory methods such as the Delphi survey, focus groups, and workshops were applied. A participatory problem structuration, in which the modellers work closely with end users, was used to establish the structure of the vulnerability index. The preferences of each participant regarding the criteria importance were spatially modelled through the analytical hierarchy process (AHP and analytical network process (ANP multi-criteria methods. Experts were also involved at the end of the modelling exercise for validation. The final product is a set of individual and group flood vulnerability maps. Both AHP and ANP proved to be effective for flood vulnerability assessment; however, ANP is preferred as it considers the dependences among criteria. The participatory approach enabled experts to learn from each other and acknowledge different perspectives towards social learning. The findings highlight that to enhance the credibility and deployment of model results, multiple viewpoints should be integrated without forcing consensus.

  13. Participatory flood vulnerability assessment: a multi-criteria approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga de Brito, Mariana; Evers, Mariele; Delos Santos Almoradie, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a participatory multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach for flood vulnerability assessment while considering the relationships between vulnerability criteria. The applicability of the proposed framework is demonstrated in the municipalities of Lajeado and Estrela, Brazil. The model was co-constructed by 101 experts from governmental organizations, universities, research institutes, NGOs, and private companies. Participatory methods such as the Delphi survey, focus groups, and workshops were applied. A participatory problem structuration, in which the modellers work closely with end users, was used to establish the structure of the vulnerability index. The preferences of each participant regarding the criteria importance were spatially modelled through the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and analytical network process (ANP) multi-criteria methods. Experts were also involved at the end of the modelling exercise for validation. The final product is a set of individual and group flood vulnerability maps. Both AHP and ANP proved to be effective for flood vulnerability assessment; however, ANP is preferred as it considers the dependences among criteria. The participatory approach enabled experts to learn from each other and acknowledge different perspectives towards social learning. The findings highlight that to enhance the credibility and deployment of model results, multiple viewpoints should be integrated without forcing consensus.

  14. The burden of malaria and malnutrition among children less than 14 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria and malnutrition are a major health burden in developing countries with infants and children being the most vulnerable groups. The extent of the burden of malaria and malnutrition was investigated in 339 children ≤14years residing in the village of Muea located in the South West Province of Cameroon. Malaria ...

  15. Improving vulnerability models: lessons learned from a comparison between flood and earthquake assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marleen; Ward, Philip; Daniell, James; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    In a cross-discipline study, an extensive literature review has been conducted to increase the understanding of vulnerability indicators used in both earthquake- and flood vulnerability assessments, and to provide insights into potential improvements of earthquake and flood vulnerability assessments. It identifies and compares indicators used to quantitatively assess earthquake and flood vulnerability, and discusses their respective differences and similarities. Indicators have been categorized into Physical- and Social categories, and further subdivided into (when possible) measurable and comparable indicators. Physical vulnerability indicators have been differentiated to exposed assets such as buildings and infrastructure. Social indicators are grouped in subcategories such as demographics, economics and awareness. Next, two different vulnerability model types have been described that use these indicators: index- and curve-based vulnerability models. A selection of these models (e.g. HAZUS) have been described, and compared on several characteristics such as temporal- and spatial aspects. It appears that earthquake vulnerability methods are traditionally strongly developed towards physical attributes at an object scale and used in vulnerability curve models, whereas flood vulnerability studies focus more on indicators applied to aggregated land-use scales. Flood risk studies could be improved using approaches from earthquake studies, such as incorporating more detailed lifeline and building indicators, and developing object-based vulnerability curve assessments of physical vulnerability, for example by defining building material based flood vulnerability curves. Related to this, is the incorporation of time of the day based building occupation patterns (at 2am most people will be at home while at 2pm most people will be in the office). Earthquake assessments could learn from flood studies when it comes to the refined selection of social vulnerability indicators

  16. The nurse as advocate for vulnerable persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, L A

    1986-05-01

    This paper discusses the following issues. Advocacy: in planning and implementing nursing care; in primary care; in terminal care; in nursing research; and in health promotion/disease prevention. That which comprises a vulnerable population. Continuum of vulnerability: the potentially vulnerable; the circumstantially vulnerable; the temporarily vulnerable; the episodically vulnerable; the permanently vulnerable; and the inevitably vulnerable. Damaging one's humanity and self-image: loss of independence; barriers to the ability to make choices; the absences and presence of that which is needed; and the loss of individuality. Types of advocacy: human advocacy; animal advocacy; political advocacy; moral-ethical advocacy; legal advocacy; spiritual advocacy; and individual system advocacy. Advocacy concomitants: risk; heat; and prevention.

  17. Helping air quality managers identify vulnerable communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available population exposure and vulnerability risk prioritisation model is proposed for potential use by air quality managers in conjunction with their air quality management plans. The model includes factors such as vulnerability caused by poverty, respiratory...

  18. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  19. Climate change & extreme weather vulnerability assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability : Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability : to climate change and extreme weather event...

  20. Virtuous aging and existential vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceulle, Hanne

    2017-12-01

    In its efforts to overcome problematic views that associate aging with inevitable decline, contemporary gerontology shows a tendency to focus predominantly on age-related vulnerabilities that science may try to remedy and control. However, gerontology should also offer languages to address vulnerabilities that cannot be remedied because they intrinsically belong to the human condition. After all, these are increasingly radically encountered in later life and should therefore be reflected upon in the study of aging. Humanistic gerontology seems to be the most promising field to look for languages capable of contemplating such existential vulnerabilities. The potential contribution of philosophy in this field remains underdeveloped so far, however. This article therefore aims to introduce insights from the philosophical tradition to (humanistic) gerontology. More specifically, it focuses on the tradition of virtue ethics, arguing that virtue is a particularly relevant notion to explore in dealing with existential vulnerability in later life. The notion of virtue is clarified by discussing a selection of philosophical perspectives on this topic, by Aristotle, MacIntyre and Swanton. Next a brief overview will be given of some of the ways the notion of virtue has found its way into gerontological discourse so far. The article ends with an analysis of the merits of virtue-ethical discourse for the study of aging and later life, and pleads for more inclusion of philosophical ideas such as virtue in gerontology, as these can enrich our conceptual frameworks and help us relate to deep existential questions regarding the experience of aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Urban Vulnerability Assessment Using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Physical expansion of urban areas and cities is of great importance nowadays. Irreparable damages will thus be caused by lack of proper planning against natural disasters. Crisis management will therefore guide through prevention, preparedness, disaster relief, and recovery by planning an appropriate program. Methodology. Principal processes of crisis management against earthquake in Iran were evaluated and discussed. Multicriteria earthquake crisis management was then proposed by means of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Vulnerability of 19 urban areas in Qazvin city was studied and analyzed as a case study. Three main criteria were considered as “physical dimensions and physical vulnerability texture,” “the amount of urban texture responsibility to aid after crisis,” and “possibility of city reversibility after the crisis.” These criteria were divided into 20 subcriteria which were prioritized by a questionnaire survey. Findings. “High population density,” “urban texture of old and repairable buildings,” “lack of relief and medical services,” “a few organic texture areas,” “sidewalks with less than 6 meters width in the region,” and “lack of open spaces in the area” were concluded to be the most important reasons causing high vulnerability of urban texture in Qazvin city.

  2. Enhancing protection for vulnerable waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F.; Lane, Charles R.; Serran, Jacqueline N.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Christensen, Jay R.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; Dekeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David B.; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Rains, Kai C.; Smith, Lora

    2017-11-01

    Governments worldwide do not adequately protect their limited freshwater systems and therefore place freshwater functions and attendant ecosystem services at risk. The best available scientific evidence compels enhanced protections for freshwater systems, especially for impermanent streams and wetlands outside of floodplains that are particularly vulnerable to alteration or destruction. New approaches to freshwater sustainability -- implemented through scientifically informed adaptive management -- are required to protect freshwater systems through periods of changing societal needs. One such approach introduced in the US in 2015 is the Clean Water Rule, which clarified the jurisdictional scope for federally protected waters. However, within hours of its implementation litigants convinced the US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit to stay the rule, and the subsequently elected administration has now placed it under review for potential revision or rescission. Regardless of its outcome at the federal level, policy and management discussions initiated by the propagation of this rare rulemaking event have potential far-reaching implications at all levels of government across the US and worldwide. At this timely juncture, we provide a scientific rationale and three policy options for all levels of government to meaningfully enhance protection of these vulnerable waters. A fourth option, a 'do-nothing' approach, is wholly inconsistent with the well-established scientific evidence of the importance of these vulnerable waters.

  3. Groundwater Pollution and Vulnerability Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan

    2017-10-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource that serve as a source of drinking water to large human population and, provide long-term water for irrigation purposes. In recent years; however, this precious resource being increasingly threatened, due to natural and anthropogenic activities. A variety of contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, endocrine disruptors, and biological agents detected in the groundwater sources of both developing and developed nations. In this review paper, various studies have been included that documented instances of groundwater pollution and vulnerability to emerging contaminants of concern, pesticides, heavy metals, and leaching potential of various organic and inorganic contaminants from poorly managed residual waste products (biosolids, landfills, latrines, and septic tanks etc.). Understanding vulnerability of groundwater to pollution is critical to maintain the integrity of groundwater. A section on managed artificial recharge studies is included to highlight the sustainable approaches to groundwater conservation, replenishment and sustainability. This review paper is the synthesis of studies published in last one year that either documented the pollution problems or evaluated the vulnerability of groundwater pollution.

  4. Neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double, Kay L

    2012-01-01

    The classic motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from the progressive death of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. To date the relatively selective vulnerability of this brain region is not understood. The unique feature of dopaminergic neurons of the human substantia nigra pars compacta is the presence of the polymer pigment neuromelanin which gives this region its characteristic dark colour. In the healthy brain, neuromelanin appears to play a functional role to protect neurons from oxidative load but we have shown that in the Parkinson's disease brain the pigment undergoes structural changes and is associated with aggregation of α-synuclein protein, even early in the disease process. Further, the role of the pigment as a metal binder has also been suggested to underlie the relative vulnerability of these neurons, as changes in metal levels are suggested to be associated with neurodegenerative cascades in Parkinson's disease. While most research to date has focused on the role of iron in these pathways we have recently shown that changes in copper may contribute to neuronal vulnerability in this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Capturing Agroecosystem Vulnerability and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen C. J. Groot

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability and resilience are two crucial attributes of social-ecological systems that are used for analyzing the response to disturbances. We assess these properties in relation to agroecosystem buffer capacity and adaptive capacity, which depend on the ‘window of opportunities’ of possible changes in terms of selected performance indicators, i.e., the solution space. The vulnerability of the system was quantified as the distance of performance indicators between original and disturbed systems. The buffer capacity was derived from the size of the solution space that could be obtained after reconfiguration of farm components (crops, animals, fertilizers, etc. that were present on the original farm, whereas the assessment of adaptive capacity was derived in a similar way, but after allowing innovation by introducing new components to the farm. To illustrate the approach, we applied these concepts to two dairy farms in Northwest Michoacán, Mexico. After a disturbance resulting in a fodder maize yield decline, both economic profitability and soil organic matter inputs were reduced. The scope for recovery was different between the farms, but the projected improvements in profitability and organic matter inputs would require considerable changes in the farm configurations, and thus flexibility in farm management. High resilience requires a farmer with the managerial ability to make the required changes to move through the proposed solution space. The approach we present here offers a generic quantitative assessment of vulnerability and resilience concepts, based on a combined assessment of the social and ecological dimensions of agroecosystems.

  6. Cotton genetic resources and crop vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...

  7. Assessment of the needs of vulnerable youth populations in post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants were asked to answer separately for children ages 5-12 and adolescents and young adults ages. 13-22. They were also asked about what would be the most effective interventions for helping different vulnerable groups of young people, including orphans, homeless children, former combatants and children of ...

  8. Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People. Interchange No. 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Janet; Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Hall, Stuart

    Research was conducted in Scotland to evaluate the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people, primarily between the ages of 13 and 16. Four complementary methods were adopted: (1) a survey of secondary school students; (2) a series of focus group interviews with young people with experience of youth work; (3) interviews with…

  9. Realising Equality in Access to HIV Treatment for Vulnerable and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the relevance of the concept of equality in improving access to HIV treatment for vulnerable and marginalised groups in Africa. The article argues that though modest achievements have been made in expanding access to HIV treatment for those in need in Africa, this expansion has concentrated on the ...

  10. International Student-Workers in Australia: A New Vulnerable Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Chris; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati; Smith, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    In the period immediately preceding the 2007 Australian election, much attention was accorded to the impact of the nation's labour laws on vulnerable employees. This debate centred on specific groups including women, youth, migrants and workers on individual employment contracts. International students, by contrast, were ignored in the debate.…

  11. The Development and Consequences of Stereotype Vulnerability in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Joshua; Good, Catherine

    During adolescence, students become increasingly vulnerable to academic underperformance caused by negative reactions to their awareness of ability impugning stereotypes about one's group, a phenomenon known as stereotype threat. Although stereotype-related underperformance can occur early in development, it is during adolescence that it is seen…

  12. American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

  13. Care and support of orphaned and vulnerable children at school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative research design was followed to purposively select teachers who had attended the departmental training to participate in focus groups to explore the phenomenon of teaching orphaned and vulnerable children. The findings that emerged from the thematic data analysis provided supporting evidence that current ...

  14. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-01-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users’ vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain. PMID:23761527

  15. [Gender vulnerability for parenthood among male adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Anecy de Fátima Faustino; Hardy, Ellen

    2007-08-01

    To analyze gender relations perceived by male adolescents and how they contribute to making them more vulnerable to pregnancy during adolescence. Qualitative study carried out in Campo Grande, Midwestern Brazil, in 2003. Subjects were 13 male adolescents under 20 years of age, fathers of an only child aged up to 11 months whose mother was in the same age group as them. Semi-structured interviews were carried out, tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic content analysis was carried out. Gender stereotypes were identified in which the role of leader, provider, and sexually active was stressed and the role of caregiver was rejected. These roles seemed consolidated especially in the subjects' perspective regarding paid employment as a marker of their male condition as well as of a family provider. Adolescents' leadership prevailed in the relationship with the mother of their child especially in taking initiative in sexual intercourse and the use of contraceptives. They considered that pregnancy was unexpected and happened "by chance". However, fatherhood was experienced as a definite evidence of their status as adult men. Male adolescents showed to be vulnerable to fatherhood due to gender socialization following traditional patterns. This was evidenced by the inexistence of roles related to self care and care for others, and early playing roles of male sexual dominance, of father and family provider in order to grow up and become a man.

  16. Contract gangs: race, gender and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Goodall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While violence directed at Indian students in Australian cities has been highlighted in the Indian and Australian press, far less attention has been paid to the violence directed at Indians in rural areas. This has most often involved Indians employed in contract labour in seasonal industries like fruit or vegetable picking. This article reviews various media accounts, both urban and rural, of violence directed at Indians from 2009 to 2012. It draws attention to the far longer history of labour exploitation which has taken place in rural and urban Australia in contract labour conditions and the particular invisibility of rural settings for such violence. Racial minorities, like Aboriginal and Chinese workers, and women in agriculture and domestic work, have seldom had adequate power to respond industrially or politically. This means that in the past, these groups been particularly vulnerable to such structural exploitation. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention not only to the particular vulnerability of Indians in rural settings but to the wider presence of racialised and gendered exploitation enabled by contract labour structures.

  17. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-05-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users' vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain.

  18. Family vulnerability index to disability and dependence (FVI-DD), by social and health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Fernanda; Alvarenga, Márcia Regina Martins; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2017-06-01

    The Family Vulnerability Index to Disability and Dependence (FVI-DD) aims to summarize the dimensions of vulnerability to disability and dependence using family data monitored by Family Health Strategy (ESF) teams. This study aims to analyze the FVI-DD according to the social and health vulnerability, to validate and extract a cutoff point for each dimension. The FVI-DD was built with a sample of 248 families living in a region of São Paulo. The dimension related to health conditions was validated with good internal consistency, with respect to the Katz Index and the Lawton Scale, whereas the dimension related to social conditions was only validated in relation to Lawton Scale. Thus, a vulnerable family was defined as one with 15 or more points in the Total FVI-DD, and a vulnerable family in health conditions that with a score of 6 or more points in that dimension. Therefore, it is possible to classify families as not vulnerable, vulnerable in the social aspects, vulnerable in the health aspects and the more vulnerable family (social and health) using social indicators of empowerment and wear and health indicators related not only to the biological sphere, but also in the access to health services, health self-assessment and existing vulnerable groups.

  19. Vulnerability Is Dynamic! Conceptualising a Dynamic Approach to Coastal Tourism Destinations’ Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, J.R.; Amelung, B.; Lamers, M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal regions and islands are among the most popular tourist destinations.
    They are also highly vulnerable to climate change. Much of the literature on
    vulnerability, including IPCC reports, states that vulnerability is dynamic. However,
    vulnerability conceptualisations in the tourism

  20. High impulsivity predicting vulnerability to cocaine addiction in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molander, Anna C; Mar, Adam; Norbury, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE: Impulsivity is a vulnerability marker for drug addiction in which other behavioural traits such as anxiety and novelty seeking ('sensation seeking') are also widely present. However, inter-relationships between impulsivity, novelty seeking and anxiety traits are poorly understood...... increasing or decreasing impulsivity in SHI and SLI rats, did reduce the contrast in impulsivity between these two groups of animals. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation indicates that behavioural impulsivity in rats on the 5-CSRTT, which predicts vulnerability for cocaine addiction, is distinct from anxiety...